National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for residue burning solid

  1. Clean burning solid fuel stove and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.D.; Grouw, S.J.V.

    1985-10-08

    A stove for burning solid fuels having an insulated primary combustion chamber, uniform distribution of preheated primary air through upward facing holes in a grate, downward flow of combustion gas through the grate, retention of hot coals in the grate structure, preheated secondary air, individually controlled primary and secondary air flows, insulated vortex combustion chambers for secondary combustion, longitudinally finned tubes as a first stage heat exchanger, plate-fin assembly as a second stage heat exchanger, an induced draft fan to draw the air and combustion gases through the combustion chambers as well as the heat exchangers, and a forced air fan to blow cool room air through the two stage heat exchanger.

  2. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to

  3. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  4. A process for treatment of APC residues from municipal solid waste incinerators: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hjelmar, O.; Birch, H.

    1997-12-01

    The problem of environmentally safe management of the residues from air pollution control (APC) systems at municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators, particularly the residues from the semidry/dry acid gas cleaning processes (dry scrubber residues), has not yet been solved in a satisfactory and sustainable manner. These residues are in many cases simply stored indefinitely in big bags or they are landfilled under conditions that in the long term may not be able to prevent potentially harmful constituents from leaching and leaking into the environment. The APC residues, including fly ash, are in many countries classified as hazardous or special waste due to their high contents of soluble salts (particularly calcium chloride) and trace elements/heavy metals. The semidry/dry APC residues are strongly alkaline due to a content of excess lime, and the high pH favours the leaching of several contaminants, particularly lead. This paper presents preliminary results of a study of a process for treatment of semidry/dry APC residues and fly ash from MSW incinerators. In the process the contaminants are partly removed, partly immobilized thus improving the above mentioned situation and allowing for subsequent safe management (i.e. utilization or landfilling) of the treated residues.

  5. Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarun R. Naik; Yoon-moon Chun; Rudolph N. Kraus

    2003-09-18

    This research was conducted to establish mixture proportioning and production technologies for ready-mixed concrete containing pulp and paper mill residual solids and to study technical, economical, and performance benefits of using the residual solids in the concrete. Fibrous residuals generated from pulp and paper mills were used, and concrete mixture proportions and productions technologies were first optimized under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the mixture proportions established in the laboratory, prototype field concrete mixtures were manufactured at a ready-mixed concrete plant. Afterward, a field construction demonstration was held to demonstrate the production and placement of structural-grade cold-weather-resistant concrete containing residual solids.

  6. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-C-108 Residual Waste Solids Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Gary A.; Pestovich, John A.; Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-05-29

    This report presents the results for solid phase characterization (SPC) of solid samples removed from tank 241-C-108 (C-108) on August 12-13,2012, using the off-riser sampler. Samples were received at the 222-S Laboratory on August 13 and were described and photographed. The SPC analyses that were performed include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX(R)l scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku(R) 2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon(R) 3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information. Gary A. Cooke conducted the SEM analysis, John A. Pestovich performed the XRD analysis, and Dr. Heinz J. Huber performed the PLM examination. The results of these analyses are presented here.

  7. Determining the release of radionuclides from tank waste residual solids. FY2015 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, William D.; Hobbs, David T.

    2015-09-11

    Methodology development for pore water leaching studies has been continued to support Savannah River Site High Level Waste tank closure efforts. For FY2015, the primary goal of this testing was the achievement of target pH and Eh values for pore water solutions representative of local groundwater in the presence of grout or grout-representative (CaCO3 or FeS) solids as well as waste surrogate solids representative of residual solids expected to be present in a closed tank. For oxidizing conditions representative of a closed tank after aging, a focus was placed on using solid phases believed to be controlling pH and Eh at equilibrium conditions. For three pore water conditions (shown below), the target pH values were achieved to within 0.5 pH units. Tank 18 residual surrogate solids leaching studies were conducted over an Eh range of approximately 630 mV. Significantly higher Eh values were achieved for the oxidizing conditions (ORII and ORIII) than were previously observed. For the ORII condition, the target Eh value was nearly achieved (within 50 mV). However, Eh values observed for the ORIII condition were approximately 160 mV less positive than the target. Eh values observed for the RRII condition were approximately 370 mV less negative than the target. Achievement of more positive and more negative Eh values is believed to require the addition of non-representative oxidants and reductants, respectively. Plutonium and uranium concentrations measured during Tank 18 residual surrogate solids leaching studies under these conditions (shown below) followed the general trends predicted for plutonium and uranium oxide phases, assuming equilibrium with dissolved oxygen. The highest plutonium and uranium concentrations were observed for the ORIII condition and the lowest concentrations were observed for the RRII condition. Based on these results, it is recommended that these test methodologies be used to

  8. SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION SAMPLING OF FIRE DEBRIS RESIDUES IN THE PRESENCE OF RADIONUCLIDE SURROGATE METALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, M; Keisha Martin, K; S Crump, S

    2007-03-23

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating highly radioactive fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of FD residue from radionuclide metals involves using solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers to remove the residues of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most (radioactive) metals. The focus of this research was to develop an examination protocol that was applicable to safe work in facilities where high radiation doses are shielded from the workers (as in radioactive shielded cells or ''hot cells''). We also examined the affinity of stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr and Nd) for sorption by the SPME fibers. This was done under exposure conditions that favor the uptake of FD residues under conditions that will provide little contact between the SPME and the FD material (such as charred carpet or wood that contains commonly-used accelerants). Our results from mass spectrometric analyses indicate that SPME fibers show promise for use in the room temperature head space uptake of organic FD residue (namely, diesel fuel oil, kerosene, gasoline and paint thinner) with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. No inorganic forms of ignitable fluids were included in this study.

  9. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2007-03-29

    High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of

  10. Solid waste management of coal conversion residuals from a commercial-size facility: environmental engineering aspects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bern, J.; Neufeld, R. D.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1980-11-30

    Major residuals generated by the conversion process and its auxiliary operations include: (a) coal preparation wastes; (b) gasifier ash; (c) liquefaction solids-char; (d) tail gas or flue gas desulfurization sludge; (e) boiler flyash and bottom ash; (f) raw water treatment sludge, and; (g) biosludges from process wastewater treatment. Recovered sulfur may also require disposal management. Potential environmental and health impacts from each of the residues are described on the basis of characterization of the waste in the perspective of water quality degradation. Coal gasification and liquefaction systems are described in great detail with respect to their associated residuals. Management options are listed with the conclusion that land disposal of the major residual streams is the only viable choice. On-site versus off-site disposal is analyzed with the selection of on-site operations to reduce political, social and institutional pressures, and to optimize the costs of the system. Mechanisms for prevention of leachate generation are described, and various disposal site designs are outlined. It is concluded that co-disposal feasibility of some waste streams must be established in order to make the most preferred solid waste management system feasible. Capacity requirements for the disposal operation were calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day coal liquefaction plant or 250 million SCF/day gasification operation.

  11. Characterization of solids in residual wastes from single-shell tanks at the Hanford site, Washington, USA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupka, K. M.; Cantrell, K. J.; Todd Schaef, H.; Arey, B. W.; Heald, S. M.; Deutsch, W. J.; Lindberg, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    Solid phase physical and chemical characterization methods have been used in an ongoing study of residual wastes from several single-shell underground waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Because these wastes are highly-radioactive dispersible powders and are chemically-complex assemblages of crystalline and amorphous solids that contain contaminants as discrete phases and/or co-precipitated within oxide phases, their detailed characterization offers an extraordinary technical challenge. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) are the two principal methods used, along with a limited series of analyses by synchrotron-based methods, to characterize solid phases and their contaminant associations in these wastes.

  12. SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION SAMPLING OF HIGH EXPLOSIVE RESIDUES IN THE PRESENCE OF RADIONUCLIDES AND RADIONUCLIDE SURROGATE METALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Donna Beals, D

    2007-04-13

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  13. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: Reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quina, Margarida J.; Bordado, Joao C.M.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The Dutch Building Material Decree (BMD) was used to APC residues from MSWI. > BMD is a straightforward tool to calculate expectable loads to the environment of common pollutants. > Chloride load to the environment lead to classification of building material not allowed. > At least a pre-treatment (e.g. washing) is required in order to remove soluble salts. > The stabilization with phosphates or silicates eliminate the problem of heavy metals. - Abstract: Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of 'building material not allowed'. The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but

  14. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beylot, Antoine Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  15. Effect of sewage sludge content on gas quality and solid residues produced by cogasification in an updraft gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seggiani, Maurizia; Puccini, Monica; Raggio, Giovanni

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogasification of sewage sludge with wood pellets in updraft gasifier was analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of sewage sludge content on the gasification process were examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sewage sludge addition up to 30 wt.% reduces moderately the process performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At high sewage sludge content slagging and clinker formation occurred. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid residues produced resulted acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous waste. - Abstract: In the present work, the gasification with air of dehydrated sewage sludge (SS) with 20 wt.% moisture mixed with conventional woody biomass was investigated using a pilot fixed-bed updraft gasifier. Attention was focused on the effect of the SS content on the gasification performance and on the environmental impact of the process. The results showed that it is possible to co-gasify SS with wood pellets (WPs) in updraft fixed-bed gasification installations. However, at high content of sewage sludge the gasification process can become instable because of the very high ash content and low ash fusion temperatures of SS. At an equivalent ratio of 0.25, compared with wood pellets gasification, the addition of sewage sludge led to a reduction of gas yield in favor of an increase of condensate production with consequent cold gas efficiency decrease. Low concentrations of dioxins/furans and PAHs were measured in the gas produced by SS gasification, well below the limiting values for the exhaust gaseous emissions. NH{sub 3}, HCl and HF contents were very low because most of these compounds were retained in the wet scrubber systems. On the other hand, high H{sub 2}S levels were measured due to high sulfur content of SS. Heavy metals supplied with the feedstocks were mostly retained in gasification solid residues. The leachability tests performed according to European regulations showed that metals leachability was

  16. EA-1120: Solid Residues Treatment, Repackaging and Storage at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to stabilize, if necessary, and/or repackage the residues for safe interim storage at the Site while awaiting the completion and opening...

  17. Scalable, Efficient Solid Waste Burner System - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A system that effectively burns solid human waste where traditional waste management ... is a semi-gasifier, burner device to process solid waste, particularly solid human waste. ...

  18. Backyard waste management - problems and benefits of individuals managing their solid waste at home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, M.

    1995-05-01

    The problems and benefits of individuals managing their solid wastes at home are surveyed. The survey indicates that as the population rises people tend to burn only the combustible portions of their waste. Some communities have limited ordinances that ban the burning of raw garbage, but other municipalities allow residents to burn all of their wastestream, even though some materials are not combustible and cannot be burned. Potential environmental effects involve both the ash residue and the air emissions. While selected burning can reduce some of the environmental hazards these would probably only be marginally less than the impacts of burning it all. The study clearly indicates that the environmental problems of burn barrels are not insignificant. However, the attitudes and motivations of those who burn waste will have to be addressed by the communities that attempt or should attempt to control this problem. These include: avoidance of waste collection costs; availability of trash cartage services; and habit. Habit is probably as strong a motivation as cost avoidance and ease of collection combined. Residents have often burned trash for several generations and regard the practice as a {open_quotes}god-given right.{close_quotes}

  19. Options for Burning LWR SNF in LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J

    2008-09-09

    We have pursued two processes in parallel for the burning of LWR SNF in the LIFE engine: (1) solid fuel option and (2) liquid fuel option. Approaches with both are discussed. The assigned Topical Report on liquid fuels is attached.

  20. Ripple burn control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhadra, D.K.; Petrie, T.W.; Peuron, U.A.; Rawls, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    The ripple contribution to the ion thermal conductivity is ideally suited in magnitude, temperature dependence, and spatial dependence to serve as a burn control mechanism. Furthermore, a considerable measure of automatic burn control results because of the radial shift of the plasma to a region of higher ripple. Unfortunately, the window in ripple values consistent with both ignition and a burn equilibrium is uncomfortably narrow, given the current lack of contact between the theoretical models of ripple transport and experimental observations. A survey is made of the techniques to vary the ripple and thus broaden the design window. One new technique is discussed in some detail: the use of ferromagnetic materials in the shield with magnetic properties which are sensitive functions of the operating temperature.

  1. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  2. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  3. Category:Burns, OR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    72 KB SVSecondarySchool Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVSecondarySchool Burn... 70 KB SVSmallHotel Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVSmallHotel Burns OR ... 69 KB...

  4. SystemBurn

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-30

    SystemBurn is a tool for creating a synthetic computational load for the purpose of measuring how much power a computer will draw under that type of load. The loads include fundamental library function calls like matrix multiply, memory copies, fourier transforms, bit manipulation, I/O, network packet transfers, and some code contrived to cause the processor to dray more or less power. The code produces some diagnostic and progress output, but the actual measurements would bemore » recorded from the power panels within the computer room.« less

  5. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  6. In-situ method for treating residual sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  7. Biomass Burning Observation Project Specifically,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pacific Northwest region and in the vicinity of Memphis, Tennessee, as part of the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP). The aircraft will fly through smoke plumes from...

  8. Apparatus for burning bales of trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pazar, C. A.

    1985-08-13

    Bales of combustible trash made to specific specifications are burned in a furnace having two parallel upright sidewalls between which the bales pass during burning. A horizontal grate extends between the sidewalls. The bales, if remotely made from the furnace, are bound by an easily meltable strap. The length of the bale is measurably smaller than the distance between said sidewalls to accurately accommodate springback. A ram, after compacting the waste in segmental fashion, pushes each bale to a position between said sidewalls; with the length of the bale being perpendicular to the sidewalls, so that a bale enters the furnace. Springback following the melting of straps allows the bale to expand to fill the gap between the sidewalls. This facilitates ignition and/or burning of the bales and provides a seal against furnace sidewalls. When the ram feeds a fresh bale, previously charged bales (consumed proportional to time in the furnace) are advanced toward the ash discharge port. Before the bales are formed, the trash may be optionally dried by using heated air in the classification into ''light'' sort and ''heavy'' sort. The ''light'' sort is baled and burned as described above. The ''heavy'' sort or a part of the light sort may be premixed with noxious liquid or solid wastes before charging to the furnace. Temperatures consistent with economical use of refractory (1500/sup 0/ F. to 1700/sup 0/ F.) are maintained, for a limited area adjacent the inner wall of the furnace, by addition of liquid water, while interior temperatures of the furnace of about 3000/sup 0/ F. prevail in the central portion of the furnace necessary for the incineration of noxious wastes.

  9. BLM Burns District Office | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Burns District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Burns District Office Place: Hines, Oregon References: BLM Burns District Office1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  10. ARM - Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 2013 BNL BBOP Website Contacts Larry Kleinman, Lead Scientist Arthur Sedlacek Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Biomass Burning Plants, trees, grass, brush, and...

  11. Effect of inactive impurities on the burning of ICF targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Il'in, D. V.; Sherman, V. E.

    2011-12-15

    The efficiency of thermonuclear burning of the spherical deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets in the presence of low-Z impurities (such as lithium, carbon, or beryllium) with arbitrary concentrations is investigated. The effect of impurities produced due to the mixing of the thermonuclear fuel with the material of the structural elements of the target during its compression on the process of target burning is studied, and the possibility of using solid noncryogenic thermonuclear fuels in ICF targets is analyzed. Analytical dependences of the ignition energy and target thermonuclear gain on the impurity concentration are obtained. The models are constructed for homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas for the case in which the burning is initiated in the central heated region of the target and then propagates into the surrounding relatively cold fuel. Two possible configurations of an inhomogeneous plasma, namely, an isobaric configuration formed in the case of spark ignition of the target and an isochoric configuration formed in the case of fast ignition, are considered. The results of numerical simulations of the burning of the DT plasma of ICF targets in a wide range of impurity concentrations are presented. The simulations were performed using the TEPA one-dimensional code, in which the thermonuclear burning kinetics is calculated by the Monte Carlo method. It is shown that the strongest negative effect related to the presence of impurities is an increase in the energy of target ignition. It is substantiated that the most promising solid noncryogenic fuel is DT hydride of beryllium (BeDT). The requirements to the plasma parameters at which BeDT can be used as a fuel in noncryogenic ICF targets are determined. Variants of using noncryogenic targets with a solid thermonuclear fuel are proposed.

  12. Burn propagation in a PBX 9501 thermal explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henson, B. F.; Smilowitz, L.; Romero, J. J.; Sandstrom, M. M.; Asay, B. W.; Schwartz, C.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F.; Morris, C.; Murray, M. M.; McNeil, W. V.; Marr-Lyon, M.; Rightley, P. M.

    2007-12-12

    We have applied proton radiography to study the conversion of solid density to gaseous combustion products subsequent to ignition of a thermal explosion in PBX 9501. We apply a thermal boundary condition to the cylindrical walls of the case, ending with an induction period at 205 C. We then introduce a laser pulse that accelerates the thermal ignition and synchronizes the explosion with the proton accelerator. We then obtain fast, synchronized images of the evolution of density loss with few microsecond resolution during the approximately 100 microsecond duration of the explosion. We present images of the solid explosive during the explosion and discuss measured rates and assumed mechanisms of burning the role of pressure in this internal burning.

  13. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-12-31

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as {open_quotes}materials in-process{close_quotes} to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes.

  14. Clean Burn Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Burn Fuels LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clean Burn Fuels LLC Place: Raleigh, North Carolina Zip: 27603 Sector: Biofuels Product: Biofuels developer planning to build a 60m...

  15. PURPA and solid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Speaking before the FERC during the Spring, 1987 PURPA Hearings, Dr. Thomas A.V. Cassel, president of the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania-based Reading Energy Group, testified on the role PURPA has played in the development of the nation's solid fuel resource. Reading's Energy Group has in excess of $150 million of cogeneration assets under construction. These projects represent more than 65 MW and are fired by solid fuels which, prior to PURPA's enactment, were considered to be valueless waste and were overlooked by the electric utility industry. These plants will burn lignite and culm. Because of PURPA, culm will soon be eliminated as an eyesore and source of river pollution, and, at the same time, will help revitalize depressed mining areas.

  16. Solids irradiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Marvin E.; Pierce, Jim D.; Whitfield, Willis J.

    1979-01-01

    A novel facility for irradiation of solids embodying pathogens wherein solids are conveyed through an irradiation chamber in individual containers of an endless conveyor.

  17. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C.

    1982-01-01

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  18. Ultrasonic technique for characterizing skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goans, Ronald E.; Cantrell, Jr., John H.; Meyers, F. Bradford; Stambaugh, Harry D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention, a method for ultrasonically determining the depth of a skin burn, is based on the finding that the acoustical impedance of burned tissue differs sufficiently from that of live tissue to permit ultrasonic detection of the interface between the burn and the underlying unburned tissue. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate. As compared with conventional practice, it provides the important advantage of permitting much earlier determination of whether a burn is of the first, second, or third degree. In the case of severe burns, the usual two - to three-week delay before surgery may be reduced to about 3 days or less.

  19. Characterization of welding residual stresses with neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.L.; Spooner, S.; Hubbard, C.R.; Taljat, B.; Feng, Z.

    1998-03-01

    Welding residual stresses are a key concern in the fabrication and use of structural components containing welds. Residual stresses in welds are caused by non-uniform expansion and shrinkage of differently heated zones during the thermal transient of a weld pass. In some alloys, solid state phase transformations occurring during the welding transient contribute additional residual stresses. Manufacturing problems arising from welding residual stresses include cracking and dimensional distortion. During use, tensile stresses in the welded zone limit the fatigue resistance of the component under cyclic loading. In an aggressive environment, tensile welding residual stresses also create a necessary condition for stress-corrosion cracking to take place.

  20. The hybrid rich-burn/lean burn engine. Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.A.; Podnar, D.; Meyers, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed a unique engine technology called Hybrid Rich-Burn/Lean-Burn (HRBLB) that capitalizes on the low production of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) during extremely rich and lean combustion. The HRBLB concept is predicated on simultaneous combustion of extremely rich and lean natural gas-air mixtures in separate cylinders. Rich exhaust products undergo a catalytic water-gas shift reaction to form an intermediate combustible fuel composed of carbon monoxide, water vapor, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. All of the intermediate fuel is added to lean natural gas-air mixtures in other cylinders to enhance ignitability that would otherwise result in misfire. This paper presents results obtained during the development of a stationary, turbocharged, and intercooled, 18-liter HRBLB engine. Results show that NO{sub x} can be reduced by a factor of 2.5 to 3.5 relative to stock engine emissions at equivalent efficiency. The HRBLB engine has demonstrated corrected NO{sub x} (15% O{sub 2}) levels of 23 ppm at rated load with thermal efficiencies of 35%.

  1. Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.

    2007-07-01

    Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

  2. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witt, Jonathan L.; Hall, Kevin A.

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  3. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohn, Mark S.; Anselmo, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  4. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecke, Holger Svensson, Malin

    2008-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2{sup 6-1} experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO{sub 2} until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  5. Solid-waste contracting: Questions and answers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The increasing complexity of local government responsibilities is nowhere better illustrated than in solid waste management. In the past, when the adverse effects of waste disposal were less recognized, garbage was simply taken to local public dumps, or burned in backyard barrels or apartment building incinerators. Local governments must modernize their solid waste programs and operate within growing federal and state regulations. The changing regulatory environment of solid waste management presents a golden opportunity to contract with the private sector if interest of the community can be protected.

  6. Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Characterized particulate emissions from U.S.-legal ...

  7. Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Science Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report PR Buseck ... DOESC-ARM-15-076 Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report PR ...

  8. Transient Safety Analysis of Fast Spectrum TRU Burning LWRs with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transient Safety Analysis of Fast Spectrum TRU Burning LWRs with Internal Blankets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transient Safety Analysis of Fast Spectrum TRU Burning ...

  9. Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Final Campaign Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Final Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Final Campaign Report The Biomass ...

  10. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Burns & McDonnell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Burns & McDonnell - Facility Engineering Services, LLC - September 2015 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Burns & McDonnell - Facility Engineering Services, LLC - ...

  11. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan (Program Document...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth's climate through the direct ...

  12. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  13. CHEMICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SLUDGE SOLIDS AT THE F AND H AREA TANK FARMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S.

    2012-08-29

    The primary source of waste solids received into the F Area Tank Farm (FTF) was from PUREX processing performed to recover uranium and plutonium from irradiated depleted uranium targets. In contrast, two primary sources of waste solids were received into the H Area Tank Farm (HTF): a) waste from PUREX processing; and b) waste from H-modified (HM) processing performed to recover uranium and neptunium from burned enriched uranium fuel. Due to the differences between the irradiated depleted uranium targets and the burned enriched uranium fuel, the average compositions of the F and H Area wastes are markedly different from one another. Both F and H Area wastes contain significant amounts of iron and aluminum compounds. However, because the iron content of PUREX waste is higher than that of HM waste, and the aluminum content of PUREX waste is lower than that of HM waste, the iron to aluminum ratios of typical FTF waste solids are appreciably higher than those of typical HTF waste solids. Other constituents present at significantly higher concentrations in the typical FTF waste solids include uranium, nickel, ruthenium, zinc, silver, cobalt and copper. In contrast, constituents present at significantly higher concentrations in the typical HTF waste solids include mercury, thorium, oxalate, and radionuclides U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, Pu-238, Pu-242, Cm-244, and Cm-245. Because of the higher concentrations of Pu-238 in HTF, the long-term concentrations of Th-230 and Ra-226 (from Pu-238 decay) will also be higher in HTF. The uranium and plutonium distributions of the average FTF waste were found to be consistent with depleted uranium and weapons grade plutonium, respectively (U-235 comprised 0.3 wt% of the FTF uranium, and Pu-240 comprised 6 wt% of the FTF plutonium). In contrast, at HTF, U-235 comprised 5 wt% of the uranium, and Pu-240 comprised 17 wt% of the plutonium, consistent with enriched uranium and high burn-up plutonium. X-ray diffraction analyses of various FTF

  14. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis; Obrey, Stephen J; Foley, Timothy J; Son, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  15. Hanford Tank Waste Residuals

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford Tank Waste Residuals DOE HLW Corporate Board November 6, 2008 Chris Kemp, DOE ORP Bill Hewitt, YAHSGS LLC Hanford Tanks & Tank Waste * Single-Shell Tanks (SSTs) - 27 million ...

  16. NO2 oxidation reactivity and burning mode of diesel particulates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Vander Wal, Randy L.; Thompson, Thomas N.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart

    2016-03-24

    The NO2 oxidation kinetics and burning mode for diesel particulate from light-duty and medium-duty engines fueled with either ultra low sulfur diesel or soy methyl ester biodiesel blends have been investigated and are shown to be significantly different from oxidation by O2. Oxidation kinetics were measured using a flow-through packed bed microreactor for temperature programmed reactions and isothermal differential pulsed oxidation reactions. The burning mode was evaluated using the same reactor system for flowing BET specific surface area measurements and HR-TEM with fringe analysis to evaluate the nanostructure of the nascent and partially oxidized particulates. The low activation energy measured,more » specific surface area progression with extent of oxidation, HR-TEM images and difference plots of fringe length and tortuosity paint a consistent picture of higher reactivity for NO2, which reacts indiscriminately immediately upon contact with the surface, leading to the Zone I or shrinking core type oxidation. In comparison, O2 oxidation is shown to have relatively lower reactivity, preferentially attacking highly curved lamella, which are more reactive due to bond strain, and short lamella, which have a higher proportion of more reactive edge sites. Furthermore, this preferential oxidation leads to Zone II type oxidation, where solid phase diffusion of oxygen via pores contributes significantly to slowing the overall oxidation rate, by comparison.« less

  17. Titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (TiH1.65/KClO4) burn rates from hybrid closed bomb-strand burner experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Marcia A.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2012-08-01

    A hybrid closed bomb-strand burner is used to measure the burning behavior of the titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic with an equivalent hydrogen concentration of 1.65. This experimental facility allows for simultaneous measurement of the closed bomb pressure rise and pyrotechnic burn rate as detected by electrical break wires over a range of pressures. Strands were formed by pressing the pyrotechnic powders to bulk densities between 60% and 90% theoretical maximum density. The burn rate dependance on initial density and vessel pressure are measured. At all initial strand densities, the burn is observed to transition from conductive to convective burning within the strand. The measured vessel pressure history is further analyzed following the closed bomb analysis methods developed for solid propellants.

  18. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kliopova, Irina Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • SRF production from 10–40 mm fraction of pre-composted sludge and biomass residues. • The material and energy balance of compost and SRF production. • Characteristics of raw materials and classification of produced SRF. • Results of the efficiency of energy recovery, comparison analysis with – sawdust. - Abstract: Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10–40 mm) of pre-composted materials – sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg{sup −1} of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest – evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning

  19. Upgrading residual oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angevine, P.J.; Stein, T.R.

    1982-04-13

    Residual oil fractions are upgraded in that Conradson Carbon Residue (CCR) is selectively removed without undue hydrogen consumption by hydroprocessing with a catalyst comprising a single metal such as molybdenum, tungsten, nickel, iron or palladium or multimetallic combination of such metals, excluding, however, active desulfurization compositions such as nickel molybdenum and nickel-tungsten. Said catalyst is characterized as having greater than about 50% of its pore volume contribution in pores having diameters in the range of between about 100 and 200 angstroms. The product of such hydroprocessing is a particularly preferable feedstock for coking to give more liquid yield and less coke make.

  20. Solid electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  1. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman, KI; Sedlacek, AJ

    2013-09-01

    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth’s climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  2. Process for minimizing solids contamination of liquids from coal pyrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickstrom, Gary H.; Knell, Everett W.; Shaw, Benjamin W.; Wang, Yue G.

    1981-04-21

    In a continuous process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from a solid carbonaceous material by pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material in the presence of a particulate source of heat, particulate contamination of the liquid hydrocarbons is minimized. This is accomplished by removing fines from the solid carbonaceous material feed stream before pyrolysis, removing fines from the particulate source of heat before combining it with the carbonaceous material to effect pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material, and providing a coarse fraction of reduced fines content of the carbon containing solid residue resulting from the pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material before oxidizing carbon in the carbon containing solid residue to form the particulate source of heat.

  3. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  4. DOE - Fossil Energy: A Bed for Burning Coal?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-Bed for Burning Coal An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with ...

  5. Raymond Burns > Product Research Technologist - Exxon Mobile > Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alumni > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Raymond Burns Product Research Technologist - Exxon Mobile raymond.burns@gmail.com Formerly a member of the DiSalvo Group, Ray earned his PhD in August 2013

  6. Emission and transport of cesium-137 from boreal biomass burning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from boreal biomass burning in the summer of 2010 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Emission and transport of cesium-137 from boreal biomass burning in the summer ...

  7. Investigation of NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium Duty Diesel Particulate: Contrasting O2 and NO2 Oxidation Investigation of NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium ...

  8. Burn to Learn | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Burn to Learn Burn to Learn The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 3:06 min. CNS fire protection engineers recently visited Oak Ridge Fire Department to "Burn to Learn." During this event, they were able to burn materials that would be found at Y-12 (e.g,. personal protective equipment, a shredder) and analyze the results. Watch a video about the event here

  9. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

    1983-09-21

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  10. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  11. Thermal dissolution of solid fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.G. Gorlov

    2007-10-15

    The use of oil shales and coals in the processes of thermal dissolution is considered. It is shown that thermal dissolution is a mode of liquefaction of solid fossil fuels and can be used both independently and in combination with liquefaction of coals and processing of heavy petroleum residues.

  12. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  13. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  14. Municipal solid waste (garbage): problems and benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, G.I.

    1983-05-01

    The average person in the USA generates from 3 1/2 to 7 lb of garbage/day. The combustible portion of garbage consists primarily of paper products, plastics, textiles, and wood. Problems connected with energy production from municipal solid waste (garbage), and the social, economic, and environmental factors associated with this technology are discussed. The methods for using garbage as a fuel for a combustion process are discussed. One method processes the garbage to produce a fuel that is superior to raw garbage, the other method of using garbage as a fuel is to burn it directly - the mass burning approach. The involvement of the Power Authority of the State of New York in garbage-to-energy technology is discussed.

  15. The deposition and burning characteristics during slagging co-firing coal and wood: modeling and numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.H.; Zhao, D.Q.; Jiang, L.Q.; Yang, W.B.

    2009-07-01

    Numerical analysis was used to study the deposition and burning characteristics of combining co-combustion with slagging combustion technologies in this paper. The pyrolysis and burning kinetic models of different fuels were implanted into the WBSF-PCC2 (wall burning and slag flow in pulverized co-combustion) computation code, and then the slagging and co-combustion characteristics (especially the wall burning mechanism of different solid fuels and their effects on the whole burning behavior in the cylindrical combustor at different mixing ratios under the condition of keeping the heat input same) were simulated numerically. The results showed that adding wood powder at 25% mass fraction can increase the temperature at the initial stage of combustion, which is helpful to utilize the front space of the combustor. Adding wood powder at a 25% mass fraction can increase the reaction rate at the initial combustion stage; also, the coal ignitability is improved, and the burnout efficiency is enhanced by about 5% of suspension and deposition particles, which is helpful for coal particles to burn entirely and for combustion devices to minimize their dimensions or sizes. The results also showed that adding wood powder at a proper ratio is helpful to keep the combustion stability, not only because of the enhancement for the burning characteristics, but also because the running slag layer structure can be changed more continuously, which is very important for avoiding the abnormal slag accumulation in the slagging combustor. The theoretic analysis in this paper proves that unification of co-combustion and slagging combustion technologies is feasible, though more comprehensive and rigorous research is needed.

  16. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Richard G.; Blasewitz, Albert G.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  17. The smoke-fireplume model : tool for eventual application to prescribed burns and wildland fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. F.; Dunn, W. E.; Lazaro, M. A.; Policastro, A. J.

    1999-08-17

    Land managers are increasingly implementing strategies that employ the use of fire in prescribed burns to sustain ecosystems and plan to sustain the rate of increase in its use over the next five years. In planning and executing expanded use of fire in wildland treatment it is important to estimate the human health and safety consequences, property damage, and the extent of visibility degradation from the resulting conflagration-pyrolysis gases, soot and smoke generated during flaming, smoldering and/or glowing fires. Traditional approaches have often employed the analysis of weather observations and forecasts to determine whether a prescribed burn will affect populations, property, or protected Class I areas. However, the complexity of the problem lends itself to advanced PC-based models that are simple to use for both calculating the emissions from the burning of wildland fuels and the downwind dispersion of smoke and other products of pyrolysis, distillation, and/or fuels combustion. These models will need to address the effects of residual smoldering combustion, including plume dynamics and optical effects. In this paper, we discuss a suite of tools that can be applied for analyzing dispersion. These tools include the dispersion models FIREPLUME and SMOKE, together with the meteorological preprocessor SEBMET.

  18. Method for detecting and correcting for isotope burn-in during long-term neutron dosimetry exposure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruddy, Francis H.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for detecting and correcting for isotope burn-in during-long term neutron dosimetry exposure. In one embodiment, duplicate pairs of solid state track recorder fissionable deposits are used, including a first, fissionable deposit of lower mass to quantify the number of fissions occuring during the exposure, and a second deposit of higher mass to quantify the number of atoms of for instance .sup.239 Pu by alpha counting. In a second embodiment, only one solid state track recorder fissionable deposit is used and the resulting higher track densities are counted with a scanning electron microscope. This method is also applicable to other burn-in interferences, e.g., .sup.233 U in .sup.232 Th or .sup.238 Pu in .sup.237 Np.

  19. Hanford tank residual waste contaminant source terms and release models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2011-08-23

    Residual waste is expected to be left in 177 underground storage tanks after closure at the U.S. Department of Energys Hanford Site in Washington State (USA). In the long term, the residual wastes represent a potential source of contamination to the subsurface environment. Residual materials that cannot be completely removed during the tank closure process are being studied to identify and characterize the solid phases and estimate the release of contaminants from these solids to water that might enter the closed tanks in the future. As of the end of 2009, residual waste from five tanks has been evaluated. Residual wastes from adjacent tanks C-202 and C-203 have high U concentrations of 24 and 59 wt%, respectively, while residual wastes from nearby tanks C-103 and C-106 have low U concentrations of 0.4 and 0.03 wt%, respectively. Aluminum concentrations are high (8.2 to 29.1 wt%) in some tanks (C-103, C-106, and S-112) and relatively low (<1.5 wt%) in other tanks (C-202 and C-203). Gibbsite is a common mineral in tanks with high Al concentrations, while non-crystalline U-Na-C-O-PH phases are common in the U-rich residual wastes from tanks C-202 and C-203. Iron oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual waste samples studied to date. Contaminant release from the residual wastes was studied by conducting batch leach tests using distilled deionized water, a Ca(OH)2-saturated solution, or a CaCO3-saturated water. Uranium release concentrations are highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions with dissolved U concentrations one or two orders of magnitude higher in the tests with high U residual wastes, and also higher when leached with the CaCO3-saturated solution than with the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution. Technetium leachability is not as strongly dependent on the concentration of Tc in the waste, and it appears to be slightly more leachable by the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution than by the CaCO3-saturated solution. In general, Tc is much less leachable

  20. Thermal upgrading of residual oil to light product and heavy residual fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, T.Y.; Shu, P.

    1986-08-05

    The method is described of upgrading residual oil boiling in the range of 1050/sup 0/F+ comprising: thermally cracking the residual oil at a temperature of 650/sup 0/-900/sup 0/F, a pressure of 0-100 psig, and a residence time of 0.1 to 5 hours at the highest severity in the range between about 1,000-18,000 seconds, as expressed in equivalent reaction time at 800/sup 0/F, sufficient to convert at least about 50 wt% of the residual oil to light products, substantially without the formation of solid coke; recovering separate fractions of light product and emulsifiable heavy bottom product which has a fusion temperature below about 150/sup 0/C and a quinoline-insoluble content between about 10 wt% and 30 wt% and wherein the highest severity is determined by a functional relationship between the asphaltene content of the residual oil feedstock and the heavy bottom product yield and quinoline-insoluble content.

  1. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  2. Solid phase microextraction field kit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nunes, Peter J.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2005-08-16

    A field kit for the collection, isolation and concentration of trace amounts of high explosives (HE), biological weapons (BW) and chemical weapons (CW) residues in air, soil, vegetation, swipe, and liquid samples. The field kit includes a number of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) fiber and syringe assemblies in a hermetically sealed transportation container or tubes which includes a sampling port, a number of extra SPME fiber and syringe assemblies, the fiber and syringe assemblies including a protective cap for the fiber, and an extractor for the protective cap, along with other items including spare parts, protective glove, and an instruction manual, all located in an airtight container.

  3. Direct Observation of the Phenomenology of a Solid Thermal Explosion Using Time-Resolved Proton Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Romero, J. J.; Asay, B. W.; Schwartz, C. L.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Hogan, G.; Nedrow, P.; Murray, M. M.; Thompson, T. N.; McNeil, W.; Rightley, P.; Marr-Lyon, M.

    2008-06-06

    We present a new phenomenology for burn propagation inside a thermal explosion based on dynamic radiography. Radiographic images were obtained of an aluminum cased solid cylindrical sample of a plastic bonded formulation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The phenomenology observed is ignition followed by cracking in the solid accompanied by the propagation of a radially symmetric front of increasing proton transmission. This is followed by a further increase in transmission through the sample, ending after approximately 100 {mu}s. We show that these processes are consistent with the propagation of a convective burn front followed by consumption of the remaining solid by conductive particle burning.

  4. Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF burning program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, K.; Campbell, J.

    1982-03-01

    The Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF Burning Program was conceived to promote the utilization of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) as a supplement to existing fossil fuel sources in industrial-sized boilers. The program explores the design, development, and eventual construction of densified-RDF (d-RDF) for use in boiler combustion testing as a supplement to stoker coal or wood wastes. The equipment would be mounted on trailers and assembled and operated at preselected sites throughout the country where approximately 750 tons of RDF would be produced and test burned in a local boiler. The equipment, to include a transportable RDF boiler metering and feed system, would then be moved and operated at two to three test sites annually. The program is intended to encourage the construction of permanent resource recovery facilities by involving local waste handling groups in operating the equipment and producing fuel, and potential local fuel users in testing the fuel in their boilers. The Mobilizable Program was developed from two separate tasks. The first task developed the concept behind the program and defined its operational and organizational structure. The second task, a follow-up to the first, was intended principally to finalize test locations, develop equipment designs and specifications, and formalize a management program. This report summarizes the principal findings of both tasks. It identifies the criteria used to identify test locations, outlines the program's management structure, presents design and performance specifications for both the fuel production equipment and boiler fuel feed systems, and provides a detailed evaluation of the parameters involved in burning RDF in industrial-sized boilers. Final conclusions and recommendations identify problem areas encountered in the program, and discuss possible future directions for such a program.

  5. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

  6. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the optical emission produced thereby is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

  7. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.

    1999-06-15

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives. 4 figs.

  8. Spectral hole burning studies of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.C.

    1995-11-01

    Low temperature absorption and hole burning spectroscopies were applied to the D1-D2-cyt b{sub 559} and the CP47 and CP43 antenna protein complexes of Photosystem H from higher plants. Low temperature transient and persistent hole-burning data and theoretical calculations on the kinetics and temperature dependence of the P680 hole profile are presented and provide convincing support for the linker model. Implicit in the linker model is that the 684-nm-absorbing Chl a serve to shuttle energy from the proximal antenna complex to reaction center. The stoichiometry of isolated Photosystem H Reaction Center (PSII RC) in several different preparations is also discussed. The additional Chl a are due to 684-nm-absorbing Chl a, some contamination by the CP47 complex, and non-native Chl a absorbing near 670 nm. In the CP47 protein complex, attention is focused on the lower energy chlorophyll a Q{sub y}-states. High pressure hole-burning studies of PSII RC revealed for the first time a strong pressure effect on the primary electron transfer dynamics. The 4.2 K lifetime of P680*, the primary donor state, increases from 2.0 ps to 7.0 ps as pressure increases from 0.1 to 267 MPa. Importantly, this effect is irreversible (plastic) while the pressure induced effect on the low temperature absorption and non-line narrowed P680 hole spectra are reversible (elastic). Nonadiabatic rate expressions, which take into account the distribution of energy gap values, are used to estimate the linear pressure shift of the acceptor state energy for both the superexchange and two-step mechanisms for primary charge separation. It was found that the pressure dependence could be explained with a linear pressure shift of {approximately} 1 cm{sup -1}/MPa in magnitude for the acceptor state. The results point to the marriage of hole burning and high pressures as having considerable potential for the study of primary transport dynamics in reaction centers and antenna complexes.

  9. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  10. Science on the Hill: Burning questions in study of wildfire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Burning questions in study of wildfire Burning questions in study of wildfire Understanding what drives big fires and predicting their behavior helps the fire community prepare for the next blaze through appropriate land management, emergency plans and firefighting strategies. July 12, 2016 A helicopter drops fire retardant on wildfire during 2011 Las Conchas fire in New Mexico. A helicopter drops fire retardant on wildfire during 2011 Las Conchas fire in New Mexico. Burning questions in study

  11. Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Alabama Program Type Rebate Amount 100% Summary This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The...

  12. Arctic Haze: Effect of Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haze: Effect of Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning Aerosols Transported from Europe to the Arctic For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:...

  13. SFR with once-through depleted uranium breed & burn blanket ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: SFR with once-through depleted uranium breed & burn blanket Authors: Zhang, Guanheng ; Greenspan, Ehud ; Jolodosky, Alejandra ; Vujic, Jasmina Publication Date: 2015-07-01 ...

  14. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO Particle Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Schuck, Paul C [ORNL; Rudin, Sven [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wills, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wirth, Brian D. [University of California, Berkeley; Kim, Sungtae [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. First principles calculations are being used to investigate the critical issue of fission product palladium attack on the SiC coating layer. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel. Kinetic Monte Carlo techniques are shedding light on transport of fission products, most notably silver, through the carbon and SiC coating layers. The diffusion of fission products through an alternative coating layer, ZrC, is being assessed via DFT methods. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  16. Method for correcting for isotope burn-in effects in fission neutron dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gold, Raymond; McElroy, William N.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for correcting for effect of isotope burn-in in fission neutron dosimeters. Two quantities are measured in order to quantify the "burn-in" contribution, namely P.sub.Z',A', the amount of (Z', A') isotope that is burned-in, and F.sub.Z', A', the fissions per unit volume produced in the (Z', A') isotope. To measure P.sub.Z', A', two solid state track recorder fission deposits are prepared from the very same material that comprises the fission neutron dosimeter, and the mass and mass density are measured. One of these deposits is exposed along with the fission neutron dosimeter, whereas the second deposit is subsequently used for observation of background. P.sub.Z', A' is then determined by conducting a second irradiation, wherein both the irradiated and unirradiated fission deposits are used in solid state track recorder dosimeters for observation of the absolute number of fissions per unit volume. The difference between the latter determines P.sub.Z', A' since the thermal neutron cross section is known. F.sub.Z', A' is obtained by using a fission neutron dosimeter for this specific isotope, which is exposed along with the original threshold fission neutron dosimeter to experience the same neutron flux-time history at the same location. In order to determine the fissions per unit volume produced in the isotope (Z', A') as it ingrows during the irradiation, B.sub.Z', A', from these observations, the neutron field must generally be either time independent or a separable function of time t and neutron energy E.

  17. AmeriFlux US-Me1 Metolius - Eyerly burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Bev

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Me1 Metolius - Eyerly burn. Site Description - An intermediate aged ponderosa pine forest that was severely burned in the 2002 Eyerly wildfire. All trees were killed (stand replacing event). Irvine et al (2007) GCB 13 (8), 1748–1760.

  18. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and

  19. Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairweather, M. [School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Woolley, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)

  20. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M.; Holswade, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  1. Local Burn-Up Effects in the NBSR Fuel Element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown N. R.; Hanson A.; Diamond, D.

    2013-01-31

    This study addresses the over-prediction of local power when the burn-up distribution in each half-element of the NBSR is assumed to be uniform. A single-element model was utilized to quantify the impact of axial and plate-wise burn-up on the power distribution within the NBSR fuel elements for both high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. To validate this approach, key parameters in the single-element model were compared to parameters from an equilibrium core model, including neutron energy spectrum, power distribution, and integral U-235 vector. The power distribution changes significantly when incorporating local burn-up effects and has lower power peaking relative to the uniform burn-up case. In the uniform burn-up case, the axial relative power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 59% in the HEU single-element and 46% in the LEU single-element with uniform burn-up. In the uniform burn-up case, the plate-wise power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 23% in the HEU single-element and 18% in the LEU single-element. The degree of over-prediction increases as a function of burn-up cycle, with the greatest over-prediction at the end of Cycle 8. The thermal flux peak is always in the mid-plane gap; this causes the local cumulative burn-up near the mid-plane gap to be significantly higher than the fuel element average. Uniform burn-up distribution throughout a half-element also causes a bias in fuel element reactivity worth, due primarily to the neutronic importance of the fissile inventory in the mid-plane gap region.

  2. SolidShperal

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-12-22

    SolidSpheral is an extension of the Spheral open source meshless hydrodynamics method. SolidSpheral adds the capability to model solid materials using analytic equations of state, and a simple damage model to allow for the modeled materials to undergo dynamic damage evolution. SolidSpheral is a distributed parallel code employing MPI for the parallel framework.

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-2, 100-B Burn Pit #2 Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-038

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-12-21

    The 128-B-2 waste site was a burn pit historically used for the disposal of combustible and noncombustible wastes, including paint and solvents, office waste, concrete debris, and metallic debris. This site has been remediated by removing approximately 5,627 bank cubic meters of debris, ash, and contaminated soil to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulicz, Tytus R. (Hickory Hills, IL)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and process for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine.

  5. Solids mass flow determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  6. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

    2004-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  7. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, Carol T.; Bender, Donald A.; Bowman, Barry R.; Burnham, Alan K.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Comfort, III, William J.; Guymon, Lloyd G.; Henning, Carl D.; Pedersen, Knud B.; Sefcik, Joseph A.; Smith, Joseph A.; Strauch, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  8. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, C.T.; Bender, D.A.; Bowman, B.R.; Burnham, A.K.; Chesnut, D.A.; Comfort, W.J. III; Guymon, L.G.; Henning, C.D.; Pedersen, K.B.; Sefcik, J.A.; Smith, J.A.; Strauch, M.S.

    1993-03-09

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  9. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  10. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  11. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  12. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  13. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1996-02-13

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  14. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooley, Carl R.; Lerch, Ronald E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230.degree.-300.degree.C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue.

  15. Apparatus for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crosbie, Gary M.; Predmesky, Ronald L.; Nicholson, John M.

    1995-04-04

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  16. Method for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crosbie, Gary M.; Predmesky, Ronald L.; Nicholson, John M.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  17. Alpha heating and burning plasmas in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betti, R.; Christopherson, A. R.; Spears, B. K.; Nora, R.; Bose, A.; Howard, J.; Woo, K. M.; Edwards, M. J.; Sanz, J.

    2015-06-01

    Estimating the level of alpha heating and determining the onset of the burning plasma regime is essential to finding the path towards thermonuclear ignition. In a burning plasma, the alpha heating exceeds the external input energy to the plasma. Using a simple model of the implosion, it is shown that a general relation can be derived, connecting the burning plasma regime to the yield enhancement due to alpha heating and to experimentally measurable parameters such as the Lawson ignition parameter. A general alpha-heating curve is found, independent of the target and suitable to assess the performance of all laser fusion experiments whether direct or indirect drive. The onset of the burning plasma regime inside the hot spot of current implosions on the National Ignition Facility requires a fusion yield of about 50 kJ.

  18. Copper is Key in Burning Fat, New Study Finds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper is Key in Burning Fat, New Study Finds A new study led by a Berkeley Lab scientist ... Researchers want to explore if a copper deficiency is linked to obesity and obesity ...

  19. Portsmouth Site Achieves Regulatory Milestone after Successful Controlled Burn

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PIKETON, Ohio – Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant firefighters recently completed a prescribed fire, or controlled burn, of an 18-acre prairie at the site, two weeks ahead of a regulatory deadline.

  20. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200-300% over the next 50-100 ...

  1. Radiochemical Mix Diagnostic in the Presence of Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2014-01-28

    There is a general interest in radiochemical probes of hydrodamicalmix in burning regions of NIF capsule. Here we provide estimates for the production of 13N from mixing of 10B ablator burning hotspot of a capsule. By comparing the 13N signal with x-ray measurements of the ablator mix into the hotspot it should be possible to estimate the chunkiness of this mix.

  2. Lab scientists Burns, Hay named new AAAS Fellows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Burns, Hay named new AAAS Fellows Lab scientists Burns, Hay named new AAAS Fellows The AAAS is the world's largest general scientific society and publisher of the journal Science. February 3, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on

  3. Laser cooling of solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Richard I; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  4. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  5. ROTARY BULK SOLIDS DIVIDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer JR., Richard P.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  6. Thorium Fuel Options for Sustained Transuranic Burning in Pressurized Water Reactors - 12381

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, Fariz Abdul; Lee, John C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Franceschini, Fausto; Wenner, Michael [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    burn TRU in a thermal spectrum, while satisfying top-level operational and safety constraints. Various assembly designs have been proposed to assess the TRU burning potential of Th-based fuel in PWRs. In addition to typical homogeneous loading patterns, heterogeneous configurations exploiting the breeding potential of thorium to enable multiple cycles of TRU irradiation and burning have been devised. The homogeneous assembly design, with all pins featuring TRU in Th, has the benefit of a simple loading pattern and the highest rate of TRU transmutation, but it can be used only for a few cycles due to the rapid rise in the TRU content of the recycled fuel, which challenges reactivity control, safety coefficients and fuel handling. Due to its simple loading pattern, such assembly design can be used as the first step of Th implementation, achieving up to 3 times larger TRU transmutation rate than conventional U-MOX, assuming same fraction of MOX assemblies in the core. As the next step in thorium implementation, heterogeneous assemblies featuring a mixed array of Th-U and Th-U-TRU pins, where the U is in-bred from Th, have been proposed. These designs have the potential to enable burning an external supply of TRU through multiple cycles of irradiation, recovery (via reprocessing) and recycling of the residual actinides at the end of each irradiation cycle. This is achieved thanks to a larger breeding of U from Th in the heterogeneous assemblies, which reduces the TRU supply and thus mitigates the increase in the TRU core inventory for the multi-recycled fuel. While on an individual cycle basis the amount of TRU burned in the heterogeneous assembly is reduced with respect to the homogeneous design, TRU burning rates higher than single-pass U-MOX fuel can still be achieved, with the additional benefits of a multi-cycle transmutation campaign recycling all TRU isotopes. Nitride fuel, due its higher density and U breeding potential, together with its better thermal properties

  7. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, Donald S.; Schober, Robert K.; Beller, John

    1992-01-01

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

  8. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  9. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  10. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  11. Solidification process for sludge residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-09-10

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria.

  12. Rehabilitation of an anthracite-burning power plant in Ukraine with introduction of coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruether, J.; Killmeyer, R.; Schimmoller, B.; Gollakota, S.

    1996-12-31

    A study is being carried out jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the Ukrainian Ministry of Power and Electrification for rehabilitation of an anthracite-burning power station in the Donbass region of eastern Ukraine. The power station, named Luganskaya GRES, is laboring under deteriorating coal quality (the ash level is ranging towards 40% compared to the design value of 18%) and the physical plant is in need of repair. Approaches under consideration for the rehabilitation include upgrading the existing 200-MW{sub e} (gross) wall-fired boilers, repowering with circulating fluidized bed combustors, and the use of coal preparation. Coal washability tests conducted as part of the study indicate the coal is amenable to washing. The paper describes approaches to coal preparation being considered that provide design value coal for wall-fired boilers while minimizing rejection of Btus and generation of solid waste.

  13. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulicz, T.R.

    1990-04-17

    An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

  14. Method for processing pulverized solid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chukhanov, Z.F.; Chukhanov, Z.Z.; Karasev, V.A.; Samsonov, V.I.; Tsuprov, S.A.

    1982-01-05

    A method is disclosed for processing a pulverized solid fuel by heat, which comprises the steps of drying said fuel and subjecting the latter to two-stage pyrolysis with the resulting formation of vapor, gaseous products and small coke. According to the invention, at least a part of the small coke is additionally heated to a temperature of 800 to 1500/sup 0/C by combustion gas and/or by partial burning of the small coke, whereafter the heated small coke is separated from the combustion gas, fed to the first stage of pyrolysis and for drying the fuel. The heated small coke is gasified by steam. The resultant gasification products are separated from the small coke which is then fed as the heat carrier to the first stage of pyrolysis.

  15. The anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers many advantages in the processing of organic solid wastes, using a closed system to convert the waste to combustible gas and a stabilized organic residue.Odors are contained while digestion removes their source and gas is collected for energy recovery as heat or electricity. The stabilized residue is less than the starting waste by the mass of gas produced, and it can be disposed of by land application, land filling, incineration or composting. The stimulation of digesters and the phenomenon of co-digestion are two ways the performance of anaerobic digesters can be enhanced. Data from farm digesters and municipal wastewater treatment plants illustrate the present venue of the process; laboratory studies of the anaerobic digestion of a variety of solid wastes show that the process can be applied to these materials as well. About two thirds of municipal solid waste is shown to be amenable to anaerobic digestion in a substrate from an active municipal sewage plant digester.

  16. MSFR TRU-burning potential and comparison with an SFR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiorina, C.; Cammi, A.; Franceschini, F.; Krepel, J.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) potential benefits in terms of transuranics (TRU) burning through a comparative analysis with a sodium-cooled FR. The comparison is based on TRU- and MA-burning rates, as well as on the in-core evolution of radiotoxicity and decay heat. Solubility issues limit the TRU-burning rate to 1/3 that achievable in traditional low-CR FRs (low-Conversion-Ratio Fast Reactors). The softer spectrum also determines notable radiotoxicity and decay heat of the equilibrium actinide inventory. On the other hand, the liquid fuel suggests the possibility of using a Pu-free feed composed only of Th and MA (Minor Actinides), thus maximizing the MA burning rate. This is generally not possible in traditional low-CR FRs due to safety deterioration and decay heat of reprocessed fuel. In addition, the high specific power and the lack of out-of-core cooling times foster a quick transition toward equilibrium, which improves the MSFR capability to burn an initial fissile loading, and makes the MSFR a promising system for a quick (i.e., in a reactor lifetime) transition from the current U-based fuel cycle to a novel closed Th cycle. (authors)

  17. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1,200 C to 1,400 C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  18. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1200{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  19. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  20. RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Solid waste programs updated July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The module focuses on EPA`s efforts in two areas: municipal and industrial solid waste. The garbage that is managed by the local governments is known as municipal solid waste (MSW). Garbage excluded from hazardous waste regulation but not typically collected by local governments is commonly known as industrial solid waste. This category includes domestic sewage and other wastewater treatment sludge, demolition and construction wastes, agricultural and mining residues, combustion ash, and industrial process wastes.

  1. The influence of quench sensitivity on residual stresses in the aluminium alloys 7010 and 7075

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, J.S.; Tanner, D.A.; Truman, C.E.; Paradowska, A.M.; Wimpory, R.C.

    2012-03-15

    The most critical stage in the heat treatment of high strength aluminium alloys is the rapid cooling necessary to form a supersaturated solid solution. A disadvantage of quenching is that the thermal gradients can be sufficient to cause inhomogeneous plastic deformation which in turn leads to the development of large residual stresses. Two 215 mm thick rectilinear forgings have been made from 7000 series alloys with widely different quench sensitivity to determine if solute loss in the form of precipitation during quenching can significantly affect residual stress magnitudes. The forgings were heat treated and immersion quenched using cold water to produce large magnitude residual stresses. The through thickness residual stresses were measured by neutron diffraction and incremental deep hole drilling. The distribution of residual stresses was found to be similar for both alloys varying from highly triaxial and tensile in the interior, to a state of biaxial compression in the surface. The 7010 forging exhibited larger tensile stresses in the interior. The microstructural variation from surface to centre for both forgings was determined using optical and transmission electron microscopy. These observations were used to confirm the origin of the hardness variation measured through the forging thickness. When the microstructural changes were accounted for in the through thickness lattice parameter, the residual stresses in the two forgings were found to be very similar. Solute loss in the 7075 forging appeared to have no significant effect on the residual stress magnitudes when compared to 7010. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Through thickness residual stress measurements made on large Al alloy forgings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residual stress characterised using neutron diffraction and deep hole drilling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biaxial compressive surface and triaxial subsurface residual stresses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quench sensitivity

  2. Iron/potassium perchlorate pellet burn rate measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, J.W.; Walters, R.R.

    1995-01-25

    A burn rate test having several advantages for low gas-producing pyrotechnic compacts has been developed. The technique involves use of a high speed video motion analysis system that allows immediate turnaround and produces all required data for rate computation on magnetic tape and becomes immediately available on the display screen. The test technique provides a quick method for material qualification along with data for improved reliability and function. Burn rate data has been obtained for both UPI and Eagle Pitcher Iron/Potassium Perchlorate blends. The data obtained for the UPI blends cover a range of composition, pellet density, and ambient (before ignition) pellet temperature. Burn rate data for the E-P blends were extended to include surface conditions or particle size as a variable parameter.

  3. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  4. Communication Support for the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegna, Chris

    2014-02-05

    The role of this DOE grant was to provide administrative and software support for the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO). The USBPO is a grassroots organization of fusion plasma scientists that concentrates broadly on issues of interest in burning plasma physics in general with a particular emphasis on the needs of the ITER program. The particular role of this grant was to provide support of the communication needs of the USBPO primarily through the administration and maintenance of the USBPO server, the public USBPO website, e-mail lists and numerous members-only discussion forums and mail lists.

  5. Completion of the INEEL's WERF Incinerator Trial Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Branter; D. A. Conley; D. R. Moser; S. J. Corrigan

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes the successes and challenges associated with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) hazardous and mixed waste incinerator. Topics to be discussed include facility modifications and problems, trial burn results and lessons learned in each of these areas. In addition, a number of challenges remain including completion and final issue of the RCRA Permit and implementation of all the permit requirements. Results from the trial burn demonstrated that the operating conditions and procedures will result in emissions that are satisfactorily protective of human health, the environment, and are in compliance with Federal and State regulations.

  6. Completion of the INEEL's WERF Incinerator Trial Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branter, Curtis Keith; Conley, Dennis Allen; Corrigan, Shannon James; Moser, David Roy

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes the successes and challenges associated with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) hazardous and mixed waste incinerator. Topics to be discussed include facility modifications and problems, trial burn results and lessons learned in each of these areas. In addition, a number of challenges remain including completion and final issue of RCRA Permit and implementation of all the permit requirements. Results from the trial burn demonstrated that the operating conditions and procedures will result in emissions that are satisfactorily protective of human health, the environment, and are in compliance with Federal and State regulations.

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - Biomass Burning Observation Project - BBOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsBiomass Burning Observation Project - BBOP Campaign Links BBOP Website Final Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Biomass Burning Observation Project - BBOP 2013.07.01 - 2013.10.24 Website : http://www.arm.gov/campaigns/bbop/ Lead Scientist : Larry Kleinman For data sets, see below. Abstract This field campaign will address multiple uncertainties in aerosol intensive

  8. Microsoft Word - Deep-Burn awards news release _2_.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELEASE Tim Jackson, DOE-Idaho Operations Office Wednesday, July 23, 2008 (208) 526-8484 U.S. Department of Energy Awards $7.3 million for "Deep-Burn" Gas-Reactor Technology Research & Development WASHINGTON, DC -Today the U.S. Department of Energy announced it has selected teams led by Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to advance the technology of nuclear fuel "Deep-Burn," in which plutonium and higher transuranics recycled from spent nuclear fuel

  9. Transuranic Waste Burning Potential of Thorium Fuel in a Fast Reactor - 12423

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenner, Michael; Franceschini, Fausto; Ferroni, Paolo; Sartori, Alberto; Ricotti, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company (referred to as 'Westinghouse' in the rest of this paper) is proposing a 'back-to-front' approach to overcome the stalemate on nuclear waste management in the US. In this approach, requirements to further the societal acceptance of nuclear waste are such that the ultimate health hazard resulting from the waste package is 'as low as reasonably achievable'. Societal acceptability of nuclear waste can be enhanced by reducing the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste, which is currently driven primarily by the protracted radiotoxicity of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes. Therefore, a transition to a more benign radioactive waste can be accomplished by a fuel cycle capable of consuming the stockpile of TRU 'legacy' waste contained in the LWR Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) while generating waste which is significantly less radio-toxic than that produced by the current open U-based fuel cycle (once through and variations thereof). Investigation of a fast reactor (FR) operating on a thorium-based fuel cycle, as opposed to the traditional uranium-based is performed. Due to a combination between its neutronic properties and its low position in the actinide chain, thorium not only burns the legacy TRU waste, but it does so with a minimal production of 'new' TRUs. The effectiveness of a thorium-based fast reactor to burn legacy TRU and its flexibility to incorporate various fuels and recycle schemes according to the evolving needs of the transmutation scenario have been investigated. Specifically, the potential for a high TRU burning rate, high U-233 generation rate if so desired and low concurrent production of TRU have been used as metrics for the examined cycles. Core physics simulations of a fast reactor core running on thorium-based fuels and burning an external TRU feed supply have been carried out over multiple cycles of irradiation, separation and reprocessing. The TRU burning capability as well as the core isotopic content have been characterized

  10. Refeeding biogas digester solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Biosolid, the digester residue from a biogas plant, must be of economical use to ensure the financial feasibility of biogas facilities. This paper sumarizes work performed for a Department of Energy study in the Imperial Valley of California. Feeding trials show that biosolid can only be used as a small proportion of feed rations. Apart from bacterial debris, biosolid is composed larely of non-nutritive residues. 5 refs.

  11. Process to recycle shredder residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  12. Examination of the Entry to Burn and Burn Control for the ITER 15 MA Baseline and Other Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesse, Charles E.; Kim, S-H.; Koechl, F.

    2014-09-01

    The entry to burn and flattop burn control in ITER will be a critical need from the first DT experiments. Simulations are used to address time-dependent behavior under a range of possible conditions that include injected power level, impurity content (W, Ar, Be), density evolution, H-mode regimes, controlled parameter (Wth, Pnet, Pfusion), and actuator (Paux, fueling, fAr), with a range of transport models. A number of physics issues at the L-H transition require better understanding to project to ITER, however, simulations indicate viable control with sufficient auxiliary power (up to 73 MW), while lower powers become marginal (as low as 43 MW).

  13. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  14. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-08-01

    This study was initiated to compile publicly available data on the five major options commonly used for municipal solid waste MSW management today: Landfilling, mass burning for energy recovery, production and combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and composting. The report also provides some data on energy, environmental releases, and economics for the following less commonly used options: Anaerobic digestion, coining of RDF with coal, gasification/pyrolysis. Because no commercial anaerobic digestion and gasification/pyrolysis facilities have operated in the United States, the data for these options are based on pilot plant results.

  16. Corner heating in rectangular solid oxide electrochemical cell generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichner, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Disclosed is an improvement in a solid oxide electrochemical cell generator 1 having a rectangular design with four sides that meet at corners, and containing multiplicity of electrically connected fuel cells 11, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen containing gas is passed into said cells, and said fuel is burned to form heat, electricity, and an exhaust gas. The improvement comprises passing the exhaust gases over the multiplicity of cells 11 in such a way that more of the heat in said exhaust gases flows at the corners of the generator, such as through channels 19.

  17. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled ``Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois` and the Midwest`s solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  18. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management'' was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois' and the Midwest's solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  19. Fate of asphaltenes during hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanislaus, A.; Absi-Halabi, M.; Khan, Z.

    1994-12-31

    Formation of coke like sediments or particulates is a serious problem in the hydroprocessing of heavy residues for high conversion. The sediments can cause both operability problems and rapid catalyst deactivation. The macromolecules of the heavy feedstocks such as asphaltenes are believed to contribute significantly to sediment formation and coke deposition. As part of an extensive research program on the factors which influence sludge or solids formation during residue hydroprocessing, the authors have examined the nature of changes that take place in the characteristics of the asphaltenic fraction of Kuwait vacuum residue under different operating conditions. The studies revealed that sediment formation is the result of reduction in solubilization efficiency of asphaltenes in the product medium compared with feedstock. Molecular size distribution of the product asphaltenes showed that operating at high temperatures enhanced depolymerization and fragmentation of asphaltenes to low molecular weight materials. A portion of the low molecular weight asphaltene fragments with relatively low H/C ratio resisted further cracking even at high temperatures and led to the formation of coke like sediments. Large pore catalysts were observed to reduce the problem of sediments formation. The role of catalyst pore size on asphaltenes conversion is discussed.

  20. Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman, LI; Sedlacek, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) was conducted to obtain a better understanding of how aerosols generated from biomass fires affect the atmosphere and climate. It is estimated that 40% of carbonaceous aerosol produced originates from biomass burning—enough to affect regional and global climate. Several biomass-burning studies have focused on tropical climates; however, few campaigns have been conducted within the United States, where millions of acres are burned each year, trending to higher values and greater climate impacts because of droughts in the West. Using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF), the BBOP deployed the Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft over smoke plumes from active wildfire and agricultural burns to help identify the impact of these events and how impacts evolve with time. BBOP was one of very few studies that targeted the near-field time evolution of aerosols and aimed to obtain a process-level understanding of the large changes that occur within a few hours of atmospheric processing.

  1. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  2. RESIDUAL STRESSES IN 3013 CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-11-10

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  3. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; H. Skip Mieney

    2003-06-09

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with piped-in water (Demonstration System A); and Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July through December 2002 under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246 for the 5 kW mass-market automotive (gasoline) auxiliary power unit. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the automotive 5 kW system: Task 1--System Design and Integration; Task 2--Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3--Reformer Developments; Task 4--Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5--Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6--System Fabrication; and Task 7--System Testing.

  4. Savannah River Site "Live Burn" Training Sharpens Skills | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Site "Live Burn" Training Sharpens Skills Tuesday, June 30, 2015 - 1:47pm Live Burn training As part of the training that equips them to ensure safe operations, Savannah River Site radiological protection (RP) and fire department personnel recently conducted their annual "Live Burn" training exercises that simulate fires in facilities with chemical and radiological contamination. The Live Burn exercise took place at the Martinez-Columbia

  5. Effect of air distribution on solid fuel bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, J.T.; Hsu, W.S.; Yo, T.C.

    1996-09-01

    One important aspect of refuse mass-burn combination control is the manipulation of combustion air. Proper air manipulation is key to the achievement of good combustion efficiency and reduction of pollutant emissions. Experiments, using a small fix-grate laboratory furnace with cylindrical combustion chamber, were performed to investigate the influence of undergrate/sidewall air distribution on the combustion of beds of wood cubes. Wood cubes were used as a convenient laboratory surrogate of solid refuse. Specifically, for different bed configurations (e.g. bed height, bed voidage and bed fuel size, etc.), burning rates and combustion temperatures at different bed locations were measured under various air supply and distribution conditions. One of the significant results of the experimental investigation is that combustion, with air injected from side walls and no undergrate air, provide the most efficient combustion. On the other hand, combustion with undergrate air achieves higher combustion rates but with higher CO emissions. A simple one-dimensional model was constructed to derive correlations of combustion rate as functions of flue gas temperature and oxygen concentration. Despite the fact that the model is one dimensional and many detailed chemical and physical processes of combustion are not considered, comparisons of the model predictions and the experimental results indicate that the model is appropriate for quantitative evaluation of bed burning rates.

  6. Process for the retorting of hydrocarbon-containing solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, J.C.; Gaiao, U.; Novicki, R.E.

    1987-11-17

    This patent describes a process for the retorting of hydrocarbon-containing solids, characterized in that it comprises the following steps: (a) contacting the solid particles with superheated steam; (b) transporting, in an upward direction, the mixture obtained in the previous step, at a gas velocity close to the critical impact velocity, through a vertical multi-tube reactor, immersed in a vertical furnace, held at a temperature in the range from 800/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/C; (c) heating the obtained mixture to the solids' pyrolysis temperature, by means of the heat generated by the burning of fuel inside the vertical furnace and supplied to the mixture through the walls of the reactor; (d) removing the products from the reactor, separating the solid phase from the retorting products, by forcing the products to pass through primary and secondary separators; (e) removing the gaseous phase from the retorting products exiting the secondary separator thus effecting a second separation stage, for the obtaining of fuel gas and oil the process further characterized in that spaced static devices are provided within the multi-tube reactor tube, so as to cause the solid particles to come close to the walls of the reactor, as a consequence of the superheated steam flow redistribution in order to increase heat transfer between the vertical furnace and the reactor walls.

  7. Resource recovery from coal residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G. Jr.; Canon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Several processes are being developed to recover metals from coal combustion and conversion residues. Methods to obtain substantial amounts of aluminum, iron, and titanium from these wastes are presented. The primary purpose of our investigation is to find a process that is economically sound or one that at least will partially defray the costs of waste processing. A cursory look at the content of fly ash enables one to see the merits of recovery of these huge quantities of valuable resources. The major constituents of fly ash of most interest are aluminum (14.8%), iron (7.5%), and titanium (1.0%). If these major elements could be recovered from the fly ash produced in the United States (60 million tons/year), bauxite would not have to be imported, iron ore production could be increased, and titanium production could be doubled.

  8. Solid Cold - A

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A. A puzzle, and a surprising solution Take equal masses of lead and aluminum. Heat them ... Among solid materials near room temperature, aluminum and lead differ almost as much as ...

  9. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damask, A.C.

    1959-11-01

    A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

  10. Natural Gamma Emitters after a Selective Chemical Separation of a TENORM residue: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alves de Freitas, Antonio; Abrao, Alcidio; Godoy dos Santos, Adir Janete; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu

    2008-08-07

    An analytical procedure was established in order to obtain selective fractions containing radium isotopes ({sup 228}Ra), thorium ({sup 232}Th), and rare earths from RETOTER (REsiduo de TOrio e TErras Raras), a solid residue rich in rare earth elements, thorium isotopes and small amount of natural uranium generated from the operation of a thorium pilot plant for purification and production of pure thorium nitrate at IPEN -CNEN/SP. The paper presents preliminary results of {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 40}K concentrations in the selective fractions and total residue determined by high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, considering radioactive equilibrium of the samples.

  11. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  12. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  13. Solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  14. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  15. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  16. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, J. Richard

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  17. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gug, JeongIn Cacciola, David Sobkowicz, Margaret J.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  18. ARM - News from the Biomass Burn Observation Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project (BBOP)News from the Biomass Burn Observation Project Related Links BBOP Home Outreach News & Press Backgrounder (PDF, 2.1MB) Images ARM flickr site ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Deployment Operations Airborne Measurements Science Plan (PDF, 2.2MB) BBOP wiki Login Required Data Sets Experiment Planning Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns BBOP Breakout Session, ASR Science Team Meeting, March 2014 BBOP Breakout Session, ASR Science Team Meeting, March 2013 BNL BBOP Website

  19. Uniform DT 3T burn: computations and sensitivities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vold, Erik; Hryniw, Natalia; Hansen, Jon A; Kesler, Leigh A; Li, Frank

    2011-01-27

    A numerical model was developed in C to integrate the nonlinear deutrium-tritium (DT) burn equations in a three temperature (3T) approximation for spatially uniform test problems relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Base model results are in excellent agreement with standard 3T results. Data from NDI, SESAME, and TOPS databases is extracted to create fits for the reaction rate parameter, the Planck opacity, and the coupling frequencies of the plasma temperatures. The impact of different fits (e.g., TOPS versus SESAME opacity data, higher order polynomial fits ofNDI data for the reaction rate parameter) were explored, and sensitivity to several model inputs are presented including: opacity data base, Coulomb logarithm, and Bremsstrahlung. Sensitivity to numerical integration time step size, and the relative insensitivity to the discretized numerics and numerical integration method was demonstrated. Variations in the IC for densities and temperatures were explored, showing similar DT burn profiles in most cases once ignition occurs. A coefficient multiplying the Compton coupling term (default, A = 1) can be adjusted to approximate results from more sophisticated models. The coefficient was reset (A = 0.4) to match the maximum temperatures resulting from standard multi-group simulations of the base case test problem. Setting the coefficient to a larger value, (A = 0.6) matches maximum ion temperatures in a kinetic simulation of a high density ICF-like regime. Matching peak temperatures does not match entire temperature-time profiles, indicating the Compton coefficient is density and time dependent as the photon distribution evolves. In the early time burn during the ignition of the DT, the present model with modified Compton coupling provides a very simple method to obtain a much improved match to the more accurate solution from the multi-group radiation model for these DT burn regimes.

  20. Microsoft Word - Deep-Burn awardee team members _2_.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DEEP-BURN AWARDEES RECIPIENTS RECIPIENT TEAM MEMBERS Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capability R&D for $1 million University of Chicago Argonne Argonne National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lawrence Livermore National Lab University of Michigan Transuranic Management Capabilities R&D for $6.3 million Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC Idaho National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory University of California,

  1. Burning tires for fuel and tire pyrolysis: air implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C.; Meardon, K.; Russell, D.

    1991-12-01

    The document was developed in response to increasing inquiries into the environmental impacts of burning waste tires in process equipment. The document provides information on the use of whole, scrap tires and tire-derived-fuel (TDF) as combustion fuel and on the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The use of whole tires and TDF as a primary fuel is discussed for dedicated tire-to-energy facilities. The use of whole tires and TDF as a supplemental fuel is discussed for cement manufacturing plants, electric utilities, pulp and paper mills, and other industrial processes. The focus of the document is on the impact of burning whole tires and TDF on air emissions. Test data are presented and, in most instances, compared with emissions under baseline conditions (no tires or TDF in the fuel). The control devices used in these industries are discussed and, where possible, their effectiveness in controlling emissions from the burning of whole tires or TDF is described. In addition, the report provides information on the processes themselves that use whole tires or TDF, the modifications to the processes that allowed the use of whole tires or TDF, and the operational experiences of several facilities using whole tires or TDF. The economic feasibility of using whole tires and TDF for the surveyed industries is discussed. Finally, contacts for State waste tire programs are presented.

  2. A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric M. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL; Dutler, S. A. [MAGMA Foundry Technologies, Inc.

    2012-01-01

    Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast

  3. Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, A.M.

    1999-02-10

    This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS).

  4. Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Bauxite Residue and Saline Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, R.M.; Lu, Peng; Allen, D.E.; Soong, Yee; Hedges, S.W.; Fu, J.K.; Dobbs, C.L.; DeGalbo, A.D.; Zhu, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to explore the concept of beneficially utilizing mixtures of caustic bauxite residue slurry (pH 13) and produced oil-field brine to sequester carbon dioxide from flue gas generated from industrial point sources. Data presented herein provide a preliminary assessment of the overall feasibility of this treatment concept. The Carbonation capacity of bauxite residue/brine mixtures was considered over the full range of reactant mixture combinations in 10% increments by volume. A bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume exhibited a CO2 sequestration capacity of greater than 9.5 g/L when exposed to pure CO2 at 20 °C and 0.689 MPa (100 psig). Dawsonite and calcite formation were predicted to be the dominant products of bauxite/brine mixture carbonation. It is demonstrated that CO2 sequestration is augmented by adding bauxite residue as a caustic agent to acidic brine solutions and that trapping is accomplished through both mineralization and solubilization. The product mixture solution was, in nearly all mixtures, neutralized following carbonation. However, in samples (bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume) containing bauxite residue solids, the pH was observed to gradually increase to as high as 9.7 after aging for 33 days, suggesting that the CO2 sequestration capacity of the samples increases with aging. Our geochemical models generally predicted the experimental results of carbon sequestration capacities and solution pH.

  5. Long-term risk stabilization of the Rocky Flats Plant residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melberg, T.A.

    1994-12-31

    The liquid and solid residues continue to be a concern at Rocky Flats, primarily due to safety aspects of long-term storage and of the need for processing them into a form for ultimate disposal. Currently, Rocky Flats is processing the low-level solutions from bottles and tanks by direct cementation for storage and disposal. Plans for actinide precipitation of the high-level solutions are being finalized with an anticipated completion date of 2 to 3 yr. The solid residues present a more difficult challenge because of the numerous forms that these exist. Rocky Flats is developing several strategies to handle these materials for safe long-term storage and eventual disposal.

  6. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.; Shine, E. P.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  7. A clean-burning biofuel as a response to adverse impacts of woodsmoke and coalsmoke on Navajo health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shultz, E.B. Jr.; Bragg, W.G.; Whittier, J.

    1994-12-31

    Because over 60% of Navajo households are heated with woodfuel and coal, and indoor air pollution from woodsmoke and coalsmoke is problematic, most Navajos are probably at risk of respiratory and other smoke-induced illnesses. A previous study has shown that Navajo children living in homes heated by a wood/coal stove are nearly five times more likely to contract acute lower respiratory tract infections than children from homes that do not use those fuels. Stove and flue improvements to reduce leakage of smoke into the home would help. So would clean-burning solid fuels in replacement of woodfuel and coal. The authors describe a clean-burning fast-growing carbohydrate biofuel, prepared by sun-drying the roots of a wild southwestern gourd plant, Cucurbita foetidissima. They call it {open_quotes}rootfuel.{close_quotes} A test plot is growing during the 1994 season at the NMSU Agricultural Science Center on the Navajo Nation, near Farmington, New Mexico. Irrigation requirements are being measured. In the Fall, a preliminary needs assessment will be conducted to learn more about how fuel usage impacts Navajo health. The acceptability of rootfuel in selected homes will be tested during the upcoming heating season.

  8. Solid handling valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, William R.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a solids handling valve for use in combination with lock hoppers utilized for conveying pulverized coal to a coal gasifier. The valve comprises a fluid-actuated flow control piston disposed within a housing and provided with a tapered primary seal having a recessed seat on the housing and a radially expandable fluid-actuated secondary seal. The valve seals are highly resistive to corrosion, erosion and abrasion by the solids, liquids, and gases associated with the gasification process so as to minimize valve failure.

  9. Solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  10. Recovery of Plutonium from Refractory Residues Using a Sodium Peroxide Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2003-10-23

    The recycle of plutonium from refractory residues is a necessary activity for the nuclear weapon production complex. Traditionally, high-fired plutonium oxide (PuO2) was leached from the residue matrix using a nitric acid/fluoride dissolving flowsheet. The recovery operations were time consuming and often required multiple contacts with fresh dissolving solution to reduce the plutonium concentration to levels where residual solids could be discarded. Due to these drawbacks, the development of an efficient process for the recovery of plutonium from refractory materials is desirable. To address this need, a pretreatment process was developed. The development program utilized a series of small-scale experiments to optimize processing conditions for the fusion process and demonstrate the plutonium recovery efficiency using ceramic materials developed as potential long-term storage forms for PuO2 and an incinerator ash from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) as te st materials.

  11. TEM Characterization of High Burn-up Microstructure of U-7Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Gan; Brandon Miller; Dennis Keiser; Adam Robinson; James Madden; Pavel Medvedev; Daniel Wachs

    2014-04-01

    As an essential part of global nuclear non-proliferation effort, the RERTR program is developing low enriched U-Mo fuels (< 20% U-235) for use in research and test reactors that currently employ highly enriched uranium fuels. One type of fuel being developed is a dispersion fuel plate comprised of U-7Mo particles dispersed in Al alloy matrix. Recent TEM characterizations of the ATR irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates include the samples with a local fission densities of 4.5, 5.2, 5.6 and 6.3 E+21 fissions/cm3 and irradiation temperatures of 101-136?C. The development of the irradiated microstructure of the U-7Mo fuel particles consists of fission gas bubble superlattice, large gas bubbles, solid fission product precipitates and their association to the large gas bubbles, grain subdivision to tens or hundreds of nanometer size, collapse of bubble superlattice, and amorphisation. This presentation will describe the observed microstructures specifically focusing on the U-7Mo fuel particles. The impact of the observed microstructure on the fuel performance and the comparison of the relevant features with that of the high burn-up UO2 fuels will be discussed.

  12. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable

  13. New short contact time processes upgrade residual oils and heavy crudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-12

    This paper reports on new short contact time carbon rejection technology developed for upgrading residual oils and converting heavier crudes into high-quality synthetic crudes. The process, called discriminatory destructive distillation, or 3D, has been demonstrated in a Kansas refinery on feedstocks ranging from 13.5 to 30.6{degrees} API. For the past year, Coastal Derby Refining Co. has been operating a revolutionary, according to Bartholic, circulating fluid solids processing apparatus that can be run as either a 3D process unit, to virtually eliminate the residual oil component of crude, or as an MSCC process unit, to upgrade VGO residual oils. Because both of these processes circulate a fluid solid in a manner similar to the well known and commercially accepted fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process, existing FCC-type units can be easily and economically converted to either 3D or MSCC operation. The 3D process is a low-pressure, carbon-rejection residual oil treating process for preparation of gas oils for fluid catalytic cracking (or MSCC), hydrotreating, mild hydrocracking, or full hydrocracking, says Bartholic. The process is also applicable, he says to upgrading heavy crudes or tar sands bitumen to high-quality reconstituted crudes for world markets.

  14. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garbe, James E.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Hamrock, Steven J.; Le, Dinh Ba

    2001-01-01

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  15. Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-03-30

    The article discusses solid state lighting technologies. This topic was covered in two previous ASHRAE Journal columns (2010). This article covers advancements in technologies and the associated efficacies. The life-cycle, energy savings and market potential of these technologies are addressed as well.

  16. Results of Characterization and Retrieval Testing on Tank 241-C-109 Heel Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, William S.

    2013-09-26

    Eight samples of heel solids from tank 241-C-109 were delivered to the 222-S Laboratory for characterization and dissolution testing. After being drained thoroughly, one-half to two-thirds of the solids were off-white to tan solids that, visually, were fairly evenly graded in size from coarse silt (30-60 μm) to medium pebbles (8-16 mm). The remaining solids were mostly strongly cemented aggregates ranging from coarse pebbles (16-32 mm) to fine cobbles (6-15 cm) in size. Solid phase characterization and chemical analysis indicated that the air-dry heel solids contained ≈58 wt% gibbsite [Al(OH){sub 3}] and ≈37 wt% natrophosphate [Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}·19H{sub 2}O]. The strongly cemented aggregates were mostly fine-grained gibbsite cemented with additional gibbsite. Dissolution testing was performed on two test samples. One set of tests was performed on large pieces of aggregate solids removed from the heel solids samples. The other set of dissolution tests was performed on a composite sample prepared from well-drained, air-dry heel solids that were crushed to pass a 1/4-in. sieve. The bulk density of the composite sample was 2.04 g/mL. The dissolution tests included water dissolution followed by caustic dissolution testing. In each step of the three-step water dissolution tests, a volume of water approximately equal to 3 times the initial volume of the test solids was added. In each step, the test samples were gently but thoroughly mixed for approximately 2 days at an average ambient temperature of 25 °C. The caustic dissolution tests began with the addition of sufficient 49.6 wt% NaOH to the water dissolution residues to provide ≈3.1 moles of OH for each mole of Al estimated to have been present in the starting composite sample and ≈2.6 moles of OH for each mole of Al potentially present in the starting aggregate sample. Metathesis of gibbsite to sodium aluminate was then allowed to proceed over 10 days of gentle mixing of the

  17. Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits Long-haul truck drivers perform a vitally important service. In the course of their work, they must take rest periods as required by federal law. Most drivers remain in their trucks, which they keep running to provide power for heating, cooling, and other necessities. Such idling, however, comes at a cost; it is an expensive and polluting way to keep drivers safe and comfortable. Increasingly affordable alternatives to idling not only save money and reduce

  18. Boiler efficiency calculation for multiple fuel burning boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khodabakhsh, F.; Munukutla, S.; Clary, A.T.

    1996-12-31

    A rigorous method based on the output/loss approach is developed for calculating the coal flow rate for multiple fuel burning boilers. It is assumed that the ultimate analyses of all the fuels are known. In addition, it is assumed that the flow rates of all the fuels with the exception of coal are known. The calculations are performed iteratively, with the first iteration taking into consideration coal as the only fuel. The results converge to the correct answer after a few number of iterations, typically four or five.

  19. A Midsize Tokamak As Fast Track To Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Mazzucato

    2010-07-14

    This paper presents a midsize tokamak as a fast track to the investigation of burning plasmas. It is shown that it could reach large values of energy gain (?10) with only a modest improvement in confinement over the scaling that was used for designing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This could be achieved by operating in a low plasma recycling regime that experiments indicate can lead to improved plasma confinement. The possibility of reaching the necessary conditions of low recycling using a more efficient magnetic divertor than those of present tokamaks is discussed.

  20. Development of a trial burn plan for a mixed waste fluidized bed incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kabot, F.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the more important elements of the incinerator permitting process under RCRA is the development of the Trial Burn Plan. This document describes the incinerator and defines the incinerator's process envelope within which the trial burns will be conducted. The data obtained during the trial burns will be the basis for the incinerator's operating permit. This paper describes the development of the Trial Burn Plan for a unique fluidized bed incinerator to be used for the incineration of hazardous and mixed wastes at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant. It describes a review process of the Trial Burn Plan involving a public comment period that actually preceded the trial burns. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  1. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment for the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit (631-6G), Volume 1 Final

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    The Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site were usually shallow excavations approximately 3 to 4 meters in depth. Operations at the pits consisted of collecting waste on a continuous basis and burning on a monthly basis. The Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631- 6G (BRP6G) was constructed in 1951 as an unlined earthen pit in surficial sediments for disposal of paper, lumber, cans and empty galvanized steel drums. The unit may have received other materials such as plastics, rubber, rags, cardboard, oil, degreasers, or drummed solvents. The BRP6G was operated from 1951 until 1955. After disposal activities ceased, the area was covered with soil. Hazardous substances, if present, may have migrated into the surrounding soil and/or groundwater. Because of this possibility, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated the BRP6G as a Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) subject to the Resource Conservation Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) process.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS TO ESTIMATE ACCUMULATED SOLIDS IN NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.; Steeper, T.; Steimke, J.

    2012-12-10

    The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream; Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel; Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas; Laser rangefinders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds; Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds; Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities were low. These

  3. Solid Phase Characterization of Solids Recovered from Failed Sluicer Arm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Gary A.

    2015-03-09

    The Enclosure to this memo discusses the solid phase characterization of a solid sample that was retrieved from the single-shell Tank 241-C-111 extended reach sluicer #2. This sluicer, removed from riser #3 on September 25, 2014, was found to have approximately 0.4 gallons of solid tank waste adhering to the nozzle area.

  4. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Burns & McDonnell - Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engineering Services, LLC - September 2015 | Department of Energy Burns & McDonnell - Facility Engineering Services, LLC - September 2015 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Burns & McDonnell - Facility Engineering Services, LLC - September 2015 September 2015 Recertification of FES as a Star Participant in the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program. This report summarizes the results from the evaluation of Burns & McDonnell - Facility Engineering Services, LLC

  5. Edge remap for solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C.; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-12-01

    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  6. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  7. Municipal Solid Waste:

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy May 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be

  8. Solid Fuels Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid Fuels Conversion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  9. Solid phase extraction membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  10. Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Solid Mechanics Basic and applied research in theoretical continuum dynamics, modern hydrodynamic theory, materials modeling, global climate modeling, numerical...

  11. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich; Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich

    2002-04-30

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  12. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, Bernard D.

    1987-01-01

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  13. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, B.D.

    1986-02-24

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the

  15. ,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by Sales Type"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Average",2,"Monthly","52016","115... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Residual Fuel Oil Average" "Sourcekey","EMAEPPRPTANUS...

  16. Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co., Ltd. Place: Nanping City, Fujian Province, China Zip: 365001 Sector:...

  17. Chemical stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemical stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemical stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste Authors: Cantrell, Kirk J. ; ...

  18. Indentation Based Techniques to Measure Residual Stresses in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to Measure Residual Stresses in Engineering Ceramics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Indentation Based Techniques to Measure Residual Stresses in Engineering Ceramics. ...

  19. Analysis of the Tank 5F Feed and Bleed Residual Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.; Diprete, D.: Coleman, C.; Washington, A.

    2011-07-07

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. As part of Tank 5F Closure Mechanical Cleaning, SRR conducted a 'Feed and Bleed' process in Tank 5F. Following this 'Feed and Bleed' Mechanical Cleaning in Tank 5F, SRR collected two tank heel samples (referred to as sample 1 and sample 2) under Riser 5 to determine the composition of the material remaining in the tanks. This document describes sample analysis results. The conclusions from this analysis follow. (1) The anions measured all had a concentration less than 250 mg/kg, except for oxalate, which had a concentration of 2100-2400 mg/kg. (2) The measured cations with the highest concentration were iron (432,000-519,000 mg/kg), nickel (54,600-69,300 mg/kg), and manganese (35,200-42,100 mg/kg). All other cations measured less than 13,000 mg/kg. (3) The radionuclides present in the highest concentration are {sup 90}Sr (3.0 x 10{sup 10} dpm/g), {sup 137}Cs (6.8 x 10{sup 8} dpm/g), and {sup 241}Am (1.4 x 10{sup 8} - 1.8 x 10{sup 8} dpm/g). (4) The particle size analysis shows a large fraction of particles greater than 100 {micro}.

  20. Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2006-03-15

    Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

  1. Immobilization of Rocky Flats graphite fines residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S.; Marra, J.C.; Peeler, D.K.

    1999-07-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is developing an immobilization process for graphite fines residues generated during nuclear materials production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats). The continued storage of this material has been identified as an item of concern. The residue was generated during the cleaning of graphite casting molds and potentially contains reactive plutonium metal. The average residue composition is 73 wt% graphite, 15 wt% calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and 12 wt% plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Approximately 950 kg of this material are currently stored at Rocky Flats. The strategy of the immobilization process is to microencapsulate the residue by mixing with a sodium borosilicate (NBS) glass frit and heating at nominally 700 C. The resulting waste form would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Since the PuO{sub 2} concentration in the residue averages 12 wt%, the immobilization process was required to meet the intent of safeguards termination criteria by limiting plutonium recoverability based on a test developed by Rocky Flats. The test required a plutonium recovery of less than 4 g/kg of waste form when a sample was leached using a nitric acid/CaF{sub 2} dissolution flowsheet. Immobilization experiments were performed using simulated graphite fines with cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) as a surrogate for PuO{sub 2} and with actual graphite fines residues. Small-scale surrogate experiments demonstrated that a 4:1 frit to residue ratio was adequate to prevent recovery of greater than 4 g/kg of cerium from simulated waste forms. Additional experiments investigated the impact of varying concentrations of CaF{sub 2} and the temperature/heating time cycle on the cerium recovery. Optimal processing conditions developed during these experiments were subsequently demonstrated at full-scale with surrogate materials and on a smaller scale using actual graphite fines.

  2. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  3. Method for producing synthetic fuels from solid waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Antal, Jr., Michael J.

    1976-11-23

    Organic solid wastes represented by the general chemical formula C.sub.X H.sub.Y O.sub.Z are reacted with steam at elevated temperatures to produce H.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. The overall process is represented by the reaction C.sub.X H.sub.Y O.sub.Z + 2(X-Z/2)H.sub.2 O.fwdarw..sup..delta.XCO.sub.2 + [(Y/2) + 2(X-Z/2)] H.sub.2 . (1) reaction (1) is endothermic and requires heat. This heat is supplied by a tower top solar furnace; alternatively, some of the solid wastes can be burned to supply heat for the reaction. The hydrogen produced by reaction (1) can be used as a fuel or a chemical feedstock. Alternatively, methanol can be produced by the commercial process CO.sub.2 + 3H.sub.2 .fwdarw. CH.sub.3 OH + H.sub.2 O . (2) since reaction (1) is endothermic, the system represents a method for storing heat energy from an external source in a chemical fuel produced from solid wastes.

  4. Solids precipitation and polymerization of asphaltenes in coal-derived liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kydd, Paul H.

    1984-01-01

    The precipitation and removal of particulate solids from coal-derived liquids by adding a process-derived anti-solvent liquid fraction and continuing the precipitation process at a temperature above the melting point of the mixed liquids for sufficient time to allow the asphaltenes to polymerize and solids to settle at atmospheric pressure conditions. The resulting clarified light hydrocarbon overflow liquid contains less than about 0.02 W % ash and is suitable as turbine fuel or as boiler fuel for burning without particulate emission control equipment. An underflow liquid fraction containing less than about 0.1 W % solids along with low sulfur and nitrogen concentrations is suitable as a boiler fuel with emission control equipment.

  5. Nonisothermal particle modeling of municipal solid waste combustion with heavy metal vaporization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazza, G.; Falcoz, Q.; Gauthier, D.; Flamant, G.; Soria, J.

    2010-12-15

    A particulate model was developed for municipal solid-waste incineration in a fluidized bed combining solid-waste-particle combustion and heavy metal vaporization from the burning particles. Based on a simpler, isothermal version presented previously, this model combines an asymptotic-combustion model for carbonaceous-solid combustion and a shrinking-core model to describe the heavy metal vaporization phenomenon, in which the particle is now considered nonisothermal. A parametric study is presented that shows the influence of temperature on the global metal-vaporization process. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained with a lab-scale fluid bed incinerator and to the results of the simpler isothermal model. It is shown that conduction in the particle strongly affects the variation of the vaporization rate with time and that the present version of the model well fits both the shape of the plots and the maximum heavy metal vaporization rates for all bed temperatures. (author)

  6. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S. . Rocky Flats Plant); Rivera, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

  7. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S.; Rivera, M.A.

    1993-03-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

  8. Solid state optical microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  9. Solid state optical microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  10. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  11. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Chung, Brandon W.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  12. Kinetic calculations of explosives with slow-burning constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, W.M.; Souers, P.C.; Pried, L.E.

    1997-07-01

    The equilibrium thermochemical code CHEETAH V 1.40 has been modified to detonate part of the explosive and binder. An Einstein thermal description of the unreacted constituents is used, and the Einstein temperature may be increased to reduce heat absorption. We study the effect of the reactivity and thermal transport on the detonation velocity. Hydroxy-terminated-polybutadiene binders have low energy and density and would degrade the detonation velocity if they burned. Runs with unburned binder are closer to the measured values. Aluminum and ammonium Perchlorate are also largely unburned within the sonic reaction zone that determines the detonation velocity. All three materials appear not to fully absorb heat as well. The normal assumption of total reaction in a thermochemical code is clearly not true for these special cases, where the detonation velocities have widely different values for different combinations of processes.

  13. Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haines, Leland Milburn

    2002-02-19

    An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

  14. Trash burns, turns into $120,000 in annual savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, W.A.

    1981-09-01

    A plan was developed to generate a major portion of the energy required for heating and air conditioning by burning factory trash instead of using natural gas and electricity. Trash from the Rockwell Int'l. plant, including broken wood pallets, cardboard packing materials and office waste paper, amounted to 1,000 tons per year. Previously, a contractor was being paid to come to the plant several times a week, pick up the trash and haul it to a landfill. To supplement the 1,000 tons of usable waste generated by the plant annually, the additional 500 tons of similar trash needed to operate the system are received from other industries in the vicinity. Besides accepting waste from other plants, the Marysville facility stockpiles and uses refuse corn stalks harvested from 50 acres of Rockwell-owned land adjacent to the plant. The incinerator featuring a pyrolytic heat recovery system is presented and its operation is illustrated.

  15. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1985-02-12

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  16. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  17. AmeriFlux US-An2 Anaktuvuk River Moderate Burn

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hobbie, John [Marine Biological Laboratory; Rocha, Adrian [Marine Biological Laboratory; Shaver, Gaius [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-An2 Anaktuvuk River Moderate Burn. Site Description - The Anaktuvuk River fire on the North Slope of Alaska started on July 16, 2007 by lightning. It continued until the end of September when nearby lakes had already frozen over and burned >256,000 acres, creating a mosaic of patches that differed in burn severity. The Anaktuvuk River Severe Burn, Moderate Burn, and Unburned sites are 40 km to the west of the nearest road and were selected in late May 2008 to determine the effects of the fire on carbon, water, and energy exchanges during the growing season. Because the fire had burned through September of the previous year, initial deployment of flux towers occurred prior to any significant vegetative regrowth, and our sampling campaign captured the full growing season in 2008. The Moderate Burn site consisted of a large area with small patches of completely and partially burned tundra intermixed across the landscape.

  18. Microstructural Characterization of High Burn-up Mixed Oxide Fast Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melissa C. Teague; Brian P. Gorman; Steven L. Hayes; Douglas L. Porter; Jeffrey King

    2013-10-01

    High burn-up mixed oxide fuel with local burn-ups of 3.423.7% FIMA (fissions per initial metal atom) were destructively examined as part of a research project to understand the performance of oxide fuel at extreme burn-ups. Optical metallography of fuel cross-sections measured the fuel-to-cladding gap, clad thickness, and central void evolution in the samples. The fuel-to-cladding gap closed significantly in samples with burn-ups below 79% FIMA. Samples with burn-ups in excess of 79% FIMA had a reopening of the fuel-to-cladding gap and evidence of joint oxide-gain (JOG) formation. Signs of axial fuel migration to the top of the fuel column were observed in the fuel pin with a peak burn-up of 23.7% FIMA. Additionally, high burn-up structure (HBS) was observed in the two highest burn-up samples (23.7% and 21.3% FIMA). The HBS layers were found to be 35 times thicker than the layers found in typical LWR fuel. The results of the study indicate that formation of JOG and or HBS prevents any significant fuel-cladding mechanical interaction from occurring, thereby extending the potential life of the fuel elements.

  19. H. R. 2670: A bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to regulate ash from municipal solid waste incinerators as a hazardous waste, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, June 18, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on June 18, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste disposal Act to regulate ash from municipal solid waste incinerators as a hazardous waste. When garbage is burned, toxic materials are concentrated in the ash. If the ash is disposed of in a landfill, these toxic materials can contaminate the ground water or surface water by leaching toxic materials from the ash. In addition, disposing of contaminated ash improperly can pose a health hazard. New authority is provided for regulating incinerator ash as a hazardous waste.

  20. Final Hazard Classification for the FFTF Solid Waste Cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HIMES, D.A.

    2002-07-03

    The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) (a major component of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) spent fuel offload system) is a shielded, bottom-loading cask containing an internal hoist system used to transfer irradiated fuel or non-fuel components from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell (IEM Cell) to the Cask Loading Station (CLS). The SWC is assumed to be loaded with 7 irradiated fuel assemblies in a Core Component Container (CCC) having maximum average burn-ups of 150,000 MWd/MTHM. Results show that the fuel handling activities with the SWC loaded with 7 irradiated fuel assemblies in a CCC should be classified as a Category 3 hazard. This conclusion is consistent with the relative simplicity of the system and passive nature of the barriers for purposes of determining the graded approach specified in DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE 1992).

  1. System and method for measuring residual stress

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prime, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a method and system for determining the residual stress within an elastic object. In the method, an elastic object is cut along a path having a known configuration. The cut creates a portion of the object having a new free surface. The free surface then deforms to a contour which is different from the path. Next, the contour is measured to determine how much deformation has occurred across the new free surface. Points defining the contour are collected in an empirical data set. The portion of the object is then modeled in a computer simulator. The points in the empirical data set are entered into the computer simulator. The computer simulator then calculates the residual stress along the path which caused the points within the object to move to the positions measured in the empirical data set. The calculated residual stress is then presented in a useful format to an analyst.

  2. Intermediate-Scale High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion System Operational Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivard, C. J.

    1995-02-01

    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. During the first 1.5 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements, which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using ,the NREL high-solids digester design are detailed in this report.

  3. Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012 Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012 July 22-27, 2012; Napa...

  4. Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012 Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012 July 22-27, 2012; Napa

  5. Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Bauxite Residue and Saline Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, Robert; Lu, Peng; Allen, Douglas; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila; Fu, Jaw K.; Dobbs, Charles L.; Degalbo, Angelo; Zhu, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to explore the concept of beneficially utilizing mixtures of caustic bauxite residue slurry (pH 13) and produced oil-field brine to sequester carbon dioxide from flue gas generated from industrial point sources. Data presented herein provide a preliminary assessment of the overall feasibility of this treatment concept. The Carbonation capacity of bauxite residue/brine mixtures was considered over the full range of reactant mixture combinations in 10% increments by volume. A bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume exhibited a CO2 sequestration capacity of greater than 9.5 g/L when exposed to pure CO2 at 20 C and 0.689 MPa (100 psig). Dawsonite and calcite formation were predicted to be the dominant products of bauxite/brine mixture carbonation. It is demonstrated that CO2 sequestration is augmented by adding bauxite residue as a caustic agent to acidic brine solutions and that trapping is accomplished through both mineralization and solubilization. The product mixture solution was, in nearly all mixtures, neutralized following carbonation. However, in samples (bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume) containing bauxite residue solids, the pH was observed to gradually increase to as high as 9.7 after aging for 33 days, suggesting that the CO2 sequestration capacity of the samples increases with aging. Our geochemical models generally predicted the experimental results of carbon sequestration capacities and solution pH.

  6. Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Bauxite Residue and Saline Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, Robert; Lu, Peng; Allen, Douglas; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila; Fu, Jaw K.; Dobbs, Charles L.; Degalbo, Angelo; Zhu, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to explore the concept of beneficially utilizing mixtures of caustic bauxite residue slurry (pH 13) and produced oil-field brine to sequester carbon dioxide from flue gas generated from industrial point sources. Data presented herein provide a preliminary assessment of the overall feasibility of this treatment concept. The Carbonation capacity of bauxite residue/brine mixtures was considered over the full range of reactant mixture combinations in 10% increments by volume. A bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume exhibited a CO2 sequestration capacity of greater than 9.5 g/L when exposed to pure CO2 at 20º C and 0.689 MPa (100 psig). Dawsonite and calcite formation were predicted to be the dominant products of bauxite/brine mixture carbonation. It is demonstrated that CO2 sequestration is augmented by adding bauxite residue as a caustic agent to acidic brine solutions and that trapping is accomplished through both mineralization and solubilization. The product mixture solution was, in nearly all mixtures, neutralized following carbonation. However, in samples (bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume) containing bauxite residue solids, the pH was observed to gradually increase to as high as 9.7 after aging for 33 days, suggesting that the CO2 sequestration capacity of the samples increases with aging. Our geochemical models generally predicted the experimental results of carbon sequestration capacities and solution pH.

  7. Results of Characterization and Retrieval Testing on Tank 241-C-110 Heel Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, William S.

    2013-09-30

    dissolution tests. Most of the {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs present in the initial heel solids composites was removed in the water dissolution tests. The estimated activities/weights of {sup 129}I, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U in the dry residual solids were <25% of the weights/activities in the initial composite solids. Gibbsite and nordstrandite [both Al(OH){sub 3}] were the major solid phases identified in the solids remaining after completion of the dissolution tests. Chemical analysis indicated that the residual solids may have contained up to 62 wt% Al(OH){sub 3}. Significant quantities of unidentified phosphate-, iron-, bismuth-, silicon-, and strontium- bearing species were also present in the residual solids. The reference density of gibbsite (and nordstrandite) is 2.42 g/mL. The measured density of the residual solids, 2.65 g/mL, would be a reasonable value for solids containing gibbsite as the major component with minor quantities of other, higher density solids. Sieve analysis indicated that 22.2 wt% of the residual solids were discrete particles >710 μm in size, and 77.8 wt% were particulates <710 μm in size. Light-scattering measurements suggested that nearly all of the <710-μm particulates with diameters >12 μm were weakly bound aggregates of particles with diameters <2 μm. The <710-μm residual solids settled very slowly when dispersed in reagent water. The physical appearance of a suspension containing ≈0.4 vol% of the solids in pure water changed very little over a period of 46.5 hours. It should be noted that the distribution of particle sizes in the residual solids and the observed settling behavior were both strongly influenced by the procedures followed in the dissolution tests.

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  9. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  10. Upgrading petroleum residues and heavy oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Here is an in-depth look at current techniques for converting heavy oils and residues into more valuable distillates. It examines the chemistry of heavy hydrocarbon feeds and their properties which are important to engineering design, including phase behavior, reaction kinetics, and thermodynamic and transport characteristics.

  11. Solids feeder apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention sets forth a double-acting piston, which carries a floating piston, and which is reciprocated in a housing, for feeding coal to a high pressure gasifier system. The housing has a plurality of solids (for instance: coal) in-feeding ports and a single discharge port, the latter port being in communication with a high pressure gasifier system. The double-acting piston sequentially and individually communicates each of the in-feeding ports with the discharge port. The floating piston both seals off the discharge port while each in-feeding port is receiving coal or the like, to prevent undue escape of gas from the gasifier system, and translates in the housing, following a discharge of coal or the like into the discharge port, to return gas which has been admitted into the housing back into the gasifier system.

  12. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  13. Solid State Magnetocaloric Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Laboratory 2 Cooling Effect: Solid State Magnetocaloric Air Conditioner T cold T ... and fabricate permanent magnets Communications: * Abstract accepted for the Purdue ...

  14. Solid-State Lighting Webcasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-16

    Links to past webcast presentations related to solid-state lighting, including presentation slides and question-and-answer sessions, where available.

  15. Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T. S.

    1998-11-06

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is developing an immobilization process for graphite fines residues generated during nuclear materials production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats). The continued storage of this material has been identified as an item of concern. The residue was generated during the cleaning of graphite casting molds and potentially contains reactive plutonium metal. The average residue composition is 73 wt percent graphite, 15 wt percent calcium fluoride (CaF2), and 12 wt percent plutonium oxide (PuO2). Approximately 950 kilograms of this material are currently stored at Rocky Flats. The strategy of the immobilization process is to microencapsulate the residue by mixing with a sodium borosilicate (NBS) glass frit and heating at nominally 700 degrees C. The resulting waste form would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Since the PuO2 concentration in the residue averages 12 wt percent, the immobilization process was required to meet the intent of safeguards termination criteria by limiting plutonium recoverability based on a test developed by Rocky Flats. The test required a plutonium recovery of less than 4 g/kg of waste form when a sample was leached using a nitric acid/CaF2 dissolution flowsheet. Immobilization experiments were performed using simulated graphite fines with cerium oxide (CeO2) as a surrogate for PuO2 and with actual graphite fines residues. Small-scale surrogate experiments demonstrated that a 4:1 frit to residue ratio was adequate to prevent recovery of greater than 4 g/kg of cerium from simulated waste forms. Additional experiments investigated the impact of varying concentrations of CaF2 and the temperature/heating time cycle on the cerium recovery. Optimal processing conditions developed during these experiments were subsequently demonstrated at full-scale with surrogate materials and on a smaller scale using actual graphite fines.In general, the

  16. Method and apparatus for monitoring characteristics of a flow path having solid components flowing therethrough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Svoboda, John M.; Bauer, William F.; Elias, Gracy

    2008-05-06

    A method and apparatus is provided for monitoring a flow path having plurality of different solid components flowing therethrough. For example, in the harvesting of a plant material, many factors surrounding the threshing, separating or cleaning of the plant material and may lead to the inadvertent inclusion of the component being selectively harvested with residual plant materials being discharged or otherwise processed. In accordance with the present invention the detection of the selectively harvested component within residual materials may include the monitoring of a flow path of such residual materials by, for example, directing an excitation signal toward of flow path of material and then detecting a signal initiated by the presence of the selectively harvested component responsive to the excitation signal. The detected signal may be used to determine the presence or absence of a selected plant component within the flow path of residual materials.

  17. Incineration of residue from paint stripping operations using plastic media blasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helt, J.E.; Mallya, N.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary investigation has been performed on the environmental consequences of incinerating plastic-media-blasting (PMB) wastes from plant removal operations. PMB is similar to sandblasting although blasting taken place at a much lower pressure. The blasted media can be recovered and recycled several times, but ultimately a residue of paint dust/chips and attrited media dust are left for disposal. This residue is a dry solid that may potentially be classified as a hazardous waste. One possible alternative to depositing the waste residue directly into a hazardous waste landfill is incineration. Incineration would provide desirable volume reduction. However, the fate of heavy metals from the entrained paint waste is not known. Samples of PMB residue were combusted at temperatures between 690/degree/C and 815/degree/C with approximately 125% of the stoichiometric air. The ash remaining after combustion was then analyzed for heavy metal content and tested for leachability using the EPA toxicity characteristics leaching procedures (TCLP). 6 refs., 7 tabs.

  18. AmeriFlux US-An1 Anaktuvuk River Severe Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbie, John; Rocha, Adrian; Shaver, Gaius

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-An1 Anaktuvuk River Severe Burn. Site Description - The Anaktuvuk River fire on the North Slope of Alaska started on July 16, 2007 by lightning. It continued until the end of September when nearby lakes had already frozen over and burned >256,000 acres, creating a mosaic of patches that differed in burn severity. The Anaktuvuk River Severe Burn, Moderate Burn, and Unburned sites are 40 km to the west of the nearest road and were selected in late May 2008 to determine the effects of the fire on carbon, water, and energy exchanges during the growing season. Because the fire had burned through September of the previous year, initial deployment of flux towers occurred prior to any significant vegetative regrowth, and our sampling campaign captured the full growing season in 2008. The Severe Burn site consisted of a large area in which all of the green vegetation were consumed in the fire and some of the organic matter had burnt to the mineral soil in many places. A bear damaged the tower during the last week of August 2008, and it was repaired shortly after.

  19. Measurement of adiabatic burning velocity in natural gas-like mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratna Kishore, V.; Duhan, Nipun; Ravi, M.R.; Ray, Anjan

    2008-10-15

    Experimental measurements of the adiabatic burning velocities were carried out for natural gas-like mixtures burning in air over a range of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure. Effect of CO{sub 2} dilution up to 60%, N{sub 2} dilution up to 40% and 25% enrichment of ethane on burning velocity of methane-air flames were studied. Heat flux method with setup similar to that of [K.J. Bosschaart, L.P.H. de Goey, Detailed analysis of the heat flux method for measuring burning velocity, Combustion and Flame 132 (2003) 170-180] was used for measurement of burning velocities. Initially experiments were done for methane-air and ethane-air mixtures at various equivalence ratios and the results were in good agreement with published data in the literature. Computations were performed using PREMIX code with GRI 3.0 reaction mechanism for all the mixtures. Predicted flame structures were used to the explain the effect of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} dilution on burning velocity of methane-air flames. Peak burning velocity for CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}-air mixtures occur near to {phi} = 1.0. (author)

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at selected burning grounds at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, B.W.; Minor, L.K.M.; Flucas, B.J.

    1998-02-01

    A commercial immunoassay field test (IFT) was used to rapidly assess the total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil at selected burning grounds within the explosives corridor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Results were compared with analyses obtained from LANL Analytical Laboratory and from a commercial laboratory. Both used the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Methods 8270 and 8310. EPA`s Method 8270 employs gas chromatography and mass spectral analyses, whereas EPA`s Method 8310 uses an ultraviolet detector in a high-performance liquid chromatography procedure. One crude oil sample and one diesel fuel sample, analyzed by EPA Method 8270, were included for references. On an average the IFT results were lower for standard samples and lower than the analytical laboratory results for the unknown samples. Sites were selected to determine whether the PAHs came from the material burned or the fuel used to ignite the burn, or whether they are produced by a high-temperature chemical reaction during the burn. Even though the crude oil and diesel fuel samples did contain measurable quantities of PAHs, there were no significant concentrations of PAHs detected in the ashes and soil at the burning grounds. Tests were made on fresh soil and ashes collected after a large burn and on aged soil and ashes known to have been at the site more than three years. Also analyzed were twelve-year-old samples from an inactive open burn cage.

  1. New Albany shale flash pyrolysis under hot-recycled-solid conditions: Chemistry and kinetics, II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, T.T.; Morris, C.J.

    1990-11-01

    The authors are continuing a study of recycle retorting of eastern and western oil shales using burnt shale as the solid heat carrier. Stripping of adsorbed oil from solid surfaces rather than the primary pyrolysis of kerogen apparently controls the release rate of the last 10--20% of hydrocarbons. Thus, the desorption rate defines the time necessary for oil recovery from a retort and sets the minimum hold-time in the pyrolyzer. A fluidized-bed oil shale retort resembles a fluidized-bed cat cracker in this respect. Recycled burnt shale cokes oil and reduces yield. The kerogen H/C ratio sets an upper limit on yield improvements unless external hydrogen donors are introduced. Steam can react with iron compounds to add to the H-donor pool. Increased oil yield when New Albany Shale pyrolyzes under hot-recycled-solid, steam-fluidization conditions has been confirmed and compared with steam retorting of acid-leached Colorado oil shale. In addition, with retorted, but unburnt, Devonian shale present at a recycle ratio of 3, the authors obtain 50% more oil-plus-gas than with burnt shale present. Procedures to make burnt shale more like unburnt shale can realize some increase in oil yield at high recycle ratios. Reduction with H{sub 2} and carbon deposition are possibilities that the authors have tested in the laboratory and can test in the pilot retort. Also, eastern spent shale burned at a high temperature (775 C, for example) cokes less oil than does spent shale burned at a low temperature (475 C). Changes in surface area with burn temperature contribute to this effect. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.

    1993-01-01

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  3. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training Area (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 Burn Area (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant Burn Area (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).

  4. Emission and transport of cesium-137 from boreal biomass burning in the summer of 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strode, S.; Ott, Lesley E.; Pawson, Steven; Bowyer, Ted W.

    2012-05-09

    While atmospheric concentrations of cesium-137 have decreased since the nuclear testing era, resuspension of Cs-137 during biomass burning provides an ongoing emission source. The summer of 2010 was an intense biomass burning season in western Russia, with high levels of particulate matter impacting air quality and visibility. A radionuclide monitoring station in western Russia shows enhanced airborne Cs-137 concentrations during the wildfire period. Since Cs-137 binds to aerosols, satellite observations of aerosols and fire occurrences can provide a global-scale context for Cs-137 emissions and transport during biomass burning events.

  5. Passive Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines Passive Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines Passive NH3 SCR has been demonstrated as a high efficiency and low cost alternative lean NOx aftertreatment technology for stratified gasoline engines. deer09_li.pdf (1.57 MB) More Documents & Publications Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Laboratory and Vehicle Demonstration of a "2nd-Generation" LNT+in-situ SCR Diesel NOx Emission Control

  6. Type B Accident Investigation of the Savannah River Site Arc Flash Burn

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injury on September 23, 2009, in the D Area Powerhouse | Department of Energy of the Savannah River Site Arc Flash Burn Injury on September 23, 2009, in the D Area Powerhouse Type B Accident Investigation of the Savannah River Site Arc Flash Burn Injury on September 23, 2009, in the D Area Powerhouse October 1, 2009 This report documents the results of the Type B Accident Investigation Board investigation of the September 23, 2009, employee burn injury at the Department of Energy (DOE)

  7. Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aftertreatment System | Department of Energy Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Lean-burn SIDI engine technology offers improved fuel economy. deer10_viola.pdf (3.46 MB) More Documents & Publications Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline En

  8. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  9. Optimization of perigee burns for manned interplanetary missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, W.W.; Olson, T.S.; Siahpush, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    In choosing an engine concept for the rocket vehicle to be used for the initial manned exploration of Mars, the two main factors in the decision should be what can be feasibly built and flight qualified within approximately the next 20 years, and what level of engine performance is required to safely perform these missions. In order to reduce the overall cost in developing this next generation space transportation system, it would be desirable to have a single engine design that could be used for a broad class of missions (for example, cargo and piloted lunar and Mars missions, orbit transfers around the Earth, and robotic missions to the planets). The engine thrust that is needed for manned Mars missions is addressed in this paper. We find that these missions are best served by a thrust level around 75,000 lbf to 100,000 lbf, and a thrust-to-engine weight ratio of about three. This thrust level might best be obtained by clustering five 15,000 lbf or 20,000 lbf engines. It may be better to throttle the engines back from full power between perigee burns, rather than shutting down. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  11. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  12. Valve for controlling solids flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, M.D.

    1982-09-29

    A valve for controlling the flow of solids comprises a vessel having an overflow point, an inlet line for discharging solids into the vessel positioned within the vessel such that the inlet line's discharge point is lower than the vessel's overflow point, and means for introducing a fluidizing fluid into the vessel. The fluidizing fluid fluidizes the solids within the vessel so that they overflow at the vessel's overflow point. For the removal of nuclear waste product the vessel may be placed within a sealed container having a bottom connected transport line for transporting the solids to storage or other sites. The rate of solids flow is controlled by the flow rate of the fluidizing fluid and by V-notch weirs of different sizes spaced about the top of the vessel.

  13. Valve for controlling solids flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, M. Daniel (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1985-01-01

    A valve for controlling the flow of solids comprises a vessel having an overflow point, an inlet line for discharging solids into the vessel positioned within the vessel such that the inlet line's discharge point is lower than the vessel's overflow point, and apparatus for introducing a fluidizing fluid into the vessel. The fluidizing fluid fluidizes the solids within the vessel so that they overflow at the vessel's overflow point. For the removal of nuclear waste product the vessel may be placed within a sealed container having a bottom connected transport line for transporting the solids to storage or other sites. The rate of solids flow is controlled by the flow rate of the fluidizing fluid and by V-notch weirs of different sizes spaced about the top of the vessel.

  14. Gasification of carbonaceous solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Ralph L.

    1976-10-26

    A process and apparatus for converting coal and other carbonaceous solids to an intermediate heating value fuel gas or to a synthesis gas. A stream of entrained pulverized coal is fed into the combustion stage of a three-stage gasifier along with a mixture of oxygen and steam at selected pressure and temperature. The products of the combustion stage pass into the second or quench stage where they are partially cooled and further reacted with water and/or steam. Ash is solidified into small particles and the formation of soot is suppressed by water/steam injections in the quench stage. The design of the quench stage prevents slag from solidifying on the walls. The products from the quench stage pass directly into a heat recovery stage where the products pass through the tube, or tubes, of a single-pass, shell and tube heat exchanger and steam is generated on the shell side and utilized for steam feed requirements of the process.

  15. Solid Xenon Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakishiyeva, Durdana N.; Saab, Tarek [University of Florida (United States); Mahapatra, Rupak [Texas A and M University (United States); Yoo, Jonghee [FNAL (United States)

    2010-08-30

    Crystals like Germanium and Silicon need to be grown in specialized facilities which is time and money costly. It takes many runs to test the detector once it's manufactured and mishaps are very probable. It is of a great challenge to grow big germanium crystals and that's why stacking them up in a tower is the only way at the moment to increase testing mass. Liquid Noble gas experiments experiencing contamination problems, their predicted energy resolution at 10 keV and lower energy range is not as good as predicted. Every experiment is targeting one specific purpose, looking for one thing. Why not to design an experiment that is diverse and build a detector that can search for Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Neutrinoless Double Beta decay, etc. Solid Xenon detector is such detector. We designed a simple Xenon crystal growing chamber that was put together at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The first phase of this experiment was to demonstrate that a good, crack free Xenon crystal can be grown (regardless of many failed attempts by various groups) and our first goal, 1 kg crystal, was successful.

  16. A comparison of observables for solid-solid phase transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilowitz, Laura B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Jerry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The study of solid-solid phase transformations is hindered by the difficulty of finding a volumetric probe to use as a progress variable. Solids are typically optically opaque and heterogeneous. Over the past several years, second harmonic generation (SHG) has been used as a kinetic probe for a solid-solid phase transition in which the initial and final phases have different symmetries. Bulk generation of SHG is allowed by symmetry only in noncentrosymmetric crystallographic space groups. For the organic energetic nitramine octahydro-1,3 ,5,7 -tetranitro-1,3 ,5,7 -tatrazocine (HMX), the beta phase is centro symmetric (space group P2{sub 1}/c) and the delta phase iS noncentrosymmetric (space group P6{sub 1}22) making SHG an extremely sensitive, essentially zero background probe of the phase change progress. We have used SHG as a tool to follow the progress of the transformation from beta to delta phase during the solid-solid transformation. However, kinetic models of the transformation derived using different observables from several other groups have differed, showing later onset for the phase change and faster progression to completion. In this work, we have intercompared several techniques to understand these differences. The three techniques discussed are second harmonic generation, Raman spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The progress of the beta to delta phase transition in HMX observed with each of these different probes will be discussed and advantages and disadvantages of each technique described. This paper compares several different observables for use in measuring the kinetics of solid-solid phase transitions. Relative advantages and disadvantages for each technique are described and a direct comparison of results is made for the beta to delta polymorphic phase transition of the energetic nitramine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tatrazocine.

  17. Residual Viremia in Treated HIV+ Individuals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2016-01-06

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively controls HIV infection, suppressing HIV viral loads. However, some residual virus remains, below the level of detection, in HIV-infected patients on ART. Furthermore, the source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent reservoir, or from ongoing viral replication? Our observations seem to be contradictory: there is evidence of short term evolution, implying that there must be ongoing viral replication, and viral strains should thus evolve. The phylogenetic analyses, and rare emergent drug resistance, suggest no long-term viral evolution, implying that virus derived frommore » activated latent cells must dominate. We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our modeling relies on two underlying assumptions for patients on suppressive ART: that latent cell activation drives viral dynamics and that the reproductive ratio of treated infection is less than 1. Nonetheless, the contribution of viral replication to residual viremia in patients on ART may be non-negligible. However, even if the portion of viremia attributable to viral replication is significant, our model predicts (1) that latent reservoir re-seeding remains negligible, and (2) some short-term viral evolution is permitted, but long-term evolution can still be limited: stochastic analysis of our model shows that de novo emergence of drug resistance is rare. Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy.« less

  18. Residual Viremia in Treated HIV+ Individuals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2016-01-06

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively controls HIV infection, suppressing HIV viral loads. However, some residual virus remains, below the level of detection, in HIV-infected patients on ART. Furthermore, the source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent reservoir, or from ongoing viral replication? Our observations seem to be contradictory: there is evidence of short term evolution, implying that there must be ongoing viral replication, and viral strains should thus evolve. The phylogenetic analyses, and rare emergent drug resistance, suggest no long-term viral evolution, implying that virus derived frommore »activated latent cells must dominate. We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our modeling relies on two underlying assumptions for patients on suppressive ART: that latent cell activation drives viral dynamics and that the reproductive ratio of treated infection is less than 1. Nonetheless, the contribution of viral replication to residual viremia in patients on ART may be non-negligible. However, even if the portion of viremia attributable to viral replication is significant, our model predicts (1) that latent reservoir re-seeding remains negligible, and (2) some short-term viral evolution is permitted, but long-term evolution can still be limited: stochastic analysis of our model shows that de novo emergence of drug resistance is rare. Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy.« less

  19. Leaching characteristics of calcium-based compounds in MSWI Residues: From the viewpoint of clogging risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Yi; Zhang, Hua; Phoungthong, Khamphe; Shi, Dong-Xiao; Shen, Wen-Hui; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The leaching behavior of Ca-based compounds commonly in MSWI residues was studied. • pH is the crucial factor for calcium leaching process. • CaCO{sub 3} was the most sensitive to leaching temperature and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} was the least. • Ca leaching of MSWIBA and SAPCR attributed to CaCO{sub 3} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} respectively. • Potential clogging ability of MSWI residues leachate in open air was calculated. - Abstract: Leachate collection system (LCS) clogging caused by calcium precipitation would be disadvantageous to landfill stability and operation. Meanwhile, calcium-based compounds are the main constituents in both municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) and stabilized air pollution control residues (SAPCR), which would increase the risk of LCS clogging once these calcium-rich residues were disposed in landfills. The leaching behaviors of calcium from the four compounds and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues were studied, and the influencing factors on leaching were discussed. The results showed that pH was the crucial factor in the calcium leaching process. CaCO{sub 3} and CaSiO{sub 3} began leaching when the leachate pH decreased to less than 7 and 10, respectively, while Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} leached at pH < 12. CaSO{sub 4} could hardly dissolve in the experimental conditions. Moreover, the sequence of the leaching rate for the different calcium-based compounds is as follows: CaSiO{sub 3} > Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} > CaCO{sub 3}. The calcium leaching from the MSWIBA and SAPCR separately started from pH < 7 and pH < 12, resulting from CaCO{sub 3} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} leaching respectively, which was proven by the X-ray diffraction results. Based on the leaching characteristics of the different calcium compounds and the mineral phase of calcium in the incineration residues, simulated computation of their clogging potential was conducted, providing the

  20. Investigation of fluid-bed combustion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eustis, R.H.; Wilson, K.B.; Preuit, L.C.; Marasigan, M.M.

    1985-08-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to burn processed municipal solid waste in a fluid-bed combustor containing water-cooled tubes in the bed. The 300-hour test was performed without incident and terminated on schedule. The combustor and ducting were clean on inspection after the test, and bed agglomeration did not occur. A corrosion tube placed in the free-board showed considerable metal wastage for carbon and low-alloy steels and some wastage for stainless steels. Low-temperature carbon steel water tubes in the bed showed negligible wastage. It was concluded that heat-exchanger tubes in the freeboard require protection from the high-velocity elutriated solids. Combustion efficiency was greater than 99%, and pollutants were measured as follows: SO/sub 2/ = 58 ppm, NOx = 178 ppm, CO = 242 ppm, hydrocarbons = 5.4 ppm. A system study was conducted for a cogeneration, 800-tons/day power plant to be located on the Stanford U. campus to supply all of the process steam requirement and as much of the electrical power as possible.

  1. Thin layer chromatography residue applicator sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Haas, Jeffrey S.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2007-07-24

    A thin layer chromatograph residue applicator sampler. The residue applicator sampler provides for rapid analysis of samples containing high explosives, chemical warfare, and other analyses of interest under field conditions. This satisfied the need for a field-deployable, small, hand-held, all-in-one device for efficient sampling, sample dissolution, and sample application to an analytical technique. The residue applicator sampler includes a sampling sponge that is resistant to most chemicals and is fastened via a plastic handle in a hermetically sealed tube containing a known amount of solvent. Upon use, the wetted sponge is removed from the sealed tube and used as a swiping device across an environmental sample. The sponge is then replaced in the hermetically sealed tube where the sample remains contained and dissolved in the solvent. A small pipette tip is removably contained in the hermetically sealed tube. The sponge is removed and placed into the pipette tip where a squeezing-out of the dissolved sample from the sponge into the pipette tip results in a droplet captured in a vial for later instrumental analysis, or applied directly to a thin layer chromatography plate for immediate analysis.

  2. Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lean-burn SIDI engine technology offers improved fuel economy. deer10viola.pdf (3.46 MB) More Documents & Publications Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines NH3 generation ...

  3. A Hypothetical Burning-Velocity Formula for Very Lean Hydrogen-Air Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Forman; Williams, Forman A; Grcar, Joseph F

    2008-06-30

    Very lean hydrogen-air mixtures experience strong diffusive-thermal types of cellular instabilities that tend to increase the laminar burning velocity above the value that applies to steady, planar laminar flames that are homogeneous in transverse directions. Flame balls constitute an extreme limit of evolution of cellular flames. To account qualitatively for the ultimate effect of diffusive-thermal instability, a model is proposed in which the flame is a steadily propagating, planar, hexagonal, close-packed array of flame balls, each burning as if it were an isolated, stationary, ideal flame ball in an infinite, quiescent atmosphere. An expression for the laminar burning velocity is derived from this model, which theoretically may provide an upper limit for the experimental burning velocity.

  4. Correlation between cathode properties, burning voltage, and plasma parameters of vacuum arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Yotsombat, Banchob; Binder, Robert

    2001-06-15

    Burning voltages of vacuum arcs were measured for 54 cathode materials and compared with literature data. As anticipated, a correlation between the arc burning voltage and the plasma temperature was found. However, more importantly, a correlation between the cohesive energy of the cathode material and the arc burning voltage could be demonstrated. This link between a cathode material property, the cohesive energy, and a discharge property, the arc burning voltage, is essential for the operation of the vacuum arc discharge because is determines the plasma temperature. Energy balance considerations show that this {open_quotes}cohesive energy rule{close_quotes} is responsible for several other secondary relationships, such as the correlation between the mean ion charge state and the boiling temperature of the cathode. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Determination of deuterium–tritium critical burn-up parameter by four temperature theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazirzadeh, M.; Ghasemizad, A.; Khanbabei, B.

    2015-12-15

    Conditions for thermonuclear burn-up of an equimolar mixture of deuterium-tritium in non-equilibrium plasma have been investigated by four temperature theory. The photon distribution shape significantly affects the nature of thermonuclear burn. In three temperature model, the photon distribution is Planckian but in four temperature theory the photon distribution has a pure Planck form below a certain cut-off energy and then for photon energy above this cut-off energy makes a transition to Bose-Einstein distribution with a finite chemical potential. The objective was to develop four temperature theory in a plasma to calculate the critical burn up parameter which depends upon initial density, the plasma components initial temperatures, and hot spot size. All the obtained results from four temperature theory model are compared with 3 temperature model. It is shown that the values of critical burn-up parameter calculated by four temperature theory are smaller than those of three temperature model.

  6. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    81 81 LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON CALEDONIA HURON C REEK LEIC EST ER COL DEN ASH FORD INDIAN FALLS LAWTONS SAR DINIA RPD-037 -2 ...

  7. AmeriFlux US-ARb ARM Southern Great Plains burn site- Lamont...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Site Description - The ARM SGP Burn site is located in the native tallgrass prairies of the USDA Grazinglands Research Laboratory near El Reno, OK. One of two adjacent 35 ha plots, ...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about advanced lean-burn...

  9. Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of butanol isomers-air mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Xiaolei; Huang, Zuohua; Wu, Si; Li, Qianqian [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of the butanol-air premixed flames and its isomers are investigated using the spherically expanding flame with central ignition at initial temperature of 428 K and initial pressures of 0.10 MPa, 0.25 MPa, 0.50 MPa and 0.75 MPa. Laminar burning velocities and sensitivity factor of n-butanol-air mixtures are computed using a newly developed kinetic mechanism. Unstretched laminar burning velocity, adiabatic temperature, Lewis number, Markstein length, critical flame radius and Peclet number are obtained over a wide range of equivalence ratios. Effect of molecular structure on laminar burning velocity of the isomers of butanol is analyzed from the aspect of C-H bond dissociation energy. Study indicates that although adiabatic flame temperatures of the isomers of butanol are the same, laminar burning velocities give an obvious difference among the isomers of butanol. This indicates that molecular structure has a large influence on laminar burning velocities of the isomers of butanol. Branching (-CH3) will decrease laminar burning velocity. Hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atoms gives higher laminar burning velocity compared to that attaching to the inner carbon atoms. Calculated dissociation bond energies show that terminal C-H bonds have larger bond energies than that of inner C-H bonds. n-Butanol, no branching and with hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atom, gives the largest laminar burning velocity. tert-Butanol, with highly branching and hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the inner carbon atom, gives the lowest laminar burning velocity. Laminar burning velocities of iso-butanol and sec-butanol are between those of n-butanol and tert-butanol. The instant of transition to cellularity is experimentally determined for the isomers of butanol and subsequently interpreted on the basis of hydrodynamic and diffusion-thermal instabilities. Little effect

  10. Advanced Burner Reactor with Breed-and-Burn Thorium Blankets for Improved

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Economics and Resource Utilization (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Advanced Burner Reactor with Breed-and-Burn Thorium Blankets for Improved Economics and Resource Utilization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced Burner Reactor with Breed-and-Burn Thorium Blankets for Improved Economics and Resource Utilization This study assesses the feasibility of designing Seed and Blanket (S&B) Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) to generate a significant fraction

  11. Type B Accident Investigation Report of the October 28, 2004, Burn Injuries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustained During an Office of Secure Transportation Joint Training Exercise at Fort Hunter-Liggett, CA | Department of Energy of the October 28, 2004, Burn Injuries Sustained During an Office of Secure Transportation Joint Training Exercise at Fort Hunter-Liggett, CA Type B Accident Investigation Report of the October 28, 2004, Burn Injuries Sustained During an Office of Secure Transportation Joint Training Exercise at Fort Hunter-Liggett, CA February 1, 2005 TYPE B Accident Investigation

  12. Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel Particulate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Traps | Department of Energy Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel Particulate Traps Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel Particulate Traps Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_vanderwal.pdf (5.41 MB) More Documents &

  13. Investigation of NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium Duty

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Particulate: Contrasting O2 and NO2 Oxidation | Department of Energy NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium Duty Diesel Particulate: Contrasting O2 and NO2 Oxidation Investigation of NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium Duty Diesel Particulate: Contrasting O2 and NO2 Oxidation Reports on preliminary measurements of particulate reactivity and changes in microstructure upon exposure to NO2, which is often present at significant levels in diesel engine exhaust.

  14. ,"Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  15. ,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","5... "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  16. Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction. [partial liquefaction of coal in slurry, filtration and gasification of residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longanbach, J.R.

    1981-11-13

    A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300 to 550/sup 0/C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400 to 500/sup 0/C for a limited time of only about 1 to 5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300/sup 0/C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.

  17. Solid-State NMR | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid-State NMR Solid-State NMR Our team is well-known for its work in the following areas: - Using multi-dimensional solid-state NMR of quadrupolar nuclei to study spin-12 nuclei...

  18. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS - BASICS Q: What is a fuel cell? A: A fuel cell is a power generation ... Program research is focused on developing low-cost and highly efficient SOFC power ...

  19. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  20. Is solid helium a supersolid?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallock, Robert

    2015-05-15

    Recent experiments suggest that helium-4 atoms can flow through an experimental cell filled with solid helium. But that incompletely understood flow is quite different from the reported superfluid-like motion that so excited physicists a decade ago.

  1. Solid Waste Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  3. Wastes Hazardous or Solid | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    or Solid Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWastesHazardousorSolid&oldid612186" Feedback Contact needs updating Image...

  4. Nanoscale Investigation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Inhibition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Investigation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Inhibition on Li-ion Battery MnO ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Investigation of Solid Electrolyte ...

  5. NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Publications This page provides links to SOFC Program related documents and reference materials. SOFC-logo Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Program 2016 Project ...

  6. BT16 Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Municipal Solid Waste Resources Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass ... trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. ...

  7. Municipal Solid Waste | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Solid Waste Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMunicipalSo...

  8. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Chemical Characterization of Individual Particles and Residuals of Cloud Droplets and Ice Crystals Collected On Board Research Aircraft in the ISDAC 2008 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Brooks, Sarah D.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Glen, Andrew; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Marry K.; Liu, Peter; MacDonald, A. M.; Strapp, J. Walter; McFarquhar, Greg

    2013-06-24

    Although it has been shown that size of atmospheric particles has a direct correlation with their ability to act as cloud droplet and ice nuclei, the influence of composition of freshly emitted and aged particles in nucleation processes is poorly understood. In this work we combine data from field measurements of ice nucleation with chemical imaging of the sampled particles to link aerosol composition with ice nucleation ability. Field measurements and sampling were conducted during the Indirect and Semidirect Aerosols Campaign (ISDAC) over Barrow, Alaska, in the springtime of 2008. In-situ ice nucleation measurements were conducted using a Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC). Measured number concentrations of ice nuclei (IN) varied from frequent values of 0.01 per liter to more than 10 per liter. Residuals of airborne droplets and ice crystals were collected through a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI). The compositions of individual atmospheric particles and the residuals were studied using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (CCSEM/EDX) and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy coupled with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Chemical analysis of cloud particle residuals collected during an episode of high ice nucleation suggests that both size and composition may influence aerosol's ability to act as IN. The STXM/NEXAFS chemical composition maps of individual residuals have characteristic structures of either inorganic or black carbon cores coated by organic materials. In a separate flight, particle samples from a biomass burning plume were collected. Although it has previously been suggested that episodes of biomass burning contribute to increased numbers of highly effective ice nuclei, in this episode we observed that only a small fraction were effective ice nuclei. Most of the particles from the biomass plume episode were smaller in size and were composed of

  10. Fire protection guide for solid waste metal drum storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucci, H.M.

    1996-09-16

    This guide provides a method to assess potential fire development in drum storage facilities. The mechanism of fire propagation/spread through stored drum arrays is a complex process. It involves flame heat transfer, transient conduction,convection, and radiation between drums (stored in an array configuration). There are several phenomena which may occur when drums are exposed to fire. The most dramatic is violent lid failure which results in total lid removal. When a drum loses its lid due to fire exposure, some or all of the contents may be ejected from the drum, and both the ejected combustible material and the combustible contents remaining within the container will burn. The scope of this guide is limited to storage arrays of steel drums containing combustible (primarily Class A) and noncombustible contents. Class B combustibles may be included in small amounts as free liquid within the solid waste contents.Storage arrays, which are anticipated in this guide, include single or multi-tier palletized (steel or wood pallets) drums,high rack storage of drums, and stacked arrays of drums where plywood sheets are used between tiers. The purpose of this guide is to describe a simple methodology that estimates the consequences of a fire in drum storage arrays. The extent of fire development and the resulting heat release rates can be estimated. Release fractions applicable to this type of storage are not addressed, and the transport of contaminants away from the source is not addressed. However, such assessments require the amount of combustible material consumed and the surface area of this burning material. The methods included in this guide do provide this information.

  11. Systematic approach to verification and validation: High explosive burn models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph; Scovel, Christina A.

    2012-04-16

    , run a simulation, and generate a comparison plot showing simulated and experimental velocity gauge data. These scripts are then applied to several series of experiments and to several HE burn models. The same systematic approach is applicable to other types of material models; for example, equations of state models and material strength models.

  12. Mesoporous VN prepared by solid-solid phase separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Minghui; Ralston, Walter T.; Tessier, Franck; Allen, Amy J.; DiSalvo, Francis J.

    2013-01-15

    We recently reported a simple route to prepare mesoporous, conducting nitrides from Zn containing ternary transition metal oxides. Those materials result from the condensation of atomic scale voids created by the loss of Zn by evaporation, the replacement of 3 oxygen anions by 2 nitrogen anions, and in most cases the loss of oxygen to form water on the reduction of the transition metal. In this report, we present a different route to prepare mesoporous VN from K containing vanadium oxides. In this case, ammonolysis results in a multiphase solid product that contains VN, and other water soluble compounds such as KOH or KNH{sub 2}. On removing the K containing products by washing with degassed water, only mesoporous VN remains. VN materials with different pore sizes (10 nm-20 nm) were synthesized at 600 Degree-Sign C by varying the reaction time, while larger pores are obtained at higher temperatures (50 nm at 800 Degree-Sign C). - Graphical Abstract: The synthesis process of mesoporous VN from solid-solid separation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesoporous VN has been prepared by solid-solid phase separation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesoporous VN was characterized by Rietveld refinement of PXRD, SEM and nitrogen physisorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VN materials with different pore sizes (10 nm-50 nm) were synthesized.

  13. Separation of metals from waste incineration residue by application of mineral processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmelzer, G.

    1995-12-31

    The incineration of municipal waste produced approx. 2.7--2.8 million tons of solid residues in 1993 in the Federal Republic of Germany, which in part included still considerable amounts of organic and inorganic pollutants that could potentially be released into the environment. The most significant of these in terms of volume is incinerator ash at approx. 2.4 million tons. Through the use of innovative processing techniques, attempts are being made to convert the residues into a form that remains environmentally neutral over the longest period of time possible. One such group of techniques includes smelting technologies. After it has undergone specialized treatment, mineral incinerator ash is converted into environmentally neutral and reusable glass (vitrification) since, besides a reduction in the volume of the residues by approx. 90%, the main goal is a complete immobilization and destruction of inorganic and organic pollutants respectively. These glasses, after they have been reshaped, are resold as commercial products such as damming or form glass.

  14. Residual Stress In Sheet Metal Parts Made By Incremental Forming Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Shigekazu; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Hideo; Motomura, Kazuo

    2007-05-17

    Incremental sheet metal forming, which uses a CNC forming stylus, is new flexible forming process not requiring the use of any expensive dies. We have applied the incremental forming process to dental prosthesis. This new process, however, posed difficult problems. After removing the outer portion of the incremental formed sheet metal part, the inner part is distorted. In this paper, the residual stress in the sheet metal part obtained by incremental forward stretch forming operations has been examined. Numerical simulations were conducted for solid elements. When small rigid ball slides on the metal sheet with a certain vertical feed, tension residual stress is produced in the upper layer of the sheet and compression stress in the lower. Then, the resultant moments throughout the sheet cause negative spring-back when the outer portion is removed. A systematic study of the behavior was conducted in this paper. Parameters considered included the tool radius and the vertical tool feed rate. The tip radius of forming stylus has a significant influence on the residual stress. The smaller radius of forming stylus, the larger bending force becomes. And new process with double forming styluses is examined to reduce the bending force.

  15. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  16. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  17. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  18. Characterization of solid waste conversion and cogeneration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    The primary objective of the TASE program is to determine the probable consequences to the environment and to public health and safety resulting from widespread implementation of major solar and renewable resource technologies. The specific principal Phase I objective is to determine the levels of residuals most likely to result throughout the complete energy cycle from the utilization of each of the solar and renewable resource technologies. Three basic technologies for recovering energy from M SW are considered in this study. These are: (1) direct combustion using a waterwall incinerator in which the heat from burning refuse is converted to steam by circulating water in steel tubes jacketing the interior of the incinerator; (2) manufacture of a relatively uniform shredded, pulverized or pelleted refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for supplemental firing in a utility boiler; and (3) pyrolysis or destructive distillation of MSW to extract a low-Btu fuel gas. While resource recovery and energy recovery systems can be installed independently, the processes described here include both energy and resource recovery systems as well as necessary pollution control equipment for gaseous emissions. To meet the Phase I objective, LBL staff have characterized the individual application associated with each general technology; calculated operational residuals generated by each application; determined the input capital requirements and, when possible, annual operating input requirements; and have identified the technical and institutional constraints for the widespread implementation of each application. A description is presented of the energy and material development cycle required for the implementation of each technology. The capital requirements are compiled and presented in a SEAS system format.

  19. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  20. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Neal P.; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J.

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  1. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  2. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1995-01-01

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  3. Method and apparatus for controlling fuel/air mixture in a lean burn engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubesh, John Thomas; Dodge, Lee Gene; Podnar, Daniel James

    1998-04-07

    The system for controlling the fuel/air mixture supplied to a lean burn engine when operating on natural gas, gasoline, hydrogen, alcohol, propane, butane, diesel or any other fuel as desired. As specific humidity of air supplied to the lean burn engine increases, the oxygen concentration of exhaust gas discharged by the engine for a given equivalence ratio will decrease. Closed loop fuel control systems typically attempt to maintain a constant exhaust gas oxygen concentration. Therefore, the decrease in the exhaust gas oxygen concentration resulting from increased specific humidity will often be improperly attributed to an excessive supply of fuel and the control system will incorrectly reduce the amount of fuel supplied to the engine. Also, the minimum fuel/air equivalence ratio for a lean burn engine to avoid misfiring will increase as specific humidity increases. A relative humidity sensor to allow the control system to provide a more enriched fuel/air mixture at high specific humidity levels. The level of specific humidity may be used to compensate an output signal from a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor for changing oxygen concentrations at a desired equivalence ratio due to variation in specific humidity specific humidity. As a result, the control system will maintain the desired efficiency, low exhaust emissions and power level for the associated lean burn engine regardless of the specific humidity level of intake air supplied to the lean burn engine.

  4. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M. )

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ignition-type'' steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that triggers'' the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  5. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M.

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ``ignition-type`` steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that ``triggers`` the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  6. CORE ANALYSIS, DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF A DEEP-BURN PEBBLE BED REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    Achieving a high burnup in the Deep-Burn pebble bed reactor design, while remaining within the limits for fuel temperature, power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback, is challenging. The high content of Pu and Minor Actinides in the Deep-Burn fuel significantly impacts the thermal neutron energy spectrum. This can result in power and temperature peaking in the pebble bed core in locally thermalized regions near the graphite reflectors. Furthermore, the interplay of the Pu resonances of the neutron absorption cross sections at low-lying energies can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator at certain operating conditions. To investigate the aforementioned effects a code system using existing codes has been developed for neutronic, thermal-hydraulic and fuel depletion analysis of Deep-Burn pebble bed reactors. A core analysis of a Deep-Burn Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (400 MWth) design has been performed for two Deep-Burn fuel types and possible improvements of the design with regard to power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback are identified.

  7. Ultracapacitor having residual water removed under vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, Chang (Niskayuna, NY); Jerabek, Elihu Calvin (Glenmont, NY); Day, James (Scotia, NY)

    2002-10-15

    A multilayer cell is provided that comprises two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the current collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying pores in the electrodes and separator. The mutilayer cell is electrolyzed to disassociate water within the cell to oxygen gas and hydrogen gas. A vacuum is applied to the cell substantially at the same time as the electrolyzing step, to remove the oxygen gas and hydrogen gas. The cell is then sealed to form a ultracapacitor substantially free from water.

  8. Deep-Burn Modular Helium Reactor Fuel Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEachern, D

    2002-12-02

    This document contains the workscope, schedule and cost for the technology development tasks needed to satisfy the fuel and fission product transport Design Data Needs (DDNs) for the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), operating in its role of transmuting transuranic (TRU) nuclides in spent fuel discharged from commercial light-water reactors (LWRs). In its application for transmutation, the GT-MHR is referred to as the Deep-Burn MHR (DB-MHR). This Fuel Development Plan (FDP) describes part of the overall program being undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), utilities, and industry to evaluate the use of the GT-MHR to transmute transuranic nuclides from spent nuclear fuel. The Fuel Development Plan (FDP) includes the work on fuel necessary to support the design and licensing of the DB-MHR. The FDP is organized into ten sections. Section 1 provides a summary of the most important features of the plan, including cost and schedule information. Section 2 describes the DB-MHR concept, the features of its fuel and the plan to develop coated particle fuel for transmutation. Section 3 describes the knowledge base for fabrication of coated particles, the experience with irradiation performance of coated particle fuels, the database for fission product transport in HTGR cores, and describes test data and calculations for the performance of coated particle fuel while in a repository. Section 4 presents the fuel performance requirements in terms of as-manufactured quality and performance of the fuel coatings under irradiation and accident conditions. These requirements are provisional because the design of the DB-MHR is in an early stage. However, the requirements are presented in this preliminary form to guide the initial work on the fuel development. Section 4 also presents limits on the irradiation conditions to which the coated particle fuel can be subjected for the core design. These limits are based on past irradiation experience. Section 5 describes

  9. Minimal residual method stronger than polynomial preconditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faber, V.; Joubert, W.; Knill, E.

    1994-12-31

    Two popular methods for solving symmetric and nonsymmetric systems of equations are the minimal residual method, implemented by algorithms such as GMRES, and polynomial preconditioning methods. In this study results are given on the convergence rates of these methods for various classes of matrices. It is shown that for some matrices, such as normal matrices, the convergence rates for GMRES and for the optimal polynomial preconditioning are the same, and for other matrices such as the upper triangular Toeplitz matrices, it is at least assured that if one method converges then the other must converge. On the other hand, it is shown that matrices exist for which restarted GMRES always converges but any polynomial preconditioning of corresponding degree makes no progress toward the solution for some initial error. The implications of these results for these and other iterative methods are discussed.

  10. Method For Characterizing Residual Stress In Metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Loren A.; Michel, David J.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    2002-12-03

    A method is provided for measuring the residual stress in metals. The method includes the steps of drilling one or more holes in a metal workpiece to a preselected depth and mounting one or more acoustic sensors on the metal workpiece and connecting the sensors to an electronic detecting and recording device. A liquid metal capable of penetrating into the metal workpiece placed at the bottom of the hole or holes. A recording is made over a period of time (typically within about two hours) of the magnitude and number of noise events which occur as the liquid metal penetrates into the metal workpiece. The magnitude and number of noise events are then correlated to the internal stress in the region of the workpiece at the bottom of the hole.

  11. Measurement of residual stresses in deposited films of SOFC component materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, T.; Momma, A.; Nagata, S.; Kasuga, Y.

    1996-12-31

    The stress induced in Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)s has important influence on the lifetime of SOFC. But the data on stress in SOFC and mechanical properties of SOW component materials have not been accumulated enough to manufacture SOFC. Especially, the data of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} cathode and La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} interconnection have been extremely limited. We have estimated numerically the dependences of residual stress in SOFC on the material properties, the cell structure and the fabrication temperatures of the components, but these unknown factors have caused obstruction to simulate the accurate behavior of residual stress. Therefore, the residual stresses in deposited La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} and La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} films are researched by the observation of the bending behavior of the substrate strips. The films of SOFC component materials were prepared by the RF sputtering method, because: (1) It can fabricate dense films of poor sinterable material such as La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} compared with sintering or plasma spray method. (2) For the complicated material such as perovskite materials, the difference between the composition of a film and that of a target material is generally small. (3) It can fabricate a thick ceramics film by improving of the deposition rate. For example, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thick films of 50{mu}m can be fabricated with the deposition rate of approximately 5{mu}m/h industrially. In this paper, the dependence of residual stress on the deposition conditions is defined and mechanical properties of these materials are estimated from the results of the experiments.

  12. Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turnbull, Robert J.; Foster, Christopher A.; Hendricks, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  13. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  14. Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoyer, M. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Spears, B. K.; Hicks, D. G.; Hudson, G. B.; Sangster, T. C.; Freeman, C. G.

    2012-02-15

    Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma.

  15. AmeriFlux US-Bn2 Bonanza Creek, 1987 Burn site near Delta Junction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Randerson, James [University of California, Irvine

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bn2 Bonanza Creek, 1987 Burn site near Delta Junction. Site Description - The Delta Junction 1987 Burn site is located near Delta Junction, just to the north of the Alaska Range in interior Alaska. All three Delta Junction sites are within a 15-km radius of one another. Composed of a combination of alluvial outwashes, floodplains, and low terraces dissected by glacial streams originating in the nearby Alaska Range. The Granite Creek fire burned ~20,000 ha of black spruce (Picea mariana) during 1987. Approximately half of the dead boles remained upright in 2004, while the other half had fallen over or had become entangled with other boles.

  16. AmeriFlux US-Bn3 Bonanza Creek, 1999 Burn site near Delta Junction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Randerson, James [University of California, Irvine

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bn3 Bonanza Creek, 1999 Burn site near Delta Junction. Site Description - The Delta Junction 1999 Burn site is located near Delta Junction, just to the north of the Alaska Range in interior Alaska. All three Delta Junction sites are within a 15-km radius of one another. Composed of a combination of alluvial outwashes, floodplains, and low terraces dissected by glacial streams originating in the nearby Alaska Range. The Donnelly Flats fire burned ~7,600 ha of black spruce (Picea mariana) during June 1999. The boles of the black spruce remained standing 3 years after the fire. 70% of the surface was not covered by vascular plants.

  17. AmeriFlux CA-SF3 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1998.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Amiro, Brian [University of Manitoba; Canadian Forest Service

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF3 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1998.. Site Description - The 1998 burn site (F98) was in the east part of Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, in the Waskesiu Fire, ignited by lightning that burned about 1700 ha in July 1998. The pre-fire forest consisted of jack pine and black spruce stands, with some intermixed aspen. The fire was severe, consuming much of the top layer of organic soil and killing all trees. In 2001, much of the regenerating vegetation consisted of aspen saplings about 1 m tall and shorter jack pine and black spruce seedlings. An overstory of dead, leafless jack pine trees dominated at a height of 18 m. Sparse grass and herbs, such as fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.) covered the ground. There were a large number of fallen dead trees, mostly perched above the ground and not decomposing quickly.

  18. Technical Development on Burn-up Credit for Spent LWR Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2001-12-26

    Technical development on burn-up credit for spent LWR fuels had been performed at JAERI since 1990 under the contract with Science and Technology Agency of Japan entitled ''Technical Development on Criticality Safety Management for Spent LWR Fuels.'' Main purposes of this work are to obtain the experimental data on criticality properties and isotopic compositions of spent LWR fuels and to verify burnup and criticality calculation codes. In this work three major experiments of exponential experiments for spent fuel assemblies to obtain criticality data, non-destructive gamma-ray measurement of spent fuel rods for evaluating axial burn-up profiles, and destructive analyses of spent fuel samples for determining precise burn-up and isotopic compositions were carried out. The measured data obtained were used for validating calculation codes as well as an examination of criticality safety analyses. Details of the work are described in this report.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from forest, land use and biomass burning in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matitu, M.R.

    1994-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) gases are the main contributors to the greenhouse effect that consequently results in global warming. This paper examines the sources and sinks of these gases from/to forest, land use and biomass burning and their likely contribution to climate change using IPCC/OECD methodology. Emissions have been calculated in mass units of carbon and nitrogen Emissions and uptake have been summed for each gas and the emissions converted to full molecular weights. Mismanagement of forests and land misuse have contributed much to greenhouse gas emissions in Tanzania. For example, cultivation methods, forest clearing, burning of savannah grass and indiscriminate logging (non-sustainable logging) have contributed significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. These categories contribute more than 90% of total CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the study shows that shifting cultivation, savannah burning and forest clearing for conversion to permanent crop land and pasture are the main contributors.

  20. Simulation of differential die-away instrument’s response to asymmetrically burned spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinik, Tomas; Henzl, Vladimir; Grape, Sophie; Svard, Staffan Jacobsson; Jansson, Peter; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2015-03-04

    Here, previous simulation studies of Differential Die–Away (DDA) instrument’s response to active interrogation of spent nuclear fuel from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) yielded promising results in terms of its capability to accurately measure or estimate basic spent fuel assembly (SFA) characteristics, such as multiplication, initial enrichment (IE) and burn-up (BU) as well as the total plutonium content. These studies were however performed only for a subset of idealized SFAs with a symmetric BU with respect to its longitudinal axis. Therefore, to complement the previous results, additional simulations have been performed of the DDA instrument’s response to interrogation of asymmetrically burned spent nuclear fuel in order to determine whether detailed assay of SFAs from all 4 sides will be necessary in real life applications or whether a cost and time saving single sided assay could be used to achieve results of similar quality as previously reported in case of symmetrically burned SFAs.

  1. Fabrication of contacts for silicon solar cells including printing burn through layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginley, David S; Kaydanova, Tatiana; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2014-06-24

    A method for fabricating a contact (240) for a solar cell (200). The method includes providing a solar cell substrate (210) with a surface that is covered or includes an antireflective coating (220). For example, the substrate (210) may be positioned adjacent or proximate to an outlet of an inkjet printer (712) or other deposition device. The method continues with forming a burn through layer (230) on the coating (220) by depositing a metal oxide precursor (e.g., using an inkjet or other non-contact printing method to print or apply a volume of liquid or solution containing the precursor). The method includes forming a contact layer (240) comprising silver over or on the burn through layer (230), and then annealing is performed to electrically connect the contact layer (240) to the surface of the solar cell substrate (210) through a portion of the burn through layer (230) and the coating (220).

  2. Waste minimization for selected residuals in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    This technical report on residuals in the petroleum refining industry provides an industry overview, process description, and process flow diagrams. It presents residual descriptions for each of the 29 petroleum refining residuals of concern and what source reduction option exist. It reviews the data sources - RCRA Section 2007 surveys, site visits, and journal articles. It also describes major findings and evaluates the quantity and quality of waste minization information for each source.

  3. EERE Success Story-California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel | Department of Energy Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel EERE Success Story-California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Logos Technologies and EERE partnered with EdeniQ of Visalia, California, to construct a pilot plant that processes 1.2 tons per day of agricultural residues, such as corn stover (leaves and stalks), as well as other California-sourced indigenous, nonfood feedstock sources (wood chips and switchgrass). The

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

  5. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  6. Solid colloidal optical wavelength filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Joseph L.

    1992-01-01

    A solid colloidal optical wavelength filter includes a suspension of spheal particles dispersed in a coagulable medium such as a setting plastic. The filter is formed by suspending spherical particles in a coagulable medium; agitating the particles and coagulable medium to produce an emulsion of particles suspended in the coagulable medium; and allowing the coagulable medium and suspended emulsion of particles to cool.

  7. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  8. Solid-state radioluminescent compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, Roger L.; Gill, John T.; Hawkins, Daniel B.; Renschler, Clifford L.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Smith, Henry M.

    1991-01-01

    A solid state radioluminescent composition for light source comprises an optically clear polymer organic matrix containing tritiated organic materials and dyes capable of "red" shifting primary scintillation emissions from the polymer matrix. The tritiated organic materials are made by reducing, with tritium, an unsaturated organic compound that prior to reduction contains olefinic or alkynylic bonds.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A. Michael; Draper, Robert

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  10. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  11. Differential Impact of [beta] and [gamma] Residue Preorganization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Differential Impact of beta and gamma Residue Preorganization on alphabetagamma-Peptide Helix Stability in Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Differential ...

  12. Residual orientation in micro-injection molded parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, John; Edward, Graham H.; Knott, Robert B. (Monash); (ANSTO)

    2008-06-30

    The residual orientation following micro-injection molding of small rectangular plates with linear polyethylene has been examined using small-angle neutron scattering, and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The effect of changing the molding conditions has been examined, and the residual chain orientation has been compared to the residual orientation of the crystallites as a function of position in the sample. This study has found that, for micromoldings, the orientation of the crystallites decreases with increasing injection speed and increasing mold thickness. The combined data suggest that the majority of the orientation present comes from oriented crystal growth rather than residual chain orientation.

  13. Wet Gasification of Ethanol Residue: A Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Michael D.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-09-22

    A preliminary technoeconomic assessment has been made of several options for the application of catalytic hydrothermal gasification (wet gasification) to ethanol processing residues.

  14. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and ... as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a ...

  15. Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During Heat Treatment of Steel ... Available experimental steel casting heat treatment data was determined to be of ...

  16. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). ... On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco ...

  17. Water dynamics clue to key residues in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Meng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Huaiqiu, E-mail: hqzhu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yao, Xin-Qiu [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Biophysics, Kyoto University, Sakyo Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); She, Zhen-Su, E-mail: she@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-01-29

    A computational method independent of experimental protein structure information is proposed to recognize key residues in protein folding, from the study of hydration water dynamics. Based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, two key residues are recognized with distinct water dynamical behavior in a folding process of the Trp-cage protein. The identified key residues are shown to play an essential role in both 3D structure and hydrophobic-induced collapse. With observations on hydration water dynamics around key residues, a dynamical pathway of folding can be interpreted.

  18. Potential solubility controls for Iodine-129 in residual tank waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denham, M. E.

    2015-08-03

    This report documents a scoping analysis of possible controls on the release of 129I from tank 12H residual waste.

  19. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration of Advanced Logistical Systems and Focused Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues and Energy Crops in a Densified Large Square Bale Format OBP WBS: ...

  20. Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the production of aluminum alloy satellite boxes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the production of ...

  1. RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED INCONEL 718 ENGINE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED INCONEL 718 ENGINE MOUNT Authors: Watkins, Thomas R 1 ; Cornwell, Paris A 1 ; Dehoff, Ryan R 1 ; Nangia, Vinod 2 ; ...

  2. Status Report: Characterization of Weld Residual Stresses on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Status Report: Characterization of Weld Residual Stresses on Full Diameter SNF Interim ... and results of initial stress (and stress corrosion cracking, SCC) characterization work. ...

  3. Comparison of residual stresses in Inconel 718 simple parts made...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SC USDOE - Office of Science (SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Inconel 718; residual stess; electron beam melting; direct laser metal ...

  4. Residual Stresses for Structural Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Life Prediction in Vehicle Components: Success stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Residual Stresses for Structural Analysis and Fatigue Life ...

  5. Addendum to the East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAIC

    2011-04-01

    The East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan (DOE 2004) describes the planned fieldwork to support the remedial investigation (RI) for residual contamination at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) not addressed in previous Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) decisions. This Addendum describes activities that will be conducted to gather additional information in Zone 1 of the ETTP for groundwater, surface water, and sediments. This Addendum has been developed from agreements reached in meetings held on June 23, 2010, August 25, 2010, October 13, 2010, November 13, 2010, December 1, 2010, and January 13, 2011, with representatives of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). Based on historical to recent groundwater data for ETTP and the previously completed Sitewide Remedial Investigation for the ETTP (DOE 2007a), the following six areas of concern have been identified that exhibit groundwater contamination downgradient of these areas above state of Tennessee and EPA drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs): (1) K-720 Fly Ash Pile, (2) K-770 Scrap Yard, (3) Duct Island, (4) K-1085 Firehouse Burn/J.A. Jones Maintenance Area, (5) Contractor's Spoil Area (CSA), and (6) Former K-1070-A Burial Ground. The paper presents a brief summary of the history of the areas, the general conceptual models for the observed groundwater contamination, and the data gaps identified.

  6. Intermediate-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion system operational development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivard, C.J.

    1995-02-01

    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. Operation of the anaerobic digestion process at high solids reduces the level of process water and thereby the size and capital costs for the digester system. In addition, by virtue of the lack of available water, the microbial catalysts are more productive in feedstock polymer hydrolysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. Information gained from laboratory-scale digester research was used to develop die intermediate-scale digester system. This system represents a 50-fold scale-up of the original digester system and includes continuous feed addition and computer monitoring and control. During the first 1.15 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements -- which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using the NREL high-solids digester design -- are detailed in this report.

  7. High temperature solid state storage cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rea, Jesse R.; Kallianidis, Milton; Kelsey, G. Stephen

    1983-01-01

    A completely solid state high temperature storage cell comprised of a solid rechargeable cathode such as TiS.sub.2, a solid electrolyte which remains solid at the high temperature operating conditions of the cell and which exhibits high ionic conductivity at such elevated temperatures such as an electrolyte comprised of lithium iodide, and a solid lithium or other alkali metal alloy anode (such as a lithium-silicon alloy) with 5-50% by weight of said anode being comprised of said solid electrolyte.

  8. Characterization of contaminants in oil shale residuals and the potential for their management to meet environmental quality standards. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt-Collerus, J.J.

    1984-02-01

    Some general aspects of various oil shale processes developed for scale-up to commercial size modular units are described. The overall magnitude of an envisioned commercial shale oil operation and the magnitude of resulting potentially polluting residues in particular solid residues from retorting oil shale and associated operations and wastewater from retort streams and other sources are considered. The potential problems ensuing from self-oxidation of stockpiles of oil shale and from residual carbonaceous retorted oil shale disposed above ground and/or from in situ retorting operations are examined. Some methods for managing self-heating processes are suggested. The most plausible method of avoiding potential self-heating for retorted oil shale is to oxidize as much as possible of the organic carbon present by utilizing a process that will produce low carbon or carbon-free retorted oil shale residues. In the case of unretorted oil shale, the dimensions and shapes of the stockpiles should be designed such that heat build-up is eliminated or kept to a minimum.

  9. Nondestructive characterization methods for monolithic solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic solid oxide fuel cells (MSOFCS) represent a potential breakthrough in fuel cell technology, provided that reliable fabrication methods can be developed. Fabrication difficulties arise in several steps of the processing: First is the fabrication of uniform thin (305 {mu}m) single-layer and trilayer green tapes (the trilayer tapes of anode/electrolyte/cathode and anode/interconnect/cathode must have similar coefficients of thermal expansion to sinter uniformly and to have the necessary electrochemical properties); Second is the development of fuel and oxidant channels in which residual stresses are likely to develop in the tapes; Third is the fabrication of a ``complete`` cell for which the bond quality between layers and the quality of the trilayers must be established; and Last, attachment of fuel and oxidant manifolds and verification of seal integrity. Purpose of this report is to assess nondestructive characterization methods that could be developed for application to laboratory, prototype, and full-scale MSOFCs.

  10. Laminar burn rates of gun propellants measured in the high-pressure strand burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J. E., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    The pressure dependence of the laminar burn rate of gun propellants plays a role in the design and behavior of high-performance guns. We have begun a program to investigate the effects of processing variables on the laminar burn rates, using our high-pressure strand burner to measure these rates at pressures exceeding 700 MPa. We have burned JA2 and M43 propellant samples, provided by Dr. Arpad Juhasz, ARL, from propellant lots previously used in round-robin tests. Our results at room temperature are in accord with other measurements. In addition, we present results measured for propellant that has been preheated to 50 C before burning. We used our thermochemical equilibrium code, CHEETAH, to help interpret the simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements taken during the testing, and show examples of its use. It has been modified to provide performance measures and equations of state for the products that are familiar to the gun-propellant community users of BLAKE.

  11. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, E.

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  12. Revisiting impacts of nuclear burning for reviving weak shocks in neutrino-driven supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Ko; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Nishimura, Nobuya

    2014-02-20

    We revisit potential impacts of nuclear burning on the onset of the neutrino-driven explosions of core-collapse supernovae. By changing the neutrino luminosity and its decay time to obtain parametric explosions in one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D, respectively) models with or without a 13 isotope ? network, we study how the inclusion of nuclear burning could affect the postbounce dynamics for 4 progenitor models; 3 for 15.0 M {sub ?} stars and 1 for an 11.2 M {sub ?} star. We find that the energy supply due to the nuclear burning of infalling material behind the shock can energize the shock expansion, especially for models that produce only marginal explosions in the absence of nuclear burning. These models are energized by nuclear energy deposition when the shock front passes through the silicon-rich layer and/or later as it touches the oxygen-rich layer. Depending on the neutrino luminosity and its decay time, the diagnostic energy of the explosion increases up to a few times 10{sup 50} erg for models with nuclear burning compared to the corresponding models without. We point out that these features are most remarkable for the Limongi-Chieffi progenitor in both 1D and 2D because the progenitor model possesses a massive oxygen layer, with an inner-edge radius that is smallest among the employed progenitors, which means that the shock can touch the rich fuel on a shorter timescale after bounce. The energy difference is generally smaller (?0.1-0.2 10{sup 51} erg) in 2D than in 1D (at most ?0.6 10{sup 51} erg). This is because neutrino-driven convection and the shock instability in 2D models enhance the neutrino heating efficiency, which makes the contribution of nuclear burning relatively smaller compared to 1D models. Considering uncertainties in progenitor models, our results indicate that nuclear burning should remain one of the important ingredients to foster the onset of neutrino-driven explosions.

  13. Thermoacoustic method for relaxation of residual stresses in welded joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshovyi, V.V.; Pakhn`o, M.I.; Tsykhan, O.I.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a thermoacoustic method for the relaxation of residual stresses in welded joints, present a block diagram of a generator of local thermoacoustic pulses designed for implementation of this method, and describe our experiment aimed at relaxation of residual tensile stresses.

  14. Solid-State Lighting | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Lighting Solid-State Lighting 2013 DOE Solid-State Lighting Program Overview ssl-overviewbrochurefeb2013.pdf (3.05 MB) More Documents & Publications July 2016 Postings January ...

  15. 2016 Project Portfolio: Solid-State Lighting

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PROJECT PORTFOLIO: SOLID-STATE LIGHTING January 2016 DOE Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio January 2016 i Executive Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partners with ...

  16. Solid-State Lighting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Princeton's approach to solid-state lighting. Read more A Comprehensive Program Solid-state lighting (SSL) technology has the potential to reduce U.S. lighting energy usage by...

  17. Idaho Solid Waste Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solid Waste Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Idaho Solid Waste Webpage Abstract This webpage provides an overview of regulation...

  18. Solid-state membrane module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard; Taylor, Dale M.

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  19. Conversion of direct process high-boiling residue to monosilanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinson, Jonathan Ashley (Vale of Glamorgan, GB); Crum, Bruce Robert (Madison, IN); Jarvis, Jr., Robert Frank (Midland, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A process for the production of monosilanes from the high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride with silicon metalloid in a process typically referred to as the "direct process." The process comprises contacting a high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride and silicon metalloid, with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalytic amount of aluminum trichloride effective in promoting conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. The present process results in conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. At least a portion of the aluminum trichloride catalyst required for conduct of the process may be formed in situ during conduct of the direct process and isolation of the high-boiling residue.

  20. Application of spectral hole burning to the study of in vitro cellular systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milanovich, Nebojsa

    1999-11-08

    Chapter 1 of this thesis describes the various stages of tumor development and a multitude of diagnostic techniques used to detect cancer. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the aspects of hole burning spectroscopy important for its application to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 3 gives general descriptions of cellular organelles, structures, and physical properties that can serve as possible markers for the differentiation of normal and cancerous cells. Also described in Chapter 3 are the principles of cryobiology important for low temperature spectroscopy of cells, characterization of MCF-10F (normal) and MCF-7 (cancer) cells lines which will serve as model systems, and cellular characteristics of aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (APT), which was used as the test probe. Chapters 4 and 5 are previously published papers by the author pertaining to the results obtained from the application of hole burning to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 4 presents the first results obtained by spectral hole burning of cellular systems and Chapter 5 gives results for the differentiation of MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells stained with APT by an external applied electric (Stark) field. A general conclusion is presented in Chapter 6. Appendices A and B provide additional characterization of the cell/probe model systems. Appendix A describes the uptake and subcellular distribution of APT in MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells and Appendix B compares the hole burning characteristics of APT in cells when the cells are in suspension and when they are examined while adhering to a glass coverslip. Appendix C presents preliminary results for a novel probe molecule, referred to as a molecular thumbtack, designed by the authors for use in future hole burning applications to cellular systems.

  1. Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    INL's patented, continuous-flow Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC) produces the highest ASTM-quality B-100 biodiesel from waste fats, oils, and greases at the site of waste generation. SSC delivers low-cost transportation fuel, avoids significant landfill costs for municipalities, and reduces potent methane and other emissions produced in landfills from these wastes. You can learn more about INL's energy research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. Solid-state membrane module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinklin, Thomas Ray; Lewinsohn, Charles Arthur

    2015-06-30

    A module for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture comprising planar solid-state membrane units, each membrane unit comprising planar dense mixed conducting oxides layers, planar channel-free porous support layers, and one or more planar intermediate support layers comprising at least one channeled porous support layer. The porosity of the planar channeled porous support layers is less than the porosity of the planar channel-free porous support layers.

  3. Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    INL's patented, continuous-flow Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC) produces the highest ASTM-quality B-100 biodiesel from waste fats, oils, and greases at the site of waste generation. SSC delivers low-cost transportation fuel, avoids significant landfill costs for municipalities, and reduces potent methane and other emissions produced in landfills from these wastes. You can learn more about INL's energy research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. SolidEnergy Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SolidEnergy Systems National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) lithium battery combines the safety and energy density of a solid polymer lithium battery and the high performance of a lithium-ion battery. The battery developed by SolidEnergy achieves high energy density that works safely over a wide temperature range, which makes it ideal for electric vehicles and consumer electronics where both energy

  5. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  6. Suspended Solids Profiler Shop Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-19

    The Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP) Instrument is planned to be installed in the AZ-101 tank to measure suspended solids concentrations during mixer pump testing. The SSP sensor uses a reflectance measurement principle to determine the suspended solids concentrations. The purpose of this test is to provide a documented means of verifying that the functional components of the SSP operate properly.

  7. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  8. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terji

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  9. Beneficial uses of paper mill residuals for New York State`s recycled-paper mills. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This report evaluates the New York paper mill industry in terms of the productive management and treatment of solid wastes. It identifies current efforts by recycling mills to beneficially use paper mill residuals (often called sludge) and suggests additional options that should be considered by the industry in general and individual mills in particular. It also examines the regulations and economics affecting the mills and suggests actions that could improve the industry`s ability to convert wastes to value-added products. The report recommends that the mills should continue measures to reduce fiber and filler clay losses, promote the transfer of usable fiber and clay to mills able to use them, upgrade sludge dewatering capabilities, and take a more regional approach to solid waste disposal problems. State agencies are urged to support these efforts, encourage the development and commercialization of new beneficial use technologies, and reduce regulatory barriers whenever possible.

  10. Solid State Lighting FAQ Tip Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid State Lighting FAQ Tip Sheet Solid State Lighting FAQ Tip Sheet Contains information on solid state lighting applications for energy efficiency in buildings. PDF icon ...

  11. Doing Business with DOE's Solid-State Lighting Program | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Doing Business with DOE's Solid-State Lighting Program Doing Business with DOE's Solid-State Lighting Program 2014 DOE Solid-State Lighting Program Fact Sheet doingbusinessfactshe...

  12. International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solid Waste Association (ISWA) Jump to: navigation, search Name: International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) Address: ISWA - International Solid Waste Association General...

  13. Extractability of heavy metals in wastewater solids undergoing anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    The extractability of heavy metals in wastewater sludge undergoing anaerobic digestion was investigated. Using batch laboratory digesters, raw wastewater sludge was anaerobically digested at different raw sludge solids loadings and two temperatures. From each of the laboratory digesters, wastewater sludge was sampled at three day intervals and sequentially separated into seven extraction fractions and analyzed for the metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, and Pb. The seven step sequential extraction was for metal species: (a) soluble, (b) displaced-exchangeable, (c) adsorbed, (d) organic, (e) carbonate, (f) sulfide-acid soluble, and (g) residual. At the 35/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the extractant fractions between the raw and anaerobically digested sludges were significantly different. For the 45/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the raw and digested sludge extractant fractions were different and different compared to the 35/sup 0/C system. The 45/sup 0/C raw sludge showed greater percent metal in the organic and sulfide-acid soluble fraction than the digested sludge. At the 45/sup 0/C anaerobic digestion temperature the percent of raw sludge solids loading in the digester had a greater effect on changes in metal extractability and proposed metal species than the 35/sup 0/C.

  14. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: The importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allegrini, E.; Butera, S.; Kosson, D.S.; Van Zomeren, A.; Van der Sloot, H.A.; Astrup, T.F.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Relevance of metal leaching in waste management system LCAs was assessed. • Toxic impacts from leaching could not be disregarded. • Uncertainty of toxicity, due to background activities, determines LCA outcomes. • Parameters such as pH and L/S affect LCA results. • Data modelling consistency and coverage within an LCA are crucial. - Abstract: Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system boundaries. The importance of data quality and parameter selection in the overall LCA results was evaluated, and an innovative method to assess metal transport into the environment was applied, in order to determine emissions to the soil and water compartments for use in an LCA. It was found that toxic impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities in the scenario (e.g. electricity production). Based on the analysis of relevant parameters relative to leaching, and on general results

  15. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  16. Phase Chemistry of Tank Sludge Residual Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; LIU,JUN; NAGY,KATHRYN L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.

    1999-11-29

    We are attempting to understand the solid phase chemistry of the high level nuclear waste (HLW) stored in tanks at Hanford. Because this waste is compositionally complex, our approach is to study experimentally the aging dynamics of simplified systems whose bulk chemistry approximates that of the tank sludges. After a basic understanding of these dynamics has been attained we plan to increase the compositional complexities one component at a time, in order to assess the influence of each component. Results will allow for reliable prediction of sludge phase chemistry over a range of sludge compositions. Iron and aluminum comprise the bulk of most HLW sludges, so we chose to begin by studying the behavior of iron-aluminum systems. Fe/Al ratios were chosen to approximate those relevant to the solutions that produced the sludge. Aluminum and iron concentrations in the various process fluids are summarized and compared to our experimental starting solutions in Table 1 (process solution data from Krumhansl, personal communication, 1998). Our low aluminum experiments serve as direct analogues to both Bismuth Phosphate and low-Fe PUREX waste. Cornell and Giovanoli (1985) found that, in a pure iron system at 70 C, a 10-fold or even 50-fold increase in suspension concentration had only very slight effects on the final aged products. Since our experiments have similar Al/Fe ratios to some high Fe-PUREX process solutions our results are probably relevant to those wastes as well. However, our results may not apply to the high-Fe and high-Al PUREX wastes, as discussed below. The high Al experiments were designed specifically to simulate REDOX waste.

  17. Flowmeter for gas-entrained solids flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Porges, Karl G.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the measurement of solids feedrate in a gas-entrained solids flow conveyance system. The apparatus and method of the present invention include a vertical duct connecting a source of solids to the gas-entrained flow conveyance system, a control valve positioned in the vertical duct, and a capacitive densitometer positioned along the duct at a location a known distance below the control valved so that the solid feedrate, Q, of the gas entrained flow can be determined by Q=S.rho..phi.V.sub.S where S is the cross sectional area of the duct, .rho. is the density of the solid, .phi. is the solid volume fraction determined by the capacitive densitometer, and v.sub.S is the local solid velocity which can be inferred from the konown distance of the capacitive densitometer below the control valve.

  18. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs.

  19. Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Sulfur <= 1% Residual F.O., Sulfur > 1% No. 4 Fuel Oil Period-Unit: Monthly - Thousand Gallons per Day Annual - Thousand Gallons per Day Sales Type: Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Sales Type Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 4,103.1 3,860.0 4,053.4 4,238.4 3,888.8 3,799.0

  20. Fast ignition of an inertial fusion target with a solid noncryogenic fuel by an ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gus’kov, S. Yu.; Zmitrenko, N. V.; Il’in, D. V.; Sherman, V. E.

    2015-09-15

    The burning efficiency of a preliminarily compressed inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target with a solid noncryogenic fuel (deuterium-tritium beryllium hydride) upon fast central ignition by a fast ion beam is studied. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent to which the spatial temperature distribution formed under the heating of an ICF target by ion beams with different particle energy spectra affects the thermonuclear gain. The study is based on a complex numerical modeling including computer simulations of (i) the heating of a compressed target with a spatially nonuniform density and temperature distributions by a fast ion beam and (ii) the burning of the target with the initial spatial density distribution formed at the instant of maximum compression of the target and the initial spatial temperature distribution formed as a result of heating of the compressed target by the ion beam. The threshold energy of the igniting ion beam and the dependence of the thermonuclear gain on the energy deposited in the target are determined.

  1. BT16 Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops Factsheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... forests, municipal solid wastes, urban wood waste, and algae, the report includes an evaluation of biomass supply potentially available through production on agricultural land. ...

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

    1993-04-06

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  3. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-01-01

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  4. Solid-state optical microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, I.T.

    1981-01-07

    A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  5. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-12-07

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  6. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1990-01-01

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert; George, Raymond A.; Shockling, Larry A.

    1993-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  8. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1990-07-03

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counter electrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films. 4 figs.

  9. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  10. Uncertainties in the characterization of the thermal environment of a solid rocket propellant fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, J.C.

    1993-10-01

    There has been an interest in developing models capable of predicting the response of systems to Minuteman (MM) III third-stage solid propellant fires. Input parameters for such an effort include the boundary conditions that describe the fire temperature, heat flux, emissivity, and propellant burn rate. In this study scanning spectroscopy and pyrometry were used to infer plume temperatures. Each diagnostic system possessed strengths and weaknesses. The intention was to use various supportive methods to infer plume temperature and emissivity, because no one diagnostic had proven capabilities for determining temperature under these conditions. Furthermore, these diagnostics were being used near the limit of their applicability. All these points created some uncertainty in the data collected.

  11. Proceedings: 1989 conference on municipal solid waste as a utility fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 1989 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Conference on Municipal Solid Waste as a Utility Fuel. The subject areas included are: Utility cofiring experience, refuse-derived fuel production, firing 100% refuse-derived fuel, mass burn technology, fluidized bed combustion, research reports, environmental control technology, and papers on permitting, environmental risk assessment, and the impact of recycling. The conference was held on October 10--12, 1989, and was proceeded by similar conferences held 11/85 (EPRI publication CS-4900-SR, 1986); 1/82 (EPRI publication CS-2723, 1982) and 1/80 (EPRI Publication WS-79-225, 1980). Individual projects are processed separately for on the databases. (MHB)

  12. Maximization of revenues for power sales from a solid waste resources recovery facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The report discusses the actual implementation of the best alternative in selling electrical power generated by an existing waste-to-energy facility, the Metro-Dade County Resources Recovery Plant. After the plant processes and extracts various products out of the municipal solid waste, it burns it to produce electrical power. The price for buying power to satisfy the internal needs of our Resources Recovery Facility (RRF) is substantially higher than the power price for selling electricity to any other entity. Therefore, without any further analysis, it was decided to first satisfy those internal needs and then export the excess power. Various alternatives were thoroughly explored as to what to do with the excess power. Selling power to the power utilities or utilizing the power in other facilities were the primary options.

  13. K Basins floor sludge retrieval system knockout pot basket fuel burn accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUNT, J.W.

    1998-11-11

    The K Basins Sludge Retrieval System Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report (HNF-2676) identified and categorized a series of potential accidents associated with K Basins Sludge Retrieval System design and operation. The fuel burn accident was of concern with respect to the potential release of contamination resulting from a runaway chemical reaction of the uranium fuel in a knockout pot basket suspended in the air. The unmitigated radiological dose to an offsite receptor from this fuel burn accident is calculated to be much less than the offsite risk evaluation guidelines for anticipated events. However, because of potential radiation exposure to the facility worker, this accident is precluded with a safety significant lifting device that will prevent the monorail hoist from lifting the knockout pot basket out of the K Basin water pool.

  14. Preliminary design of ultra-long cycle fast reactor employing breed-and-burn strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tak, T. W.; Yu, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, D.; Kim, T. K.

    2012-07-01

    A new design of ultra-long cycle fast reactor with power rate of 1000 MWe (UCFR) has been developed based on the strategy of breed-and burn. The bottom region of the core with low enriched uranium (LEU) plays a role of igniter of the core burning and the upper natural uranium (NU) region acts as blanket for breeding. Fissile materials are bred in the blanket and the active core moves upward at a speed of 5.4 cm/year. Through the core depletion calculation using Monte Carlo code, McCARD, it is confirmed that a full power operation of 60 years without refueling is feasible. Core performance characteristics have been evaluated in terms of axial/radial power shapes, reactivity feedback coefficients, etc. This design will serve as a base model for further design study of UCFRs using LWR spent fuels in the blanket region. (authors)

  15. EERE Success Story-California: Agricultural Residues Produce...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    California, to construct a pilot plant that processes 1.2 tons per day of agricultural residues, such as corn stover (leaves and stalks), as well as other California-source...

  16. Improvement of coke quality by utilization of hydrogenation residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meckel, J.F. ); Wairegi, T. )

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogenation residue is the product left over when petroleum residue feedstocks (or coal) are treated by, e.g. the Veba Combi Cracking (VCC) process. Many tests in semitechnical and full-sized coke ovens were carried out with hydrogenation residue (HR) as an additive in coking coal blends for the production of blast furnace coke or foundry coke. The results of the investigations reported in this paper demonstrate that HR is a very promising alternative for enlarging the coking coal basis compared to other processes or the use of other additives. The application of HR on an industrial scale did not indicate any negative impact on the handling of the hydrogenation residue or on the operation of the coke oven battery.

  17. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ? 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at ? 1?, the step is not ...

  18. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit Keynote Presentation (Ursula Burns, Xerox Corporation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Ursula

    2012-02-29

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. Ursula Burns, Chairman and CEO of the Xerox Corporation, gave the second keynote address of the third day's sessions on February 29.

  19. Evaluation and Parameter Analysis of Burn up Calculations for the Assessment of Radioactive Waste - 13187

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, Ivan; Aksyutina, Yuliya; Tietze-Jaensch, Holger

    2013-07-01

    Burn up calculations facilitate a determination of the composition and nuclear inventory of spent nuclear fuel, if operational history is known. In case this information is not available, the total nuclear inventory can be determined by means of destructive or, even on industrial scale, nondestructive measurement methods. For non-destructive measurements however only a few easy-to-measure, so-called key nuclides, are determined due to their characteristic gamma lines or neutron emission. From these measured activities the fuel burn up and cooling time are derived to facilitate the numerical inventory determination of spent fuel elements. Most regulatory bodies require an independent assessment of nuclear waste properties and their documentation. Prominent part of this assessment is a consistency check of inventory declaration. The waste packages often contain wastes from different types of spent fuels of different history and information about the secondary reactor parameters may not be available. In this case the so-called characteristic fuel burn up and cooling time are determined. These values are obtained from a correlations involving key-nuclides with a certain bandwidth, thus with upper and lower limits. The bandwidth is strongly dependent on secondary reactor parameter such as initial enrichment, temperature and density of the fuel and moderator, hence the reactor type, fuel element geometry and plant operation history. The purpose of our investigation is to look into the scaling and correlation limitations, to define and verify the range of validity and to scrutinize the dependencies and propagation of uncertainties that affect the waste inventory declarations and their independent verification. This is accomplished by numerical assessment and simulation of waste production using well accepted codes SCALE 6.0 and 6.1 to simulate the cooling time and burn up of a spent fuel element. The simulations are benchmarked against spent fuel from the real reactor

  20. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit Keynote Presentation (Ursula Burns, Xerox Corporation)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Burns, Ursula (Xerox Corporation, Chairman and CEO)

    2014-04-11

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. Ursula Burns, Chairman and CEO of the Xerox Corporation, gave the second keynote address of the third day's sessions on February 29.

  1. "Plasma stability and burn control" Inventor...--.. Richard J.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hawryluk, Wayne Solomon | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Plasma stability and burn control" Inventor...--.. Richard J. Hawryluk, Wayne Solomon Power released in a fusion power plant is approximately proportional to the square of the stored energy in conditions relevant to power plant operation. To decrease the fatigue in a key components in a power plant associated with thermal cycling, it would be advantageous to independently control the stored energy. The invention described herein

  2. ADVANCED BURNING STAGES AND FATE OF 8-10 M{sub Sun} STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S.; Hirschi, R.; Nomoto, K.; Fischer, T.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Timmes, F. X.; Herwig, F.; Paxton, B.; Toki, H.; Suzuki, T.; Lam, Y. H.; Bertolli, M. G.

    2013-08-01

    The stellar mass range 8 {approx}< M/M{sub Sun} {approx}< 12 corresponds to the most massive asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and the most numerous massive stars. It is host to a variety of supernova (SN) progenitors and is therefore very important for galactic chemical evolution and stellar population studies. In this paper, we study the transition from super-AGB (SAGB) star to massive star and find that a propagating neon-oxygen-burning shell is common to both the most massive electron capture supernova (EC-SN) progenitors and the lowest mass iron-core-collapse supernova (FeCCSN) progenitors. Of the models that ignite neon-burning off-center, the 9.5 M{sub Sun} star would evolve to an FeCCSN after the neon-burning shell propagates to the center, as in previous studies. The neon-burning shell in the 8.8 M{sub Sun} model, however, fails to reach the center as the URCA process and an extended (0.6 M{sub Sun }) region of low Y{sub e} (0.48) in the outer part of the core begin to dominate the late evolution; the model evolves to an EC-SN. This is the first study to follow the most massive EC-SN progenitors to collapse, representing an evolutionary path to EC-SN in addition to that from SAGB stars undergoing thermal pulses (TPs). We also present models of an 8.75 M{sub Sun} SAGB star through its entire TP phase until electron captures on {sup 20}Ne begin at its center and of a 12 M{sub Sun} star up to the iron core collapse. We discuss key uncertainties and how the different pathways to collapse affect the pre-SN structure. Finally, we compare our results to the observed neutron star mass distribution.

  3. DOE/SC-ARM-13-014 Biomass Burning Observation Project Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan LI Kleinman AJ Sedlacek September 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not

  4. Double, Double Toil and Trouble: Tungsten Burns and Helium Bubbles | U.S.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE Office of Science (SC) Double, Double Toil and Trouble: Tungsten Burns and Helium Bubbles Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding Opportunities Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Community Resources Contact Information Advanced Scientific Computing Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-21/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-7486 F: (301)

  5. Rice straw burning in Southeast Asia as a source of CO and COS to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, B.C.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Putaud, J.P. [Centre des Faibles Radioactivites, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1994-08-20

    This paper discusses the results of aerosol monitoring field tests conducted in four locations in Viet Nam during 1992 and 1993. Atmospheric samples were collected during the dry and wet seasons during the time when rice straw burning was taking place in the agricultural rangelands. The samples were analyzed for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and carbonyl sulfide. Experimental methods and implications of the analytical results are described. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. The role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor in the future of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollaway, W.R.; Lidsky, L.M.; Miller, M.M.

    1990-12-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of the potential role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) in the future of nuclear power. The development of a usable actinide burning strategy could be an important factor in the acceptance and implementation of a next generation of nuclear power. First, the need for nuclear generating capacity is established through the analysis of energy and electricity demand forecasting models which cover the spectrum of bias from anti-nuclear to pro-nuclear. The analyses take into account the issues of global warming and the potential for technological advances in energy efficiency. We conclude, as do many others, that there will almost certainly be a need for substantial nuclear power capacity in the 2000--2030 time frame. We point out also that any reprocessing scheme will open up proliferation-related questions which can only be assessed in very specific contexts. The focus of this report is on the fuel cycle impacts of actinide burning. Scenarios are developed for the deployment of future nuclear generating capacity which exploit the advantages of actinide partitioning and actinide burning. Three alternative reactor designs are utilized in these future scenarios: The Light Water Reactor (LWR); the Modular Gas-Cooled Reactor (MGR); and the Integral Fast Reactor (FR). Each of these alternative reactor designs is described in some detail, with specific emphasis on their spent fuel streams and the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Four separation and partitioning processes are utilized in building the future nuclear power scenarios: Thermal reactor spent fuel preprocessing to reduce the ceramic oxide spent fuel to metallic form, the conventional PUREX process, the TRUEX process, and pyrometallurgical reprocessing.

  7. Study of Buoyancy-Driven Turbulent Nuclear Burning and Validation of Type

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ia Supernova Models | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Study of Buoyancy-Driven Turbulent Nuclear Burning and Validation of Type Ia Supernova Models PI Name: Don Lamb PI Email: lamb@oddjob.uchicago.edu Institution: ASC/Alliance Flash Center, University of Chicago Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 80,000,000 Year: 2011 Research Domain: Physics We will study important aspects of Type Ia supernovae which are among the brightest and most powerful explosions in the

  8. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W.; Sethi, Vijay; Brecher, Lee E.

    1994-01-01

    A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

  9. GEOCHEMICAL TESTING AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT - RESIDUAL TANK WASTE TEST PLAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CANTRELL KJ; CONNELLY MP

    2010-03-09

    This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

  10. Method for residual stress relief and retained austenite destabilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2004-08-10

    A method using of a magnetic field to affect residual stress relief or phase transformations in a metallic material is disclosed. In a first aspect of the method, residual stress relief of a material is achieved at ambient temperatures by placing the material in a magnetic field. In a second aspect of the method, retained austenite stabilization is reversed in a ferrous alloy by applying a magnetic field to the alloy at ambient temperatures.

  11. Laminar burning velocities at high pressure for primary reference fuels and gasoline: Experimental and numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerzembeck, S.; Peters, N. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Spherical flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, PRF 87 and gasoline/air mixtures are experimentally investigated to determine laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths under engine-relevant conditions by using the constant volume bomb method. Data are obtained for an initial temperature of 373 K, equivalence ratios varying from {phi}=0.7 to {phi}=1.2, and initial pressures from 10 to 25 bar. To track the flame front in the vessel a dark field He-Ne laser Schlieren measurement technique and digital image processing were used. The propagating speed with respect to the burned gases and the stretch rate are determined from the rate of change of the flame radius. The laminar burning velocities are obtained through a linear extrapolation to zero stretch. The experimentally determined Markstein numbers are compared to theoretical predictions. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane was derived from the Lawrence Livermore comprehensive mechanisms. This mechanism was validated for ignition delay times and flame propagation at low and high pressures. In summary an overall good agreement with the various experimental data sets used in the validation was obtained. (author)

  12. Apparatus and method for burning a lean, premixed fuel/air mixture with low NOx emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostiuk, Larry W.; Cheng, Robert K.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for enabling a burner to stably burn a lean fuel/air mixture. The burner directs the lean fuel/air mixture in a stream. The apparatus comprises an annular flame stabilizer; and a device for mounting the flame stabilizer in the fuel/air mixture stream. The burner may include a body having an internal bore, in which case, the annular flame stabilizer is shaped to conform to the cross-sectional shape of the bore, is spaced from the bore by a distance greater than about 0.5 mm, and the mounting device mounts the flame stabilizer in the bore. An apparatus for burning a gaseous fuel with low NOx emissions comprises a device for premixing air with the fuel to provide a lean fuel/air mixture; a nozzle having an internal bore through which the lean fuel/air mixture passes in a stream; and a flame stabilizer mounted in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture. The flame stabilizer may be mounted in the internal bore, in which case, it is shaped and is spaced from the bore as just described. In a method of burning a lean fuel/air mixture, a lean fuel/air mixture is provided, and is directed in a stream; an annular eddy is created in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture; and the lean fuel/air mixture is ignited at the eddy.

  13. Void effect analysis of Pb-208 of fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widiawati, Nina Su’ud, Zaki

    2015-09-30

    Void effect analysis of Pb-208 as coolant of fast reactors with modified candle burn-up scheme has been conducted. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of the fourth-generation reactor designs. The reactor is designed with a thermal power output of 500 MWt. Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme allows the reactor to have long life operation by supplying only natural uranium as fuel cycle input. This scheme introducing discrete region, the fuel is initially put in region 1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn up it is shifted to region 2 and region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. The reactor is designed for 100 years with 10 regions arranged axially. The results of neutronic calculation showed that the void coefficients ranged from −0.6695443 % at BOC to −0.5273626 % at EOC for 500 MWt reactor. The void coefficients of Pb-208 more negative than Pb-nat. The results showed that the reactors with Pb-208 coolant have better level of safety than Pb-nat.

  14. Simulation of differential die-away instrument’s response to asymmetrically burned spent nuclear fuel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martinik, Tomas; Henzl, Vladimir; Grape, Sophie; Svard, Staffan Jacobsson; Jansson, Peter; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2015-03-04

    Here, previous simulation studies of Differential Die–Away (DDA) instrument’s response to active interrogation of spent nuclear fuel from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) yielded promising results in terms of its capability to accurately measure or estimate basic spent fuel assembly (SFA) characteristics, such as multiplication, initial enrichment (IE) and burn-up (BU) as well as the total plutonium content. These studies were however performed only for a subset of idealized SFAs with a symmetric BU with respect to its longitudinal axis. Therefore, to complement the previous results, additional simulations have been performed of the DDA instrument’s response to interrogation of asymmetricallymore » burned spent nuclear fuel in order to determine whether detailed assay of SFAs from all 4 sides will be necessary in real life applications or whether a cost and time saving single sided assay could be used to achieve results of similar quality as previously reported in case of symmetrically burned SFAs.« less

  15. Quantitative IR Spectrum and Vibrational Assignments for Glycolaldehyde Vapor: Glycolaldehyde Measurements in Biomass Burning Plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sams, Robert L.; Profeta, Luisa T.; Akagi, Sheryl; Burling, Ian R.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Williams, Stephen D.

    2013-04-15

    Glycolaldehyde (GA, 2-hydroxyethanal, C2H4O2) is a semi-volatile molecule of atmospheric importance, recently proposed as a precursor in the formation of aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA). There are few methods to measure glycolaldehyde vapor, but infrared spectroscopy has been used successfully. Using vetted protocols we have completed the first assignment of all fundamental vibrational modes and derived quantitative IR absorption band strengths using both neat and pressure-broadened GA vapor. Even though GA is problematic due to its propensity to both dimerize and condense, our intensities agree well with the few previously published values. Using the reference ?10 band Q-branch at 860.51 cm-1, we have also determined GA mixing ratios in biomass burning plumes generated by field and laboratory burns of fuels from the southeastern and southwestern United States, including the first field measurements of glycolaldehyde in smoke. The GA emission factors were anti-correlated with modified combustion efficiency confirming release of GA from smoldering combustion. The GA emission factors (g of GA emitted per kg dry biomass burned on a dry mass basis) had a low dependence on fuel type consistent with the production mechanism being pyrolysis of cellulose. GA was emitted at 0.23 0.13% of CO from field fires and we calculate that it accounts for ~18% of the aqueous-phase SOA precursors that we were able to measure.

  16. Process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein nitrogen is separated from hydrogen via ammonia synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stetka, Steven S.; Nazario, Francisco N.

    1982-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein bottoms residues are upgraded with a process wherein air is employed, the improvement wherein nitrogen buildup in the system is avoided by ammonia synthesis. In a preferred embodiment hydrogen from other portions of the liquefaction process will be combined with hydrogen produced as a result of the bottoms upgrading to increase the H.sub.2 :N.sub.2 ratio in the ammonia reactor.

  17. Residual stresses and stress corrosion cracking in pipe fittings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parrington, R.J.; Scott, J.J.; Torres, F.

    1994-06-01

    Residual stresses can play a key role in the SCC performance of susceptible materials in PWR primary water applications. Residual stresses are stresses stored within the metal that develop during deformation and persist in the absence of external forces or temperature gradients. Sources of residual stresses in pipe fittings include fabrication processes, installation and welding. There are a number of methods to characterize the magnitude and orientation of residual stresses. These include numerical analysis, chemical cracking tests, and measurement (e.g., X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, strain gage/hole drilling, strain gage/trepanning, strain gage/section and layer removal, and acoustics). This paper presents 400 C steam SCC test results demonstrating that residual stresses in as-fabricated Alloy 600 pipe fittings are sufficient to induce SCC. Residual stresses present in as-fabricated pipe fittings are characterized by chemical cracking tests (stainless steel fittings tested in boiling magnesium chloride solution) and by the sectioning and layer removal (SLR) technique.

  18. Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G Additonal Sampling and Monitor Well Installation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, E.

    1995-02-01

    The Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G was constructed in 1951 as an unlined earthen pit in surficial sediments for disposal and incineration of potentially hazardous substances, such as metals and organic solvents.

  19. Linkages from DOE's Vehicle Technologies R&D in Advanced Combustion to More Efficient, Cleaner-Burning Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Linkages from DOE’s Vehicle Technologies R&D in Advanced Combustion to More Efficient, Cleaner-Burning Engines, a report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  20. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, Ira D.; Hash, Mark C.; Krumpelt, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  1. Solid phase sequencing of biopolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles R.; Hubert, Koster

    2014-06-24

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing target nucleic acid sequences, to mass modified nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probes comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Probes may be affixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated molecular weight analysis and identification of the target sequence.

  2. Solid phase sequencing of biopolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles; Koster, Hubert

    2010-09-28

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing target nucleic acid sequences, to mass modified nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probes comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Nucleic acids whose sequences can be determined include DNA or RNA in biological samples such as patient biopsies and environmental samples. Probes may be fixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated molecular weight analysis and identification of the target sequence.

  3. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions

  4. MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987 Falicov, L.M. 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE PHYSICS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS;...

  5. Solid-State Lighting Program Strategy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    James R. Brodrick, Ph.D. April 22, 2014 U.S. Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Program Strategy MARKET * Many companies * Semiconductors :: Lighting * Large business ...

  6. Quantitative Experimental Determination of the Solid Solution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quantitative Experimental Determination of the Solid Solution Hardening Potential of Rhenium, Tungsten and Molybdenum in Single Crystal Nickel-based Superalloys Citation Details ...

  7. NREL: Energy Sciences - Solid-State Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Printable Version Solid-State Theory Image showing a roughly spherical red shape that looks like an apple that is floating within a yellow hemispherical shell....

  8. Solid-State Lighting Technical Reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-16

    A page that contains links to technical reports of studies estimating the energy savings potential of solid-state lighting in numerous applications.

  9. Design of Nanocrystal Solids for Photoelectrochemical Synthesis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design of Nanocrystal Solids for Photoelectrochemical Synthesis of Liquid Fuels The proposed research project seeks to exploit the unique size-, composition-, and surface-tunable...

  10. Solid Waste Program Website | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Program Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Solid Waste Program Website Author Alaska Division of Environmental Health...

  11. Solid State Gas Sensors - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Solid State Gas Sensors Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology LANLs...

  12. Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mosaic virus nanostructures and ALD ruthenium oxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic virus ...

  13. Solid-solid phase transition measurements in iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Cynthia Louise

    2010-01-01

    Previously, dynamic experiments on iron have observed a non-zero transition time and width in the solid-solid {alpha}-{var_epsilon} phase transition. Using Proton Radiography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, we have performed plate impact experiments on iron to further study the {alpha}-{var_epsilon} phase transition which occurs at 13GPa. A 40mm bore powder gun was coupled to a proton radiography beam line and imaging system and synchronized to the impact of the projectile on the target sample with the proton beam pattern. A typical experimental configuration for the iron study, as shown below in 3 color-enhanced radiographs, is a 40mm diameter aluminum sabot impacting a 40mm diameter of polycrystalline ARMCO iron. The iron is backed by a sapphire optical window for velocimetry measurements. The aluminum flyer on the left of the iron is barely visible for visual display purposes. Direct density jumps were measured which corresponded to calculations to within 1% using a Wondy mUlti-phase equation of state model. In addition, shock velocities were measured using an edge fitting technique and followed that edge movement from radiograph to radiograph, where radiographs are separated in time by 500 ns. Preliminary measurements give a shock velocity (P1 wave) of 5.251 km/s. The projectile velocity was 0.725 km/s which translate to a peak stress of 17.5 GPa. Assuming the P1 wave is instantaneous, we are able to calibrate the chromatic, motion, object and camera blur by measuring the width of the P1 wave. This approximation works in this case since each of the two density jumps are small compared to the density of the object. Subtracting the measured width of the P1 wave in quadrature from the width of the P2 wave gives a preliminary measurement of the transition length of 265 {mu}m. Therefore, a preliminary measured phase transition relaxation time {tau} = transition length/u{sub s} = 265 {mu}m/5.251 km/s = 50 ns. Both Boettger and Jensen conclude that the

  14. Kinetics of Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Iron (u)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Cynthia, L

    2011-01-27

    Previously, dynamic experiments on iron have observed a non-zero transition time and width in the solid-solid {alpha}-{var_epsilon} phase transition. Using Proton Radiography at the los Alamos Neutron Science Center, we have performed plate impact experiments on iron to further study the {alpha}-{var_epsilon} phase transition which occurs at 13GPa. A 40mm bore powder gun was coupled to a proton radiography beam line and imaging system and synchronized to the impact of the projectile on the target sample with the proton beam pattern. A typical experimental configuration for the iron study, as shown below in 3 color-enhanced radiographs, is a 40mm diameter aluminum sabot impacting a 40mm diameter of polycrystalline ARMCO iron. The iron is backed by a sapphire optical window for velocimetry measurements. The aluminum flyer on the left of the iron is barely visible for visual display purposes. Direct density jumps were measured which corresponded to calculations to within 1% using a Wondy multi-phase equation of state model. In addition, shock velocities were measured using an edge fitting technique and followed that edge movement from radiograph to radiograph, where rad iographs are separated in time by 500 ns. Preliminary measurements give a shock velocity (P1 wave) of 5.251 km/s. The projectile velocity was 0.725 km/s which translate to a peak stress of 17.5 GPa. Assuming the P1 wave is instantaneous, we are able to calibrate the chromatic, motion, object and camera blur by measuring the width of the P1 wave. This approximation works in this case since each of the two density jumps are small compared to the density of the object. Subtracting the measured width of the P1 wave in quadrature from the width of the P2 wave gives a preliminary measurement of the transition length of 265 {micro}m. Therefore, a preliminary measured phase transition relaxation time {tau} = transition length/u{sub s} = 265 {micro}m/5.251 km/s = 50 ns. Both Boettger1 & Jensen2 conclude that

  15. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  16. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.; Andriulli, J.B.; Strain, P.D.

    1998-09-08

    A method is described for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector. 1 fig.

  17. Method for removing solid particulate material from within liquid fuel injector assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Andriulli, John B. (Kingston, TN); Strain, Paul D. (Eads, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A method for removing residual solid particulate material from the interior of liquid fuel injectors and other fluid flow control mechanisms having or being operatively associated with a flow-regulating fixed or variable orifice. The method comprises the sequential and alternate introduction of columns of a non-compressible liquid phase and columns of a compressed gas phase into the body of a fuel injector whereby the expansion of each column of the gas phase across the orifice accelerates the liquid phase in each trailing column of the liquid phase and thereby generates turbulence in each liquid phase for lifting and entraining the solid particulates for the subsequent removal thereof from the body of the fuel injector.

  18. Identification And Characterization Of The Solids Found In Extraction Contactor SEP-401 In June 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-10

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) recently conducted an outage that included maintenance on the centrifugal contactors. Operations personnel observed solids or deposits in two contactors and attempted to collect samples for analyses by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The residues found in Extraction Contactor SEP-401 are a mixture of amorphous silica, aluminosilicate, titanium, and debris from low alloy steel. The solids contain low concentrations of plutonium and strontium. These isotopes are associated with the titanium that came from the monosodium titanate (MST) added in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) most likely as leached Ti from the MST that precipitated subsequently in MCU. An attempt was also made to obtain samples from the contents of Wash Contactor SEP-702. However, sampling provide ineffective.

  19. Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

  20. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals. Volume 2, High-G solid-bowl centrifuge: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehoe, D.

    1992-12-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

  1. Managing America`s solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-03-02

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  2. Solid fuel applications to transportation engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rentz, Richard L.; Renner, Roy A.

    1980-06-01

    The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

  3. Biochemical transformation of solid carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    2001-09-25

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  4. U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Sulfur <= 1% Residual F.O., Sulfur > 1% No. 4 Fuel Oil Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Sales Type Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History Sales to End Users 4,103.1 3,860.0 4,053.4 4,238.4 3,888.8 3,799.0 1983-2016 Sales for Resale 9,292.6 9,338.0 9,180.7 8,984.8 9,875.7 8,936.2

  5. Residual stresses and plastic deformation in GTA-welded steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, P.C. ); Keijser, T.H. de; Ouden, G. den )

    1993-03-01

    Residual stresses and plastic deformation in single pass GTA welded low-carbon steel were studied by means of x-ray diffraction in combination with optical microscopy and hardness measurements. The residual stresses and the amount of plastic deformation (microstrain) were obtained from x-ray diffraction line positions and line broading. Since the plates were polished before welding, it was possible to observe in the optical microscope two types of Lueders bands. During heating curved Lueders bands and during cooling straight Lueders bands perpendicular to the weld are formed. The curved Lueders bands extend over a larger distance from the weld than the straight Lueders bands. The amount of plastic deformation as obtained from the x-ray diffraction analysis is in agreement with these observations. An explanation is offered for the stresses measured in combination with plastic deformations observed. It is concluded that in the present experiments plastic deformation is the main cause of the residual stresses.

  6. Characterization of Residual Medium Peptides from Yersinia pestis Cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clowers, Brian H.; Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2013-04-03

    Using a range of common microbial medium formulations (TSB, BHI, LB, and G-media), two attenuated strains of Y. pestis (KIM D27 (pgm-) and KIMD1 lcr-) were cultivated in triplicate. These cellular suspensions were used to develop a method of extracting residual medium peptides from the final microbial preparation to assess their relative abundance and identity. Across the conditions examined, which included additional cellular washing and different forms of microbial inactivation, residual medium peptides were detected. Despite the range of growth medium sources used and the associated manufacturing processes used in their production, a high degree of peptide similarity was observed for a given medium recipe. These results demonstrate that residual medium peptides are retained using traditional microbial cultivation techniques and may be used to inform forensic investigations with respect to production deduction.

  7. Study on rheological characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu

    1997-07-01

    We have embarked on a program to develop petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) as an alternative fuel for existing oil-fired boilers. The industrial application of petroleum coke residual oil slurry requires full knowledge of its flow behavior. This paper will present the results of an experimental investigation undertaken to study the Theological properties using a rotating viscometer at shear rate up to 996 s{sup -1}. The effects of temperature, concentration, particle size distribution and additives are also investigated. The experiments show that petroleum coke residual oil slurry exhibits pseudoplastic behavior, which has favorable viscosity property under a certain condition and has broad prospect to be applied on oil-fired boilers.

  8. Residual strain mapping of Roman styli from Iulia Concordia, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvemini, Filomena; Grazzi, Francesco; Angelini, Ivana; Davydov, Vadim; Vontobel, Peter; Vigoni, Alberto; Artioli, Gilberto; Zoppi, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Iulia Concordia is an important Roman settlement known for the production of iron objects and weapons during the Roman Empire. A huge number of well-preserved styli were found in the past century in the bed of an old channel. In order to shed light about the production processes used by Roman for stylus manufacturing, a neutron diffraction residual strain analysis was performed on the POLDI materials science diffractometer at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. Here, we present results from our investigation conducted on 11 samples, allowing to define, in a non-invasive way, the residual strain map related to the ancient Roman working techniques. - Highlights: • We examined 11 Roman styli from the settlement of Iulia Concordia, Italy. • We performed a neutron diffraction residual strain analysis on POLDI at PSI (CH). • We identified the production processes used by Roman for stylus manufacturing. • We clarified the way and direction of working applied for different classes of styli.

  9. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  10. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

  11. Valve for controlling solids flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feldman, David K.

    1980-01-01

    A fluidized solids control valve is disclosed that is particularly well adapted for use with a flow of coal or char that includes both large particles and fines. The particles may or may not be fluidized at various times during the operation. The valve includes a tubular body that terminates in a valve seat covered by a normally closed closure plate. The valve body at the seat and the closure plate is provided with aligned longitudinal slots that receive a pivotally supported key plate. The key plate is positionable by an operator in inserted, intermediate and retracted positions respecting the longitudinal slot in the valve body. The key plate normally closes the slot within the closure plate but is shaped and aligned obliquely to the longitudinal slot within the valve body to provide progressively increasing slot openings between the inserted and retracted positions. Transfer members are provided between the operator, key plate and closure plate to move the closure plate into an open position only when the key plate is retracted from the longitudinal slot within the valve body.

  12. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  13. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-02-23

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating positive'' terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating negative'' terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  14. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  15. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  16. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garten, Lauren M. Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-03-07

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30 °C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d{sub 33} piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9 kV m{sup −1}. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response.

  17. Modeling of residual stresses by HY-100 weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharia, T.; Taljat, B.; Radhakrishnan, B.

    1997-02-01

    Residual stress distribution in a HY-100 steel disk, induced by GTA spot welding, was analyzed by finite element (FE) formulations and measured by neutron diffraction (ND). Computations used temperature- dependent thermophysical and mechanical properties. FE model predictions are in good agreement with ND data in far heat affected zone (HAZ) and in base metal. Predicted residual stresses in fusion zone and near HAZ were higher than those measured by ND. This discrepancy was attributed to microstructural changes and associated material properties in the HAZ and fusion zone due to phase transformations during the weld thermal cycle.

  18. Evidence for residual elastic strain in deformed natural quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura,Nobumichi; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2009-01-30

    Residual elastic strain in naturally deformed, quartz-containing rocks can be measured quantitatively in a petrographic thin section with high spatial resolution using Laue microdiffraction with white synchrotron x-rays. The measurements with a resolution of one micrometer allow the quantitative determination of the deviatoric strain tensor as a function of position within the crystal investigated. The observed equivalent strain values of 800-1200 microstrains represent a lower bound of the actual preserved residual strain in the rock, since the stress component perpendicular to the cut sample surface plane is released. The measured equivalent strain translates into an equivalent stress in the order of {approx} 50 MPa.

  19. Melting of Uranium Metal Powders with Residual Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin-Mok Hur; Dae-Seung Kang; Chung-Seok Seo

    2007-07-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute focuses on the conditioning of Pressurized Water Reactor spent oxide nuclear fuel. After the oxide reduction step of the ACP, the resultant metal powders containing {approx} 30 wt% residual LiCl-Li{sub 2}O should be melted for a consolidation of the fine metal powders. In this study, we investigated the melting behaviors of uranium metal powders considering the effects of a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O residual salt. (authors)

  20. AmeriFlux US-Bn1 Bonanza Creek, 1920 Burn site near Delta Junction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Randerson, James [University of California, Irvine

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bn1 Bonanza Creek, 1920 Burn site near Delta Junction. Site Description - The Delta Junction 1920 Control site is located near Delta Junction, just to the north of the Alaska Range in interior Alaska. All three Delta Junction sites are within a 15-km radius of one another. Composed of a combination of alluvial outwashes, floodplains, and low terraces dissected by glacial streams originating in the nearby Alaska Range. In 2001, total aboveground biomass consisted almost entirely of black spruce (Picea mariana).

  1. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    81 § ¨ ¦ 81 LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON CALEDONIA HURON C REEK LEIC EST ER COL DEN ASH FORD INDIAN FALLS LAWTONS SAR DINIA RPD-037 -2 GLENWOOD PU LASKI PAVILION CON CORD COL LINS N ELM A ORC HARD PARK-H AMBU RG DANLEY CORNERS ST ILLWAT ER CHAFF EE-ARCAD E FAYETT E-WATERLOO LAKEVIEW JAVA SEN EC A W ELLER Y AU RORA E ZOAR BU FFALO TIOGA SILVER LAKE AKR ON ROM E RAT HBON E ALM A BET HANY WYOMING ULYSSES BR ANCH W SAN DY CREEK COL LINS BLOOMFIELD E LEBANON

  2. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

    1994-06-21

    A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

  3. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM MCU SOLIDS OUTAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.

    2014-09-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has received several solid and liquid samples from MCU in an effort to understand and recover from the system outage starting on April 6, 2014. SRNL concludes that the presence of solids in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) is the likely root cause for the outage, based upon the following discoveries ? A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the scrub contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? An archived sample from Tank 49H taken last year was shown to contain a fine precipitate of sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 drain pipe from extraction contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium aluminosilicate ? A liquid sample from the SSFT was shown to have elevated levels of oxalate anion compared to the expected concentration in the feed Visual inspection of the SSFT indicated the presence of precipitated or transferred solids, which were likely also in the Salt Solution Receipt Tank (SSRT). The presence of the solids coupled with agitation performed to maintain feed temperature resulted in oxalate solids migration through the MCU system and caused hydraulic issues that resulted in unplanned phase carryover from the extraction into the scrub, and ultimately the strip contactors. Not only did this carryover result in the Strip Effluent (SE) being pushed out of waste acceptance specification, but it resulted in the deposition of solids into several of the contactors. At the same time, extensive deposits of aluminosilicates were found in the drain tube in the extraction contactor #1. However it is not known at this time how the aluminosilicate solids are related to the oxalate solids. The solids were successfully cleaned out of the MCU system. However, future consideration must be given to the exclusion of oxalate solids into the MCU system

  4. A Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method to Compare Armor Materials or Components (Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Langhorst; Thomas M Lillo; Henry S Chu

    2014-05-01

    A statistics based ballistic test method is presented for use when comparing multiple groups of test articles of unknown relative ballistic perforation resistance. The method is intended to be more efficient than many traditional methods for research and development testing. To establish the validity of the method, it is employed in this study to compare test groups of known relative ballistic performance. Multiple groups of test articles were perforated using consistent projectiles and impact conditions. Test groups were made of rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) plates and differed in thickness. After perforation, each residual projectile was captured behind the target and its mass was measured. The residual masses measured for each test group were analyzed to provide ballistic performance rankings with associated confidence levels. When compared to traditional V50 methods, the residual mass (RM) method was found to require fewer test events and be more tolerant of variations in impact conditions.

  5. Personal PM2.5 exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed forest burns in southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Dunn, Kevin; Hall, Daniel, B.; Achtemeier, Gary; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke, P.

    2011-07-15

    This study investigated occupational exposure to wood and vegetative smoke in a group of 28 forest firefighters at prescribed forest burns in a southeastern U.S. forest during the winters of 2003-2005. During burn activities, 203 individual person-day PM{sub 2.5} and 149 individual person-day CO samples were collected; during non-burn activities, 37 person-day PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected as controls. Time-activity diaries and post-work shift questionnaires were administered to identify factors influencing smoke exposure and to determine how accurately the firefighters qualitative assessment estimated their personal level of smoke exposure with discrete responses: 'none' or 'very little,' 'low,' 'moderate,' 'high,' and 'very high.' An average of 6.7 firefighters were monitored per burn, with samples collected on 30 burn days and 7 non-burn days. Size of burn plots ranged from 1-2745 acres (avg = 687.8). Duration of work shift ranged from 6.8-19.4 hr (avg = 10.3 hr) on burn days. Concentration of PM{sub 2.5} ranged from 5.9-2673 {mu}g/m{sup 3} on burn days. Geometric mean PM{sub 2.5} exposure was 280 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 140, 557 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 177) for burn day samples, and 16 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 10, 26 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 35) on non-burn days. Average measured PM{sub 2.5} differed across levels of the firefighters categorical self-assessments of exposure (p < 0.0001): none to very little = 120 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 71, 203 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and high to very high = 664 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 373, 1185 {mu}g/m{sup 3}); p < 0.0001 on burn days. Time-weighted average PM{sub 2.5} and personal CO averaged over the run times of PM{sub 2.5} pumps were correlated (correlation coefficient estimate, r = 0.79; CLs: 0.72, 0.85). Overall occupational exposures to particulate matter were low, but results indicate that exposure could exceed the ACGIH{reg_sign}-recommended threshold limit value of 3 mg/m{sup 3} for respirable particulate matter in a few

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-04-24

    The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almlie, Jay C; Miller, Stanley J

    2014-11-11

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  8. Residual stresses in weld overlay tubes: A finite element study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taljat, B.; Zacharia, T.; Wang, X.L.; Keiser, J.R.; Feng, Z.; Jirinec, M.J.

    1997-01-03

    Residual stresses and strains in a tube with circumferential weld overlay were analyzed by the finite element (FE) method. The objective of this work was to develop and verify a FE model, to determine the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in the weld overlay tube, and to evaluate the significance of two contributing factors to residual stress: (1) difference in material properties between tube and weld material, and (2) thermal gradients in the weld. An axisymmetric FE model was developed to simulate the circumferential two-layer welding process of alloy 625 overlay on SA210 tube. The first layer was modeled as a gas metal arc welding process with filler metal, whereas the autogenous gas tungsten arc welding process was modeled for the second layer. Neutron diffraction technique was used to experimentally determine residual elastic strains in the weld overlay tube. Comparison with the FE results shows overall good agreement. Both the experimental and FE results show high compressive stresses at the inside tube surface and high tensile stresses in the weld overlay. This suggests that weld overlay may be used to relieve tensile or produce compressive stresses at the inside tube surface, which is significant for applications where crack initiation is found at the root pass of the joining weld.

  9. Residual oil upgrading utilizing fixed bed hydroprocessing technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohnholt, J.; Fausto, C.

    1985-01-01

    Saber Refinery embarked upon major residual oil upgrading project in an effort to convert heavy atmospheric resids into gasoline and other marketable products. Selection of resid hydroprocessing as an HOC feed preparation unit was necessary for removal of impurities which include organic metallic compounds, nitrogen and sulfur, while enhancing feedstock crackability.

  10. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance Delphi SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Gary Blake; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; Karl Haltiner; Larry Chick; David Schumann; Jeff Weissman; Gail Geiger; Ralphi Dellarocco

    2006-12-31

    The following report details the results under the DOE SECA program for the period July 2006 through December 2006. Developments pertain to the development of a 3 to 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. This report details technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the SOFC Power System: Task 1 SOFC System Development; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant Components; Task 5 Project Management; and Task 6 System Modeling & Cell Evaluation for High Efficiency Coal-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System.

  11. Scalar operators in solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Boqin

    1991-11-01

    Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C{sub 60} is analyzed.

  12. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  13. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  14. Measurement of laminar burning speeds and Markstein lengths using a novel methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahtouh, Toni; Halter, Fabien; Mounaim-Rousselle, Christine [Institut PRISME, Universite d'Orleans, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci-45072, Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2009-09-15

    Three different methodologies used for the extraction of laminar information are compared and discussed. Starting from an asymptotic analysis assuming a linear relation between the propagation speed and the stretch acting on the flame front, temporal radius evolutions of spherically expanding laminar flames are postprocessed to obtain laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths. The first methodology fits the temporal radius evolution with a polynomial function, while the new methodology proposed uses the exact solution of the linear relation linking the flame speed and the stretch as a fit. The last methodology consists in an analytical resolution of the problem. To test the different methodologies, experiments were carried out in a stainless steel combustion chamber with methane/air mixtures at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The equivalence ratio was varied from 0.55 to 1.3. The classical shadowgraph technique was used to detect the reaction zone. The new methodology has proven to be the most robust and provides the most accurate results, while the polynomial methodology induces some errors due to the differentiation process. As original radii are used in the analytical methodology, it is more affected by the experimental radius determination. Finally, laminar burning velocity and Markstein length values determined with the new methodology are compared with results reported in the literature. (author)

  15. Stress Analysis of Coated Particle Fuel in the Deep-Burn Pebble Bed Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    High fuel temperatures and resulting fuel particle coating stresses can be expected in a Pu and minor actinide fueled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (400 MWth) design as compared to the standard UO2 fueled core. The high discharge burnup aimed for in this Deep-Burn design results in increased power and temperature peaking in the pebble bed near the inner and outer reflector. Furthermore, the pebble power in a multi-pass in-core pebble recycling scheme is relatively high for pebbles that make their first core pass. This might result in an increase of the mechanical failure of the coatings, which serve as the containment of radioactive fission products in the PBMR design. To investigate the integrity of the particle fuel coatings as a function of the irradiation time (i.e. burnup), core position and during a Loss Of Forced Cooling (LOFC) incident the PArticle STress Analysis code (PASTA) has been coupled to the PEBBED code for neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and depletion analysis of the core. Two deep burn fuel types (Pu with or without initial MA fuel content) have been investigated with the new code system for normal and transient conditions including the effect of the statistical variation of thickness of the coating layers.

  16. Results of emissions testing while burning densified refuse derived fuel, Dordt College, Sioux Center, Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. provided engineering and source testing services to the Council of Great Lake Governors to support their efforts in promoting the development and utilization of densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF) and pelletized wastepaper fuels in small steam generating facilities. The emissions monitoring program was designed to provide a complete air emissions profile while burning various refuse derived fuels. The specific goal of this test program was to conduct air emissions tests at Dordt College located in Sioux Center, Iowa and to identify a relationship between fuel types and emission characteristics. The sampling protocol was carried out June 12 through June 20, 1989 on boiler {number sign}4. This unit had been previously modified to burn d-RDF. The boiler was not equipped with any type of air pollution control device so the emissions samples were collected from the boiler exhaust stack on the roof of the boilerhouse. The emissions that were sampled included: particulates; PM{sub 10} particulates; hydrochloric acid; dioxins; furans; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB); metals and continuous monitors for CO, CO{sub 2}O{sub 2}SO{sub x}NO{sub x} and total hydrocarbons. Grab samples of the fuels were collected, composited and analyzed for heating value, moisture content, proximate and ultimate analysis, ash fusion temperature, bulk density and elemental ash analysis. Grab samples of the boiler ash were also collected and analyzed for total hydrocarbons total dioxins, total furans, total PCBs and heavy metals. 77 figs., 20 tabs.

  17. Long-term tradeoffs between nuclear- and fossil-fuel burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    A global energy/economics/environmental (E{sup 3}) model has been adapted with a nuclear energy/materials model to understand better {open_quotes}top-level{close_quotes}, long-term trade offs between civilian nuclear power, nuclear-weapons proliferation, fossil-fuel burning, and global economic welfare. Using a {open_quotes}business-as-usual{close_quotes} (BAU) point-of-departure case, economic, resource, proliferation-risk implications of plutonium recycle in LAIRs, greenhouse-gas-mitigating carbon taxes, and a range of nuclear energy costs (capital and fuel) considerations have been examined. After describing the essential elements of the analysis approach being developed to support the Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, preliminary examples of parametric variations about the BAU base-case scenario are presented. The results described herein represent a sampling from more extensive results collected in a separate report. The primary motivation here is: (a) to compare the BAU basecase with results from other studies; (b) to model on a regionally resolved global basis long-term (to year {approximately}2100) evolution of plutonium accumulation in a variety of forms under a limited range of fuel-cycle scenarios; and (c) to illustrate a preliminary connectivity between risks associated with nuclear proliferation and fossil-fuel burning (e.g., greenhouse-gas accumulations).

  18. Performance Comparison of Metallic, Actinide Burning Fuel in Lead-Bismuth and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2001-04-01

    Various methods have been proposed to incinerate or transmutate the current inventory of trans-uranic waste (TRU) that exits in spent light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel, and weapons plutonium. These methods include both critical (e.g., fast reactors) and non-critical (e.g., accelerator transmutation) systems. The work discussed here is part of a larger effort at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to investigate the suitability of lead and lead-alloy cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The neutronics of non-fertile fuel loaded with 20 or 30-wt% light water reactor (LWR) plutonium plus minor actinides for use in a lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor are discussed in this paper, with an emphasis on the fuel cycle life and isotopic content. Calculations show that the average actinide burn rate is similar for both the sodium and lead-bismuth cooled cases ranging from -1.02 to -1.16 g/MWd, compared to a typical LWR actinide generation rate of 0.303 g/MWd. However, when using the same parameters, the sodium-cooled case went subcritical after 0.2 to 0.8 effective full power years, and the lead-bismuth cooled case ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 effective full power years.

  19. Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Studies of Energy Transfer Dynamics in Antenna Complexes of Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoshi Matsuzaki

    2002-08-01

    This thesis contains the candidate's original work on excitonic structure and energy transfer dynamics of two bacterial antenna complexes as studied using spectral hole-burning spectroscopy. The general introduction is divided into two chapters (1 and 2). Chapter 1 provides background material on photosynthesis and bacterial antenna complexes with emphasis on the two bacterial antenna systems related to the thesis research. Chapter 2 reviews the underlying principles and mechanism of persistent nonphotochemical hole-burning (NPHB) spectroscopy. Relevant energy transfer theories are also discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 are papers by the candidate that have been published. Chapter 3 describes the application of NPHB spectroscopy to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii; emphasis is on determination of the low energy vibrational structure that is important for understanding the energy transfer process associated within three lowest energy Qy-states of the complex. The results are compared with those obtained earlier on the FMO complex from Chlorobium tepidum. In Chapter 4, the energy transfer dynamics of the B800 molecules of intact LH2 and B800-deficient LH2 complexes of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are compared. New insights on the additional decay channel of the B800 ring of bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules are provided. General conclusions are given in Chapter 5.

  20. SELECTIVE NOx RECIRCULATION FOR STATIONARY LEAN-BURN NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Chamila Tissera; Matt Swartz; Emre Tatli; Ramprabhu Vellaisamy

    2005-01-01

    The research program conducted at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) is working towards the verification and optimization of an approach to remove nitric oxides from the exhaust gas of lean burn natural gas engines. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under contract number: DE-FC26-02NT41608. Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps. First, NOx is adsorbed from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. Finally the desorbed NOx is passed back into the intake air stream and fed into the engine, where a percentage of the NOx is decomposed. This reporting period focuses on the NOx decomposition capability in the combustion process. Although researchers have demonstrated NOx reduction with SNR in other contexts, the proposed program is needed to further understand the process as it applies to lean burn natural gas engines. SNR is in support of the Department of Energy goal of enabling future use of environmentally acceptable reciprocating natural gas engines through NOx reduction under 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The study of decomposition of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during combustion in the cylinder was conducted on a 1993 Cummins L10G 240 hp lean burn natural gas engine. The engine was operated at different air/fuel ratios, and at a speed of 800 rpm to mimic a larger bore engine. A full scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring NOx, CO{sub 2}, CO, HC concentrations were used to characterize the exhaust gas. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was used to mimic the NOx stream from the desorption process through a mass flow controller and an injection nozzle. The same quantity of NOx was injected into the intake and exhaust line of the engine for 20 seconds at various steady state engine operating points. NOx decomposition rates were obtained by averaging the peak values at each set point minus