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Sample records for residual oil zone

  1. Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says July 20, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Billions of ...

  2. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  3. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  4. U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Sulfur < 1% Residual F.O., Sulfur > 1% No. 4 Fuel Oil Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes ...

  5. Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Sulfur < 1% Residual F.O., Sulfur > 1% No. 4 Fuel Oil Period-Unit: Monthly - Thousand Gallons per Day Annual - Thousand Gallons per Day ...

  6. ,"Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  7. Study on rheological characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu

    1997-07-01

    We have embarked on a program to develop petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) as an alternative fuel for existing oil-fired boilers. The industrial application of petroleum coke residual oil slurry requires full knowledge of its flow behavior. This paper will present the results of an experimental investigation undertaken to study the Theological properties using a rotating viscometer at shear rate up to 996 s{sup -1}. The effects of temperature, concentration, particle size distribution and additives are also investigated. The experiments show that petroleum coke residual oil slurry exhibits pseudoplastic behavior, which has favorable viscosity property under a certain condition and has broad prospect to be applied on oil-fired boilers.

  8. Viscosity stabilization of SRC residual oil. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-05-01

    The use of SRC residual oils for No. 6 Fuel Oil substitutes has been proposed. The oils exhibit viscosity characteristics at elevated temperatures that allow this substitution with only minor modifications to the existing fuel oil infrastructure. However, loss of low-boiling materials causes an increase in the viscosity of the residual oils that is greater than expected from concentration changes. A process has been developed that minimizes the loss of volatiles and thus maintains the viscosity of these materials. The use of an additive (water, phenol, or an SRC light oil cut rich in low-boiling phenols in amounts up to 2.0 wt %) accomplishes this and hence stabilizes the pumping and atomizing characteristics for an extended period. During the course of the work, the components of the volatiles lost were identified and the viscosity change due to this loss was quantified. 3 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  9. ,"U.S. Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Oil Company Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to Electric Utility Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to...

  10. Case Studies of the ROZ CO2 Flood and the Combined ROZ/MPZ CO2 Flood at the Goldsmith Landreth Unit, Ector County, Texas. Using ''Next Generation'' CO2 EOR Technologies to Optimize the Residual Oil Zone CO2 Flood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trentham, Robert C.; Melzer, L. Stephen; Kuuskraa, Vello; Koperna, George

    2015-06-30

    The technology for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2 EOR) has significantly advanced since the earliest floods were implemented in the 1970s. At least for the Permian Basin region of the U.S., the oil recovery has been now been extended into residual oil zones (ROZs) where the mobile fluid phase is water and immobile phase is oil. But the nature of the formation and fluids within the ROZs has brought some challenges that were not present when flooding the MPZs. The Goldsmith-Landreth project in the Permian Basin was intended to first identify the most pressing issues of the ROZs floods and, secondly, begin to address them with new techniques designed to optimize a flood that commingled the MPZ and the ROZ. The early phase of the research conducted considerable reservoir and fluid characterization work and identified both technical and commercial challenges of producing the enormous quantities of water when flooding the ROZs. It also noted the differing water compositions in the ROZ as compared to the overlying MPZs. A new CO2 gas lift system using a capillary string was successfully applied during the project which conveyed the CO2 to the deeper and differing ROZ reservoir conditions at Goldsmith and added a second capillary string that facilitated applying scale inhibitors to mitigate the scaling tendencies of the mixing ROZ and MPZ formation waters. The project also undertook a reservoir modeling effort, using the acquired reservoir characterization data, to history match both the primary and water flood phases of the MPZ and to establish the initial conditions for a modeling effort to forecast response of the ROZ to CO2 EOR. With the advantage of many profile logs acquired from the operator, some concentration on the original pattern area for the ROZ pilot was accomplished to attempt to perfect the history match for that area. Several optional scenarios for producing the ROZ were simulated seeking to find the preferred mode of producing the two intervals. Finally, the project attempted to document for the first time the production performance of commingled MPZ and ROZ CO2 EOR project at the nearby Seminole San Andres Unit. The analysis shows that over 10,000 bopd can be shown to be coming from the ROZ interval, a zone that would have produced no oil under primary or water flood phases. A similar analysis was done for the GLSAU project illustrating that 2000 bopd of incremental EOR oil is currently being produced. The results of the modeling work would suggest that 800 bopd can be attributed to the ROZ alone at GLSAU.

  11. Total Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Commercial Industrial Oil Company Electric Power Vessel Bunkering Military All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 7,835,436 8,203,062 7,068,306 5,668,530 4,883,466 3,942,750 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 3,339,162 3,359,265 2,667,576 1,906,700 1,699,418 1,393,068 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 318,184

  12. Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Commercial Industrial Oil Company Electric Power Vessel Bunkering Military All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 6,908,028 7,233,765 6,358,120 6,022,115 5,283,350 4,919,255 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 2,972,575 2,994,245 2,397,932 2,019,294 1,839,237 1,724,167 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 281,895

  13. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes",4,"Monthly","102015","1151983" ,"Release Date:","142016" ,"Next Release Date:","212016" ,"Excel File...

  14. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 245 Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  15. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 203 Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  16. Table 10.25 Reasons that Made Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Reasons that Made Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable; Unit: Million barrels. Total Amount of Total Amount of Equipment is Not Switching Unavailable Long-Term Unavailable Combinations of NAICS Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable ResiduaCapable of Using Adversely Affects Alternative Environmental Contract Storage for Another Columns F, G, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed as a Fue Fuel Oil Fuel Use

  17. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    55.1 47.1 W W 55.1 46.2 See footnotes at end of table. 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration Petroleum...

  18. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    45.5 49.2 W W 44.5 45.4 See footnotes at end of table. 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration Petroleum...

  19. ,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residual Fuel Oil by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use",8,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Release Date:","12/22/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of November 2016" ,"Excel File

  20. Hydroconversion of heavy oil residues with sulfided additives of catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Perchec, P.; Fixari, B.; Vrinat, M.

    1995-12-31

    Improvements in Heavy oils conversion imply sulfur compounds. For medium conversion, side polycondensations and coke production were avoided by Hydrogen diluent donors (HDD), but conversions were partially inhibited. Sulfided radical activators used in association with HDD and H{sub 2} pressure overcome this effect by preventing coke formation up to 50-60% conversion into 500{degrees}C{sup -} light fractions with unchanged quality profile. Deeper conversions require dispersed sulfided catalyst. Phosphomolybdic acid or molybdenum naphtenate have been used as soluble precursors for such treatments. The state and fitness of sulfidation depend on the nature of precursors.

  1. ,,,"Residual Fuel Oil(b)",,,," Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.5;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Residual Fuel Oil(b)",,,," Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Distillate",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and

  2. Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

  3. Gas chromatographic determination of residual solvents in lubricating oils and waxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Andrade Bruening, I.M.R.

    1983-10-01

    A direct gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of residual solvents is described, using tert-butylbenzene as an internal standard. The lube oils and waxes were prevented from contaminating the chromatographic column by injecting the samples directly into a precolumn containing a silicone stationary phase. The samples of lube oils and waxes were injected directly into the chromatographic column containing another stationary phase, 1,2,3-tris(2-cyanoethoxy)propane. (The waxy samples were dissolved in a light neutral oil). With proper operating conditions, analysis time was 7 min. The procedure has been applied in the control of a lube oil dewaxing plant; the chromatographic column showed no sign of deterioration after 1 h when the precolumn was removed. Known amounts of toluene and methylethyl ketone were added to the solvent-free lubricating oils and wax, and these mixtures were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the procedure. Precision and accuracy of these data are comparable to those of methods previously described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  4. Characterization of contaminants in oil shale residuals and the potential for their management to meet environmental quality standards. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt-Collerus, J.J.

    1984-02-01

    Some general aspects of various oil shale processes developed for scale-up to commercial size modular units are described. The overall magnitude of an envisioned commercial shale oil operation and the magnitude of resulting potentially polluting residues in particular solid residues from retorting oil shale and associated operations and wastewater from retort streams and other sources are considered. The potential problems ensuing from self-oxidation of stockpiles of oil shale and from residual carbonaceous retorted oil shale disposed above ground and/or from in situ retorting operations are examined. Some methods for managing self-heating processes are suggested. The most plausible method of avoiding potential self-heating for retorted oil shale is to oxidize as much as possible of the organic carbon present by utilizing a process that will produce low carbon or carbon-free retorted oil shale residues. In the case of unretorted oil shale, the dimensions and shapes of the stockpiles should be designed such that heat build-up is eliminated or kept to a minimum.

  5. U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Volumes Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Residual Fuel Oil 8,310.7 9,142.9 8,143.0 8,165.8 8,005.5 8,734.3 1983-2015 Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% 1,211.0 721.8 899.6 1,177.6 1,165.0 557.6 1983-2015 Sulfur Greater Than 1% 7,099.7 8,421.2 7,243.4 6,988.2 6,840.5 8,176.7 1983-2015 No. 4 Fuel Oil 163.2 141.9 141.3 W W 128.8 1983-2015

  6. U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Volumes Sales Type: Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Sales Type Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Residual Fuel Oil 3,594.0 4,309.7 4,546.1 3,741.4 4,403.1 3,994.1 1983-2015 Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% W W W NA W W 1983-2015 Sulfur Greater Than 1% W W W 2,878.7 W W 1983-2015 No. 4 Fuel Oil W W W - - -

  7. ,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  8. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes",4,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release

  9. "Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day)" ,,,," Inputs for Heat",,," Primary Consumption" " "," Primary Consumption for all Purposes",,," Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," for Nonfuel Purposes",,,"RSE" ,"

  10. "Table A2. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected" " Industries, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day) " ,,,,," Input for Heat,",,," Primary" " ",," Consumption for All Purposes",,,"Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," Consumption for Nonfuel Purposes ",,,"RSE" "SIC",,"

  11. Pyrolysis of Woody Residue Feedstocks: Upgrading of Bio-Oils from Mountain-Pine-Beetle-Killed Trees and Hog Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacher, Alan H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Preto, Fernando; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-12-01

    Liquid transportation fuel blend-stocks were produced by pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of woody residue biomass. Mountain pine beetle killed wood and hog fuel from a saw mill were pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed reactor and subsequently upgraded to hydrocarbons in a continuous fixed bed hydrotreater. Upgrading was performed by catalytic hydrotreatment in a two-stage bed at 170°C and 405°C with a per bed LHSV between 0.17 and 0.19. The overall yields from biomass to upgraded fuel were similar for both feeds: 24-25% despite the differences in bio-oil (intermediate) mass yield. Pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was 61% from MPBK wood, and subsequent upgrading of the bio-oil gave an average mass yield of 41% to liquid fuel blend stocks. Hydrogen was consumed at an average of 0.042g/g of bio-oil fed, with final oxygen content in the product fuel ranging from 0.31% to 1.58% over the course of the test. Comparatively for hog fuel, pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was lower at 54% due to inorganics in the biomass, but subsequent upgrading of that bio-oil had an average mass yield of 45% to liquid fuel, resulting in a similar final mass yield to fuel compared to the cleaner MPBK wood. Hydrogen consumption for the hog fuel upgrading averaged 0.041 g/g of bio-oil fed, and the final oxygen content of the product fuel ranged from 0.09% to 2.4% over the run. While it was confirmed that inorganic laded biomass yields less bio-oil, this work demonstrated that the resultant bio-oil can be upgraded to hydrocarbons at a higher yield than bio-oil from clean wood. Thus the final hydrocarbon yield from clean or residue biomass pyrolysis/upgrading was similar.

  12. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort by sound monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkington, W. Brice (Grand Junction, CO)

    1978-01-01

    The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring for sound produced in the retort, preferably by monitoring for sound at at least two locations in a plane substantially normal to the direction of advancement of the processing zone. Monitoring can be effected by placing a sound transducer in a well extending through the formation adjacent the retort and/or in the fragmented mass such as in a well extending into the fragmented mass.

  13. Method for establishing a combustion zone in an in situ oil shale retort having a pocket at the top

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (1904 Glenmont Dr., Bakersfield, CA 93309)

    1980-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort having a top boundary of unfragmented formation and containing a fragmented permeable mass has a pocket at the top, that is, an open space between a portion of the top of the fragmented mass and the top boundary of unfragmented formation. To establish a combustion zone across the fragmented mass, a combustion zone is established in a portion of the fragmented mass which is proximate to the top boundary. A retort inlet mixture comprising oxygen is introduced to the fragmented mass to propagate the combustion zone across an upper portion of the fragmented mass. Simultaneously, cool fluid is introduced to the pocket to prevent overheating and thermal sloughing of formation from the top boundary into the pocket.

  14. Application of turbidite facies of the Stevens Oil Zone for reservoir management, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A.; Thompson, T.W.; McJannet, G.S.

    1996-12-31

    A detailed depositional model for the uppermost sand reservoirs of the Stevens Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, California, contains three facies: turbidite channel-fill sand bodies, overbank Sandstone and mudstone, and pelagic and hemipelagic siliceous shale. Sand bodies are the primary producing facies and consist of layered, graded sandstone with good permeability. The presence of incipient anticlines with subsea relief in the late Miocene resulted in deposition of lenticular and sinuous sand Was within structurally created channels. Relief of these structural channels was low when the earliest sand bodies were deposited, leading to a wide channel complex bounded by broad overbank deposits of moderate to low permeability. As deposition proceeded, increased structural relief constrained the channels, resulting in narrower sand body width and relatively abrupt channel terminations against very low permeability siliceous shale. With post-Miocene uplift and differential compaction, stratigraphic mounding of sand bodies helped create structural domes such as the 24Z reservoir. Stratigraphic traps including the 26R reservoir were also created. Such traps vary in seal quality from very effective to leaky, depending on the lateral transition from sand bodies to siliceous shale. Application of the Elk Hills turbidity model (1) provides a framework for monitoring production performance in the 24Z and Northwest Stevens waterflood projects; and for tracking gas migration into and out of the 26R reservoir, (2) helps b identify undeveloped locations in the 26R reservoir ideally suited for horizontal wells, (3) has led to the identification of two new production trends in the 29R area, and (4) makes possible the development of exploration plays in western Elk Hills.

  15. Application of turbidite facies of the Stevens Oil Zone for reservoir management, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A.; Thompson, T.W. ); McJannet, G.S. )

    1996-01-01

    A detailed depositional model for the uppermost sand reservoirs of the Stevens Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, California, contains three facies: turbidite channel-fill sand bodies, overbank Sandstone and mudstone, and pelagic and hemipelagic siliceous shale. Sand bodies are the primary producing facies and consist of layered, graded sandstone with good permeability. The presence of incipient anticlines with subsea relief in the late Miocene resulted in deposition of lenticular and sinuous sand Was within structurally created channels. Relief of these structural channels was low when the earliest sand bodies were deposited, leading to a wide channel complex bounded by broad overbank deposits of moderate to low permeability. As deposition proceeded, increased structural relief constrained the channels, resulting in narrower sand body width and relatively abrupt channel terminations against very low permeability siliceous shale. With post-Miocene uplift and differential compaction, stratigraphic mounding of sand bodies helped create structural domes such as the 24Z reservoir. Stratigraphic traps including the 26R reservoir were also created. Such traps vary in seal quality from very effective to leaky, depending on the lateral transition from sand bodies to siliceous shale. Application of the Elk Hills turbidity model (1) provides a framework for monitoring production performance in the 24Z and Northwest Stevens waterflood projects; and for tracking gas migration into and out of the 26R reservoir, (2) helps b identify undeveloped locations in the 26R reservoir ideally suited for horizontal wells, (3) has led to the identification of two new production trends in the 29R area, and (4) makes possible the development of exploration plays in western Elk Hills.

  16. Evaluation of residual shale oils as feedstocks for valuable carbon materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei, You Qing; Derbyshire, F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Oil shale represents one of the largest fossil fuel resources in the US and in other pans of the world. Beginning in the 1970s until recently, there was considerable research and development activity directed primarily to technologies for the production of transportation fuels from oil shale. Due to the low cost of petroleum, as with other alternate fuel strategies, oil shale processing is not economically viable at present. However, future scenarios can be envisaged in which non-petroleum resources may be expected to contribute to the demand for hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals, with the expectation that process technologies can be rendered economically attractive. There is potential to improve the economics of oil shale utilization through broadening the spectrum of products that can be derived from this resource, and producing added-value materials that are either unavailable or more difficult to produce from other sources. This concept is by no means original. The history of oil shale development shows that most attempts to commercialize oil shale technology have relied upon the marketing of by-products. Results are presented on carbonization and the potential for generating a pitch that could serve as a precursur material.

  17. The Utilization of the Microflora Indignous to and Present in Oil-Bearing Formations to Selectively Plug the more Porous Zones Thereby Increasing Oil Recovery During Waterflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A.

    1997-04-20

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the use of indigenous microbes as a method of profile control in waterfloods. It is expected that as the microbial population is induced to increase, that the expanded biomass will selectively block the more permeable zones of the reservoir thereby forcing injection water to flow through the less permeable zones which will result in improved sweep efficiency. This increase in microbial population will be accomplished by injecting a nutrient solution into four injectors. Four other injectors will act as control wells. During Phase 1, two wells will be cored through the zone of interest. The core will be subjected to special core analyses in order to arrive at the optimum nutrient formulation. During Phase 11, nutrient injection will begin, the results monitored, and adjustments to the nutrient composition made, if necessary. Phase 11 also will include the drilling of three wells for postmortem core analysis. Phase III will focus on technology transfer of the results. It should be pointed out that one expected outcome of this new technology will be a prolongation of economical waterflooding operations, i.e. economical oil recovery should continue for much longer periods in the producing wells subjected to this selective plugging technique. Results from work under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-90BC14665 will be incorporated as appropriate.

  18. U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Volumes 9,792.0 10,714.0 12,200.6 8,833.1 9,020.9 8,044.4 1983-2014 Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% 2,860.6 2,583.8 3,410.3 2,073.8 2,296.2 2,427.5 1983-2014 Sulfur Greater Than 1% 6,931.4 8,130.3 8,790.3 6,759.3 6,724.7 5,616.9 1983-2014 No. 4 Fuel Oil 121.3 W 103.7 W 104.8 100.8

  19. U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Volumes 8,544.1 7,556.6 6,422.8 5,516.8 5,179.4 4,602.6 1983-2014 Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% 2,810.5 2,357.5 1,936.9 1,485.9 1,258.0 1,012.3 1983-2014 Sulfur Greater Than 1% 5,733.6 5,199.1 4,485.9 4,030.9 3,921.5 3,590.4 1983-2014 No. 4 Fuel Oil W W W W W W

  20. Study of Reservoir Heterogencities and Structural Features Affecting Production in the Shallow Oil Zone, Eastern Elk Hills Area, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janice Gillespie

    2004-11-01

    Late Neogene (Plio-Pleistocene) shallow marine strata of the western Bakersfield Arch and Elk Hills produce hydrocarbons from several different reservoirs. This project focuses on the shallow marine deposits of the Gusher and Calitroleum reservoirs in the Lower Shallow Oil Zone (LSOZ). In the eastern part of the study area on the Bakersfield Arch at North and South Coles Levee field and in two wells in easternmost Elk Hills, the LSOZ reservoirs produce dry (predominantly methane) gas. In structurally higher locations in western Elk Hills, the LSOZ produces oil and associated gas. Gas analyses show that gas from the eastern LSOZ is bacterial and formed in place in the reservoirs, whereas gas associated with oil in the western part of the study area is thermogenic and migrated into the sands from deeper in the basin. Regional mapping shows that the gas-bearing LSOZ sands in the Coles Levee and easternmost Elk Hills area are sourced from the Sierra Nevada to the east whereas the oil-bearing sands in western Elk Hills appear to be sourced from the west. The eastern Elk Hills area occupied the basin depocenter, farthest from either source area. As a result, it collected mainly low-permeability offshore shale deposits. This sand-poor depocenter provides an effective barrier to the updip migration of gases from east to west. The role of small, listric normal faults as migration barriers is more ambiguous. Because our gas analyses show that the gas in the eastern LSOZ reservoirs is bacterial, it likely formed in-place near the reservoirs and did not have to migrate far. Therefore, the gas could have been generated after faulting and accumulated within the fault blocks as localized pools. However, bacterial gas is present in both the eastern AND western parts of Elk Hills in the Dry Gas Zone (DGZ) near the top of the stratigraphic section even though the measured fault displacement is greatest in this zone. Bacterial gas is not present in the west in the deeper LSOZ which has less measured fault displacement. The main difference between the DGZ and the LSOZ appears to be the presence of a sandpoor area in the LSOZ in eastern Elk Hills. The lack of permeable migration pathways in this area would not allow eastern bacterial gas to migrate farther updip into western Elk Hills. A similar sand-poor area does not appear to exist in the DGZ but future research may be necessary to verify this.

  1. Technology on In-Situ Gas Generation to Recover Residual Oil Reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayavur Bakhtiyarov

    2008-02-29

    This final technical report covers the period October 1, 1995 to February 29, 2008. This chapter begins with an overview of the history of Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques and specifically, CO2 flood. Subsequent chapters conform to the manner consistent with the Activities, Tasks, and Sub-tasks of the project as originally provided in Exhibit C1 in the Project Management Plan dated September 20, 1995. These chapters summarize the objectives, status and conclusions of the major project activities performed during the project period. The report concludes by describing technology transfer activities stemming from the project and providing a reference list of all publications of original research work generated by the project team or by others regarding this project. The overall objective of this project was a final research and development in the United States a technology that was developed at the Institute for Geology and Development of Fossil Fuels in Moscow, Russia. Before the technology can be convincingly adopted by United States oil and gas producers, the laboratory research was conducted at Mew Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The experimental studies were conducted to measure the volume and the pressure of the CO{sub 2} gas generated according to the new Russian technology. Two experimental devices were designed, built and used at New Mexico Tech facilities for these purposes. The designed setup allowed initiating and controlling the reaction between the 'gas-yielding' (GY) and 'gas-forming' (GF) agents proposed by Russian technology. The temperature was controlled, and the generated gas pressure and volume were recorded during the reaction process. Additionally, the effect of surfactant addition on the effectiveness of the process was studied. An alternative GY reactant was tested in order to increase the efficiency of the CO2 gas generation process. The slim tube and the core flood experimental studies were conducted to define the sweep efficiency of the in-situ generated CO{sub 2} gas. A set of core flood experiments were conducted to define effect of surfactant on recovery efficiency. The results demonstrated obvious advantages of the foamy system over the brine solution in order to achieve higher sweep efficiency and recovery coefficient. It is shown that a slug injection is not an efficient method for mixing GY and GF solutions and it can't generate considerable gas inside the slim-tube.

  2. Rheology and stability of SRC residual fuel oils - storage evaluation. SRC-1 quarterly technical report, October-December 1982. Supplement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-06-01

    In Air Products ongoing study to characterize the rheology and stability of various SRC residual oils, single-phase blends of 50 wt % HSRC and TSL SRC in 1:1 mixtures of 1st- and 2nd-stage process solvents were subjected to storage stability tests at 150/sup 0/F in nitrogen and air atmospheres. Using viscosity as an indicator, it was observed that the blends studied increased in viscosity with storage time in an air atmosphere; the viscosity increase began after a 4-week storage period. The increase in HSRC blend viscosity was significantly greater than that of the TSL SRC blend. A 60-day air-stored blend will require a pumping temperature about 10/sup 0/F higher than that specified for an unaged blend in order to have the same viscosity. The viscosity increase under nitrogen storage was relatively insignificant. Nitrogen blanketing appears to be important in maintaining the specified viscosity characteristics of the blends during storage in the 150/sup 0/F storage condition tested. A loss of volatiles undoubtedly occurs during high-temperature storage under laboratory conditions. Such losses contribute to an increase in the viscosity of the blend. In commercial practice, volatile losses are expected to be significantly lower. Solvent extraction data and analysis of separated fractions suggest that during storage under the above conditions, some oxidative polymerization of pentane-soluble oil components forms higher molecular weight pentane insolubles (asphaltenes and benzene insolubles). Asphaltenes are also involved in the increase in viscosity and do chemically change. 1 reference, 8 figures, 27 tables.

  3. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  4. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D.; Paz, M.L.; Vanasco, V.; Tasat, D.; González Maglio, D.H.; and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-? and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN activation is a relevant source of reactive oxygen species in this model. • These findings may account for previously described cardiopulmonary alterations.

  5. Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

    2009-05-01

    There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in the foreseeable future more expensive than residual fuel. So, another task was to explore potential alternative biofuels that might confer emission benefits similar to those of biodiesel, while being potentially significantly cheaper. Of course, for power plant use, availability in the required quantities is also a significant criterion. A subsidiary study to determine the effect of the temperature of the filter used to collect and measure the PM 2.5 emissions was conducted. This was done for reasons of accuracy in a residential boiler using distillate fuel blends. The present report details the results obtained in these tests with the baseline ASTM No. 6 fuel and blends of biodiesel with it as well as the results of the filter temperature study. The search for the alternative 'cheaper' biofuel identified a potential candidate, but difficulties encountered with the equipment during the testing prevented testing of the alternative biofuel.

  6. The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding, Class 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, James O.; Brown, Lewis R.; Vadie, A. Alex

    2000-02-02

    The objectives of this project were (1) to demonstrate the in situ microbial population in a fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir could be induced to proliferate to such an extent that they will selectively restrict flow in the more porous zones in the reservoir thereby forcing injection water to flow through previously unswept areas thus improving the sweep efficiency of the waterflood and (2) to obtain scientific validation that microorganisms are indeed responsible for the increased oil recovery. One expected outcome of this new technology was the prolongation of economical life of the reservoir, i.e. economical oil recovery should continue for much longer periods in areas of the reservoir subjected to the MPPM technology than it would if it followed its historic trend.

  7. Crude Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Product: Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Still Gas Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Other Petroleum Products Natural Gas Coal Purchased Electricity Purchased Steam Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1986-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 0 0 0 0

  8. The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A.

    1997-08-01

    This project is a field demonstration of the ability of in-situ indigenous microorganisms in the North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field to reduce the flow of injection water in the more permeable zones thereby diverting flow to other areas of the reservoir and thus increase the efficiency of the waterflooding operation. This effect is to be accomplished by adding microbial nutrients to the injection water. Work on the project is divided into three phases, Planning and Analysis (9 months), Implementation (45 months), and Technology Transfer (12 months). This report covers the third year of work on the project. During Phase I, two wells were drilled in an area of the field where approximately twenty feet of Carter sand were found and appeared to contain oil bypassed by the existing waterflood. Cores from one well were obtained and used in laboratory core flood experiments. The schedule and amounts of nutrients to be employed in the field were formulated on the basis of the results from laboratory core flood experiments.

  9. Dependence of waterflood remaining oil saturation on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters in mixed wet, turbidite sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    The dependence of waterflood oil recovery on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters was investigated by numerical simulation. The relative permeability and capillary pressure curves were based on laboratory measurements on unconsolidated sands and were evaluated for water-wet and mixed wet states. The reservoir model was a prototype turbidite sand with a range of thickness and permeability values. The economic oil recovery was based on an economic limit water cut of 50%. The remaining oil saturation in the swept region for the water-wet cases was close to the residual oil saturation. The remaining oil saturation of the mixed wet cases ranged from low values near the residual oil saturation to far above the residual oil saturation. It is dependent on the reservoir parameters that govern: (1) the vertical {open_quotes}film surface drainage{close_quotes} of oil by gravity, (2) accumulation of a high oil saturation and thus a high relative permeability under the cap rock, (3) updip migration of the oil that accumulated under the cap rock. The dependence on the reservoir parameters can be summarized by dimensionless groups. There is a dimensionless time for the vertical displacement of oil by gravity. The accumulation of a high oil saturation under the cap rock is dependent on the ratio of the capillary transition zone and the sand thickness. The updip migration is dependent on a combination of the gravity number and the end point mobility ratio.

  10. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia; Tasat, Deborah R.; Alvarez, Silvia; Evelson, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·?} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA produces alterations in mitochondrial function. • ??{sub m} decrease in state 3 may be responsible for the decreased ATP production. • Mild uncoupling prevents mitochondrial oxidative damage.

  11. Enhanced Oil Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Crude oil development and production in U.S. oil reservoirs can include up to three distinct phases: primary, secondary, and tertiary (or enhanced) recovery. During primary

  12. Role of spent shale in oil shale processing and the management of environmental residues. Final technical report, January 1979-May 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, A.L.

    1980-08-15

    The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on retorted oil shale was studied at 10, 25, and 60/sup 0/C using a packed bed method. Equilibrium isotherms were calculated from the adsorption data and were modeled by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi equations. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated at three adsorbent loadings and was found to increase with increased loading. A calculated heat of adsorption less than the heat of condensation indicated that the adsorption was primarily due to Van der Waals' forces. Adsorption capacities were also found as a function of oil shale retorting temperature with the maximum uptake occurring on shale that was retorted at 750/sup 0/C.

  13. Dependence of waterflood remaining oil saturation on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters in mixed-wet turbidite sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, G.J.

    1996-05-01

    The dependence of waterflood oil recovery on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters was investigated by numerical simulation. The relative permeability and capillary pressure curves were based on laboratory measurements on unconsolidated sands. The water-wet case is based on the assumption that the system is water-wet and measurements were made with refined oil. The mixed-wet case assumed that the system is mixed-wet and restored-state measurements were made with crude oil. The reservoir model was a prototype turbidite sand with a range of thickness and permeability values. The economic oil recovery was based on an economic limit water cut of 50%. The remaining oil saturation (ROS) in the swept region for the water-wet cases was close to the residual oil saturation. The ROS of the mixed-wet cases ranged from low values near the residual oil saturation to far above the residual oil saturation. It is dependent on the reservoir parameters that govern (1) the vertical film surface drainage of oil by gravity, (2) accumulation of a high oil saturation and thus a high relative permeability under the caprock, and (3) up-dip migration of the oil that accumulated under the caprock. The dependence on the reservoir parameters can be summarized by dimensionless groups. There is a dimensionless time for the vertical displacement of oil by gravity. The accumulation of a high oil saturation under the caprock is dependent on the ratio of the capillary transition zone and the sand thickness. The updip migration is dependent on a combination of the gravity number and the endpoint mobility ratio.

  14. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use/ Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Commercial - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - High Sulfur Diesel Commercial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Commercial - Residual Fuel Oil Commercial - Kerosene Industrial - Distillate Fuel Oil Industrial - No. 1 Distillate Industrial - No. 2

  15. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  16. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H.

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  17. Liquid zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  18. ,,,,"Reasons that Made Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel","the Products","Fuel Supply","Restrictions(b)","in Place(c)","Alternative Fuels(d)","Reason","H, I, J, and K","Don't Know" ,,,"Total United States" ...

  19. Residual Fuel Oil Sales for Military Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14,609 9,851 14,653 10,324 8,436 2,400 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 14,049 9,344 14,362 9,408 8,434 2,400 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 767 693 574 174 0 0 1984-2014 Connecticut...

  20. Residual Fuel Oil for All Other Uses

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6,503 5,860 2,664 1,418 26 50 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 1,857 5,230 2,151 1,418 0 50 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 385 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 Connecticut 7 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014...

  1. Residual Fuel Oil for Commercial Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    415,107 356,343 316,713 226,150 177,196 68,438 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 404,122 343,935 303,217 220,543 175,260 65,966 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 64,826 47,270 33,350...

  2. Residual Fuel Oil Sales for Industrial Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    726,210 667,672 772,676 484,957 335,465 335,845 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 407,008 313,472 302,737 204,311 141,776 123,794 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 110,026 68,700 61,487...

  3. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  4. Oil shale retorting method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    York, E.D.

    1983-03-22

    Disclosed is an improved method and apparatus for the retorting of oil shale and the formation of spent oil shale having improved cementation properties. The improved method comprises passing feed comprising oil shale to a contacting zone wherein the feed oil shale is contacted with heat transfer medium to heat said shale to retorting temperature. The feed oil shale is substantially retorted to form fluid material having heating value and forming partially spent oil shale containing carbonaceous material. At least a portion of the partially spent oil shale is passed to a combustion zone wherein the partially spent oil shale is contacted with oxidizing gas comprising oxygen and steam to substantially combust carbonaceous material forming spent oil shale having improved cementation properties.

  5. Residual Fuel Oil Sales for Oil Company Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25,166 20,783 19,759 17,031 14,702 13,929 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 5,726 3,827 2,793 2,205 1,769 0 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 413 953 36 0 0 0 1984-2014 Connecticut 413...

  6. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use/ Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Commercial - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - High Sulfur Diesel Commercial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Commercial - Residual Fuel Oil Commercial - Kerosene Industrial - Distillate Fuel Oil Industrial - No. 1 Distillate Industrial - No. 2

  7. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and compositions therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryant, Rebecca S. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for microbial enhanced oil recovery, wherein a combination of microorganisms is empirically formulated based on survivability under reservoir conditions and oil recovery efficiency, such that injection of the microbial combination may be made, in the presence of essentially only nutrient solution, directly into an injection well of an oil bearing reservoir having oil present at waterflood residual oil saturation concentration. The microbial combination is capable of displacing residual oil from reservoir rock, which oil may be recovered by waterflooding without causing plugging of the reservoir rock. Further, the microorganisms are capable of being transported through the pores of the reservoir rock between said injection well and associated production wells, during waterflooding, which results in a larger area of the reservoir being covered by the oil-mobilizing microorganisms.

  8. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1996 report provides information, illustrations and State-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1996. 24 tabs.

  9. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  10. Modeling of residual stresses by HY-100 weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharia, T.; Taljat, B.; Radhakrishnan, B.

    1997-02-01

    Residual stress distribution in a HY-100 steel disk, induced by GTA spot welding, was analyzed by finite element (FE) formulations and measured by neutron diffraction (ND). Computations used temperature- dependent thermophysical and mechanical properties. FE model predictions are in good agreement with ND data in far heat affected zone (HAZ) and in base metal. Predicted residual stresses in fusion zone and near HAZ were higher than those measured by ND. This discrepancy was attributed to microstructural changes and associated material properties in the HAZ and fusion zone due to phase transformations during the weld thermal cycle.

  11. Middle East oil and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The following subjects are covered in this publication: (1) position of preeminence of the Middle East; (2) history of area's oil operations for Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, neutral zone, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman and Egypt; (3) gas operations of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, Iraq and United Arab Emirates; (4) changing relationships with producing countries; (5) a new oil pricing environment; (6) refining and other industrial activities; and (7) change and progress. 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. USE OF POLYMERS TO RECOVER VISCOUS OIL FROM UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall Seright

    2011-09-30

    This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be found in our first and second annual reports. Our latest research results, along with detailed documentation of our past work, can be found on our web site at http://baervan.nmt.edu/randy/. As an overall summary of important findings for the project, polymer flooding has tremendous potential for enhanced recovery of viscous oil. Fear of substantial injectivity reduction was a primary hurdle that limited application of polymer flooding. However, that concern is largely mitigated by (1) use of horizontal wells and (2) judicious injection above the formation parting pressure. Field cases now exist where 200-300-cp polymer solutions are injected without significant reductions in injectivity. Concern about costs associated with injection of viscous polymer solutions was a second major hurdle. However, that concern is reduced substantially by realization that polymer viscosity increases approximately with the square of polymer concentration. Viscosity can be doubled with only a 40% increase in polymer concentration. Up to a readily definable point, increases in viscosity of the injected polymer solution are directly related to increases in sweep efficiency and oil recovery. Previously published simulation results - suggesting that shear-thinning polymer solutions were detrimental to sweep efficiency - were shown to be unfounded (both theoretically and experimentally).

  13. Co-Firing Oil Shale with Coal and Other Fuels for Improved Efficiency and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Carrington; William C. Hecker; Reed Clayson

    2008-06-01

    Oil shale is an abundant, undeveloped natural resource which has natural sorbent properties, and its ash has natural cementitious properties. Oil shale may be blended with coal, biomass, municipal wastes, waste tires, or other waste feedstock materials to provide the joint benefit of adding energy content while adsorbing and removing sulfur, halides, and volatile metal pollutants, and while also reducing nitrogen oxide pollutants. Oil shale depolymerization-pyrolysis-devolatilization and sorption scoping studies indicate oil shale particle sorption rates and sorption capacity can be comparable to limestone sorbents for capture of SO2 and SO3. Additionally, kerogen released from the shale was shown to have the potential to reduce NOx emissions through the well established “reburning” chemistry similar to natural gas, fuel oil, and micronized coal. Productive mercury adsorption is also possible by the oil shale particles as a result of residual fixed-carbon and other observed mercury capture sorbent properties. Sorption properties were found to be a function particle heating rate, peak particle temperature, residence time, and gas-phase stoichmetry. High surface area sorbents with high calcium reactivity and with some adsorbent fixed/activated carbon can be produced in the corresponding reaction zones that exist in a standard pulverized-coal or in a fluidized-bed combustor.

  14. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  15. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  16. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  17. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philp; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-02-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  18. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  19. "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,"Distillate" ,,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS",,,"Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"...

  20. "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.6;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG...

  1. "Code(a)","End Use","for Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.4;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," " " "," ",,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS"," ","Net Demand","Residual","and",,"LPG...

  2. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

  3. Shale oil recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  4. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot...

  5. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot (gallons)","per Worker...

  6. Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Conventional Gasoline Blend. Comp. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur Residual F.O., Greater than 1% Sulfur Naphtha

  7. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur Residual F.O., Greater than 1% Sulfur Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other

  8. Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Conventional Gasoline Blend. Comp. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur Residual F.O., Greater than 1% Sulfur Naphtha

  9. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  10. Hanford Tank Waste Residuals

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford Tank Waste Residuals DOE HLW Corporate Board November 6, 2008 Chris Kemp, DOE ORP Bill Hewitt, YAHSGS LLC Hanford Tanks & Tank Waste * Single-Shell Tanks (SSTs) - 27 million ...

  11. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radke, Clayton J. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  12. Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

  13. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S.; Shang, Jerry Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  14. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-27

    This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994.

  15. Advances in heavy oil hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendizabal, O.B. )

    1988-06-01

    The world increase in heavy crudes has forced refiners to develop different processes that upgrade the yields and product properties recovered from these crudes. However, some of the optimized and new processes are not able to handle whole heavy crude oils, due to the high viscosity and corrosion of their long and short residues. The different processes for heavy crudes can be classified in two areas: physical (vg. Liquid Extraction) and chemical processes. The catalytic hydrotreating process, which belongs to this last classification, has demonstrated to be an economical upgrading process for heavy crude oil. This paper describes the development by the Mexican Petroleum Institute of the process to hydrotreat maya heavy crude. The effect of the operating conditions, the catalyst ---- development and the technical - economical analysis are presented. The product properties and yields are compared with the results obtained with light crude oil like isthmus.

  16. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  17. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  18. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  19. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  20. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  1. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractional-Wet Systems: A Pore-Scale Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Ryan T.; Wildenschild, Dorthe

    2012-10-24

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technology that could potentially increase the tertiary recovery of oil from mature oil formations. However, the efficacy of this technology in fractional-wet systems is unknown, and the mechanisms involved in oil mobilization therefore need further investigation. Our MEOR strategy consists of the injection of ex situ produced metabolic byproducts produced by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 (which lower interfacial tension (IFT) via biosurfactant production) into fractional-wet cores containing residual oil. Two different MEOR flooding solutions were tested; one solution contained both microbes and metabolic byproducts while the other contained only the metabolic byproducts. The columns were imaged with X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) after water flooding, and after MEOR, which allowed for the evaluation of the pore-scale processes taking place during MEOR. Results indicate that the larger residual oil blobs and residual oil held under relatively low capillary pressures were the main fractions recovered during MEOR. Residual oil saturation, interfacial curvatures, and oil blob sizes were measured from the CMT images and used to develop a conceptual model for MEOR in fractional-wet systems. Overall, results indicate that MEOR was effective at recovering oil from fractional-wet systems with reported additional oil recovered (AOR) values between 44 and 80%; the highest AOR values were observed in the most oil-wet system.

  2. Midwest (PADD 2) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur

  3. Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31

  4. Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31

  5. Midwest (PADD 2) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur

  6. ASHRAE Climate Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Subtype A Subtype B Subtype C Climate Zone Number 1 Zone 1A Zone 1B NA Climate Zone Number 2 Zone 2A Zone 2B NA Climate Zone Number 3 Zone 3A Zone 3B Zone...

  7. OIl Speculation

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Investor Flows and the 2008 Boom/Bust in Oil Prices Kenneth J. Singleton 1 August 10, 2011 1 Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, kenneths@stanford.edu. This research is the outgrowth of a survey paper I prepared for the Air Transport Association of America. I am grateful to Kristoffer Laursen for research assistance and to Kristoffer and Stefan Nagel for their comments. Abstract This paper explores the impact of investor flows and financial market conditions on returns in crude-oil

  8. Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

  9. Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO)

    1983-01-01

    A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

  10. Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 8,544.1 7,556.6 6,422.8 5,516.8 5,179.4 4,602.6 1983-2014 PADD 1 2,890.4 2,080.3 1,414.7 1,057.0 961.0 646.3 1983-2014 New England W W W W W - 1983-2014 Central Atlantic 2,486.8 1,804.7 1,223.9 919.3 903.9 646.3 1983-2014 Lower Atlantic W W W W W - 1983-2014 PADD 2 W W - W W - 1983-2014 PADD 3 1,638.2 1,511.2 1,055.8 W 561.5 788.7 1983-2014 PADD 4 W W - - W - 1983-2014 PADD 5 3,998.2 3,963.6 3,952.3 3,787.2 3,656.8 3,167.7 1983-2014

  11. Table 20. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.6 4.4 9.2 6.7 13.7 11.1 August ... 4.0 5.2 9.0 4.1 13.0 9.3 September ... 2.6 5.8 9.2 5.7 11.9 11.5 October...

  12. Table 20. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Volumes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4.9 8.6 11.6 10.8 16.5 19.3 August ... 4.8 7.2 13.0 9.2 17.8 16.5 September ... 3.2 5.3 9.8 12.2 13.0 17.4 October...

  13. Table 20. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Volumes

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 2.5 7.5 9.3 5.9 11.8 13.4 October ... 2.0 7.1 8.6 5.0 10.6 12.1 November ... 2.8 6.8 8.9 5.7 11.8 12.5...

  14. Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 1.340 1.729 - - - - 1983-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 1.374 1.809 - - - - 1983-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 1.426 1.900 - - - - 1983-2014 Connecticut 1.520 2.056 - - - - 1983-2014 Maine 1.327 1.832 - - - - 1983-2014 Massachusetts 1.479 2.004 - - - - 1983-2014 New Hampshire 1.595 1.854 - - - - 1983-2014 Rhode Island 1.387 1.982 - - - - 1983-2014 Vermont 1.554 W - - - - 1983-2014 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 1.374 1.817 - - - - 1983-2014 Delaware 1.305 1.793

  15. Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. - - - - - - 1983-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) - - - - - - 1983-2015 New England (PADD 1A) - - - - - - 1983-2015 Connecticut - - - - - - 1983-2015 Maine - - - - - - 1983-2015 Massachusetts - - - - - - 1983-2015 New Hampshire - - - - - - 1983-2015 Rhode Island - - - - - - 1983-2015 Vermont - - - - - - 1983-2015 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) - - - - - - 1983-2015 Delaware - - - - - - 1983-2015 District of Columbia - - - - - - 1983-2015 Maryland -

  16. ,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by Sales Type"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...12016" ,"Excel File Name:","petpriresiddcunusm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavpetpetpriresiddcunusm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ...

  17. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12,381.0 12,598.5 11,684.7 13,442.3 1983-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 3,809.6 3,671.4 4,522.7 4,165.0 3,714.4 4,862.7 1983-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 329.2 109.4 535.0 162.0 ...

  18. U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Florida Georgia North Carolina South Carolina Virginia West Virginia Midwest (PADD 2) Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma South Dakota Tennessee Wisconsin Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Alabama

  19. Residual Fuel Oil Sales for Vessel Bunkering Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,589,049 5,142,573 4,560,070 4,819,508 4,211,505 3,847,163 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 1,460,012 1,759,665 1,525,651 1,518,285 1,341,800 1,244,139 1984-2014 New England (PADD...

  20. Table 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1993 January ... 40.7 36.8 32.3 27.3 35.2 31.5 February ... 40.8 35.5 31.0 26.7 34.5 30.9 March ......

  1. Table 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    39.1 37.9 33.3 40.2 36.6 February ... 43.7 37.1 38.2 33.3 39.8 35.4 March ... 43.4 38.3 39.6 35.2 40.5 37.0 April...

  2. Table 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    39.9 30.0 29.5 24.3 32.9 27.4 April ... 35.2 29.4 29.5 25.8 31.1 27.5 May ... 35.9 31.7 31.1 27.5...

  3. Table 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    58.7 46.2 46.3 39.3 49.5 42.9 February ... 54.6 43.7 41.8 35.4 45.2 39.3 March ... 49.3 39.8 37.6 33.9 40.3 35.8 April...

  4. Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the purposes of renaissance zone designation, “renewable energy facility” means a facility that creates energy, fuels, or chemicals directly from the wind, the sun, trees, grasses, bio-solids,...

  5. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Progress report, September 15, 1979-March 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; King, C.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Four crude oils (H Coal-Fuel Oil Mode, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, and SRC II) which were distilled into four fractions (naphtha, mid-distillate, gas oil and residue) for analysis and biological screening testing during the last report period were tested for mutagenicity by the Ames test and for tumor initiating activity by an initiation/promotion (skin painting) test. Substantial agreement exists between Ames and skin painting results. Low boiling naphtha fractions of the 4 crude oils showed little or no mutagenicity or tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil fractions.

  6. Deep Vadose Zone - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Range Deep Vadose Zone Program Plan, (Rev. 0) - (PDF) Implementation Plan for the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Center (DVZ-AFRC) - (PDF) Ecology's groundwater...

  7. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings* Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  8. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  9. 97e Intermediate Temperature Catalytic Reforming of Bio-Oil for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marda, J. R.; Dean, A. M.; Czernik, S.; Evans, R. J.; French, R.; Ratcliff, M.

    2008-01-01

    With the world's energy demands rapidly increasing, it is necessary to look to sources other than fossil fuels, preferably those that minimize greenhouse emissions. One such renewable source of energy is biomass, which has the added advantage of being a near-term source of hydrogen. While there are several potential routes to produce hydrogen from biomass thermally, given the near-term technical barriers to hydrogen storage and delivery, distributed technologies such that hydrogen is produced at or near the point of use are attractive. One such route is to first produce bio-oil via fast pyrolysis of biomass close to its source to create a higher energy-density product, then ship this bio-oil to its point of use where it can be reformed to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This route is especially well suited for smaller-scale reforming plants located at hydrogen distribution sites such as filling stations. There is also the potential for automated operation of the conversion system. A system has been developed for volatilizing bio-oil with manageable carbon deposits using ultrasonic atomization and by modifying bio-oil properties, such as viscosity, by blending or reacting bio-oil with methanol. Non-catalytic partial oxidation of bio-oil is then used to achieve significant conversion to CO with minimal aromatic hydrocarbon formation by keeping the temperature at 650 C or less and oxygen levels low. The non-catalytic reactions occur primarily in the gas phase. However, some nonvolatile components of bio-oil present as aerosols may react heterogeneously. The product gas is passed over a packed bed of precious metal catalyst where further reforming as well as water gas shift reactions are accomplished completing the conversion to hydrogen. The approach described above requires significantly lower catalyst loadings than conventional catalytic steam reforming due to the significant conversion in the non-catalytic step. The goal is to reform and selectively oxidize the bio-oil and catalyze the water gas shift reaction without catalyzing methanation or oxidation of CO and H{sub 2}, thus attaining equilibrium levels of H{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2} at the exit of the catalyst bed. Experimental Bio-oil (mixed with varied amounts of methanol to reduce the viscosity and homogenize the bio-oil) or selected bio-oil components are introduced at a measured flow rate through the top of a vertical quartz reactor which is heated using a five zone furnace. The ultrasonic nozzle used to feed the reactants allows the bio-oil to flow down the center of the reactor at a low, steady flow rate. Additionally, the fine mist created by the nozzle allows for intimate mixing with oxygen and efficient heat transfer, providing optimal conditions to achieve high conversion at relatively low temperatures in the non-catalytic step thus reducing the required catalyst loading. Generation of the fine mist is especially important for providing good contact between non-volatile bio-oil components and oxygen. Oxygen and helium are also delivered at the top of the reactor via mass flow meters with the amount of oxygen being varied to maximize the yields of H{sub 2} and CO and the amount of helium being adjusted such that the gas phase residence time in the hot zone is {approx}0.3 and {approx}0.45 s for bio-oil and methanol experiments, respectively. A catalyst bed can be located at the bottom of the reactor tube. To date, catalyst screening experiments have used Engelhard noble metal catalysts. The catalysts used for these experiments were 0.5 % rhodium, ruthenium, platinum, and palladium (all supported on alumina). Experiments were performed using pure alumina as well. Both the catalyst type and the effect of oxygen and steam on the residual hydrocarbons and accumulated carbon containing particulates were investigated. The residence time before the catalyst is varied to determine the importance of the non-catalytic step and its potential effect on the required catalyst loading. Non-catalytic experiments (primarily homogeneous cracking) use a bed of quartz placed to capture any deposits that are formed in the volatilization and cracking zones. The inner reactor effluent is quenched by a flow of 10 SLPM He which serves to sweep the products quickly ({approx}0.03 s) to a triple quadrupole molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) for analysis. The MBMS serves as a universal detector and allows for real time data collection. The study of pyrolysis by MBMS has been described previously. The dilution of the reactor effluent reduces the potential problems caused by matrix effects associated with the MBMS analysis. Argon is used as an internal standard in the quantitative analysis of all the major products (CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and benzene) as well as any residual carbon, which is determined by subsequent oxidation of carbon (monitored as CO{sub 2}) after shutting off the feed and maintaining the oxygen/helium flow.

  10. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PDF icon PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - WEB Unclassified Business Operations General Support

  11. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Whillhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmed; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  12. Removal of aqueous rinsable flux residues in a batch spray dishwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slanina, J.T.

    1992-02-01

    An alkaline detergent solution used in an industrial dishwasher was evaluated to remove aqueous rinsable flux residues on printed wiring boards (PWBs) after hot air solder leveling and hot oil solder dip and leveling. The dishwasher, a batch cleaning process, was compared to an existing conveyorized aqueous cleaning process. The aqueous soluble flux residues from both soldering processes were removed with a solution of a mild alkaline detergent dissolved in hot deionized (DI) water.

  13. Oil Security Metrics Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Leiby, Paul N.

    2005-03-06

    A presentation to the IWG GPRA USDOE, March 6, 2005, Washington, DC. OSMM estimates oil security benefits of changes in the U.S. oil market.

  14. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Crude Oil Domestic Production Refinery Crude Oil Inputs Refinery Gross Inputs Refinery Operable Capacity (Calendar Day) Refinery Percent Operable Utilization Net ...

  15. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions are measured with the blends. Again, consistent with our past experience with biodiesel blends, significant reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions nearing 50% with 100% Jatropha oil, were also measured. This is in contrast with the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, where the NOx has a tendency to increase. In addition to the gaseous emission measurements, particulate emissions were measured using an EPA CTM-39 system to obtain both particulates, of sizes below 2.5 microns, so-called PM2.5, and of sizes larger than 2.5 microns. The results show that the particulate emissions are lower with the blending of Jatropha oil. Overall, one can conclude that the blending of Jatropha oil with residual oil is a feasible approach to using non-edible plant oil to provide a renewable content to residual oil, with significant benefits in the reduction of pollutant emissions such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.

  16. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  17. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  18. ,"for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.7;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal" ,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" ,"Net Demand","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)","LPG...

  19. "End Use","for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.8;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Distillate" ,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" ,"Net Demand","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "End Use","for...

  20. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  1. Oil Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  2. Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore Mohanty

    2012-03-31

    The North Slope of Alaska has large (about 20 billion barrels) deposits of viscous oil in Ugnu, West Sak and Shraeder Bluff reservoirs. These shallow reservoirs overlie existing productive reservoirs such as Kuparuk and Milne Point. The viscosity of the Ugnu reservoir on top of Milne Point varies from 200 cp to 10,000 cp and the depth is about 3300 ft. The same reservoir extends to the west on the top of the Kuparuk River Unit and onto the Beaufort Sea. The depth of the reservoir decreases and the viscosity increases towards the west. Currently, the operators are testing cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) in Ugnu, but oil recovery is expected to be low (< 10%). Improved oil recovery techniques must be developed for these reservoirs. The proximity to the permafrost is an issue for thermal methods; thus nonthermal methods must be considered. The objective of this project is to develop chemical methods for the Ugnu reservoir on the top of Milne Point. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) formulation was developed for a viscous oil (330 cp) where as an alkaline-surfactant formulation was developed for a heavy oil (10,000 cp). These formulations were tested in one-dimensional and quarter five-spot Ugnu sand packs. Micromodel studies were conducted to determine the mechanisms of high viscosity ratio displacements. Laboratory displacements were modeled and transport parameters (such as relative permeability) were determined that can be used in reservoir simulations. Ugnu oil is suitable for chemical flooding because it is biodegraded and contains some organic acids. The acids react with injected alkali to produce soap. This soap helps in lowering interfacial tension between water and oil which in turn helps in the formation of macro and micro emulsions. A lower amount of synthetic surfactant is needed because of the presence of organic acids in the oil. Tertiary ASP flooding is very effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. This chemical formulation includes 1.5% of an alkali, 0.4% of a nonionic surfactant, and 0.48% of a polymer. The secondary waterflood in a 1D sand pack had a cumulative recovery of 0.61 PV in about 3 PV injection. The residual oil saturation to waterflood was 0.26. Injection of tertiary alkaline-surfactant-polymer slug followed by tapered polymer slugs could recover almost 100% of the remaining oil. The tertiary alkali-surfactant-polymer flood of the 330 cp oil is stable in three-dimensions; it was verified by a flood in a transparent 5-spot model. A secondary polymer flood is also effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. The secondary polymer flood recovered about 0.78 PV of oil in about 1 PV injection. The remaining oil saturation was 0.09. The pressure drops were reasonable (<2 psi/ft) and depended mainly on the viscosity of the polymer slug injected. For the heavy crude oil (of viscosity 10,000 cp), low viscosity (10-100 cp) oil-in-water emulsions can be obtained at salinity up to 20,000 ppm by using a hydrophilic surfactant along with an alkali at a high water-to-oil ratio of 9:1. Very dilute surfactant concentrations (~0.1 wt%) of the synthetic surfactant are required to generate the emulsions. It is much easier to flow the low viscosity emulsion than the original oil of viscosity 10,000 cp. Decreasing the WOR reverses the type of emulsion to water-in-oil type. For a low salinity of 0 ppm NaCl, the emulsion remained O/W even when the WOR was decreased. Hence a low salinity injection water is preferred if an oil-in-water emulsion is to be formed. Secondary waterflood of the 10,000 cp heavy oil followed by tertiary injection of alkaline-surfactants is very effective. Waterflood has early water breakthrough, but recovers a substantial amount of oil beyond breakthrough. Waterflood recovers 20-37% PV of the oil in 1D sand pack in about 3 PV injection. Tertiary alkali-surfactant injection increases the heavy oil recovery to 50-70% PV in 1D sand packs. As the salinity increased, the oil recovery due to alkaline surfactant flood increased, but water-in-oil emulsion was produced and pressure drop increased. With low salinity (deionized) water, the oil recovery was lower, but so was the pressure drop because only oil-in-water emulsion was produced. Secondary waterflood of the 10,000 cp heavy oil in 5-spot sand packs recovers 30-35% OOIP of the oil in about 2.5 PV injection. Tertiary injection of the alkaline-surfactant solution increases the cumulative oil recovery from 51 to 57% OOIP in 5-spot sand packs. As water displaces the heavy oil, it fingers through the oil with a fractal structure (fractal dimension = 1.6), as seen in the micromodel experiments. Alkaline-surfactant solution emulsifies the oil around the brine fingers and flows them to the production well. A fractional flow model incorporating the effect of viscous fingering was able to match the laboaratory experiments and can be used in reservoir simulators. The chemical techniques look promising in the laboratory and should be tested in the fields.

  3. Assessment of Residual Stresses in 3013 Inner and Outer Containers and Teardrop Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroud, Mary Ann; Prime, Michael Bruce; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Berg, John M.; Clausen, Bjorn; Worl, Laura Ann; DeWald, Adrian T.

    2015-12-08

    This report is an assessment performed by LANL that examines packaging for plutonium-bearing materials and the resilience of its design. This report discusses residual stresses in the 3013 outer, the SRS/Hanford and RFETS/LLNL inner containers, and teardrop samples used in studies to assess the potential for SCC in 3013 containers. Residual tensile stresses in the heat affected zones of the closure welds are of particular concern.

  4. Enterprise Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Jump to: navigation, search This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleEnterpriseZone&oldid542697"...

  5. Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Deep Vadose Zone – Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) partnered with the Vadose Zone Journal to create a special section of the journal's November 2012 issue.

  6. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  7. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  8. Santa Clara County- Zoning Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Santa Clara County's Zoning Ordinance includes standards for wind and solar structures for residential, agricultural, and commercial uses.

  9. Characterization of Residual Stress as a Function of Friction Stir Welding Parameters in Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Steel MA956

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, Luke N.; Bennett, Martin S.; Baker, B. W.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kolbus, Lindsay M.

    2015-09-08

    This article characterizes the residual stresses generated by friction stir welding of oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA956 over a series of welding conditions. A plate of MA956 steel was friction stir welded at three conditions: 500 rpm/25 millimeters per minute (mmpm), 400 rpm/50 mmpm and 400 rpm/100 mmpm. The residual stresses across these welds were measured using both x-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Longitudinal residual stresses up to eighty percent of the yield strength were observed for the 400 rpm/100 mmpm condition. Increasing the traverse rate while holding the rotational speed fixed increased the residual stress levels in the stir zone and at the stir zone-thermomechanically affected zone interface. The stress profiles displayed the characteristic M shape, and the asymmetry between advancing and retreating stress peaks was limited, occurring mainly on the root side of the weld. The large magnitude of the stresses was maintained throughout the thickness of the plates.

  10. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  11. World Crude Oil Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    World Crude Oil Prices (Dollars per Barrel) The data on this page are no longer available.

  12. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  13. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly sorbed onto this fraction of colloids also transport without retardation. The transport times for these radionuclides will be the same as those for nonsorbing radionuclides. The fraction of nonretarding colloids developed in this analysis report is used in the abstraction of SZ and UZ transport models in support of the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This analysis report uses input from two Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) analysis reports. This analysis uses the assumption from ''Waste Form and In-Drift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary'' that plutonium and americium are irreversibly sorbed to colloids generated by the waste degradation processes (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025]). In addition, interpretations from RELAP analyses from ''Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170010]) are used to develop the retardation factor distributions in this analysis.

  14. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  15. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    oil and unconventional techniques Global tight oil production has significant energy security implications 2 GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Top Ten Countries with Largest ...

  16. Utilization of Estonian oil shale at power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ots, A. [Tallin Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Department

    1996-12-31

    Estonian oil shale belongs to the carbonate class and is characterized as a solid fuel with very high mineral matter content (60--70% in dry mass), moderate moisture content (9--12%) and low heating value (LHV 8--10 MJ/kg). Estonian oil shale deposits lie in layers interlacing mineral stratas. The main constituent in mineral stratas is limestone. Organic matter is joined with sandy-clay minerals in shale layers. Estonian oil shale at power plants with total capacity of 3060 MW{sub e} is utilized in pulverized form. Oil shale utilization as fuel, with high calcium oxide and alkali metal content, at power plants is connected with intensive fouling, high temperature corrosion and wear of steam boiler`s heat transfer surfaces. Utilization of Estonian oil shale is also associated with ash residue use in national economy and as absorbent for flue gas desulfurization system.

  17. Exsolution Enhanced Oil Recovery with Concurrent CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel EOR method using carbonated water injection followed by depressurization is introduced. Results from micromodel experiments are presented to demonstrate the fundamental principles of this oil recovery method. A depressurization process (1 MPa/hr) was applied to a micromodel following carbonated water injection (Ca ? 10-5). The exsolved CO2 in water-filled pores blocked water flow in swiped portions and displaced water into oil-filled pores. Trapped oil after the carbonated water injection was mobilized by sequentially invading water. This method's self-distributed mobility control and local clogging was tested in a sandstone sample under reservoir conditions. A 10% incremental oil recovery was achieved by lowering the pressure 2 MPa below the CO2 liberation pressure. Additionally, exsolved CO2 resides in the pores of a reservoir as an immobile phase with a high residual saturation after oil production, exhibiting a potential synergy opportunity between CO2 EOR and CO2 sequestration

  18. Processes for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil, and apparatuses for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-11-24

    Processes and apparatuses for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. An exemplary process for washing a spent ion exchange bed employed in purification of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil includes the step of providing a ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream is partially hydrotreated to reduce the oxygen content thereof, thereby producing a partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream having a residual oxygen content that is less than the original oxygen content. At least a portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream is passed through the spent ion exchange bed. Water is passed through the spent ion exchange bed after passing at least the portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream therethrough.

  19. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  20. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  1. City of Austin- Zoning Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Zoning Code also allows for preservation plans in historic districts to incorporate sustainability measures such as solar technologies and other energy generation and efficiency measures.

  2. Western Renewable Energy Zones (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, J.

    2011-06-01

    This presentation summarizes recent developments and trends pertaining to competitive renewable energy zones, transmission planning and the integration of renewable generation resources.

  3. Deep Vadose Zone Field Activities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD, RAP March 6, 2013 Presented by: John Morse DEEP VADOSE ZONE ACTIVITIES Page 2 Deep Vadose Zone Areas Page 3 Deep Vadose Zone Field Activities FY 2014 Fieldwork Began in 2011 Page 4 Deep Vadose Zone Field Activities, Continued Page 5 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 Cumulative Gallons Removed Weekly Gallons Removed Perched Water Removal Shut down to address increased contamination levels and replace submersible pump Page 6 0

  4. Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    logo Return to: Manufacturing Home Page Fuel Oil Facts Oil Price Effect Fuel Switching Actual Fuel Switching Storage Capacity Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing Why Look at Fuel Oil?...

  5. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.6 cents from a week ago to 3.04 per gallon. That's down 99.4 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  6. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to 2.91 per gallon. That's down 1.10 from a year ago, based on the...

  7. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.5 cents from a week ago to 2.84 per gallon. That's down 1.22 from a year ago, based on the...

  8. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to 2.97 per gallon. That's down 1.05 from a year ago, based on the...

  9. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4.1 cents from a week ago to 2.89 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the...

  10. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  11. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  12. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  13. Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical definition of oil-shale facies in the lower Parachute Creek Member of Green River Formation, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R.D.

    1984-04-01

    Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of two drill cores penetrating the lower Saline zone of the Parachute Creek Member (middle L-4 oil-shale zone through upper R-2 zone) of the Green River Formation in north-central Piceance Creek basin, Colorado, indicate the presence of two distinct oil-shale facies. The most abundant facies has laminated stratification and frequently occurs in the L-4, L-3 and L-2 oil-shale zones. The second, and subordinate facies, has ''streaked and blebby'' stratification and is most abundant in the R-4, R-3 and R-2 zones. Laminated oil shale originated by slow, regular sedimentation during meromictic phases of ancient Lake Uinta, whereas streaked and blebby oil shale was deposited by episodic, non-channelized turbidity currents. Laminated oil shale has higher contents of nahcolite, dawsonite, quartz, K-feldspar and calcite, but less dolomite/ankerite and albite than streaked and blebby oil shale. Ca-Mg-Fe carbonate minerals in laminated oil shale have more variable compositions than those in streaked and blebby shales. Streaked and blebby oil shale has more kerogen and a greater diversity of kerogen particles than laminated oil shale. Such variations may produce different pyrolysis reactions when each shale type is retorted.

  14. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  15. Solidification process for sludge residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-09-10

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria.

  16. US Crude oil exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2014 EIA Energy Conference U.S. Crude Oil Exports July 14, 2014 By Lynn D. Westfall U.S. Energy Information Administration U.S. crude oil production has grown by almost 50% since 2008 and is up by 1.0 million b/d (14%) since April of 2013 U.S. crude oil production million barrels of oil per day Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration Lynn Westfall, 2014 EIA Energy Conference, U.S. Crude Oil Exports, July 14, 2014 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990

  17. Oil | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil Oil For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our <a href="node/770751">interactive chart</a>. | Graphic by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our interactive chart. | Graphic by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. Oil is used for heating and transportation -- most notably, as fuel for gas-powered vehicles. America's dependence

  18. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  19. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  20. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  1. Climate Zones | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building America » Climate Zones Climate Zones Building America determines building practices based on climate zones to achieve the most energy savings in a home. This page offers some general guidelines on the definitions of the various climate regions based on heating degree-days, average temperatures, and precipitation. You can also view the Guide to Determining Climate Regions by County. Hot-Humid A hot-humid climate is generally defined as a region that receives more than 20 in. (50 cm) of

  2. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  3. Hydroprocessing Bio-oil and Products Separation for Coke Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2013-04-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass can be used to produce a raw bio-oil product, which can be upgraded by catalytic hydroprocessing to hydrocarbon liquid products. In this study the upgraded products were distilled to recover light naphtha and oils and to produce a distillation resid with useful properties for coker processing and production of renewable, low-sulfur electrode carbon. For this hydroprocessing work, phase separation of the bio-oil was applied as a preparatory step to concentrate the heavier, more phenolic components thus generating a more amenable feedstock for resid production. Low residual oxygen content products were produced by continuous-flow, catalytic hydroprocessing of the phase separated bio-oil.

  4. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-12-31

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as {open_quotes}materials in-process{close_quotes} to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes.

  5. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1,200 C to 1,400 C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  6. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1200{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  7. Potential for electricity generation from biomass residues in Cuba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lora, E.S.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is the study of the availability of major biomass residues in Cuba and the analysis of the electricity generation potential by using different technologies. An analysis of the changes in the country`s energy balance from 1988 up to date is presented, as well as a table with the availability study results and the energy equivalent for the following biomass residues: sugar cane bagasse and trash, rice and coffee husk, corn an cassava stalks and firewood. A total equivalent of 4.42 10{sup 6} tons/year of fuel-oil was obtained. Possible scenarios for the electricity production increase in the sugar industry are presented too. The analysis is carried out for a high stream parameter CEST and two BIG/GT system configurations. Limitations are introduced about the minimal milling capacity of the sugar mills for each technology. The calculated {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} electricity generation potential for BIG/GT systems, based on GE LM5000 CC gas turbines, an actual cane harvest of 58.0 10{sup 6} tons/year, half the available trash utilization and an specific steam consumption of 210 kg/tc, was 18601,0 GWh/year. Finally different alternatives are presented for low-scale electricity generation based on the other available agricultural residues.

  8. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  9. Climate Zone 1B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 1B is defined as Dry with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C . The following places are categorized as class 1B climate zones:...

  10. Isolation of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1994-12-06

    High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone solvent to form a residue, and further drying the residue by evaporation; reducing the residue into a powder; continuously extracting the powder residue with ethyl acetate to provide a levoglucosan-rich extract; and concentrating the extract by removing ethyl acetate to provide crystalline levoglucosan. Preferably, Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added to adjust the pH to the elevated values, and then Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added in an excess amount needed. 3 figures.

  11. Isolation of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    1994-01-01

    High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone solvent to form a residue, and further drying the residue by evaporation; reducing the residue into a powder; continuously extracting the powder residue with ethyl acetate to provide a levoglucosan-rich extract; and concentrating the extract by removing ethyl acetate to provide crystalline levoglucosan. Preferably, Ca(OH).sub.2 is added to adjust the pH to the elevated values, and then Ca(OH).sub.2 is added in an excess amount needed.

  12. Study on detailed geological modelling for fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Hanqing; Fu Zhiguo; Lu Xiaoguang

    1997-08-01

    Guided by the sedimentation theory and knowledge of modern and ancient fluvial deposition and utilizing the abundant information of sedimentary series, microfacies type and petrophysical parameters from well logging curves of close spaced thousands of wells located in a large area. A new method for establishing detailed sedimentation and permeability distribution models for fluvial reservoirs have been developed successfully. This study aimed at the geometry and internal architecture of sandbodies, in accordance to their hierarchical levels of heterogeneity and building up sedimentation and permeability distribution models of fluvial reservoirs, describing the reservoir heterogeneity on the light of the river sedimentary rules. The results and methods obtained in outcrop and modem sedimentation studies have successfully supported the study. Taking advantage of this method, the major producing layers (PI{sub 1-2}), which have been considered as heterogeneous and thick fluvial reservoirs extending widely in lateral are researched in detail. These layers are subdivided into single sedimentary units vertically and the microfacies are identified horizontally. Furthermore, a complex system is recognized according to their hierarchical levels from large to small, meander belt, single channel sandbody, meander scroll, point bar, and lateral accretion bodies of point bar. The achieved results improved the description of areal distribution of point bar sandbodies, provide an accurate and detailed framework model for establishing high resolution predicting model. By using geostatistic technique, it also plays an important role in searching for enriched zone of residual oil distribution.

  13. Cohesive Zone Model User Element

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-04-17

    Cohesive Zone Model User Element (CZM UEL) is an implementation of a Cohesive Zone Model as an element for use in finite element simulations. CZM UEL computes a nodal force vector and stiffness matrix from a vector of nodal displacements. It is designed for structural analysts using finite element software to predict crack initiation, crack propagation, and the effect of a crack on the rest of a structure.

  14. Crude Oil | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACCrude Oil content top National Transportation Fuels Model Posted by tmanzan on Oct 3, 2012 in | Comments 0 comments National Transportation Fuels Model This model informs analyses of the availability of transportation fuel in the event the fuel supply chain is disrupted. The portion of the fuel supply system represented by the network model (see figure) spans from oil fields to fuel distribution terminals. Different components of this system (e.g., crude oil import terminals, refineries,

  15. Hot Oiling Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-10-22

    One of the most common oil-field treatments is hot oiling to remove paraffin from wells. Even though the practice is common, the thermal effectiveness of the process is not commonly understood. In order for producers to easily understand the thermodynamics of hot oiling, a simple tool is needed for estimating downhole temperatures. Such a tool has been developed that can be distributed as a compiled spreadsheet.

  16. GridZone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: GridZone Sector: Efficiency, Services, Transmission Technology: Smart Grid, Energy Storage, Energy Security ParentHolding Organization: GridZone Limited Company...

  17. Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Planned Capacity 1 Geothermal Areas within the Transition Zone Geothermal Region Energy Generation Facilities within the Transition Zone Geothermal Region Geothermal Power...

  18. Wetlands and Riparian Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wetlands and Riparian Zones Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWetlandsandRiparianZones&oldid612217...

  19. Applied Field Research Initiative Deep Vadose Zone

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in vadose zone environments * Overcomes heterogeneous distribution * Penetrates low-permeability, contaminant source zones Use of Foam Delivery Technology in the subsurface (not to...

  20. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2001 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  1. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  2. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  3. Crude Oil Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    revised monthly production estimates by state published in Petroleum Navigator. Crude oil production quantities are estimated by state and summed to the PADD and the U.S....

  4. Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal for Bioenergy: A Spatially Comprehensive National Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Muth, Jr.; K. M. Bryden; R. G. Nelson

    2013-02-01

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainably removable agricultural residues across the conterminous United States. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10 – 100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time.

  5. Sustainable agricultural residue removal for bioenergy: A spatially comprehensive US national assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, David J.; Bryden, Kenneth Mark; Nelson, R. G.

    2012-10-06

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States for bioenergy production. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform the sustainable agricultural residue removal assessment. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10–100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time. This biomass resource has the potential for producing over 68 billion liters of cellulosic biofuels.

  6. Improved oil refinery operations and cheaper crude oil to help...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Improved oil refinery operations and cheaper crude oil to help reduce gasoline prices U.S. gasoline prices are expected to fall as more oil refineries come back on line and crude ...

  7. Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    see even lower natural gas and heating oil bills this winter than previously expected ... said the average household heating with oil will experience a 41% drop in heating oil ...

  8. Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lower oil prices also cutting winter heating oil and propane bills Lower oil prices are not only driving down gasoline costs, but U.S. consumers will also see a bigger savings in ...

  9. Proposed plant will turn wood residues into synfuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    A group of entrepreneurs plan to have a plant operating in Burney, CA. The projected facility will produce an estimated 21,000 gallons of oil per day, converting about 300 tons of raw material. Converting cellulose into synthetic fuel is superior to alcohol production. The process yields approximately 84 gallons of synthetic fuel per ton of raw material. The entire LHG (liquid hydrogen gas) patented facility is self-sufficient and releases only carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Synfuel production is a three-phase process. First, butyl alcohol (butanol) and acetone are produced from a portion of the raw material. This is facilitated by adding to the raw material a bacteria culture. The planned facility in Burney will have thirty-five 2100 gallon fermentation tanks and will produce 1.25 million gallons of butanol. Next, organic material is blended with water and is pumped into patented LHG catalytic converters, charged with carbon monoxide gas as a catalyst and then heated to 350 degrees C at 2000 to 5000 psi. Here, the organic material is converted to No. 4 oil with bituminous tar as a residue. A patented gasifier system produces the carbon monoxide catalyst plus COH (carbon hydroxide) gas. The COH is used to power a gas turbine driving a 100 kW generator and a central hydraulic pump. The facility, which will be energy self-sufficient, will have approximately 50 kW of excess power to sell to the local utility power grid. Finally, the No. 4 oil, butanol and liquified COH gas are blended to produce any grade fuel oil or a gasoline substitute of very high octane.

  10. Adams County, Washington ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Washington ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone...

  11. Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah: Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana; Rebecca Holt 29 ENERGY...

  12. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  13. Process to recycle shredder residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, Bassam J. (Chicago, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL); Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Channahon, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  14. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  15. RESIDUAL STRESSES IN 3013 CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-11-10

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  16. FOAM: NOVEL DELIVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REMEDIATION OF VADOSE ZONE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Zhong, Lirong; Wu, Yuxin; Foote, Martin; Zhang, Z. F.; Hubbard, Susan

    2011-07-05

    Deep vadose zone environments can be a primary source and pathway for contaminant migration to groundwater. These environments present unique characterization and remediation challenges that necessitate scrutiny and research. The thickness, depth, and intricacies of the deep vadose zone, combined with a lack of understanding of the key subsurface processes (e.g., biogeochemical and hydrologic) affecting contaminant migration, make it difficult to create validated conceptual and predictive models of subsurface flow dynamics and contaminant behavior across multiple scales. These factors also make it difficult to design and deploy sustainable remedial approaches and monitor long-term contaminant behavior after remedial actions. Functionally, the methods for addressing contamination must remove and/or reduce transport of contaminants. This problem is particularly challenging in the arid western United States where the vadose zone is hundreds of feet thick, rendering transitional excavation methods exceedingly costly and ineffective. Delivery of remedial amendments is one of the most challenging and critical aspects for all remedy-based approaches. The conventional approach for delivery is through injection of aqueous remedial solutions. However, heterogeneous deep vadose zone environments present hydrologic and geochemical challenges which limit the effectiveness. Because the flow of solution infiltration is dominantly controlled by gravity and suction, injected liquid preferentially percolates through highly permeable pathways, by-passing low-permeability zones which frequently contain the majority of contamination. Moreover, the wetting front can readily mobilize and enhance contaminant transport to the underlying aquifer prior to stabilization. Development of innovative, in-situ technologies may be the only way to meet remedial action objectives and long-term stewardship goals. Surfactants can be used to lower the liquid surface tension and create stabile foams, which readily penetrate low permeability zones. Although surfactant foams have been utilized for subsurface mobilization efforts in the oil and gas industry, so far, the concept of using foams as a delivery mechanism for transporting remedial amendments into deep vadose zone environments to stabilize metal and long-lived radionuclide contaminants has not been explored. Foam flow can be directed by pressure gradients, rather than being dominated by gravity; and, foam delivery mechanisms limit the volume of water (< 5% vol.) required for remedy delivery and emplacement, thus mitigating contaminant mobilization. We will present the results of a numerical modeling and integrated laboratory- / intermediate-scale investigation to simulate, develop, demonstrate, and monitor (i.e. advanced geophysical techniques and advanced predictive biomarkers) foam-based delivery of remedial amendments to remediate metals and radionuclides in vadose zone environments.

  17. Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R; Bestor, Michael A; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

  18. In situ method for recovering hydrocarbon from subterranean oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, R.H.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes in situ method for recovering hydrocarbons from subterranean oil shale deposits, the deposits comprising mineral rock and kerogen, comprising (a) penetrating the oil shale deposit with at least one well; (b) forming a zone of fractured and/or rubbilized oil shale material adjacent the well by hydraulic or explosive fracturing; (c) introducing a hydrogen donor solvent including tetralin into the portion of the oil shale formation treated in step (b) in a volume sufficient to fill substantially all of the void space created by the fracturing and rubbilizing treatment; (d) applying hydrogen to the tetralin and maintaining a predetermined pressure for a predetermined period of time sufficient to cause disintegration of the oil shale material; (e) thereafter introducing an oxidative environment into the portion of the oil shale deposit (f) producing the solvent in organic fragments to the surface of the earth, and (g) separating the organic fragments from the solvent.

  19. Gas-assisted gravity drainage (GAGD) process for improved oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, Dandina N. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2012-07-10

    A rapid and inexpensive process for increasing the amount of hydrocarbons (e.g., oil) produced and the rate of production from subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs by displacing oil downwards within the oil reservoir and into an oil recovery apparatus is disclosed. The process is referred to as "gas-assisted gravity drainage" and comprises the steps of placing one or more horizontal producer wells near the bottom of a payzone (i.e., rock in which oil and gas are found in exploitable quantities) of a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir and injecting a fluid displacer (e.g., CO.sub.2) through one or more vertical wells or horizontal wells. Pre-existing vertical wells may be used to inject the fluid displacer into the reservoir. As the fluid displacer is injected into the top portion of the reservoir, it forms a gas zone, which displaces oil and water downward towards the horizontal producer well(s).

  20. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO); Fernandes, Robert J. (Bakersfield, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

  1. Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Bauxite Residue and Saline Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, R.M.; Lu, Peng; Allen, D.E.; Soong, Yee; Hedges, S.W.; Fu, J.K.; Dobbs, C.L.; DeGalbo, A.D.; Zhu, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to explore the concept of beneficially utilizing mixtures of caustic bauxite residue slurry (pH 13) and produced oil-field brine to sequester carbon dioxide from flue gas generated from industrial point sources. Data presented herein provide a preliminary assessment of the overall feasibility of this treatment concept. The Carbonation capacity of bauxite residue/brine mixtures was considered over the full range of reactant mixture combinations in 10% increments by volume. A bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume exhibited a CO2 sequestration capacity of greater than 9.5 g/L when exposed to pure CO2 at 20 °C and 0.689 MPa (100 psig). Dawsonite and calcite formation were predicted to be the dominant products of bauxite/brine mixture carbonation. It is demonstrated that CO2 sequestration is augmented by adding bauxite residue as a caustic agent to acidic brine solutions and that trapping is accomplished through both mineralization and solubilization. The product mixture solution was, in nearly all mixtures, neutralized following carbonation. However, in samples (bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume) containing bauxite residue solids, the pH was observed to gradually increase to as high as 9.7 after aging for 33 days, suggesting that the CO2 sequestration capacity of the samples increases with aging. Our geochemical models generally predicted the experimental results of carbon sequestration capacities and solution pH.

  2. Deep Vadose Zone | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deep Vadose Zone Deep Vadose Zone The Mission of the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative is to protect water resources across the DOE complex over the long-term by developing effective solutions to solve DOE's most challenging deep vadose zone characterization, remediation, monitoring, and prediction challenges. PDF icon Deep Vadose Zone More Documents & Publications Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Hanford Site C Tank Farm Meeting Summary - May 2010 Advanced

  3. Zoning and Permitting Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zoning and Permitting Resources Zoning and Permitting Resources Zoning and permitting is commonly controlled by local governments and may be applicable to both residential and commercial properties. However, the state may regulate the scope of local zoning laws. For instance, some states have passed laws limiting the ability of local governments to prohibit or unreasonably regulate the installation and operation of renewable energy systems. Zoning laws may also be structured to encourage energy

  4. Mr. Ken Blower, Manager Corporate Environmental Affairs Standard Oil Company of Ohio

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ad. 3 0 II, 0 s 3 = & Mr. Ken Blower, Manager Corporate Environmental Affairs Standard Oil Company of Ohio Midland Building Cleveland, Ohio 44115 qITIALS/SIG Jhitman )ATE 1/ /86 ITG SYMBOL NE-23 Dear Mr. Blower: The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Fomerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), has reviewed information on the former DuPont Grasselli Research Laboratory (now Standard Oil Company of Ohio) to determine whether it contains residual radioactivity traceable to

  5. Resource recovery from coal residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G. Jr.; Canon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Several processes are being developed to recover metals from coal combustion and conversion residues. Methods to obtain substantial amounts of aluminum, iron, and titanium from these wastes are presented. The primary purpose of our investigation is to find a process that is economically sound or one that at least will partially defray the costs of waste processing. A cursory look at the content of fly ash enables one to see the merits of recovery of these huge quantities of valuable resources. The major constituents of fly ash of most interest are aluminum (14.8%), iron (7.5%), and titanium (1.0%). If these major elements could be recovered from the fly ash produced in the United States (60 million tons/year), bauxite would not have to be imported, iron ore production could be increased, and titanium production could be doubled.

  6. Sound Oil Company

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sound Oil Company file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/blackard/Desktop/EIA/LEE0152.HTM[11/29/2012 2:30:44 PM] DECISION AND ORDER OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Application for Exception Name of Petitioner: Sound Oil Company Date of Filing: August 16, 1994 Case Number: LEE-0152 On August 16, 1994, Sound Oil Company (Sound) of Seattle Washington, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals of the Department of Energy. In its Application, Sound requests that it be

  7. BIOMASS TO BIO-OIL BY LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-10

    Significant efforts have been devoted to develop processes for the conversion of biomass, an abundant and sustainable source of energy, to liquid fuels and chemicals, in order to replace diminishing fossil fuels and mitigate global warming. Thermochemical and biochemical methods have attracted the most attention. Among the thermochemical processes, pyrolysis and liquefaction are the two major technologies for the direct conversion of biomass to produce a liquid product, often called bio-oil. This chapter focuses on the liquefaction, a medium-temperature and high-pressure thermochemical process for the conversion of biomass to bio-oil. Water has been most commonly used as a solvent and the process is known as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Fundamentals of HTL process, key factors determining HTL behavior, role of catalyst in HTL, properties of produced bio-oil, and the current status of the technology are summarized. The liquefaction of biomass by using organic solvents, a process called solvolysis, is also discussed. A wide range of biomass feedstocks have been tested for liquefaction including wood, crop residues, algae, food processing waste, and animal manure.

  8. Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

    1992-04-15

    A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

  9. Property:Buildings/ModelClimateZone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Zone 7A Climate Zone 7B Climate Zone 8A Climate Zone 8B Pages using the property "BuildingsModelClimateZone" Showing 12 pages using this property. G General Merchandise...

  10. Methods for minimizing plastic flow of oil shale during in situ retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA)

    1978-01-01

    In an in situ oil shale retorting process, plastic flow of hot rubblized oil shale is minimized by injecting carbon dioxide and water into spent shale above the retorting zone. These gases react chemically with the mineral constituents of the spent shale to form a cement-like material which binds the individual shale particles together and bonds the consolidated mass to the wall of the retort. This relieves the weight burden borne by the hot shale below the retorting zone and thereby minimizes plastic flow in the hot shale. At least a portion of the required carbon dioxide and water can be supplied by recycled product gases.

  11. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  12. Statistical techniques for characterizing residual waste in single-shell and double-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    A primary objective of the Hanford Tank Initiative (HTI) project is to develop methods to estimate the inventory of residual waste in single-shell and double-shell tanks. A second objective is to develop methods to determine the boundaries of waste that may be in the waste plume in the vadose zone. This document presents statistical sampling plans that can be used to estimate the inventory of analytes within the residual waste within a tank. Sampling plans for estimating the inventory of analytes within the waste plume in the vadose zone are also presented. Inventory estimates can be used to classify the residual waste with respect to chemical and radiological hazards. Based on these estimates, it will be possible to make decisions regarding the final disposition of the residual waste. Four sampling plans for the residual waste in a tank are presented. The first plan is based on the assumption that, based on some physical characteristic, the residual waste can be divided into disjoint strata, and waste samples obtained from randomly selected locations within each stratum. The second plan is that waste samples are obtained from randomly selected locations within the waste. The third and fourth plans are similar to the first two, except that composite samples are formed from multiple samples. Common to the four plans is that, in the laboratory, replicate analytical measurements are obtained from homogenized waste samples. The statistical sampling plans for the residual waste are similar to the statistical sampling plans developed for the tank waste characterization program. In that program, the statistical sampling plans required multiple core samples of waste, and replicate analytical measurements from homogenized core segments. A statistical analysis of the analytical data, obtained from use of the statistical sampling plans developed for the characterization program or from the HTI project, provide estimates of mean analyte concentrations and confidence intervals on the mean. In addition, the statistical analysis provides estimates of spatial and measurement variabilities. The magnitude of these sources of variability are used to determine how well the inventory of the analytes in the waste have been estimated. This document provides statistical sampling plans that can be used to estimate the inventory of the analytes in the residual waste in single-shell and double-shell tanks and in the waste plume in the vadose zone.

  13. Development of Bypassed Oil Reserves Using Behind Casing Resistivity Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Conner

    2004-02-14

    Tubing and rods of the S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.1 well were pulled and the well was prepared for running of Schlumberger's Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool (CHFR) in selected intervals. The CHFR tool was successfully run and data was captured. The CHFR formation resistivity readings were compared to original open hole resistivity measurements. Separation between the original and CHFR resistivity curves indicate both swept and un-swept sand intervals. Both watered out sand intervals and those with higher remaining oil saturation have been identified. Due to the nature of these turbidite sands being stratigraphically continuous, both the swept and unswept layers have been correlated across to one of the four nearby offset shallow wells. As a result of the cased hole logging, one well was selected for a workover to recomplete and test suspected oil saturated shallow sand intervals. Well S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.2 was plugged back with cement excluding the previously existing production interval, squeeze cemented behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Bell'' zone and placed on production to develop potential new oil reserves and increase overall well productivity. Prior workover production averaged 3.0 BOPD for the previous six-months from the original ''Meyer'' completion interval. Post workover well production was increased to 5.3 BOPD on average for the following fifteen months. In December 2005, a bridge plug was installed above the ''Bell'' zone to test the ''Foix'' zone. Another cement squeeze was performed behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Foix'' zone and placed on production. The ''Foix'' test has produced water and a trace of oil for two months.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF BYPASSED OIL RESERVES USING BEHIND CASING RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Conner; Jeffrey A. Blesener

    2006-04-02

    Tubing and rods of the S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.1 well were pulled and the well was prepared for running of Schlumberger's Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool (CHFR) in selected intervals. The CHFR tool was successfully run and data was captured. The CHFR formation resistivity readings were compared to original open hole resistivity measurements. Separation between the original and CHFR resistivity curves indicate both swept and un-swept sand intervals. Both watered out sand intervals and those with higher remaining oil saturation have been identified. Due to the nature of these turbidite sands being stratigraphically continuous, both the swept and unswept layers have been correlated across to one of the four nearby offset shallow wells. As a result of the cased hole logging, one well was selected for a workover to recomplete and test suspected oil saturated shallow sand intervals. Well S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.2 was plugged back with cement excluding the previously existing production interval, squeeze cemented behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Bell'' zone and placed on production to develop potential new oil reserves and increase overall well productivity. Prior workover production averaged 3.0 BOPD for the previous six-months from the original ''Meyer'' completion interval. Post workover well production was increased to 5.3 BOPD on average for the following fifteen months. In December 2005, a bridge plug was installed above the ''Bell'' zone to test the ''Foix'' zone. Another cement squeeze was performed behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Foix'' zone and placed on production. The ''Foix'' test has produced water and a trace of oil for two months.

  15. Coiled tubing isolates zones, fractures wells with single trip service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, S.A.

    1999-04-01

    A system has been devised that combines high pressure coiled tubing (CT) and a selective isolation technique to frac multiple zones in a single operation. Multiple zones in one well can be individually isolated, fractured and flowed back simultaneously which results in reduced exposure to kill fluids and therefore higher retained conductivity for newly created fractures. The technique has been named CoilFRAC{trademark} by Dowell. The key benefits to the entire operation are reduced rig and operations time compared to conventional fracturing processes. Time savings, increased production, and environmental benefits are the economic drivers that result in rapid return on investment for production operators. The single trip concept for perforating and stimulation crews also brings additional benefits over multiple mobilizations. Wells which previously had only major zones perforated and stimulated and which are currently depleted can be revived economically using this system, giving the well a second life. The paper describes the equipment and its safety and contingency features, optimized shallow gas production in Alberta, and results from a South Texas oil well fracturing.

  16. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  17. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  18. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  19. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  20. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20.86 20.67 20.47 20.24 20.32 19.57 See footnotes at end of table. 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  1. oil1987.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Average Fuel OilKerosene Consumption Expenditures Below Poverty Line 100 Percent 2.0 1.4 ... for 1987. (3) Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  2. Oil Market Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    Based on Energy Information Administration (EIA) contacts and trade press reports, overall U.S. and global oil supplies appear to have been minimally impacted by yesterday's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

  3. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  4. Auto shredder residue recycling: Mechanical separation and pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, Alessandro; Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano; Serrano, David; Dufour, Javier

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work, we exploited mechanical separation and pyrolysis to recycle ASR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pyrolysis of the floating organic fraction is promising in reaching ELV Directive targets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zeolite catalyst improve pyrolysis oil and gas yield. - Abstract: sets a goal of 85% material recycling from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) by the end of 2015. The current ELV recycling rate is around 80%, while the remaining waste is called automotive shredder residue (ASR), or car fluff. In Europe, this is mainly landfilled because it is extremely heterogeneous and often polluted with car fluids. Despite technical difficulties, in the coming years it will be necessary to recover materials from car fluff in order to meet the ELV Directive requirement. This study deals with ASR pretreatment and pyrolysis, and aims to determine whether the ELV material recycling target may be achieved by car fluff mechanical separation followed by pyrolysis with a bench scale reactor. Results show that flotation followed by pyrolysis of the light, organic fraction may be a suitable ASR recycling technique if the oil can be further refined and used as a chemical. Moreover, metals are liberated during thermal cracking and can be easily separated from the pyrolysis char, amounting to roughly 5% in mass. Lastly, pyrolysis can be a good starting point from a 'waste-to-chemicals' perspective, but further research should be done with a focus on oil and gas refining, in order both to make products suitable for the chemical industry and to render the whole recycling process economically feasible.

  5. Oil shale research in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianqiu, W.; Jialin, Q. (Beijing Graduate School, Petroleum Univ., Beijing (CN))

    1989-01-01

    There have been continued efforts and new emergence in oil shale research in Chine since 1980. In this paper, the studies carried out in universities, academic, research and industrial laboratories in recent years are summarized. The research areas cover the chemical structure of kerogen; thermal behavior of oil shale; drying, pyrolysis and combustion of oil shale; shale oil upgrading; chemical utilization of oil shale; retorting waste water treatment and economic assessment.

  6. Oil and Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil and Gas Oil and Gas R&D focus on the use of conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, including associated environmental challenges Contact thumbnail of Business Development Executive John Russell Business Development Executive Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 665-3941 Email thumbnail of Business Development Executive Don Hickmott Business Development Executive Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 667-8753 Email Los Alamos' efforts in fossil energy R&D

  7. NETL: Oil & Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas Efficient recovery of our nation's fossil fuel resources in an environmentally safe manner requires the development and application of new technologies that address the unique nature and challenging locations of many of our remaining oil and natural gas accumulations. The National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) research projects are designed to help catalyze the development of these new technologies, provide objective data to help quantify the environmental and safety risks

  8. A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric M. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL; Dutler, S. A. [MAGMA Foundry Technologies, Inc.

    2012-01-01

    Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast components. This enables incorporation of the residual stresses at the design phase along with external loads for accurate predictions of fatigue and fracture performance of the cast components.

  9. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  10. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whisman, Marvin L. (Bartlesville, OK); Reynolds, James W. (Bartlesville, OK); Goetzinger, John W. (Bartlesville, OK); Cotton, Faye O. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  11. Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, A.M.

    1999-02-10

    This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS).

  12. Sandia defines solar variability zones

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    defines solar variability zones - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  13. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual results on the pilot plant gasifier and demonstration plant design recommendations, based on cold flow simulation results.

  14. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.; Shine, E. P.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  15. Farmland Security Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Security Zone Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Farmland Security ZoneLegal Abstract California Department of...

  16. Pellet Zone Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pellet Zone Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pellet Zone Ltd Place: England, United Kingdom Zip: NR19 1AE Sector: Biomass Product: UK based biomass pellet trading firm....

  17. Climate Zone Number 5 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Zone Number 5 Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard. Climate Zone Number 5 is defined as Cool- Humid(5A) with IP Units 5400...

  18. Climate Zone 8B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Subtype B. Climate Zone 8B is defined as Subarctic with IP Units 12600 < HDD65F and SI Units 7000 < HDD18C . The following places are categorized as class 8B climate zones:...

  19. Climate Zone 8A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A. Climate Zone Number 8A is defined as Subarctic with IP Units 12600 < HDD65F and SI Units 7000 < HDD18C . The following places are categorized as class 8A climate zones:...

  20. Climate Zone 1A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A. Climate Zone 1A is defined as Very Hot - Humid with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C . The following places are categorized as class 1A climate zones:...

  1. Finding Hidden Oil and Gas Reserves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Finding Hidden Oil and Gas Reserves Finding Hidden Oil and Gas Reserves Key Challenges: Seismic imaging methods, vital in our continuing search for deep offshore oil and gas...

  2. Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources The United States has significant natural gas and oil reserves. But many of these resources are increasingly harder to...

  3. United Oil Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Oil Company Place: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Product: Vegetable-Oil producer Biodiesel producer based in Pittsburgh, PA...

  4. Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources Deepwater Oil & Gas Resources The United States has significant natural gas and oil reserves. But many of these resources are increasingly harder to ...

  5. Zero Zone Comment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zero Zone Comment Zero Zone Comment These comments are submitted by Zero Zone Inc., a manufacturer of CRE equipment, in response to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) notice in the July 3, 2014 Federal Register requesting information to assist DOE in reviewing existing regulations and in making its regulatory program more effective and less burdensome. PDF icon Zero Zone comments More Documents & Publications Regulatory Burden RFI Executive Order 13563 certification, compliance and

  6. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively fractured and sealed by overlying argillaceous and non-fractured units. The best outcrop analogs for Twin Creek reservoirs are found at Devils Slide and near the town of Peoa, Utah, where fractures in dense, homogeneous non-porous limestone beds are in contact with the basal siltstone units (containing sealed fractures) of the overlying units. The shallow marine, Mississippian Leadville Limestone is a major oil and gas reservoir in the Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado. Hydrocarbons are produced from basement-involved, northwest-trending structural traps with closure on both anticlines and faults. Excellent outcrops of Leadville-equivalent rocks are found along the south flank of the Uinta Mountains, Utah. For example, like the Leadville, the Mississippian Madison Limestone contains zones of solution breccia, fractures, and facies variations. When combined with subsurface geological and production data, these outcrop analogs can improve (1) development drilling and production strategies such as horizontal drilling, (2) reservoir-simulation models, (3) reserve calculations, and (4) design and implementation of secondary/tertiary oil recovery programs and other best practices used in the oil fields of Utah and vicinity. In the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin, optimal drilling, development, and production practices consist of: (1) owning drilling rigs and frac holding tanks; (2) perforating sandstone beds with more than 8 percent neutron porosity and stimulate with separate fracture treatments; (3) placing completed wells on primary production using artificial lift; (4) converting wells relatively soon to secondary waterflooding maintaining reservoir pressure above the bubble point to maximize oil recovery; (5) developing waterflood units using an alternating injector--producer pattern on 40-acre (16-ha) spacing; and (6) recompleting producing wells by perforating all beds that are productive in the waterflood unit. As part of technology transfer activities during this quarter, an abstract describing outcrop reservoir analogs was accepted by the American Assoc

  7. STEO December 2012 - oil production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Rise in 2012 U.S. oil production largest since 1859, output in 2013 seen topping 7 million bpd U.S. crude oil production is now expected to rise by about 760,000 barrels per day in 2012, the biggest annual increase in oil output since U.S. commercial crude oil production began in 1859. American oil producers are expected to pump a daily average of 6.4 million barrels of crude oil this year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administrator's new monthly energy forecast. The annual increase

  8. Characterization of Residual Stress as a Function of Friction Stir Welding Parameters in Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Steel MA956

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brewer, Luke N.; Bennett, Martin S.; Baker, B. W.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kolbus, Lindsay M.

    2015-09-08

    This article characterizes the residual stresses generated by friction stir welding of oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA956 over a series of welding conditions. A plate of MA956 steel was friction stir welded at three conditions: 500 rpm/25 millimeters per minute (mmpm), 400 rpm/50 mmpm and 400 rpm/100 mmpm. The residual stresses across these welds were measured using both x-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Longitudinal residual stresses up to eighty percent of the yield strength were observed for the 400 rpm/100 mmpm condition. Increasing the traverse rate while holding the rotational speed fixed increased the residual stress levels in the stirmore » zone and at the stir zone-thermomechanically affected zone interface. The stress profiles displayed the characteristic M shape, and the asymmetry between advancing and retreating stress peaks was limited, occurring mainly on the root side of the weld. The large magnitude of the stresses was maintained throughout the thickness of the plates.« less

  9. International Oil and Gas Board International Oil and Gas Board...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Petroleum Company Syrian Petroleum Company Damascus Syria Syria http www spc sy com en production activities1 en php Yemen Ministry of Oil and Minerals Yemen Ministry of Oil and...

  10. Atkinson County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Atkinson County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Atkinson County, Georgia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  11. Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  12. Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  13. Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  14. Adams County, Mississippi ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Mississippi ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Mississippi ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  15. Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region (Redirected from Central Nevada Seismic Zone) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

  16. Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  17. This Week In Petroleum Crude Oil Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    as: U.S. crude oil stocks Four-week average U.S. crude oil refinery inputs Crude oil production and imports (million barrels per day) Production Imports U.S. crude oil...

  18. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 11.2 cents from a week ago to 2.91 per gallon. That's down 1.33 from a year ago, based on the...

  19. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.8 cents from a week ago to 2.08 per gallon. That's down 72 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  20. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 10.5 cents from a week ago to 2.93 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the...

  1. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3 cents from a week ago to 2.33 per gallon. That's down 89 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  2. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.8 cents from a week ago to 2.82 per gallon. That's down 1.36 from a year ago, based on the...

  3. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.5 cents from a week ago to 2.36 per gallon. That's down 97 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  4. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 12 cents from a week ago to 4.18 per gallon. That's up 13 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  5. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2015 Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 14.7 cents from a week ago to 3.19 per gallon. That's down 1.06 from a year...

  6. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 17.7 cents from a week ago to 3.03 per gallon. That's down 1.09 from a year ago, based on the...

  7. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6.5 cents from a week ago to 4.24 per gallon. That's up 14.9 cents from a year...

  8. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4.5 cents from a week ago to 2.21 per gallon. That's down 87 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  9. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2.3 cents from a week ago to 2.38 per gallon. That's down 99 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  10. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2 cents from a week ago to 3.36 per gallon. That's down 52.5 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  11. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.9 cents from a week ago to 3.98 per gallon. That's up 6-tenths of a penny from a year ago, based...

  12. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to 2.16 per gallon. That's down 75 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  13. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2015 Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 11.7 cents from a week ago to 3.03 per gallon. That's down 1.20 from a year...

  14. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6-tenths of a cent from a week ago to 2.18 per gallon. That's down 79 cents from a year ago, based...

  15. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5.1 cents from a week ago to 2.11 per gallon. That's down 72 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  16. Residential heating oil prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices available The average retail price for home heating oil is 3.52 per gallon. That's down 32.7 cents from a year ago, based on the U.S. Energy Information...

  17. Residential heating oil prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices available The average retail price for home heating oil is 2.41 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information...

  18. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.8 cents from a week ago to 3.14 per gallon. That's down 81.1 cents from a year...

  19. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5 cents from a week ago to 2.06 per gallon. That's down 75 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  20. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.6 cents from a week ago to 4.24 per gallon. That's up 8.9 cents from a year...

  1. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 5.4 cents from a week ago to 4.04 per gallon. That's up 4.9 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  2. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3, 2014 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 4.4 cents from a week ago to 4.06 per gallon. That's up 4.1 cents from a year...

  3. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil prices decrease The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.7 cents from a week ago to 4.02 per gallon. That's up 1.7 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  4. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to 2.26 per gallon. That's down 89 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  5. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 10.5 cents from a week ago to 3.22 per gallon. That's down 73.6 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  6. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 2.9 cents from a week ago to 3.45 per gallon. That's down 36.6 cents from a year...

  7. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 8 cents from a week ago to 3.21 per gallon. That's down 98.7 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  8. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.6 cents from a week ago to 3.42 per gallon. That's down 39.5 cents from a year ago,...

  9. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.8 cents from a week ago to 3.33 per gallon. That's down 59.1 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  10. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.3 cents from a week ago to 3.38 per gallon. That's down 43.9 cents from a year...

  11. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.5 cents from a week ago to 2.18 per gallon. That's down 87 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  12. Residential heating oil prices decrease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil prices decrease The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.8 cents from a week ago to 4.00 per gallon. That's down 2-tenths of a cent...

  13. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to 3.08 per gallon. That's down 90.3 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  14. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to 3.43 per gallon. That's down 39 cents from a year...

  15. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 1.9 cents from a week ago to 2.80 per gallon. That's down 1.44 from a year ago, based on the...

  16. Residential heating oil price increases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 10.3 cents from a week ago to 3.29 per gallon. That's down 93.7 cents from a year ago, based on the...

  17. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2, 2014 Residential heating oil prices decline The average retail price for home heating oil is 3.48 per gallon. That's down 4.5 cents from a week ago, based on the residential...

  18. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maps of states participating in Winter Fuels Survey Residential propane PADD map Residential heating oil PADD map

  19. Nineteenth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 23 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of maturation on hydrocarbon recoveries from Canadian oil shale deposits; Dust and pressure generated during commercial oil shale mine blasting: Part II; The petrosix project in Brazil - An update; Pathway of some trace elements during fluidized-bed combustion of Israeli Oil Shale; and Decommissioning of the U.S. Department of Energy Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility.

  20. All auto shredding: evaluation of automotive shredder residue generated by shredding only vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duranceau, C. M.; Spangenberger, J. S.

    2011-09-26

    A well developed infrastructure exists for the reuse and recycling of automotive parts and materials. At the end of a vehicle's useful life many parts are removed and sold for reuse and fluids are recovered for recycling or proper disposal. What remains is shredded, along with other metal bearing scrap such as home appliances, demolition debris and process equipment, and the metals are separated out and recycled. The remainder of the vehicle materials is call shredder residue which ends up in the landfill. As energy and natural resources becomes more treasured, increased effort has been afforded to find ways to reduce energy consumption and minimize the use of our limited resources. Many of the materials found in shredder residue could be recovered and help offset the use of energy and material consumption. For example, the energy content of the plastics and rubbers currently landfilled with the shredder residue is equivalent to 16 million barrels of oil per year. However, in the United States, the recovered materials, primarily polymers, cannot be recycled due to current regulatory barriers which preclude the re-introduction into commerce of certain materials because of residual contamination with substances of concern (SOCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The source of the PCBs is not well understood. Old transformers, capacitors, white goods and ballasts from lighting fixtures are likely contributing factors. The project was designed to evaluate whether vehicles of varying age and manufacturing origin contribute to the PCB content in shredder residue. Additionally, the project was designed to determine if there are any trends in material composition of the shredder residue from varied age and manufacturing groups. This information would aid in future material recovery facility strategy and design. The test utilized a newly installed shredder plant to shred four categories of automobiles. The categories were defined by vehicle age and the manufacturing company and location. Each category of vehicles was processed individually through the shredder plant and the resulting shredder residue was analyzed for its materials composition and presence of PCBs and leachable metals. The results show that shredder residue from all vehicle categories tested are not significant contributors of PCBs and leachable metals. It was evident that leachable cadmium levels have decreased in newer vehicles. The composition of the shredder residue from each of the four categories is similar to the others. In addition, these compositions are approximately equal to the composition of typical shredder residues, not limited to automotive materials.

  1. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  3. Dying for oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, A.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the fight and execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa, the Ogoni leader who defended his people`s land on the Niger delta against oil development encouraged by the government and persued by the Royal/Dutch Shell Co. Political reprocussions and heightened vigilance of environmental activists are discussed at length.

  4. World Oil Transit Chokepoints

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01

    Chokepoints are narrow channels along widely used global sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of vessel that can navigate through them. They are a critical part of global energy security due to the high volume of oil traded through their narrow straits.

  5. U.S. Climate Zones Map for Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Past Climate Zones U. S. Climate Zones for 1979-1999 CBECS: climate zone map Return to Climate Zones for 2003 CBECS Return to CBECS Home Page Note:Map updated with corrections,...

  6. Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Subtype | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A + Adair County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A + Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype B + Adams County,...

  7. Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Number | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 + Adair County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 3 + Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 5 + Adams County,...

  8. U.S. Climate Zones Map for Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Climate Zone U. S. Climate Zones for 2003 CBECS: climate zones map Note:Map updated with corrections, February 2012 Further Explanation on How Climate Zones are Defined...

  9. "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.5;" " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal

  10. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  11. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1995-07-11

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

  12. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

  13. Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kaisheng Biomass Residue Power Co., Ltd. Place: Nanping City, Fujian Province, China Zip: 365001 Sector:...

  14. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a novel alkaline-steam well completion technique for the containment of the unconsolidated formation sands and control of fluid entry and injection profiles. (5) Installation of a 2100 ft, 14 inch insulated, steam line beneath a harbor channel to supply steam to an island location. (6) Testing and proposed application of thermal recovery technologies to increase oil production and reserves: (a) Performing pilot tests of cyclic steam injection and production on new horizontal wells. (b) Performing pilot tests of hot water-alternating-steam (WAS) drive in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Perform a pilot steamflood with the four horizontal injectors and producers using a pseudo steam-assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process. (8) Advanced reservoir management, through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring and evaluation.

  15. CX-005810: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Case Studies of the Residual Oil Zone Carbon Dioxide Flood and the Combined Residual Oil Zone/Main Pay Zone Carbon Dioxide Flood at the Goldsmith Landreth UnitCX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.6Date: 05/13/2011Location(s): Ector County, TexasOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  16. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  17. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.

    1996-01-01

    This three-year project had two technical objectives. The first objective was to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes were compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, particulates, and microorganisms. The ultimate goals of these comparisons were to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments were performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project was to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. A capacity to reduce water permeability much more than oil or gas permeability is critical to the success of gel treatments in production wells if zones cannot be isolated during gel placement. Topics covered in this report include (1) determination of gel properties in fractures, (2) investigation of schemes to optimize gel placement in fractured systems, (3) an investigation of why some polymers and gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability, (4) consideration of whether microorganisms and particulates can exhibit placement properties that are superior to those of gels, and (5) examination of when foams may show placement properties that are superior to those of gels.

  18. Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Chen-Luh; Miller, Jan

    2011-03-01

    There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (?m) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

  19. Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Bauxite Residue and Saline Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, Robert; Lu, Peng; Allen, Douglas; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila; Fu, Jaw K.; Dobbs, Charles L.; Degalbo, Angelo; Zhu, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to explore the concept of beneficially utilizing mixtures of caustic bauxite residue slurry (pH 13) and produced oil-field brine to sequester carbon dioxide from flue gas generated from industrial point sources. Data presented herein provide a preliminary assessment of the overall feasibility of this treatment concept. The Carbonation capacity of bauxite residue/brine mixtures was considered over the full range of reactant mixture combinations in 10% increments by volume. A bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume exhibited a CO2 sequestration capacity of greater than 9.5 g/L when exposed to pure CO2 at 20ș C and 0.689 MPa (100 psig). Dawsonite and calcite formation were predicted to be the dominant products of bauxite/brine mixture carbonation. It is demonstrated that CO2 sequestration is augmented by adding bauxite residue as a caustic agent to acidic brine solutions and that trapping is accomplished through both mineralization and solubilization. The product mixture solution was, in nearly all mixtures, neutralized following carbonation. However, in samples (bauxite residue/brine mixture of 90/10 by volume) containing bauxite residue solids, the pH was observed to gradually increase to as high as 9.7 after aging for 33 days, suggesting that the CO2 sequestration capacity of the samples increases with aging. Our geochemical models generally predicted the experimental results of carbon sequestration capacities and solution pH.

  20. Immobilization of Rocky Flats graphite fines residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S.; Marra, J.C.; Peeler, D.K.

    1999-07-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is developing an immobilization process for graphite fines residues generated during nuclear materials production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats). The continued storage of this material has been identified as an item of concern. The residue was generated during the cleaning of graphite casting molds and potentially contains reactive plutonium metal. The average residue composition is 73 wt% graphite, 15 wt% calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and 12 wt% plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Approximately 950 kg of this material are currently stored at Rocky Flats. The strategy of the immobilization process is to microencapsulate the residue by mixing with a sodium borosilicate (NBS) glass frit and heating at nominally 700 C. The resulting waste form would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Since the PuO{sub 2} concentration in the residue averages 12 wt%, the immobilization process was required to meet the intent of safeguards termination criteria by limiting plutonium recoverability based on a test developed by Rocky Flats. The test required a plutonium recovery of less than 4 g/kg of waste form when a sample was leached using a nitric acid/CaF{sub 2} dissolution flowsheet. Immobilization experiments were performed using simulated graphite fines with cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) as a surrogate for PuO{sub 2} and with actual graphite fines residues. Small-scale surrogate experiments demonstrated that a 4:1 frit to residue ratio was adequate to prevent recovery of greater than 4 g/kg of cerium from simulated waste forms. Additional experiments investigated the impact of varying concentrations of CaF{sub 2} and the temperature/heating time cycle on the cerium recovery. Optimal processing conditions developed during these experiments were subsequently demonstrated at full-scale with surrogate materials and on a smaller scale using actual graphite fines.

  1. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-15

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  2. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of oil shale and oil sands resources; Economic and environmental assessment of domestic ... Impacts (November, 2014); Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience ...

  3. Coastal Zone Management Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and the National Estuarine Research Reserve System. The 34 coastal programs aim to balance competing land and water issues in the coastal zone, while estuarine reserves serve...

  4. Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature anomaly has been mapped. A group of subtle temperature anomalies along Simpson Pass, south of the current production area, are interpreted as an upwelling zone with...

  5. Coastal Zone Management Act and Regulations (NOAA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) of 1972 provides for the management of the nation’s coastal resources, including the Great Lakes.

  6. Vadose Zone Microbiology: Science and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockman, Fred J.; Bradley, Stephen D.; Kieft, Thomas L.

    2002-03-12

    Brockman FJ, SN Bradley and TL Kieft. 2002. Vadose zone microbiology. In Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology, volume 6, pp. 3236-3246. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

  7. Maricopa County- Renewable Energy Systems Zoning Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maricopa County Zoning Ordinance contains provisions for siting renewable energy systems. The ordinance defines renewable energy as "energy derived primarily from sources other than fossil...

  8. Coastal Zone Management Act and Regulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) of 1972 provides for the management of the nation’s coastal resources, including the Great Lakes.

  9. Climate Zone 2B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are categorized as class 2B climate zones: Bandera County, Texas Dimmit County, Texas Edwards County, Texas Frio County, Texas Imperial County, California Kinney County, Texas La...

  10. Washington Coastal Zone Management Regulatory Handbook | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Washington Coastal Zone Management Regulatory HandbookPermittingRegulatory GuidanceGuideHandbook Author Washington...

  11. SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION SAMPLING OF FIRE DEBRIS RESIDUES IN THE PRESENCE OF RADIONUCLIDE SURROGATE METALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, M; Keisha Martin, K; S Crump, S

    2007-03-23

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating highly radioactive fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of FD residue from radionuclide metals involves using solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers to remove the residues of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most (radioactive) metals. The focus of this research was to develop an examination protocol that was applicable to safe work in facilities where high radiation doses are shielded from the workers (as in radioactive shielded cells or ''hot cells''). We also examined the affinity of stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr and Nd) for sorption by the SPME fibers. This was done under exposure conditions that favor the uptake of FD residues under conditions that will provide little contact between the SPME and the FD material (such as charred carpet or wood that contains commonly-used accelerants). Our results from mass spectrometric analyses indicate that SPME fibers show promise for use in the room temperature head space uptake of organic FD residue (namely, diesel fuel oil, kerosene, gasoline and paint thinner) with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. No inorganic forms of ignitable fluids were included in this study.

  12. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecke, Holger Svensson, Malin

    2008-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2{sup 6-1} experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO{sub 2} until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  13. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S. . Rocky Flats Plant); Rivera, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

  14. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S.; Rivera, M.A.

    1993-03-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

  15. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  16. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  17. System and method for measuring residual stress

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prime, Michael B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a method and system for determining the residual stress within an elastic object. In the method, an elastic object is cut along a path having a known configuration. The cut creates a portion of the object having a new free surface. The free surface then deforms to a contour which is different from the path. Next, the contour is measured to determine how much deformation has occurred across the new free surface. Points defining the contour are collected in an empirical data set. The portion of the object is then modeled in a computer simulator. The points in the empirical data set are entered into the computer simulator. The computer simulator then calculates the residual stress along the path which caused the points within the object to move to the positions measured in the empirical data set. The calculated residual stress is then presented in a useful format to an analyst.

  18. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Stocks by Type Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases EthaneEthylene PropanePropylene Normal ...

  19. Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil and Less CO2 Emissions Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could Mean More Oil ...

  20. EIA-821, Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report Page 1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    DC 20585 OMB No. 1905-0174 Expiration Date: 09/30/2017 Version No.: 2015.01 FORM EIA-821 ANNUAL FUEL OIL AND KEROSENE SALES REPORT INSTRUCTIONS 1. QUESTIONS? If you have any questions about Form EIA-821 after reading the instructions, please call our toll-free number 1-800-638- 8812. 2. PURPOSE The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Form EIA- 821, "Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report," is used to collect annual data on the sales of distillate and residual fuel oils,

  1. EIA-821, Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report Page 1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    D. C. 20585 OMB No. 1905-0174 Expiration Date: 09/30/2017 Version No.: 2016.01 FORM EIA-821 ANNUAL FUEL OIL AND KEROSENE SALES REPORT INSTRUCTIONS 1. QUESTIONS? If you have any questions about Form EIA-821 after reading the instructions, please call our toll-free number 1-800-638- 8812. 2. PURPOSE The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Form EIA- 821, "Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report," is used to collect annual data on the sales of distillate and residual fuel oils,

  2. Crude Oil Prices Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  3. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  4. Post Retort, Pre Hydro-treat Upgrading of Shale Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John

    2012-09-30

    Various oil feedstocks, including oil from oil shale, bitumen from tar sands, heavy oil, and refin- ery streams were reacted with the alkali metals lithium or sodium in the presence of hydrogen or methane at elevated temperature and pressure in a reactor. The products were liquids with sub- stantially reduced metals, sulfur and nitrogen content. The API gravity typically increased. Sodi- um was found to be more effective than lithium in effectiveness. The solids formed when sodium was utilized contained sodium sulfide which could be regenerated electrochemically back to so- dium and a sulfur product using a "Nasicon", sodium ion conducting membrane. In addition, the process was found to be effective reducing total acid number (TAN) to zero, dramatically reduc- ing the asphaltene content and vacuum residual fraction in the product liquid. The process has promise as a means of eliminating sulfur oxide and carbon monoxide emissions. The process al- so opens the possibility of eliminating the coking process from upgrading schemes and upgrad- ing without using hydrogen.

  5. Oil shale potential of the Heath and Tyler formations, Central Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, W.E.; Cole, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The units in the middle of the Heath formation below the gypsum beds were found to have the highest oil yields. That interval was generally 25 to 50 ft (7.6 to 15.2 m) thick. The upper portion of the Heath formation yielded as much as 9.8 gal/ton in section 9, and 14.9 gal/ton in section 10. The Tyler formation was determined to have very low oil potential, with the maximum yield being 2.2 gal/ton. The instability of some of the Heath slopes could present problems in the mining of oil shale. Specific stratigraphic horizons in which zones of high and low oil and metal contents occur would be extremely difficult to map in areas where the units have been displaced by landslide movement.

  6. Table 5.2 Crude Oil Production and Crude Oil Well Productivity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil Production and Crude Oil Well Productivity, 1954-2011 Year Crude Oil Production Crude Oil Well 1 Productivity 48 States 2 Alaska 3 Total Onshore Offshore Total Producing ...

  7. High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports High U.S. crude oil production will help further reduce America's reliance on oil imports during the next two years. In its ...

  8. Low oil prices cut less into U.S. oil production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Low oil prices cut less into U.S. oil production U.S. crude oil production has been more resilient to lower oil prices since mid-2014 than many had expected. In its new forecast, ...

  9. DOE to Purchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Purchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE to Purchase Heating Oil for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve June 23, 2008 - 1:29pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC ...

  10. U.S. oil imports to decline with rising oil production through...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    oil imports to decline with rising oil production through 2014 The United States will need fewer oil imports over the next two years because of rising U.S. oil production. The new ...

  11. Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    13,474.2 10,899.1 339.3 97.0 August ... 2,941.5 5,124.2 9,182.8 7,011.5 12,124.3 12,135.8 181.8 150.4 September ... 2,565.7 4,980.2 10,071.6...

  12. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    33.7 27.5 25.9 23.4 28.0 25.3 February ... 31.8 22.3 24.8 21.6 26.9 21.8 March ... 32.8 27.0 26.7 24.2 28.5 25.3 April...

  13. U.S. Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Florida Georgia North Carolina South Carolina Virginia West Virginia Midwest (PADD 2) Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma South Dakota Tennessee Wisconsin Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Alabama

  14. U.S. Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Florida Georgia North Carolina South Carolina Virginia West Virginia Midwest (PADD 2) Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma South Dakota Tennessee Wisconsin Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Alabama

  15. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  16. The twentieth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: The technical contributions of John Ward Smith in oil shale research; Oil shale rubble fires: ignition and extinguishment; Fragmentation of eastern oil shale for in situ recovery; A study of thermal properties of Chinese oil shale; and Natural invasion of native plants on retorted oil shale.

  17. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1 cent from a week ago to $2.09 per gallon. That's down 82 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.02 per gallon, up 8-tenths of a cent from last week, and down 85

  18. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 1.1 cents from a week ago to $2.10 per gallon. That's down 94 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.04 per gallon, up 2.3 cents from last week, and down 95

  19. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 9-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.09 per gallon. That's down $1.09 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.04 per gallon, down 1-tenth of a cent from last week, and down $1.11

  20. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 5-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.09 per gallon. That's down $1.20 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.03 per gallon, down 9-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $1.22

  1. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 6-tenths of a cent from a week ago to $2.10 per gallon. That's down $1.11 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.04 per gallon, up 5-tenths of a cent from last week, and down $1.14

  2. Residential heating oil price decreases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential heating oil price increases The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.6 cents from a week ago to $2.12 per gallon. That's down 91 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are at $2.06 per gallon, up 2.1 cents from last week, and down 94

  3. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 3.9 cents last week to $3.96 per gallon. That's down 2.6 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The price for heating oil in the New England region averaged 3.92 per gallon, up 5.2 cents from last week, and 1.7

  4. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  5. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore » the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  6. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  7. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  8. STEO September 2012 - oil production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    oil production forecast to rise almost 700,000 bpd this year, help cut U.S. petroleum imports U.S. crude oil production is expected to average 6.3 million barrels per day in 2012. That's up nearly 700,000 barrels per day from last year and the highest annual oil output since 1997 says the U.S. Energy Information Administration in its new monthly short-term energy outlook for September. EIA analyst Sam Gorgen explains: "Higher oil supplies, especially from North Dakota and Texas, boosted

  9. Brushing up on oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, J.

    1995-12-01

    To be prepared for a range of oil spills, emergency response organizations must have an arsenal of powerful and adaptable equipment. Around the coastal United States, a network of oil spill cooperatives and emergency response organizations stand ready with the technology and the know-how to respond to the first sign of an oil spill. When the telephone rings, they may be required to mop up 200 gallons of oil that leaked off the deck of a ship or to contain and skim 2,000 gallons of oil from a broken hose at a loading terminal. In a few cases each year, they may find themselves responding to a major pollution incident, one that involves hundreds of people and tons of equipment. To clean an oil spill at a New Jersey marine terminal, the local cooperative used the Lundin Oil Recovery Inc. (LORI) skimming system to separate the oil and water and the lift the oil out of the river. The LORI skimming technology is based on sound principles of fluid management - using the natural movement of water instead of trying to fight against it. A natural feeding mechanism delivers oily water through the separation process, and a simple mechanical separation and recovery device - a brush conveyor - removes the pollutants from the water.

  10. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1985 totaled 3,837,580,000 bbl (an average rate of 10,513,917 BOPD), down 2.2% from the revised 1984 total of 3,924,034,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Dubai, Oman, and Syria had significant increases; Kuwait, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar had significant decreases. New fields went on production in Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Oman, and Syria. In North Yemen, the first ever oil production in that country was nearing the start-up stage at year end. 9 figures, 9 tables.

  11. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone, or a low-permeability zone at the top of the Nugget. The Nugget Sandstone thrust belt play is divided into three subplays: (1) Absaroka thrust - Mesozoic-cored shallow structures, (2) Absaroka thrust - Mesozoic-cored deep structures, and (3) Absaroka thrust - Paleozoic-cored shallow structures. Both of the Mesozoic-cored structures subplays represent a linear, hanging wall, ramp anticline parallel to the leading edge of the Absaroka thrust. Fields in the shallow Mesozoic subplay produce crude oil and associated gas; fields in the deep subplay produce retrograde condensate. The Paleozoic-cored structures subplay is located immediately west of the Mesozoic-cored structures subplays. It represents a very continuous and linear, hanging wall, ramp anticline where the Nugget is truncated against a thrust splay. Fields in this subplay produce nonassociated gas and condensate. Traps in these subplays consist of long, narrow, doubly plunging anticlines. Prospective drilling targets are delineated using high-quality, two-dimensional and three-dimensional seismic data, forward modeling/visualization tools, and other state-of-the-art techniques. Future Nugget Sandstone exploration could focus on more structurally complex and subtle, thrust-related traps. Nugget structures may be present beneath the leading edge of the Hogsback thrust and North Flank fault of the Uinta uplift. The Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone play in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province has produced over 15 million barrels (2.4 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 93 billion cubic feet (2.6 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity Twin Creek is extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Twin Creek reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and clastic beds, and non-fractured units within the Twin Creek. The Twin Creek Limestone thrust belt play is divided into two subplays: (1) Absaroka thrust-Mesozoic-cored structures and (2) Absaroka thrust - Paleozoic-cored structures. The Mesozoic-cored structures subplay represents a linear, hanging wall, ramp anticline parallel to the leading edge of the Absaroka thrust. Fields in this subplay produce crude oil and associated gas. The Paleozoic-cored structures subplay is located immediately west of the Mesozoic-cored structures subplay. It represents a very continuous and linear, hanging wall, ramp anticline where the Twin Creek is truncated against a thrust splay. Fields in this subplay produce nonassociated gas and condensate. Traps in both subplays consist of long, narrow, doubly plunging anticlines.

  12. Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T. S.

    1998-11-06

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is developing an immobilization process for graphite fines residues generated during nuclear materials production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats). The continued storage of this material has been identified as an item of concern. The residue was generated during the cleaning of graphite casting molds and potentially contains reactive plutonium metal. The average residue composition is 73 wt percent graphite, 15 wt percent calcium fluoride (CaF2), and 12 wt percent plutonium oxide (PuO2). Approximately 950 kilograms of this material are currently stored at Rocky Flats. The strategy of the immobilization process is to microencapsulate the residue by mixing with a sodium borosilicate (NBS) glass frit and heating at nominally 700 degrees C. The resulting waste form would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Since the PuO2 concentration in the residue averages 12 wt percent, the immobilization process was required to meet the intent of safeguards termination criteria by limiting plutonium recoverability based on a test developed by Rocky Flats. The test required a plutonium recovery of less than 4 g/kg of waste form when a sample was leached using a nitric acid/CaF2 dissolution flowsheet. Immobilization experiments were performed using simulated graphite fines with cerium oxide (CeO2) as a surrogate for PuO2 and with actual graphite fines residues. Small-scale surrogate experiments demonstrated that a 4:1 frit to residue ratio was adequate to prevent recovery of greater than 4 g/kg of cerium from simulated waste forms. Additional experiments investigated the impact of varying concentrations of CaF2 and the temperature/heating time cycle on the cerium recovery. Optimal processing conditions developed during these experiments were subsequently demonstrated at full-scale with surrogate materials and on a smaller scale using actual graphite fines.In general, the recovery of cerium from the full-scale waste forms was higher than for smaller scale experiments. The presence of CaF2 also caused a dramatic increase in cerium recovery not seen in the small-scale experiments. However, the results from experiments with actual graphite fines were encouraging. A 4:1 frit to residue ratio, a temperature of 700 degrees C, and a 2 hr heating time produced waste forms with plutonium recoveries of 4 plus/minus 1 g/kg. With an increase in the frit to residue ratio, waste forms fabricated at this scale should meet the Rocky Flats product specification. The scale-up of the waste form fabrication process to nominally 3 kg is expected to require a 5:1 to 6:1 frit to residue ratio and maintaining the waste form centerline temperature at 700 degrees C for 2 hr.

  13. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  14. fuel_oil.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fuel Oil Usage Form 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 1. Timely submission of this report is mandatory under Public Law 93-275, as amended. 2. This completed report is due by 3. Data reported on this questionnaire are for the entire building identified in the label to the right. 4. Data may be submitted directly on this questionnaire or in any other format, such as a computer-generated listing, which provides the same i nformation and is conve nient for y our company.

  15. Iran Oil and Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Iran Oil and Gas Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Iran Oil and Gas Name: Iran Oil and Gas Address: Unit 16, 3rd Fl., Bldg. No. 2, 9th Narenjestan St., North Pasdaran Ave. Place:...

  16. Compare All CBECS Activities: Fuel Oil Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fuel Oil Use Compare Activities by ... Fuel Oil Use Total Fuel Oil Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 1.3 billion gallons...

  17. Oman Oil Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil Company (S.A.O.C.) Name: Oman Oil Company (S.A.O.C.) Place: Muscat, Oman Product: Oil exploration and production Year Founded: 1966 Phone Number: + 968 - 2457 3100 Website:...

  18. ,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports from Denmark of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Egypt of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Equatorial Guinea of Crude Oil...

  19. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiffbauer, William H. (Connellsville, PA); Ganoe, Carl W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  20. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Kids Zone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ZONE NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Cartoon drawing of science girl Kids Zone Welcome K-12 students and teachers! The NNSA/NFO Kids Zone contains information regarding the Nevada Regional Science Bowl, the Environmental Management Kids Display/Activity Book, Student Forum, and lots of photos. Teachers - You can also request a speaker for your classroom or school by filling out the Speakers Bureau Request Form. Feel free to browse the site and come back often as we

  1. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  2. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  3. Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Barrels per Calendar Day) Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum

  4. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  5. Measuring Dependence on Imported Oil

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    U.S. dependence on imported oil can be measured in at least two ways. The differences hinge largely on whether oil imports are defined as net imports (total imports minus exports) or as total imports. EIA introduces a revised table that expresses dependence on imports in terms of both measures.

  6. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  7. heavy_oil | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Oil Heavy oil is a vast U.S. oil resource that is underexploited because its highly viscous nature renders it difficult to produce and to refine. As higher-gravity crudes (lighter oil) become increasingly scarce in the U.S., American operators are looking more and more to low-gravity crudes (heavy oil) to prop up the Nation's declining oil output. Heavy oil generally is defined as having an API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity of 10-20 degrees. Oil sources with even lower gravities,

  8. Oil and Gas Gateway | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    States, oil and gas boards and commissions are the place for finding data related to oil and gas activities. These activities include well records, permitting, and production...

  9. Storage Oil Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil Water Heaters Storage Oil Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with ...

  10. SciTech Connect: "oil shale"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oil shale" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "oil shale" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  11. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

  12. Category:ASHRAE Climate Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Category Edit History Category:ASHRAE Climate Zones Jump to: navigation, search Climate Zones defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standards. Pages in category "ASHRAE Climate Zones" The...

  13. China-Low Carbon Development Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China-Low Carbon Development Zones (Redirected from E3G-China-Low Carbon Development Zones) Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Low Carbon Development Zones AgencyCompany...

  14. Local Option- Rural Renewable Energy Development Zones

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial renewable energy property in these zones are eligible for a 3 to 5 year local property tax exemption. Eligible property includes either wind, geothermal, solar, biomass, or other uncon...

  15. Climate Zone 5C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    C. Climate Zone 5C is defined as Marine with IP Units 5400 < HDD65F 7200 and SI Units 3000 < HDD18C 4000 . The following places are categorized as class 5C...

  16. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-30

    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of the past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.

  17. Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

    2007-09-30

    The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific objectives of the project were (1) to determine the prevalence of biosurfactant producers in oil reservoirs, and (2) to develop a nutrient regime that would stimulate biosurfactant production in the oil reservoir.

  18. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  19. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  20. Oil Stop Valve : Oil Spill Containment Research and Development Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourn, Robert D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes the research and development project conducted by the Civil Engineering Section, Division of Substation and Control Engineering, to determine the effectiveness of the oil stop valve for use in the Bonneville Power Administration's Oil Spill Containment and Countermeasure Program. The most attractive alternative to lagoons and separator tanks was found in the oil stop valve manufactured by AFL/Clark Industries of Riviera Beach, Florida. This small, direct-acting and relatively inexpensive valve requires little maintenance and can either be employed independently, using existing drain lines for effluent storage, or in conjunction with oil separator tanks and lagoon systems. The AFL/Clark valve requires no power and has only one moving part, a ballasted float having a specific gravity between that of oil and water. In water, the float rides above the throat of the discharge pipe allowing water to flow out. When oil enters the water the float begins losing its relative bouyancy and sinks until it seats itself over the throat of the outlet, closing the valve. Usually installed in a manhole within a typical storm drainage system, the valve backs spilled oil into drainways and contains it for temporary storage within the switchyard.

  1. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  2. Science Road Map for Phase 2 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Mann, Frederick M.

    2008-08-18

    Phase 1 of the Tank-Farm Vadose Zone Program (TFVZP) developed information on the nature and extent of vadose zone contamination in the tank farms through field studies, laboratory analyses and experiments, and historical data searches; assembled data and performed tank-farm risk analysis; and initiated interim corrective actions to lessen the impacts of tank leak contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists and external collaborators at universities and U.S. Department of Energy user facilities sampled and analyzed contaminant plumes. These types of activities will continue during Phase 2 of the TFVZP to refine and expand scientific understanding of the subsurface beneath tank farms, especially of water movement, residual waste leaching, and contaminant transport.

  3. Residual Viremia in Treated HIV+ Individuals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2016-01-06

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively controls HIV infection, suppressing HIV viral loads. However, some residual virus remains, below the level of detection, in HIV-infected patients on ART. Furthermore, the source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent reservoir, or from ongoing viral replication? Our observations seem to be contradictory: there is evidence of short term evolution, implying that there must be ongoing viral replication, and viral strains should thus evolve. The phylogenetic analyses, and rare emergent drug resistance, suggest no long-term viral evolution, implying that virus derived frommore »activated latent cells must dominate. We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our modeling relies on two underlying assumptions for patients on suppressive ART: that latent cell activation drives viral dynamics and that the reproductive ratio of treated infection is less than 1. Nonetheless, the contribution of viral replication to residual viremia in patients on ART may be non-negligible. However, even if the portion of viremia attributable to viral replication is significant, our model predicts (1) that latent reservoir re-seeding remains negligible, and (2) some short-term viral evolution is permitted, but long-term evolution can still be limited: stochastic analysis of our model shows that de novo emergence of drug resistance is rare. Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy.« less

  4. Residual Viremia in Treated HIV+ Individuals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Conway, Jessica M.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2016-01-06

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively controls HIV infection, suppressing HIV viral loads. However, some residual virus remains, below the level of detection, in HIV-infected patients on ART. Furthermore, the source of this viremia is an area of debate: does it derive primarily from activation of infected cells in the latent reservoir, or from ongoing viral replication? Our observations seem to be contradictory: there is evidence of short term evolution, implying that there must be ongoing viral replication, and viral strains should thus evolve. The phylogenetic analyses, and rare emergent drug resistance, suggest no long-term viral evolution, implying that virus derived frommore » activated latent cells must dominate. We use simple deterministic and stochastic models to gain insight into residual viremia dynamics in HIV-infected patients. Our modeling relies on two underlying assumptions for patients on suppressive ART: that latent cell activation drives viral dynamics and that the reproductive ratio of treated infection is less than 1. Nonetheless, the contribution of viral replication to residual viremia in patients on ART may be non-negligible. However, even if the portion of viremia attributable to viral replication is significant, our model predicts (1) that latent reservoir re-seeding remains negligible, and (2) some short-term viral evolution is permitted, but long-term evolution can still be limited: stochastic analysis of our model shows that de novo emergence of drug resistance is rare. Thus, our simple models reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations on residual viremia and, with relatively few parameters, recapitulates HIV viral dynamics observed in patients on suppressive therapy.« less

  5. Thin layer chromatography residue applicator sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Kelly, Fredrick R. (Modesto, CA); Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Andresen, Brian D. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-07-24

    A thin layer chromatograph residue applicator sampler. The residue applicator sampler provides for rapid analysis of samples containing high explosives, chemical warfare, and other analyses of interest under field conditions. This satisfied the need for a field-deployable, small, hand-held, all-in-one device for efficient sampling, sample dissolution, and sample application to an analytical technique. The residue applicator sampler includes a sampling sponge that is resistant to most chemicals and is fastened via a plastic handle in a hermetically sealed tube containing a known amount of solvent. Upon use, the wetted sponge is removed from the sealed tube and used as a swiping device across an environmental sample. The sponge is then replaced in the hermetically sealed tube where the sample remains contained and dissolved in the solvent. A small pipette tip is removably contained in the hermetically sealed tube. The sponge is removed and placed into the pipette tip where a squeezing-out of the dissolved sample from the sponge into the pipette tip results in a droplet captured in a vial for later instrumental analysis, or applied directly to a thin layer chromatography plate for immediate analysis.

  6. Montana Streamside Management Zone Law Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Law Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Streamside Management Zone Law Webpage Abstract Provides information on...

  7. Alameda County, California ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alameda County, California ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alameda County, California ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  8. Longyang Zone Hongqiang Hydroelectric Power Development Co Ltd...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Longyang Zone Hongqiang Hydroelectric Power Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Longyang Zone Hongqiang Hydroelectric Power Development Co., Ltd. Place: Baoshan...

  9. Future Energy Zone Private Ltd FEZ | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Private Ltd FEZ Jump to: navigation, search Name: Future Energy Zone Private Ltd (FEZ) Place: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Focused on building...

  10. Belknap County, New Hampshire ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Belknap County, New Hampshire ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone...

  11. Androscoggin County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Androscoggin County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place...

  12. DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 The DOE New Madrid...

  13. Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  14. Bernalillo County, New Mexico ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bernalillo County, New Mexico ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bernalillo County, New Mexico ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  15. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water ...

  16. Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005 - 2) Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Pritchett,...

  17. Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  18. Berkeley County, West Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Berkeley County, West Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Berkeley County, West Virginia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  19. Haleakala SW Rift Zone Exploration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SW Rift Zone Exploration Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Development Project: Haleakala SW Rift Zone Exploration Project Location Information...

  20. Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geodetic Survey Activity Date...

  1. Field Mapping At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Field Mapping Activity Date Usefulness...

  2. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring Activity...

  3. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis...

  4. Isotopic Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date...

  5. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring Activity...

  6. Geographic Information System At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geographic Information System Activity...

  7. Geothermometry At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness...

  8. Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  9. Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  10. Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  11. Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Details Areas (3) Power...

  12. LADOL Integrated Logistics Free Zone Enterprise LILE | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LADOL Integrated Logistics Free Zone Enterprise LILE Jump to: navigation, search Name: LADOL Integrated Logistics Free Zone Enterprise (LILE) Place: Lagos, Nigeria Product:...

  13. Anderson County, Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Tennessee ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  14. Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  15. Oil field management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  16. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  17. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  18. Comparative dermotoxicity of shale oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, L.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Foreman, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    When shale oils are applied at higher dose levels the standard observation of tumor production and latency are often obscured by a severe inflammatory response leading to epidermal degeneration. The two experiments reported here are still in progress, however the interim results are useful in assessing both the phlogistic and tumorigenic properties of three shale oils. Three shale oils were tested in these experiments. The first crude oil (OCSO No. 6) was produced in a modified in situ report at Occidental Oil Company's Logan Wash site near Debeque, Colorado. The second crude oil (PCSO II) was produced in the above ground Paraho vertical-kiln retort located at Anvil Points near Rifle, Colorado and the third oil was the hydrotreated daughter product of the Paraho crude (PCSO-UP). Experiment I was designed to determine the highest dose level at which tumor latency could be measured without interference from epidermal degeneration. Experiment II was designed to determine the effect of application frequency on both tumor response and inflammatory phenomena. Complete epidermal degeneration was used as the only measure of severe inflammation. Relative tumorigenicity was based on the number of tumor bearing mice without regard to multiple tumors on individual animals. In both experiments, tumor occurrence was confirmed one week after initial appearance. The sex-related difference in inflammatory response is striking and certanly has significance for experimental design. An increased phlogistic sensitivity expressed in male mice could affect the meaning of an experiment where only one sex was used.

  19. Oil shale combustion/retorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted a number of feasibility studies on the combustion and retorting of five oil shales: Celina (Tennessee), Colorado, Israeli, Moroccan, and Sunbury (Kentucky). These studies generated technical data primarily on (1) the effects of retorting conditions, (2) the combustion characteristics applicable to developing an optimum process design technology, and (3) establishing a data base applicable to oil shales worldwide. During the research program, METC applied the versatile fluidized-bed process to combustion and retorting of various low-grade oil shales. Based on METC's research findings and other published information, fluidized-bed processes were found to offer highly attractive methods to maximize the heat recovery and yield of quality oil from oil shale. The principal reasons are the fluidized-bed's capacity for (1) high in-bed heat transfer rates, (2) large solid throughput, and (3) selectivity in aromatic-hydrocarbon formation. The METC research program showed that shale-oil yields were affected by the process parameters of retorting temperature, residence time, shale particle size, fluidization gas velocity, and gas composition. (Preferred values of yields, of course, may differ among major oil shales.) 12 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

  20. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  1. In-situ method for treating residual sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  2. Baxter County, Arkansas ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Baxter County, Arkansas ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone...

  3. Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone...

  4. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.8;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Residual",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and

  5. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.9;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Residual",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and

  6. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.9;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Natural","Residual",,,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and

  7. Apparatus and method for igniting an in situ oil shale retort

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chambers, Carlon C. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting such method are disclosed for igniting a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort. The method is conducted by forming a hole through unfragmented formation to the fragmented mass. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the hole. A fuel is introduced into a portion of the hole spaced apart from the fragmented mass. The fuel and oxygen-containing gas mix forming a combustible mixture which is ignited for establishing a combustion zone in a portion of the hole spaced apart from the fragmented mass. The hot gas generated in the combustion zone is conducted from the hole into the fragmented mass for heating a portion of the fragmented mass above an ignition temperature of oil shale.

  8. Enhanced Oil Recovery to Fuel Future Oil Demands | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the fascinating things of my job is contemplating questions like: What will the future energy mix look like? This is difficult to predict but it is fair to argue that oil will...

  9. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. In the 1999 CBECS, total fuel oil consumption in malls was not statistically significant. (*)Value rounds to zero...

  10. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  11. Benin: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports Ashland discovered additional oil reserves deeper than current production in Seme, Benin's only oil field. The field is on a steep decline, producing as little as 2,500 bopd, down from 7,671 bopd in 1984. In an effort to restart offshore exploration, three offshore blocks have been designated. Hardy Oil and Gas (UK) Ltd. has since acquired 20% interest in Blocks 1 and 2 from International Petroleum Ltd. (IPL). IPL completed seismic work during 1990 that identified two large channel prospects similar to those that produce offshore elsewhere in West Africa. The first well is expected in 1991.

  12. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  13. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4, 2013 Residential heating oil prices increase The average retail price for home heating oil rose 2.9 cents from last week to $3.92 per gallon. That's down 11 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The price for heating oil in the New England region averaged 3.87 per gallon, up 2.5 cents from last week, but down 7.1 cents from a year earlier. This is Marlana Anderson

  14. AEO Early Release 2013 - oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Growing U.S. oil output and rising vehicle fuel economy to cut U.S. reliance on foreign oil The United States is expected to continue cutting its dependence on petroleum and liquid fuels imports over the rest of this decade because of growing domestic crude oil production and more fuel-efficient vehicles on America's highways. The new long-term outlook from the U.S. Energy Information Administration shows America's dependence on imported petroleum and liquid fuels will decline from 45 percent of

  15. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  17. International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

  18. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. ); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  19. Effect of heat input on the microstructure, residual stresses and corrosion resistance of 304L austenitic stainless steel weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unnikrishnan, Rahul, E-mail: rahulunnikrishnannair@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India); Idury, K.S.N. Satish, E-mail: satishidury@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India); Ismail, T.P., E-mail: tpisma@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India); Bhadauria, Alok, E-mail: alokbhadauria1@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India); Shekhawat, S.K., E-mail: satishshekhawat@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB), Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India); Khatirkar, Rajesh K., E-mail: rajesh.khatirkar@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India); Sapate, Sanjay G., E-mail: sgsapate@yahoo.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra (India)

    2014-07-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in high performance pressure vessels, nuclear, chemical, process and medical industry due to their very good corrosion resistance and superior mechanical properties. However, austenitic stainless steels are prone to sensitization when subjected to higher temperatures (673 K to 1173 K) during the manufacturing process (e.g. welding) and/or certain applications (e.g. pressure vessels). During sensitization, chromium in the matrix precipitates out as carbides and intermetallic compounds (sigma, chi and Laves phases) decreasing the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. In the present investigation, 304L austenitic stainless steel was subjected to different heat inputs by shielded metal arc welding process using a standard 308L electrode. The microstructural developments were characterized by using optical microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction, while the residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction using the sin{sup 2}? method. It was observed that even at the highest heat input, shielded metal arc welding process does not result in significant precipitation of carbides or intermetallic phases. The ferrite content and grain size increased with increase in heat input. The grain size variation in the fusion zone/heat affected zone was not effectively captured by optical microscopy. This study shows that electron backscattered diffraction is necessary to bring out changes in the grain size quantitatively in the fusion zone/heat affected zone as it can consider twin boundaries as a part of grain in the calculation of grain size. The residual stresses were compressive in nature for the lowest heat input, while they were tensile at the highest heat input near the weld bead. The significant feature of the welded region and the base metal was the presence of a very strong texture. The texture in the heat affected zone was almost random. - Highlights: • Effect of heat input on microstructure, residual stresses and corrosion is studied. • HAZ and width of dendrite in the welded region increase with heat input. • Residual stresses are tensile near the welded region after the highest heat input. • Welded region has the highest pit density after highest heat input. • Dendrites and ?-ferrite were highly oriented in the welded region.

  20. Running Out Of and Into Oil. Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2003-10-01

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value.

  1. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  2. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  3. Oil shale: The environmental challenges III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

  4. Trace-element zoning in garnets from sheared mantle xenoliths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, W.L.; Cousens, D.R.; Ryan, C.G.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. ); Smith, D. ); Boyd, F.R. )

    1989-02-01

    Proton-microprobe analyses of garnets from sheared high-temperature ultramafic xenoliths reveal marked zonation of trace elements, paralleling trends in major and minor elements. Garnet rims (600-1,000 {mu}m wide) are enriched in Fe, Ti, Zr, Y and Ga, and either enriched or depleted in Cr, relative to cores. Zoning profiles for Ti and Zr are S-shaped and extend further into the grains than the Cr and Ga gradients. The profiles are consistent with the formation of Ti, Zr, Y-enriched garnet overgrowths, followed by diffusive equilibration between rim and core over years to hundreds of years. This enrichment in Fe, Ca, Al and incompatible elements is ascribed to melt infiltration and consequent melt-crystal exchange and garnet growth, shortly before eruption. Zr/Y is 1 to 2 in garnet cores but 4 to 5 in rims, and so the infiltrating melt may have been relatively alkalic. Major and trace element concentrations in such high-temperature sheared xenoliths are not likely to resemble those of primitive mantle or of residual mantle depleted by melt extraction.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF BYPASSED OIL RESERVES USING BEHIND CASING RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Conner; Jeffrey A. Blesener

    2005-02-07

    Tubing and rods of the S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.1 well were pulled and the well was prepared for running of Schlumberger's Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool (CHFR) in selected intervals. The CHFR tool was successfully run and data was captured. The CHFR formation resistivity readings were compared to original open hole resistivity measurements. Separation between the original and CHFR resistivity curves indicate both swept and un-swept sand intervals. Both watered out sand intervals and those with higher remaining oil saturation have been identified. Due to the nature of these turbidite sands being stratigraphically continuous, both the swept and unswept layers have been correlated across to one of the four nearby offset shallow wells. As a result of the cased hole logging, one well was selected for a workover to recomplete high oil saturated shallow sand intervals. During the second report period, well S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.2 was plugged back with cement excluding the previously existing production interval, squeeze cemented behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Bell'' zone and placed on production to develop potential new oil reserves and increase overall well productivity. Prior workover production averaged 3.0 BOPD for the previous six-months. Post workover well production was marginally increased to 3.7 BOPD on average for the following six months.

  6. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  7. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comberiati, Joseph R.; Locke, Charles D.; Kamath, Krishna I.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  8. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil Reformate BTX PX PTA PET resin Preform Bottle Naphtha Biomass Reformate BTX PX Virent PET fiber Textile Clothing BioFormPX Brand Supply chain innovation Opportunity ...

  9. Characteristics of enriched cultures for bio-huff-`n`-puff tests at Jilin oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiu-Yuan Wang; Gang Dai; Yan-Fen Xue; Shu-Hua Xie

    1995-12-31

    Three enriched cultures (48, 15a, and 26a), selected from more than 80 soil and water samples, could grow anaerobically in the presence of crude oil at 30{degrees}C and could ferment molasses to gases and organic acids. Oil recovery by culture 48 in the laboratory model experiment was enhanced by 25.2% over the original reserves and by 53.7% over the residual reserves. Enriched culture 48 was composed of at least 4 species belonging to the genera Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides. This enriched culture was used as inoculum for MEOR field trials at Jilin oil field with satisfactory results. The importance of the role of these isolates in EOR was confirmed by their presence and behavior in the fluids produced from the microbiologically treated reservoir.

  10. Too early to tell on $100 oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Confidential Presentation to: April 7, 2008 Middle East oil demand and Lehman Brothers oil price outlook Adam Robinson Middle East oil demand u Three pillars of Middle East oil demand - Petrodollar reinvestment - Purchasing power rise - Power sector constraints u Natural gas shortages for power generation mean balance of risks to any Middle East oil demand forecast are firmly to the upside, adding to summer upside seasonality u Lehman Brothers has pegged 3Q08 as the tightest quarter of the

  11. Enhanced Oil Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Thanks in part to innovations supported by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory over the past 30 years, the United States is a world leader in the number of EOR projects and volume of oil production from this method. PDF icon Fossil Energy Research Benefits - Enhanced Oil Recovery More Documents & Publications Oil Study Guide - High School Fossil Energy Today - Fourth Quarter, 2011 Fossil Energy Today - First Quarter,

  12. oil and gas portfolio reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Gas Research Portfolio Reports Natural Gas & Oil Program Research Portfolio Reports The Office of Fossil Energy (FE)/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is releasing a series of nine Research Portfolio Reports to provide a snapshot of results and accomplishments completed to-date for active and completed projects under three focus areas: Unconventional Oil & Gas Resources; Ultra-Deepwater; and Small Producers. The reports capture research conducted over the last ten years

  13. Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance Ramón Espinasa, Ph.D. / Lead Specialist July 2014 The Energy Innovation Center Energy Division 3 The views expressed by the author do not reflect the views of the Inter- American Development Bank, its Management, its Board of Executive Directors or its member Governments. DISCLAIMER www.iadb.org Copyright © 2014 Interamerican Development Bank. All rights reserved; This document may be freely reproduced for non-commercial purposes. 4 United States Oil

  14. Corona processing of insulating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1996-07-01

    It is well known that sustained corona discharge in insulating oil lowers its dielectric strength and simultaneously reduces its corona resistance. Therefore, for operating stresses in the corona regime, activity typically increases with time and, if allowed to continue, eventually leads to breakdown of the oil and failure of the component or system. It is, therefore, common practice to periodically replace oil in devices such as large power transformers and switch gear before breakdown occurs. Sealed components such as capacitors are typically replaced. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the dielectric properties of corona weakened oil can not only be restored, but actually improved by a simple regeneration process. These experiments were carried out on high voltage pulse transformer windings which were operated at high rep rates until partial discharges formed. Reprocessing the oil after each operating cycle resulted in successively longer operational periods before partial discharges appeared. In a separate experiment, a process was developed to precondition transformer oil to raise its corona inception voltage before using it to insulate a high voltage component, thus giving it a longer initial service life for a given operating stress or permitting higher stress operation for limited operating times.

  15. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-11-15

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  16. High capacity oil burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedrosa, O.A. Jr.; Couto, N.C.; Fanqueiro, R.C.C.

    1983-11-01

    The present invention relates to a high capacity oil burner comprising a cylindrical atomizer completely surrounded by a protective cylindrical housing having a diameter from 2 to 3 times greater than the diameter of said atomizer; liquid fuels being injected under pressure into said atomizer and accumulating within said atomizer in a chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels, and compressed air being injected into a chamber for the accumulation of air; cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels with the outside and cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of air with said cylindrical holes communicating the chamber for the accumulation of liquids with the outside so that the injection of compressed air into said liquid fuel discharge holes atomizes said fuel which is expelled to the outside through the end portions of said discharge holes which are circumferentially positioned to be burnt by a pilot flame; said protecting cylindrical housing having at its ends perforated circular rings into which water is injected under pressure to form a protecting fan-like water curtain at the rear end of the housing and a fan-like water curtain at the flame to reduce the formation of soot; the burning efficiency of said burner being superior to 30 barrels of liquid fuel per day/kg of the apparatus.

  17. Oil Mist Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.

  18. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2003-09-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  19. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2003-06-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  20. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.