Sample records for reservoir rock carbon

  1. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Task 3: Mechanical behaviors of carbonated minerals. - Task 4: Modeling of CO2- reservoir rock interactions. - Task 5: Preparation of report covering the four tasks previous task,...

  2. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250ºC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock interactions.

  3. Influence of Rock Types on Seismic Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mammadova, Elnara

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    ) techniques such as high pressure CO2 injection may normally be required to recover oil in place in carbonate reservoirs. This study addresses how different rock types can influence the seismic monitoring of CO2 sequestration in carbonates. This research...

  4. Influence of Rock Types on Seismic Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration in Carbonate Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mammadova, Elnara

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    ) techniques such as high pressure CO2 injection may normally be required to recover oil in place in carbonate reservoirs. This study addresses how different rock types can influence the seismic monitoring of CO2 sequestration in carbonates. This research...

  5. Use of ``rock-typing`` to characterize carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikwuakor, K.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project was to apply techniques of ``rock-typing`` and quantitative formation evaluation to borehole measurements in order to identify reservoir and non-reservoir rock-types and their properties within the ``C`` zone of the Ordovician Red River carbonates in the northeast Montana and northwest North Dakota areas of the Williston Basin. Rock-typing discriminates rock units according to their pore-size distribution. Formation evaluation estimates porosities and pore fluid saturation. Rock-types were discriminated using crossplots involving three rock-typing criteria: (1) linear relationship between bulk density and porosity, (2) linear relationship between acoustic interval transit-time and porosity, and (3) linear relationship between acoustic interval transit-time and bulk density. Each rock-type was quantitatively characterized by the slopes and intercepts established for different crossplots involving the above variables, as well as porosities and fluid saturations associated with the rock-types. All the existing production was confirmed through quantitative formation evaluation. Highly porous dolomites and anhydritic dolomites contribute most of the production, and constitute the best reservoir rock-types. The results of this study can be applied in field development and in-fill drilling. Potential targets would be areas of porosity pinchouts and those areas where highly porous zones are downdip from non-porous and tight dolomites. Such areas are abundant. In order to model reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations, a more localized (e.g. field scale) study, expanded to involve other rock-typing criteria, is necessary.

  6. Advanced Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks: The Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, James R.; Harrison, William B.

    2000-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is for a university-industry consortium to develop a comprehensive model for fracture carbonate reservoirs based on the ''data cube'' concept using the Michigan Basin as a prototype. This project combined traditional historical data with 2D and 3D seismic data as well as data from modern logging tools in a novel way to produce a new methodology for characterizing fractured reservoirs in carbonate rocks. Advanced visualization software was used to fuse the data and to image it on a variety of scales, ranging from basin-scale to well-scales.

  7. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the US contain large quantities of remaining oil and gas that constitute a huge target for improved diagnosis and imaging of reservoir properties. The resource target is especially large in carbonate reservoirs, where conventional data and methodologies are normally insufficient to resolve critical scales of reservoir heterogeneity. The objectives of the research described in this report were to develop and test such methodologies for improved imaging, measurement, modeling, and prediction of reservoir properties in carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs. The focus of the study is the Permian-age Fullerton Clear Fork reservoir of the Permian Basin of West Texas. This reservoir is an especially appropriate choice considering (a) the Permian Basin is the largest oil-bearing basin in the US, and (b) as a play, Clear Fork reservoirs have exhibited the lowest recovery efficiencies of all carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin.

  8. Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

  9. Wettability evaluation of a carbonate reservoir rock from core to pore level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Yousef, H.Y.; Lichaa, P.M.; Al-Kaabi, A.U.; Alpustun, H.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wettability evaluation was performed during stags of as received, cleaned, and restored states on core samples form a Saudi Arabian carbonate reservoir. The wettability behavior from the chemistry of brine-oil-carbonate rock interaction was found to be neutral to slightly oil-wet. The pore-size distribution obtained from mercury injection data indicated that about 15--20 percent of the pore volume is not accessible to asphaltene particles in the crude oil. Therefore a mixed-wettability state can exist. These results were confirmed by the evaluation of the wettability of the cores using USBM and Amott techniques. The wettability at the pore level was studied using Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy. Rock samples were examined at irreducible water and residual oil saturations during cleaned and restored states. At irreducible water saturation, both oil and brine were present in the intergranular macroporosity and intragranular macropores and micropores. At residual oil saturation,oil was found in the form of isolated globules in the cleaned case. After aging, the oil is more loosely distributed in the porosity and generally contacts the pore walls. This indicates an evolution toward oil wetness with aging. These results are in agreement with the changes of wettability indices obtained using USBM technique.

  10. Geochemical relationships of petroleum in Mesozoic reservoirs to carbonate source rocks of Jurassic Smackover Formation, southwestern Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claypool, G.E.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Algal carbonate mudstones of the Jurassic Smackover Formation are the main source rocks for oil and condensate in Mesozoic reservoir rocks in southwestern Alabama. This interpretation is based on geochemical analyses of oils, condensates, and organic matter in selected samples of shale (Norphlet Formation, Haynesville Formation, Trinity Group, Tuscaloosa Group) and carbonate (Smackover Formation) rocks. Potential and probable oil source rocks are present in the Tuscaloosa Group and Smackover Formation, respectively. Extractable organic matter from Smackover carbonates has molecular and isotopic similarities to Jurassic oil. Although the Jurassic oils and condensates in southwestern Alabama have genetic similarities, they show significant compositional variations due to differences in thermal maturity and organic facies/lithofacies. Organic facies reflect different depositional conditions for source rocks in the various basins. The Mississippi Interior Salt basin was characterized by more continuous marine to hypersaline conditions, whereas the Manila and Conecuh embayments periodically had lower salnity and greater input of clastic debris and terrestrial organic matter. Petroleum and organic matter in Jurassic rocks of southwestern Alabama show a range of thermal transformations. The gas content of hydrocarbons in reservoirs increases with increasing depth and temperature. In some reservoirs where the temperature is above 266/degrees/F(130/degrees/C), gas-condensate is enriched in isotopically heavy sulfur, apparently derived from thermochemical reduction of Jurassic evaporite sulfate. This process also resulted in increase H/sub 2/S and CO in the gas, and depletion of saturated hydrocarbons in the condensate liquids.

  11. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Excellent progress has been made on all project objectives and goals. All tasks have been completed in the Phase 1 study area, the initial area of project focus. Primary elements of this work include the following: The stratigraphic architecture has been established through correlation of wireline logs guided by core and outcrop studies of facies and cyclicity. A porosity model has been developed that creates a basis for calculation of porosity for wells in the study area. Rock fabrics have been defined by sampling, analysis, and description of cores and used to create transforms for calculating permeability and oil saturation from porosity data. Finally, a preliminary 3-D model has been constructed that incorporates stratigraphic architecture, rock-fabric data, and petrophysical data. Reservoir volumetrics calculated from the model show that a very large fraction of the original oil in place remains.

  12. Damage and plastic deformation of reservoir rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ze'ev, Reches

    Damage and plastic deformation of reservoir rocks: Part 1. Damage fracturing Seth Busetti, Kyran mechanics, fluid flow in fractured reservoirs, and geomechanics in nonconventional reservoirs. Kyran Mish finite deformation of reservoir rocks. We present an at- tempt to eliminate the main limitations

  13. Study of Acid Response of Qatar Carbonate Rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhaohong

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of understanding of Qatar carbonate especially Middle East carbonates and the abundance of Middle East carbonate reservoirs is the main motivation behind this study. This work is an experimental study to understand the acid response to Qatar rocks in rocks...

  14. Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Super-critical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Interfaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project obectives: Utilize synchrotron X-ray measurements, to monitor all aspects of atomic to nanoscale structural changes resulting from chemical interactions of scCO2-H2O binary fluids with rocks under environments directly relevant to EGS.

  15. Multidisciplinary Imaging of Rock Properties in Carbonate Reservoirs for Flow-Unit Targeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruppel, Stephen C.

    2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period major accomplishments were in (1) characterization of facies and cyclicity in subsurface cores and in outcrop, (2) construction of a preliminary stratigraphic framework, (3) definition of rock fabrics, and (4) correlation of 3-D seismic data.

  16. Integration of Rock Physics and Seismic Inversion for Carbonate Reservoir Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tingting

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    , not porosity alone. The major storage spaces are fractures and fracture related dissolution pores (cavities, molds, and vugs) in Hexiwu carbonate buried hill, in the Bohai Bay basin, China. Log analysis shows fractured zones, with open- and large...

  17. Quantification and Prediction of the 3D Pore Network Evolution in Carbonate Reservoir Rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    /permeability development throughout carbonate diagenesis. Reactive Pore Network Models (PNM-R) can predict changes. 161-178 Copyright © 2012, IFP Energies nouvelles DOI: 10.2516/ogst/2011170 Diagenesis - Fluid

  18. ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN CARBONATE ROCKS: THE MICHIGAN BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; William B. Harrison

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the accomplishments of this past reporting period are obtaining a complete landgrid for the State of Michigan and the digital processing of the high and medium resolution DEM files. We can now extract lineations from the DEMs automatically using machine algorithms. One tentative result that may be very significant is that we may be seeing manifestations of buried structures in the DEM data. We are looking at a set of extracted lineations in the northern lower peninsula that appear to follow the trend of the pinnacle reefs (Silurian) which had relief approaching 300 feet but are now buried to greater than 3000 feet. We have also extracted the dolomite alteration data from all fields and can show that this is mainly confined to the basin center. It may be related to the paleo-rift suggested by the paleomagnetic and gravity data. As reported last time, the acquisition of a 3D seismic dataset over Stoney Point Field from Marathon Oil Company, is complete and attention is being devoted to incorporating the data into the project database and utilizing it. The surface lineation study is focusing on Stoney Point Field using the high-resolution DEM data and plotting of subsurface formation top data for the main reservoir, the Trenton (Ordovician) Formation. The fault pattern at Stoney Point is well documented by Marathon and we are looking for any manifestations on the surface. The main project database is now about as complete as it will be for this project. The main goals have been met, although the scanning of the paper records will have to continue beyond the scheduled end of the project due to the sheer number of records and the increased donations of data from companies as word spread of the project. One of the unanticipated benefits of the project has been the cooperation of gas and oil companies that are or were active in the Michigan Basin in donating material to the project. Both Michigan Tech and Western Michigan continue to receive donations at an accelerating pace. The data management software developed to handle the data, Atlas, is scheduled to undergo a 3rd revision before the project ends. The goals are to streamline access to the data by improving the display and add several new features, including the ability to turn the landgrid on and off. We may also be able to include the capability to calculate or recalculate footage calls as well. We discovered the reason that some of the 1/24,000 USGS DEM (Digital Elevation Models) for the State of Michigan contain high levels of noise and are making one last attempt to acquire a set of good files before the project ends. This will greatly improve the large-scale map (48 inches x 84 inches) that has been constructed by mosaicking of the high-resolution files. This map shows excellent ground surface detail and has drawn much comment and requests for copies at the venues where it has been displayed. Although it was generated for mapping of surface lineations the map has other uses, particularly analysis of the glacial drift in Michigan.

  19. Hydromechanical interactions in a fractured carbonate reservoir inferred from hydraulic and mechanical measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydromechanical interactions in a fractured carbonate reservoir inferred from hydraulic, France Abstract Hydromechanical coupled processes in a shallow fractured carbonate reservoir rock were fracture network made up of vertical faults and bedding planes. Hydromechanical response of the reservoir

  20. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keys, Ryan S.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    pressure. A hydrochloric acid solution is used in carbonate reservoirs, which actually dissolves the calcite rock matrix in the form of conductive channels called wormholes. These wormholes propagate from the wellbore out into the reservoir, bypassing...

  1. Modeling of Seismic Signatures of Carbonate Rock Types 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan, Badr H.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonate reservoirs of different rock types have wide ranges of porosity and permeability, creating zones with different reservoir quality and flow properties. This research addresses how seismic technology can be used ...

  2. Modeling of Seismic Signatures of Carbonate Rock Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan, Badr H.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonate reservoirs of different rock types have wide ranges of porosity and permeability, creating zones with different reservoir quality and flow properties. This research addresses how seismic technology can be used to identify different...

  3. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  4. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  5. Determination of mechanical properties of reservoir rock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnett, Ashley

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus, experimental procedure, and methodology have been developed to determine the mechanical response of reservoir rock. The apparatus is capable of subjecting cylindrical core specimens to triaxial stress states and temperatures...

  6. Damage and plastic deformation of reservoir rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ze'ev, Reches

    Damage and plastic deformation of reservoir rocks: Part 2. Propagation of a hydraulic fracture Seth fracture and fault mechanics, fluid flow in fractured reservoirs, and geome- chanics in nonconventional the development of complex hydraulic fractures (HFs) that are commonly ob- served in the field and in experiments

  7. Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

  8. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  9. Rock magnetism of remagnetized carbonate rocks: another look

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, M.; Swanson-Hysell, N. L

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and significance of magnetism in sedimentary rocks. Journal1997. Rock Magnetism. ¨ zdemir, O Dunlop, D. J. & Oon July 30, 2013 ROCK MAGNETISM: REMAGNETIZED CARBONATES

  10. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have continued our work on analyzing well logs and microstructural constraints on seismic signatures. We report results of three studies in this report. The first one deals with fractures and faults that provide the primary control on the underground fluid flow through low permeability massive carbonate rocks. Fault cores often represent lower transmissibility whereas the surrounding damaged rocks and main slip surfaces are high transmissibility elements. We determined the physical properties of fault rocks collected in and around the fault cores of large normal faults in central Italy. After studying the P- and S-wave velocity variation during cycles of confining pressure, we conclude that a rigid pore frame characterizes the fault gouge whereas the fractured limestone comprises pores with a larger aspect ratio. The second study was to characterize the seismic properties of brine as its temperature decreases from 25 C to -21 C. The purpose was to understand how the transmitted wave changes with the onset of freezing. The main practical reason for this experiment was to use partially frozen brine as an analogue for a mixture of methane hydrate and water present in the pore space of a gas hydrate reservoir. In the third study we analyzed variations in dynamic moduli in various carbonate reservoirs. The investigations include log and laboratory data from velocity, porosity, permeability, and attenuation measurements.

  11. ELASTIC ROCK PROPERTIES OF TIGHT GAS SANDSTONES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to successfully produce low permeability gas reservoirs. My study links rock physics to well log and seismic data shales to reservoir sandstones. Typically, the presence of gas-saturated sandstones lowers the Vp/Vs evenELASTIC ROCK PROPERTIES OF TIGHT GAS SANDSTONES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AT RULISON FIELD

  12. Reservoir Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico- Tracer Test Results Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Reservoir Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System,...

  13. Lithology and Alteration Mineralogy of Reservoir Rocks at Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the upwelling plume were investigated using petrographic and analytical analyses of reservoir rock and vein material. The nature of the low-angle outflow zone and the...

  14. Lithology and alteration mineralogy of reservoir rocks at Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the upwelling plume were investigated using petrographic and analytical analyses of reservoir rock and vein material. The nature of the low-angle outflow zone and the...

  15. Reservoir rock-property calculations from thin section measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sneed, David Richard

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RESERVOIR ROCK-PROPERTY CALCULATIONS FROM THIN SECTION MEASUREMENTS A Thesis by DAVID RICHARD SNEED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Geology RESERVOIR ROCK-PROPERTY CALCULATIONS FROM THIN SECTION MEASUREMENTS A Thesis by DAVID RICHARD SNEED Approved as to style and content by: Robert R. Berg (Chair of Committee) ~ c(. Thomas T. Tieh (Member...

  16. Rock Physics Based Determination of Reservoir Microstructure for Reservoir Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adesokan, Hamid 1976-

    2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important, but often ignored, factors affecting the transport and the seismic properties of hydrocarbon reservoir is pore shape. Transport properties depend on the dimensions, geometry, and distribution of pores and cracks. Knowledge...

  17. An alternative to the Winland R35 method for determining carbonate reservoir quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lafage, Stephanie Isabelle

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    quality in carbonate reservoirs. To evaluate alternatives to the conventional Winland technique, based on rock facies characteristics, samples from the Jurassic Smackover Formation in Alabama and the Permian Clearfork Formation in Texas were tested...

  18. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have (1) Studied relationships between velocity and permeability. (2) Used independent experimental methods to measure the elastic moduli of clay minerals as functions of pressure and saturation. (3) Applied different statistical methods for characterizing heterogeneity and textures from scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) images of shale microstructures. (4) Analyzed the directional dependence of velocity and attenuation in different reservoir rocks (5) Compared Vp measured under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic stress conditions in sands. (6) Studied stratification as a source of intrinsic anisotropy in sediments using Vp and statistical methods for characterizing textures in sands.

  19. Manufactured caverns in carbonate rock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruce, David A.; Falta, Ronald W.; Castle, James W.; Murdoch, Lawrence C.

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a process for manufacturing underground caverns suitable in one embodiment for storage of large volumes of gaseous or liquid materials. The method is an acid dissolution process that can be utilized to form caverns in carbonate rock formations. The caverns can be used to store large quantities of materials near transportation facilities or destination markets. The caverns can be used for storage of materials including fossil fuels, such as natural gas, refined products formed from fossil fuels, or waste materials, such as hazardous waste materials. The caverns can also be utilized for applications involving human access such as recreation or research. The method can also be utilized to form calcium chloride as a by-product of the cavern formation process.

  20. URTeC 1620617 Thermal Shock in Reservoir Rock Enhances the Hydraulic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    URTeC 1620617 Thermal Shock in Reservoir Rock Enhances the Hydraulic Fracturing of Gas Shales Saeid through strain and stress. As the temperature diffuses from hydraulic fracture into reservoir the rock matrix beyond hydraulic fracturing stimulation by cooling down the rock. The physics

  1. INTEGRATION OF ROCK PHYSICS AND RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF TIME-LAPSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INTEGRATION OF ROCK PHYSICS AND RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC is 15% to 20%, and should be detected in the time-lapse seismic data. Through interpretation of P This thesis research integrates reservoir simulation with time-lapse (4D) seismic monitoring of reservoir

  2. Seismic modelling of a fractured carbonate reservoir in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, Mohammed

    Seismic modelling of a fractured carbonate reservoir in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Mohammed Y is required to optimize hydrocarbon production. A rock containing parallel fractures can be seismically to the seismic wavelength. Seismic anisotropy may be detectable from attributes of pre-stack 3-D seismic data

  3. EFFECT OF ENCROACHMENT OF WANAPUM DAM RESERVOIR ON FISH PASSAGE OVER ROCK ISLAND DAM, COLUMBIA RIVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECT OF ENCROACHMENT OF WANAPUM DAM RESERVOIR ON FISH PASSAGE OVER ROCK ISLAND DAM, COLUMBIA the lower sections of the three fish ladders at Rock Island Dam, 61 km upstream from Wanapum Dam of the center and left-bank fish ladders of Rock Island Dam were rebuilt and a new sequence of spill patterns

  4. Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic Gas Beneath Mammoth...

  5. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas reservoirs for carbon sequestration and enhanced gasproduction and carbon sequestration, Society of Petroleumfeasibiilty of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas

  6. Estimating rock properties in two phase petroleum reservoirs: an error analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul, Anthony Ian

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ESTIMATING ROCK PROPERTIES IN TWO PHASE PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS: AN ERROR ANALYSIS A Thesis by ANTHONY IAN PAUL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AE:M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1983 Maior Subjecu Chemical Engineering ESTIMATING ROCK PROPERTIES IN TWO PHASE PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS: AN ERROR ANALYSIS A Thesis by ANTHONY IAN PAUL Approved as to style and content by: A. T. Watson (Chairman of Commiuee) C. J...

  7. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE LOAD-FOLLOWING POTENTIAL OF A HOT DRY ROCK GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE LOAD-FOLLOWING POTENTIAL OF A HOT DRY ROCK GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR. The objective of this cyclic load-following experiment was to investigate the performance of the reservoir, this series of cyclic flow tests is referred to as the Load-Following Experiment, with the objective

  8. Interaction between CO2-rich solutions and reservoir-seal rocks. Experimentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    coal systems 5.Use of CO2 in enhanced coal bed methane recovery 6.Other suggested options (basalts, oilInteraction between CO2-rich solutions and reservoir-seal rocks. Experimentation María García formations (after Cook, 1999). Geological Storage Options for CO2 1.Depleted oil and gas reservoirs 2.Use

  9. Rock magnetism of remagnetized carbonate rocks: another look MIKE JACKSON* & NICHOLAS L. SWANSON-HYSELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas

    Rock magnetism of remagnetized carbonate rocks: another look MIKE JACKSON* & NICHOLAS L. SWANSON-HYSELL Institute for Rock Magnetism, Winchell School of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, US, dominantly in the super- paramagnetic and stable single-domain size range, also give rise to distinctive rock-magnetic

  10. Geological Attributes from Conventional Well Logs: Relating Rock Types to Depositional Facies in Deepwater Turbidite Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    SPE 166178 Geological Attributes from Conventional Well Logs: Relating Rock Types to Depositional. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively classify rock and bed types based on conventional well logs to assist facies interpretation and stratigraphic reservoir modeling. We model physical properties and well

  11. Formation and thermal evolution of insoluble reservoir bitumen in Angolan carbonate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Formation and thermal evolution of insoluble reservoir bitumen in Angolan carbonate reservoirs from 98% insoluble bitumen to 45% insoluble, indicating a substantial spread of maturity. However, the discordance shown by these parameters (e.g. bitumen reflectance and bitumen solubility in DCM) indicates

  12. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have studied (1) Effects of pore texture on porosity, permeability, and sonic velocity. We show how a relation can be found between porosity, permeability, and velocity by separating the formations of rocks with similar pore textures.

  13. Stimulation of Carbonate Reservoirs Using a New Emulsified Acid System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sayed, Mohammed Ali Ibrahim

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    calcite and dolomite formations, measuring the reaction rate and diffusion coefficient when the new emulsified acid systems react with both calcite and dolomite, and testing the new emulsified acid using core samples obtained from carbonate reservoirs...

  14. Displacement of oil from reservoir rock using high molecular weight polymer solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barzi, Houshang

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    underground reservoirs by the injection of water containing chemicals to increase its viscosity. Some laboratory research and field trials have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of viscous water in dis- placing oil from reservoir rock.... ia. Twenty-eight experiments were conducted. In twenty-two experiments oil was displaced from un- consolidated sand packs using polymers with viscosity that ranged from 160 cp to 3 cp. In five experiments crude oil was displaced. from...

  15. A manual for evaluation and exploitation of carbonate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordova, Pedro Luis

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A MANUAL FOR EVALUATION AND EXPI OITATION OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS A Thesis bv PEDRO CORDOVA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University In Partial fulfillment of the requiren;enis for (he dc(n. ee of MASTER OF SCIENCE.... Brimhall (Member) James E. Russell (Head of Department) December 1992 ABSTRACT A Manual for Evaluation and Exploitation of Carbonate Reservoirs. (December 1992) Pedro Luis Cordova, B. S. , Universidad del Zulia Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. W. J...

  16. Characterizing Flow in Oil Reservoir Rock Using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, David W.

    In this paper, a 3D Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulator for modeling grain scale fluid flow in porous rock is presented. The versatility of the SPH method has driven its use in increasingly complex areas of flow ...

  17. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have studied (1) Elastic properties of clay minerals using Pulse Transmission experiments. We show measurements of elastic moduli and strain in clay minerals.

  18. Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks. First quarterly report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

  19. Stimulation of Carbonate Reservoirs Using a New Emulsified Acid System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sayed, Mohammed Ali Ibrahim

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of the previous studies on the emulsified acid were done using core samples that were saturated with brine or deionized water. One of the main objectives of the present work is to study in detail the effect of the presence of crude oil in the reservoir rock...

  20. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pressure of 2500 psi Analysis: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) 10 | US DOE Geothermal Program eere.energy.gov Scientific...

  1. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomassSustainableCSL GasPermitsGreen BioEnergy LLC JumpCarbona Corporation

  2. Micromodel Investigations of CO2 Exsolution from Carbonated Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of CO2 Exsolution from Carbonated Water in Sedimentary Rocks. Abstract: In this study, carbon dioxide exsolution from carbonated water is directly observed under reservoir...

  3. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have studied (1) Methods for detection of stress-induced velocity anisotropy in sands. (2) We have initiated efforts for velocity upscaling to quantify long-wavelength and short-wavelength velocity behavior and the scale-dependent dispersion caused by sediment variability in different depositional environments.

  4. Final Report: Development of a Chemical Model to Predict the Interactions between Supercritical CO2, Fluid and Rock in EGS Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPherson, Brian J. [University of Utah; Pan, Feng [University of Utah

    2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes development of a coupled-process reservoir model for simulating enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) that utilize supercritical carbon dioxide as a working fluid. Specifically, the project team developed an advanced chemical kinetic model for evaluating important processes in EGS reservoirs, such as mineral precipitation and dissolution at elevated temperature and pressure, and for evaluating potential impacts on EGS surface facilities by related chemical processes. We assembled a new database for better-calibrated simulation of water/brine/ rock/CO2 interactions in EGS reservoirs. This database utilizes existing kinetic and other chemical data, and we updated those data to reflect corrections for elevated temperature and pressure conditions of EGS reservoirs.

  5. Evolution of the Petrophysical and Mineralogical Properties of Two Reservoir Rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Technology ­ Rev. IFP, Vol. 65 (2010), No. 4 INTRODUCTION Industrial injection of carbon dioxide (CO2-scales compared to the consideration of storing super- critical CO2 in geological reservoirs for thousands years géologique de CO2 à 3 km de profondeur -- L'injection de dioxyde de carbone (CO2) en sous-sol pour un

  6. Rock magnetism of remagnetized carbonate rocks: another look

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, M.; Swanson-Hysell, N. L

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical remagnetization and burial diagenesis: testing thedating of burial diagenesis in Mississippian carbonates,R. & Levi, S. 1983. Diagenesis of magnetic min- erals in

  7. INTEGRATED OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE STUDIES OF THE INTERWELL ENVIRONMENT OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS: CLEAR FORK (LEONARDIAN-AGE) RESERVOIRS, WEST TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Jerry Lucia

    2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of the project ''Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico'', Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC26-98BC15105 and is the third in a series of similar projects funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonates. All three projects focus on the integration of outcrop and subsurface data for the purpose of developing improved methods for modeling petrophysical properties in the interwell environment. The first project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-89BC14470, was a study of San Andres outcrops in the Algerita Escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, and the Seminole San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin. This study established the basic concepts for constructing a reservoir model using sequence-stratigraphic principles and rock-fabric, petrophysical relationships. The second project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-93BC14895, was a study of Grayburg outcrops in the Brokeoff Mountains, New Mexico, and the South Cowden Grayburg reservoir, Permian Basin. This study developed a sequence-stratigraphic succession for the Grayburg and improved methods for locating remaining hydrocarbons in carbonate ramp reservoirs. The current study is of the Clear Fork Group in Apache Canyon, Sierra Diablo Mountains, West Texas, and the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir, Permian Basin. The focus was on scales of heterogeneity, imaging high- and low-permeability layers, and the impact of fractures on reservoir performance. In this study (1) the Clear Fork cycle stratigraphy is defined, (2) important scales of petrophysical variability are confirmed, (3) a unique rock-fabric, petrophysical relationship is defined, (4) a porosity method for correlating high-frequency cycles and defining rock-fabric flow layers is described, (5) Clear Fork fractures are described and geomechanical modeling of fractures is investigated, and (6) most importantly, new statistical methods are developed for scaleup of petrophysical properties from the core to the layer scale and for retaining stratigraphic layering in simulation models.

  8. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have studied (1) How to quantify elastic properties of clay minerals using Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy. We show how bulk modulus of clay can be measured using atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) (2) We have successfully measured elastic properties of unconsolidated sediments in an effort to quantify attributes for detection of overpressures from seismic (3) We have initiated efforts for velocity upscaling to quantify long-wavelength and short-wavelength velocity behavior and the scale-dependent dispersion caused by sediment variability in different depositional environments.

  9. Horizontal well applications in complex carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, M.; Al-Awami, H.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past four years, Saudi Aramco has drilled over eighty horizontal wells, onshore and offshore. It has successfully applied this technology to develop new reservoirs as well as enhance recovery from its mature fields. This paper presents the reservoir engineering aspects of `horizontal` and `high angle` wells drilled in a major offshore field in Saudi Arabia. It shows how horizontal wells have (a) increased the recovery of bypassed oil, (b) improved well productivity in tight reservoirs, (c) increased production from thin oil zones underlain by water, and (d) improved peripheral injection. The paper discusses the actual performance of the horizontal wells and compares them with offset conventional wells. It presents the results of logging and testing of these wells, and highlights actual field data on (a) relationship between productivity gain and horizontal length, (b) pressure loss along the horizontal wellbore, and (c) effect of heterogeneity on coning an inflow performance.

  10. SCREENING METHODS FOR SELECTION OF SURFACTANT FORMULATIONS FOR IOR FROM FRACTURED CARBONATE RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu; Seung Soon Jang

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report presents details of the laboratory work performed to complete Task 1 of this project; developing rapid screening methods to assess surfactant performance for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) from fractured carbonate reservoirs. The desired outcome is to identify surfactant formulations that increase the rate and amount of aqueous phase imbibition into oil-rich, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. Changing the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet is one key to enhancing this water-phase imbibition process that in turn recovers additional oil from the matrix portion of a carbonate reservoir. The common laboratory test to evaluate candidate surfactant formulations is to measure directly the aqueous imbibition rate and oil recovery from small outcrop or reservoir cores, but this procedure typically requires several weeks. Two methods are presented here for the rapid screening of candidate surfactant formulations for their potential IOR performance in carbonate reservoirs. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite power is pre-treated to make the surface oil-wet. The next step is to add the pre-treated powder to a test tube and add a candidate aqueous surfactant formulation; the greater the percentage of the calcite that now sinks to the bottom rather than floats, the more effective the surfactant is in changing the solids to become now preferentially water-wet. Results from the screening test generally are consistent with surfactant performance reported in the literature.

  11. MULTI-ATTRIBUTE SEISMIC/ROCK PHYSICS APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project consists of three key interrelated Phases, each focusing on the central issue of imaging and quantifying fractured reservoirs, through improved integration of the principles of rock physics, geology, and seismic wave propagation. This report summarizes the results of Phase I of the project. The key to successful development of low permeability reservoirs lies in reliably characterizing fractures. Fractures play a crucial role in controlling almost all of the fluid transport in tight reservoirs. Current seismic methods to characterize fractures depend on various anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. We are pursuing an integrated study that relates to high-resolution seismic images of natural fractures to the rock parameters that control the storage and mobility of fluids. Our goal is to go beyond the current state-of-the art to develop and demonstrate next generation methodologies for detecting and quantitatively characterizing fracture zones using seismic measurements. Our study incorporates 3 key elements: (1) Theoretical rock physics studies of the anisotropic viscoelastic signatures of fractured rocks, including up scaling analysis and rock-fluid interactions to define the factors relating fractures in the lab and in the field. (2) Modeling of optimal seismic attributes, including offset and azimuth dependence of travel time, amplitude, impedance and spectral signatures of anisotropic fractured rocks. We will quantify the information content of combinations of seismic attributes, and the impact of multi-attribute analyses in reducing uncertainty in fracture interpretations. (3) Integration and interpretation of seismic, well log, and laboratory data, incorporating field geologic fracture characterization and the theoretical results of items 1 and 2 above. The focal point for this project is the demonstration of these methodologies in the Marathon Oil Company Yates Field in West Texas.

  12. Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    and contribute to global warming. The problem of greenhouse gases and their impact on global warming have become gas source. #12;1 1. Introduction The electricity produced by hydroelectric reservoirs is commonly greenhouse gases. One good point to know by dealing with these two greenhouse gases is that the global

  13. Multi-Attribute Seismic/Rock Physics Approach to Characterizing Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Most current seismic methods to seismically characterize fractures in tight reservoirs depend on a few anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. While seismic anisotropy can be a powerful fracture diagnostic, a number of situations can lessen its usefulness or introduce interpretation ambiguities. Fortunately, laboratory and theoretical work in rock physics indicates that a much broader spectrum of fracture seismic signatures can occur, including a decrease in P- and S-wave velocities, a change in Poisson's ratio, an increase in velocity dispersion and wave attenuation, as well as well as indirect images of structural features that can control fracture occurrence. The goal of this project was to demonstrate a practical interpretation and integration strategy for detecting and characterizing natural fractures in rocks. The approach was to exploit as many sources of information as possible, and to use the principles of rock physics as the link among seismic, geologic, and log data. Since no single seismic attribute is a reliable fracture indicator in all situations, the focus was to develop a quantitative scheme for integrating the diverse sources of information. The integrated study incorporated three key elements: The first element was establishing prior constraints on fracture occurrence, based on laboratory data, previous field observations, and geologic patterns of fracturing. The geologic aspects include analysis of the stratigraphic, structural, and tectonic environments of the field sites. Field observations and geomechanical analysis indicates that fractures tend to occur in the more brittle facies, for example, in tight sands and carbonates. In contrast, strain in shale is more likely to be accommodated by ductile flow. Hence, prior knowledge of bed thickness and facies architecture, calibrated to outcrops, are powerful constraints on the interpreted fracture distribution. Another important constraint is that fracturing is likely to be more intense near faults--sometimes referred to as the damaged zone. Yet another constraint, based on world-wide observations, is that the maximum likely fracture density increases with depth in a well-defined way. Defining these prior constrains has several benefits: they lead to a priori probability distributions of fractures, that are important for objective statistical integration; they limit the number of geologic hypotheses that need to be theoretically modeled; they provide plausible models for fracture distributions below the seismic resolution. The second element was theoretical rock physics modeling of optimal seismic attributes, including offset and azimuth dependence of traveltime, amplitude, and impedance signatures of anisotropic fractured rocks. The suggested workflow is to begin with an elastic earth model, based on well logs, theoretically add fractures to the likely facies as defined by the geologic prior information, and then compute synthetic seismic traces and attributes, including variations in P and S-wave velocities, Poisson's ratio, reflectivity, travel time, attenuation, and anisotropies of these parameters. This workflow is done in a Monte-Carlo fashion, yielding ranges of expected fracture signatures, and allowing realistic assessments of uncertainty to be honored. The third element was statistical integration of the geophysical data and prior constraints to map fracture intensity and orientations, along with uncertainties. A Bayesian framework was developed that allowed systematic integration of the prior constraints, the theoretical relations between fractures and their seismic signatures, and the various observed seismic observations. The integration scheme was successfully applied on an East Texas field site. The primary benefit from the study was the optimization and refinement of practical workflows for improved geophysical characterization of natural fractures and for quantifying the uncertainty of these interpretations. By presenting a methodology for integrating various types of information, the workflow will

  14. Electrolyte reservoir for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, C.D.; Shores, D.A.

    1984-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrode for a carbonate fuel cell and method of making same are described wherein a substantially uniform mixture of an electrode-active powder and porous ceramic particles suitable for a carbonate fuel cell are formed into an electrode with the porous ceramic particles having pores in the range of from about 1 micron to about 3 microns, and a carbonate electrolyte is in the pores of the ceramic particles.

  15. A quantitative evaluation of effective shale content and its influence on electrical resistivity and permeability of reservoir rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menon, Parayath Eravi Bhaskara

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVE SHALE CONTENT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND PERMEABILITY OF RESERVOIR ROCKS A Thesis By PARAYATH E. B. MENON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in Partial... fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, f965 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVE SHALE CONTENT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND PERMEABILITY OF RESERVOIR ROCKS...

  16. Laboratory measurements on reservoir rocks from The Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boitnott, G.N.

    1995-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A suite of laboratory measurements have been conducted on Geysers metagraywacke and metashale recovered from a drilled depth of 2599 to 2602 meters in NEGU-17. The tests have been designed to constrain the mechanical and water-storage properties of the matrix material. Various measurements have been made at a variety of pressures and at varying degrees of saturation. Both compressional and shear velocities exhibit relatively little change with effective confining pressure. In all of the samples, water saturation causes an increase in the compressional velocity. In some samples, saturation results in a moderate decrease in shear velocity greater in magnitude than would be expected based on the slight increase in bulk density. It is found that the effect of saturation on the velocities can be quantitatively modeled through a modification of Biot-Gassmann theory to include weakening of the shear modulus with saturation. The decrease is attributed to chemo-mechanical weakening caused by the presence of water. The degree of frame weakening of the shear modulus is variable between samples, and appears correlated with petrographic features of the cores. Two related models are presented through which we can study the importance of saturation effects on field-scale velocity variations. The model results indicate that the saturation effects within the matrix are significant and may contribute to previously observed field anomalies. The results help to define ways in which we may be able to separate the effects of variations in rock properties, caused by phenomena such as degree of fracturing, from similar effects caused by variations in matrix saturation. The need for both compressional and shear velocity data in order to interpret field anomalies is illustrated through comparisons of model results with the field observations.

  17. Connate Water Saturation -Irreducible or Not: the Key to Reliable Hydraulic Rock Typing in Reservoirs Straddling Multiple Capillary Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    of flow capacity. High in-situ capillary pressure causes connate water saturation in reservoir rocks petrophysical analysis based solely on conventional logs, including gamma ray, neutron porosity, bulk densitySPE 166082 Connate Water Saturation - Irreducible or Not: the Key to Reliable Hydraulic Rock Typing

  18. Finite Element Solution of Nonlinear Transient Rock Damage with Application in Geomechanics of Oil and Gas Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Finite Element Solution of Nonlinear Transient Rock Damage with Application in Geomechanics of Oil the geomechanics of oil and gas reservoirs. The fragile microstructure of some rocks makes it difficult to predict. The results could be used in similar geomechanical and structural damage problems such as failure and rupture

  19. Exploring an Unstructured Lattice Representation for Carbonate Reservoir Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasumarti, Lakshmi

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    carbonates via a lattice-network of pore-volumes connected in space in directions and connectivity properties driven by the rock fabric, as opposed to being limited by the rigid geometry of grid-blocks. With this goal in mind, some aspects related to a...

  20. Mining earth's heat: development of hot-dry-rock geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettitt, R.A.; Becker, N.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy-extraction concept of the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Program, as initially developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is to mine this heat by creating a man-made reservoir in low-permeability, hot basement rock. This concept has been successfully proven at Fenton Hill in northern New Mexico by drilling two holes to a depth of approximately 3 km (10,000 ft) and a bottom temperature of 200/sup 0/C (392/sup 0/F), then connecting the boreholes with a large-diametervertical hydraulic fracture. Water is circulated down one borehole, heated by the hot rock, and rises up the second borehole to the surface where the heat is extracted and the cooled water is reinjected into the underground circulation loop. This system has operated for a cumulative 416 days during engineering and reservoir testing. An energy equivalent of 3 to 5 MW(t) was produced without adverse environmental problems. During one test, a generator was installed in the circulation loop and produced 60 kW of electricity. A second-generation system, recently drilled to 4.5 km (15,000 ft) and temperatures of 320/sup 0/C (608/sup 0/F), entails creating multiple, parallel fractures between a pair of inclined boreholes. This system should produce 5 to 10 MW(e) for 20 years. Significant contributions to underground technology have been made through the development of the program.

  1. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization is progressing. Data on reservoir production rate and pressure history at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been tabulated, and porosity data from core analysis has been correlated with porosity as observed from well log response. Data integration is on schedule, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database for reservoir characterization, modeling and simulation for the reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs for each of these fields.

  2. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF CARBONATE ROCK MEDIATED BY BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCED FROM HIGH-STARCH AGRICULTURAL EFFLUENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi Salehi; Stephen Johnson; Gregory Bala; Jenn-Tai Liang

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfactants can be used to alter wettability of reservoir rock, increasing spontaneous imbibition and thus improving oil yields. Commercial synthetic surfactants are often prohibitively expensive and so a crude preparation of the anionic biosurfactant, surfactin, from Bacillus subtilis grown on high-starch industrial and agricultural effluents has been proposed as an economical alternative. To assess the effectiveness of the surfactin, it is compared to commercially available surfactants. In selecting a suitable benchmark surfactant, two metrics are examined: the ability of the surfactants to alter wettability at low concentrations, and the degree to which they are absorbed onto reservoir matrix. We review the literature to survey the adsorption models that have been developed to describe surfactant adsorption in porous media. These models are evaluated using the experimental data from this study. Crushed carbonate rock samples are cleaned and aged in crude oil. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of commercial anionic surfactants and surfactin is assessed using a two-phase separation; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption the rock is determined.

  3. Fracture Dissolution of Carbonate Rock: An Innovative Process for Gas Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Castle; Ronald W. Falta; David Bruce; Larry Murdoch; Scott E. Brame; Donald Brooks

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the project is to develop and assess the feasibility and economic viability of an innovative concept that may lead to commercialization of new gas-storage capacity near major markets. The investigation involves a new approach to developing underground gas storage in carbonate rock, which is present near major markets in many areas of the United States. Because of the lack of conventional gas storage and the projected growth in demand for storage capacity, many of these areas are likely to experience shortfalls in gas deliverability. Since depleted gas reservoirs and salt formations are nearly non-existent in many areas, alternatives to conventional methods of gas storage are required. The need for improved methods of gas storage, particularly for ways to meet peak demand, is increasing. Gas-market conditions are driving the need for higher deliverability and more flexibility in injection/withdrawal cycling. In order to meet these needs, the project involves an innovative approach to developing underground storage capacity by creating caverns in carbonate rock formations by acid dissolution. The basic concept of the acid-dissolution method is to drill to depth, fracture the carbonate rock layer as needed, and then create a cavern using an aqueous acid to dissolve the carbonate rock. Assessing feasibility of the acid-dissolution method included a regional geologic investigation. Data were compiled and analyzed from carbonate formations in six states: Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York. To analyze the requirements for creating storage volume, the following aspects of the dissolution process were examined: weight and volume of rock to be dissolved; gas storage pressure, temperature, and volume at depth; rock solubility; and acid costs. Hydrochloric acid was determined to be the best acid to use because of low cost, high acid solubility, fast reaction rates with carbonate rock, and highly soluble products (calcium chloride) that allow for the easy removal of calcium waste from the well. Physical and chemical analysis of core samples taken from prospective geologic formations for the acid dissolution process confirmed that many of the limestone samples readily dissolved in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Further, some samples contained oily residues that may help to seal the walls of the final cavern structure. These results suggest that there exist carbonate rock formations well suited for the dissolution technology and that the presence of inert impurities had no noticeable effect on the dissolution rate for the carbonate rock. A sensitivity analysis was performed for characteristics of hydraulic fractures induced in carbonate formations to enhance the dissolution process. Multiple fracture simulations were conducted using modeling software that has a fully 3-D fracture geometry package. The simulations, which predict the distribution of fracture geometry and fracture conductivity, show that the stress difference between adjacent beds is the physical property of the formations that has the greatest influence on fracture characteristics by restricting vertical growth. The results indicate that by modifying the fracturing fluid, proppant type, or pumping rate, a fracture can be created with characteristics within a predictable range, which contributes to predicting the geometry of storage caverns created by acid dissolution of carbonate formations. A series of three-dimensional simulations of cavern formation were used to investigate three different configurations of the acid-dissolution process: (a) injection into an open borehole with production from that same borehole and no fracture; (b) injection into an open borehole with production from that same borehole, with an open fracture; and (c) injection into an open borehole connected by a fracture to an adjacent borehole from which the fluids are produced. The two-well configuration maximizes the overall mass transfer from the rock to the fluid, but it results in a complex cavern shape. Numerical simulations were performed to evalua

  4. The recovery of oil from carbonate reservoirs by fluid injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Dwayne Marvin

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hole 70 Neasured and Calculated Productivities Obtained on Wells Completed Through Perforations 39 Cumulative Oil Recovery Versus Total Water and Oil Throughf low for Stratified Reservoirs- lj. O Cumulative Oil Recovery Versus Total Water and Oil... index meas- ured on the wells is equal to ths productivity index estimated from cores, In reviewing the published work on the oil recovery by water in]ec- tion to be expected from non-oolitic carbonate formations, dependable methods of prediction...

  5. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Archie R.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Cross-well bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  6. Study of dissolved organic matter in peatlands: molecular characterisation of a dynamic carbon reservoir 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ridley, Luke McDonald

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Northern peatlands represent a significant carbon reservoir, containing approximately a third of the terrestrial carbon pool. The stability of these carbon stores is poorly understood, and processes of accumulation and ...

  7. Carbon sequestration in leaky reservoirs Alain Jean-Marie, INRIA and UMR LIRMM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Carbon sequestration in leaky reservoirs Alain Jean-Marie, INRIA and UMR LIRMM Michel Moreaux, February 2, 2011 Abstract We propose in this paper a model of optimal Carbon Capture and Storage in which the reservoir of sequestered carbon is leaky, and pollution eventually is released into the atmosphere. We

  8. Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir Sebastian. Wehrli (2012), Extreme organic carbon burial fuels intense methane bubbling in a temperate reservoir; revised 25 November 2011; accepted 30 November 2011; published 4 January 2012. [1] Organic carbon (OC

  9. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2002-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization has been essentially completed. Porosity and permeability data at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been analyzed, and well performance analysis has been conducted. Data integration is up to date, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database. 3-D geologic modeling of the structures and reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The model represents an integration of geological, petrophysical and seismic data. 3-D reservoir simulation of the reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The 3-D geologic model served as the framework for the simulations. A technology workshop on reservoir characterization and modeling at Appleton and Vocation Fields was conducted to transfer the results of the project to the petroleum industry.

  10. Actualistic and Geochemical Modeling of Reservoir Rock, CO2 and Formation Fluid Interaction, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weislogel, Amy

    2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report includes description of the Citronelle field study area and the work carried out in the project to characterize the geology and composition of reservoir rock material and to collect an analyze the geochemical composition of produced fluid waters from the Citronelle field. Reservoir rock samples collected from well bore core were made into thin-sections and assessed for textural properties, including pore types and porosity distribution. Compositional framework grain modal data were collected via point-counting, and grain and cement mineralogy was assessed using SEM-EDS. Geochemistry of fluid samples is described and modeled using PHREEQC. Composition of rock and produced fluids were used as inputs for TOUGHREACT reactive transport modeling, which determined the rock-fluid system was in disequilibrium.

  11. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar Jump to:Holdings Co Ltd Place: Wuxi,Energy Information

  12. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1211 Carbon emission from hydroelectric reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1211 Carbon emission from hydroelectric * Hydroelectric reservoirs cover an area of 3.4 Ã? 105 km2 and comprise about 20% of all reservoirs. In addition dioxide and methane from hydroelectric reservoirs, on the basis of data from 85 globally distributed

  13. Rock failure during massive hydraulic stimulation of the Baca location geothermal reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, C.; Keppler, H.; Albright, J.; Potter, R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The analyses of microearthquake signals occurring during hydraulic stimulation provide an estimate of the size and location of the fractures thus produced. Studies of microearthquakes occurring during two large (> 10/sup 3/m/sup 3/) hydraulic stimulations of the hydrothermal reservoir at the Baca Location in the Jemez Mountains of northeastern New Mexico are reported. Both stimulations consisted of water, viscosity enhancer, and proppant. The microearthquake event rate was low but variable throughout most of the treatment. Rock failure as indicated by the distribution of the microearthquakes' foci appeared restricted to a nearly vertical NE striking zone. This orientation is in good agreement with the local earth stresses inferred from geological considerations. The second stimulation which occurred in a neighboring well was similar to the first except for a larger injected volume. The lateral extent of the detected fracture system was 600 m in both stimulations.

  14. Evaluation of Management of Water Release for Painted Rocks Reservoir, Bitterroot River, Montana, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lere, Mark E. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Missoula, MT)

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Baseline fisheries and habitat data were gathered during 1983 and 1984 to evaluate the effectiveness of supplemental water releases from Painted Rocks Reservoir in improving the fisheries resource in the Bitterroot River. Discharge relationships among main stem gaging stations varied annually and seasonally. Flow relationships in the river were dependent upon rainfall events and the timing and duration of the irrigation season. Daily discharge monitored during the summers of 1983 and 1984 was greater than median values derived at the U.S.G.S. station near Darby. Supplemental water released from Painted Rocks Reservoir totaled 14,476 acre feet in 1983 and 13,958 acre feet in 1984. Approximately 63% of a 5.66 m{sup 3}/sec test release of supplemental water conducted during April, 1984 was lost to irrigation withdrawals and natural phenomena before passing Bell Crossing. A similar loss occurred during a 5.66 m{sup 3}/sec test release conducted in August, 1984. Daily maximum temperature monitored during 1984 in the Bitterroot River averaged 11.0, 12.5, 13.9 and 13.6 C at the Darby, Hamilton, Bell and McClay stations, respectively. Chemical parameters measured in the Bitterroot River were favorable to aquatic life. Population estimates conducted in the Fall, 1983 indicated densities of I+ and older rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were significantly greater in a control section than in a dewatered section (p < 0.20). Numbers of I+ and older brown trout (Salmo trutta) were not significantly different between the control and dewatered sections (p > 0.20). Population and biomass estimates for trout in the control section were 631/km and 154.4 kg/km. In the dewatered section, population and biomass estimates for trout were 253/km and 122.8 kg/km. The growth increments of back-calculated length for rainbow trout averaged 75.6 mm in the control section and 66.9mm in the dewatered section. The growth increments of back-calculated length for brown trout averaged 79.5 mm in the control section and 82.3mm in the dewatered section. Population estimates conducted in the Spring, 1984 indicated densities of mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) greater than 254 mm in total length were not significantly different between the control and dewatered sections (p > 0.20). Young of the year rainbow trout and brown trout per 10m of river edge electrofished during 1984 were more abundant in the control section than the dewatered section and were more abundant in side channel habitat than main channel habitat. Minimum flow recommendations obtained from wetted perimeter-discharge relationships averaged 8.5m{sup 3}/sec in the control section and 10.6m{sup 3}/sec in the dewatered section of the Bitterroot River. The quantity of supplemental water from Painted Rocks Reservoir needed to maintain minimum flow recommendations is discussed in the Draft Water Management Plan for the Proposed Purchase of Supplemental Water from Painted Rocks Reservoir, Bitterroot River, Montana (Lere 1984).

  15. Development of Chemical Model to Predict the Interactions between Supercritical CO2and Fluid, and Rocks in EGS Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will develop a chemical model, based on existing models and databases, that is capable of simulating chemical reactions between supercritical (SC) CO2 and Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) reservoir rocks of various compositions in aqueous, non-aqueous and 2-phase environments.

  16. Reservoir Simulation and Evaluation of the Upper Jurassic Smackover Microbial Carbonate and Grainstone-Packstone Reservoirs in Little Cedar Creek Field, Conecuh County, Alabama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mostafa, Moetaz Y

    2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents an integrated study of mature carbonate oil reservoirs (Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation) undergoing gas injection in the Little Cedar Creek Field located in Conecuh County, Alabama. This field produces from two reservoirs...

  17. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.; Egg, Rebecca

    2001-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization.

  18. The net carbon footprint of a newly created boreal hydroelectric reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    The net carbon footprint of a newly created boreal hydroelectric reservoir Cristian R. Teodoru,1 present here the first comprehensive assessment of the carbon (C) footprint associated with the creation-term at rates exceeding the carbon footprint of the pre-flood landscape, although the sources of C supporting

  19. Electrical vs. Hydraulic Rock Types in Clastic Reservoirs: Pore-Scale Understanding Verified with Field Observations in the Gulf of Mexico, U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    with Field Observations in the Gulf of Mexico, U.S. Chicheng Xu*, Carlos Torres-Verdín, and Shuang Gao of turbidite oil reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico shows that inclusion of resistivity logs in the classification oil reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico, US. Electrical and Hydraulic Conductivity Models In a porous rock

  20. Experimental and simulation studies of sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Jeong Gyu

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    he feasibility of sequestering supercritical CO2 in depleted gas reservoirs. The experimental runs involved the following steps. First, the 1 ft long by 1 in. diameter carbonate core is inserted into a viton Hassler sleeve and placed inside...

  1. Experimental and simulation studies of sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Jeong Gyu

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    he feasibility of sequestering supercritical CO2 in depleted gas reservoirs. The experimental runs involved the following steps. First, the 1 ft long by 1 in. diameter carbonate core is inserted into a viton Hassler sleeve and placed inside...

  2. Integrated Analysis and Application of Reservoir Models to Early Permian Detrital Carbonate Deposits, Midland Basin, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Travis Wayne 1987-

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 3-D seismic volume, wireline logs and core data were integrated to determine the spatial distribution of porous reservoirs within the Wolfcampian-Leonardian detrital carbonate slope and basin strata in Glasscock County, Texas. A 3-D seismic...

  3. The Effect of Acid Additives on Carbonate Rock Wettability and Spent Acid Recovery in Low Permeability Gas Carbonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saneifar, Mehrnoosh

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent acid retention in the near-wellbore region causes reduction of relative permeability to gas and eventually curtailed gas production. In low-permeability gas carbonate reservoirs, capillary forces are the key parameters that affect the trapping...

  4. Geochemistry of silicate-rich rocks can curtail spreading of carbon dioxide in subsurface aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, S. S. S.; Andres, J. T. H.

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    of carbon sequestration and dissolution rates in the subsurface, suggesting that pooled carbon dioxide may remain in the shallower regions of the formation for hundreds to thousands of years. The deeper regions of the reservoir can remain virtually carbon... interests. References 1. Marini, L. Geochemical Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. (Elsevier 2007). 2. IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, edited by Metz B. et al. (Cambridge University Press, UK and New York, USA, 2005). 3. Falkowski...

  5. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization has been completed. Porosity and permeability data at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been analyzed, and well performance analysis has been conducted. Data integration is up to date, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database. 3-D geologic modeling of the structures and reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The models represent an integration of geological, petrophysical and seismic data. 3-D reservoir simulation of the reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The 3-D geologic models served as the framework for the simulations. The geologic-engineering models of the Appleton and Vocation Field reservoirs have been developed. These models are being tested. The geophysical interpretation for the paleotopographic feature being tested has been made, and the study of the data resulting from drilling of a well on this paleohigh is in progress. Numerous presentations on reservoir characterization and modeling at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been made at professional meetings and conferences and a short course on microbial reservoir characterization and modeling based on these fields has been prepared.

  6. Geophysical and transport properties of reservoir rocks. Final report for task 4: Measurements and analysis of seismic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of research on the seismic properties of reservoir rocks is to develop a basic understanding of the effects of rock microstructure and its contained pore fluids on seismic velocities and attenuation. Ultimately, this knowledge would be used to extract reservoir properties information such as the porosity, permeability, clay content, fluid saturation, and fluid type from borehole, cross-borehole, and surface seismic measurements to improve the planning and control of oil and gas recovery. This thesis presents laboratory ultrasonic measurements for three granular materials and attempts to relate the microstructural properties and the properties of the pore fluids to P- and S-wave velocities and attenuation. These experimental results show that artificial porous materials with sintered grains and a sandstone with partially cemented grains exhibit complexities in P- and S-wave attenuation that cannot be adequately explained by existing micromechanical theories. It is likely that some of the complexity observed in the seismic attenuation is controlled by details of the rock microstructure, such as the grain contact area and grain shape, and by the arrangement of the grain packing. To examine these effects, a numerical method was developed for analyzing wave propagation in a grain packing. The method is based on a dynamic boundary integral equation and incorporates generalized stiffness boundary conditions between individual grains to account for viscous losses and grain contact scattering.

  7. Carbon storage: the economic efficiency of storing CO2 in leaky reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Carbon storage: the economic efficiency of storing CO2 in leaky reservoirs Minh Ha-Duong David W carbon underground), we derive analytic expressions for the value of leaky CO2 storage compared to perfect storage when storage is a marginal component of the energy system. If the annual leak rate is 1

  8. Determination of the Effect of Geological Reservoir Variability on Carbon Dioxide Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Determination of the Effect of Geological Reservoir Variability on Carbon Dioxide Storage Using'expériences -- Dans le contexte de l'étude du stockage géologique du dioxyde de carbone dans les réservoirs al. (2007) Energy Convers. Manage. 48, 1782-1797; Gunter et al. (1999) Appl. Geochem. 4, 1

  9. Non-parametric regression and neural-network inll drilling recovery models for carbonate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valkó, Peter

    , and operations e- ciency. Consequent to the primary recovery, water- ¯ood is often used as a secondary recoveryNon-parametric regression and neural-network in®ll drilling recovery models for carbonate ultimate oil recovery from reservoirs in San Andres and Clearfork carbonate formations in West Texas

  10. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY IN MISSISSIPPIAN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS OF KANSAS - NEAR TERM - CLASS 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy R. Carr; Don W. Green; G. Paul Willhite

    2000-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual report describes progress during the final year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of the project was development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent. As part of the project, tools and techniques for reservoir description and management were developed, modified and demonstrated, including PfEFFER spreadsheet log analysis software. The world-wide-web was used to provide rapid and flexible dissemination of the project results through the Internet. A summary of demonstration phase at the Schaben and Ness City North sites demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed reservoir management strategies and technologies. At the Schaben Field, a total of 22 additional locations were evaluated based on the reservoir characterization and simulation studies and resulted in a significant incremental production increase. At Ness City North Field, a horizontal infill well (Mull Ummel No.4H) was planned and drilled based on the results of reservoir characterization and simulation studies to optimize the location and length. The well produced excellent and predicted oil rates for the first two months. Unexpected presence of vertical shale intervals in the lateral resulted in loss of the hole. While the horizontal well was not economically successful, the technology was demonstrated to have potential to recover significant additional reserves in Kansas and the Midcontinent. Several low-cost approaches were developed to evaluate candidate reservoirs for potential horizontal well applications at the field scale, lease level, and well level, and enable the small independent producer to identify efficiently candidate reservoirs and also to predict the performance of horizontal well applications.

  11. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on reservoir architecture and geographic distribution of Smackover reservoirs is the fabric and texture of the depositional lithofacies, diagenesis (chiefly dolomitization) is a significant factor that preserves and enhances reservoir quality. The evaporative pumping mechanism is favored to explain the dolomitization of the thrombolite doloboundstone and dolostone reservoir flow units at Appleton and Vocation Fields. Geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and the testing and applying the resulting integrated geologic-engineering models have shown that little oil remains to be recovered at Appleton Field and a significant amount of oil remains to be recovered at Vocation Field through a strategic infill drilling program. The drive mechanisms for primary production in Appleton and Vocation Fields remain effective; therefore, the initiation of a pressure maintenance program or enhanced recovery project is not required at this time. The integrated geologic-engineering model developed for a low-relief paleohigh (Appleton Field) was tested for three scenarios involving the variables of present-day structural elevation and the presence/absence of potential reef thrombolite lithofacies. In each case, the predictions based upon the model were correct. From this modeling, the characteristics of the ideal prospect in the basement ridge play include a low-relief paleohigh associated with dendroidal/chaotic thrombolite doloboundstone and dolostone that has sufficient present-day structural relief so that these carbonates rest above the oil-water contact. Such a prospect was identified from the modeling, and it is located northwest of well Permit No. 3854B (Appleton Field) and south of well No. Permit No.11030B (Northwest Appleton Field).

  12. Pore Fluid Effects on Shear Modulus in a Model of Heterogeneous Rocks, Reservoirs, and Granular Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J G

    2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    To provide quantitative measures of the importance of fluid effects on shear waves in heterogeneous reservoirs, a model material called a ''random polycrystal of porous laminates'' is introduced. This model poroelastic material has constituent grains that are layered (or laminated), and each layer is an isotropic, microhomogeneous porous medium. All grains are composed of exactly the same porous constituents, and have the same relative volume fractions. The order of lamination is not important because the up-scaling method used to determine the transversely isotropic (hexagonal) properties of the grains is Backus averaging, which--for quasi-static or long-wavelength behavior--depends only on the volume fractions and layer properties. Grains are then jumbled together totally at random, filling all space, and producing an overall isotropic poroelastic medium. The poroelastic behavior of this medium is then analyzed using the Peselnick-Meister-Watt bounds (of Hashin-Shtrikman type). We study the dependence of the shear modulus on pore fluid properties and determine the range of behavior to be expected. In particular we compare and contrast these results to those anticipated from Gassmann's fluid substitution formulas, and to the predictions of Mavko and Jizba for very low porosity rocks with flat cracks. This approach also permits the study of arbitrary numbers of constituents, but for simplicity the numerical examples are restricted here to just two constituents. This restriction also permits the use of some special exact results available for computing the overall effective stress coefficient in any two-component porous medium. The bounds making use of polycrystalline microstructure are very tight. Results for the shear modulus demonstrate that the ratio of compliance differences R (i.e., shear compliance changes over bulk compliance changes when going from drained to undrained behavior, or vice versa) is usually nonzero and can take a wide range of values, both above and below the value R = 4/15 valid for low porosity, very low aspect ratio flat cracks. Results show the overall shear modulus in this model can depend relatively strongly on mechanical properties of the pore fluids, sometimes (but rarely) more strongly than the dependence of the overall bulk modulus on the fluids.

  13. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine surfactant concentrations. To reliably quantify both benchmark surfactants and surfactin, a surfactant ion-selective electrode was used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of the anionic surfactants with Hyamine 1622. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of a commercial preparation of SLS (STEOL CS-330) and surfactin was assessed using two-phase separation, and water flotation techniques; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption on the rock was determined. Qualitative tests indicated that on a molar basis, surfactin is more effective than STEOL CS-330 in altering wettability of crushed Lansing-Kansas City carbonates from oil-wet to water-wet state. Adsorption isotherms of STEOL CS-330 and surfactin on crushed Lansing-Kansas City outcrop and reservoir material showed that surfactin has higher specific adsorption on these oomoldic carbonates. Amott wettability studies confirmed that cleaned cores are mixed-wet, and that the aging procedure renders them oil-wet. Tests of aged cores with no initial water saturation resulted in very little spontaneous oil production, suggesting that water-wet pathways into the matrix are required for wettability change to occur. Further investigation of spontaneous imbibition and forced imbibition of water and surfactant solutions into LKC cores under a variety of conditions--cleaned vs. crude oil-aged; oil saturated vs. initial water saturation; flooded with surfactant vs. not flooded--indicated that in water-wet or intermediate wet cores, sodium laureth sulfate is more effective at enhancing spontaneous imbibition through wettability change. However, in more oil-wet systems, surfactin at the same concentration performs significantly better.

  14. Well Productivity Enhancement of High Temperature Heterogeneous Carbonate Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guanqun

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Acidizing is one of the most popular techniques for well productivity enhancement during oil and gas production. However, the treatment method is not very effective when the wellbore penetrates through multiple layers of heterogeneous reservoirs...

  15. The Role of Acidizing in Proppant Fracturing in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Densirimongkol, Jurairat

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, optimizing well stimulation techniques to obtain maximum return of investment is still a challenge. Hydraulic fracturing is a typical application to improve ultimate recovery from oil and gas reservoirs. Proppant ...

  16. Petrography and prediction of reservoir rock properties in the Sussex Sandstone, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley, Richard Hoyt

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to determine rock composition and texture. Composition was established by point count of 100 grains. Framework grains were identified and counted as monocrystalline quartz, polycrystalline quartz, volcanic rock fragments, potassium feldspar, plagioclase... and quiet water deposition of shale was resumed. The sandstone is classified as a volcanic aronite based on a det: ital composition averaging 59 percent quartz, including both monccrystalline and polycrystalline varieties, 18 percent rock frag- ments...

  17. The environment of deposition and reservoir characterization of the Simpson Rocks (Middle Ordovician) at the Scully Field, Marion County, Kansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McRae, Martha Fay

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    undnf Sll undlh Ma uaketo m Galena Gp. Deep ah Shale a mr i lii. nwaod Fm St Peter Sandstone Shalmpee Fm Jordan/sl Lawrence Fms Doris Ffn wiwtteiYe Fm Mt Simoh Salldshwie 7 Figure 4. Generalized correlation chart of the Paleozoic... for individual wells. 80 INTRODUCIlON The lower Paleozoic rocks in the cratonic interior of North America are characterized by relatively thick sections of carbonate rocks separated by thin sections of quartzose sheet sandstones and rarely shales. The facies...

  18. Sources and fluxes of carbon in a large boreal hydroelectric reservoir of eastern Canada: an isotopic approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    Sources and fluxes of carbon in a large boreal hydroelectric reservoir of eastern Canada Hydroelectric reservoirs emit greenhouse gases (GHGs). Although a few hypothesis have been put forward at the surface of a large boreal hydroelectric reservoir of eastern Canada (Robert-Bourassa) as well

  19. Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs of Kansas -- Near-Term -- Class 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, Timothy R.; Green, Don W.; Willhite, G. Paul

    1999-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes progress during the third year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of this project is development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and mid-continent. The project introduced a number of potentially useful technologies, and demonstrated these technologies in actual oil field operations. Advanced technology was tailored specifically to the scale appropriate to the operations of Kansas producers. An extensive technology transfer effort is ongoing. Traditional technology transfer methods (e.g., publications and workshops) are supplemented with a public domain relational database and an online package of project results that is available through the Internet. The goal is to provide the independent complete access to project data, project results and project technology on their desktop. Included in this report is a summary of significant project results at the demonstration site (Schaben Field, Ness County, Kansas). The value of cost-effective techniques for reservoir characterization and simulation at Schaben Field were demonstrated to independent operators. All major operators at Schaben have used results of the reservoir management strategy to locate and drill additional infill locations. At the Schaben Demonstration Site, the additional locations resulted in incremental production increases of 200 BOPD from a smaller number of wells.

  20. Organic carbon sources and transformations in mangrove sediments: A Rock-Eval pyrolysis approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Organic carbon sources and transformations in mangrove sediments: A Rock-Eval pyrolysis approach C'Orléans, CNRS/INSU, Université d'Orléans, 1A rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans, France Abstract A Rock cycling in this specific environment using a method that allows monitoring the depth evolution of sources

  1. The use of predictive lithostratigraphy to significantly improve the ability to forecast reservoir and source rocks? Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doctor, R. D.; Moore, T. L.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this CRADA, which ended in 2003, was to make reservoir and source rock distribution significantly more predictable by quantifying the fundamental controls on stratigraphic heterogeneity. To do this, the relationships among insolation, climate, sediment supply, glacioeustasy, and reservoir and source rock occurrence were investigated in detail. Work current at the inception of the CRADA had uncovered previously unrecognized associations among these processes and properties that produce a phenomenon that, when properly analyzed, will make lithostratigraphic variability (including texture, porosity, and permeability) substantially more understandable. Computer climate simulations of selected time periods, compared with the global distribution of paleoclimatic indicators, documented spatial and temporal climate changes as a function of insolation and provided quantitative changes in runoff, lake level, and glacioeustasy. The effect of elevation and climate on sediment yield was assessed numerically by analyzing digital terrain and climate data. The phase relationships of climate, yield, and glacioeustatic cycles from the Gulf of Mexico and/or other sedimentary basins were assessed by using lacunarity, a statistical technique.

  2. Volumetric Curvature and Coherency Assisted Fault Mapping and Fracture Prediction of Carbonate Reservoir Huabei Field, North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Allen

    2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    in carbonates, and are thus the focus of my investigation. With a 3D dataset and well data from the Huabei Field in North China, a carbonate reservoir is identified and interpreted through the field. We use the reservoir top depth to narrow our window...

  3. 3D multi-scale imaging of experimental fracture generation in shale gas reservoirs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    in research and shale unconventional reservoirs that will provide you with the skills to enter the oil and gas3D multi-scale imaging of experimental fracture generation in shale gas reservoirs. Supervisory-grained organic carbon-rich rocks (shales) are increasingly being targeted as shale gas "reservoirs". Due

  4. Experimental Study of Carbon Sequestration Reactions Controlled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Experimental Study of Carbon Sequestration Reactions Controlled by the Percolation of CO2-Rich. Carbonation of ultramafic rocks in geological reservoirs is, in theory, the most efficient way to trap CO2 irreversibly; however, possible feedback effects between carbonation reactions and changes in the reservoir

  5. Reservoir characters of the Ypresian carbonates, Western Libyan Offshore, Central Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mriheel, I.Y. [Petroleum Research Centre, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant hydrocarbon accumulations have been discovered in Western Libyan offshore in the Ypresian carbonate reservoirs of Jdeir Formation and Jirani Dolomite. The discoveries of hydrocarbons are mainly in structural traps where the Jdeir nummulitic facies and Jirani dolomitic facies B have been structured by salt domes or underlying positive fault blocks. This study investigates the relationship between environments of deposition, diagenesis and reservoir characters of the two main hydrocarbon producing units of the Jdeir and Jirani formations. Petrographic and petrophysical studies indicate that porosity in the Jirani Dolomite is related to diagenesis in meteoric environments, while in the Jdeir reservoir is the result of the environment of deposition and diagenesis. Excellent reservoir porosity of Jdeir nummulitic facies and Jirani dolomitic facies B is related to diagenesis in meteoric water during exposure to subaerial conditions which is considered to be due to lowering of sea level and possibly local uplifting.

  6. Predicting porosity in a Saudi Arabian carbonate reservoir using geologic constraints integrated with 3-D seismic and well data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffery, R.; Thomsen, M. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for predicting lateral changes in reservoir porosity using 3-D seismic Aptitudes, calibrated against the amplitude response versus porosity measured at a select number of wells, was implemented and applied to produce a porosity map of a Saudi Arabian carbonate reservoir. The technique relies on the uniform lithologic seismic response of an overlying anhydrite, and thus assigns variations in amplitudes at the reservoir level to changes in reservoir average porosity. Throughout the study area, reservoir porosity and acoustic impedance logs exhibit a firm linear relationship. As reservoir porosity increases, its acoustic impedance decreases, and the greater contrast with the overlying anhydrite translates into larger seismic amplitudes. Thus, we expect the reservoir`s relative amplitude response to also increase linearly with increasing porosity. A check on this hypothesis was provided by computing synthetic seismograms at several wells, and measuring the reservoir`s theoretical amplitude response versus porosity averaged over the producing zone within the reservoir. This trend supported a linear seismic amplitude to porosity transform. Upon verification of the technique`s applicability, the reservoirs amplitude response was extracted from the 3-D seismic volume in the vicinity of several wells. These were used in conjunction with porosities averaged ever the reservoir to derive the amplitude to porosity transform. This transform was used in converting the mapped reservoir amplitudes into variations in average porosities. The success ratio for predicting porosities in wells not used in the analysis was nearly perfect, and the map continues to correctly predict porosities in subsequently drilled wells.

  7. Integration of Geology, Rock-Physics, Logs, and Pre-stack Seismic for Reservoir Porosity Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Muhaidib, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this paper is to obtain reservoir properties, such as porosity, both at the well locations and in the inter-well regions from seismic data and well logs. The seismic and well-log datasets are from an ...

  8. A manual for evaluation and exploitation of carbonate reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordova, Pedro Luis

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . 58 . . . 69 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page 5. 1 Pressure Transient Analysis. 5. 1. 1 Homogeneous Reservon Model . 5. 1. 1. 1 Pressure Buildup Tests . . . . . 5. 1. 1. 2 Drawdown Tests. . . 72 . . . 72 . . . . 79 5. 1. 2 Dual...-Porosity Reservoir Model. 5. 1. 2. 1 Pseudosteady-State Model 5. 1. 2. 2 Transient Matrix Flow Model. . . . . . . . . 83 5. 2 Production Analysis . 5. 2, 1 Decline Curves. 5. 2. 2 Decline Curve Analysis Using Type Curves. . . . 5. 3 Drillstem Test . . . . 95...

  9. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Rocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keys, Ryan S.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In matrix acidizing, the goal is to dissolve minerals in the rock to increase well productivity. This is accomplished by injecting an application-specific solution of acid into the formation at a pressure between the pore ...

  10. Cost Effective Surfactant Formulations for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work during the 30 month time period of this project. This was planned originally for 3-years duration, but due to its financial limitations, DOE halted funding after 2 years. The California Institute of Technology continued working on this project for an additional 6 months based on a no-cost extension granted by DOE. The objective of this project is to improve the performance of aqueous phase formulations that are designed to increase oil recovery from fractured, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. This process works by increasing the rate and extent of aqueous phase imbibition into the matrix blocks in the reservoir and thereby displacing crude oil normally not recovered in a conventional waterflood operation. The project had three major components: (1) developing methods for the rapid screening of surfactant formulations towards identifying candidates suitable for more detailed evaluation, (2) more fundamental studies to relate the chemical structure of acid components of an oil and surfactants in aqueous solution as relates to their tendency to wet a carbonate surface by oil or water, and (3) a more applied study where aqueous solutions of different commercial surfactants are examined for their ability to recover a West Texas crude oil from a limestone core via an imbibition process. The first item, regarding rapid screening methods for suitable surfactants has been summarized as a Topical Report. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the surface of these chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite power is pre-treated to make the surface oil-wet. The next step is to add the pre-treated powder to a test tube and add a candidate aqueous surfactant formulation; the greater the percentage of the calcite that now sinks to the bottom rather than floats, the more effective the surfactant is in changing the solids to become now preferentially water-wet. Results from the screening test generally are consistent with surfactant oil recovery performance reported in the literature. The second effort is a more fundamental study. It considers the effect of chemical structures of different naphthenic acids (NA) dissolved in decane as model oils that render calcite surfaces oil-wet to a different degree. NAs are common to crude oil and are at least partially responsible for the frequent observation that carbonate reservoirs are oil-wet. Because pure NA compounds are used, trends in wetting behavior can be related to NA molecular structure as measured by solid adsorption, contact angle and our novel, simple flotation test with calcite. Experiments with different surfactants and NA-treated calcite powder provide information about mechanisms responsible for sought after reversal to a water-wet state. Key findings include: (1) more hydrophobic NA's are more prone to induce oil-wetting, and (2) recovery of the model oil from limestone core was better with cationic surfactants, but one nonionic surfactant, Igepal CO-530, also had favorable results. This portion of the project included theoretical calculations to investigate key basic properties of several NAs such as their acidic strength and their relative water/oil solubility, and relate this to their chemical structure. The third category of this project focused on the recovery of a light crude oil from West Texas (McElroy Field) from a carbonate rock (limestone outcrop). For this effort, the first item was to establish a suite of surfactants that would be compatible with the McElroy Field brine. Those were examined further for their ability to recover oil by imbibition. Results demonstrate several types of promising candida

  11. Well-log interpretation of carbonate reservoirs with bimodal porosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tandircioglu, Ahmet

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of low values of Rt and Rxo indicated the presence of bimodal pore systems on the plots. Archie water saturations in bimodal zones of the two fields are in excess of 60%, which may cause a potential reservoir to be overlooked. A value of 100...% is calculated in the bimodal zones of Amoco Cutshaw 1, which produce water-free gas at the Running Duke field, Houston County, Texas. Values of bulk volume water are greater than 0. 07 as calculated by the Archie water saturation in the bimodal zones...

  12. Depositional and diagenetic history of some Jurassic carbonates, Indian Rock-Gilmer Field, Upshur County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fall, Steven Anthony

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that the origin of the paleostructure which pro- duced the shallow marine environments during Cotton Valley/Haynesvi lie deposition was a Paleozoic high. The Indian Rock-Gilmer Field was a shallow area in the Jurassic Cotton Valley/Haynesville sea situated...~ ~ ~ 0 '''j DEPOSITIONAL AND DIAGENETIC HISTORY OF SOME JURASSIC CARBONATES, INDIAN ROCK-GILMER FIELD, UPSHUR COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by STEVEN ANTHONY FALL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment...

  13. Characterization of rock for constraining reservoir scale tomography at the Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boitnott, G.N.; Bonner, B.P.

    1994-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A suite of laboratory measurements are being conducted on Geysers graywacke recovered from a drilled depth of 2599 meters in NEGU-17. The tests are being conducted to characterize the effect of pressure and fluid saturation on the seismic properties of the graywacke matrix. The measurements indicate that the graywacke is an unusual rock in many respects. Both compressional and shear velocities exhibit relatively little change with pressure. Water saturation causes a slight increase in the compressional velocity, quantitatively consistent with predictions from the Biot-Gassmann equations. Shear velocity decreases with water saturation by an amount greater than that predicted by the Biot-Gassmann equations. This decrease is attributed to chemomechanical weakening caused by the presence of water. Measurements of Q, from torsion experiments on room dry samples at seismic frequencies indicate unusually high Q, (~500). Water saturation decreases the shear modulus by 12 percent, again indicative of chemomechanical weakening. Q, is lower for the water saturated condition, but still relatively high for rock at low stress. Results of ultrasonic pulse propagation experiments on partially saturated samples are typical of low porosity rocks, being characterized by a monotonic decrease in compressional and shear velocity with decrease in saturation. An increase in shear velocity and low frequency shear modulus after vacuum drying indicates the presence of chemo-mechanical weakening resulting from the presence of small amounts of water.

  14. Displacement of oil from reservoir rock using high molecular weight polymer solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barzi, Houshang

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . In general, the tests have been inconclusive. The object of this research was to measure the effectiveness of water containing polymers in displacing oil from porous media and to measure the effect of the polymers on the permeability of the porous med... lower than in normal water flood operations. The published results of laboratory research and a limited number of field trials indicate that polymer solutions may be effective agents for recovering 3i5s6~7i8~9~10 additional crude oil from reservoir...

  15. Displacement of oil from reservoir rock using graded-viscosity water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Atigi, Yosef A

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of reservoir conditions. The objective of this paper was to investigate, in the dis- placement processes the effect on oil recovery of 1) A graded- viscosity bank as compared to that of a constant-viscosity bank. The two banks used had the same mass...- cosity. He compared his results with a constant-viscosity slug, having the same mass of polymer and found increased oil recov- eries from the graded-viscosity slug, in the displacement process. His concentration of polymer, however, were too high...

  16. Rocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements RecentlyElectronicResources ResourcesRobust, High-ThroughputRocks Rocks

  17. Effects of uncertainty in rock-physics models on reservoir parameter estimation using marine seismic AVA and CSEM data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jinsong; Dickens, Thomas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of reservoir parameters from geophysical data. TraditionalCSEM data, which are functions of reservoir resistivity rreservoir parameters from seismic AVA and CSEM data. In

  18. Intrashelf basins: A geologic model for source-bed and reservoir facies deposition within carbonate shelves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grover, G. Jr. (Sauid Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intrashelf basins (moats, inshore basins, shelf basins, differentiated shelf, and deep-water lagoons of others) are depressions of varying sizes and shapes that occur within tectonically passive and regionally extensive carbonate shelves. Intrashelf basins grade laterally and downdip (seaward) into shallow-water carbonates of the regional shelf, are separated from the open marine basin by the shelf margin, and are largely filled by fine-grained subtidal sediments having attributes of shallow- and deeper water sedimentation. These basins are commonly fringed or overlain by carbonate sands, reefs, or buildups. These facies may mimic those that occur along the regional shelf margin, and they can have trends that are at a high angle to that of the regional shelf. Intrashelf basins are not intracratonic basins. The history of most intrashelf basins is a few million to a few tens of million of years. Examples of intrashelf basins are known throughout the Phanerozoic; the southern portion of the Holocene Belize shelf is a modern example of an intrashelf basin. Two types of intrashelf basins are recognized. Coastal basins pass updip into coastal clastics of the craton with the basin primarily filled by fine clastics. Shelf basins occur on the outer part of the shelf, are surrounded by shallow-water carbonate facies, and are filled by peloidal lime mud, pelagics, and argillaceous carbonates. Intrashelf basins are commonly the site of organic-rich, source-bed deposition, resulting in the close proximity of source beds and reservoir facies that may fringe or overlie the basin. Examples of hydrocarbon-charged reservoirs that were sourced by an intrashelf basin include the Miocene Bombay High field, offshore India; the giant Jurassic (Arab-D) and Cretaceous (Shuaiba) reservoirs of the Arabian Shelf; the Lower Cretaceous Sunniland trend, South Florida basin; and the Permian-Pennsylvanian reservoirs surrounding the Tatum basin in southeastern New Mexico.

  19. Identification of pore type and origin in a Lower Cretaceous carbonate reservoir using NMR T2 relaxation times 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lodola, Domenico Domenico

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Determining the distribution of porosity and permeability is one of the main challenges in carbonate petroleum reservoir characterization and requires a thorough understanding of pore type and origin, as well as their ...

  20. A Simple Hydromechanical Modeling of Carbon Sequestration in Sedimentary Rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghaffari, Hamed O

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, over different scenarios we will simulate a week coupling of hydromechanical loads in a long term CO2 injection with a hypothetical reservoir while the effect of pore water pressure and then multi-phase flow procedure has been ignored. In the first basic case the homogenous case has been considered when the theory of poroelasticity was employed. Second case covers the effects of directional heterogeneity, constructed by random faults, on the flow paths of gas and other attributes of the system. Also, in the latter case the impact of stress state as an active loads (body loads) has been regarded. Thanks to multiple directional heterogeneity, which induces only one heterogenic parameter (intrinsic permeability), distinguishable flow paths can be recognized. In another process, the failure ability of system regard to Mohr-Columb criterion is measured as well as options that, presumably, the system has continuum faults (zero cohesion). The results over different cases shows absedince of ground surf...

  1. Design and Implementation of a CO(2) Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells in Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work reported herein covers select tasks in Budget Phase 11. The principle Task in Budget Phase 11 included in this report is Field Demonstration. Completion of many of the Field Demonstration tasks during the last report period enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed, economically evaluated, and implemented in the field. Field implementation of the project commenced during late 1995, with actual C0{sub 2} injection commencing in mid-July, 1996. This report summarizes activities incurred following initial project start-up, towards the goal of optimizing project performance. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative C0{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take-or-pay provisions, C0{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price) and gas recycle agreement (expensing costs as opposed to a large upfront capital investment for compression) were negotiated to further improve the project economics. The Grayburg-San Andres section had previously been divided into multiple zones based on the core study and gamma ray markers that correlate wells within the Unit. Each zone was mapped as continuous across the field. Previous core studies concluded that the reservoir quality in the South Cowden Unit (SCU) is controlled primarily by the distribution of a bioturbated and diagenetically-altered rock type with a distinctive chaotic texture. The chaotic modifier is derived from the visual effect of pervasive, small-scale intermixing of tan oil-stained reservoir rock with tight gray non- reservoir rock. The chaotic reservoir rock extends from Zone C (4780`-4800`) to the lower part of Zone F (4640`-4680`). Zones D (4755`-4780`) and E (4680`-4755`) are considered the main floodable zones, though Zone F is also productive and Zone C is productive above the oil- water contact. During Budget Phase 1, the Stratamodel computer program was utilized as the primary tool to integrate the diverse geologic, petrophysical, and seismic data into a coherent three dimensional (3-D) model. The basic porosity model having been constructed, critiqued and modified based on field production and detailed cross-section displays, permeability data was imported into the model, and a 3-D interpolation of the permeability was completed.

  2. Predicting carbonate mineral precipitation/dissolution events during progressive diagenesis of clastic rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surdam, R.C.; MacGowan, D.B.; Dunn, T.L. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (United States)); Moraes, M. (Petrobras (Brazil))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is an observable, regular progression of early and late carbonate cements that is separated by carbonate mineral dissolution in many sandstones during progressive burial and diagenesis. The distribution of early cements is a function of incipient hydration of framework grains, sulfate reduction, and bacterial methanogenesis. These early cements typically precipitate from the sediment water interace to burial depths corresponding to about 80C. The distribution of late carbonate cements is a function of the relationship of organic acid anions, aluminosilicate reactions and CO{sub 2} in formation waters. Elevated PCO{sub 2} in a fluid where the pH is buffered by organic acid anions or aluminosilicates results in precipitation of a late carbonate cement (typically ferroan); these late carbonate cements generally form over the temperature interval of 100-130C. The late and early carbonate cement events are separated in time by a period of carbonate mineral dissolution or nonprecipitation. This dissolution is related to the increase in concentration of carboxylic acid anions resulting from the thermocatalytic cracking of oxygen-bearing functional groups from kerogen and/or redox reactions involving kerogen. Examples of the importance of early carbonate cementation/decementation to hydrocarbon reservoirs include the Campos basin of Brazil and the U.S. Gulf Coast. An example of late carbonate cementation/decementation includes the Norphlet Formation. This observed sequence of cementation and decementation can be modeled, and the modeling results can be used to predict enhanced porosity in the subsurface.

  3. The effects of texture and composition on the mechanical behavior of experimentally deformed carbonate rocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hugman, Robert Harvey Harold

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    behavior in unconfined tests and large increases in ultimate strength with increases in confining pressure to 100 MPa (Fig. 1, a, e). These "crystalline" rocks are moderately ductile to ductile at 100 MPa confining pressure. A degree of work hardening... Limestone (67 0 microcrystalline carbonate), and Madison H61-16 Lime- stone (54 $ micrite) are included in this category (Fig. 1, b, d, f), All these rocks are strong in unconfined tests, and stronger at 50 and 100 MPa confining pressure then Yule Marble...

  4. Carbon storage: the economic efficiency of storing CO2 in leaky reservoirs Minh Ha-Duong, David W. Keith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Carbon storage: the economic efficiency of storing CO2 in leaky reservoirs Minh Ha-Duong, David W carbon underground), we derive analytic expressions for the value of leaky CO2 storage compared to perfect storage when storage is a marginal component of the energy system. If the annual leak rate is 1

  5. CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Kovar; Scott Wehner

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of cyclic CO2, often referred to as the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in the capital-intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration & Production Inc. and the U. S. Department of Energy have teamed up in an attempt to develop the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations which are light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs that exist throughout the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir. A significant amount of oil reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs. Specifically, the carbonates deposited in shallow shelf (SSC) environments make up the largest percentage of known reservoirs within the Permian Basin of North America. Many of these known resources have been under waterflooding operations for decades and are at risk of abandonment if crude oil recoveries cannot be economically enhanced 1,2 . The selected sites for this demonstration project are the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico and the Sundown Slaughter Field in Hockley County, Texas. Miscible CO2 flooding is the process of choice for enhancing recovery of light oils 3 and already accounts for over 12% of the Permian Basin?s daily production.4 There are significant probable reserves associated with future miscible CO2 projects. However, many are marginally economic at current market conditions due to large up-front capital commitments for a peak response, which may be several years in the future. The resulting negative cash-flow is sometimes too much for an operator to absorb. The CO2 Huff-n-Puff process is being investigated as a near-term option to mitigate the negative cash-flow situation--allowing acceleration of inventoried miscible CO2 projects when coupled together. The CO2 Huff-n-Puff process is a proven enhanced oil recovery technology in Louisiana-Texas Gulf-coast sandstone reservoirs 5,6 . Application seems to mostly confine itself to low pressure sandstone reservoirs 7 . The process has even been shown to be moderately effective in conjunction with steam on heavy California crude oils 8,9 . A review of earlier literature 5,10,11 provides an excellent discussion on the theory, mechanics of the process, and several case histories. Although the technology is proven in light oil sandstones, it continues to be a very underutilized enhanced recovery option for carbonates. However, the theories associated with the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process are not lithology dependent. It was anticipated that this project would show that the application of the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in shallow shelf carbonates could be economically implemented to recover appreciable volumes of light oil. The goals of the project were the development of guidelines for cost-effective selection of candidate reservoirs and wells, along with estimating recovery potential.

  6. Eocene and Upper Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in east-central Tunisia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, W.F.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regionally, well-defined belts of lowest Eocene (Ypresian) Metlaoui carbonates trend northwest-southeast. On the northeast is an open-marine, basinal facies of planktonic foraminiferal micrite and marl. Thick bars of shallow marine nummulitic wackestone, packstone, and grainstone trend northeastward at an angle to the paleoshelf. Lagoonal or supratidaly carbonates are widespread between the shelf deposits and thick evaporites that crop out in intermontane basins. The reservoir is confined largely to nummulitic packstone, and visible effective porosity is best developed between forams in zones filled with sand-size debris where secondary solution-enlargement has occurred. Porosity within nummulite chambers, while abundant, is ineffective, although a few open fractures were observed in cores. This lithology tested oil in 2 recent wildcats and is a commercial reservoir at Sidi El Itayem and Ashtart fields. Distribution of Zebbag carbonates of Late Cretaceous (Turonian) age is more complex. A northwest-southeast-trending platform is bounded on 3 sides by basinal shale and micrite with planktonic forams which grade into a transitional facies of micrite and wackestone that shows some evidence of shallow-water deposition, such as dolomitization, bioclasts, rare ooliths, etc. Predominately back-reef and lagoonal bioclastic wackestones and packstones occur in narrow belts, apparently controlled at least locally by block faulting. The rest of the platform lithology comprises mostly dolomite and dolomitic limestone. The most significant porosity is interparticle (generally solution-enlarged) in foram packstones, but intraparticle porosity in forams and rudists commonly enhances the reservoir. Intercrystalline porosity in dolomitized zones is common, and fenestral porosity occurs in a few places. All are modified by nonfabric-selective channel and vuggy porosity and in some instances by fractures.

  7. Layer definition and pressure buildup case histories in a carbonate reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vadgama, U.N.; Arifi, N.A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents case histories of pressure buildup analysis in a layered carbonate reservoir (Zella/Aswad Fields in the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiria). The productive formation consists of several dolomite and limestone layers separated by thin tight streaks. Lack of pressure communication between layers has been determined by pressure measurements in the individual layers using the Repeat Formation Tester (RFT). Results of the two-dimensional radial model simulated pressure buildup performance are compared to the actual measured pressure buildup data. 14 refs.

  8. Reservoir CharacterizationReservoir Characterization Research LaboratoryResearch Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Reservoir CharacterizationReservoir Characterization Research LaboratoryResearch Laboratory at Austin Austin, Texas 78713Austin, Texas 78713--89248924 #12;Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonate Studies Research Plans for 2012 Outcrop and Subsurface Characterization of Carbonate

  9. Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed

    2005-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Although models that simulate the fracturing process exist, they can be significantly improved by extending the models to account for nonsymmetric, nonplanar fractures, coupling the models to more realistic reservoir simulators, and implementing advanced multiphase flow models for the transport of proppant. Third, it may be possible to deviate from current hydraulic fracturing technology by using different proppants (possibly waste materials that need to be disposed of, e.g., asbestos) combined with different hydraulic fracturing carrier fluids (possibly supercritical CO2 itself). Because current technology is mainly aimed at enhanced oil recovery, it may not be ideally suited for the injection and storage of CO2. Finally, advanced concepts such as increasing the injectivity of the fractured geologic formations through acidization with carbonated water will be investigated. Saline formations are located through most of the continental United States. Generally, where saline formations are scarce, oil and gas reservoirs and coal beds abound. By developing the technology outlined here, it will be possible to remove CO2 at the source (power plants, industry) and inject it directly into nearby geological formations, without releasing it into the atmosphere. The goal of the proposed research is to develop a technology capable of sequestering CO2 in geologic formations at a cost of US $10 per ton.

  10. Use of TOUGHREACT to Simulate Effects of Fluid Chemistry on Injectivity in Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs with High Ionic Strength Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tianfu; Zhang, Guoxiang; Pruess, Karsten

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    swelling in a fractured geothermal reservoir, Proceedings ofon Injectivity in Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs with Highdry rock and hot fractured rock reservoirs in a sustainable

  11. Reservoir characterization of Mary Lee and Black Creek coals at the Rock Creek field laboratory, Black Warrior basin. Topical report, May-December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, G.B.C.; Paul, G.W.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional multi-well simulation study was performed for the Rock Creek project site to better understand the relationships between coal reservoir properties, well completion practices, and actual well performance. The reservoir study provided insights on the efficacy of single versus multiple seam completions, the incremental gas recovery resulting from remedial stimulations, and the impact of well spacing on expected long-term gas recovery. The Mary Lee and Black Creek coal groups were characterized by matching production and pressure history for eight Rock Creek producing wells and their surrounding monitor wells. The simulation grid included the Oak Grove mine and degas field located south of the Rock Creek site. Results of well test analyses, corehole-based gas content measurements, and individual coal group gas production from zone isolation packer tests were used to validate the simulation results. Various hydraulic fracture and remedial stimulations were analyzed to compare the effectiveness of different stimulation designs used at the site. Alternative well spacing strategies were examined to assess the effects of interference on long-term gas recovery.

  12. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czirr, K.L.; Gaddis, M.P.; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The principle objective of this project is to demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of an innovative reservoir management and carbon dioxide (CO2) flood project development approach for improving CO2 flood project economics in shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs.

  13. Pressure transient test analysis of vuggy naturally fractured carbonate reservoir: field case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajayi, Babatunde Tolulope

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Well pressure transient analysis is widely used in reservoir management to obtain reservoir information needed for reservoir simulation, damage identification, well optimization and stimulation evaluation. The main objective of this project...

  14. A parametric study of factors affecting oil recovery efficiency from carbon dioxide injection using a compositional reservoir model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Gregory Allen.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors Affecting Oil Recovery Estimating Oil Recovery From Carbon Dioxide Flooding 15 33 CHAPTER III ? FIELD CASE ANALYSIS 38 3. 1 3. 2 3. 3 3. 4 Background Laboratory Analysis Reservoir Analysis Estimates of Injection Recovery and Project... to estimate the recovery of oil from continuous injection of carbon dioxide. Finally, the results of the sensitivity analysis were compared to published laboratory and theoretical models and documented field results to test the correlation model. CHAPTER...

  15. Identification of pore type and origin in a Lower Cretaceous carbonate reservoir using NMR T2 relaxation times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lodola, Domenico Domenico

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    . Conventional studies of carbonate reservoirs require interpretation and analysis of cores to understand porosity. This study investigates the use of NMR logs in the determination of pore type and origin. This study is based on the analysis of both thin section...

  16. Crosswell Seismic Amplitude-Versus-Offset for Detailed Imaging of Facies and Fluid Distribution within Carbonate Oil Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crosswell Seismic Amplitude-Versus-Offset for Detailed Imaging of Facies and Fluid Distribution, and demonstrate a method of using crosswell seismic profiling for identification of trapped oil, bypassed reservoir compartments, and location of fluid fronts in carbonate reefs. The method of crosswell seismic

  17. T2Well/ECO2N Version 1.0: Multiphase and Non-Isothermal Model for Coupled Wellbore-Reservoir Flow of Carbon Dioxide and Variable Salinity Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Wu, Y.-S.; Pruess, K.

    2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    At its most basic level, the injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic CO{sub 2} storage sites involves a system comprising the wellbore and the target reservoir. The wellbore is the only conduit available to emplace CO{sub 2} into reservoirs for long-term storage. At the same time, wellbores in general have been identified as the most likely conduit for CO{sub 2} and brine leakage from geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites, especially those in sedimentary basins with historical hydrocarbon production. We have developed a coupled wellbore and reservoir model for simulating the dynamics of CO{sub 2} injection and leakage through wellbores. The model describes the following processes: (1) upward or downward wellbore flow of CO{sub 2} and variable salinity water with transition from supercritical to gaseous CO{sub 2} including Joule-Thomson cooling, (2) exsolution of CO{sub 2} from the aqueous phase as pressure drops, and (3) cross flow into or interaction with layers of surrounding rock (reservoirs). We use the Drift-Flux Model and related conservation equations for describing transient two-phase non-isothermal wellbore flow of CO{sub 2}-water mixtures under different flow regimes and interacting with surrounding rock. The mass and thermal energy balance equations are solved numerically by a finite difference scheme with wellbore heat transmission to the surrounding rock handled either semi-analytically or numerically. The momentum balance equation for the flow in the wellbore is solved numerically with a semi-explicit scheme. This manual provides instructions for compilation and use of the new model, and presents some example problems to demonstrate its use.

  18. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Annual Report, July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S.; Hallenbeck, L.D.; Harpole, K.J.; Dollens, K.B.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work reported herein covers select tasks remaining in Budget Phase I and many of the tasks of Budget Phase II. The principal Tasks in Budget Phase I included in this report are Reservoir Analysis and Characterization; Advanced Technical Studies; and Technology Transfer, Reporting and Project Management Activities for Budget Phase I. The principle Task in Budget Phase II included in this report is Field Demonstration. Completion of these tasks has enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed, economically evaluated, and implemented in the field. Field implementation of the project commenced during late 1995, with actual CO{sub 2} injection scheduled for start-up in mid-July, 1996. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative CO{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take-or-pay provisions, CO{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price) and gas recycle agreements (expensing costs as opposed to a large upfront capital investment for compression) were negotiated to further improve the project economics. The Grayburg-San Andres section had previously been divided into multiple zones based on the core study and gamma ray markers that correlate wells within the Unit. Each zone was mapped as continuous across the field. Previous core studies concluded that the reservoir quality in the South Cowden Unit (SCU) is controlled primarily by the distribution of a bioturbated and diagenetically-altered rock type with a distinctive {open_quotes}chaotic{close_quotes} texture. The {open_quotes}chaotic{close_quotes} modifier is derived from the visual effect of pervasive, small-scale intermixing of tan oil-stained reservoir rock with tight gray non-reservoir rock.

  19. Advanced Characterization of Fractured Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks: The Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, James R.; Harrison, William B.

    2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study was to collect and analyze existing data on the Michigan Basin for fracture patterns on scales ranging form thin section to basin. The data acquisition phase has been successfully concluded with the compilation of several large digital databases containing nearly all the existing information on formation tops, lithology and hydrocarbon production over the entire Michigan Basin. These databases represent the cumulative result of over 80 years of drilling and exploration.

  20. ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN CARBONATE ROCKS: THE MICHIGAN BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; William B. Harrison

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in year 2 of this project is highlighted by the completing of the writing and testing of the project database, ''Atlas'', and populating it with all the project data gathered to date. This includes digitization of 17,000+ original Scout Tickets for the Michigan Basin. Work continues on the Driller's Reports, where they have scanned about 50,000 pages out of an estimated 300,000 pages. All of the scanned images have been attached to ''Atlas'', the visual database viewer developed for this project. A complete set of the 1/24,000 USGS DEM (Digital Elevation Models) for the State of Michigan has been downloaded from the USGS Web sites, decompressed and converted to ArcView Grid files. A large-scale map (48 inches x 84 inches) has been constructed by mosaicking of the high-resolution files. This map shows excellent ground surface detail and has drawn much comment and requests for copies at the venues where it has been displayed. Although it was generated for mapping of surface lineations the map has other uses, particularly analysis of the glacial drift in Michigan. It presents unusual problems due to its size and they are working with vendors on compression and display algorithms (e.g. MrSID{copyright}) in an attempt to make it available over the Internet, both for viewing and download. A set of aeromagnetic data for the Michigan Basin has been acquired and is being incorporated into the study. As reported previously, the general fracture picture in the Michigan Basin is a dominant NW-SE trend with a conjugate NE-SW trend. Subsurface, DEM and gravity data support the interpretation of a graben-type deep basement structural trend coincident with the Michigan Basin Gravity High. They plan to incorporate the aeromagnetic data into this interpretation as well.

  1. Rock Physics-Based Carbonate Reservoir Pore Type Evaluation by Combining Geological, Petrophysical and Seismic Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Qifeng

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................... x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 1... Significance of Research ......................................................................... 1 Objectives ................................................................................................. 4 Literature Review...

  2. Characterization of Rodessa Formation Reservoir (Lower Cretaceous) in Van Field, Van Zandt County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Triyana, Yanyan

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    (Wescott and Hood, 1994). Those authors also stated that the hydrocarbons in the Rodessa Formation and other Lower Cretaceous formations are typical of oil identified to have originated in Jurassic source rocks owing to their carbon isotopic and sulfur...?to-nitrogen ratio analysis. Oil to source rock correlation suggests that much of Smackover oil was sourced by Jurassic rocks. The most reasonable way to bring Jurassic oil into a Cretaceous reservoir is by vertical migration along the faults (Burgess, 1990...

  3. Establishing the Relationship between Fracture-Related Dolomite and Primary Rock Fabric on the Distribution of Reservoirs in the Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Michael Grammer

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report covers the year 2 of the subject 3-year grant, evaluating the relationship between fracture-related dolomite and dolomite constrained by primary rock fabric in the 3 most prolific reservoir intervals in the Michigan Basin (Ordovician Trenton-Black River Formations; Silurian Niagara Group; and the Devonian Dundee Formation). The characterization of select dolomite reservoirs has been the major focus of our efforts in Phase II/Year 2. Fields have been prioritized based upon the availability of rock data for interpretation of depositional environments, fracture density and distribution as well as thin section, geochemical, and petrophysical analyses. Structural mapping and log analysis in the Dundee (Devonian) and Trenton/Black River (Ordovician) suggest a close spatial relationship among gross dolomite distribution and regional-scale, wrench fault related NW-SE and NE-SW structural trends. A high temperature origin for much of the dolomite in the 3 studied intervals (based upon initial fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and stable isotopic analyses,) coupled with persistent association of this dolomite in reservoirs coincident with wrench fault-related features, is strong evidence for these reservoirs being influenced by hydrothermal dolomitization. For the Niagaran (Silurian), a comprehensive high resolution sequence stratigraphic framework has been developed for a pinnacle reef in the northern reef trend where we had 100% core coverage throughout the reef section. Major findings to date are that facies types, when analyzed at a detailed level, have direct links to reservoir porosity and permeability in these dolomites. This pattern is consistent with our original hypothesis of primary facies control on dolomitization and resulting reservoir quality at some level. The identification of distinct and predictable vertical stacking patterns within a hierarchical sequence and cycle framework provides a high degree of confidence at this point that results will be exportable throughout the basin. Ten petrophysically significant facies have been described in the northern reef trend, providing significantly more resolution than the standard 4-6 that are used most often in the basin (e.g. Gill, 1977). Initial petrophysical characterization (sonic velocity analysis under confining pressures) shows a clear pattern that is dependent upon facies and resulting pore architecture. Primary facies is a key factor in the ultimate diagenetic modification of the rock and the resulting pore architecture. Facies with good porosity and permeability clearly show relatively slow velocity values as would be expected, and low porosity and permeability samples exhibit fast sonic velocity values, again as expected. What is significant is that some facies that have high porosity values, either measured directly or from wireline logs, also have very fast sonic velocity values. This is due to these facies having a pore architecture characterized by more localized pores (vugs, molds or fractures) that are not in communication.

  4. Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, Timothy R.; Green, Don W.; Willhite, G. Paul

    2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this project was development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent.

  5. Role of fluids in the hydromechanical behavior of heterogeneous fractured rocks: in situ characterization and numerical modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    points and on different fracture types within a carbonate reservoir. Two kinds of experiments wereRole of fluids in the hydromechanical behavior of heterogeneous fractured rocks: in situ-Antipolis, France Abstract Hydromechanical coupled processes in a shallow fractured rock mass were investigated

  6. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern for the project as it limited CO{sub 2} injectivity. To reduce voidage balance, and reservoir pressure, a disposal well was therefore drilled. Several injection surveys indicated the CO{sub 2} injection wells had severe conformance issues. After close monitoring of the project to the end of 1999, it was evident the project would not recover the anticipated tertiary reserves. The main reasons for under-performance were poor in zone CO{sub 2} injection into the upper San Andres layers, poorer offtake rates from newly drilled replacement wells and a higher than required reservoir pressure. After discussion internally within Phillips, externally with the Department of Energy (DOE) and SCU partners, a redevelopment of South Cowden was agreed upon to commence in year 2000. The redevelopment essentially abandoned the original development for Budget Phase II in favor of a revised approach. This involved conformance techniques to resolve out of zone CO{sub 2} injection and use of horizontal wells to improve in zone injectivity and productivity. A phased approach was used to ensure short radius lateral drilling could be implemented effectively at South Cowden. This involved monitoring drilling operations and then production response to determine if larger investments during the second phase were justified. Redevelopment Phase 1 was completed in May 2000. It was deemed a success in regard to finding suitable/cost-effective technology for drilling horizontal laterals and finding a technique that could sustain long-term productivity from the upper layers of the San Andres reservoir. Four existing vertical producing wells were isolated from their existing completions and sidetracked with horizontal laterals into the upper layers of the San Andres. Overall average offtake rates for the four wells increased by a factor of 12 during the first four months after completion of Phase 1. Phase 2 of the redevelopment focused on current CO{sub 2} vertical injection wells. Techniques were applied to resolve near well conformance concerns and then either single or dual laterals were dril

  7. Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonate Studies Executive Summary for 2014 Outcrop and Subsurface Characterization of Carbonate Reservoirs for Improved Recovery of Remaining/Al 0.00 0.02 0.04 Eagle Ford Fm #12;#12; Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory Research Plans

  8. An investigation of parameters affecting oil recovery efficiency of carbon dioxide flooding in cross-sectional reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almalik, M.S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low oil recovery efficiency is attributed to low vertical and areal sweep efficiency. The major causes of the low recovery efficiencies may be classified into three categories: (1) gravity segregation, (2) reservoir heterogeneity, and (3) unstable viscous fingering. Water alternate with gas (WAG) injection processes have been employed in field operations to improve the recovery efficiency and cut the cost of gas injection. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of reservoir and process parameters on the oil recovery efficiency of carbon dioxide WAG processes in cross-sectional reservoirs. To accomplish this, a two-dimensional compositional numerical simulator was developed. The simulator was functional and verified in this study. The simulator was then used to generate simulation data for studying the effects of seven dimensionless parameters on the oil recovery efficiency: (1) reservoir length to height ratio, (2) sine of the reservoir dip angle, (3) vertical to horizontal permeability ratio, (4) gravity to viscosity ratio (GVR), (5) injection rate, (6) water to gas (WAG) injection ration, and (7) pore volumes injected. Results of the investigation showed that oil recovery efficiency as a percentage of the oil place (OIP) is affected to different degrees by the seven parameters. Two correlations of the oil recovery efficiency versus the seven dimensionless parameters were established. The first was established for pore volumes injection ranging from 0 to 1.0 and the second from 0 to 0.7. The second correlation showed better agreement with the simulation results. The correlations will provide useful information in the design of the carbon dioxide WAG processes in cross-sectional reservoirs.

  9. Stratigraphy and Reservoir-analog Modeling of Upper Miocene Shallow-water and Deep-water Carbonate Deposits: Agua Amarga Basin, Southeast Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvoretsky, Rachel Ana

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This study documents the basin-wide stratigraphic characterization and 3-D reservoir-analog modeling of upper Miocene carbonate deposits in the Agua Amarga basin, southeast Spain. Paleotopography and relative fluctuations in sea level were primary...

  10. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Mississippian carbonate reservoirs have produced in excess of 1 billion barrels of oil in Kansas accounting for over 16% of the state's production. With declining production from other age reservoirs, the contribution of Mississippian reservoirs to Kansas's oil production has risen to 43% as of 2004. However, solution-enhanced features such as vertical shale intervals extending from the karst erosional surface at the top introduce complexities/compartmentalizations in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs. Coupled with this, strong water drives charge many of these reservoirs resulting in limited drainage from vertical wells due to high water cuts after an initial period of low water production. Moreover, most of these fields are operated by small independent operators without access to the knowledge bank of modern research in field characterization and exploitation/development practices. Thus, despite increasing importance of Mississippian fields to Kansas production, these fields are beset with low recovery factors and high abandonment rates leaving significant resources in the ground. Worldwide, horizontal infill wells have been successful in draining compartmentalized reservoirs with limited pressure depletion. The intent of this project was to demonstrate the application of horizontal wells to successfully exploit the remaining potential in mature Mississippian fields of the mid-continent. However, it is of critical importance that for horizontal wells to be economically successful, they must be selectively targeted. This project demonstrated the application of initial and secondary screening methods, based on publicly available data, to quickly shortlist fields in a target area for detailed studies to evaluate their potential to infill horizontal well applications. Advanced decline curve analyses were used to estimate missing well-level production data and to verify if the well produced under unchanging bottom-hole conditions--two commonly occurring data constraints afflicting mature Mississippian fields. A publicly accessible databank of representative petrophysical properties and relationships was developed to overcome the paucity of such data that is critical to modeling the storage and flow in these reservoirs. Studies in 3 Mississippian fields demonstrated that traditional reservoir models built by integrating log, core, DST, and production data from existing wells on 40-acre spacings are unable to delineate karst-induced compartments, thus making 3D-seismic data critical to characterize these fields. Special attribute analyses on 3D data were shown to delineate reservoir compartments and predict those with pay porosities. Further testing of these techniques is required to validate their applicability in other Mississippian reservoirs. This study shows that detailed reservoir characterization and simulation on geomodels developed by integrating wireline log, core, petrophysical, production and pressure, and 3D-seismic data enables better evaluation of a candidate field for horizontal infill applications. In addition to reservoir compartmentalization, two factors were found to control the economic viability of a horizontal infill well in a mature Mississippian field: (a) adequate reservoir pressure support, and (b) an average well spacing greater than 40-acres.

  11. Micromodel Investigations of CO2 Exsolution from Carbonated Water in Sedimentary Rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Lin; Zhang, Changyong; Falta, Ronald W.; Benson, Sally M.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, carbon dioxide exsolution from carbonated water is directly observed under reservoir conditions (9MPa and 45oC). Fluorescence microscopy and image analysis are used to quantitatively characterize bubble formation, morphology, and mobility. Observations indicate the strong influence of interfacial tension and pore-geometry on bubble growth and evolution. Most of the gas exhibits little mobility during the course of depressurization and clogs water flow paths. However, a snap-off mechanism mobilizes a small portion of the trapped gas along the water flow paths. This feature contributes to the transport of the dispersed exsolved gas phase and the formation of intermittent gas flow. A new definition of critical gas saturation is proposed accordingly as the minimum saturation that snap-off starts to produce mobile bubbles. Low mobility of the water phase and CO2 phase in exsolution is explained by formation of dispersed CO2 bubbles which block water flow and lack the connectivity to create a mobile gas phase.

  12. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing, waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. This report includes work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and the demonstration project objective.

  13. Simulation Study to Investigate the Effect of Natural Fractures on the Performance of Surfactant-Polymer Flood in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sayedakram, Nawaf Ibrahim A

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    (Salehi 5 - 1? BN (>5) is -current of , 1999). -surfactant , 2009). 6 2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The main objective of this research is to study the effect of natural fractures on surfactant polymer flood (SPF... SIMULATION STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF NATURAL FRACTURES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SURFACTANT-POLYMER FLOOD IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS A Thesis by NAWAF IBRAHIM A. SAYEDAKRAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  14. Hydraulic interwell connectivity in a carbonate reservoir: Johnson JL "AB" (Grayburg) study area, Ector County, West Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva de Jesu?s, Bernardo Alberto

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYDRAULIC INTERWELL CONNECTIVITY IN A CARBONATE RESERVOIR: JOHNSON JL "AB" (GRAYBURG) STUDY AREA, ECTOR COUNTY, WEST TEXAS A Thesis by BERNARDO ALBERTO SILVA DE JESLtS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... A Thesis by BERNARDO ALBERTO SILVA DE JESIJS Approved as to style and content by: ~H. Wu (Chair of Committee) R. M. Brimhall (Member) R. R. Berg (Member) . Hall (Head of Department) December 1991 ABSTRACT Hydraulic Interwell...

  15. Key Factors for Determining Groundwater Impacts Due to Leakage from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Susan A.; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; Dai, Zhenxue; Sun, Yunwei; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney; Brown, Christopher F.; Bacon, Diana H.

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow groundwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models, referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could result from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which no impact to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur. To facilitate this, multi-phase flow and reactive transport simulations and emulations were developed for two classes of aquifers, considering uncertainty in leakage source terms and aquifer hydrogeology. We targeted an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards aquifer in Texas and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, which share characteristics typical of many drinking water aquifers in the United States. The hypothetical leakage scenarios centered on the notion that wellbores are the most likely conduits for brine and CO2 leaks. Leakage uncertainty was based on hypothetical injection of CO2 for 50 years at a rate of 5 million tons per year into a depleted oil/gas reservoir with high permeability and, one or more wells provided leakage pathways from the storage reservoir to the overlying aquifer. This scenario corresponds to a storage site with historical oil/gas production and some poorly completed legacy wells that went undetected through site evaluation, operations, and post-closure. For the aquifer systems and leakage scenarios studied here, CO2 and brine leakage are likely to drive pH below and increase total dissolved solids (TDS) above the “no-impact thresholds;” and the subsequent plumes, although small, are likely to persist for long periods of time in the absence of remediation. In these scenarios, however, risk to human health may not be significant for two reasons. First, our simulated plume volumes are much smaller than the average inter-well spacing for these representative aquifers, so the impacted groundwater would be unlikely to be pumped for drinking water. Second, even within the impacted plume volumes little water exceeds the primary maximum contamination levels.

  16. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wardaya, P. D., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Noh, K. A. B. M., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my; Yusoff, W. I. B. W., E-mail: pongga.wardaya@utp.edu.my [Petroleum Geosciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Ridha, S. [Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak, 31750 (Malaysia); Nurhandoko, B. E. B. [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Dept. of Physics, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia and Rock Fluid Imaging Lab, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic wave velocity of rock.

  17. Pressure buildup during supercritical carbon dioxide injection from a partially penetrating borehole into gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the physical properties of carbon dioxide, compare thei.e. , Physical Properties of Carbon Dioxide Z ? PV ? 1 ?Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide, Publishing

  18. Improved oil recovery in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs of Kansas near term Class 2. Annual report, September 18, 1994--March 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, T.R.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual report describes progress during the second year of the project entitled {open_quotes}Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas{close_quotes}. This project funded under the Department of Energy`s Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of this project is development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent. As part of the project, several tools and techniques for reservoir description and management were developed, modified and demonstrated. These include: (1) a new approach to subsurface visualization using electric logs ({open_quotes}Pseudoseismic{open_quotes}); (2) a low-cost easy-to-use spreadsheet log analysis software (PfEFFER); and (3) an extension of the BOAST-3 computer program for full field reservoir simulation. The world-wide-web was used to provide rapid and flexible dissemination of the project results through the Internet. Included in this report is a summary of significant project results at the demonstration site (Schaben Field, Ness County, Kansas). These results include an outline of the reservoir description based on available and newly acquired data and reservoir simulation results. Detailed information is available on-line through the Internet. Based on the reservoir simulation, three infill wells will be drilled to validate the reservoir description and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reservoir management strategies. The demonstration phase of the project has just begun and will be presented in the next annual report.

  19. A direct method for determining complete positive and negative capillary pressure curves for reservoir rock using the centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spinler, E.A.; Baldwin, B.A. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is being developed for direct experimental determination of capillary pressure curves from saturation distributions produced during centrifuging fluids in a rock plug. A free water level is positioned along the length of the plugs to enable simultaneous determination of both positive and negative capillary pressures. Octadecane as the oil phase is solidified by temperature reduction while centrifuging to prevent fluid redistribution upon removal from the centrifuge. The water saturation is then measured via magnetic resonance imaging. The saturation profile within the plug and the calculation of pressures for each point of the saturation profile allows for a complete capillary pressure curve to be determined from one experiment. Centrifuging under oil with a free water level into a 100 percent water saturated plug results in the development of a primary drainage capillary pressure curve. Centrifuging similarly at an initial water saturation in the plug results in the development of an imbibition capillary pressure curve. Examples of these measurements are presented for Berea sandstone and chalk rocks.

  20. Design and Implementation of a C02 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells in a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to utilize reservoir characteristics and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO2) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. Also the project seeks to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field.

  1. Ranking of Texas reservoirs for application of carbon dioxide miscible displacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, J

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Of the 431 reservoirs screened, 211 projected revenue that exceeded cost, ie, were profitable. Only the top 154 reservoirs, however, showed a profit greater than 30%. The top 10 reservoirs predicted a profit of at least 80%. Six of the top ten were Gulf Coast sandstones. The reservoirs are representative of the most productive discoveries in Texas; they account for about 72% of the recorded 52 billion barrels oil production in the State. Preliminary evaluation in this study implied that potential production from CO{sub 2}-EOR could be as much as 4 billion barrels. In order to enhance the chances of achieving this, DOE should consider a targeted outreach program to the specific independent operators controlling the leases. Development of ownership/technical potential maps and an outreach program should be initiated to aid this identification.

  2. An alternative to the Winland R35 method for determining carbonate reservoir quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lafage, Stephanie Isabelle

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    fabrics. The Winland and Pittman petrophysical evaluation techniques, as well as the Lucia geological evaluation technique - when based on depositional facies alone - do not provide reliable measures of reservoir quality. An alternative method based...

  3. Improved oil recovery in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs of Kansas: Near term, Class 2. [Annual report], September 18, 1994--October 1, 1995. Draft.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, T.R.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents a summary of the progress during the first year of Budget period 1 of the near term Class 2 project entitled ``Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs of Kansas``. Two examples of advanced technologies developed as part of this project are highlighted along with the use of the Internet to transfer these technologies. The two advanced technologies are a spread-sheet petrophysical analysis and reservoir evaluation (PfEFFER), and a petrophysical/seismic approach to well logs (pseudoseismic). Work continues on multi-disciplinary reservoir characterization at the demonstration site. The potential for incremental primary recovery is being evaluated using the improved reservoir characterization to target infill drilling and evaluate the potential of a horizontal well. The impact of successful incremental primary recovery from sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity Mississippian reservoirs such as are present at the Schaben demonstration site would be significant for Kansas and the US.

  4. Carnets de Gologie / Notebooks on Geology -Article 2003/04 (CG2003_A04_BG) A new approach in rock-typing, documented by a case study of layer-cake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    .A.E.) Bruno GRANIER 1 Abstract: In carbonate reservoirs, the relationship between porosity Ø, a measure in rock-typing, documented by a case study of layer-cake reservoirs in field "A", offshore Abu Dhabi (U-type is characterized by a discrete and unique Gaussian distribution of log K. It facilitates upscaling for it suggests

  5. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  6. Chapter Eight Rock Varnish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorn, Ron

    ) Coating Description Carbonate skin Coating composed primarily of carbonate, usually calcium carbonate; the agent may be manganese, sulphate, carbonate, silica, iron, oxalate, organisms, or anthropogenic Dust, cyanobacteria, algae Nitrate crust Potassium and calcium nitrate coatings on rocks, often in caves and rock

  7. Comparing FRACHEM and TOUGHREACT for reactive transport modeling of brine-rock interactions in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andre, L.; Spycher, N.; Xu, T.; Pruess, K.; Vuataz, F.-D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Soultz fractured reservoir. Proceedings EHDRAthrough a deep fractured reservoir. Different studies (Hot Fractured Rock system: comparison of two reservoirs at

  8. Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. [Jurassic Smackover Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, E.A.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to augment the National Reservoir Database (TORIS database), to increase our understanding of geologic heterogeneities that affect the recoveries of oil and gas from carbonate reservoirs in the State of Alabama, and to identify resources that are producible at moderate cost. This objective will be achieved through detailed geological, geostatistical, and engineering characterization of typical Jurassic Smackover Formation hydrocarbon, and engineering characterization of typical Jurassic Smackover Formation hydrocarbon reservoirs in selected productive fields in the state of Alabama. The results of these studies will be used to develop and test mathematical models for prediction of the effects of reservoir heterogeneities in hydrocarbon production. Work to date has focused on completion of Subtasks 1, 2, and 3 of this project. Work on Subtask 4 began in this quarter, and substantial additional work has been accomplished on Subtask 2. Subtask 1 included the survey and tabulation of available reservoir engineering and geological data. Subtask 2 comprises the geologic and engineering characterization of smackover reservoir lithofacies. Subtask 3 includes the geologic modeling of reservoir heterogeneities. Subtask 4 includes the development of reservoir exploitation methodologies for strategic infill drilling. 1 fig.

  9. Reservoir characterization using oil-production-induced microseismicity, Clinton County, Kentucky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -1- Reservoir characterization using oil-production-induced microseismicity, Clinton County;-2- Abstract Microseismic monitoring tests were conducted from 1993 to 1995 in the Seventy-Six oil field, Clinton County, Kentucky. Oil is produced from low-porosity, fractured carbonate rocks at

  10. Waterflood and Enhanced Oil Recovery Studies using Saline Water and Dilute Surfactants in Carbonate Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alotaibi, Mohammed

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    to decrease the residual oil saturation. In calcareous rocks, water from various resources (deep formation, seawater, shallow beds, lakes and rivers) is generally injected in different oil fields. The ions interactions between water molecules, salts ions, oil...

  11. Waterflood and Enhanced Oil Recovery Studies using Saline Water and Dilute Surfactants in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alotaibi, Mohammed

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    to decrease the residual oil saturation. In calcareous rocks, water from various resources (deep formation, seawater, shallow beds, lakes and rivers) is generally injected in different oil fields. The ions interactions between water molecules, salts ions, oil...

  12. Sequence stratigraphic-based reservoir architecture in late Jurrassic outer-ramp carbonates, Hanifa Formation, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markello, J.R.; Stockton, M.L. (Mobile E P Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); McGuire, M.; Al'Shammery, M.J.; Al'Amoudi M.O. (Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanifa Formation (135-160m tk; Kimmeridgian age), in our study area, comprises one 3rd-order, coarsening-upward, type 2 stratigraphic sequence. Sediments formed in outer ramp, ramp-margin and basinal environments defining a transition between the Rimthan Arch carbonate platform and adjacent Arabian intrashelf basin. Quantification of Hanifa reservoir architecture for simulation involved development of field-scale geologic models based on sequence stratigraphic principles. No seismic and biostratigraphic data were available. Sequence interpretations were based on regional facies and parasequence analysis from 32 cores and 142 gamma-ray/porosity logs. In the study area, the Hanifa Formation has basinward-thinning tabular geometry, and contains (1) a lower member of organic-rich muddy carbonates and (2) an upper reservoir member of thick, medium to coarse-grained skeletal packstones, skeletal peloidal grainstones, skeletal intraclast conglomerates, and stromatoporoid boundstones. The Hanifa reservoir consists of, from oldest to youngest: (1) a highstand systems tract: aggrading and prograding, sigmoidal-shaped parasequences and parasequence sets of grainstrines, conglomerates and boundstones, capped by a subaqueous, type 2 sequence boundary; (2) a shelf margin wedge: prograding to aggrading, sigmoidal to tabular-shaped parasequences and parasequence sets of skeletal packstones, grainstones and local boundstones showing maximum basinward progradation; and (3) a transgressive systems tract: backstepping tabular-shaped parasequences of grainstones capped by a drowning surface. All facies are interpreted to have formed in subtidal settings of water depths from 5 to 150m. No evidence was found for shoal-water bank, lagoonal or peritidal deposition or for subaerial exposure in any facies.

  13. Sequence stratigraphic-based reservoir architecture in late Jurrassic outer-ramp carbonates, Hanifa Formation, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markello, J.R.; Stockton, M.L. [Mobile E & P Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); McGuire, M.; Al`Shammery, M.J.; Al`Amoudi M.O. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanifa Formation (135-160m tk; Kimmeridgian age), in our study area, comprises one 3rd-order, coarsening-upward, type 2 stratigraphic sequence. Sediments formed in outer ramp, ramp-margin and basinal environments defining a transition between the Rimthan Arch carbonate platform and adjacent Arabian intrashelf basin. Quantification of Hanifa reservoir architecture for simulation involved development of field-scale geologic models based on sequence stratigraphic principles. No seismic and biostratigraphic data were available. Sequence interpretations were based on regional facies and parasequence analysis from 32 cores and 142 gamma-ray/porosity logs. In the study area, the Hanifa Formation has basinward-thinning tabular geometry, and contains (1) a lower member of organic-rich muddy carbonates and (2) an upper reservoir member of thick, medium to coarse-grained skeletal packstones, skeletal peloidal grainstones, skeletal intraclast conglomerates, and stromatoporoid boundstones. The Hanifa reservoir consists of, from oldest to youngest: (1) a highstand systems tract: aggrading and prograding, sigmoidal-shaped parasequences and parasequence sets of grainstrines, conglomerates and boundstones, capped by a subaqueous, type 2 sequence boundary; (2) a shelf margin wedge: prograding to aggrading, sigmoidal to tabular-shaped parasequences and parasequence sets of skeletal packstones, grainstones and local boundstones showing maximum basinward progradation; and (3) a transgressive systems tract: backstepping tabular-shaped parasequences of grainstones capped by a drowning surface. All facies are interpreted to have formed in subtidal settings of water depths from 5 to 150m. No evidence was found for shoal-water bank, lagoonal or peritidal deposition or for subaerial exposure in any facies.

  14. A model for matrix acidizing of long horizontal well in carbonate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Varun

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    distribution along wellbore is required to analyze that the zones needing stimulation are receiving enough acid. It is even more important in cases where the reservoir properties are varying along the length of the wellbore. A model is developed in this study...

  15. Indirect fracture delineation in a carbonate reservoir: The Upper Jurassic Hanifa of Abqaiq field, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, D.L. (Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abqaiq field is a northeast-trending anticline approximately 60 km long and 12 km wide and contains several reservoirs. The Hanifa Reservoir is approximately 100 m thick and consists of fine-grained, muddy limestone with subordinate dolomite and anhydrite. Since discovery of the Hanifa oil pool in 1947, pressure fluctuations have indicated communication with the overlying Arab-D Reservoir. Welltest permeability measurements are approximately 40 times higher than core permeability measurements of the Hanifa. This divergence of Hanifa permeability measurements combined with the indicated Arab-D communication suggests the presence of a natural fracture network. Direct observations of Hanifa cores reveal common, sub-vertical fractures with average apertures <200 microns. With limited core coverage and no oriented cores, a new technique was needed to delineate the areas affected by fractures. A technique combining indirect fracture indicators was devised for Abqaiq field and can be applied to other, similar fields. The actual flow system of the Abqaiq Hanifa is a complex interaction between matrix porosity/permeability and fracture permeability or enhanced permeability. Future development plans allow for low matrix permeability access to much of the Hanifa storage space and high fracture permeability both within the Hanifa and connecting to the Arab-D Reservoir.

  16. Sediment accumulation and carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus deposition in the large tropical reservoir Lake Kariba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Kariba, the largest hydropower reservoir in the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Sediment characteristics large dams are constructed to provide socio- economic benefits in the form of hydropower, water storage regions of the world have considerable untapped hydropower potential [Bartle, 2002; Hydropower and Dams

  17. Fluid Flow Simulation in Fractured Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Sudipta

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to analyze fluid flow in fractured reservoirs. In most petroleum reservoirs, particularly carbonate reservoirs and some tight sands, natural fractures play a critical role in controlling fluid ...

  18. Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonaradian Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, F. Jerry; Laubach, Stephen E.

    2001-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to characterize fracture porosity and distribution in the Wasson Clear Fork reservoir and to determine the effects of fractures on well performance. The approach is to measure fracture attributes in an analog outcrop, to develop models of fracture spacing and aperture, and to apply this information to the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir.

  19. Importance of Low Permeability Natural Gas Reservoirs (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production from low-permeability reservoirs, including shale gas and tight gas, has become a major source of domestic natural gas supply. In 2008, low-permeability reservoirs accounted for about 40% of natural gas production and about 35% of natural gas consumption in the United States. Permeability is a measure of the rate at which liquids and gases can move through rock. Low-permeability natural gas reservoirs encompass the shale, sandstone, and carbonate formations whose natural permeability is roughly 0.1 millidarcies or below. (Permeability is measured in darcies.)

  20. PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 31 -February 2, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    of Enhanced Geothermal Sys- tems. As cold water is circulated through a reservoir, rock contract, creating

  1. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Second quarterly technical progress report, [April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J.; Wehner, S.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process, coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) objective of increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. Tasks associated with this objective are carried out in what is considered a timely effort for near-term goals. Technical progress is summarized for; geostatistical realizations; site-specific simulation;waterflood review; and reservoir characterization.

  2. Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation using Geomechanics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seismicity This project will develop a model for seismicity-based reservoir characterization (SBRC) by combining rock mechanics; finite element modeling;...

  3. 1.4 PETROPHYSICS: Combined Rock and Fluid Character Integration of geological and petrophysical data allows development of a rock-fluid model for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    data allows development of a rock-fluid model for upper Spraberry rocks. This study identifies the different rock types that comprise the subject reservoirs, marginal reservoirs and non-reservoir rocks shales, clay rich siltstones and very fine sandstones units uses gamma-ray logs (Fig.1.2-1) and is widely

  4. DETERT RESERVOIR ROCK COTATI GLEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OAKLAND EAST LAS TRAMPAS RIDGE DIABLO TASSAJARA BYRON HOT SPRINGS SAN FRANCISCO SOUTH HUNTERS POINT SAN

  5. Phase I (Year 1) Summary of Research--Establishing the Relationship between Fracture-Related Dolomite and Primary Rock Fabric on the Distribution of Reservoirs in the Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Michael Grammer

    2005-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report covers the first 12 months of the subject 3-year grant, evaluating the relationship between fracture-related dolomite and dolomite constrained by primary rock fabric in the 3 most prolific reservoir intervals in the Michigan Basin (Ordovician Trenton-Black River Formations; Silurian Niagara Group; and the Devonian Dundee Formation). Phase I tasks, including Developing a Reservoir Catalog for selected dolomite reservoirs in the Michigan Basin, Characterization of Dolomite Reservoirs in Representative Fields and Technology Transfer have all been initiated and progress is consistent with our original scheduling. The development of a reservoir catalog for the 3 subject formations in the Michigan Basin has been a primary focus of our efforts during Phase I. As part of this effort, we currently have scanned some 13,000 wireline logs, and compiled in excess of 940 key references and 275 reprints that cover reservoir aspects of the 3 intervals in the Michigan Basin. A summary evaluation of the data in these publications is currently ongoing, with the Silurian Niagara Group being handled as a first priority. In addition, full production and reservoir parameter data bases obtained from available data sources have been developed for the 3 intervals in Excel and Microsoft Access data bases. We currently have an excess of 25 million cells of data for wells in the Basin. All Task 2 objectives are on time and on target for Phase I per our original proposal. Our mapping efforts to date, which have focused in large part on the Devonian Dundee Formation, have important implications for both new exploration plays and improved enhanced recovery methods in the Dundee ''play'' in Michigan--i.e. the interpreted fracture-related dolomitization control on the distribution of hydrocarbon reservoirs. In an exploration context, high-resolution structure mapping using quality-controlled well data should provide leads to convergence zones of fault/fracture trends that are not necessarily related to structural elevation. Further work in Phase II will be focused on delineating the relative contribution to fracture-only dolomitization to that which occurs in conjunction with primary facies and/or sequence stratigraphic framework.

  6. Integrated Analysis and Application of Reservoir Models to Early Permian Detrital Carbonate Deposits, Midland Basin, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Travis Wayne 1987-

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbonate intervals and associated amplitude response. Eight lithofacies were identified in core and were subsequently classified into three main facies: debris flow, grain flow/turbidite, and basinal shale. A facies type log was then created, which...

  7. Modeling and Optimization of Matrix Acidizing in Horizontal Wells in Carbonate Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tran, Hau

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    concentration, temperature and acid flux in the formation. The work concentrated on the investigation of the acid flux. Analytical equations for injection rate schedule for different wormhole models. In carbonate acidizing, the existence of the optimum...

  8. Optimal Process Design for Coupled CO2 Sequestration and Enhanced Gas Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odi, Uchenna

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing energy demand combined with public concern for the environment obligates the oil industry to supply oil and natural gas to the public while minimizing the carbon footprint due to its activities. Today, fossil fuels are essential...

  9. Optimal Process Design for Coupled CO2 Sequestration and Enhanced Gas Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odi, Uchenna

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing energy demand combined with public concern for the environment obligates the oil industry to supply oil and natural gas to the public while minimizing the carbon footprint due to its activities. Today, fossil fuels are essential...

  10. A New Organic Acid to Stimulate Deep Wells in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Douri, Ahmad F

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonate acidizing has been carried out using HCl-based stimulation fluids for decades. However, at high temperatures, HCl does not produce acceptable results because of its fast reaction, acid penetration, and hence surface dissolution, and its...

  11. Tracer Fluid Flow through Porous Media: Theory Applied to Acid Stimulation Treatments in Carbonate Rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakaria Mohamed Reda, Ahmed

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    the flow behavior in vuggy rocks, including the more pronounced works of Hidajat et al. (2004), Moctezuma Berthier et al. (2000), Xu et al. (1998), Zhang et al. (2004 and 2005), and Arbogast et al. (2004). Zhang et al. (2005) conducted number...

  12. 4-D High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Monitoring of Miscible CO2 Injected into a Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard D. Miller; Abdelmoneam E. Raef; Alan P. Byrnes; William E. Harrison

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project was to acquire, process, and interpret multiple high-resolution 3-D compressional wave and 2-D, 2-C shear wave seismic data in the hopes of observing changes in fluid characteristics in an oil field before, during, and after the miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood that began around December 1, 2003, as part of the DOE-sponsored Class Revisit Project (DOE No.DE-AC26-00BC15124). Unique and key to this imaging activity is the high-resolution nature of the seismic data, minimal deployment design, and the temporal sampling throughout the flood. The 900-m-deep test reservoir is located in central Kansas oomoldic limestones of the Lansing-Kansas City Group, deposited on a shallow marine shelf in Pennsylvanian time. After 30 months of seismic monitoring, one baseline and eight monitor surveys clearly detected changes that appear consistent with movement of CO{sub 2} as modeled with fluid simulators and observed in production data. Attribute analysis was a very useful tool in enhancing changes in seismic character present, but difficult to interpret on time amplitude slices. Lessons learned from and tools/techniques developed during this project will allow high-resolution seismic imaging to be routinely applied to many CO{sub 2} injection programs in a large percentage of shallow carbonate oil fields in the midcontinent.

  13. SPE 159255-PP Rock Classification from Conventional Well Logs in Hydrocarbon-Bearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    typing method for application in hydrocarbon-bearing shale (specifically source rock) reservoirs using conventional well logs and core data. Source rock reservoirs are known to be highly heterogeneous and often, petrophysical description of source rock reservoirs with well logs has been focused to quantifying rock

  14. Modeling of Water-rock interaction in the Mackenzie Basin: competition between sulfuric and carbonic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sulfuric and carbonic acids E. Beaulieu, Y. Godd´eris, D. Labat, C. Roelandt, D. Calmels, J. Gail- lardet of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process in the Mackenzie Basin: competition between sulfuric and carbonic acids. E. Beaulieu1 , Y. Goddéris1 , D. Labat1

  15. Impact of a large tropical reservoir on riverine transport of sediment, carbon, and nutrients to downstream wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    (P) cycling in Itezhi-Tezhi Reservoir (ITT; area ¼ 364 km2 , hydraulic residence time ¼ 0.7 yr in the reservoir, involving the installation of turbines driven by hypolimnetic water, will likely result [Harrison et al., 2009]). Finally, reservoir sediments have been shown to efficiently trap phosphorus (P

  16. PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 31 -February 2, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    . While geomechanics in conventional reservoir simulator is often governed by change in pore addresses the modelling of the geomechanical effects induced by reservoir production and reinjection, the optimum production rate and the reservoir performance, reservoir geomechanics tries to capture rock

  17. Summary of Research through Phase II/Year 2 of Initially Approved 3 Phase/3 Year Project - Establishing the Relationship between Fracture-Related Dolomite and Primary Rock Fabric on the Distribution of Reservoirs in the Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Grammer

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final scientific/technical report covers the first 2 years (Phases I and II of an originally planned 3 Year/3 Phase program). The project was focused on evaluating the relationship between fracture-related dolomite and dolomite constrained by primary rock fabric in the 3 most prolific reservoir intervals in the Michigan Basin. The characterization of select dolomite reservoirs was the major focus of our efforts in Phases I and II of the project. Structural mapping and log analysis in the Dundee (Devonian) and Trenton/Black River (Ordovician) suggest a close spatial relationship among gross dolomite distribution and regional-scale, wrench fault-related NW-SE and NE-SW structural trends. A high temperature origin for much of the dolomite in these 2 studied intervals (based upon fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and stable isotopic analyses,) coupled with persistent association of this dolomite in reservoirs coincident with wrench fault-related features, is strong evidence for these reservoirs being influenced by hydrothermal dolomitization. In the Niagaran (Silurian), there is a general trend of increasing dolomitization shelfward, with limestone predominant in more basinward positions. A major finding is that facies types, when analyzed at a detailed level, are directly related to reservoir porosity and permeability in these dolomites which increases the predictability of reservoir quality in these units. This pattern is consistent with our original hypothesis of primary facies control on dolomitization and resulting reservoir quality at some level. The identification of distinct and predictable vertical stacking patterns within a hierarchical sequence and cycle framework provides a high degree of confidence at this point that the results should be exportable throughout the basin. Much of the data synthesis and modeling for the project was scheduled to be part of Year 3/Phase III, but the discontinuation of funding after Year 2 precluded those efforts. Therefore, the results presented in this document are not final, and in many cases represent a report of 'progress to date' as numerous tasks were scheduled to extend into Year 3.

  18. Modeling brine-rock interactions in an enhanced geothermal system deep fractured reservoir at Soultz-Sous-Forets (France): a joint approach using two geochemical codes: frachem and toughreact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andre, Laurent; Spycher, Nicolas; Xu, Tianfu; Vuataz, Francois-D.; Pruess, Karsten.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Soultz fractured reservoir. Proceedings EHDRAcirculation within a fractured reservoir can modify its rockfluid through a deep fractured reservoir. The Soultz-sous-

  19. CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Topical report No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R.; Prieditis, J.; Vogt, J.; Wehner, S.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principle objective of the Central Vacuum Unit (CVU) CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO{sub 2} H-n-P process coupled with the CVU reservoir characterization components will determine if this process is technically and economic for field implementation. The ultimate goal will be to develop guidelines based on commonly available data that other operators in the industry can use to investigate the applicability of the process within other field. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan in support of the Department of Energy`s objective to increasing domestic oil production and deferring the abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. Accomplishments to date are described in this report.

  20. Drake passage and central american seaway controls on the distribution of the oceanic carbon reservoir

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fyke, Jeremy G.; D'Orgeville, Marc; Weaver, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coupled carbon/climate model is used to explore the impact of Drake Passage opening and Central American Seaway closure on the distribution of carbon in the global oceans. We find that gateway evolution likely played an important role in setting the modern day distribution of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), which is currently characterized by relatively low concentrations in the Atlantic ocean, and high concentrations in the Southern, Indian, and Pacific oceans. In agreement with previous studies, we find a closed Drake Passage in the presence of an open Central American Seaway results in suppressed Atlantic meridional overturning and enhancedmore »southern hemispheric deep convection. Opening of the Drake Passage triggers Antarctic Circumpolar Current flow and a weak Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Subsequent Central American Seaway closure reinforces the AMOC while also stagnating equatorial Pacific subsurface waters. These gateway-derived oceanographic changes are reflected in large shifts to the global distribution of DIC. An initially closed Drake Passage results in high DIC concentrations in the Atlantic and Arctic oceans, and lower DIC concentrations in the Pacific/Indian/Southern oceans. Opening Drake Passage reverses this gradient by lowering mid-depth Atlantic and Arctic DIC concentrations and raising deep Pacific/Indian/Southern Ocean DIC concentrations. Central American Seaway closure further reinforces this trend through additional Atlantic mid-depth DIC decreases, as well as Pacific mid-depth DIC concentration increases, with the net effect being a transition to a modern distribution of oceanic DIC.« less

  1. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second object is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. The report include work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and demonstration project objective.

  2. Dual-porosity reservoir modeling of the fractured Hanifa reservoir, Abqaiq Field, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luthy, S.T. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fractures play a significant role in the transmissibility of the Hanifa reservoir at Abqaiq Field. The Hanifa is a Type 2 fractured reservoir characterized by a finely-crystalline carbonate matrix which contains most of the reservoir storage porosity, and a stylolitic fracture system which provides essential permeability. Comparisons of over 5000 fractures identified from core and borehole image data with open-hole log data showed that porosity is negatively correlated with fracture density and mechanical rock strength. From these relationships, it was possible to utilize additional wells where porosity log data was available to calculate fracture densities. These wells were used to generate matrix porosity and permeability as well as fracture density attributes in a 12-sequence, 29-layer geocellular model. The effect of structural curvature on fracture intensity in the reservoir was estimated by mapping the derivative of structural dip. Incorporation of structural curvature explained variations in well test behavior not predicted by initial estimates of fracture density from porosity alone. Resultant fracture permeabilities compared favorably with well-test derived productivity indices. Three-dimensional visualization of model attributes showed that a monotonous and low (<10 md) distribution of matrix-related permeability contrasts sharply with highly variable and relatively high (>50 md) permeabilities of the fracture system. Reliability of the geocellular model to predict fracture densities and associated permeabilities has been confirmed by subsequent drilling of high cost horizontal wells, and is being used in reservoir engineering and development drilling planning efforts.

  3. Dual-porosity reservoir modeling of the fractured Hanifa reservoir, Abqaiq Field, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luthy, S.T. (Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fractures play a significant role in the transmissibility of the Hanifa reservoir at Abqaiq Field. The Hanifa is a Type 2 fractured reservoir characterized by a finely-crystalline carbonate matrix which contains most of the reservoir storage porosity, and a stylolitic fracture system which provides essential permeability. Comparisons of over 5000 fractures identified from core and borehole image data with open-hole log data showed that porosity is negatively correlated with fracture density and mechanical rock strength. From these relationships, it was possible to utilize additional wells where porosity log data was available to calculate fracture densities. These wells were used to generate matrix porosity and permeability as well as fracture density attributes in a 12-sequence, 29-layer geocellular model. The effect of structural curvature on fracture intensity in the reservoir was estimated by mapping the derivative of structural dip. Incorporation of structural curvature explained variations in well test behavior not predicted by initial estimates of fracture density from porosity alone. Resultant fracture permeabilities compared favorably with well-test derived productivity indices. Three-dimensional visualization of model attributes showed that a monotonous and low (<10 md) distribution of matrix-related permeability contrasts sharply with highly variable and relatively high (>50 md) permeabilities of the fracture system. Reliability of the geocellular model to predict fracture densities and associated permeabilities has been confirmed by subsequent drilling of high cost horizontal wells, and is being used in reservoir engineering and development drilling planning efforts.

  4. Preliminary analyses of matrix properties of Silurian and Devonian carbonate rocks in the Indiana and Ohio parts of the Midwestern Basins and Arches Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, G.D. (Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States). Water Resources Div.)

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis (RASA) in the Midwestern Basins and Arches Region is investigating the Silurian and Devonian carbonate-rock aquifer in parts of Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, and Illinois. Core samples from the carbonate-rock aquifer in Indiana and Ohio were analyzed for horizontal permeability and porosity. These matrix properties were used to describe the hydrogeologic aspects of the carbonate-rock aquifer throughout the regional study area. Core descriptions by the Indiana and Ohio State Geological surveys, were used for sub-dividing the core into the various lithostratigraphic groups. The lithostratigraphic groups are: the Brassfield/Sexton Creek Limestone, the Sublockport (including the Dayton Limestone and the Rochester Shale Equivalent), the Lockport Dolomite or the Salamonie Dolomite, the Salina Group, the lower section of the Muscatatuck Group and the upper section of the Muscatatuck Group. The porosities and horizontal permeabilities determined from the 38 samples were analyzed by nonparametric statistical methods. The data were grouped by lithologic unit, well location, and position within a depositional basin (the Appalachian, Michigan and Illinois Basins). In each case, all groups of data had identical distributions. These results show that the horizontal permeability and porosity of the matrix in the Silurian and Devonian carbonate rocks that were sampled are statistically similar and that variation between the groups is not statistically important.

  5. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage | SciTech Connect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonantNovember 15 toAdvancesRock Physics of Geologic

  6. Raton basin, New Mexico - exploration frontier for fracture reservoirs in Cretaceous shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, L.A.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Raton basin contains up to 3000 ft (900 m) of marine shale and subordinate carbonate rocks of Cretaceous age, including (in ascending order) the Graneros Shale, Greenhorn Limestone, Carlile Shale, Niobrara Formation, and Pierre Shale. Clastic reservoir rocks are sparse in this part of the section and drilling for them in the Raton basin has led to disappointing results. However, brittle siltstone and carbonate-rich interbeds within the Cretaceous shale intervals are capable of providing fracture reservoirs under the right conditions. Carbonate-rich beds of the Greenhorn Limestone and Niobrara Formation appear to be the most widespread and thickest intervals that might develop fracture reservoirs. Siltstone or orthoquartzitic interbeds in the Graneros, Carlile, and Pierre Shales may provide other zones with fracture systems. Hydrocarbon shows have been reported from the Graneros, Greenhorn, Niobrara, and Pierre Formations in the New Mexico parts of the Raton basin. Also, minor gas was produced from the Garcia field near Trinidad, Colorado. Fracturing appears to have enhanced the reservoir characteristics of the Wagon Mound Dakota gas field in the southern part of the basin. Structure contour maps and lithofacies maps showing brittle interbeds in dominantly shaly sequences are the basic tools used in exploration for fracture reservoirs. These maps for the Raton basin indicate numerous exploration targets.

  7. Source Term Modeling for Evaluating the Potential Impacts to Groundwater of Fluids Escaping from a Depleted Oil Reservoir Used for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years depleted oil reservoirs have received special interest as carbon storage reservoirs because of their potential to offset costs through collaboration with enhanced oil recovery projects. Modeling is currently being conducted to evaluate potential risks to groundwater associated with leakage of fluids from depleted oil reservoirs used for storage of CO2. Modeling results reported here focused on understanding how toxic organic compounds found in oil will distribute between the various phases within a storage reservoir after introduction of CO2, understanding the migration potential of these compounds, and assessing potential groundwater impacts should leakage occur. Two model scenarios were conducted to evaluate how organic components in oil will distribute among the phases of interest (oil, CO2, and brine). The first case consisted of 50 wt.% oil and 50 wt.% water; the second case was 90 wt.% CO2 and 10 wt.% oil. Several key organic compounds were selected for special attention in this study based upon their occurrence in oil at significant concentrations, relative toxicity, or because they can serve as surrogate compounds for other more highly toxic compounds for which required input data are not available. The organic contaminants of interest (COI) selected for this study were benzene, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. Partitioning of organic compounds between crude oil and supercritical CO2 was modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state over temperature and pressure conditions that represent the entire subsurface system (from those relevant to deep geologic carbon storage environments to near surface conditions). Results indicate that for a typical set of oil reservoir conditions (75°C, and 21,520 kPa) negligible amounts of the COI dissolve into the aqueous phase. When CO2 is introduced into the reservoir such that the final composition of the reservoir is 90 wt.% CO2 and 10 wt.% oil, a significant fraction of the oil dissolves into the vapor phase. As the vapor phase moves up through the stratigraphic column, pressures and temperatures decrease, resulting in significant condensation of oil components. The heaviest organic components condense early in this process (at higher pressures and temperatures), while the lighter components tend to remain in the vapor phase until much lower pressures and temperatures are reached. Based on the model assumptions, the final concentrations of COI to reach an aquifer at 1,520 kPa and 25°C were quite significant for benzene and toluene, whereas the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons that reach the aquifer were very small. This work demonstrates a methodology that can provide COI source term concentrations in CO2 leaking from a reservoir and entering an overlying aquifer for use in risk assessments.

  8. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  9. Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic Gas

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformation 8thCalwind IICaney RiverSiemens)CarbonDome

  10. STIMULATION AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    STIMULATION AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES Paul Kruger and Henry J . Ramey, Jr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Mass Transfer i n Porous and Fractured Media . . . . . . . . . 61 Heat Transfer i n Fractun3d Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Geothermal Reservoir Phy.Sica1 PIodels . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 RAD3N I N GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS

  11. Source rock study of Smackover Formation from east Texas to Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sassen, R.; Moore, C.H.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses of core and crude oil samples indicate that the laminated lime mudstone facies of the lower Smackover Formation is a significant source rock across the trend. The source facies was deposited in an anoxic and hypersaline environment that permitted preservation of algal kerogen. Moreover, source potential also occurs in undifferentiated Gilmer-Smackover rocks of east Texas deposited in a carbonate slope environment. Thermal maturity is the key factor that controls the generation of crude oil by the carbonate source facies and the eventual destruction of hydrocarbons in upper Smackover and Norphlet reservoirs. Once the regional thermal maturity framework is understood, it is possible to construct a source rock model that explains the distribution of crude oil, gas condensate, and methane across the trend. Calculated thermal maturity histories provide insight to the timing of hydrocarbon generation and migration and to the timing of hydrocarbon destruction and sulfate reduction in deep reservoirs. Basic geochemical strategies for exploration are suggested. One strategy is to focus exploration effort on traps formed prior to the time of crude oil migration that were nearest to effective source rocks. Another strategy is to avoid drilling reservoir rocks that are thermally overmature for preservation of hydrocarbons.

  12. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. Quarterly progress report, August 1995--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, A.R.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    West Welch Unit is one of four large waterflood units in the Welch Field located in the Northwestern portion of Dawson County, Texas. The Welch Field was discovered in the early 1940`s and produces oil under a solution gas drive mechanism from the San Andres formation at approximately 4800 ft. The field has been under waterflood for 30 years and a significant portion has been infill drilled on 20-ac density. A 1982-86 Pilot CO{sub 2} injection project in the offsetting South Welch Unit yielded positive results. The recent installation of a CO{sub 2} pipeline near the field allowed the phased development of a miscible CO{sub 2} injection project at the South Welch Unit. The reservoir quality is poorer at the West Welch Unit due to its relative position to sea level during deposition. Because of the proximity of a CO{sub 2} source and the CO{sub 2} operating experience that would be available from the South Welch Unit, West Welch Unit is an ideal location for demonstrating methods for enhancing economics of IOR projects in lower quality SSC reservoirs. This Class 2 project concentrates on the efficient design of a miscible CO{sub 2} project based on detailed reservoir characterization from advanced petrophysics, 3-D seismic interpretations and cross wellbore tomography interpretations. During the quarter, progress was made in both the petrophysical analysis and the tomography processing. The final geologic model is dependent upon the petrophysical analysis and the seismic and tomography interpretations. The actual reservoir simulation has started using the base geologic model, with which, all the preliminary simulation work is being done. Progress was also made in understanding the abnormal fracture wing orientation obtained in well 4807 and the cyclic CO{sub 2} demonstration results.

  13. Potential for storage of carbon dioxide in the rocks beneath the East Irish Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    strategy towards renewable and new energy technologies. The East Irish Sea Basin, which lies between Research and British Geological Survey Keyworth Nottingham NG12 5GG Email: klsh@bgs.ac.uk Tyndall Centre carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in the East Irish Sea Basin, UK was assessed as part of the Tyndall Centre

  14. Fluid flow in the earth's crust plays an important role in a number of geologic processes. In carbonate reservoirs, fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the first order). The dynamic elastic properties of the rock are determined by adding the com- pliance steps, and thus the elastic properties of the rock, for the seismic modeling. The simulation allows us processes--hydraulic frac- turing or induced seismicity--depending on the fluid and rock properties

  15. A Rock Physics Based Investigation of Pore Structure Variations Associated with a CO2 Flood in a Clastic Reservoir, Delhi, LA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Daniel

    2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ) flood at the Delhi Holt-Bryant reservoir can be measured with acoustic data. The pore property change is measured by using the Baechle ratio, the Gassmann model, and the Sun framework flexibility factor. The change in the pore properties of the formation...

  16. Abqaiq Hanifa reservoir: Geologic attributes controlling hydrocarbon production and water injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grover, G. Jr. (Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanifa reservoir at Abqaiq field consists entirely of mudsupported (>90% matrix) limestones that were deposited in the deeper water interior of the Arabian Intrashelf basin. The Hanifa mudstones lack megascopic pore spaces; porosity is evidenced by high porosities (5-32%) within these fine-grained rocks, based on porosity logs and core-plug analyses, absence of visible pore spaces to account for these high pore volumes, and 2000x SEM images that show a crystal framework texture composed of micro-rhombic (clay-size) calcite crystals with 2 - 5 [mu]m-size pore spaces between these calcite crystals. Flow meters indicate that the reservoir is capable of producing/injecting large volumes of oil/water. But there is little stratigraphic predictability to the flow, and thin (2-10 ft) low porosity (<15%) intervals can contribute over 60% of the entire flow. These reservoir attributes, coupled with the low [open quotes]matrix[close quotes] permeabilities (0.1-10 md) of the reservoir indicate the presence of an apparent permeability that is controlling fluid flow. Core studies have revealed that this apparent permeability is in the form of high-angle fractures. These fractures are [le]1 mm wide, contain hydrocarbon residue and calcite cement, and many are in close association with high-amplitude stylolites, suggesting a genetic link between stylolitization and fracturing. Borehole imaging logs are critical for fracture location, abundance, orientation, and size. The Hanifa is separated from the giant Arab-D reservoir by over 450 ft of fine-grained carbonates of the Jubaila Formation. These two reservoirs, however, are in pressure-fluid communication via a network of fractures through the Jubaila carbonates. Reservoir communication and reservoir heterogeneity is a challenge to reservoir geologists and reservoir engineers in formulating a development plan, involving horizontal producer and injector wells, to extract the reserves within the Abqaiq Hanifa reservoir.

  17. Moduli dispersion and attenuation in limestones in the laboratory L. Adam and M. Batzle, Center for Rock Abuse, Colorado School of Mines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is common practice in reservoir rock physics. With knowl- edge of these properties, enhanced oil recovery application for enhanced oil recovery mon- itoring: a change in Q might contain valuable information about carbonate reser- voir that is undergoing enhanced oil recovery. Light hydrocarbon pro- duction is stimulated

  18. Strontium Isotopic Composition of Paleozoic Carbonate Rocks in the Nevada Test Site Vicinity, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada and Inyo County, California.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James B. Paces; Zell E. Peterman; Kiyoto Futa; Thomas A. Oliver; and Brian D. Marshall.

    2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground water moving through permeable Paleozoic carbonate rocks represents the most likely pathway for migration of radioactive contaminants from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The strontium isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr) of ground water offers a useful means of testing hydrochemical models of regional flow involving advection and reaction. However, reaction models require knowledge of 87Sr/86Sr data for carbonate rock in the Nevada Test Site vicinity, which is scarce. To fill this data gap, samples of core or cuttings were selected from 22 boreholes at depth intervals from which water samples had been obtained previously around the Nevada Test Site at Yucca Flat, Frenchman Flat, Rainier Mesa, and Mercury Valley. Dilute acid leachates of these samples were analyzed for a suite of major- and trace-element concentrations (MgO, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MnO, Rb, Sr, Th, and U) as well as for 87Sr/86Sr. Also presented are unpublished analyses of 114 Paleozoic carbonate samples from outcrops, road cuts, or underground sites in the Funeral Mountains, Bare Mountain, Striped Hills, Specter Range, Spring Mountains, and ranges east of the Nevada Test Site measured in the early 1990's. These data originally were collected to evaluate the potential for economic mineral deposition at the potential high-level radioactive waste repository site at Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas (Peterman and others, 1994). Samples were analyzed for a suite of trace elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, La, and Ce) in bulk-rock powders, and 87Sr/86Sr in partial digestions of carbonate rock using dilute acid or total digestions of silicate-rich rocks. Pre-Tertiary core samples from two boreholes in the central or western part of the Nevada Test Site also were analyzed. Data are presented in tables and summarized in graphs; however, no attempt is made to interpret results with respect to ground-water flow paths in this report. Present-day 87Sr/86Sr values are compared to values for Paleozoic seawater present at the time of deposition. Many of the samples have 87Sr/86Sr compositions that remain relatively unmodified from expected seawater values. However, rocks underlying the northern Nevada Test Site as well as rocks exposed at Bare Mountain commonly have elevated 87Sr/86Sr values derived from post-depositional addition of radiogenic Sr most likely from fluids circulating through rubidium-rich Paleozoic strata or Precambrian basement rocks.

  19. Using Carbon Dioxide to Enhance Recovery of Methane from Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Final Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; White, Mark D.; Zhu, Tao; Kulkarni, Abhijeet S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Patil, Shirish L.; Owen, Antionette T.; Martin, P F.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide sequestration coupled with hydrocarbon resource recovery is often economically attractive. Use of CO2 for enhanced recovery of oil, conventional natural gas, and coal-bed methane are in various stages of common practice. In this report, we discuss a new technique utilizing CO2 for enhanced recovery of an unconventional but potentially very important source of natural gas, gas hydrate. We have focused our attention on the Alaska North Slope where approximately 640 Tcf of natural gas reserves in the form of gas hydrate have been identified. Alaska is also unique in that potential future CO2 sources are nearby, and petroleum infrastructure exists or is being planned that could bring the produced gas to market or for use locally. The EGHR (Enhanced Gas Hydrate Recovery) concept takes advantage of the physical and thermodynamic properties of mixtures in the H2O-CO2 system combined with controlled multiphase flow, heat, and mass transport processes in hydrate-bearing porous media. A chemical-free method is used to deliver a LCO2-Lw microemulsion into the gas hydrate bearing porous medium. The microemulsion is injected at a temperature higher than the stability point of methane hydrate, which upon contacting the methane hydrate decomposes its crystalline lattice and releases the enclathrated gas. Small scale column experiments show injection of the emulsion into a CH4 hydrate rich sand results in the release of CH4 gas and the formation of CO2 hydrate

  20. STUDY OF WATERFLOODING PROCESS IN NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS FROM STATIC AND DYNAMIC IMBIBITION EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    STUDY OF WATERFLOODING PROCESS IN NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS FROM STATIC AND DYNAMIC IMBIBITION experiments, followed by waterflooding, were performed at reservoir conditions to investigate rock wettability Berea and Spraberry cores at reservoir conditions to illustrate the actual process of waterflooding

  1. IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND SIMULATION OF A MATURE FIELD USING AN INTEGRATED APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teh, Woan Jing

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Reservoir characterization involves various studies which comprises assimilation and interpretation of representative reservoir rock and fluid data for a simulation model under varying recovery mechanisms. The main challenge in reservoir simulation...

  2. Simulation of fluid flow mechanisms in high permeability zones (Super-K) in a giant naturally fractured carbonate reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu-Hassoun, Amer H.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    and fractures were treated as two systems. Reservoir management practices and decisions should be very carefully reviewed and executed in this dual continuum reservoir based on the results of this work. Studying this dual media flow behavior is vital for better...

  3. Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory Research Plans for 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    and Subsurface Characterization of Carbonate Reservoirs for Improved Recovery of Remaining Hydrocarbons Charles#12; Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory Research Plans for 2013 Outcrop for heavy oil deposits within the Canadian Grosmont Formation. #12;iii Reservoir Characterization Research

  4. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoir. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, A.R.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    West Welch Unit is one of four large waterflood units in the Welch field in the northwestern portion of Dawson County, Texas. The Welch Field was discovered in the early 1940`s and produces oil under a solution gas drive mechanism from the San Andres formation at approximately 4800 ft. The field has been under waterflood for 30 years and a significant portion has been infill-drilled on 20-ac density. A 1982-86 pilot CO{sub 2} injection project in the offsetting South Welch Unit yielded positive results. Recent installation of CO{sub 2} pipeline near the field allowed the phased development of a miscible CO{sub 2} injection project at the South Welch Unit. This Class 2 project concentrates on the efficient design of a miscible CO{sub 2} project based on detailed reservoir characterization from advanced petrophysics, 3-D seismic interpretations and cross wellbore tomography interpretations. During the quarter, simulation performance forecasts were made using the base geologic model. The surface seismic and wellbore data were combined to develop an improved geologic model for the simulator. Efforts to integrate the wellbore seismic results into the reservoir characterization continue. Problems with the wellbore seismic processing were traced to the processing software which is being corrected.

  5. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec; Zheng-Wen Zeng; Liu Yi; Baojun Bai

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-year contract for the project, DOE Contract No. DE-FG26-01BC15364, ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs,'' was awarded and started on September 28, 2001. This project examines three major areas in which CO2 flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. This report discusses the activity during the six-month period covering October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003 that covers the first and second fiscal quarters of the project's second year. During these two quarters of the project we have been working in several areas: reservoir fluid/rock interactions and their relationships to changing injectivity, and surfactant adsorption on quarried core and pure component granules, foam stability, and high flow rate effects. We also had a very productive project review in Midland, Texas. A paper on CO{sub 2}-brine-reservoir rock interaction was presented and included in the proceedings of the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 5-8 February, 2003. Papers have been accepted for the Second Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestration in Alexandria, VA in May, the Society of Core Analysis meeting in Pau, France in September, and two papers for the SPE Annual Meeting in Denver, CO in October.

  6. Area of Interest 1, CO2 at the Interface: Nature and Dynamics of the Reservoir/Caprock Contact and Implications for Carbon Storage Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mozley, Peter; Evans, James; Dewers, Thomas

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We examined the influence of geologic features present at the reservoir/caprock interface on the transmission of supercritical CO2 into and through caprock. We focused on the case of deformation-band faults in reservoir lithologies that intersect the interface and transition to opening-mode fractures in caprock lithologies. Deformation-band faults are exceeding common in potential CO2 injection units and our fieldwork in Utah indicates that this sort of transition is common. To quantify the impact of these interface features on flow and transport we first described the sedimentology and permeability characteristics of selected sites along the Navajo Sandstone (reservoir lithology) and Carmel Formation (caprock lithology) interface, and along the Slickrock Member (reservoir lithology) and Earthy Member (caprock lithology) of the Entrada Sandstone interface, and used this information to construct conceptual permeability models for numerical analysis. We then examined the impact of these structures on flow using single-phase and multiphase numerical flow models for these study sites. Key findings include: (1) Deformation-band faults strongly compartmentalize the reservoir and largely block cross-fault flow of supercritical CO2. (2) Significant flow of CO2 through the fractures is possible, however, the magnitude is dependent on the small-scale geometry of the contact between the opening-mode fracture and the deformation band fault. (3) Due to the presence of permeable units in the caprock, caprock units are capable of storing significant volumes of CO2, particularly when the fracture network does not extend all the way through the caprock. The large-scale distribution of these deformation-bandfault- to-opening-mode-fractures is related to the curvature of the beds, with greater densities of fractures in high curvature regions. We also examined core and outcrops from the Mount Simon Sandstone and Eau Claire Formation reservoir/caprock interface in order to extend our work to a reservoir/caprock pair this is currently being assessed for long-term carbon storage. These analyses indicate that interface features similar to those observed at the Utah sites 3 were not observed. Although not directly related to our main study topic, one byproduct of our investigation is documentation of exceptionally high degrees of heterogeneity in the pore-size distribution of the Mount Simon Sandstone. This suggests that the unit has a greater-than-normal potential for residual trapping of supercritical CO2.

  7. Effective porosity and density of carbonate rocks (Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite) within Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation based on modern petrophysical techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorsch, J.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative data on effective porosity of carbonate rock from the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite within Bear Creek Valley based on modern petrophysical techniques. The data will be useful for groundwater-flow and contaminant-flow modeling in the vicinity of the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Furthermore, the data provides needed information on the amount of interconnected pore space potentially available for operation of matrix diffusion as a transport process within the fractured carbonate rock. A second aspect of this study is to compare effective porosity data based on modern petrophysical techniques to effective porosity data determined earlier by Goldstrand et al. (1995) with a different technique. An added bonus of the study is quantitative data on the bulk density and grain density of dolostone and limestone of the Maynardville Limestone and Copper Ridge Dolomite which might find use for geophysical modeling on the ORR.

  8. Effect of flue gas impurities on the process of injection and storage of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nogueira de Mago, Marjorie Carolina

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were followed by porosity measurement and UCS tests. Main results are presented as follows. First, the UCS of the rock was reduced by approximately 30% of its original value as a result of the dissolution process. Second, porosity profiles of rock...

  9. A depositional model in the Arabian Intrashelf basin: The Upper Jurassic Hanifa reservoir of Abqaiq field, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, D.L. (Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abqaiq field is a northeast-trending anticline approximately 60 km long and 12 km wide and contains several reservoirs. The 100 m thick Hanifa Reservoir interval consists of interlayered peloidal packstone and wackestone with subordinate dolomite and anhydrite. During an Upper Jurassic relative sea level lowstand, paleotopography within the Arabian Intrashelf basin localized fine-grained packstone into isolated mounds over the Abqaiq South Dome area, while muddier facies were being deposited over the North Nose. The Abqaiq Hanifa carbonate mound was zoned using sequence stratigraphy as a conceptual framework to ensure that chronostratigraphic relationships were honored, and that the subsequent computer model would therefore accurately reflect spatial porosity continuity within the reservoir. The Hanifa Reservoir was subdivided into five widely correlative zones that approximate separate parasequences, each beginning with tight mudstone-wackestone and grading upward into porous wackestone-packstone. Sequence stratigraphy interpretations are based on regional wireline log correlations combined with core descriptions and show the Abqaiq Hanifa to be time equivalent to only the upper few meters of the Hanifa Reservoir in fields to the north. In addition to reservoir modeling utility, these two general intrashelf basin settings have potential for stratigraphic traps. Wherever reservoir-quality rock can be found, proximity to the Hanifa/Hadriya source rocks-the source for much of Saudi Arabia's vast reserves-makes the Hanifa a favorable exploration target.

  10. Experimental Study on Rock Deformation and Permeability Variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Jihui

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a petroleum reservoir would inevitably induce a rearrangement of the in-situ stress field. The rearrangement of the stress field would then bring about a deformation of the reservoir rock and a change of the permeability...

  11. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S.

    1996-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a CO{sub 2} project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. This report includes work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and the demonstration project objective.

  12. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  13. Inversion of seismic attributes for petrophysical parameters and rock facies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahraeeni, Mohammad Sadegh

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prediction of rock and fluid properties such as porosity, clay content, and water saturation is essential for exploration and development of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Rock and fluid property maps obtained from such predictions ...

  14. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reservoir storage project in Sesta, Italy [1]; as well as two pilot tests in rock caverns associated with abandoned

  15. Metrics to assess the mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage in the ocean and in geological reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortunat, Joos

    Metrics to assess the mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage in the ocean to assess mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage are discussed. The climatic impact penalty for carbon capture. For an annual leakage rate of 0.01, surface air temperature becomes higher

  16. The Stimulation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs with Subsurface Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LORENZ,JOHN C.

    2000-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Between 1965 and 1979 there were five documented and one or more inferred attempts to stimulate the production from hydrocarbon reservoirs by detonating nuclear devices in reservoir strata. Of the five documented tests, three were carried out by the US in low-permeability, natural-gas bearing, sandstone-shale formations, and two were done in the USSR within oil-bearing carbonates. The objectives of the US stimulation efforts were to increase porosity and permeability in a reservoir around a specific well by creating a chimney of rock rubble with fractures extending beyond it, and to connect superimposed reservoir layers. In the USSR, the intent was to extensively fracture an existing reservoir in the more general vicinity of producing wells, again increasing overall permeability and porosity. In both countries, the ultimate goals were to increase production rates and ultimate recovery from the reservoirs. Subsurface explosive devices ranging from 2.3 to about 100 kilotons were used at depths ranging from 1208 m (3963 ft) to 2568 m (8427 ft). Post-shot problems were encountered, including smaller-than-calculated fracture zones, formation damage, radioactivity of the product, and dilution of the BTU value of tie natural gas with inflammable gases created by the explosion. Reports also suggest that production-enhancement factors from these tests fell short of expectations. Ultimately, the enhanced-production benefits of the tests were insufficient to support continuation of the pro-grams within increasingly adversarial political, economic, and social climates, and attempts to stimulate hydrocarbon reservoirs with nuclear devices have been terminated in both countries.

  17. STIMULATION AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCXS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    STIMULATION AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCXS Henry J. Ramey, Jr., and A. Louis C a p i l l a r i t y . . . . . . . . . . 28 RADON I N GEOTHEENAL RESERVOIRS . . . . . . . 33 HEAT AND MASS TRANSPORT I N FRACTURED ROCKS . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Mathematical Models

  18. -Reservoir Technology -Geothermal Reservoir Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-91 - Reservoir Technology - Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Research at Stanford Principal in Engineering and Earth Sciences STANFORD UNIVERSITY Stanford, California #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ...PREFACE................................................................................ 20 3.4 Thermal Stress Effects on Thermal Conductivity .................................... 27 #12

  19. Design and implementation of a CO2 flood utilizing advanced reservoirs characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching water floods depletion: Technical progress report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S., Casteel, J.F.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. All work this quarter falls within the demonstration project.

  20. Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Goethermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equiptment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy Moller Weare

    2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum production systems, stripping towers for mineral production processes, nuclear waste storage, CO2 sequestration strategies, global warming). Although funding decreases cut short completion of several research activities, we made significant progress on these abbreviated projects.

  1. Diagenesis and fluid evolution of deeply buried Permian (Rotliegende) gas reservoirs, Northwest Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaupp, R. (Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)); Matter, A.; Ramseyer, K.; Platt, J. (Geologisches Institute der Universitaet, Bern (Switzerland)); Walzebuck, J. (NAM Nederlands Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands))

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Depositional environment and tectonic setting were important in the diagenesis and evolution of reservoir properties in the Rotliegende sequence of the North German Basin. Facies belts paralleling the edge of a central saline lake controlled the distribution of early and shallow burial cements. Lake shoreline sands with radial chlorite cement show the best reservoir properties in the study area. Juxtaposition of Rotliegende deposits against either Carboniferous Coal Measures or Late Permian (Zechstein) evaporites by faulting resulted in cross-formational fluid exchange. The introduction of fluids from Carboniferous Coal Measures into Rotliegende reservoirs produced intense clay cementation, significantly reducing rock permeabilities. Influx of Zechstein fluids favored precipitation of late carbonate and anhydrite cements. Cross-formational and fault-related fluid flow was enhanced during periods of fault activity. 50 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  2. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  3. GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing from tropical and boreal reservoirs are significant. In light of hydropower's potential role as a green to characterize carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from hydropower reservoirs in the US Southeast

  4. Wind-driven changes in Southern Ocean residual circulation, ocean carbon reservoirs and atmospheric CO[subscript 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauderdale, Jonathan M.

    The effect of idealized wind-driven circulation changes in the Southern Ocean on atmospheric CO[subscript 2] and the ocean carbon inventory is investigated using a suite of coarse-resolution, global coupled ocean circulation ...

  5. Effect of flue gas impurities on the process of injection and storage of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nogueira de Mago, Marjorie Carolina

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sequestration. In this thesis, I report my findings on the effect of flue gas ??impurities?? on the displacement of natural gas during CO2 sequestration, and results on unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests to carbonate samples. In displacement experiments...

  6. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. [Quarterly report], October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a CO{sub 2} project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. This report includes work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective. In addition the initiation of the demonstration project objective includes work done in November and December, 1995.

  7. Characterization and reservoir evaluation of a hydraulically fractured, shaly gas reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santiago Molina, Cesar Alfonso

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the possibility of replacing average reservoir pressures for short-term pressure data to evaluate gas reserves. Petrophysical properties derived from logs (shale content and porosity) were found to correlate very well. A correlation between average porosity..., Shaly Gas Reservoir. ( December 1991 ) Cesar Alfonso Santiago Molina, Ingeniero de Petroleos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Steven W. Poston Shale content in reservoir rocks affect their petrophysical properties...

  8. ANALYSIS O F HEAT TRANSFER AND ENERGY RECOVERY I N FRACTURED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-31 ANALYSIS O F HEAT TRANSFER AND ENERGY RECOVERY I N FRACTURED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS by R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 iii #12;3.6 Energy Balance of a Fractured Geothermal Reservoir . . . 3.6.1 Reservoir Rock Energy of Experimental Apparatus . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.1 The Reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2

  9. Performance prediction of oil wells producing water in bounded reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jochen, Valerie Ann Ellis

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of reservoir rock and fluid properties. Vogel6, based on computer simulation of dissolved gas drive reservoirs, developed a dimensionless inflow performance relationship (IPR). Vogel suggested that the ratio of the oil rate at a given time, to its maximum..., were developed for solution gas drive reservoirs, but they have often been used for other types of reservoirs due to a lack of suitable substitutes. Evinger and Muskat9 also conducted one of the earliest investigations of three phase flow...

  10. Artificial Geothermal Energy Potential of Steam-flooded Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpasurat, Akkharachai

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents an investigation of the concept of harvesting geothermal energy that remains in heavy oil reservoirs after abandonment when steamflooding is no longer economics. Substantial heat that has accumulated within reservoir rock and its...

  11. Dual-porosity reservoir modeling of the fractured Hanifa reservoir, Abqaiq Field, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luthy, S.T. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fractures play a significant role in the transmissibility of the Hanifa reservoir at Abqaiq Field. The Hanifa is a Type 2 fractured reservoir characterized by a finely-crystalline carbonate matrix which contains most of the reservoir storage porosity, and a stylolitic fracture system which provides essential permeability. Integration of borehole imaging data with available open-hole log, core, and well-test data from horizontal and vertical wells allowed for the distribution of fracture parameters, including fracture density, aperture, porosity, and permeability throughout a geocellular model. Analysis of over 5000 fractures showed that changes in lithology, grain size, and/or bed thickness do not correlate with changes in fracture densities. Review of P- and S-wave log data showed that porosity is negatively correlated with fracture density and mechanical rock strength. From these relationships, it was possible to utilize additional wells where porosity log data was available to calculate fracture densities. These wells were used to generate matrix porosity and permeability as well as fracture density attributes in a 12-sequence, 29-layer geocellular model. Fracture permeabilities compare favorably with well-test derived productivity indices. Three-dimensional visualization of model attributes showed that a monotonous and low (<10 md) distribution of matrix- related permeability contrasts sharply with highly variable and relatively high (ER 50 md) permeabilities of the fracture system. Reliability of the geocellular model to predict fracture densities and associated permeabilities has been confirmed by subsequent drilling of high cost horizontal wells, and is being used in reservoir engineering and development drilling planning efforts.

  12. Improved oil recovery in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs of Kansas - near term -- Class 2. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, T.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate incremental reserves from Osagian and Meramecian dolomite reservoirs in western Kansas through application of reservoir characterization to identify areas of unrecovered mobile petroleum. Specific reservoirs targeted are the Schaben Field in Ness County and the Bindley Field in Hodgeman County.

  13. alum rock sulfur: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -resolution carbon and sulfur isotope profiles from Early to Middle Ordovician carbonate rocks from the Argentine Investigation of isotopic compositions recorded in...

  14. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In fully-saturated rock and at ultrasonic frequencies, the microscopic squirt flow induced between the stiff and soft parts of the pore space by an elastic wave is responsible for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation. In the seismic frequency range, it is the macroscopic cross-flow between the stiffer and softer parts of the rock. We use the latter hypothesis to introduce simple approximate equations for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation in a fully water saturated reservoir. The equations are based on the assumption that in heterogeneous rock and at a very low frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the fully-saturated rock can be estimated by applying a fluid substitution procedure to the averaged (upscaled) dry frame whose effective porosity is the mean porosity and the effective elastic modulus is the Backus-average (geometric mean) of the individual dry-frame elastic moduli of parts of the rock. At a higher frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the saturated rock is the Backus-average of the individual fully-saturated-rock elastic moduli of parts of the rock. The difference between the effective elastic modulus calculated separately by these two methods determines the velocity-frequency dispersion. The corresponding attenuation is calculated from this dispersion by using (e.g.) the standard linear solid attenuation model.

  15. Geophysical Prospecting, 1997, 45, 39-64 Fractured reservoir delineation using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Geophysical Prospecting, 1997, 45, 39-64 Fractured reservoir delineation using multicomponent of delineating fractured reservoirs and optimizing the development of the reservoirs using shear-wave data the potential of shear waves for fractured reservoir delineation. Introduction Most carbonate reservoirs contain

  16. Feasibility of Geophysical Monitoring of Carbon-Sequestrated Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallick, Subhashis; Alvarado, Vladimir

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is sequestered from the bottom of a brine reservoir and allowed to migrate upward, the effects of the relative permeability hysteresis due to capillary trapping and buoyancy driven migration tend to make the reservoir patchy saturated with different fluid phases over time. Seismically, such a patchy saturated reservoir induces an effective anisotropic behavior whose properties are primarily dictated by the nature of the saturation of different fluid phases in the pores and the elastic properties of the rock matrix. By combining reservoir flow simulation and modeling with seismic modeling, it is possible to derive these effective anisotropic properties, which, in turn, could be related to the saturation of CO{sub 2} within the reservoir volume any time during the post-injection scenario. Therefore, if time-lapse seismic data are available and could be inverted for the effective anisotropic properties of the reservoir, they, in combination with reservoir simulation could potentially predict the CO{sub 2} saturation directly from the time-lapse seismic data. It is therefore concluded that the time-lapse seismic data could be used to monitor the carbon sequestrated saline reservoirs. But for its successful implementation, seismic modeling and inversion methods must be integrated with the reservoir simulations. In addition, because CO{sub 2} sequestration induces an effective anisotropy in the sequestered reservoir and anisotropy is best detected using multicomponent seismic data compared to single component (P-wave) data, acquisition, processing, and analysis is multicomponent seismic data is recommended for these time-lapse studies. Finally, a successful implementation of using time-lapse seismic data for monitoring the carbon sequestrated saline reservoirs will require development of a robust methodology for inverting multicomponent seismic data for subsurface anisotropic properties.

  17. Petrofacies analysis - the petrophysical tool for geologic/engineering reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watney, W.L.; Guy, W.J.; Gerlach, P.M. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Petrofacies analysis is defined as the characterization and classification of pore types and fluid saturations as revealed by petrophysical measures of a reservoir. The word {open_quotes}petrofacies{close_quotes} makes an explicit link between petroleum engineers concerns with pore characteristics as arbiters of production performance, and the facies paradigm of geologists as a methodology for genetic understanding and prediction. In petrofacies analysis, the porosity and resistivity axes of the classical Pickett plot are used to map water saturation, bulk volume water, and estimated permeability, as well as capillary pressure information, where it is available. When data points are connected in order of depth within a reservoir, the characteristic patterns reflect reservoir rock character and its interplay with the hydrocarbon column. A third variable can be presented at each point on the crossplot by assigning a color scale that is based on other well logs, often gamma ray or photoelectric effect, or other derived variables. Contrasts between reservoir pore types and fluid saturations will be reflected in changing patterns on the crossplot and can help discriminate and characterize reservoir heterogeneity. Many hundreds of analyses of well logs facilitated by spreadsheet and object-oriented programming have provided the means to distinguish patterns typical of certain complex pore types for sandstones and carbonate reservoirs, occurrences of irreducible water saturation, and presence of transition zones. The result has been an improved means to evaluate potential production such as bypassed pay behind pipe and in old exploration holes, or to assess zonation and continuity of the reservoir. Petrofacies analysis is applied in this example to distinguishing flow units including discrimination of pore type as assessment of reservoir conformance and continuity. The analysis is facilitated through the use of color cross sections and cluster analysis.

  18. Rock Art

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huyge, Dirk

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The archaeology of early Egypt: Social transformations inAlexander 1938 Rock-drawings of southern Upper Egypt. Vol.1. London: The Egypt Exploration Society. 1939 Rock-drawings

  19. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K.; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO{sub 2} or CO{sub 2}-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO{sub 2}, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin – Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO{sub 2}. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  20. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) project for the south Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. All work this quarter falls within Task V field demonstration. Short progress reports are presented for field demonstration involving: drill horizontal injection wells 6C-25H and 7C-11H; and drill two vertical WAG injectors along South Cowden Unit boundary.

  1. Seismic signatures of the Lodgepole fractured reservoir in Utah-Wyoming overthrust belt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parra, J.; Collier, H.; Angstman, B.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In low porosity, low permeability zones, natural fractures are the primary source of permeability which affect both production and injection of fluids. The open fractures do not contribute much to porosity, but they provide an increased drainage network to any porosity. An important approach to characterizing the fracture orientation and fracture permeability of reservoir formations is one based upon the effects of such conditions on the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in the rock. We present the feasibility of using seismic measurement techniques to map the fracture zones between wells spaced 2400 ft at depths of about 1000 ft. For this purpose we constructed computer models (which include azimuthal anisotropy) using Lodgepole reservoir parameters to predict seismic signatures recorded at the borehole scale, crosswell scale, and 3 D seismic scale. We have integrated well logs with existing 2D surfaces seismic to produce petrophysical and geological cross sections to determine the reservoir parameters and geometry for the computer models. In particular, the model responses are used to evaluate if surface seismic and crosswell seismic measurements can capture the anisotropy due to vertical fractures. Preliminary results suggested that seismic waves transmitted between two wells will propagate in carbonate fracture reservoirs, and the signal can be received above the noise level at the distance of 2400 ft. In addition, the large velocities contrast between the main fracture zone and the underlying unfractured Boundary Ridge Member, suggested that borehole reflection imaging may be appropriate to map and fracture zone thickness variation and fracture distributions in the reservoir.

  2. Wettability and Oil Recovery by Imbibition and Viscous Displacement from Fractured and Heterogeneous Carbonates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman R. Morrow; Jill Buckley

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About one-half of U.S. oil reserves are held in carbonate formations. The remaining oil in carbonate reservoirs is regarded as the major domestic target for improved oil recovery. Carbonate reservoirs are often fractured and have great complexity even at the core scale. Formation evaluation and prediction is often subject to great uncertainty. This study addresses quantification of crude oil/brine/rock interactions and the impact of reservoir heterogeneity on oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition and viscous displacement from pore to field scale. Wettability-alteration characteristics of crude oils were measured at calcite and dolomite surfaces and related to the properties of the crude oils through asphaltene content, acid and base numbers, and refractive index. Oil recovery was investigated for a selection of limestones and dolomites that cover over three orders of magnitude in permeability and a factor of four variation in porosity. Wettability control was achieved by adsorption from crude oils obtained from producing carbonate reservoirs. The induced wettability states were compared with those measured for reservoir cores. The prepared cores were used to investigate oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition and viscous displacement. The results of imbibition tests were used in wettability characterization and to develop mass transfer functions for application in reservoir simulation of fractured carbonates. Studies of viscous displacement in carbonates focused on the unexpected but repeatedly observed sensitivity of oil recovery to injection rate. The main variables were pore structure, mobility ratio, and wettability. The potential for improved oil recovery from rate-sensitive carbonate reservoirs by increased injection pressure, increased injectivity, decreased well spacing or reduction of interfacial tension was evaluated.

  3. PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-Fifth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, February 1-3, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    , Stanford, California, February 1-3, 2010 SGP-TR-188 HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS reservoirs, especially hot fractured rock or enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) reservoirs, has usually relied-induced dilation, the conductivity of the natural fractures is enhanced and a higher-permeability reservoir

  4. PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 31 -February 3, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    change and permeability variations caused by rock failure is much interest in geothermal reservoir. Cold of numerical experiments have been carried out to study the impact of cold water injection on the reservoir

  5. Characteristics of the C Shale and D Shale reservoirs, Monterey Formation, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A.; McIntyre, J.L. [Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States); McJannet, G.S. [Dept. of Energy, Tupman, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The upper Miocene C Shale and D Shale reservoirs of the Elk Hills Shale Member of the Monterey Formation have cumulative oil and gas production much higher than the originally estimated recovery. These San Joaquin basin reservoirs are the lowest of the Stevens producing zones at Elk Hills and currently produce from a 2800-acre area on the 31 S anticline. The C Shale contains lower slope and basin plain deposits of very fine grained, thinly bedded, graded turbidites, pelagic and hemipelagic claystone, and slump deposits. Although all units are oil-bearing, only the lower parts of the graded turbidity intervals have sufficient horizontal permeability to produce oil. The D Shale consists of chart, claystone, carbonates and slump deposits, also originating in a lower slope to basin plain setting. All D Shale rock types contain oil, but the upper chart interval is the most productive. The chart has high matrix porosity, and due to a complex horizontal and vertical microfracture system, produces at a highly effective rate. Core samples indicate more oil-in-place is present in the thin, graded C Shale beds and in the porous D Shale chart than is identifiable from conventional electric logs. High gas recovery rates are attributed mostly to this larger volume of associated oil. Gas also enters the reservoirs from the adjacent 26R reservoir through a leaky normal fault. Significant gas volumes also may desorb from immature organic material common in the rock matrix.

  6. Characteristics of the C Shale and D Shale reservoirs, Monterey Formation, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A.; McIntyre, J.L. (Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)); McJannet, G.S. (Dept. of Energy, Tupman, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The upper Miocene C Shale and D Shale reservoirs of the Elk Hills Shale Member of the Monterey Formation have cumulative oil and gas production much higher than the originally estimated recovery. These San Joaquin basin reservoirs are the lowest of the Stevens producing zones at Elk Hills and currently produce from a 2800-acre area on the 31 S anticline. The C Shale contains lower slope and basin plain deposits of very fine grained, thinly bedded, graded turbidites, pelagic and hemipelagic claystone, and slump deposits. Although all units are oil-bearing, only the lower parts of the graded turbidity intervals have sufficient horizontal permeability to produce oil. The D Shale consists of chart, claystone, carbonates and slump deposits, also originating in a lower slope to basin plain setting. All D Shale rock types contain oil, but the upper chart interval is the most productive. The chart has high matrix porosity, and due to a complex horizontal and vertical microfracture system, produces at a highly effective rate. Core samples indicate more oil-in-place is present in the thin, graded C Shale beds and in the porous D Shale chart than is identifiable from conventional electric logs. High gas recovery rates are attributed mostly to this larger volume of associated oil. Gas also enters the reservoirs from the adjacent 26R reservoir through a leaky normal fault. Significant gas volumes also may desorb from immature organic material common in the rock matrix.

  7. Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan P. Byrnes; Saibal Bhattacharya; John Victorine; Ken Stalder

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on carbonate reservoirs of widely varying moldic pore systems that represent the major of reservoirs in Kansas and are important nationally and worldwide. A goal of the project is to measure wettability, using representative oils from Kansas fields, on a wide range of moldic-porosity lithofacies that are representative of Kansas and midcontinent shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs. This investigation will discern the relative influence of wetting and pore architecture. In the midcontinent, reservoir water saturations are frequently greater than 'irreducible' because many reservoirs are largely in the capillary transition zone. This can change the imbibition oil-water relative permeability relations. Ignoring wettability and transition-zone relative permeabilities in reservoir modeling can lead to over- and under-prediction of oil recovery and recovery rates, and less effective improved recovery management. A goal of this project is to measure drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeabilities for a large representative range of lithofacies at differ ent initial water saturations to obtain relations that can be applied everywhere in the reservoir. The practical importance of these relative permeability and wettability models will be demonstrated by using reservoir simulation studies on theoretical/generic and actual reservoir architectures. The project further seeks to evaluate how input of these new models affects reservoir simulation results at varying scales. A principal goal is to obtain data that will allow us to create models that will show how to accurately simulate flow in the shallow-structure, complex carbonate reservoirs that lie in the transition zone. Tasks involved to meet the project objectives include collection and consolidation of available data into a publicly accessible relational digital database and collection of oil and rock samples from carbonate fields around the state (Task 1). Basic properties of these rocks and oils will be measured and used in wettability tests. Comparison will be performed between crude and synthetic oil wettability and

  8. Figure 2. Stratigraphic Summary of Ages, Names and Rock Types...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. Stratigraphic Summary of Ages, Names and Rock Types in the ANWR 1002 and Coastal Plain Area of the Alaska North Slope. Potentially Productive Reservoirs and Plays Assessed by...

  9. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. W. Weiss

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured and typically produce less than 10% original oil in place during primary recovery. Spontaneous imbibition has proven an important mechanism for oil recovery from fractured reservoirs, which are usually weak waterflood candidates. In some situations, chemical stimulation can promote imbibition of water to alter the reservoir wettability toward water-wetness such that oil is produced at an economic rate from the rock matrix into fractures. In this project, cores and fluids from five reservoirs were used in laboratory tests: the San Andres formation (Fuhrman Masho and Eagle Creek fields) in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico; and the Interlake, Stony Mountain, and Red River formations from the Cedar Creek Anticline in Montana and South Dakota. Solutions of nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants with formation water were used to promote waterwetness. Some Fuhrman Masho cores soaked in surfactant solution had improved oil recovery up to 38%. Most Eagle Creek cores did not respond to any of the tested surfactants. Some Cedar Creek anticline cores had good response to two anionic surfactants (CD 128 and A246L). The results indicate that cores with higher permeability responded better to the surfactants. The increased recovery is mainly ascribed to increased water-wetness. It is suspected that rock mineralogy is also an important factor. The laboratory work generated three field tests of the surfactant soak process in the West Fuhrman Masho San Andres Unit. The flawlessly designed tests included mechanical well clean out, installation of new pumps, and daily well tests before and after the treatments. Treatments were designed using artificial intelligence (AI) correlations developed from 23 previous surfactant soak treatments. The treatments were conducted during the last quarter of 2006. One of the wells produced a marginal volume of incremental oil through October. It is interesting to note that the field tests were conducted in an area of the field that has not met production expectations. The dataset on the 23 Phosphoria well surfactant soaks was updated. An analysis of the oil decline curves indicted that 4.5 lb of chemical produced a barrel of incremental oil. The AI analysis supports the adage 'good wells are the best candidates.' The generally better performance of surfactant in the high permeability core laboratory tests supports this observation. AI correlations were developed to predict the response to water-frac stimulations in a tight San Andres reservoir. The correlations maybe useful in the design of Cedar Creek Anticline surfactant soak treatments planned for next year. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance scans of dolomite cores to measure porosity and saturation during the high temperature laboratory work were acquired. The scans could not be correlated with physical measurement using either conventional or AI methods.

  10. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of the proposed study are as follows: (1) To understand and evaluate an unusual primary oil production mechanism which results in decreasing (retrograde) oil cut (ROC) behavior as reservoir pressure declines. (2) To improve calculations of initial oil in place so as to determine the economic feasibility of completing and producing a well. (3) To optimize the location of new wells based on understanding of geological and petrophysical properties heterogeneities. (4) To evaluate various secondary recovery techniques for oil reservoirs producing from fractured formations. (5) To enhance the productivity of producing wells by using new completion techniques. These objectives are important for optimizing field performance from West Carney Field located in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. The field, which was discovered in 1980, produces from Hunton Formation in a shallow-shelf carbonate reservoir. The early development in the field was sporadic. Many of the initial wells were abandoned due to high water production and constraints in surface facilities for disposing excess produced water. The field development began in earnest in 1995 by Altex Resources. They had recognized that production from this field was only possible if large volumes of water can be disposed. Being able to dispose large amounts of water, Altex aggressively drilled several producers. With few exceptions, all these wells exhibited similar characteristics. The initial production indicated trace amount of oil and gas with mostly water as dominant phase. As the reservoir was depleted, the oil cut eventually improved, making the overall production feasible. The decreasing oil cut (ROC) behavior has not been well understood. However, the field has been subjected to intense drilling activity because of prior success of Altex Resources. In this work, we will investigate the primary production mechanism by conducting several core flood experiments. After collecting cores from representative wells, we will study the wettability of the rock and simulate the depletion behavior by mimicking such behavior under controlled lab conditions.

  11. Research on improved and enhanced oil recovery in Illinois through reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources through a Memorandum of Understanding with the US Department of Energy has commenced a research program in Improved and Enhanced Oil Recovery from Illinois Reservoirs Through Reservoir Characterization.'' The program will include studies on mineralogy, petrography of reservoir rock, database management, engineering assessment, seismic studies and acoustic logs, and mapping. 8 figs. (CBS)

  12. Optimal trace selection for AVA processing of shale-sand reservoirs Thomas Guest1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimal trace selection for AVA processing of shale-sand reservoirs Thomas Guest1 and Andrew Curtis1 ABSTRACT When processing data, a principal aim is to maximize in- formation inferred from a data the target reservoir. Optimal selections change as prior knowledge of rock param- eters and reservoir fluid

  13. Improved oil recovery in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs of Kansas -- Near term -- Class 2. Annual report, September 18, 1994--October 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, T.R.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents a summary of the progress during the first year of Budget period 1 of the project. Two examples of advanced technologies developed as part of this project are highlighted along with the use of the Internet to transfer these technologies. The two advanced technologies are a spread-sheet petrophysical analysis and reservoir evaluation (PfEFFER), and a petrophysical/seismic approach to well logs (pseudoseismic). Work continues on multi-disciplinary reservoir characterization at the demonstration site. The potential for incremental primary recovery is being evaluated using the improved reservoir characterization to target infill drilling and evaluate the potential of a horizontal well. The impact of demonstrating additional incremental primary recovery from sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity Mississippian reservoirs would be significant for Kansas and the US.

  14. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico--waterflood performance analysis for the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reservoir engineering study was conducted of waterflood performance in the South Cowden field, an Upper Permian Grayburg reservoir on the Central Basin Platform in West Texas. The study was undertaken to understand the historically poor waterflood performance, evaluate three techniques for incorporating petrophysical measurements and geological interpretation into heterogeneous reservoir models, and identify issues in heterogeneity modeling and fluid-flow scaleup that require further research. The approach included analysis of relative permeability data, analysis of injection and production data, heterogeneity modeling, and waterflood simulation. The poor South Cowden waterflood recovery is due, in part, to completion of wells in only the top half of the formation. Recompletion of wells through the entire formation is estimated to improve recovery in ten years by 6 percent of the original oil in place in some areas of the field. A direct three-dimensional stochastic approach to heterogeneity modeling produced the best fit to waterflood performance and injectivity, but a more conventional model based on smooth mapping of layer-averaged properties was almost as good. The results reaffirm the importance of large-scale heterogeneities in waterflood modeling but demonstrate only a slight advantage for stochastic modeling at this scale. All the flow simulations required a reduction to the measured whole-core k{sub v}/k{sub h} to explain waterflood behavior, suggesting the presence of barriers to vertical flow not explicitly accounted for in any of the heterogeneity models. They also required modifications to the measured steady-state relative permeabilities, suggesting the importance of small-scale heterogeneities and scaleup. Vertical flow barriers, small-scale heterogeneity modeling, and relative permeability scaleup require additional research for waterflood performance prediction in reservoirs like South Cowden.

  15. Non-Darcy flow in geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zyvoloski, G.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of non-Darcy flow laws are investigated for two geothermal reservoir types: multiphase and Hot Dry Rock (HDR). Long-term thermal behavior is emphasized as short-term pressure transient behavior is addressed in the oil field literature. Comparisons of Darcy and non-Darcy flow laws are made.

  16. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  17. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  18. A cybernetic model for describing the performance of water driven reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caseli, Umberto Antonio

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technique of estimat- 6 ing performance of water-drive reservoirs based on com- pressible flow theory has been presented in the literature as the most generally successful. However, their method applies to radial reservoirs surrounded by infinite... or radial aquifers of constant rock and fluid properties. A complete knowledge of the properties of the reservoir and aquifer is desired for applying the technique. The method also requires knowledge of the pressures at the boundary of the reservoir...

  19. Fast probabilistic petrophysical mapping of reservoirs from 3D seismic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of rock and fluid properties such as porosity, clay con- tent, and water saturation is essential for exploration and develop- ment of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Rock and fluid property maps obtained from impedances for rock-fluid properties given a petrophysical relationship between the acoustic properties

  20. Sediment pass-through, an alternative to reservoir dredging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, L.L.; Lee, W.H. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Tu, S. [Pacific and Gas Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is studying an alternative {open_quotes}Sediment Management Plan{close_quotes} (SMP) to control sediments at Rock Creek Reservoir and the downstream Cresta Reservoir on the North Fork Feather River in Plumas County. The reservoirs are part of the 182,000 kW Rock Creek-Cresta Project hydroelectric development. Approximately 5.4 million cubic meters of sediments, deposited in the two reservoirs since they were placed in service in 1949 and 1950, partially obstruct the dams` low level outlets and pipe inlets supplying water for spillway gate operations. The sediments jeopardize the reliable and efficient operation of the dams and powerhouses. The SMP includes retrofitting Rock Creek and Cresta Dams with additional low-level gated outlets and modification of trash racks at the existing low level outlet pipes at each dam to improve sediment pass-through (SPT) capacity during high flows. Also, to enable construction of the dam modifications and to facilitate the initiation of SPT operation, dredging of approximately 46,000 cubic meters at Rock Creek Reservoir and 57,000 cubic meters at Cresta Reservoir can be accomplished using a new slurry pump dredging technology to minimize turbidity and re-suspension of solids during dredging. It is proposed to deposit the sediment on the reservoir bottoms, upstream of the areas to be dredged. The dredged sediments subsequently would be flushed from the reservoirs during SPT operations to ultimately be deposited in the dead storage volume of a large downstream reservoir, Lake Oroville. The SPT management plan supersedes more costly plans for major dredging, and may preclude the need for future maintenance dredging at the reservoirs.

  1. Enhancing the Spontaneous Imbibition Process in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs through Wettability Alteration Using Surfactants: Mechanistic Study and Feasibility of Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Waste Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salehi, Mehdi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to adsorption onto the reservoir rock, because for the process to be effective, the injected surfactant solution should be able to penetrate deep into the reservoir. So, in this work, static and dynamic adsorption isotherms for both biosurfactant and benchmark...

  2. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, William C.; Trentham, Robert C.; Widner, Kevin; Wienbrandt, Richard

    1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A project to recover economic amounts of oil from a very mature oil field is being conducted by Laguna Petroleum Corporation of Midland, Texas, with partial funding from a U. S. Department of Energy grant to study shallow carbonate rock reservoirs. The objectives of the project are to use modern engineering methods to optimize oil field management and to use geological and geophysical data to recover untapped potential within the petroleum reservoirs. The integration of data and techniques from these disciplines has yielded results greater than those achievable without their cooperation. The cost of successfully accomplishing these goals is to be low enough for even small independent operators to afford. This article is a report describing accomplishments for the fiscal year 1997-1998.

  3. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities were identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program currently being implemented is a result of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  4. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wave-induced variations of pore pressure in a partially-saturated reservoir result in oscillatory liquid flow. The viscous losses during this flow are responsible for wave attenuation. The same viscous effects determine the changes in the dynamic bulk modulus of the system versus frequency. These changes are necessarily linked to attenuation via the causality condition. We analytically quantify the frequency dependence of the bulk modulus of a partially saturated rock by assuming that saturation is patchy and then link these changes to the inverse quality factor. As a result, the P-wave attenuation is quantitatively linked to saturation and thus can serve as a saturation indicator.

  5. 4D Seismic to Image a Thin Carbonate Reservoir During a Miscible CO2 Flood: Hall-Gurney Field, Kansas, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raef, A.E.; Miller, Richard D.; Franseen, Evan K.; Byrnes, A.P.; Watney, W.L.; Harrison, W.E.

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and processing, and use of amplitude envelope 4D horizon attributes. Comparison of production data and reservoir simulations to seismic images provided a measure of the effectiveness of time-lapse (TL) to detect weak anomalies associated with changes in fluid...

  6. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  7. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the main objectives of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. As part of the project, several field demonstrations were undertaken to assess the validity and usefulness of the microbial surface geochemical technique. The important observations from each of these field demonstrations are briefly reviewed in this annual report. These demonstrations have been successful in identifying the presence or lack of hydrocarbons in the subsurface and can be summarized as follows: (1) The surface geochemistry data showed a fair-to-good microbial anomaly that may indicate the presence of a fault or stratigraphic facies change across the drilling path of the State Springdale & O'Driscoll No.16-16 horizontal demonstration well in Manistee County, Michigan. The well was put on production in December 2003. To date, the well is flowing nearly 100 barrels of liquid hydrocarbons per day plus gas, which is a good well in Michigan. Reserves have not been established yet. Two successful follow-up horizontal wells have also been drilled in the Springdale area. Additional geochemistry data will be collected in the Springdale area in 2004. (2) The surface geochemistry sampling in the Bear Lake demonstration site in Manistee County, Michigan was updated after the prospect was confirmed and production begun; the original subsurface and seismic interpretation used to guide the location of the geochemical survey for the Charlich Fauble re-entry was different than the interpretation used by the operator who ultimately drilled the well. As expected, the anomaly appears to be diminishing as the positive (apical) microbial anomaly is replaced by a negative (edge) anomaly, probably due to the pressure draw-down in the reservoir. (3) The geochemical sampling program over the Vernon Field, Isabella County, Michigan is now interpreted as a large negative anomaly associated with the entire field. The results of the State Smock horizontal well and the Bowers 4-25 well confirmed the lack of additional recoverable hydrocarbons in the Vernon Field. (4) The surface geochemistry data showed a strong anomaly in the Myrtle Beach, Burke County, North Dakota area that would justify drilling by itself and even more so in conjunction with the structural interpretation from the geological and geophysical data; the microbial values here were the highest we have observed. The Myrtle Beach geochemical survey indicated a good to excellent prospect which was confirmed by drilling, however, a pipeline has not yet been completed that would allow the wells to be placed into production. We also present in this annual report the results of recent efforts to map carbonate facies tracts in the middle Devonian Dundee and Rogers City Limestones using gamma ray, bulk density, and photoelectric effect geophysical well log amplitudes. This work was undertaken to identify fairways for exploration in the Dundee and Rogers City where surface geochemical techniques could then be used to screen potential leads.

  8. average sedimentary rock: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    challenge of interpreting environmental tracer concentrations in fractured rock and carbonate aquifers Multidisciplinary Databases and Resources Websites Summary: are reported to...

  9. altered sedimentary rocks: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    challenge of interpreting environmental tracer concentrations in fractured rock and carbonate aquifers Multidisciplinary Databases and Resources Websites Summary: are reported to...

  10. Paleotectonic controls on reservoir distribution in Phosphoria formation and related strata, Bighorn basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.S.; Inden, R.F.; Sturm, S.D.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porosity development and reservoir distribution in the Permian rocks of the Bighorn basin were strongly controlled by the first- and second-order paleotectonic elements active in the Wyoming shelf. First-order elements, including the Greybull arch, Bighorn high, and an extension of the Yellowstone high, defined the basin geometry and regional paleogeography, influenced the distribution of clastic vs. carbonate lithofacies, and controlled the areal extent and degree of porosity enhancing dolomitization. Second-order tectonic features, related to drape and/or movement along syndepositional basement fault systems, also influenced patterns of Permian sedimentation by providing localized sites of differential subsidence and subtle but persistent paleobathymetric relief. Among the most significant exploration targets in the basin are the trends of peritidal and restricted marine reservoirs in the Franson and Ervay Members. Porous dolomites in these facies developed within and adjacent to two separate shoaling trends. Contrary to popular belief, these trends do not represent true carbonate shorelines. Rather, they define a fairway of discontinuous island-peninsula complexes bounded on the west by more open-marine carbonates and on the east by a broad, restricted lagoon or salina filled with subaqueous evaporites and siliciclastics. The trends of the peritidal facies are centered over underlying tectonic elements. The relatively unexplored fairway in the Franson Member is centered over a northwest-trending extension of the Yellowstone high. Equivalent facies in the Ervay are offset to the east, paralleling the faulted western margin of the ancestral Bighorn high.

  11. Q00906010024 rock check dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    00906010024 rock check dam Q00906010025 rock check dam Q00906010021 rock check dam Q00906010022 rock check dam Q00906010027 rock check dam Q00906010026 rock check dam Q00906010018 rock check dam Q00906010023 rock check dam Q00906010011 rock check dam Q00906010008 rock check dam Q00906010007 rock check dam Q

  12. Seawater can damage Saudi sandstone oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahab, A.S. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (SA))

    1990-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have shown that formation damage from waterflooding of the Aramco and Alkhafji sandstones of Saudi Arabia will not occur if the salinity of the injected brines is higher than 20% NaCl. Because the connate water in these reservoirs has a high salt content of up to 231,000 ppm, Saudi oil fields are almost always susceptible to formation damage when flooded with seawater (about 38,500 ppm). The productive behavior of a reservoir can be affected by clay crystals developed within rock pores.

  13. 2. INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 STUDY OF WATERFLOODING PROCESS IN NATURALLY FRACTURED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    , followed by waterflooding, were performed at reservoir conditions to investigate rock wettability. A two Berea and Spraberry cores at reservoir conditions to illustrate the actual process of waterflooding- 31 - 2. INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 STUDY OF WATERFLOODING PROCESS

  14. PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 30-February 1, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -well system and to create an enhanced permeability fractured rock reservoir by hydraulic stimulations. DuePROCEEDINGS, Thirty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 30-February 1, 2006 SGP-TR-179 CREATION OF AN HDR RESERVOIR AT 5000 M DEPTH

  15. An Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins: Part 1: Evaluation of Phase 2 CO{sub 2} Injection Testing in the Deep Saline Gunter Sandstone Reservoir (Cambro-Ordovician Knox Group), Marvin Blan No. 1 Hancock County, Kentucky Part 2: Time-lapse Three-Dimensional Vertical Seismic Profile (3D-VSP) of Sequestration Target Interval with Injected Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Bowersox; John Hickman; Hannes Leetaru

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Part 1 of this report focuses on results of the western Kentucky carbon storage test, and provides a basis for evaluating injection and storage of supercritical CO{sub 2} in Cambro-Ordovician carbonate reservoirs throughout the U.S. Midcontinent. This test demonstrated that the Cambro- Ordovician Knox Group, including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite in stratigraphic succession from shallowest to deepest, had reservoir properties suitable for supercritical CO{sub 2} storage in a deep saline reservoir hosted in carbonate rocks, and that strata with properties sufficient for long-term confinement of supercritical CO{sub 2} were present in the deep subsurface. Injection testing with brine and CO{sub 2} was completed in two phases. The first phase, a joint project by the Kentucky Geological Survey and the Western Kentucky Carbon Storage Foundation, drilled the Marvin Blan No. 1 carbon storage research well and tested the entire Knox Group section in the open borehole � including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite � at 1152�2255 m, below casing cemented at 1116 m. During Phase 1 injection testing, most of the 297 tonnes of supercritical CO{sub 2} was displaced into porous and permeable sections of the lowermost Beekmantown below 1463 m and Gunter. The wellbore was then temporarily abandoned with a retrievable bridge plug in casing at 1105 m and two downhole pressure-temperature monitoring gauges below the bridge plug pending subsequent testing. Pressure and temperature data were recorded every minute for slightly more than a year, providing a unique record of subsurface reservoir conditions in the Knox. In contrast, Phase 2 testing, this study, tested a mechanically-isolated dolomitic-sandstone interval in the Gunter. Operations in the Phase 2 testing program commenced with retrieval of the bridge plug and long-term pressure gauges, followed by mechanical isolation of the Gunter by plugging the wellbore with cement below the injection zone at 1605.7 m, then cementing a section of a 14-cm casing at 1470.4�1535.6. The resultant 70.1-m test interval at 1535.6�1605.7 m included nearly all of the Gunter sandstone facies. During the Phase 2 injection, 333 tonnes of CO{sub 2} were injected into the thick, lower sand section in the sandy member of the Gunter. Following the completion of testing, the injection zone below casing at 1116 m in the Marvin Blan No. 1 well, and wellbore below 305 m was permanently abandoned with cement plugs and the wellsite reclaimed. The range of most-likely storage capacities found in the Knox in the Marvin Blan No. 1 is 1000 tonnes per surface hectare in the Phase 2 Gunter interval to 8685 tonnes per surface hectare if the entire Knox section were available including the fractured interval near the base of the Copper Ridge. By itself the Gunter lacks sufficient reservoir volume to be considered for CO{sub 2} storage, although it may provide up to 18% of the reservoir volume available in the Knox. Regional extrapolation of CO{sub 2} storage potential based on the results of a single well test can be problematic, although indirect evidence of porosity and permeability can be demonstrated in the form of active saltwater-disposal wells injecting into the Knox. The western Kentucky region suitable for CO{sub 2} storage in the Knox is limited updip, to the east and south, by the depth at which the base of the Maquoketa shale lies above the depth required to ensure storage of CO{sub 2} in its supercritical state and the deepest a commercial well might be drilled for CO{sub 2} storage. The resulting prospective region has an area of approximately 15,600 km{sup 2}, beyond which it is unlikely that suitable Knox reservoirs may be developed. Faults in the subsurface, which serve as conduits for CO{sub 2} migration and compromise sealing strata, may mitigate the area with Knox reservoirs suitable for CO{sub 2} storage. The results of the injection tes

  16. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czirr, K.L.; Owen, R.; Robertson, C.R.; Harpole, K.J.; Durrett, E.G.

    1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This project consist of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. During this phase the Reservoir Analysis and Characterization Task and the Advanced Technology Definition Task were completed. Completion of these tasks enabled the project to be designed, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation to be generated and submitted to the working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consists of the implementation and execution of the project in the field.

  17. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SANANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2003-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; (7) Mobility control agents.

  18. Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. [Jurassic Smackover Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Moore, H.E. Jr.; Mann, S.D.; Hall, D.R.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains maps, well logging correlated to porosity and permeability, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plot, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence and reservoir characterization sheet of the following fields in southwest Alabama: Appleton oil field; Barnett oil field; Barrytown oil field; Big Escambia Creek gas and condensate field; Blacksher oil field; Broken Leg Creed oil field; Bucatunna Creed oil field; Chappell Hill oil field; Chatom gas and condensate field; Choctaw Ridge oil field; Chunchula gas and condensate field; Cold Creek oil field; Copeland gas and condensate field; Crosbys Creed gas and condensate field; and East Barnett oil field. (AT)

  19. Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. Appendix 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Moore, H.E. Jr.; Mann, S.D.; Hall, D.R.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains maps, well logging correlated to porosity and permeability, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plot, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence and reservoir characterization sheet of the following fields in southwest Alabama: Appleton oil field; Barnett oil field; Barrytown oil field; Big Escambia Creek gas and condensate field; Blacksher oil field; Broken Leg Creed oil field; Bucatunna Creed oil field; Chappell Hill oil field; Chatom gas and condensate field; Choctaw Ridge oil field; Chunchula gas and condensate field; Cold Creek oil field; Copeland gas and condensate field; Crosbys Creed gas and condensate field; and East Barnett oil field. (AT)

  20. Analysis of a geopressured gas reservoir using solution plot method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussain, Syed Muqeedul

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reservoir to estimate OGIP, c~ and W~. The only input parameters required are the pressure-production data. 2. It is important to recognize that all the energy sources i. e. expansion of gas, rock and water, and water influx may be active at any time... geopressured gas reservoir has been observed to deviate from the theoretical straight line of the Solution plot. These deviations have been designated as Tail 1 and Tail 2. Tail 1, exhibiting increasing effective compressibility is a response to rock...

  1. The Effect of Proppant Size and Concentration on Hydraulic Fracture Conductivity in Shale Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamenov, Anton

    2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydraulic fracture conductivity in ultra-low permeability shale reservoirs is directly related to well productivity. The main goal of hydraulic fracturing in shale formations is to create a network of conductive pathways in the rock which increase...

  2. Structural Reliability: Assessing the Condition and Reliability of Casing in Compacting Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chantose, Prasongsit

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . Effective stress may exceed rock compressive strength, inducing compaction. Wells in compacting reservoirs risk high failure and deformation rates. This project introduces the concept of structural reliability to quantify casing failure risks in compacting...

  3. Geophysical characterization of the effects of fractures and stress on subsurface reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Xinding, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of fractures on reservoir characterization and subsurface rock property measurements using seismic data. Based on the scale of a fracture relative to seismic wavelength, we divide the dissertation into ...

  4. The Effect of Proppant Size and Concentration on Hydraulic Fracture Conductivity in Shale Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamenov, Anton

    2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydraulic fracture conductivity in ultra-low permeability shale reservoirs is directly related to well productivity. The main goal of hydraulic fracturing in shale formations is to create a network of conductive pathways in the rock which increase...

  5. Assessing the influence of diagenesis on reservoir quality: Happy Spraberry Field, Garza County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazingue-Desailly, Vincent Philippe Guillaume

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    marine oolitic shoal mounds. Best reservoir rocks are found in the oolitic-skeletal packstones. Diagenesis occurred in several phases and includes (1) micritization, (2) stabilization of skeletal fragments, (3) recrystallization of lime mud, (4) intense...

  6. Experimental and Simulation Studies to Evaluate the Improvement of Oil Recovery by Different Modes of CO2 Injection in Carbonate Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleidan, Ahmed Abdulaziz S.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and numerical simulation studies were conducted to investigate the improvement of light oil recovery in carbonate cores during CO2 injection. The main steps in the study are as follows. First, the minimum miscibility pressure of 31º...

  7. Reservoir Character of the Avalon Shale (Bone Spring Formation) of the Delaware Basin, West Texas and Southeast New Mexico: Effect of Carbonate-rich Sediment Gravity Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stolz, Dustin

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Sediment gravity flows (SGFs) can distribute large quantities of shelfal or slope carbonates into deeper basinal settings, forming complex heterogeneous deposits. Such deposits may have a negative or positive impact on ...

  8. Multiscale heterogeneity characterization of tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies, Almond Formation outcrops, Rock Springs uplift, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatzinger, R.A.; Tomutsa, L. [BDM Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to accurately predict fluid flow within a reservoir, variability in the rock properties at all scales relevant to the specific depositional environment needs to be taken into account. The present work describes rock variability at scales from hundreds of meters (facies level) to millimeters (laminae) based on outcrop studies of the Almond Formation. Tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies were sampled on the eastern flank of the Rock Springs uplift, southeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming. The Almond Fm. was deposited as part of a mesotidal Upper Cretaceous transgressive systems tract within the greater Green River Basin. Bedding style, lithology, lateral extent of beds of bedsets, bed thickness, amount and distribution of depositional clay matrix, bioturbation and grain sorting provide controls on sandstone properties that may vary more than an order of magnitude within and between depositional facies in outcrops of the Almond Formation. These features can be mapped on the scale of an outcrop. The products of diagenesis such as the relative timing of carbonate cement, scale of cemented zones, continuity of cemented zones, selectively leached framework grains, lateral variability of compaction of sedimentary rock fragments, and the resultant pore structure play an equally important, although less predictable role in determining rock property heterogeneity. A knowledge of the spatial distribution of the products of diagenesis such as calcite cement or compaction is critical to modeling variation even within a single facies in the Almond Fin. because diagenesis can enhance or reduce primary (depositional) rock property heterogeneity. Application of outcrop heterogeneity models to the subsurface is greatly hindered by differences in diagenesis between the two settings. The measurements upon which this study is based were performed both on drilled outcrop plugs and on blocks.

  9. age reservoirs west: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Economic analysis of waterflood infill drilling in West Texas carbonate reservoirs Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: ECONOMIC...

  10. The effects of gas-fluid-rock interactions on CO2 injection and storage: Insights from reactive transport modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Y.; Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Possible means of reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions include injecting CO{sub 2} in petroleum reservoirs for Enhanced Oil Recovery or storing CO{sub 2} in deep saline aquifers. Large-scale injection of CO{sub 2} into subsurface reservoirs would induce a complex interplay of multiphase flow, capillary trapping, dissolution, diffusion, convection, and chemical reactions that may have significant impacts on both short-term injection performance and long-term fate of CO{sub 2} storage. Reactive Transport Modeling is a promising approach that can be used to predict the spatial and temporal evolution of injected CO{sub 2} and associated gas-fluid-rock interactions. This presentation will summarize recent advances in reactive transport modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and review key technical issues on (1) the short- and long-term behavior of injected CO{sub 2} in geological formations; (2) the role of reservoir mineral heterogeneity on injection performance and storage security; (3) the effect of gas mixtures (e.g., H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}) on CO{sub 2} storage; and (4) the physical and chemical processes during potential leakage of CO{sub 2} from the primary storage reservoir. Simulation results suggest that CO{sub 2} trapping capacity, rate, and impact on reservoir rocks depend on primary mineral composition and injecting gas mixtures. For example, models predict that the injection of CO{sub 2} alone or co-injection with H{sub 2}S in both sandstone and carbonate reservoirs lead to acidified zones and mineral dissolution adjacent to the injection well, and carbonate precipitation and mineral trapping away from the well. Co-injection of CO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S and in particular with SO{sub 2} causes greater formation alteration and complex sulfur mineral (alunite, anhydrite, and pyrite) trapping, sometimes at a much faster rate than previously thought. The results from Reactive Transport Modeling provide valuable insights for analyzing and assessing the dynamic behaviors of injected CO{sub 2}, identifying and characterizing potential storage sites, and managing injection performance and reducing costs.

  11. Genetic pore typing as a means of characterizing reservoir flow units: san andres, sunflower field, terry country, texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humbolt, Aubrey Nicole

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonate reservoirs are characteristically heterogeneous in reservoir quality and performance owing to the variety of processes that influence pore formation. Additionally, porosity and permeability do not conform to depositional facies boundaries...

  12. Properties of CO2-Rich Pore Fluids and Their Effect on Porosity Evolution in EGS Rocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Quantify key parameters critically needed for developing and validating numerical modeling of chemical interactions between EGS reservoir rocks and supercritical CO2and CO2-rich aqueous fluids.

  13. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. During this reporting period, a new field demonstration, Springdale Prospect in Manistee County, Michigan was begun to assess the validity and usefulness of the microbial surface geochemical technique. The surface geochemistry data showed a fair-to-good microbial anomaly that may indicate the presence of a fault or stratigraphic facies change across the drilling path. The surface geochemistry sampling at the original Bear Lake demonstration site was updated several months after the prospect was confirmed and production begun. As expected, the anomaly appears to be diminishing as the positive (apical) anomaly is replaced by a negative (edge) anomaly, probably due to the pressure draw-down in the reservoir.

  14. RESERVOIR MODEL OPTIMIZATION UNDER UNCERTAINTY Sasanka Are, Paul Dostert, Bree Ettinger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    models for a simple oil reser- voir. Besides estimating NPV for certain high/low scenarios, we used permeability field. 2 #12;1 Introduction 1.1 Reservoir Simulation and Darcy's Law 1.1.1 Reservoir Simulation. The movement of the fluids through the rock can be described using convection/diffusion equations

  15. Fractured shale reservoirs: Towards a realistic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton-Smith, T. [Applied Earth Science, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fractured shale reservoirs are fundamentally unconventional, which is to say that their behavior is qualitatively different from reservoirs characterized by intergranular pore space. Attempts to analyze fractured shale reservoirs are essentially misleading. Reliance on such models can have only negative results for fractured shale oil and gas exploration and development. A realistic model of fractured shale reservoirs begins with the history of the shale as a hydrocarbon source rock. Minimum levels of both kerogen concentration and thermal maturity are required for effective hydrocarbon generation. Hydrocarbon generation results in overpressuring of the shale. At some critical level of repressuring, the shale fractures in the ambient stress field. This primary natural fracture system is fundamental to the future behavior of the fractured shale gas reservoir. The fractures facilitate primary migration of oil and gas out of the shale and into the basin. In this process, all connate water is expelled, leaving the fractured shale oil-wet and saturated with oil and gas. What fluids are eventually produced from the fractured shale depends on the consequent structural and geochemical history. As long as the shale remains hot, oil production may be obtained. (e.g. Bakken Shale, Green River Shale). If the shale is significantly cooled, mainly gas will be produced (e.g. Antrim Shale, Ohio Shale, New Albany Shale). Where secondary natural fracture systems are developed and connect the shale to aquifers or to surface recharge, the fractured shale will also produce water (e.g. Antrim Shale, Indiana New Albany Shale).

  16. 2 INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRUDE/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION AT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    44 2 INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRUDE of imbibition or oil production rate, particularly after seven days or more aging time with oil. However in this section and expand the understanding of the interactions of the Spraberry reservoir rock, oil and brine

  17. Acid Fracture and Fracture Conductivity Study of Field Rock Samples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, Jarrod

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    carbonate reservoir were labeled A through F to protect proprietary information included in this research. A 2% potassium chloride solution was used for the acid system and fracture conductivity measurements to prevent clay swelling. Injection temperature...

  18. The US Hot Dry Rock project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, R.H.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy project began in the early 1970's with the objective of developing a technology to make economically available the large ubiquitous thermal energy of the upper earth crust. The program has been funded by the Department of Energy (and its predecessors) and for a few years with participation by West Germany and Japan. An energy reservoir was accessed by drilling and hydraulically fracturing in the precambrian basement rock outside the Valles Caldera of north-central New Mexico. Water was circulated through the reservoir (Phase I, 1978-1980) producing up to 5 MWt at 132/sup 0/C. A second (Phase II) reservoir has been established with a deeper pair of holes and an initial flow test completed producing about 10 MWt at 190/sup 0/C. These accomplishments have been supported and paralleled by developments in drilling, well completion and instrumentation hardware. Acoustic or microseismic fracture mapping and geochemistry studies in addition to hydraulic and thermal data contribute to reservoir analyses. Studies of some of the estimated 430,000 quads of HDR resources in the United States have been made with special attention focused on sites most advantageous for early development.

  19. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Final report, September 25, 1992--July 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the research program were to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems--KUSP1 systems that contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethyl phthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to supercritical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

  20. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, September 25, 1994--September 24, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the research program are to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems -- KUSP1 systems which contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethylphthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system. The KUSP1 polymer-ester system and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to super-critical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

  1. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LOWER GREEN RIVER FORMATION, SOUTHWEST UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Robert Bereskin

    2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Anastamosing, low gradient distributary channels produce {approx}30 gravity, paraffinic oils from the Middle Member of the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation in the south-central portion of the Uinta Basin. This localized depocenter was situated along the fluctuating southern shoreline of Lake Uinta, where complex deposits of marginal-lacustrine to lower delta plain accumulations are especially characteristic. The Middle Member contains several fining-upward parasequences that can be recognized in outcrop, core, and downhole logs. Each parasequence is about 60 to 120 feet thick and consists of strata deposited during multiple lake level fluctuations that approach 30 to 35 feet in individual thickness. Such parasequences represent 300,000-year cycles based on limited absolute age dating. The subaerial to subaqueous channels commonly possess an erosional base and exhibit a fining upward character. Accordingly, bedding features commonly range from large-scale trough and planar cross bedding or lamination at the base, to a nonreservoir, climbing ripple assemblage near the uppermost reservoir boundary. The best reservoir quality occurs within the laminated to cross-stratified portions, and the climbing ripple phase usually possesses more deleterious micas and/or detrital clays. Diagenesis also exerts a major control on reservoir quality. Certain sandstones were cemented by an early, iron-poor calcite cement, which can be subsequently leached. Secondary intergranular porosity (up to 20%) is largely responsible for the 10 -100 millidarcy rock, which represents petrophysical objectives for both primary and secondary production. Otherwise, intense compaction, silicic and iron-rich carbonate cements, and authigenic clays serve to reduce reservoir quality to marginal economic levels.

  2. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  3. Geochemistry of selected oils and rocks from the central portion of the West Siberian basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, K.E.; Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)); Kontorovich, A.Eh.; Andrusevich, V.E. (Inst. of Geology, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Moldowan, J.M. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Demaison, G.J. (Petroscience Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)); Stasova, O.F. (NPO SIBGEO, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six analyzed oils, produced from Middle jurassic to Upper Cretaceous strata in the Middle Ob region of the West Siberian basin, show biomarker and stable carbon isotope compositions indicating an origin from the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation. The chemical compositions of these oils are representative of more than 85% of the reserves in West Siberia (Kontorovich et al., 1975). Bazhenov-sourced oil in Cenomanian strata in the Van-Egan field underwent biodegradation in the reservoir, resulting in a low API gravity, an altered homohopane distribution, and the appearance of 25-norhopanes without alteration of the steranes. High API gravity oil from the Salym field has surpassed the peak of the oil window, consistent with abnormally high temperatures and pressures in the Bazhenov source rock from which it is produced. The remaining oils are very similar, including samples from Valanginian and Bathonian-Callovian intervals in a sequence of stacked reservoirs in the Fedorov field. Bazhenov rock samples from the study area contain abundant oil-prone, marine organic matter preserved under anoxic conditions. While the Upper Jurassic Vasyugan Formation shows lower oil-regenerative potential than the Bazhenov Formation, it cannot be excluded as a source rock because insufficient sample was available for biomarker analysis. Core from the Lower to Middle Jurassic Tyumen Formation in the YemYegov 15 well was compared with the oils because it is thermally mature and shows TOC and HI values, indicating slightly more favorable oil-generative characteristics than the average for the formation (2.75 wt. % for 270 samples; 95 mg HC/g TOC for 25 samples). The core contains terrigenous, gas-prone organic matter that shows no relationship with the analyzed oils. 59 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. A Handbook for the Application of Seismic Methods for Quantifying Naturally Fractured Gas Reservoirs in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    data in the Mesaverde was to perform the analysis on the reservoir rock (lithology): sand, not shale.reservoir and in the formations above the Lewis shale the datadata could not be explained without the fracture-induced anisotropy in the reservoir and above the Lewis shale.

  5. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Annual report, June 13, 1994--June 12, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pande, P.K.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period have consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities are being identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program will be implemented using the results of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  6. Petro-electric modeling for CSEM reservoir characterization and monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Key, Kerry

    underground gas storage reservoir and demon- strated that the data are repeatable enough to detect in the magnetic and electric fields emitted in the vicinity of the sea floor by electric dipole transmitters fields, or inverted attributes, e.g., rock resis- tivity, can be associated to changes in fluid

  7. Reservoir Model Information System: REMIS Sang Yun Lee*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    exploration and analysis of data sets as well as user collaboration in an easier way. Our framework consists of multiple data sets such as seismic data, well data, well test data, geologic data, rock and fluid data describe a novel data visualization framework named Reservoir Model Information System (REMIS

  8. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principal objectives of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. During this reporting period, microbial samples were collected from the Trusty Steed prospect area in Grand Traverse County, Michigan. The samples were analyzed using the Microbial Oil Surveying Technique (MOST) technique and revealed only a local (1-point) anomaly. A decision to resample over that point is pending, but drilling has been postponed for the time being. The main news this reporting period is that in the Bear Lake area, northwest Michigan, Federated Oil & Gas Properties' Charlich-Fauble 2-9HD horizontal lateral, has cumulative production of more than 72,000 barrels of oil and is still producing 50 to 75 bopd from a Silurian Niagaran reef reservoir eighteen months after the well was completed. Surface geochemical surveys conducted in the demonstration area were consistent with production results although the ultimate decision to drill was based on interpretation of conventional subsurface and 2D seismic data. The surface geochemical techniques employed were Solid Phase MicroExtraction (SPME) and MOST. The geochemical results have been submitted to World Oil for publication. New geochemical surveys are planned for November in the Springdale quadrangle in Manistee County, Michigan. These surveys will concentrate on sampling over the trace of the proposed horizontal wells rather than a broad grid survey.

  9. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR; VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. During this reporting period, a new field demonstration, Springdale Prospect in Manistee County, Michigan was begun to assess the validity and usefulness of the microbial surface geochemical technique. The surface geochemistry data showed a fair-to-good microbial anomaly that may indicate the presence of a fault or stratigraphic facies change across the drilling path. The main news this reporting period is the confirmed discovery of producing hydrocarbons at the State Springdale & O'Driscoll No.16-16 demonstration well in Manistee County. This well was spudded in late November, tested and put on production in December 2003. To date it is flowing nearly 100 barrels of liquid hydrocarbons per day, which is a good well in Michigan. Reserves have not been established yet. The surface geochemistry sampling at the Springdale demonstration site will be repeated this spring after the well has been on production for several months to see if the anomaly pattern changes. We expect that the anomaly will diminish as the original positive (apical) anomaly is replaced by a negative (edge) anomaly, probably due to the pressure draw-down in the reservoir. This is the behavior that we observed at the Bear lake demonstration well reported last quarter.

  10. V00306010057 rock check dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ¬« ¬« ¬« ¬« ¬« XY! 16-020 16-030(c) 16-026(l) 16-028(c) 16-026(l) V00306010057 rock check dam V00306010012 rock check dam V00306010040 rock check dam V00306010039 rock check dam V00306010058 rock check dam V00306010064 rock check dam V00306010061 rock check dam V00306010062 rock check dam V00306010063

  11. Seismic and Rockphysics Diagnostics of Multiscale Reservoir Textures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final technical report summarizes the results of the work done in this project. The main objective was to quantify rock microstructures and their effects in terms of elastic impedances in order to quantify the seismic signatures of microstructures. Acoustic microscopy and ultrasonic measurements were used to quantify microstructures and their effects on elastic impedances in sands and shales. The project led to the development of technologies for quantitatively interpreting rock microstructure images, understanding the effects of sorting, compaction and stratification in sediments, and linking elastic data with geologic models to estimate reservoir properties. For the public, ultimately, better technologies for reservoir characterization translates to better reservoir development, reduced risks, and hence reduced energy costs.

  12. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  13. The Effect Of Viscoelastic Surfactants Used In Carbonate Matrix Acidizing On Wettability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adejare, Oladapo

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    " and "B" on the wettability of Austin cream chalk using contact angle experiments. We extended the previous study by using outcrop rocks prepared to simulate reservoir conditions, by demonstrating that VES adsorbs on the rock using two-phase titration...

  14. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTRY, MI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this demonstration project is to test surface geochemical techniques for detecting trace amounts of light hydrocarbons in pore gases as a means of reducing risk in hydrocarbon exploration and production. A major part of the remaining project will focus on using surface geochemistry to delineate prospects. A Niagaran reef field geochemical survey, the Bagley Prospect area in Otsego County, Michigan is scheduled to take place this summer. Previous wells drilled in Bagley Prospect area in the early 1970's and in place in late 2002 and early 2003 resulted in discoveries and numerous hydrocarbon shows in the Brown Niagaran reservoir interval. The Bagley region is still considered an area of interest by the industry and appears ripe for a geochemical survey. Our industry partner is interested in a possible test in the Bagley prospect because subsurface geophysical and geological interpretation indicates the presence of structures. Anomalous production and pressure data further suggest the region is not yet well understood and should not be considered mature. The most recent well, the Bagley 1-22A sidetrack, was unsuccessful at locating a new reef culmination to the south of the original vertical well and did not encounter hydrocarbon shows. The sidetrack and well were plugged and abandoned. The proposed geochemical survey will concentrate on areas away from the Bagley 1-22A to the north and west but will include the entire prospect so that the existing data can be used in interpretations. Bagley appears to offer a unique combination of potential and data for a geochemical study that focuses on looking for new oil in an area that has exhausted traditional geologic and geophysical methods. The Bear Lake pinnacle reef trend in Manistee County, Michigan, is also scheduled for further geochemical work this summer. Industry interest, mostly by small companies, is picking up in this area and it is also ripe for targeted geochemical surveys for the same reasons cited above.

  15. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2D SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; T.J. Bornhorst; S.D. Chittichk; William B. Harrison; W. Quinlan

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The geochemical sampling team collected additional 148 samples at Vernon Field along 5 new traverses. Most of the locations were sampled for three types of analyses: microbial, iodine and enzyme leach; no results from the second batch of samples were available in time for this report. In addition to the sampling, a study was begun on the feasibility of collecting and analyzing hydrocarbon gases (C1-C8) directly. Although several companies offer these services, the cost ($200-300/sample w/o sampling fee) is high, on par with the cost of a 3D seismic survey, and may not include the raw data. However direct sampling of reservoir gases collecting in the soil appear to offer the best approach and should be included in this study. It would probably work well at Vernon Field. It may be possible to lower costs considerably; initial estimates of $20/sample for GCMS (Gas Chromatography--mass spectrometry) analysis are attractive and might induce to Michigan producers to include soil surveys in their routine field work-ups. A complete set of digital data was assembled for Vernon Field and nearby locations. The set consists of well locations, formation top picks, lithologies and scanned images of driller's reports and scout tickets. Well logs are still being located. The annual meeting for the Class Revisit work group is tentatively scheduled for the week of March 1-7 in Tampa, Fl. By that time all of the geochemical data will be available and final decisions regarding drilling can be made.

  16. USING RECENT ADVANCES IN 2ND SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY AND SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY TO ECONOMICALLY REDEVELOP A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE RESERVOIR: VERNON FIELD, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; A. Wylie; W. Quinlan

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Three horizontal wells have been completed (St. Springdale & Trezil 9-15 HD, St. Springdale 13-14 HD, St. Springdale & Stedronsky 10-15 HD) and three more wells were spudded (St. Springdale & CSX 2-22 HD, St. Springdale & Mann 9-21 HD and St. Springdale 7-22 HD) in the Springdale play this past reporting period. All are horizontal wells in the Brown Niagaran. This brings the total wells in the play to 12 with seven wells contributing to a total daily production exceeding 350 bbls/day. Data from these wells has been converted from drillers logs (footage calls) and converted to Michigan GeoRef coordinates and plotted. The Gamma Ray data along the well bore was available since it was used to steer the tool during drilling and this data was superimposed on the well trajectories in an effort to help distinguish pay zones from unproductive rock. One new geochemical survey was conducted over the projected surface path of the State Springdale & Stedronsky 14-15 HD and a final project survey was planned over one of the unsurveyed wells. This will bring the total surveyed wells to five and should provide enough data to determine if the idea of only sampling along the well bore is a sound strategy.

  17. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development in the USA David Duchane and Donald Brown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development in the USA by David Duchane and Donald Brown Los of the world's store of geothermal energy. The real potential for growth in the use of geothermal energy lies-engineered geothermal reservoir in hot, crystalline rock by the application of hydraulic fracturing techniques

  18. SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE APPLYING ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capture and storage of Carbon dioxide in aquifers and reservoirs is one of the solutions to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Geophysical methods can be used to

  19. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of the proposed study are as follows: (1) To understand and evaluate an unusual primary oil production mechanism which results in decreasing (retrograde) oil cut (ROC) behavior as reservoir pressure declines. (2) To improve calculations of initial oil in place so as to determine the economic feasibility of completing and producing a well. (3) To optimize the location of new wells based on understanding of geological and petrophysical properties heterogeneities. (4) To evaluate various secondary recovery techniques for oil reservoirs producing from fractured formations. (5) To enhance the productivity of producing wells by using new completion techniques. These objectives are important for optimizing field performance from West Carney Field located in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. The field, which was discovered in 1980, produces from Hunton Formation in a shallow-shelf carbonate reservoir. The early development in the field was sporadic. Many of the initial wells were abandoned due to high water production and constraints in surface facilities for disposing excess produced water. The field development began in earnest in 1995 by Altex Resources. They had recognized that production from this field was only possible if large volumes of water can be disposed. Being able to dispose large amounts of water, Altex aggressively drilled several producers. With few exceptions, all these wells exhibited similar characteristics. The initial production indicated trace amount of oil and gas with mostly water as dominant phase. As the reservoir was depleted, the oil cut eventually improved, making the overall production feasible. The decreasing oil cut (ROC) behavior has not been well understood. However, the field has been subjected to intense drilling activity because of prior success of Altex Resources. In this work, we will investigate the primary production mechanism by conducting several core flood experiments. After collecting cores from representative wells, we will study the wettability of the rock and simulate the depletion behavior by mimicking such behavior under controlled lab conditions. The overall project goal would be to validate our hypothesis and to determine the best method to exploit reservoirs exhibiting ROC behavior. To that end, we have completed the Budget Period I and have fulfilled many of the objectives. We have developed a viable model to explain the reservoir mechanism and have been able to develop a correlation between core and log data so that we can extend our analysis to other, yet unexploited, regions. In Budget Period II, we will continue to drill several additional, geologically targeted wells. Depending on the depositional system, these wells can be either vertical or horizontal wells. We will closely examine the secondary recovery techniques to improve the ultimate recovery from this field. In the mean time, we will continue to refine our geological and petrophysical model so that we can extend our approach to other adjacent fields. In the Budget Period III, we will monitor the field performance and revise and refine our models to further optimize the performance.

  20. Reservoir management using streamline simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of information and sparsity of data. Quantifying this uncertainty in terms of reservoir performance forecast poses a major reservoir management challenge. One solution to this problem is flow simulation of a large number of these plausible reservoir descriptions...

  1. HIGH TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, R.C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    upon the available reservoir data. If the latter data a r eThe use of measured data in reservoir engineering simulationdata on the condition of the well and the static reservoir

  2. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  3. Numerical modeling of carbon dioxide sequestration on the rate of pressure solution creep in limestone: Preliminary results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renard, Francois; Hellmann, Roland; Collombet, Marielle; Guen, Yvi Le

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When carbon dioxide (CO2) is injected into an aquifer or a depleted geological reservoir, its dissolution into solution results in acidification of the pore waters. As a consequence, the pore waters become more reactive, which leads to enhanced dissolution-precipitation processes and a modification of the mechanical and hydrological properties of the rock. This effect is especially important for limestones given that the solubility and reactivity of carbonates is strongly dependent on pH and the partial pressure of CO2. The main mechanism that couples dissolution, precipitation and rock matrix deformation is commonly referred to as intergranular pressure solution creep (IPS) or pervasive pressure solution creep (PSC). This process involves dissolution at intergranular grain contacts subject to elevated stress, diffusion of dissolved material in an intergranular fluid, and precipitation in pore spaces subject to lower stress. This leads to an overall and pervasive reduction in porosity due to both grain indent...

  4. Journal of Computational Mathematics, Vol.xx, No.x, 200x, 113. Reservoir Description By Using a Piecewise Constant Level Set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Tai Xue

    by multiphase flow equations. If the physical (rock) properties of the reservoir, such as porosity, permeability the rock properties. However, because of the sparsity of data, one shouldn't expect to identify the fine details. We focus on permeability estimation in this paper, and all the other rock properties

  5. V01406010015 rock check dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    XY! ¬« ¬« V01406010015 rock check dam V01406010014 rock check dam V01406010013 rock check dam 1501403010012 earthen berm V01403010008 earthen berm V01406010003 rock check dam V01406010004 rock check dam V01406010010 rock check dam V01406010011 rock check dam 15-0651 15-0307 15-0588 15-0532 15-0575 stormdrain 7160

  6. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a heterogeneity matrix'' based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  7. Carbon Cycle Discussion After the warm-up quiz, discuss the carbon cycle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrington, Emily

    Carbon Cycle Discussion After the warm-up quiz, discuss the carbon cycle. Carbon is one is without carbon. Where else is carbon on our Earth? In rocks, living organisms, the atmosphere, oceans Does carbon stay in one place? What processes include moving carbon? Introduce residence time: How long does

  8. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  9. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  10. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Scott Hickman

    2003-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  11. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  12. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj. Kumar; Keith Brown; T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2000-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  13. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    reservoir scenario. 1. INTRODUCTION Recent investigations of underground carbon dioxide storage for the simulation of carbon dioxide injection into geological formations is currently an intensive field of research

  14. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec

    2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the First Annual Report for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No., a three-year contract entitled: ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The research improved our knowledge and understanding of CO{sub 2} flooding and includes work in the areas of injectivity and mobility control. The bulk of this work has been performed by the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, a research division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. This report covers the reporting period of September 28, 2001 and September 27, 2002. Injectivity continues to be a concern to the industry. During this period we have contacted most of the CO{sub 2} operators in the Permian Basin and talked again about their problems in this area. This report has a summary of what we found. It is a given that carbonate mineral dissolution and deposition occur in a formation in geologic time and are expected to some degree in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods. Water-alternating-gas (WAG) core flood experiments conducted on limestone and dolomite core plugs confirm that these processes can occur over relatively short time periods (hours to days) and in close proximity to each other. Results from laboratory CO{sub 2}-brine flow experiments performed in rock core were used to calibrate a reactive transport simulator. The calibrated model is being used to estimate in situ effects of a range of possible sequestration options in depleted oil/gas reservoirs. The code applied in this study is a combination of the well known TOUGH2 simulator, for coupled groundwater/brine and heat flow, with the chemistry code TRANS for chemically reactive transport. Variability in response among rock types suggests that CO{sub 2} injection will induce ranges of transient and spatially dependent changes in intrinsic rock permeability and porosity. Determining the effect of matrix changes on CO{sub 2} mobility is crucial in evaluating the efficacy and potential environmental implications of storing CO{sub 2} in the subsurface. Chemical cost reductions are identified that are derived from the synergistic effects of cosurfactant systems using a good foaming agent and a less expensive poor foaming agent. The required good foaming agent is reduced by at least 75%. Also the effect on injectivity is reduced by as much as 50% using the cosurfactant system, compared to a previously used surfactant system. Mobility control of injected CO{sub 2} for improved oil recovery can be achieved with significant reduction in the chemical cost of SAG, improved injectivity of SAG, and improved economics of CO{sub 2} injection project when compared to reported systems. Our past work has identified a number of mobility control agents to use for CO{sub 2}-foam flooding. In particular the combination of the good foaming agent CD 1045 and a sacrificial agent and cosurfactant lignosulfonate. This work scrutinizes the methods that we are using to determine the efficiency of the sacrificial agents and cosurfactant systems. These have required concentration determinations and reusing core samples. Here, we report some of the problems that have been found and some interesting effects that must be considered.

  15. A thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model in local thermal non-equilibrium for fractured HDR reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    artificially fractured hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs requires three main ingredients: (1) a proper thermoA thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model in local thermal non-equilibrium for fractured HDR reservoir Rachel Geleta,b , Benjamin Loreta, , Nasser Khalilib aLaboratoire Sols, Solides, Structures, B

  16. 1. RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 1.1 Analysis of Step Rate Injection Tests in the O'Daniel Pilot Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    - 1- 1. RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 1.1 Analysis of Step Rate Injection Tests in the O the reservoir rock. This pressure is referred as to formation parting pressure. Determination of formation demonstrates stress-sensitive behavior, one of the phenomena that influences the performance of waterflooding

  17. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Hidden cycle of dissolved organic carbon in the deep ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Repeta, Daniel J.

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a large (660 Pg C) reactive carbon reservoir that mediates the oceanic microbial food web and interacts with climate on both short and long timescales. Carbon isotopic content ...

  19. Carbon Dioxide Sealing Capacity: Textural or Compositional Controls?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cranganu, Constantin; Soleymani, Hamidreza; Sadiqua, Soleymani; Watson, Kieva

    2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project is aiming to assess the carbon dioxide sealing capacity of most common seal-rocks, such as shales and non-fractured limestones, by analyzing the role of textural and compositional parameters of those rocks. We hypothesize that sealing capacity is controlled by textural and/or compositional pa-rameters of caprocks. In this research, we seek to evaluate the importance of textural and compositional parameters affecting the sealing capacity of caprocks. The conceptu-al framework involves two testable end-member hypotheses concerning the sealing ca-pacity of carbon dioxide reservoir caprocks. Better understanding of the elements controlling sealing quality will advance our knowledge regarding the sealing capacity of shales and carbonates. Due to relatively low permeability, shale and non-fractured carbonate units are considered relatively imper-meable formations which can retard reservoir fluid flow by forming high capillary pres-sure. Similarly, these unites can constitute reliable seals for carbon dioxide capture and sequestration purposes. This project is a part of the comprehensive project with the final aim of studying the caprock sealing properties and the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of seal rocks in depleted gas fields of Oklahoma Pan-handle. Through this study we examined various seal rock characteristics to infer about their respective effects on sealing capacity in special case of replacing reservoir fluid with super critical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}). To assess the effect of textural and compositional properties on scCO{sub 2} maximum reten-tion column height we collected 30 representative core samples in caprock formations in three counties (Cimarron, Texas, Beaver) in Oklahoma Panhandle. Core samples were collected from various seal formations (e.g., Cherokee, Keys, Morrowan) at different depths. We studied the compositional and textural properties of the core samples using several techniques. Mercury Injection Porosimetry (MIP), Scanning Electron Microsco-py SEM, and Sedigraph measurements are used to assess the pore-throat-size distribu-tion, sorting, texture, and grain size of the samples. Also, displacement pressure at 10% mercury saturation (Pd) and graphically derived threshold pressure (Pc) were deter-mined by MIP technique. SEM images were used for qualitative study of the minerals and pores texture of the core samples. Moreover, EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spec-trometer), BET specific surface area, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) measurements were performed to study various parameters and their possible effects on sealing capaci-ty of the samples. We found that shales have the relatively higher average sealing threshold pressure (Pc) than carbonate and sandstone samples. Based on these observations, shale formations could be considered as a promising caprock in terms of retarding scCO{sub 2} flow and leak-age into above formations. We hypothesized that certain characteristics of shales (e.g., 3 fine pore size, pore size distribution, high specific surface area, and strong physical chemical interaction between wetting phase and mineral surface) make them an effi-cient caprock for sealing super critical CO{sub 2}. We found that the displacement pressure at 10% mercury saturation could not be the ultimate representative of the sealing capacity of the rock sample. On the other hand, we believe that graphical method, introduced by Cranganu (2004) is a better indicator of the true sealing capacity. Based on statistical analysis of our samples from Oklahoma Panhandle we assessed the effects of each group of properties (textural and compositional) on maximum supercriti-cal CO{sub 2} height that can be hold by the caprock. We conclude that there is a relatively strong positive relationship (+.40 to +.69) between supercritical CO{sub 2} column height based on Pc and hard/ soft mineral content index (ratio of minerals with Mohs hardness more than 5 over minerals with Mohs hardness less than 5) in both shales and limestone samples. Average median pore rad

  20. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of C02 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Sprayberry Trend Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David S. Schechter

    1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding of the naturally fractured Straberry Trend Area in west Texas. Research is being conducted in the extensive characterization of the reservoirs, the experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, the analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and the experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores.

  1. CFD Modeling of Methane Production from Hydrate-Bearing Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamwo, I.K.; Myshakin, E.M.; Warzinski, R.P.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane hydrate is being examined as a next-generation energy resource to replace oil and natural gas. The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that methane hydrate may contain more organic carbon the the world's coal, oil, and natural gas combined. To assist in developing this unfamiliar resource, the National Energy Technology Laboratory has undertaken intensive research in understanding the fate of methane hydrate in geological reservoirs. This presentation reports preliminary computational fluid dynamics predictions of methane production from a subsurface reservoir.

  2. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic engineering procedures at depth may still be attained if high temperature sites with extensive fracturing are developed or exploited. [DJE -2005

  3. Hot Dry Rock Reservoir Engineering | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California: EnergyHoloceneHonestHoosacHorseHorstReport:

  4. Lithology and Alteration Mineralogy of Reservoir Rocks at Coso Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformation Other AlternativePark, Arizona:Lithium

  5. Lithology and alteration mineralogy of reservoir rocks at Coso Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformation Other AlternativePark, Arizona:LithiumArea,

  6. Reservoir Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System, Fenton

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | RoadmapRenewable EnergyobtainedRentricitySocial

  7. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  8. Predicting spatial distribution of critical pore types and their influence on reservoir quality, Canyon (Pennsylvanian) Reef reservoir, Diamond M field, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Aaron Jay

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    is a result of selective grain and pore-wall dissolution related to burial diagenesis. Additionally, saddle dolomite is irregularly distributed throughout the reservoir, indicating that late burial diagenesis contributed to the complexity... is a hybrid of depositional and diagenetic processes and no fracture porosity was found to be evident. It is evident that at least two early stages of cementation and dissolution have taken place. Dissolution of reservoir rock is a diagenetic...

  9. Geology and oil production of the Ervay (Phosphoria) reservoirs, eastern Big Horn Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coalson, E.B. (Bass Enterprises Production, Co., Denver, CO (USA)); Inden, R.F. (LSSI, Denver, CO (USA))

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ervay consists of carbonate ramp sediments deposited under conditions of varying sea level. On the east flank of the Bighorn Basin, the Ervay displays two major, regionally correlative, shallowing-upward cycles that vary in lithofacies across the basin. West of this area, the Ervay contains four regional cycles. Within each cycle, lithofacies tracts lie subparallel to northwest-trending Permian uplifts. From southwest to northeast, the lithofacies are open-marine limestones, restricted-subtidal dolomites, peritidal (island) dolomites, and lagoon/salina deposits. Each Ervay lithofacies displays characteristic ranges in matrix permeability. The most permeable reservoirs are lower-intertidal dolomite boundstones containing well-connected laminoid-fenestral pores. As a result, lower matrix permeabilities are seen in upper-intertidal to supratidal dolomites containing poorly-connected irregular fenestral pores and vugs. Restricted-subtidal dolomites contain mainly small intercrystalline pores and poorly-connected vugs and molds, and therefore also display poor reservoir quality. Vertical tectonic macrofractures probably make a significant contribution to primary production in relatively few wells, while negatively affecting secondary recovery. Microfractures, on the other hand, may be important to primary production throughout the study area. Thus, the major factors determining Ervay Member producibility are stratigraphic and diagenetic, even though may traps are structural. In the Cottonwood Creek area, many wells with thick sequences of lower-intertidal rocks produce more than 250,000 BO, irrespective of whether or not they are structurally high. By contrast, upper-intertidal, restricted-subtidal, and fractured reservoirs generally produce fewer than 100,000 BO per well.

  10. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of the proposed study are as follows: (1) To understand and evaluate an unusual primary oil production mechanism which results in decreasing (retrograde) oil cut (ROC) behavior as reservoir pressure declines. (2) To develop better, produced water, disposal techniques so as to minimize lifting costs, surface separation costs and water disposal costs. (3) To improve calculations of initial oil in place so as to determine the economic feasibility of completing and producing a well. (4) To optimize the location of new wells based on understanding of geological and petrophysical properties heterogeneities. (5) To evaluate various secondary recovery techniques for oil reservoirs producing from fractured formations. (6) To enhance the productivity of producing wells by using new completion techniques. These objectives are important for optimizing field performance from West Carney Field located in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. The field, which was discovered in 1980, produces from Hunton Formation in a shallow-shelf carbonate reservoir. The early development in the field was sporadic. Many of the initial wells were abandoned due to high water production and constraints in surface facilities for disposing excess produced water. The field development began in earnest in 1995 by Altex Resources. They had recognized that production from this field was only possible if large volumes of water can be disposed. Being able to dispose large amounts of water, Altex aggressively drilled several producers. With few exceptions, all these wells exhibited similar characteristics. The initial production indicated trace amount of oil and gas with mostly water as dominant phase. As the reservoir was depleted, the oil cut eventually improved, making the overall production feasible. The decreasing oil cut (ROC) behavior has not been well understood. However, the field has been subjected to intense drilling activity because of prior success of Altex Resources. In this work, we will investigate the primary production mechanism by conducting several core flood experiments. After collecting cores from representative wells, we will study the wettability of the rock and simulate the depletion behavior by mimicking such behavior under controlled lab conditions. The overall project goal would be to validate our hypothesis and to determine the best method to exploit reservoirs exhibiting ROC behavior. To that end, we will collect and analyze core samples, and run a single well tracer test during the Budget Period I. We will continue to drill vertical wells during this period. Once we understand the mechanism and are able to quantify the geological model, in Budget Period II we will drill several, additional wells. Depending on the feasibility, we will equip some of the vertical wells with downhole separator, as well as surface compact separator. This will allow us to compare the new technology with the existing one. In the Budget Period III, we will monitor the field performance and revise and refine our models to further optimize the performance.

  11. Machel, H.G., Buschkuehle, B.E. and Michael, K., 2001, Squeegee flow in Devonian carbonate aquifers in Alberta, Canada. In: Cidu, R. (ed.), Water-Rock Interaction, Vol. 1. Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Water-Rock-Interaction WRI-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machel, Hans

    four regionally extensive Devonian aquifers and/or hydrocarbon reservoir levels, traditionally called D in thickness. Across much of the basin the four Devonian aquifers, which contain oil, sweet and sour gas reservoirs, are interbedded with marly and evaporitic aquitards, and are confined by tight evaporites

  12. Basin center - fractured source rock plays within tectonically segmented foreland (back-arc) basins: Targets for future exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, R.J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production from fractured reservoirs has long been an industry target, but interest in this type play has increased recently because of new concepts and technology, especially horizontal drilling. Early petroleum exploration programs searched for fractured reservoirs from shale, tight sandstones, carbonates, or basement in anticlinal or fault traps, without particular attention to source rocks. Foreland basins are some of the best oil-generating basins in the world because of their rich source rocks. Examples are the Persian Gulf basin, the Alberta basin and Athabasca tar sands, and the eastern Venezuela basin and Orinoco tar sands. Examples of Cretaceous producers are the wrench-faulted La Paz-Mara anticlinal fields, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela; the active Austin Chalk play in an extensional area on the north flank of the Gulf of Mexico continental margin basin; and the Niobrara Chalk and Pierre Shale plays of the central Rocky Mountains, United States. These latter plays are characteristic of a foreland basin fragmented into intermontane basins by the Laramide orogeny. The Florence field, Colorado, discovered in 1862, and the Silo field, Wyoming, discovered in 1980, are used as models for current prospecting and will be described in detail. The technologies applied to fracture-source rock plays are refined surface and subsurface mapping from new log suites, including resistivity mapping; 3D-3C seismic, gravity, and aeromagnetic mapping; borehole path seismic mapping associated with horizontal drilling; fracture mapping with the Formation MicroScanner and other logging tools; measurements while drilling and other drilling and completion techniques; surface geochemistry to locate microseeps; and local and regional lineament discrimination.

  13. Rock magnetism of remagnetized carbonate rocks: another look

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, M.; Swanson-Hysell, N. L

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    phases such as hematite or goethite. Second, although somesuch as hematite and goethite) and soft (e.g. ferrimagnetsproducts such as goethite) where Day plot locations and

  14. The Big Group of People Looking at How to Control Putting the Parts of the Air That Are the Same as What You Breathe Out Into Small Spaces in Rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stack, Andrew

    2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Representing the Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2 (NCGC), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of NCGC is to build a fundamental understanding of molecular-to-pore-scale processes in fluid-rock systems, and to demonstrate the ability to control critical aspects of flow, transport, and mineralization in porous rock media as applied to the injection and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface reservoirs.

  15. T00406010008 rock check dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    XY! ¬« T00406010008 rock check dam T00406010009 rock check dam T00406010010 rock check dam T00406010011 rock check dam T-SMA-2.85 0.344 Acres 35-014(g) 35-016(n) T00406010005 rock check dam T00406010006 rock check dam T00403090004 curb T00402040007 established vegetation, green hatch area 7200 7200 7180

  16. Reservoir Protection (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Water Resource Board has the authority to make rules for the control of sanitation on all property located within any reservoir or drainage basin. The Board works with the Department...

  17. Reservoir Operation in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurbs, Ralph A.

    management of the surface water resources of the various river basins of the state. The operation of these essential water control facilities is examined in this report. Reservoir operation is viewed here from the perspective of deciding how much water...

  18. PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-Fifth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, February 1-3, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    /stimulation is that sufficient rock volumes can be hydraulically fractured via both tensile and shear failure, and more importantly by reactivation of naturally existing fractures (by shearing), to create the reservoir. The advancement of EGS greatly depends on our understanding of the dynamics of the intimately coupled rock

  19. Grid-Based Surrogate Reservoir Modeling (SRM) for Fast Track Analysis of Numerical Reservoir Simulation Models at the Grid block Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    with a large number of producers, second, to a CO2 sequestration project in Australia, and finally to a numerical simulation study of potential carbon storage site in the United States. The numerical reservoir

  20. Hot dry rock venture risks investigation:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses a promising resource in central Utah as the potential site of a future commerical hot dry rock (HDR) facility for generating electricity. The results indicate that, if the HDR reservoir productivity equals expectations based on preliminary results from research projects to date, a 50 MWe HDR power facility at Roosevelt Hot Springs could generate power at cost competitive with coal-fired plants. However, it is imperative that the assumed productivity be demonstrated before funds are committed for a commercial facility. 72 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs.

  1. PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 31 -February 2, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    in water has implications for long term carbon sequestration and water-rock interactions (Liu et al. 2003 be superior to water in its ability to mine heat from hot fractured rock. Carbon dioxide also offers modeling. 1. Introduction With increasing concerns about carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere

  2. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    West Carney field--one of the newest fields discovered in Oklahoma--exhibits many unique production characteristics. These characteristics include: (1) decreasing water-oil ratio; (2) decreasing gas-oil ratio followed by an increase; (3) poor prediction capability of the reserves based on the log data; and (4) low geological connectivity but high hydrodynamic connectivity. The purpose of this investigation is to understand the principal mechanisms affecting the production, and propose methods by which we can extend the phenomenon to other fields with similar characteristics. In our experimental investigation section, we continue to describe the use of surfactant to alter the wettability of the rock. By altering the wettability, we should be able to change the water-gas ratio in the reservoir and, hence, improve the productivity from the well. In our Engineering and Geological Analysis section, we present our rock typing analysis work which combines the geological data with engineering data to develop a unique rock characteristics description. The work demonstrates that it is possible to incorporate geological description in engineering analysis so that we can come up with rock types which have unique geological characteristics, as well as unique petrophysical characteristics. Using this rock typing scheme, we intend to develop a detailed reservoir description in our next quarterly report.

  3. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. The successful development of HPAI technology has tremendous potential for increasing the flow of oil from deep carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin, a target resource that can be conservatively estimated at more than 1.5 billion barrels. Successful implementation in the field chosen for demonstration, for example, could result in the recovery of more than 34 million barrels of oil that will not otherwise be produced. Geological and petrophysical analysis of available data at Barnhart field reveals the following important observations: (1) the Barnhart Ellenburger reservoir is similar to most other Ellenburger reservoirs in terms of depositional facies, diagenesis, and petrophysical attributes; (2) the reservoir is characterized by low to moderate matrix porosity much like most other Ellenburger reservoirs in the Permian Basin; (3) karst processes (cave formation, infill, and collapse) have substantially altered stratigraphic architecture and reservoir properties; (4) porosity and permeability increase with depth and may be associated with the degree of karst-related diagenesis; (5) tectonic fractures overprint the reservoir, improving overall connectivity; (6) oil-saturation profiles show that the oil-water contact (OWC) is as much as 125 ft lower than previous estimations; (7) production history and trends suggest that this reservoir is very similar to other solution-gas-drive reservoirs in the Permian Basin; and (8) reservoir simulation study showed that the Barnhart reservoir is a good candidate for HPAI and that application of horizontal-well technology can improve ultimate resource recovery from the reservoir.

  4. Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7.degree. F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88.degree. F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

  5. Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Research. Fourth annual report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reservoir definition research consisted of well test analysis and bench-scale experiments. Well testing included both single-well pressure drawdown and buildup testing, and multiple-well interference testing. The development of new well testing methods continued to receive major emphasis during the year. Work included a project on multiphase compressibility, including the thermal content of the rock. Several projects on double-porosity systems were completed, and work was done on relative-permeability. Heat extraction from rock will determine the long-term response of geothermal reservoirs to development. The work in this task area involved a combination of physical and mathematical modeling of heat extraction from fractured geothermal reservoirs. International cooperative research dealt with adsorption of water on reservoir cores, the planning of tracer surveys, and an injection and tracer test in the Los Azufres fields. 32 refs.

  6. Source rock maturation, San Juan sag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gries, R.R.; Clayton, J.L.

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kinetic modeling for thermal histories was simulated for seven wells in the San Juan sag honoring measured geochemical data. Wells in the area of Del Norte field (Sec. 9, T40N, R5E), where minor production has been established from an igneous sill reservoir, show that the Mancos Shale source rocks are in the mature oil generation window as a combined result of high regional heat flow and burial by approximately 2,700 m of Oligocene volcanic rocks. Maturation was relatively recent for this area and insignificant during Laramide subsidence. In the vicinity of Gramps field (Sec. 24, T33N, R2E) on the southwest flank of the San Juan sag, these same source rocks are exposed due to erosion of the volcanic cover but appear to have undergone a similar maturation history. At the north and south margins of the sag, two wells (Champlin 34A-13, Sec. 13, T35N, R4.5E; and Champlin 24A-1, Sec. 1, T44N, R5E) were analyzed and revealed that although the regional heat flow was probably similar to other wells, the depth of burial was insufficient to cause maturation (except where intruded by thick igneous sills that caused localized maturation). The Meridian Oil 23-17 South Fork well (Sec. 17, T39N, R4E) was drilled in a deeper part of the San Juan sag, and source rocks were intruded by numerous igneous sills creating a complex maturation history that includes overmature rocks in the lowermost Mancos Shale, possible CO{sub 2} generation from the calcareous Niobrara Member of the Mancos Shale, and mature source rocks in the upper Mancos Shale.

  7. GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR SIMULATIONS WITH SHAFT79

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that well blocks must geothermal reservoir s·tudies, paperof Califomia. LBL-10066 GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR SIMULATIONSbe presented at the Fifth Geothermal Reservoir Engineering

  8. ANNOTATED RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudo!, G.A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    o f Energy from Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs. Dal las:well behavior, fractured matrix reservoir behavior, wellEnergy from Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs." Society of ~

  9. ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION DECLINE IN GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zais, E.J.; Bodvarsson, G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Garg, 1978, Reservoir Engineering Data: Wai.akei Geothermalof the reservoir engineer because production data are alwaysGeothermal Reservoirs IV. DATA PROCESSING • • • . • Data

  10. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data are being used in PC-based geologic mapping, evaluation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir geometry, facies and subfacies, stratigraphy, porosity, oil saturation, and other measured and model parameters. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings and liquids, are being used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets are being used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. Rock alteration due to interactions with hot fluids are being quantitatively modeled and used to predict the reservoir response if the rock were subjected to thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR).

  11. Fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon during the Lomagundi (2.222.1 Ga) carbon isotope excursion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bekker, Andrey

    is poorly characterized. Because dissolved inorganic and organic carbon reservoirs were arguably larger deposition, a carbon isotope fractionation as large as ~37 appears to characterize the production of bulk was dominated by a large dissolved inorganic carbon reservoir during the Lomagundi excursion. Our study suggests

  12. A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are defined from the numerical solution of a complex hypersingular integral equation written for a given fracture configuration and loading. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures with existing discontinuities such as faults and joints. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two- and three-dimensional heat extraction solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate heat extraction and the variations of the reservoir stress with cooling. The numerical models have been developed in a user-friendly environment to create a tool for improving fracture design and investigating single or multiple fracture propagation in rock.

  13. Effects of diagenesis on reservoir quality within two Cypress reservoirs in the Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, B.D.; McGee, K.R.; Seyler, B. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One billion bbl of oil have been produced from the Chesterian Cypress Formation in the Illinois basin. These heterogeneous reservoirs may consist of deltaic, marine-reworked deltaic, and/or reworked marine sandstone within mixed siliciclastic-carbonate environments. Thin section, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray analysis indicate that the effects of diagenesis play a significant role in reservoir quality of Mattoon and Parkersburg fields in Illinois. Five separate Cypress sandstones may be present at Mattoon field (Coles County), a predominantly stratigraphic trap, produces from three distinct Cypress strata. In these fields, reservoir quality is reduced when quartz overgrowths and later stage, blocky mosaic ferroan-calcite cement occlude pore throats. Authigenic clay minerals occur as pore-lining particles that inhibit fluid-flow. Clay minerals preset are illite, mixed-layered illite/smectite, chlorite, and kaolinite. Reservoir quality is enhanced through dissolution of early ferroan-calcite cement, dissolution of detrital feldspar, and microfracturing. Completion, stimulation, and production programs within the heterogeneous Cypress sandstone reservoirs would be improved by recognition of mineral relationships and diagenetic overprints. Developments programs may need to include the use of clay stabilizers in mud clean-out acid treatments.

  14. Reservoir Stimulation Optimization with Operational Monitoring for Creation of EGS

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Fernandez, Carlos A.

    EGS field projects have not sustained production at rates greater than ½ of what is needed for economic viability. The primary limitation that makes commercial EGS infeasible is our current inability to cost-effectively create high-permeability reservoirs from impermeable, igneous rock within the 3,000-10,000 ft depth range. Our goal is to develop a novel fracturing fluid technology that maximizes reservoir permeability while reducing stimulation cost and environmental impact. Laboratory equipment development to advance laboratory characterization/monitoring is also a priority of this project to study and optimize the physicochemical properties of these fracturing fluids in a range of reservoir conditions. Barrier G is the primarily intended GTO barrier to be addressed as well as support addressing barriers D, E and I.

  15. How secure is CO2 storage? Leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    How secure is CO2 storage? Leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs Johannes Miocic, Stuart. The goal of CCS is to store carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface for a long period of time (>10,000 yr).1 It is important that the stored CO2 does not leak from the reservoir to the surface . 3. Faults as leakage

  16. A reservoir management strategy for multilayered reservoirs in eastern Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinel Diaz, Arnaldo Leopoldo

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reservoir management strategy has been developed for a field located in eastern Venezuela. The field contains deep, high pressure, multilayer reservoirs. A thorough formation evaluation was accomplished using the log data, core data, PVT data...

  17. Modeling of Acid Fracturing in Carbonate Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Jawad, Murtada s

    2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    equations are used to draw 3D velocity and pressure profiles. Part of the fluid diffuses or leaks off into the fracture walls and dissolves part of the fracture face according to the chemical reaction below. 2H^(+)(aq) + CO((2-)/3) ? H_(2 )CO_(3)(aq) ? CO...

  18. Heterogeneous reservoirs in the marine carbon cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follett, Christopher L

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the fate of primary production in the ocean is a challenging task because once produced, organic material is oxidized over timescales which range from minutes, to millions of years. This timescale diversity ...

  19. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

  20. Dispersion measurement as a method of quantifying geologic characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menzie, D.E.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research project is to investigate dispersion as a method of quantifying geological characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity in order to enhance crude oil recovery. The dispersion of flow of a reservoir rock (dispersion coefficient and dispersivity) was identified as one of the physical properties of a reservoir rock by measuring the mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. A rock was 100% saturated with a resident fluid and displaced by a miscible fluid of equal viscosity and equal density. Some specific experiments were performed with unequal densities. Produced fluid was analyzed by refractometer, nuclear reaction, electrical conductivity and X-ray scan. Several physical and flow characteristics were measured on the sand rock sample in order to establish correlations with the measured dispersion property. Absolute permeability, effective porosity, relative permeability, capillary pressure, the heterogeneity factor and electrical conductivity were used to better understand the flow system. Linear, transverse, 2-D and 3-D dispersions were measured and used to characterize the rock heterogeneity of the flow system. A new system of measuring dispersion was developed using a gas displacing gas system in a porous medium. An attempt was also made to determine the dispersion property of an actual reservoir from present day well log data on a producing well. 275 refs., 102 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field, Nevada- relations between surface phenomena and the geothermal reservoir Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  2. J00206010020 rock check dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    XY! J00206010020 rock check dam J00206010023 rock check dam 09-009 09-009 09-009 PJ-SMA-2 0.901 Acres J00206010021 rock check dam J00206010019 rock check dam J00206010014 rock check dam J00203010007 Smith DATE: 14-November-2014 REVISION NUMBER: 8 XY! IP sampler location Berm Channel/swale Check dam

  3. W02106010008 rock check dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W-SMA-14.1 5.169 Acres W02106010008 rock check dam W02106010009 rock check dam W02106010010 rock check dam W02106010011 rock check dam W02106010012 rock check dam W02103010018 earthen berm W02103010016 dam Established vegetation Seed and mulch Sediment trap/basin Gabion Cap SWMU boundary SMA drainage

  4. Three dimensional geologic modeling of a fractured reservoir, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luthy, S.T.; Grover, G.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A geological assessment of a large carbonate reservoir in Saudi Arabia shows that it is a Type 2 fractured reservoir in which fractures provide the essential permeability. Intercrystalline microporosity, found within the basinally deposited mudstones and wackestones, is the dominant porosity type. Near-vertical, east-west-oriented extension fractures are preferentially localized in low-to-moderate porosities associated with stylolites. Porosity/fracture density relationships, combined with the results of structural curvature mapping, yielded a 3-dimensional model of fracture density. Fracture permeability and fracture porosity distributions were generated by integrating fracture density modeling results with average fracture aperture information derived from well test data. Dramatic differences exist between matrix- and fracture-related porosity, permeability models that help explain observed production behavior within the field. These models are being used by reservoir and simulation engineers for daily reservoir management, history matching, and long-term development drilling planning.

  5. Analysis of condensate banking dynamics in a gas condensate reservoir under different injection schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoval Rodriguez, Angelica Patricia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    condensate reservoir under natural depletion, and injection of methane, injection of carbon dioxide, produced gas recycling and water injection. To monitor the condensate banking dynamics near the wellbore area, such as oil saturation and compositional...

  6. Use of uranium^thorium dating to determine C reservoir eects in lakes: examples from Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Use of uranium^thorium dating to determine past 14 C reservoir e¡ects in lakes: examples from of dissolved `dead' carbon or to slow air^water exchange. Here we use the TIMS uranium^thorium disequilibrium

  7. PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 31 -February 2, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    , Stanford, California, January 31 - February 2, 2011 SGP-TR-191 REMOVAL OF WATER FOR CARBON DIOXIDE for carbon dioxide-based EGS operation. We examine the relationship between drying time and reservoir amount of carbon dioxide sequestered, and total amount of water produced. INTRODUCTION Carbon

  8. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to compile data on reservoirs that contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range, contain at least ten million barrels of oil currently in place, and are non-carbonate in lithology. The reservoirs within these constraints were then analyzed in light of applicable recovery technology, either steam-drive or in situ combustion, and then ranked hierarchically as candidate reservoirs. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I presents the project background and approach, the screening analysis, ranking criteria, and listing of candidate reservoirs. The economic and environmental aspects of heavy oil recovery are included in appendices to this volume. This study provides an extensive basis for heavy oil development, but should be extended to include carbonate reservoirs and tar sands. It is imperative to look at heavy oil reservoirs and projects on an individual basis; it was discovered that operators, and industrial and government analysts will lump heavy oil reservoirs as poor producers, however, it was found that upon detailed analysis, a large number, so categorized, were producing very well. A study also should be conducted on abandoned reservoirs. To utilize heavy oil, refiners will have to add various unit operations to their processes, such as hydrotreaters and hydrodesulfurizers and will require, in most cases, a lighter blending stock. A big problem in producing heavy oil is that of regulation; specifically, it was found that the regulatory constraints are so fluid and changing that one cannot settle on a favorable recovery and production plan with enough confidence in the regulatory requirements to commit capital to the project.

  9. THERMO-HYDRO-MECHANICAL MODELING OF WORKING FLUID INJECTION AND THERMAL ENERGY EXTRACTION IN EGS FRACTURES AND ROCK MATRIX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Podgorney; Chuan Lu; Hai Huang

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) will require creation of a reservoir of sufficient volume to enable commercial-scale heat transfer from the reservoir rocks to the working fluid. A key assumption associated with reservoir creation/stimulation is that sufficient rock volumes can be hydraulically fractured via both tensile and shear failure, and more importantly by reactivation of naturally existing fractures (by shearing), to create the reservoir. The advancement of EGS greatly depends on our understanding of the dynamics of the intimately coupled rock-fracture-fluid-heat system and our ability to reliably predict how reservoirs behave under stimulation and production. Reliable performance predictions of EGS reservoirs require accurate and robust modeling for strongly coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes. Conventionally, these types of problems have been solved using operator-splitting methods, usually by coupling a subsurface flow and heat transport simulators with a solid mechanics simulator via input files. An alternative approach is to solve the system of nonlinear partial differential equations that govern multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, and rock mechanics simultaneously, using a fully coupled, fully implicit solution procedure, in which all solution variables (pressure, enthalpy, and rock displacement fields) are solved simultaneously. This paper describes numerical simulations used to investigate the poro- and thermal- elastic effects of working fluid injection and thermal energy extraction on the properties of the fractures and rock matrix of a hypothetical EGS reservoir, using a novel simulation software FALCON (Podgorney et al., 2011), a finite element based simulator solving fully coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, rock deformation, and fracturing using a global implicit approach. Investigations are also conducted on how these poro- and thermal-elastic effects are related to fracture permeability evolution.

  10. A METHODOLOGY TO INTEGRATE MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorge O. Parra; Chris L. Hackert; Lorna L. Wilson

    2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The work reported herein represents the third year of development efforts on a methodology to interpret magnetic resonance and acoustic measurements for reservoir characterization. In this last phase of the project we characterize a vuggy carbonate aquifer in the Hillsboro Basin, Palm Beach County, South Florida, using two data sets--the first generated by velocity tomography and the second generated by reflection tomography. First, we integrate optical macroscopic (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray computed tomography (CT) images, as well as petrography, as a first step in characterizing the aquifer pore system. This pore scale integration provides information with which to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well log signatures for NMR well log calibration, interpret ultrasonic data, and characterize flow units at the field scale between two wells in the aquifer. Saturated and desaturated NMR core measurements estimate the irreducible water in the rock and the variable T{sub 2} cut-offs for the NMR well log calibration. These measurements establish empirical equations to extract permeability from NMR well logs. Velocity and NMR-derived permeability and porosity relationships integrated with velocity tomography (based on crosswell seismic measurements recorded between two wells 100 m apart) capture two flow units that are supported with pore scale integration results. Next, we establish a more detailed picture of the complex aquifer pore structures and the critical role they play in water movement, which aids in our ability to characterize not only carbonate aquifers, but reservoirs in general. We analyze petrography and cores to reveal relationships between the rock physical properties that control the compressional and shear wave velocities of the formation. A digital thin section analysis provides the pore size distributions of the rock matrix, which allows us to relate pore structure to permeability and to characterize flow units at the core and borehole scales. Vp, density, porosity, and permeability logs are integrated with crosswell reflection data to produce impedance, permeability, and porosity images. These images capture three flow units that are characterized at the pore and borehole scales. The upper flow units are thin, continuous beds, and the deeper flow unit is thicker and heterogeneous. NMR well log calibration data and thin section analysis demonstrate that interwell region permeability is controlled mainly by micropores and macropores, which represent the flow unit matrices of the confined aquifer. Reflection image-derived impedance provides lateral detail and the depth of the deeper confining unit. The permeable regions identified in both parts of this phase of the study are consistent with the hydrological results of high water production being monitored between two wells in the South Florida aquifer. Finally, we describe the two major methodologies developed to support the aquifer characterization efforts--(1) a method to estimate frequency-dependent scattering attenuation based on the volume fraction and typical size of vugs or karsts, and (2) a method to more accurately interpret NMR well logs by taking into account the diffusion of magnetization between large and small pores. For the first method, we take the exact vug structure from x-ray CT scans of two carbonate cores and use 3-D finite difference modeling to determine the P-wave scattering attenuation in these cores at ultrasonic frequencies. In spite of the sharp contrast in medium properties between cavity and rock and the violation of the small perturbation assumption, the computed scattering attenuation is roughly comparable to that predicted by various random medium scattering theories. For the second method, we investigate how the diffusion of magnetization between macropores and micropores influences NMR log interpretation through 2D simulation of magnetization diffusion in realistic macropore geometries derived from digital images of thin sections. In most cases, our simulations show that the resulting simulate

  11. Niobrara gas play: exploration and development of a low-pressure, low-permeability gas reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.A.; Crafton, J.W.; Golson, J.G.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated interdisciplinary exploration/exploitation strategy contributed to the successful economic development of the Niobrara gas play, located in eastern Colorado, northwestern Kansas, and western Nebraska. The exploration, development, production, and evaluation data suggest that (1) Niobrara chalk reservoirs have exceptionally high porosities but very low permeabilities, (2) individual reservoirs are low-relief, highly faulted structural traps characterized consistently by extensive water-transition zones, (3) the reservoirs contain biogenic gas (the Niobrara acts as its own source rock,) (4) an exploration fairway can be defined if porosity, permeability, and pressure are correlated with paleodepth, (5) optimal logging, completion, stimulation, and producing methods are readily definable, (6) reservoir performance is predicted adequately by numerical simulation, and (7) infill drilling on 160-acre spacing will allow better reservoir drainage.

  12. Ghabezloo S., Sulem J. (2009) Stress dependent thermal pressurization of a fluid-saturated rock, Rock Mech Rock Eng 42, 1-24 Stress dependent thermal pressurization of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the effective mean stress and can lead to shear failure or hydraulic fracturing. The equations governing or hydraulic fracturing. This phenomenon is important in petroleum engineering where the reservoir rock et al. 2007). Important theoretical advances have been proposed in the study of thermal weakening

  13. Research on improved and enhanced oil recovery in Illinois through reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oltz, D.F.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will provide information that can maximize hydrocarbon production minimize formation damage and stimulate new production in Illinois. Such information includes definition of hydrocarbon resources, characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the implementation of methods that will improve hydrocarbon extractive technology. Increased understanding of reservoir heterogeneities that affect oil recovery can aid in identifying producible resources. The transfer of technology to industry and the general public is a significant component of the program. The project is designed to examine selected subsurface oil reservoirs in Illinois. Scientists use advanced scientific techniques to gain a better understanding of reservoir components and behavior and address ways of potentially increasing the amount of recoverable oil. Initial production rates for wells in the Illinois Basin commonly decline quite rapidly and as much as 60 percent of the oil in place can be unrecoverable using standard operating procedures. Heterogeneities (geological differences in reservoir make-up) affect a reservoir's capability to release fluids. By-passed mobile and immobile oil remain in the reservoir. To learn how to get more of the oil out of reservoirs, the ISGS is studying the nature of reservoir rock heterogeneities and their control on the distribution and production of by-passed, mobile oil.

  14. Incident at the Rock Pile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birgfeld, Doug

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the off limit rock pile At a Portland school Where theDoug. “Incident at the Rock Pile” http://escholarship.org/Doug. “Incident at the Rock Pile” http://escholarship.org/

  15. Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Stefansson, V.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)

  16. Applying reservoir characterization technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lake, L.W.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    While reservoir characterization is an old discipline, only within the last 10 years have engineers and scientists been able to make quantitative descriptions, due mostly to improvements in high-resolution computational power, sophisticated graphics, and geostatistics. This paper summarizes what has been learned during the past decade by using these technologies.

  17. Seismic-Scale Rock Physics of Methane Hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos Nur

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We quantify natural methane hydrate reservoirs by generating synthetic seismic traces and comparing them to real seismic data: if the synthetic matches the observed data, then the reservoir properties and conditions used in synthetic modeling might be the same as the actual, in-situ reservoir conditions. This approach is model-based: it uses rock physics equations that link the porosity and mineralogy of the host sediment, pressure, and hydrate saturation, and the resulting elastic-wave velocity and density. One result of such seismic forward modeling is a catalogue of seismic reflections of methane hydrate which can serve as a field guide to hydrate identification from real seismic data. We verify this approach using field data from known hydrate deposits.

  18. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Huifang; Zhou, Mo; Zhang, Fangfu; Konishi, Hiromi; Shen, Zhizhang; Teng, H.

    2013-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Mica, biotite, muscovite, diopside, tremolite, ultramafic rock, hematite, Ca-Mg-carbonate, calcite, aragonite, dolomite, crystal nucleation, crystallization, interface, catalysis, EBSD, XRD, TEM

  19. Experimental study of potential wellbore cement carbonation by various phases of carbon dioxide during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong

    2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrated Portland cement was reacted with carbon dioxide (CO2) in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases to understand the potential cement alteration processes along the length of a wellbore, extending from deep CO2 storage reservoir to the shallow subsurface during geologic carbon sequestration. The 3-D X-ray microtomography (XMT) images displayed that the cement alteration was significantly more extensive by CO2-saturated synthetic groundwater than dry or wet supercritical CO2 at high P (10 MPa)-T (50°C) conditions. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis also exhibited a systematic Ca depletion and C enrichment in cement matrix exposed to CO2-saturated groundwater. Integrated XMT, XRD, and SEM-EDS analyses identified the formation of extensive carbonated zone filled with CaCO3(s), as well as the porous degradation front and the outermost silica-rich zone in cement after exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater. The cement alteration by CO2-saturated groundwater for 2-8 months overall decreased the porosity from 31% to 22% and the permeability by an order of magnitude. Cement alteration by dry or wet supercritical CO2 was slow and minor compared to CO2-saturated groundwater. A thin single carbonation zone was formed in cement after exposure to wet supercritical CO2 for 8 months or dry supercritical CO2 for 15 months. Extensive calcite coating was formed on the outside surface of a cement sample after exposure to wet gaseous CO2 for 1-3 months. The chemical-physical characterization of hydrated Portland cement after exposure to various phases of carbon dioxide indicates that the extent of cement carbonation can be significantly heterogeneous depending on CO2 phase present in the wellbore environment. Both experimental and geochemical modeling results suggest that wellbore cement exposure to supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases of CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration is unlikely to damage the wellbore integrity because cement alteration by all phases of CO2 is dominated by carbonation reaction. This is consistent with previous field studies of wellbore cement with extensive carbonation after exposure to CO2 for 3 decades. However, XMT imaging indicates that preferential cement alteration by supercritical CO2 or CO2-saturated groundwater can occur along the cement-steel or cement-rock interfaces. This highlights the importance of further investigation of cement degradation along the interfaces of wellbore materials to ensure permanent geologic carbon storage.

  20. Geochemical analysis of reservoir continuity and connectivity, Arab-D and Hanifa Reservoirs, Abqaiq Field, Saudia Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahdi, A.A.; Grover, G. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Hwang, R. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic geochemistry and its integration with geologic and reservoir engineering data is becoming increasingly utilized to assist geologists and petroleum engineers in solving production related problems. In Abqaiq Field of eastern Saudi Arabia, gas chromatographic analysis (FSCOT) of produced oils from the Arab-D and Hanifa reservoirs was used to evaluate vertical and lateral continuity within and between these reservoirs. Bulk and molecular properties of produced Arab-D oils do not vary significantly over the 70 km length and 10 km width of the reservoir. Hanifa oils, however, do reflect two compositionally distinct populations that are hot in lateral communication, compatible with the occurrence of a large oil pool in the southern part of the field, and a separate, and smaller northern accumulation. The Arab-D and underlying Hanifa oil pools are separated by over 450 feet of impermeable carbonates of the Jubaila Formation, yet the Southern Hanifa pool and the Arab-D have been in pressure communication since onset of Hanifa production in 1954. Recent borehole imaging and core data from horizontal Hanifa wells confirmed the long suspected occurrence of fractures responsible for fluid transmissibility within the porous (up to 35%) but tight (<10md matrix K) Hanifa reservoir, and between the Hanifa and Arab-D. The nearly identical hydrocarbon composition of oils from the Arab-D and southern Hanifa pool provided the final confirmation of fluid communication between the two reservoirs, and extension of a Hanifa fracture-fault network via the Jubaila Formation. This work lead to acquisition of 3-D seismic to image and map the fracture-fault system. The molecular fingerprinting approach demonstrated that produced oils can be used to evaluate vertical and lateral reservoir continuity, and at Abqaiq Field confirmed, in part, the need to produce the Hanifa reservoir via horizontal wells to arrest the reservoir communication that occurs with existing vertical wells.

  1. Hedberg Research Conference on Fundamental Controls on Flow in Carbonates: Request for Travel Support for Post-Doctoral Fellows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.

    2013-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonate reservoirs pose a scientific and engineering challenge to geophysical prediction and monitoring of fluid flow in the subsurface. Difficulties in interpreting hydrological, reservoir and other exploration data arise because carbonates are composed of a hierarchy of geological structures, constituents and processes that span a wide spectrum of length and time scales. What makes this problem particularly challenging is that length scales associated with physical structure and processes are often not discrete, but overlap, preventing the definition of discrete elements at one scale to become the building blocks of the next scale. This is particularly true for carbonates where complicated depositional environments, subsequent post-deposition diagenesis and geochemical interactions result in pores that vary in scale from submicron to centimeters to fractures, variation in fabric composition with fossils, minerals and cement, as well as variations in structural features (e.g., oriented inter- and intra layered - interlaced bedding and/or discontinuous rock units). In addition, this complexity is altered by natural and anthropogenic processes such as changes in stress, fluid content, reactive fluid flow, etc. Thus an accurate geophysical assessment of the flow behavior of carbonate reservoirs requires a fundamental understanding of the interplay of textural and structural features subjected to physical processes that affect and occur on various length and time scales. To address this complexity related to carbonates, a Hedberg conference on “Fundamental Controls on Flow in Carbonates” was held July 8 to 13, 2012, to bring together industry and academic scientists to stimulate innovative ideas that can accelerate research advances related to flow prediction and recovery in carbonate reservoirs. Participants included scientist and engineers from multiple disciplines (such as hydrology, structural geology, geochemistry, reservoir engineering, geophysics, geomechanics, numerical modeling, physical experiments, sedimentology, well-testing, statistics, mathematics, visualization, etc.) who encompass experience as well as the latest advances in these multi-faceted fields. One of the goals was to include early career scientists and engineers (post-doctoral fellows, assistant professors, etc.). With this grant 10 early career scientists and engineers were supported to attend the conference. This reports contains a brief overview of the conference and the list of support participants supported by this grant. Full details of the outcomes of the conference are given in the publication found in the Attachment section of this report.

  2. Data Integration for the Generation of High Resolution Reservoir Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Reynolds; Dean Oliver; Gaoming Li; Yong Zhao; Chaohui Che; Kai Zhang; Yannong Dong; Chinedu Abgalaka; Mei Han

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this three-year project was to develop a theoretical basis and practical technology for the integration of geologic, production and time-lapse seismic data in a way that makes best use of the information for reservoir description and reservoir performance predictions. The methodology and practical tools for data integration that were developed in this research project have been incorporated into computational algorithms that are feasible for large scale reservoir simulation models. As the integration of production and seismic data require calibrating geological/geostatistical models to these data sets, the main computational tool is an automatic history matching algorithm. The following specific goals were accomplished during this research. (1) We developed algorithms for calibrating the location of the boundaries of geologic facies and the distribution of rock properties so that production and time-lapse seismic data are honored. (2) We developed and implemented specific procedures for conditioning reservoir models to time-lapse seismic data. (3) We developed and implemented algorithms for the characterization of measurement errors which are needed to determine the relative weights of data when conditioning reservoir models to production and time-lapse seismic data by automatic history matching. (4) We developed and implemented algorithms for the adjustment of relative permeability curves during the history matching process. (5) We developed algorithms for production optimization which accounts for geological uncertainty within the context of closed-loop reservoir management. (6) To ensure the research results will lead to practical public tools for independent oil companies, as part of the project we built a graphical user interface for the reservoir simulator and history matching software using Visual Basic.

  3. Source rock evaluation, oil-source rock correlation, and kinetic modeling - San Juan Sag, CO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, J.L. (Geological survey, Denver, CO (USA)); Gries, R.R.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, oil and gas shows have been reported in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks of the San Juan sag, and minor oil production was established from volcanic rocks (Kirby Petroleum 1 Jynnifer well, Sec. 9, T40N, R5E.). Potential source rocks present in the San Juan sag are the upper and lower (including the Niobrara Member) Mancos Shale (Upper Cretaceous). The combined upper and lower Mancos Shale is about 666 m thick and contains between about 0.5 and 5.5% organic carbon, although most values are between about 1.5 and 2.0%. The Niobrara Member of the lower Mancos Shale has the highest overall organic matter content in the section (organic carbon averages <2.0%). Pyrolysis and solvent extraction data (typically 2,000-6,000 and 1,000-4,000 ppm, respectively) indicate that the upper and lower Mancos Shale and the Niobrara Member are all good potential source rocks for oil and gas. Oil-source rock correlations using gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and stable carbon isotope ratios indicate that the upper Mancos Shale is the most likely source for the oil produced from the 1 Jynnifer discovery well. The source of the oil produced from the nearby Gramps field is less certain, but may be the lower Mancos Shale or Niobrara Member. The hydrocarbon generation history of the San Juan sag is complex because of highly variable heat flow in the area caused by Oligocene volcanism. Sills have caused thermal alteration of organic matter in shales on a local scale, and larger volcanic bodies may have produced proportionality larger thermal effects. More regional heating by larger volcanic bodies is an important factor in the oil generation history of the area. The authors have constructed kinetic models at several locations in the area to estimate the timing and amount of hydrocarbon products generated from the source rocks. The main phase of oil and gas generation and expulsion occurred during the Oligocene.

  4. Characterization and interwell connectivity evaluation of Green Rver reservoirs, Wells Draw study area, Uinta Basin, Utah

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abiazie, Joseph Uchechukwu

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    and seal rocks of the Green River petroleum system. Datum is Mahoganey oil shale bed (1). 49 27 Fig. 11?Cross-section of thermal maturity of oil accumulations in the Green River petroleum system. 49 28 Fig. 12? Lake Uinta depositional... This petroleum system has produced more than 450 MMBO mainly from two formations, the Green River and Colton Formations. 7 The Green River Formation contains the source rock and most of the reservoir and seal rocks (Fig. 10). 49 Most of the kerogen-rich oil...

  5. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to Unconfined and Confined Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Wang, Guohui; Sullivan, E. C.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Harvey, Omar R.; Bowden, Mark

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental research work has been conducted and is undergoing at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to address a variety of scientific issues related with the potential leaks of the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from deep storage reservoirs. The main objectives of this work are as follows: • Develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage is likely to influence pertinent geochemical processes (e.g., dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption and redox reactions) in the aquifer sediments. • Identify prevailing environmental conditions that would dictate one geochemical outcome over another. • Gather useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, policy-making, and public education efforts associated with geological carbon sequestration. In this report, we present results from experiments conducted at PNNL to address research issues related to the main objectives of this effort. A series of batch and column experiments and solid phase characterization studies (quantitative x-ray diffraction and wet chemical extractions with a concentrated acid) were conducted with representative rocks and sediments from an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer, i.e., Edwards aquifer in Texas, and a confined aquifer, i.e., the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. These materials were exposed to a CO2 gas stream simulating CO2 gas leaking scenarios, and changes in aqueous phase pH and chemical composition were measured in liquid and effluent samples collected at pre-determined experimental times. Additional research to be conducted during the current fiscal year will further validate these results and will address other important remaining issues. Results from these experimental efforts will provide valuable insights for the development of site-specific, generation III reduced order models. In addition, results will initially serve as input parameters during model calibration runs and, ultimately, will be used to test model predictive capability and competency. The results from these investigations will provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological, deep subsurface CO2 storage and sequestration.

  6. CO{sub 2} Injectivity, Storage Capacity, Plume Size, and Reservoir and Seal Integrity of the Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone and the Cambrian Potosi Formation in the Illnois Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hannes Leetaru; Alan Brown; Donald Lee; Ozgur Senel; Marcia Coueslan

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cambro-Ordovician strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins underlie most of the states of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, and Michigan. This interval also extends through much of the Midwest of the United States and, for some areas, may be the only available target for geological sequestration of CO{sub 2}. We evaluated the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the basal Mt. Simon Sandstone reservoir for sequestration potential. The two targets were the Cambrian carbonate intervals in the Knox and the Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone. The evaluation of these two formations was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from the USDOE-funded Illinois Basin â?? Decatur Project being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium in Macon County, Illinois. Interpretations were completed using log analysis software, a reservoir flow simulator, and a finite element solver that determines rock stress and strain changes resulting from the pressure increase associated with CO{sub 2} injection. Results of this research suggest that both the St. Peter Sandstone and the Potosi Dolomite (a formation of the Knox) reservoirs may be capable of storing up to 2 million tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year for a 20-year period. Reservoir simulation results for the St. Peter indicate good injectivity and a relatively small CO{sub 2} plume. While a single St. Peter well is not likely to achieve the targeted injection rate of 2 million tonnes/year, results of this study indicate that development with three or four appropriately spaced wells may be sufficient. Reservoir simulation of the Potosi suggest that much of the CO{sub 2} flows into and through relatively thin, high permeability intervals, resulting in a large plume diameter compared with the St. Peter.

  7. Altering Wettability in Gas Condensate Sandstone Reservoirs for Gas Mobillity Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez Martinez, Ruth Gabriela

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    ). ...................................................................... 7 Fig. 6-Productivity Index (PI) vs. reservoir pressure of the Arun Field, showing a sharp drop with decreasing pressure. (Afidick et al. 1994). ................................... 8 Fig. 7-BX1 pressure drop vs. time in Britannia Field, where... for untreated Berea sandstone cores. ................................... 30 Fig. 16-Gas relative permeability of untreated rocks at the endpoints. ............................ 31 Fig. 17-BR1 Liquid Imbibitions...

  8. Resolution of reservoir scale electrical anisotropy from marine CSEM data Vanessa Brown1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jinsong

    in distinguishing oil sand from anisotropic shale. Shale is the most common rock where Manuscript received- tropy located in a deep-water exploration reservoir target. Be- cause strongly anisotropic shale layers discriminate confounding shale layers through their characteristically lower horizontal resistivity. Forward

  9. Reservoir Outflow (RESOUT) Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purvis, Stuart Travis

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rating tables for a comprehensive range of outlet structure types and configurations, simulating a dam breach, routing a hydrograph through the reservoir, and performing drawdown analyses. The thesis describes the basic equations and computational... of Rating Curves Rating Curves for Uncontrolled Ogee Spillways Rating Curves for Uncontrolled Broad-crested Spillways Rating Curves for Spillway Gates Rating Curves for Drop Inlet Spillways Rating Curves for Outlet Works Breach Simulation Storage...

  10. Fundamentals of Reservoir Surface Energy as Related to Surface Properties, Wettability, Capillary Action, and Oil Recovery from Fractured Reservoirs by Spontaneous Imbibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Zhengxin Tong; Evren Unsal; Siluni Wickramathilaka; Shaochang Wo; Peigui Yin

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

  11. Fundamentals of reservoir surface energy as related to surface properties, wettability, capillary action, and oil recovery from fractured reservoirs by spontaneous imbibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Jason Zhengxin Tong; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

  12. Fundamentals of reservoir surface energy as related to surface properties, wettability, capillary action, and oil recovery from fractured reservoirs by spontaneous imbibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Jason Zhengxin Tong; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

    2006-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

  13. FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR SURFACE ENERGY AS RELATED TO SURFACE PROPERTIES, WETTABILITY, CAPILLARY ACTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FROM FRACTURED RESERVOIRS BY SPONTANEOUS IMBIBITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

  14. FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR SURFACE ENERGY AS RELATED TO SURFACE PROPERTIES, WETTABILITY, CAPILLARY ACTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FROM FRACTURED RESERVOIRS BY SPONTANEOUS IMBIBITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman R. Morrow

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

  15. Multiporosity Flow in Fractured Low-Permeability Rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L; Heath, Jason E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiporosity extension of classical double and triple porosity fractured rock flow models for slightly compressible fluids is presented. The multiporosity model is an adaptation of the multirate solute transport model of Haggerty and Gorelick (1995) to viscous flow in fractured rock reservoirs. It is a generalization of both pseudo-steady-state and transient interporosity flow double porosity models. The model includes a fracture continuum and an overlapping distribution of multiple rock matrix continua, whose fracture-matrix exchange coefficients are specified through a discrete probability mass function. Semi-analytical cylindrically symmetric solutions to the multiporosity mathematical model are developed using the Laplace transform to illustrate its behavior. The multiporosity model presented here is conceptually simple, yet flexible enough to simulate common conceptualizations of double and triple porosity flow. This combination of generality and simplicity makes the multiporosity model a good choice ...

  16. A general-purpose, geochemical reservoir simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X.; Ortoleva, P.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A geochemical simulator for the analysis of coupled reaction and transport processes is presented. The simulator is based on the numerical solution of the equations of coupled multi-phase fluid flow, species transport, energy balance and rock/fluid reactions. It also accounts for the effects of grain growth/dissolution and the alteration of porosity and permeability due to mineral reactions. The simulator can be used to analyze core floods, single-well scenarios and multiple production/injection well systems on the reservoir scale. Additionally, the simulator provides two flow options: the Darcy law for fluid flow in porous media and the Brinkman law that subsumes both free and porous medium flows. The simulator was tested using core acidizing data and results were in good agreement with laboratory observations. The simulator was applied to analyze matrix acidizing treatments for a horizontal well. The evolution of the skin factor was predicted and the optimal volume of acid required to remove the near-wellbore damage was determined. Reactive fluid infiltration was shown to lead to reaction-front fingering under certain conditions. Viscosity contrast in multiphase flow could also result in viscous fingering. Examples in this study also address these nonlinear fingering phenomena. A waterflood on the reservoir scale was analyzed and simulation results show that scale formation during waterfloods can occur far beyond injection wells. Two cases of waste disposal by deep well injection were evaluated and our simulation results were consistent with field measured data.

  17. Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1992-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    PREFACE The Seventeenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 29-31, 1992. There were one hundred sixteen registered participants which equaled the attendance last year. Participants were from seven foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Mexico and New Zealand. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in the papers. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Raffaele Cataldi. Dr. Cataldi gave a talk on the highlights of his geothermal career. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Cataldi. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award at the banquet. Thirty-eight papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Dr. Roland Horne opened the meeting and the key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who discussed the DOE Geothermal R. & D. Program. The talk focused on aiding long-term, cost effective private resource development. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: geochemistry, hot dry rock, injection, geysers, modeling, and reservoir mechanics. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: Sabodh Garg., Jim Lovekin, Jim Combs, Ben Barker, Marcel Lippmann, Glenn Horton, Steve Enedy, and John Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Francois Groff who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook -vii

  18. The thermal conductivity of rock under hydrothermal conditions: measurements and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Colin F.; Sass, John H.

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivities of most major rock-forming minerals vary with both temperature and confining pressure, leading to substantial changes in the thermal properties of some rocks at the high temperatures characteristic of geothermal systems. In areas with large geothermal gradients, the successful use of near-surface heat flow measurements to predict temperatures at depth depends upon accurate corrections for varying thermal conductivity. Previous measurements of the thermal conductivity of dry rock samples as a function of temperature were inadequate for porous rocks and susceptible to thermal cracking effects in nonporous rocks. We have developed an instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks at temperatures from 20 to 350 °C and confining pressures up to 100 MPa. A transient line-source of heat is applied through a needle probe centered within the rock sample, which in turn is enclosed within a heated pressure vessel with independent controls on pore and confining pressure. Application of this technique to samples of Franciscan graywacke from The Geysers reveals a significant change in thermal conductivity with temperature. At reservoir-equivalent temperatures of 250 °C, the conductivity of the graywacke decreases by approximately 25% relative to the room temperature value. Where heat flow is constant with depth within the caprock overlying the reservoir, this reduction in conductivity with temperature leads to a corresponding increase in the geothermal gradient. Consequently, reservoir temperature are encountered at depths significantly shallower than those predicted by assuming a constant temperature gradient with depth. We have derived general equations for estimating the thermal conductivity of most metamorphic and igneous rocks and some sedimentary rocks at elevated temperature from knowledge of the room temperature thermal conductivity. Application of these equations to geothermal exploration should improve estimates of subsurface temperatures derived from heat flow measurements.

  19. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our hydrocarbon indicators. Gas saturated reservoirs change reflection amplitudes significantly. The goal for the final project period was to systematically combine and document these various effects for use in deep water exploration and transfer this knowledge as clearly and effectively as possible.

  20. Characterization of dynamic change of Fan-delta reservoir properties in water-drive development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Shenghe; Xiong Qihua; Liu Yuhong [Univ. of Petroleum Changping, Beijing (China)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fan-delta reservoir in Huzhuangji oil field of east China, is a typical highly heterogeneous reservoir. The oil field has been developed by water-drive for 10 years, but the oil recovery is less than 12%, and water cut is over 90%, resulting from high heterogeneity and serious dynamic change of reservoir properties. This paper aims at the study of dynamic change of reservoir properties in water-drive development. Through quantitative imaging analysis and mercury injection analysis of cores from inspection wells, the dynamic change of reservoir pore structure in water-drive development was studied. The results show that the {open_quotes}large pore channels{close_quotes} develop in distributary channel sandstone and become larger in water-drive development, resulting in more serious pore heterogeneity. Through reservoir sensitivity experiments, the rock-fluid reaction in water-drive development is studied. The results show the permeability of some distal bar sandstone and deserted channel sandstone becomes lower due to swelling of I/S clay minerals in pore throats. OD the other hand, the permeability of distributary channel and mouth bar sandstone become larger because the authigenic Koalinites in pore throats are flushed away with the increase of flow rate of injection water. Well-logging analysis of flooded reservoirs are used to study the dynamic change of reservoir properties in various flow units. The distribution of remaining oil is closely related to the types and distribution of flow units.

  1. Using microstructure observations to quantify fracture properties and improve reservoir simulations. Final report, September 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laubach, S.E.; Marrett, R.; Rossen, W.; Olson, J.; Lake, L.; Ortega, O.; Gu, Y.; Reed, R.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research for this project provides new technology to understand and successfully characterize, predict, and simulate reservoir-scale fractures. Such fractures have worldwide importance because of their influence on successful extraction of resources. The scope of this project includes creation and testing of new methods to measure, interpret, and simulate reservoir fractures that overcome the challenge of inadequate sampling. The key to these methods is the use of microstructures as guides to the attributes of the large fractures that control reservoir behavior. One accomplishment of the project research is a demonstration that these microstructures can be reliably and inexpensively sampled. Specific goals of this project were to: create and test new methods of measuring attributes of reservoir-scale fractures, particularly as fluid conduits, and test the methods on samples from reservoirs; extrapolate structural attributes to the reservoir scale through rigorous mathematical techniques and help build accurate and useful 3-D models of the interwell region; and design new ways to incorporate geological and geophysical information into reservoir simulation and verify the accuracy by comparison with production data. New analytical methods developed in the project are leading to a more realistic characterization of fractured reservoir rocks. Testing diagnostic and predictive approaches was an integral part of the research, and several tests were successfully completed.

  2. Low Pore Connectivity in Natural Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Dultz, Stefan

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As repositories for CO? and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air–water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior.

  3. Petrographic, Mineralogic, and Geochemical Studies of Hydrocarbon-derived Authigenic Carbonate Rock from Gas Venting, Seepage, Free Gas, and Gas Hydrate Sites in the Gulf of Mexico and offshore India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Woodong

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    from sedimentary organic carbon oxidation that geologically sequesters much fossil carbon. Bulk carbon and oxygen isotopes of ACR were measured. ACR from the GOM is strongly depleted in 13C with ?13C of ?42.5? and enriched in 18O with ?18O of 4...

  4. Research on improved and enhanced oil recovery in Illinois through reservoir characterization, March 28, 1992--June 28, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oltz, D.F.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will provide information that can maximize hydrocarbon production, minimize formation damage and stimulate new production in Illinois. Such information includes definition of hydrocarbon resources, characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the implementation of methods that will improve hydrocarbon extractive technology. Increased understanding of reservoir heterogeneities that affect oil recovery can aid in identifying producible resources. The transfer of technology to industry and the general public is a significant component of the program. The project is designed to examine selected subsurface oil reservoirs in Illinois. Scientists use advanced scientific techniques to gain a better understanding of reservoir components and behavior and address ways of potentially increasing the amount of recoverable oil. Initial production rates for wells in the Illinois Basin commonly decline quite rapidly and as much as 60 percent of the oil in place can be unrecoverable using standard operating procedures. Heterogeneities (geological differences in reservoir make-up) affect a reservoir`s capability to release fluids. By-passed mobile and immobile oil remain in the reservoir. To learn how to get more of the oil out of reservoirs, the ISGS is studying the nature of reservoir rock heterogeneities and their control on the distribution and production of bypassed, mobile oil. Accomplishment for this period are summarized for the following tasks: mapping, cross-sections; subsurface depo-systems; outcrop studies; oil and gas development maps; engineering work; SEM/EDX; and clay minerals.

  5. Exploitation and Optimization of Reservoir Performance in Hunton Formation, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    West Carney field--one of the newest fields discovered in Oklahoma--exhibits many unique production characteristics. These characteristics include: (1) decreasing water-oil ratio; (2) decreasing gas-oil ratio followed by an increase; (3) poor prediction capability of the reserves based on the log data; and (4) low geological connectivity but high hydrodynamic connectivity. The purpose of this investigation is to understand the principal mechanisms affecting the production, and propose methods by which we can extend the phenomenon to other fields with similar characteristics. In our experimental investigation section, we continue to describe the use of surfactant to alter the wettability of the rock. By altering the wettability, we should be able to change the water-gas ratio in the reservoir and, hence, improve productivity from the well. In our Engineering and Geological Analysis section, we present our rock typing analysis work which combines the geological data with engineering data to develop a unique rock characteristics description. By using porosity as a variable, we can generate alternate rock type descriptions at logged wells. This procedure also allows us to quantify uncertainties in rock type description.

  6. Hot dry rock energy: Hot dry rock geothermal development program. Progress report. Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, J.; Brown, M. [eds.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extended flow testing at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test facility concluded in Fiscal Year 1993 with the completion of Phase 2 of the long-term flow test (LTFT) program. As is reported in detail in this report, the second phase of the LTFT, although only 55 days in duration, confirmed in every way the encouraging test results of the 112-day Phase I LTFT carried out in Fiscal Year 1992. Interim flow testing was conducted early in FY 1993 during the period between the two LTFT segments. In addition, two brief tests involving operation of the reservoir on a cyclic schedule were run at the end of the Phase 2 LTFT. These interim and cyclic tests provided an opportunity to conduct evaluations and field demonstrations of several reservoir engineering concepts that can now be applied to significantly increase the productivity of HDR systems. The Fenton Hill HDR test facility was shut down and brought into standby status during the last part of FY 1993. Unfortunately, the world`s largest, deepest, and most productive HDR reservoir has gone essentially unused since that time.

  7. Modelling by homogenization of the long term rock dissolution and geomechanical effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Modelling by homogenization of the long term rock dissolution and geomechanical effects Jolanta modifications of the hydrodynamical as well as geomechanical properties of the reservoir. The long-term safety the modelling of long term geomechanical effects related to CO2 storage are proposed. Of special interest

  8. Modelling effective permeability of fracture networks in permeable rock formation by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as underground nuclear waste disposal in claystone, geological CO2 storage or hydrocabure reservoir in a fractured porous rock are used to investigate its effective permeability. If the far field inflow is uniform, the theoretical solution shows that the pressure field in the matrix is a function of the discharge

  9. Development of hot dry rock geothermal resources; technical and economic issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tester, J.W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical and economic issues related to the commercial feasibility of hot dry rock geothermal energy for producing electricity and heat are discussed. Topics covered include resource characteristics, reservoir thermal capacity and lifetime, drilling and surface plant costs, financial risk and anticipated rate of return. The current status of research and deveopment efforts in the US are also summarized.

  10. Environment of deposition and reservoir properties of Teapot sandstones (Upper Cretaceous), Well Draw field, Converse County, Wyoming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, John Joseph

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    = monocrystalline quartz, F = feldspar, Rx = rock fragments including chert, micas, and polycrystalline quartz, Mx = maxtrix, and 0th = other minerals. c Sil = silica as grain overgrowths including minor chert, Cal = calcite including minor dolomite and siderite... fossils, and reservoir morphology. Three distinct sandstone facies produce oil and gas at Well Draw field. The main producing zone consists of thicker, channel turbidites. The lower two zones are thinly interbedded with shale and have limited reservoir...

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF CENTRAL APPALACHIAN BASIN CBM DEVELOPMENT: POTENTIAL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the carbon sequestration potential of the Pennsylvanian-age coalbeds in the Central Appalachian Basin favorable reservoirs for carbon sequestration due to their thickness, depth, rank, and permeability high gas content should provide the optimum reservoirs for carbon sequestration since these coals

  12. STATISTICAL APPLICATIONS TO QUANTITATIVE SEISMIC RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING AT WEST PEARL QUEEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the reservoir characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration at West Pearl Queen Field, ear Hobbs, New is composed of: 42% siliciclastics (quartz sandstone and siltstone), 38% carbonates (dolomite and limestone bivariate statistical classifications, is detected from changes in carbon dioxide saturation on both the Vp

  13. Improved oil recovery in mature fields through reservoir characterization and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leetaru, H.E. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Illinois basin is mature with respect to hydrocarbon exploitation in the Pennsylvanian and Mississippian strata. Available subsurface data for the basin commonly are 30 to 50 yr old and of lower quality than today's state-of-the-art data. Recent evaluation of two geologically similar Illinois oil fields shows how the application of new concepts and technologies to the old data can be used to improve oil recovery. Boyd and King fields, located in Jefferson County, Illinois, produce from the Mississippian Aux Vases formation, a unit that was deposited in nearshore mixed siliciclastic-carbonate environments. Prospective areas for further development were delineated by conventional reservoir-characterization methods. Three-dimensional modeling was used to enhance visualization of the lateral and vertical heterogeneity of these reservoirs. At King field, mixing of intercalated siliciclastic-carbonate facies causes significant reservoir heterogeneity; numerous compartments have been bypassed by the existing waterflood. Targeted infill drilling of additional producing and injector wells should recover 1-2 million bbl of additional hydrocarbons. At Boyd field, delineation of areas that contain bypassed oil is more difficult because many of the wells have not penetrated the entire reservoir. An additional problem is that almost all of the production from the original Aux Vases wells was severely inhibited by backflow from a higher pressured, shallower reservoir with which it is commingled. In this type of field, reservoir management must focus on isolating the Aux Vases, producing intervals and deepening individual wells through the entire reservoir. The study of these two fields suggests that detailed geologic characterization of the internal reservoir architecture is not enough. Effective reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery must include both reservoir geology and an understanding of previous reservoir management techniques.

  14. ANNOTATED RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudo!, G.A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results w i t h other reservoir data. Ramey [1974] definesone-dimen- sional data on reservoir drainage which has beenC. R. , Goodwill D. Data t o Reservoir Engine H. Application

  15. Reservoir permeability from seismic attribute analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goloshubin, G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the reservoir permeability based on seismic and log data.seismic reservoir response based on well and 3D seismic datadata analysis we suggest seismic imaging of the reservoir

  16. Geological control on the reservoir characteristics of Olkaria West Geothermal Field, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omenda, Peter A.

    1994-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The reservoir of the West Olkaria Geothermal Field is hosted within tuffs and the reservoir fluid is characterized by higher concentrations of reservoir CO{sub 2} (10,000-100,000 mg/kg) but lower chloride concentrations of about 200 mg/kg than the East and North East Fields. The West Field is in the outflow and main recharge area of the Olkaria geothermal system. Permeability is generally low in the West Field and its distribution is strongly controlled by the structures. Fault zones show higher permeability with wells drilled within the structures havin larger total mass outputs. However, N-S and NW-SE faults are mainly channels for cold water downflow into the reservoir. Well feeder zones occur mostly at lava-tuff contacts; within fractured lava flows and at the contacts of intrusives and host rocks.

  17. Application of fractal theory in refined reservoir description for EOR pilot area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue Li; Yonggang Duan; Yun Li; Yuan Lu

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reliable reservoir description is essential to investigate scenarios for successful EOR pilot test. Reservoir characterization includes formation composition, permeability, porosity, reservoir fluids and other petrophysical parameters. In this study, various new tools have been applied to characterize Kilamayi conglomerate formation. This paper examines the merits of various statistical methods for recognizing rock property correlation in vertical columns and gives out methods to determine fractal dimension including R/S analysis and power spectral analysis. The paper also demonstrates that there is obvious fractal characteristics in conglomerate reservoirs of Kilamayi oil fields. Well log data in EOR pilot area are used to get distribution profile of parameters including permeability, porosity, water saturation and shale content.

  18. Depositional sequence analysis and sedimentologic modeling for improved prediction of Pennsylvanian reservoirs (Annex 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watney, W.L.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interdisciplinary studies of the Upper Pennsylvanian Lansing and Kansas City groups have been undertaken in order to improve the geologic characterization of petroleum reservoirs and to develop a quantitative understanding of the processes responsible for formation of associated depositional sequences. To this end, concepts and methods of sequence stratigraphy are being used to define and interpret the three-dimensional depositional framework of the Kansas City Group. The investigation includes characterization of reservoir rocks in oil fields in western Kansas, description of analog equivalents in near-surface and surface sites in southeastern Kansas, and construction of regional structural and stratigraphic framework to link the site specific studies. Geologic inverse and simulation models are being developed to integrate quantitative estimates of controls on sedimentation to produce reconstructions of reservoir-bearing strata in an attempt to enhance our ability to predict reservoir characteristics.

  19. Statistical Correlation and Modelling of Carbonate Heterogeneity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, David P

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many carbonate reservoirs, much of the porosity is in the form of micropores (with diameter 1-10 microns). This porosity lies far below the resolution of any conventional wireline logging tools and can only be observed ...

  20. Stratigraphic forward modelling & synthetic seismic images of carbonate Prof. Peter Burgess & Dr. Dave Waltham, Royal Holloway, University of London

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    of reservoir heterogeneities, allowing the seismic interpreter to make better-informed interpretation of reservoir intervals imaged on seismic data. The project will assess Stratigraphic forward modelling & synthetic seismic images of carbonate

  1. Sequence stratigraphy of the upper San Andres and Grayburg formations, Waddell Field, Crane County, Texas: implications for hydrocarbon reservoir distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinsonnault, Scott Michael

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The upper San Andres and Grayburg formations (Guadalupian) were deposited on carbonate platforms around the Permian Basin region and are extensive hydrocarbon reservoirs in the region. The Waddell Field (East Waddell Ranch) on the eastern margin...

  2. PROCEEDINGS, Thirty-Fourth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, February 9-11, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    , there has been some interest in the use of carbon dioxide as a heat extraction fluid. CO2 offers a number and geological sequestration of CO2 within the reservoir · Possibility of direct use of produced CO2

  3. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a ``heterogeneity matrix`` based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  4. The Landscape of Klamath Basin Rock Art

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David, Robert James

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Lines: Ethnographic Sources and Rock Art Interpretationwhen applying these sources toward rock art interpretation.information source for developing rock art interpretations.

  5. Characterization of geothermal reservoir crack patterns using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    reservoir crack patterns using shear-wave splitting Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Characterization of geothermal reservoir...

  6. Construction of a diagenetic history and identification with quality ranking of reservoir flow units: Grayson field, Columbia County, Arkansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, Kathleen Renee

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ). The middle and lower mudstones are organic-rich and dark colored. They probably serve as the source rock for many of the Smackover fields in and around the study area though they could also be reservoirs in some cases. These mudstones formed in quiet..., basinal marine, reducing waters during a marine transgression. The upper Smackover grainstones represent a regressive portion of the sequence. This upper section is identifiable in the rock record as a series of shoaling upward mudstone to grainstone...

  7. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1999-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the third year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO2.

  8. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2002-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.

  9. Hydrological and Geochemical Investigations of Selenium Behavior at Kesterson Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zawislanski, P.T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ecological Characterization of Kesterson Reservoir. AnnualEcological Characterization of Kesterson Reservoir. Annual

  10. TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Reservoir Geophysics Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    includes applications to clastic reservoirs, heavy oil reservoirs, gas/oil shale, gas hydrates. Basic

  11. Software Engineer RockAuto www.RockAuto.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    Software Engineer ­ RockAuto www.RockAuto.com Position Description Software is the foundation · Familiarity with open-source development technologies like PHP, Perl, JavaScript and C (Linux system Lane, Madison, WI 53719) Why RockAuto? Strategic and tactical impact. We're an e-commerce company

  12. Flow dynamics and solute transport in unsaturated rock fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, G. W.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rock fractures play an important role in flow and contaminant transport in fractured aquifers, production of oil from petroleum reservoirs, and steam generation from geothermal reservoirs. In this dissertation, phenomenological aspects of flow in unsaturated fractures were studied in visualization experiments conducted on a transparent replica of a natural, rough-walled rock fracture for inlet conditions of constant pressure and flow rate over a range of angles of inclination. The experiments demonstrated that infiltrating liquid proceeds through unsaturated rock fractures along non-uniform, localized preferential flow paths. Even in the presence of constant boundary conditions, intermittent flow was a persistent flow feature observed, where portions of the flow channel underwent cycles of snapping and reforming. Two modes of intermittent flow were observed, the pulsating blob mode and the rivulet snapping mode. A conceptual model for the rivulet snapping mode was proposed and examined using idealized, variable-aperture fractures. The frequency of intermittent flow events was measured in several experiments and related to the capillary and Bond numbers to characterize this flow behavior.

  13. Fractured reservoir discrete feature network technologies. Annual report, March 7, 1996--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dershowitz, W.S.; La Pointe, P.R.; Einstein, H.H.; Ivanova, V.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes progress on the project, {open_quotes}Fractured Reservoir Discrete Feature Network Technologies{close_quotes} during the period March 7, 1996 to February 28, 1997. The report presents summaries of technology development for the following research areas: (1) development of hierarchical fracture models, (2) fractured reservoir compartmentalization and tributary volume, (3) fractured reservoir data analysis, and (4) integration of fractured reservoir data and production technologies. In addition, the report provides information on project status, publications submitted, data collection activities, and technology transfer through the world wide web (WWW). Research on hierarchical fracture models included geological, mathematical, and computer code development. The project built a foundation of quantitative, geological and geometrical information about the regional geology of the Permian Basin, including detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and fracturing of Permian rocks in the project study area (Tracts 17 and 49 in the Yates field). Based on the accumulated knowledge of regional and local geology, project team members started the interpretation of fracture genesis mechanisms and the conceptual modeling of the fracture system in the study area. Research on fractured reservoir compartmentalization included basic research, technology development, and application of compartmentalized reservoir analyses for the project study site. Procedures were developed to analyze compartmentalization, tributary drainage volume, and reservoir matrix block size. These algorithms were implemented as a Windows 95 compartmentalization code, FraCluster.

  14. Research on improved and enhanced oil recovery in Illinois through reservoir characterization, March 28, 1992--June 28, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oltz, D.F.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will provide information that can maximize hydrocarbon production, minimize formation damage and stimulate new production in Illinois. Such information includes definition of hydrocarbon resources, characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the implementation of methods that will improve hydrocarbon extractive technology. Increased understanding of reservoir heterogeneities that affect oil recovery can aid in identifying producible resources. The transfer of technology to industry and the general public is a significant component of the program. The project is designed to examine selected subsurface oil reservoirs in Illinois. Scientists use advanced scientific techniques to gain a better understanding of reservoir components and behavior and address ways of potentially increasing the amount of recoverable oil. Initial production rates for wells in the Illinois Basin commonly decline quite rapidly and as much as 60 percent of the oil in place can be unrecoverable using standard operating procedures. Heterogeneities (geological differences in reservoir make-up) affect a reservoir's capability to release fluids. By-passed mobile and immobile oil remain in the reservoir. To learn how to get more of the oil out of reservoirs, the ISGS is studying the nature of reservoir rock heterogeneities and their control on the distribution and production of bypassed, mobile oil. Accomplishment for this period are summarized for the following tasks: mapping, cross-sections; subsurface depo-systems; outcrop studies; oil and gas development maps; engineering work; SEM/EDX; and clay minerals.

  15. Rock Physics Characterization of Organic-Rich Shale Formations to Predict Organic Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, Brandon

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    rely on to assess the economic potential of these formations are: total organic carbon (TOC), thermal maturity, hydrocarbon saturation, porosity, mineralogy and brittleness. In this thesis, I investigate rock physics models and methods for the possible...

  16. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindroth, David P. (Apple Valley, MN); Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN); Blair, James R. (Inver Grove Heights, MN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  17. Biomarkers and carbon isotopes of oils in the Jurassic Smackover trend of the Gulf Coast states, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofer, Z. (Consultant, Austin, TX (USA))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The geochemistry of 25 oils from 23 fields in Alabama and the Mississippi and Louisiana-Arkansas Jurassic salt basins was evaluated. Results show that the oils were generated by a carbonate source rock which was deposited under highly anoxic conditions, and which contains mainly marine derived organic matter. The Mississippi and Louisiana-Arkansas oils are geochemically similar, indicating similar depositional environments for the source. Although the Alabama oils were also derived from a carbonate source rock, they are dissimilar to the Mississippi and Louisiana-Arkansas oils. Terpane biomarkers suggest that in addition to marine derived organic matter, the source for the Alabama oils had an organic input from a more near shore (paralic) environment, i.e. with a component of terrestrially-derived kerogen. Within each area the oils are similar. Therefore, the Norphlet and Upper Smackover oils in Alabama share a common source and the Upper Smackover, Cotton Valley and some of the Lower Tuscaloosa oils (where production is from faulted structures) in Mississippi also share a common source. Maturities of the oils in the three areas vary from low in the updip Mississippi salt basin, high in the Louisiana-Arkansas salt basin, to very high in portions of Alabama. Based on the maturity of oils in Mississippi, oil generation and migration commenced during the Cretaceous when the source was at modest levels of thermal maturity. Oils migrated relatively short distances into nearby reservoir rocks. Some oils reached high maturities in the reservoirs, resulting in abundant late-forming bitumen and pyrobitumen deposition in pore spaces.

  18. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging survivability issues. Our findings indicate that packaging represents the most significant technical challenge associated with application of sensors in the downhole environment for long periods (5+ years) of time. These issues are described in detail within the report. The impact of successful reservoir monitoring programs and coincident improved reservoir management is measured by the production of additional oil and gas volumes from existing reservoirs, revitalization of nearly depleted reservoirs, possible re-establishment of already abandoned reservoirs, and improved economics for all cases. Smart Well monitoring provides the means to understand how a reservoir process is developing and to provide active reservoir management. At the same time it also provides data for developing high-fidelity simulation models. This work has been a joint effort with Sandia National Laboratories and UT-Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, and the Institute of Computational and Engineering Mathematics.

  19. TRITIUM RESERVOIR STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P.S.; Morgan, M.J

    2005-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The burst test is used to assess the material performance of tritium reservoirs in the surveillance program in which reservoirs have been in service for extended periods of time. A materials system model and finite element procedure were developed under a Savannah River Site Plant-Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program to predict the structural response under a full range of loading and aged material conditions of the reservoir. The results show that the predicted burst pressure and volume ductility are in good agreement with the actual burst test results for the unexposed units. The material tensile properties used in the calculations were obtained from a curved tensile specimen harvested from a companion reservoir by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). In the absence of exposed and aged material tensile data, literature data were used for demonstrating the methodology in terms of the helium-3 concentration in the metal and the depth of penetration in the reservoir sidewall. It can be shown that the volume ductility decreases significantly with the presence of tritium and its decay product, helium-3, in the metal, as was observed in the laboratory-controlled burst tests. The model and analytical procedure provides a predictive tool for reservoir structural integrity under aging conditions. It is recommended that benchmark tests and analysis for aged materials be performed. The methodology can be augmented to predict performance for reservoir with flaws.

  20. Characterization and significance of a stylolitic fracture system determined from horizontal core and borehole imaging data, Hanifa Reservoir, Abqaiq Field (SA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luthy, S.T.; Grover, G. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Wiltse, E. [Schlumberger, Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanifa reservoir at Abqaiq Field, eastern Saudi Arabia, consists of microporous (up to 30% porosity) lime mudstones with low matrix permeability (< 10 md). SEM imagery reveals a crystal framework texture of micro-rhombic calcite crystals with 2-5 {mu}m-sized intercrystalline pore spaces. Fluid transmissibility was preliminarily identified as via fractures as indicated by no stratigraphic predictability to fluid flow, high flow over thin stratigraphic intervals, little relationship between high flow and high porosity intervals, large disparity between core Kh and well-test Kh, and observation offractures in cores and borehole imaging logs front horizontal Hanifa wells. Integration of descriptions from over 4000 fractures observed in borehole images together with descriptions of over 500 fractures identified from vertica1 and horizontal cores has resulted in further characterization of the fracture system. The fractures are open to partially-open, with an east-to northeast orientation, and they cluster in low porosity zones which are characterized by intense stylolitization. These sub-parallel, nearly vertical, discontinuous fractures terminate at stylolites, or pinchout locally into tight carbonate matrix, and contain appreciable amounts of dead oil and calcite cement. In zones of particularly intense stylolitization, fracturing may be locally pervasive, giving the rock a brecciated appearance. Together, the stylolites and stylolite-related fractures form the primary permeability system ofthe Hanifa reservoir. This fracture system architecture is critical to understanding the production characteristics of the reservoir, which include anomalously high fluid flow in low porosity zones or transition zones between high and low porosity, radial flow behavior from well tests, smaller than expected differences in well productivity between vertical and horizontal wells, and limited injection water breakthrough.