National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for reservoir pressure average

  1. Pressure behavior of laterally composite reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchuk, F.J.; Habashy, T.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents a new general method for solving the pressure diffusion equation in laterally composite reservoirs, where rock and fluid properties may change laterally as a function of y in the x-y plane. Composite systems can be encountered as a result of many different types of depositional and tectonic processes. For example, meandering point bar reservoirs or reservoirs with edgewater encroachment are examples of such systems. The new solution method presented is based on the reflection-transmission concept of electromagnetics to solve fluid-flow problems in 3D nonhomogeneous reservoirs, where heterogeneity is in only one (y) direction. A general Green`s function for a point source in 3D laterally composite systems is developed by using the reflection-transmission method. The solutions in the Laplace transform domain are then developed from the Green`s function for the pressure behavior of specific composite reservoirs. The solution method can also be applied to many different types of wells, such as vertical, fractured, and horizontal in composite reservoirs. The pressure behavior of a few well-known laterally composite systems are investigated. It is shown that a network of partially communicating faults and fractures in porous medium can be modeled as composite systems. It is also shown that the existing solutions for a partially communicating fault are not valid when the fault permeability is substantially larger than the formation permeability. The derivative plots are presented for selected faulted, fractured, channel, and composite reservoirs as diagnostic tools for well-test interpretation. It is also shown that if the composite system`s permeability varies moderately in the x or y direction, it exhibits a homogeneous system behavior. However, it does not yield the system`s average permeability. Furthermore, the composite systems with distributed low-permeability zones behave as if the system has many two no-flow boundaries.

  2. Practical model for predicting pressure in gas-storage reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mollnard, J.E.; Le Bitoux, P.; Pelce, V. ); Tek, M.R. )

    1990-11-01

    Optional planning, design, and operation of gas fields in production or storage critically depends on reliable models for predicting pressures that are often based on sophisticated numerical and mathematical concepts. The pressure that prevails at a given time is a direct function of production/injection schedules, past history, and surface equipment as related to reserves and reservoir characteristics. Maintaining the pressure within prescribed limits is particularly important in underground storage to avoid pressures above a maximum for reasons of safety and migration and below a minimum for surface-equipment and contracted-deliverability considerations. This paper presents a way to calculate the convolution integral on which the pressure variations depend. The classic methods were long and costly to run and seldom used. The author's method, which identifies this convolution integral with a finite sum of exponential terms, is much quicker and has been implemented in a program called PREPRE, usable on microcomputers. Based on a production/pressure schedule, the model is capable of forecasting the evolution of pressures in main zones of interest, such as wellbores, gathering systems, and surface equipment. The data required for the model-past production/pressure history-are matched by a special algorithm that automatically calculates the main reservoir parameters used as bases for future projections.

  3. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  4. Case history of pressure maintenance by gas injection in the 26R gravity drainage reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, M.H.; Yu, J.P.; Moore, D.M.; Ezekwe, N.; Querin, M.E.; Williams, L.L.

    1992-02-01

    This paper is a field case history on the performance of the 26R Reservoir. This is a gravity drainage reservoir under pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection. The 26R Reservoir is a highly layered Stevens turbidite sandstone. The reservoir is located in the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR{number_sign}1) in Elk Hills, Kern County, California. The 26R Reservoir is contained within the steeply dipping southwestern limb of the 31S Anticline. The reservoir had an initial oil column of 1800 feet. Original oil-in-place (OOIP) was estimated at 424 million barrels. Pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection was initiated immediately after production began in October 1976. The total volume of gas injected is about 586 BCF. This exceeds one reservoir pore volume. Reservoir pressure has declined from 3030 psi to 2461 psi. This pressure decline believe to be due to migration of injected gas into the overlaying shale reservoirs. Under the gas injection pressure maintenance strategy, reserves are estimated to be approximately 212 million barrels. Reservoir studies have concluded that the aquifer at the base of the reservoir has been relatively inactive. Well recompletions, deepenings, and horizontal wells are used to improve oil recovery. An aggressive program of controlling gas production began in the mid 1980`s by the installation of multiple packers and sleeves. As the gas-oil contact (GOC) has dropped, sand intervals have subsequently been isolated behind packers. A cased hole logging program was recently undertaken to identify possible remaining reserves in the gas cap. 15 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Case history of pressure maintenance by gas injection in the 26R gravity drainage reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, M.H.; Yu, J.P.; Moore, D.M.; Ezekwe, N. ); Querin, M.E. ); Williams, L.L. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a field case history on the performance of the 26R Reservoir. This is a gravity drainage reservoir under pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection. The 26R Reservoir is a highly layered Stevens turbidite sandstone. The reservoir is located in the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR{number sign}1) in Elk Hills, Kern County, California. The 26R Reservoir is contained within the steeply dipping southwestern limb of the 31S Anticline. The reservoir had an initial oil column of 1800 feet. Original oil-in-place (OOIP) was estimated at 424 million barrels. Pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection was initiated immediately after production began in October 1976. The total volume of gas injected is about 586 BCF. This exceeds one reservoir pore volume. Reservoir pressure has declined from 3030 psi to 2461 psi. This pressure decline believe to be due to migration of injected gas into the overlaying shale reservoirs. Under the gas injection pressure maintenance strategy, reserves are estimated to be approximately 212 million barrels. Reservoir studies have concluded that the aquifer at the base of the reservoir has been relatively inactive. Well recompletions, deepenings, and horizontal wells are used to improve oil recovery. An aggressive program of controlling gas production began in the mid 1980's by the installation of multiple packers and sleeves. As the gas-oil contact (GOC) has dropped, sand intervals have subsequently been isolated behind packers. A cased hole logging program was recently undertaken to identify possible remaining reserves in the gas cap. 15 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  7. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO₂ storage reservoirs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO₂ storage that combines CO₂ injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO₂. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO₂ injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO₂ injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO₂ storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be usedmore » directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.« less

  8. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO₂ storage reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO₂ storage that combines CO₂ injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO₂. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO₂ injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO₂ injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO₂ storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be used directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.

  9. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark; Perfect, Edmund; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer; Mayes, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  10. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla

    2004-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. To this end it has commissioned several small consulting studies to technically support its effort to secure a partner. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and has written a thesis describing his research (titled ''Stimulating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in west Texas light oil reservoir''). We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, it will be necessary to request

  11. Development and exploitation stategies in a high-pressure-temperature reservoir with a complex hydrocarbon fluid column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maan, N.; Rosales, E.; Medina, H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes an interdisciplinary study performed to plan final Reservoir Development and Secondary Recovery Strategies for The Carito Field discovered in late 1987. Carito is a very large oil Field located in Northeastern Venezuela, with an estimated Volumetric Oil in Place of 1.8 Billion Stb. Production is mainly from Naricual Formation with a thickness of about 1300 feet in a faulted anticline. At the time of this Study, 25 wells had been drilled below 12200 ft ss. These wells were producing about 90000 Stb/D through 39 completions. Original reservoir pressure was abnormally high (11300 psig at 14040 ft SS) and the Temperature averages 300 degrees Fahrenheit. The field shows a graded fluid system that varies from a gas condensate to a medium oil. Gas cap to oil zone ratio is about 1.2 and crude oil gravity varies with depth from 36 to 21 API degrees. The simulation study, conducted to establish the optimum exploitation strategy, incorporated a detailed geologic model based on seismic, sedimentary environment. and production geologic concepts. The data from the geologic model, routine and special test data from conventional cores, and the data from 58 fluid analysis were consolidated in a numerical reservoir simulator model, which predicted the potential reservoir performance under various Development, Production and Secondary Recovery Planning. The results of this study led us to design a Gas Injection Secondary Recovery Process encompassing a rate injection of 600 MMScf/D through 10 injector wells and the perforation of an additional 16 producer wells. We expect to double the natural depletion oil Recovery as a consequence of the Pressure Maintenance Program.

  12. HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-12-10

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration will being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the U.S.

  13. An assessment of the Tongonan geothermal reservoir, Philippines, at high-pressure operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarmiento, Z.F.; Aquino, B.G.; Aunzo, Z.P.; Rodis, N.O.; Saw, V.S.

    1993-10-01

    An evaluation of the Tongonan geothermal reservoir was conducted to improve the power recovery through reservoir and process optimization. The performance of the existing production wells was reviewed and the response of the field based on the anticipated production levels was simulated at various operating conditions. The results indicate that the Tongonan geothermal reservoir can be exploited at a high pressure operating condition with substantial improvement in the field capacity. The authors calculate that the Upper Mahiao and the Malitbog sectors of the Tongonan field are capable of generating 395 MWe at 1.0 MPa abs., on top of the existing 112.5 MWe plant, compared with 275 MWe if the field is operated at 0.6 MPa abs. The total capacity for the proposed Leyte A 640 MWe expansion can be generated from these sectors with the additional power to be tapped from Mahanagdong and Alto Peak sectors.

  14. Influence of shape and skin of matrix-rock blocks on pressure transients in fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Swaan, A.

    1986-01-01

    A formulation of pressure transients in terms of the intrinsic, or core, properties of the two media that compose the fractured reservoir, establishes the influence of these properties, and reciprocally, their corroboration from - the pressure-time relationship observed in well tests and interference tests. The following reservoir characteristics are analyzed: the area of fractures transverse to flow; the dimensions, shape and properties of rectangular parallelepiped matrix-rock blocks; and a permeability reduction in the blocks surface. A restatement of the so-called pseudo-steady state inter-media flow gives to parameters alfa and lambda in the theory of a previous study the physical meaning they lacked, and allows a direct determination of the blocks minimum dimension.

  15. Effects of pressure drawdown and recovery on the Cerro Prieto beta reservoir in the CP-III area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1998-02-01

    The production characteristics of wells in the northwestern Cerro Prieto III area changed greatly when the Cp-III power plant went on line in 1986. Fluid extraction in the field more than doubled and reservoir-wide boiling started immediately, greatly increasing the enthalpy of produced fluids. Some well fluids showed a decrease in chloride due to adiabatic steam condensation in the well and separator, and others were enriched in chloride due to boiling. As reservoir drawdown increased, entrance of cooler and more dilute groundwaters into the reservoir became evident (i.e., condensation stopped, and there was a decrease in enthalpy and chloride in produced fluids). Although some groundwater inflow was from the leaky western margin of the reservoir, the majority is in the northeast, inferred to be local and downward, possibly through more permeable zones associated with the normal fault H. This natural recharge and some reinjection have slowed and possibly reversed pressure drawdown throughout CP-III. Enthalpy has decreased and liquid saturation has increased as the steam-rich zone in the upper part of the reservoir has either disappeared or become thinner.

  16. Dependence of waterflood remaining oil saturation on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters in mixed wet, turbidite sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    The dependence of waterflood oil recovery on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters was investigated by numerical simulation. The relative permeability and capillary pressure curves were based on laboratory measurements on unconsolidated sands and were evaluated for water-wet and mixed wet states. The reservoir model was a prototype turbidite sand with a range of thickness and permeability values. The economic oil recovery was based on an economic limit water cut of 50%. The remaining oil saturation in the swept region for the water-wet cases was close to the residual oil saturation. The remaining oil saturation of the mixed wet cases ranged from low values near the residual oil saturation to far above the residual oil saturation. It is dependent on the reservoir parameters that govern: (1) the vertical {open_quotes}film surface drainage{close_quotes} of oil by gravity, (2) accumulation of a high oil saturation and thus a high relative permeability under the cap rock, (3) updip migration of the oil that accumulated under the cap rock. The dependence on the reservoir parameters can be summarized by dimensionless groups. There is a dimensionless time for the vertical displacement of oil by gravity. The accumulation of a high oil saturation under the cap rock is dependent on the ratio of the capillary transition zone and the sand thickness. The updip migration is dependent on a combination of the gravity number and the end point mobility ratio.

  17. Technological problems associated with subsea development of high pressure and high temperature hydrocarbon reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grillo, P.; Natarajan, S.

    1996-12-31

    The paper analyzes the implications in design of subsea completion for exploitation of HP/HT hydrocarbon reservoirs. The paper characterizes limitations associated with current subsea technology for HP/HT applications and outlines the engineering and technological development considered necessary to demonstrate the viability of subsea production technology for the exploitation of HP/HT reservoirs.

  18. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Kendall Waterman Draka Cableteq USA. Prysmian Group Track 2 Project Officer: William Vandermeer Total Project Funding: $3,222,398 April 23, 2013 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 | US DOE Geothermal Office eere.energy.gov Relevance/Impact of Research Geothermal energy production can be greatly aided

  19. Dependence of waterflood remaining oil saturation on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters in mixed-wet turbidite sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, G.J.

    1996-05-01

    The dependence of waterflood oil recovery on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters was investigated by numerical simulation. The relative permeability and capillary pressure curves were based on laboratory measurements on unconsolidated sands. The water-wet case is based on the assumption that the system is water-wet and measurements were made with refined oil. The mixed-wet case assumed that the system is mixed-wet and restored-state measurements were made with crude oil. The reservoir model was a prototype turbidite sand with a range of thickness and permeability values. The economic oil recovery was based on an economic limit water cut of 50%. The remaining oil saturation (ROS) in the swept region for the water-wet cases was close to the residual oil saturation. The ROS of the mixed-wet cases ranged from low values near the residual oil saturation to far above the residual oil saturation. It is dependent on the reservoir parameters that govern (1) the vertical film surface drainage of oil by gravity, (2) accumulation of a high oil saturation and thus a high relative permeability under the caprock, and (3) up-dip migration of the oil that accumulated under the caprock. The dependence on the reservoir parameters can be summarized by dimensionless groups. There is a dimensionless time for the vertical displacement of oil by gravity. The accumulation of a high oil saturation under the caprock is dependent on the ratio of the capillary transition zone and the sand thickness. The updip migration is dependent on a combination of the gravity number and the endpoint mobility ratio.

  20. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pastouret, Alan; Gooijer, Frans; Overton, Bob; Jonker, Jan; Curley, Jim; Constantine, Walter; Waterman, Kendall Miller

    2015-11-13

    High Temperature insulated wire and optical fiber cable is a key enabling technology for the Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP). Without insulated electrical wires and optical fiber, downhole temperature and pressure sensors, flow meters and gauges cannot communicate with the surface. Unfortunately, there are currently no insulated electrical wire or fiber cable constructions capable of surviving for extended periods of deployment in a geothermal well (240-325°C) or supercritical (374°C) reservoir. This has severely hindered engineered reservoir creation, management and utilization, as hot zones and cool water intrusions cannot be understood over time. The lack of a insulated electrical wire and fiber cable solution is a fundamental limitation to the viability of this energy source. The High Temperature Downhole Tools target specification is development of tools and sensors for logging and monitoring wellbore conditions at depths of up to 10,000 meters and temperatures up to 374oC. It well recognized in the industry that no current electronic or fiber cable can be successfully deployed in a well and function successfully for more a few days at temperatures over 240oC. The goal of this project was to raise this performance level significantly. Prysmian Group’s objective in this project was to develop a complete, multi-purpose cable solution for long-term deployment in geothermal wells/reservoirs that can be used with the widest variety of sensors. In particular, the overall project objective was to produce a manufacturable cable design that can perform without serious degradation: • At temperatures up to 374°C; • At pressures up to 220 bar; • In a hydrogen-rich environment; and • For the life of the well (> 5 years). This cable incorporates: • Specialty optical fibers, with specific glass chemistry and high temperature and pressure protective coatings for data communication and distributed temperature and pressure sensing, and • High

  1. Sensitivity of CO2 migration estimation on reservoir temperature and pressure uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Preston; Doughty, Christine

    2008-11-01

    The density and viscosity of supercritical CO{sub 2} are sensitive to pressure and temperature (PT) while the viscosity of brine is sensitive primarily to temperature. Oil field PT data in the vicinity of WESTCARB's Phase III injection pilot test site in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California, show a range of PT values, indicating either PT uncertainty or variability. Numerical simulation results across the range of likely PT indicate brine viscosity variation causes virtually no difference in plume evolution and final size, but CO{sub 2} density variation causes a large difference. Relative ultimate plume size is almost directly proportional to the relative difference in brine and CO{sub 2} density (buoyancy flow). The majority of the difference in plume size occurs during and shortly after the cessation of injection.

  2. An integrated approach to reservoir engineering at Pleasant Bayou Geopressured-Geothermal reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shook, G.M.

    1992-12-01

    A numerical model has been developed for the Pleasant Bayou Geothermal-Geopressured reservoir. This reservoir description is the result of integration of a variety of data, including geological and geophysical interpretations, pressure transient test analyses, and well operations. Transient test analyses suggested several enhancements to the geologic description provided by University of Texas Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG), including the presence of an internal fault not previously identified. The transient tests also suggested water influx from an adjacent aquifer during the long-term testing of Pleasant Bayou; comparisons between transient test analyses and the reservoir description from BEG suggests that this fault exhibits pressure-dependent behavior. Below some pressure difference across the fault, it remains a no-flow barrier; above this threshold pressure drop the barrier fails, and fluid moves across the fault. A history match exercise is presented, using the hypothesized {open_quotes}leaky fault.{close_quotes} Successful match of 4 years of production rates and estimates of average reservoir pressure supports the reservoir description developed herein. Sensitivity studies indicate that the degree of communication between the perforated interval and the upper and lower sands in the reservoir (termed {open_quotes}distal volume{close_quotes} by BEG) impact simulation results very little, whereas results are quite sensitive to storage and transport properties of this distal volume. The prediction phase of the study indicates that Pleasant Bayou is capable of producing 20,000 STB/d through 1997, with the final bottomhole pressure approximately 1600 psi above abandonment pressure.

  3. Simulation studies to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the performance of fractured reservoirs; Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howrie, I.; Dauben, D.

    1994-03-01

    A three-year research program to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the recovery of oil and gas from naturally fractured reservoirs has been completed. The overall objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate the reservoir conditions for which fracture closure is significant, and (2) evaluate innovative fluid injection techniques capable of maintaining pressure within the reservoir. The evaluations of reservoir performance were made by a modern dual porosity simulator, TETRAD. This simulator treats both porosity and permeability as functions of pore pressure. The Austin Chalk in the Pearsall Field in of South Texas was selected as the prototype fractured reservoir for this work. During the first year, simulations of vertical and horizontal well performance were made assuming that fracture permeability was insensitive to pressure change. Sensitivity runs indicated that the simulator was predicting the effects of critical reservoir parameters in a logical and consistent manner. The results confirmed that horizontal wells could increase both rate of oil recovery and total oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs. In the second year, the performance of the same vertical and horizontal wells was reevaluated with fracture permeability treated as a function of reservoir pressure. To investigate sensitivity to in situ stress, differing loading conditions were assumed. Simulated natural depletions confirm that pressure sensitive fractures degrade well performance. The severity of degradation worsens when the initial reservoir pressure approaches the average stress condition of the reservoir, such as occurs in over pressured reservoirs. Simulations with water injection indicate that degradation of permeability can be counteracted when reservoir pressure is maintained and oil recovery can be increased when reservoir properties are favorable.

  4. Reservoir property implications of pore geometry modification accompanying sand diagenesis: Anahuac Formation, Louisiana. [Tests on drill cores at simulated in-situ conditions to examine porsity and permeability reduction as pore pressure is reduced by simulated fluid production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, M.T.

    1982-09-01

    This paper represents a study of reservoir pore modification accompanying diagenetic secondary porosity development within a deep (13,400') overpressured Anahuac Formation sandstone in southern Louisiana. Such secondary porosity formed by dissolution of carbonate cement, detrital grains, and other soluble replacive minerals comprises a significant portion of porosity formed in U.S. Gulf Coast Tertiary reservoir sands. The primary pore system within this reservoir was significantly enlarged (up to 35% porosity) by selective dissolution of soluble material by acidic fluids generated during hydrocarbon maturation and shale dewatering. Using scanning electron microscopy, petrographic examination, mercury injection and core testing at in-situ reservoir conditions, characteristics of the reservoir pore system were examined from core within this particular sand interval. Secondary pore size and distribution was found to be affected by sandstone mineralogy, pore matrix content, and sedimentary structures and resulting textural components hindering fluid flow. Special core tests were performed at simulated in-situ reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature to examine porosity and permeability reduction as a function of effective stress generated by reducing pore pressure (simulated fluid production). Observed mechanical resistance to uniaxial compaction at reservoir conditions was determined within portions of the sand containing high (about 30%) secondary porosity.

  5. A direct method for determining complete positive and negative capillary pressure curves for reservoir rock using the centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spinler, E.A.; Baldwin, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    A method is being developed for direct experimental determination of capillary pressure curves from saturation distributions produced during centrifuging fluids in a rock plug. A free water level is positioned along the length of the plugs to enable simultaneous determination of both positive and negative capillary pressures. Octadecane as the oil phase is solidified by temperature reduction while centrifuging to prevent fluid redistribution upon removal from the centrifuge. The water saturation is then measured via magnetic resonance imaging. The saturation profile within the plug and the calculation of pressures for each point of the saturation profile allows for a complete capillary pressure curve to be determined from one experiment. Centrifuging under oil with a free water level into a 100 percent water saturated plug results in the development of a primary drainage capillary pressure curve. Centrifuging similarly at an initial water saturation in the plug results in the development of an imbibition capillary pressure curve. Examples of these measurements are presented for Berea sandstone and chalk rocks.

  6. Two-dimensional simulation of the Raft River geothermal reservoir...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the Raft River geothermal reservoir and wells. (SINDA-3G program) Abstract Computer models describing both the transient reservoir pressure behavior and the time...

  7. Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Stefansson, V.

    1987-08-01

    Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)

  8. Uncertainty quantification for evaluating impacts of caprock and reservoir properties on pressure buildup and ground surface displacement during geological CO2 sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Hou, Zhangshuan; Fang, Yilin; Ren, Huiying; Lin, Guang

    2013-08-12

    A series of numerical test cases reflecting broad and realistic ranges of geological formation properties was developed to systematically evaluate and compare the impacts of those properties on geomechanical responses to CO2 injection. A coupled hydro-geomechanical subsurface transport simulator, STOMP (Subsurface Transport over Multiple Phases), was adopted to simulate the CO2 migration process and geomechanical behaviors of the surrounding geological formations. A quasi-Monte Carlo sampling method was applied to efficiently sample a high-dimensional parameter space consisting of injection rate and 14 subsurface formation properties, including porosity, permeability, entry pressure, irreducible gas and aqueous saturation, Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio for both reservoir and caprock. Generalized cross-validation and analysis of variance methods were used to quantitatively measure the significance of the 15 input parameters. Reservoir porosity, permeability, and injection rate were found to be among the most significant factors affecting the geomechanical responses to the CO2 injection. We used a quadrature generalized linear model to build a reduced-order model that can estimate the geomechanical response instantly instead of running computationally expensive numerical simulations. The injection pressure and ground surface displacement are often monitored for injection well safety, and are believed can partially reflect the risk of fault reactivation and seismicity. Based on the reduced order model and response surface, the input parameters can be screened for control the risk of induced seismicity. The uncertainty of the subsurface structure properties cause the numerical simulation based on a single or a few samples does not accurately estimate the geomechanical response in the actual injection site. Probability of risk can be used to evaluate and predict the risk of injection when there are great uncertainty in the subsurface properties and operation

  9. Reservoir Claddings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-14

    This information sheet explains how to properly decouple reservoir claddings from water sensitive materials of the wall assembly.

  10. Exploring the effects of data quality, data worth, and redundancy of CO2 gas pressure and saturation data on reservoir characterization through PEST Inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zhufeng; Hou, Zhangshuan; Lin, Guang; Engel, David W.; Fang, Yilin; Eslinger, Paul W.

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the impacts of reservoir properties on CO2 migration after subsurface injection and evaluated the possibility of characterizing reservoir properties using CO2 monitoring data such as saturation distribution. The injection reservoir was assumed to be located 1400-1500 m below the ground surface such that CO2 remained in the supercritical state. The reservoir was assumed to contain layers with alternating conductive and resistive properties, which is analogous to actual geological formations such as the Mount Simon Sandstone unit. The CO2 injection simulation used a cylindrical grid setting in which the injection well was situated at the center of the domain, which extended up to 8000 m from the injection well. The CO2 migration was simulated using the PNNL-developed simulator STOMP-CO2e (the water-salt-CO2 module). We adopted a nonlinear parameter estimation and optimization modeling software package, PEST, for automated reservoir parameter estimation. We explored the effects of data quality, data worth, and data redundancy on the detectability of reservoir parameters using CO2 saturation monitoring data, by comparing PEST inversion results using data with different levels of noises, various numbers of monitoring wells and locations, and different data collection spacing and temporal sampling intervals. This study yielded insight into the use of CO2 saturation monitoring data for reservoir characterization and how to design the monitoring system to optimize data worth and reduce data redundancy.

  11. The Potosi Reservoir Model 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adushita, Yasmin; Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    performed to take into account the log data from the new well. Revisions of the 2010 modeling assumptions were also done on relative permeability, capillary pressures, formation water salinity, and the maximum allowable well bottomhole pressure. Dynamic simulations were run using the injection target of 3.2 MTPA for 30 years. This new dynamic model was named Potosi Dynamic Model 2013b. Due to the major uncertainties on the vugs permeability, two models were built; the Pessimistic and Optimistic Cases. The Optimistic Case assumes vugs permeability of 9,000 mD, which is analog to the vugs permeability identified in the pressure fall off test of a waste water injector in the Tuscola site, approx. 40 miles (64.4km) away from the IBDP area. The Pessimistic Case assumes that the vugs permeability is equal to the log data, which does not take into account the permeability from secondary porosity. The probability of such case is deemed low and could be treated as the worst case scenario, since the contribution of secondary porosity to the permeability is neglected and the loss circulation events might correspond to a much higher permeability. It is considered important, however, to identify the range of possible reservoir performance since there are no rigorous data available for the vugs permeability. The Optimistic Case gives an average CO2 injection rate of 0.8 MTPA and cumulative injection of 26 MT in 30 years, which corresponds to 27% of the injection target. The injection rate is approx. 3.2 MTPA in the first year as the well is injecting into the surrounding vugs, and declines rapidly to 0.8 MTPA in year 4 once the surrounding vugs are full and the CO2 start to reach the matrix. This implies that according to this preliminary model, a minimum of four (4) wells could be required to achieve the injection target. This result is lower than the injectivity estimated in the Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a (43 MT in 30 years), since the permeability model applied in the Potosi Dynamic

  12. MAPPING OF RESERVOIR PROPERTIES AND FACIES THROUGH INTEGRATION OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert C. Reynolds; Dean S. Oliver; Fengjun Zhang; Yannong Dong; Jan Arild Skjervheim; Ning Liu

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of permeability and porosity in a reservoir is necessary for the prediction of future oil production, estimation of the location of bypassed oil, and optimization of reservoir management. But while the volume of data that can potentially provide information on reservoir architecture and fluid distributions has increased enormously in the past decade, it is not yet possible to make use of all the available data in an integrated fashion. While it is relatively easy to generate plausible reservoir models that honor static data such as core, log, and seismic data, it is far more difficult to generate plausible reservoir models that honor dynamic data such as transient pressures, saturations, and flow rates. As a result, the uncertainty in reservoir properties is higher than it could be and reservoir management can not be optimized. The goal of this project is to develop computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Solution of this problem is necessary for the quantification of uncertainty in future reservoir performance predictions and for the optimization of reservoir management. Facies (defined here as regions of relatively uniform petrophysical properties) are common features of all reservoirs. Because the flow properties of the various facies can vary greatly, knowledge of the location of facies boundaries is of utmost importance for the prediction of reservoir performance and for the optimization of reservoir management. When the boundaries between facies are fairly well known, but flow properties are poorly known, the average properties for all facies can be determined using traditional techniques. Traditional history matching honors dynamic data by adjusting petrophysical properties in large areas, but in the process of adjusting the reservoir model ignores the static data and often results in implausible reservoir

  13. Performance prediction using geostatistics and window reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontanilla, J.P.; Al-Khalawi, A.A.; Johnson, S.G.

    1995-11-01

    This paper is the first window model study in the northern area of a large carbonate reservoir in Saudi Arabia. It describes window reservoir simulation with geostatistics to model uneven water encroachment in the southwest producing area of the northern portion of the reservoir. In addition, this paper describes performance predictions that investigate the sweep efficiency of the current peripheral waterflood. A 50 x 50 x 549 (240 m. x 260 m. x 0.15 m. average grid block size) geological model was constructed with geostatistics software. Conditional simulation was used to obtain spatial distributions of porosity and volume of dolomite. Core data transforms were used to obtain horizontal and vertical permeability distributions. Simple averaging techniques were used to convert the 549-layer geological model to a 50 x 50 x 10 (240 m. x 260 m. x 8 m. average grid block size) window reservoir simulation model. Flux injectors and flux producers were assigned to the outermost grid blocks. Historical boundary flux rates were obtained from a coarsely-ridded full-field model. Pressure distribution, water cuts, GORs, and recent flowmeter data were history matched. Permeability correction factors and numerous parameter adjustments were required to obtain the final history match. The permeability correction factors were based on pressure transient permeability-thickness analyses. The prediction phase of the study evaluated the effects of infill drilling, the use of artificial lifts, workovers, horizontal wells, producing rate constraints, and tight zone development to formulate depletion strategies for the development of this area. The window model will also be used to investigate day-to-day reservoir management problems in this area.

  14. SMALL, GEOLOGICALLY COMPLEX RESERVOIRS CAN BENEFIT FROM RESERVOIR SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard E. Bennett

    2002-06-24

    The Cascade Sand zone of the Mission-Visco Lease in the Cascade Oil field of Los Angeles County, California, has been under water flood since 1970. Increasing water injection to increase oil production rates was being considered as an opportunity to improve oil recovery. However, a secondary gas cap had formed in the up-dip portion of the reservoir with very low gas cap pressures, creating concern that oil could be displaced into the gas cap resulting in the loss of recoverable oil. Therefore, injecting gas into the gas cap to keep the gas cap pressurized and restrict the influx of oil during water injection was also being considered. Further, it was recognized that the reservoir geology in the gas cap area is very complex with numerous folding and faulting and thus there are potential pressure barriers in several locations throughout the reservoir. With these conditions in mind, there were concerns regarding well to well continuity in the gas cap, which could interfere with the intended repressurization impact. Concerns about the pattern of gas flow from well to well, the possibilities of cycling gas without the desired increased pressure, and the possible loss of oil displaced into the gas cap resulted in the decision to conduct a gas tracer survey in an attempt to better define inter-well communication. Following the gas tracer survey, a reservoir model would be developed to integrate the findings of the gas tracer survey, known geologic and reservoir data, and historic production data. The reservoir model would be used to better define the reservoir characteristics and provide information that could help optimize the waterflood-gas injection project under consideration for efficient water and gas injection management to increase oil production. However, due to inadequate gas sampling procedures in the field and insufficiently developed laboratory analytical techniques, the laboratory was unable to detect the tracer in the gas samples taken. At that point, focus

  15. Monitoring EGS Stimulation and Reservoir Dynamics with InSAR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * Impact: LCOE improvements primarily result from better definition of the reservoir geometry and pressure field - Improved management of injectionproduction strategies to more ...

  16. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  17. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  19. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  20. Reservoir performance of a gravity-stable, vertical CO[sub 2] miscible flood: Wolfcamp reef reservoir, Wellman Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bangia, V.K.; Yau, F.F.; Hendricks, G.R. )

    1993-11-01

    A gravity-stable, vertical CO[sub 2] miscible flood was implemented in the Wellman Unit Wolfcamp reef reservoir in 1983. CO[sub 2] was injected into the crest of the reservoir to displace the oil vertically downward, and water was injected into the lower water-swept region of the reservoir to maintain reservoir pressure at slightly above the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP). Excellent production response to increased CO[sub 2] injection was observed. The reservoir performance was encouraging and indicated excellent volumetric conformance and ultimate recovery. This paper reviews the operating strategy and project performance from inception through mid-1991.

  1. Full Reviews: Reservoir Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below are the project presentations and respective peer reviewer comments for Reservoir Characterization.

  2. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Average Residential Price Residential Price - Local Distribution Companies Residential Price - Marketers Residential % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Average Commercial Price Commercial Price - Local Distribution Companies Commerical Price - Marketers Commercial % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011

  3. Origin of reservoir fractures in Little Knife field, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narr, W.; Burrus, R.C.

    1984-09-01

    Thin, vertical, planar fractures observed in the Mission Canyon Formation, at the Little Knife field, are naturally occurring and appear to be extension fractures. The predominant east-west trend of the fractures, measured in oriented core from six wells, parallels the contemporary maximum horizontal compressive stress in the Williston basin. The fractures occur only in carbonate units, but within the carbonates their occurrence is not lithology dependent. Fracture density measured in the cores of the reservoir carbonates averages 1 ft (.3 m) of fracture per 2.3 ft (.7 m) of core. The formation and mineralization of reservoir fractures were the most recent diagenetic events in the Mission Canyon Formation at Little Knife. Study of aqueous and hydrocarbon fluid inclusions associated with the fractures reveals: (1) fractures formed after the strata were buried to at least their present depth of 9,800 ft (2,987 m), which indicates their age is post-Mesozoic; (2) the pore-fluid pressure gradient was normal hydrostatic immediately after, if not during, fracture system development; (3) formation-water salinity has remained fairly constant since fracture initiation; (4) migration of hydrocarbons into the reservoir probably preceded fracture genesis; and (5) methane concentration may have decreased since fracture initiation.

  4. Status of Norris Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Norris Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses, conditions that impair reservoir uses, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most up-to-date publications and data available, and from interviews with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies, and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our

  6. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-10-01

    This report presents the work done so far on Hunton Formation in West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. West Carney Field produces oil and gas from the Hunton Formation. The field was developed starting in 1995. Some of the unique characteristics of the field include decreasing water oil ratio over time, decreasing gas-oil ratio at the beginning of production, inability to calculate oil reserves in the field based on log data, and sustained oil rates over long periods of time. To understand the unique characteristics of the field, an integrated evaluation was undertaken. Production data from the field were meticulously collected, and over forty wells were cored and logged to better understand the petrophysical and engineering characteristics. Based on the work done in this budget period so far, some of the preliminary conclusions can be listed as follows: (1) Based on PVT analysis, the field most likely contains volatile oil with bubble point close to initial reservoir pressure of 1,900 psia. (2) The initial oil in place, which is contact with existing wells, can be determined by newly developed material balance technique. The oil in place, which is in communication, is significantly less than determined by volumetric analysis, indicating heterogeneous nature of the reservoir. The oil in place, determined by material balance, is greater than determined by decline curve analysis. This difference may lead to additional locations for in fill wells. (3) The core and log evaluation indicates that the intermediate pores (porosity between 2 and 6 %) are very important in determining production potential of the reservoir. These intermediate size pores contain high oil saturation. (4) The limestone part of the reservoir, although low in porosity (mostly less than 6 %) is much more prolific in terms of oil production than the dolomite portion of the reservoir. The reason for this difference is the higher oil saturation in low porosity region. As the average porosity

  7. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  8. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Concentration Averaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentration Averaging Concentration Averaging Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging PDF icon Summary Notes from 3...

  11. Project title: Stimulation at Desert Peak and Bradys reservoirs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    capability of modeling reservoir scale systems over time span of interest (20-30 years) ... that depend on pressure, temperature, and stresses in a highly nonlinear manner. ...

  12. Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    1995-01-01

    Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

  13. Blackfoot Reservoir Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With...

  14. Blackfoot Reservoir Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  15. Reservoir geology of Landslide field, southern San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, T.R.; Tucker, R.D.; Singleton, M.T. )

    1991-02-01

    The Landslide field, which is located on the southern margin of the San Joaquin basin, was discovered in 1985 and consists of 13 producers and six injectors. Cumulative production as of mid-1990 was approximately 10 million bbl of oil with an average daily production of 4700 BOPD. Production is from a series of late Miocene turbidite sands (Stevens Sand) that were deposited as a small constructional submarine fan (less than 2 mi in diameter). Based on interpretation of wireline logs and engineering data, deposition of the fan and of individual lobes within the fan was strongly influenced by preexisting paleotopography and small syndepositional slump features. Based on mapping of individual depositional units and stratigraphic dipmeter analysis, transport direction of the sand was to the north-north across these paleotopographic breaks in slope. Dipmeter data and pressure data from individual sands are especially useful for recognition and mapping of individual flow units between well bores. Detailed engineering, geophysical and geological studies have increased our understanding of the dimensions, continuity, geometry, and inherent reservoir properties of the individual flow units within the reservoir. Based on the results of these studies a series of water isolation workovers and extension wells were proposed and successfully undertaken. This work has increased recoverable reserves and arrested the rapid production decline.

  16. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of themore » weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.« less

  17. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  18. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-14

    Through June 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar (Tar II-A) Zone. Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood project. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the third quarter 2000 revising the draft 1997-2000 Annual Report submitted last quarter, writing final reports on the research projects mentioned above, and operating the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Thermal-related formation compaction is a concern of the project team due to observed surface subsidence in the local area above the Tar II-A steamflood project. On January 12, 1999, the steamflood project lost its inexpensive steam source from the Harbor Cogeneration Plant as a result of the recent deregulation of electrical power rates in California. An operational plan was developed and implemented to mitigate the effects of the two situations by injecting cold water into the flanks of the steamflood. The purpose of flank injection has been to increase and subsequently maintain reservoir pressures at a level that would fill-up the steam chests in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands before they can collapse and cause formation compaction and to

  19. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31

    constraints afflicting mature Mississippian fields. A publicly accessible databank of representative petrophysical properties and relationships was developed to overcome the paucity of such data that is critical to modeling the storage and flow in these reservoirs. Studies in 3 Mississippian fields demonstrated that traditional reservoir models built by integrating log, core, DST, and production data from existing wells on 40-acre spacings are unable to delineate karst-induced compartments, thus making 3D-seismic data critical to characterize these fields. Special attribute analyses on 3D data were shown to delineate reservoir compartments and predict those with pay porosities. Further testing of these techniques is required to validate their applicability in other Mississippian reservoirs. This study shows that detailed reservoir characterization and simulation on geomodels developed by integrating wireline log, core, petrophysical, production and pressure, and 3D-seismic data enables better evaluation of a candidate field for horizontal infill applications. In addition to reservoir compartmentalization, two factors were found to control the economic viability of a horizontal infill well in a mature Mississippian field: (a) adequate reservoir pressure support, and (b) an average well spacing greater than 40-acres.

  20. Seismicity and Reservoir Fracture Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below are the project presentations and respective peer review results for Seismicity and Reservoir Fracture Characterization.

  1. Relation between facies, diagenesis, and reservoir quality of Rotliegende reservoirs in north Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, F.; Gast, R.; Kraft, T. (BEB Erdgas Erdol GmbH, Hannover (Germany))

    1993-09-01

    In north Germany, the majority of Rotliegende gas fields is confined to an approximately 50 km-wide east-west-orientated belt, which is situated on the gently north-dipping flank of the southern Permian basin. Approximately 400 billion m[sup 3] of natural gas has been found in Rotliegende reservoir sandstones with average porosities of depths ranging from 3500 to 5000 m. Rotliegende deposition was controlled by the Autunian paleo-relief, and arid climate and cyclic transgressions of the desert lake. In general, wadis and large dunefields occur in the hinterland, sebkhas with small isolate dunes and shorelines define the coastal area, and a desert lake occurs to the north. The sandstones deposited in large dunefields contain only minor amounts of illite, anhydrite, and calcite and form good reservoirs. In contrast, the small dunes formed in the sebkha areas were affected by fluctuations of the desert lake groundwaters, causing the infiltration of detrital clay and precipitation of gypsum and calcite. These cements were transformed to illite, anhydrite, and calcite-II during later diagenesis, leading to a significant reduction of the reservoir quality. The best reservoirs occur in the shoreline sandstones because porosity and permeability were preserved by early magnesium-chlorite diagenesis. Since facies controls diagenesis and consequently reservoir quality, mapping of facies also indicates the distribution of reservoir and nonreservoir rocks. This information is used to identify play area and to interpret and calibrate three-dimensional seismic data.

  2. Influence of reservoir stress path on deformation and permeability of weakly cemented sandstone reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruistuen, H.; Teufel, L.W.; Rhett, D.

    1996-12-31

    The influence of production-induced changes in reservoir stress state on compressibility and permeability of weakly cemented sandstones has been analyzed. Laboratory experiments simulating reservoir depletion have been conducted for the full range of stress paths that a reservoir may follow. Samples were loaded by reducing the pore pressure and controlling the confining pressure according to the desired stress path from initial reservoir conditions. The results show that compressibility of weakly cemented sandstones are stress path dependent. Compressibilities measured under uniaxial strain conditions, or a stress path with a K value lower than the one associated with uniaxial strain, are more than twice the corresponding value found under hydrostatic loading conditions. In contrast, matrix permeability measured in the maximum stress direction show no significant stress path dependence. Independently of stress path, the observed permeability reductions fall within the general trend expected for a sedimentary rock of relatively high initial permeability. A significant permeability decrease was only observed as the shear stress exceeded the yield limit of the rock, probably due to both mobilization of fine arains and an increase in tortuosity due to collapse of pore space. Results of this study suggest that stress path dependent properties of weakly cemented sandstones is a consequence of the heterogeneous nature of the sedimentary rock. Material properties are affected by grain-scale inelastic deformation processes and the pattern of these deformation processes is primarily controlled by reservoir stress path.

  3. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-06

    chests from reoccurring. A new 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model was used to provide operations with the necessary water injection rates and allowable production rates by well to minimize future surface subsidence and to accurately project reservoir steam chest fill-up by October 1999. A geomechanics study and a separate reservoir simulation study have been performed to determine the possible indicators of formation compaction, the temperatures at which specific indicators are affected and the projected temperature profiles in the over and underburden shales over a ten year period following steam injection. Further geomechanics work should be conducted. It was believed that once steam chest fill-up occurred, the reservoir would act more like a waterflood and production and cold water injection could be operated at lower Injection to production ratios (I/P) and net injection rates. In mid-September 1999, net water injection was reduced substantially in the ''D'' sands following steam chest fill-up. This caused reservoir pressures to plummet about 100 psi within six weeks. Starting in late-October 1999, net ''D'' sand injection was increased and reservoir pressures have slowly increased back to steam chest fill-up pressures as of the end of March 2000. When the ''T'' sands reached fill-up, net ''T'' sand injection remained at a high rate and reservoir pressures stabilized. A more detailed discussion of the operational changes is in the Reservoir Management section of this report. A reservoir pressure monitoring program was developed as part of the poststeamflood reservoir management plan. This bi-monthly sonic fluid level program measures the static fluid levels in all idle wells an average of once a month. The fluid levels have been calibrated for liquid and gas density gradients by comparing a number of them with Amerada bomb pressures taken within a few days. This data allows engineering to respond quickly to rises or declines in reservoir pressure by

  4. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-06

    to accurately project reservoir steam chest fill-up by October 1999. A geomechanics study and a separate reservoir simulation study have been performed to determine the possible indicators of formation compaction, the temperatures at which specific indicators are affected and the projected temperature profiles in the over and underburden shales over a ten year period following steam injection. It was believed that once steam chest fill-up occurred, the reservoir would act more like a waterflood and production and cold water injection could be operated at lower Injection to production ratios (I/P) and net injection rates. In mid-September 1999, net water injection was reduced substantially in the ''D'' sands following steam chest fill-up. This caused reservoir pressures to plummet about 100 psi within six weeks. Starting in late-October 1999, net ''D'' sand injection was increased and reservoir pressures have slowly increased back to steam chest fill-up pressures as of the end of March 2000. When the ''T'' sands reached fill-up, net ''T'' sand injection was lowered only slightly and reservoir pressures stabilized. A more detailed discussion of the operational changes is in the Reservoir Management section of this report. A reservoir pressure monitoring program was developed as part of the poststeamflood reservoir management plan. This bi-monthly sonic fluid level program measures the static fluid levels in all idle wells an average of once a month. The fluid levels have been calibrated for liquid and gas density gradients by comparing a number of them with Amerada bomb pressures taken within a few days. This data allows engineering to respond quickly to rises or declines in reservoir pressure by either increasing injection or production or idling production. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil

  5. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  6. Integrated geological and engineering characterization of an Upper Permian, carbonate reservoir, South Cowden unit, Ector County Texas -- a work in progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerard, M.G.; Johnson, J.V.; Snow, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    South Cowden Unit, located on the eastern margin of the Central Basin Platform, has produced 35 million barrels of oil since initial development in the late 1940`s. The Unit, under waterflood since 1965, has been proposed for a CO{sub 2} flood using horizontal injection wells. A team of geologists and engineers was formed to characterize the reservoir. The early and complete integration of geologic and engineering work has resulted in a detailed reservoir description to be used in reservoir simulation. Regional mapping and 3D seismic data indicate that sediments within the reservoir interval were draped over a paleohigh resulting in an unfaulted, anticlinal-like structure. A field-wide stratigraphic framework was developed using two to four-foot thick, gamma-ray log markers which correspond to low permeability, sandy dolomite layers recognized in core. These log correlations indicate fairly simple and uniform structure and stratigraphy. The gamma-ray markers delineate four zones within the 150 foot reservoir interval. Rocks composing these zones are extensively dolomitized and display a complex color mottling. This mottling is related most likely to bioturbation of carbonate sediments in a shallow, subtidal marine environment. Extensive and interconnected bioturbated areas have core analysis porosities averaging approximately 20% and permeabilities generally ranging from 2 to 350 md. The intervening, nonburrowed and unstained areas have porosities averaging 5% and permeabilities typically ranging form 0.01 to 2 md. Variations in the quality and thickness of the mottled facies are major parameters controlling oil recovery. A belt of better reservoir-quality rock runs roughly parallel to structure and results in an area of higher cumulative oil production. Good waterflood response and uniform pressure distribution indicate continuity of the pay zones within this belt.

  7. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M.B.

    1999-02-01

    Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The reservoir characterization, geologic modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir.

  8. Seismic imaging of reservoir flow properties: Time-lapse pressurechanges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, Don W.

    2003-04-08

    Time-lapse fluid pressure and saturation estimates are sensitive to reservoir flow properties such as permeability. In fact, given time-lapse estimates of pressure and saturation changes, one may define a linear partial differential equation for permeability variations within the reservoir. The resulting linear inverse problem can be solved quite efficiently using sparse matrix techniques. An application to a set of crosswell saturation and pressure estimates from a CO{sub 2} flood at the Lost Hills field in California demonstrates the utility of this approach. From the crosswell estimates detailed estimates of reservoir permeability are produced. The resulting permeability estimates agree with a permeability log in an adjacent well and are in accordance with water and CO{sub 2} saturation changes in the interwell region.

  9. High average power pockels cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  10. Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion Gas Chemistry Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion Gas Chemistry Methodologies for ...

  11. Application of coiled-tubing-drilling technology on a deep underpressured gas reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The Upper-Mississippian Elkton formation is a dolomitized shallow-water carbonate consisting of dense limestones and porous dolomites. The Elkton was deposited in an open-shelf environment as crinoid grainstones, coral packstones, and lime muds. Deposition of impermeable shales and siltstones of the Lower Cretaceous created the lateral and updip seals. Reservoir thickness can be up to 20 m, with porosities reaching 20% and averaging 10%. The reservoir gas contains approximately 0.5% hydrogen sulfide. Well 11-18 was to be completed in the Harmatten Elkton pool. The pool went on production in 1967 at an initial pressure of 23,500 kPa. At the current pressure of 16,800 kPa, the remaining reserves are underpressured at 6.5 kPa/m, and underbalanced horizontal drilling was selected as the most suitable technique for exploiting remaining reserves. Coiled-tubing (CT) technology was selected to ensure continuous underbalanced conditions and maintain proper well control while drilling. The paper describes the equipment, CT drilling summary, and drilling issues.

  12. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  13. Discrete Fracture Reservoir Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to FRACGENNFFLOW Releases with the subject "Add to Release Distribution List". The animation on this page displays sample output values for pressure from 22 time steps. A series...

  14. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennington, Wayne D.; Acevedo, Horacio; Green, Aaron; Len, Shawn; Minavea, Anastasia; Wood, James; Xie, Deyi

    2002-01-29

    This project has completed the initially scheduled third year of the contract, and is beginning a fourth year, designed to expand upon the tech transfer aspects of the project. From the Stratton data set, demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along `phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the Boonsville data set , developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Teal South data set provided a surprising set of data, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines.

  15. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  16. Bulalo field, Philippines: Reservoir modeling for prediction of limits to sustainable generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strobel, Calvin J.

    1993-01-28

    The Bulalo geothermal field, located in Laguna province, Philippines, supplies 12% of the electricity on the island of Luzon. The first 110 MWe power plant was on line May 1979; current 330 MWe (gross) installed capacity was reached in 1984. Since then, the field has operated at an average plant factor of 76%. The National Power Corporation plans to add 40 MWe base load and 40 MWe standby in 1995. A numerical simulation model for the Bulalo field has been created that matches historic pressure changes, enthalpy and steam flash trends and cumulative steam production. Gravity modeling provided independent verification of mass balances and time rate of change of liquid desaturation in the rock matrix. Gravity modeling, in conjunction with reservoir simulation provides a means of predicting matrix dry out and the time to limiting conditions for sustainable levelized steam deliverability and power generation.

  17. Reservoir Modeling Working Group Meeting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reservoir Modeling Working Group Meeting 2012 GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM PEER REVIEW ... History Past Meetings: March 2010 IPGT Modeling Working Group Meeting May 2010 GTP Peer ...

  18. NFFLOW: A reservoir simulator incorporating explicit fractures (SPE 153890)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, E.J.; Sams, W.N.

    2012-01-01

    NFFLOW is a research code that quickly and inexpensively simulates flow in moderately fractured reservoirs. It explicitly recognizes fractures separately from rock matrix. In NFFLOW fracture flow is proportional to the pressure gradient along the fracture, and flow in the rock matrix is determined by Darcys Law. The two flow mechanisms are coupled through the pressure gradient between a fracture and its adjacent rock matrix. Presented is a promising change to NFFLOW that allows for flow across a rock matrix block.

  19. Waveguide-based Ultrasonic and Far-field Electromagnetic Sensors for Downhole Reservoir Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: To develop waveguide-based ultrasonic and farfield electromagnetic sensors to measure key Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoir parameters, including directional temperature, pressure, fluidflow, fracture imaging, and flow/rock interaction.

  20. Reservoir analysis of the Palinpinon geothermal field, Negros Oriental, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amistoso, A.E.; Aquino, B.G.; Aunzo, Z.P.; Jordan, O.T.; Ana, F.X.M.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Doughty, C.

    1993-10-01

    The Philippine National Oil Company and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have conducted an informal cooperative project on the reservoir evaluation of the Palinpinon geothermal field in the Philippines. The work involved the development of various numerical models of the field in order to understand the observed data. A three-dimensional porous medium model of the reservoir has been developed that matches well the observed pressure declines and enthalpy transients of the wells. Submodels representing the reservoir as a fractured porous medium were developed for the analysis of chemical transport of chlorides within the reservoir and the movement of the cold water front away from injection wells. These models indicate that the effective porosity of the reservoir varies between 1 and 7% and the effective permeability between 1 and 45 millidarcies. The numerical models were used to predict the future performance of the Palinpinon reservoir using various possible exploitation scenarios. A limited number of make-up wells were allocated to each sector of the field. When all the make-up wells had been put on line, power production gradually began to decline. The model indicates that under the assumed conditions it will not be possible to maintain the planned power production of 112.5 MWe at Palinpinon I and 80 MWe at Palinpinon II for the next 30 years, but the decline in power output will be within acceptable normal operating capacities of the plants.

  1. Shale Reservoir Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gas-producing shales are predominantly composed of consolidated clay-sized particles with a high organic content. High subsurface pressures and temperatures convert the organic matter to oil and...

  2. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

  3. An innovative secondary recovery approach for a marginal reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, T.J.; Hanafy, H.H.

    1995-11-01

    The Younis Lower Rudeis reservoir is operated by the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company (GUPCO) in a remote area of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Before concluding that Younis had no future potential, GUPCO commissioned a reservoir/facility engineering team to study the reservoir development potential. First, reservoir simulation would be used to improve the understanding of the depletion mechanism and the original oil in place. Second, simulation would be used to determine the potential for waterflooding. Third, if waterflooding potential exists,the team must find a way to economically develop the incremental reserves. The reservoir simulation work clarified the depletion mechanism in Younis, and indicated a significant potential for waterflooding exists. History matching of the historical reservoir performance discovered that a much larger reservoir volume is actually present than mapped, and that ultimate recovery will actually reach only 22 percent of the OOIP. Furthermore, while gravity segregation of gas is occurring, significant unrecovered oil reserves will remain downdip of the current producers. Waterflooding could aid recovery of this downdip oil. With expected reserves from the waterflood project to total 5.3 MMBO, the facility engineers were challenged with providing up to 6000 BPD of water to the platform. An innovative technique was ultimately designed to install all needed equipment on the Younis unmanned platform for a remote waterflood. Since surface injection is expected to occur under a vacuum due to the low reservoir pressure, inexpensive equipment would be used to withdraw water from the Gulf, treat and filter, and deliver to the injection well at the required rate.

  4. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  5. Collapsible sheath fluid reservoirs for flow cytometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mark, Graham A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a container in the form of a single housing for holding fluid, including a first collapsible reservoir having a first valve. The first reservoir initially contains a volume of fluid. The container also includes a second reservoir, initially empty (or substantially empty), expandable to a second volume. The second reservoir has a second valve. As the volume of said first reservoir decreases, the volume of the second reservoir proportionally increases.

  6. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1978-2014 - Dataset | Department of Energy 0: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 fotw#870_web.xlsx (17.92 KB) More Documents & Publications Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone Report on Materials and Machining of Specimens for the ATR-2

  7. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim; Gilbert, Bob; Lake, Larry W.; Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Thomas, Sunil G.; Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Klie, Hector; Banchs, Rafael; Nunez, Emilio J.; Jablonowski, Chris

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  8. Reservoir-Stimulation Optimization with Operational Monitoring...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reservoir-Stimulation Optimization with Operational Monitoring for Creation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Reservoir-Stimulation Optimization with Operational Monitoring for ...

  9. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock...

  10. Effect of wettability on scale-up of multiphase flow from core-scale to reservoir fine-grid-scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Y.C.; Mani, V.; Mohanty, K.K.

    1997-08-01

    Typical field simulation grid-blocks are internally heterogeneous. The objective of this work is to study how the wettability of the rock affects its scale-up of multiphase flow properties from core-scale to fine-grid reservoir simulation scale ({approximately} 10{prime} x 10{prime} x 5{prime}). Reservoir models need another level of upscaling to coarse-grid simulation scale, which is not addressed here. Heterogeneity is modeled here as a correlated random field parameterized in terms of its variance and two-point variogram. Variogram models of both finite (spherical) and infinite (fractal) correlation length are included as special cases. Local core-scale porosity, permeability, capillary pressure function, relative permeability functions, and initial water saturation are assumed to be correlated. Water injection is simulated and effective flow properties and flow equations are calculated. For strongly water-wet media, capillarity has a stabilizing/homogenizing effect on multiphase flow. For small variance in permeability, and for small correlation length, effective relative permeability can be described by capillary equilibrium models. At higher variance and moderate correlation length, the average flow can be described by a dynamic relative permeability. As the oil wettability increases, the capillary stabilizing effect decreases and the deviation from this average flow increases. For fractal fields with large variance in permeability, effective relative permeability is not adequate in describing the flow.

  11. How to revitalize a mature reservoir: New development stategy-an integrated study in petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rondon, L.; Coll, C.; Cordova, P.; Gamero, H.

    1996-08-01

    The results from a 3-D, 3-Phase numerical simulation model of Lower Lagunillas reservoir in Block IV Lake Maracaibo indicate the possibility of additional recovery from this mature field by drilling infill horizontal wells. The simulation model was the final outcome of an integrated work effort by a team of specialists. The field has produced approximately 920 MMSTB or 43% of OOIP to date and the remaining reserves are estimated to be 270 MMSTB. The reservoir pressure has declined from 4200 psi to 1400 psi, well below the bubble point pressure of 4000 psi. The objectives of an integrated reservoir study were to understand the reservoir heterogeneity and dynamics, evaluate the efficiency of the gas injection started in 1966 and the strength of the active aquifer as pressure support mechanisms. The new model shows the presence of layers with bypassed oil and higher pressures between layers that show greater pressure depletion and high GOR. This situation demonstrates the need to formulate a new development strategy for efficiently recovering the remaining reserves. The study indicates that the drilling of horizontal wells or infill deviated wells in some of these layers offers the best solution for maximizing recovery from this reservoir taking full advantage of the reservoir heterogeneity, aquifer support and secondary gas cap to optimize well locations.

  12. Geothermal Reservoir Dynamics - TOUGHREACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten; Xu, Tianfu; Shan, Chao; Zhang, Yingqi; Wu,Yu-Shu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zhang,Guoxiang; Kennedy, Mack

    2005-03-15

    This project has been active for several years and has focused on developing, enhancing and applying mathematical modeling capabilities for fractured geothermal systems. The emphasis of our work has recently shifted towards enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) and hot dry rock (HDR), and FY05 is the first year that the DOE-AOP actually lists this project under Enhanced Geothermal Systems. Our overall purpose is to develop new engineering tools and a better understanding of the coupling between fluid flow, heat transfer, chemical reactions, and rock-mechanical deformation, to demonstrate new EGS technology through field applications, and to make technical information and computer programs available for field applications. The objectives of this project are to: (1) Improve fundamental understanding and engineering methods for geothermal systems, primarily focusing on EGS and HDR systems and on critical issues in geothermal systems that are difficult to produce. (2) Improve techniques for characterizing reservoir conditions and processes through new modeling and monitoring techniques based on ''active'' tracers and coupled processes. (3) Improve techniques for targeting injection towards specific engineering objectives, including maintaining and controlling injectivity, controlling non-condensable and corrosive gases, avoiding scale formation, and optimizing energy recovery. Seek opportunities for field testing and applying new technologies, and work with industrial partners and other research organizations.

  13. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2002-03-31

    The West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma is one of few newly discovered oil fields in Oklahoma. Although profitable, the field exhibits several unusual characteristics. These include decreasing water-oil ratios, decreasing gas-oil ratios, decreasing bottomhole pressures during shut-ins in some wells, and transient behavior for water production in many wells. This report explains the unusual characteristics of West Carney Field based on detailed geological and engineering analyses. We propose a geological history that explains the presence of mobile water and oil in the reservoir. The combination of matrix and fractures in the reservoir explains the reservoir's flow behavior. We confirm our hypothesis by matching observed performance with a simulated model and develop procedures for correlating core data to log data so that the analysis can be extended to other, similar fields where the core coverage may be limited.

  14. Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamath, Krishna

    1984-08-14

    The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7.degree. F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88.degree. F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

  15. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  16. Stratigraphy of Pennsylvanian detrital reservoirs, Permian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Der Loop, M. )

    1992-04-01

    Significant oil reserves have been found to date in stratigraphic traps in Pennsylvanian detrital reservoirs on the Central Basin platform and Reagan uplift of the Permian basin. The 32 MMBOEG Arenoso field area, discovered in 1966, is the largest producing field. Along a 75 mi northwest-southeast trend, 23 other smaller fields will produce an average 850 MBOEG each, for a total estimated ultimate recovery to date in the trend of 52 MMBOEG. These stratigraphic traps are elusive and complex. However, reservoir quality is excellent, and because of the poorly understood trap types, significant reserves remain to be found in the trend. The Pennsylvanian detrital consists of chert cobble conglomerates, coarse sands, red shales, and gray limestones deposited in an environment that grades seaward from alluvial fan to braided stream to shallow marine. The chert cobble conglomerates of the alluvial fan facies and the coarse sands of the braided stream facies are the highest quality pay zones. Porosities range from 5 to 20%, with permeability ranging up to 26 d. The total unit is seldom more than 400 ft thick; reservoir rock thicknesses within the unit range up to 100 ft. Because of the complex nature of the alluvial fan and braided stream deposits, dry development wells can be expected within fields. These Strawn deposits are located adjacent to and overlying the eroded lower Paleozoic uplifts of the southern Central Basin platform. The major source of the chert cobbles is erosion of the Devonian tripolitic chert. Renewed structural uplift combined with sea level drop in the middle Wolfcampian locally truncated some Pennsylvanian detrital alluvial fan deposits, and complicated or destroyed a potential trap by depositing Wolfcamp chert conglomerates on top of the Pennsylvanian conglomerates.

  17. Low-cost integrated teamwork and seismic monitoring improved reservoir management of Norwegian gas reservoir with active water drive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grinde, P.; Blanche, J.P.; Schnapper, D.B.

    1994-12-31

    This paper shows how new techniques, using integrated seismic and reservoir modelling, have shown there is no need to drill two previously proposed additional need to drill two previously proposed additional producers on the Heimdal gas field. Older simulations had shown this to be necessary in order to recover locally trapped gas. The study emphasizes the necessity of close team work to obtain the detailed reservoir description needed for such a study. A multidisciplinary team of geologists, geophysicists and reservoir specialists performed this study to reappraise the Heimdal Field. Using seismic attributes from 3D (mainly 2D amplitude versus offset AVO) a detailed structural and seismic stratigraphic interpretation provided the geometrical basis for the field model. A heterogenetic approach (identifying potential flow barriers) to detailed geology was then applied using regional experience and detailed field data including the production characteristics. The resulting reservoir model also incorporated offset fields on common regional aquifers, to properly monitor and predict the dynamic pressure behavior and aquifer energy in this series of connecting, Paleocene, turbiditic sands. Two repetitive seismic campaigns have been acquired since the pre-production 3D seismic survey. Mapping of the water encroachment was accomplished using advanced interpretation techniques of 2D AVO and inversion. The results have been integrated into the dynamic matching process in the reservoir simulation.

  18. Potosi Reservoir Modeling; History and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    As a part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO₂) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from two projects: the US DOE-funded Illinois Basin–Decatur Project being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium in Macon County, Illinois, as well as data from the Illinois – Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (IL-ICCS) project funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. In 2010, technical performance evaluations on the Cambrian Potosi Formation were performed through reservoir modeling. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the Verification Well 1 (VW1) and the Injection Well (CCS1), structural and stratigraphic formation from three dimensional (3D) seismic data, and field data from several waste water injection wells for the Potosi Formation. The intention was for two million tonnes per annum (MTPA) of CO₂ to be injected for 20 years into the Potosi Formation. In 2013, updated reservoir models for the Cambrian Potosi Formation were evaluated. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the CCS1, VW1, and Verification Well 2 (VW2) wells, structural and stratigraphic formation from a larger 3D seismic survey, and field data from several waste water injection wells for Potosi Formation. The objective is to simulate the injection of CO₂ at a rate 3.5 million tons per annum (3.2 million tonnes per annum [MTPA]) for 30 years 106 million tons (96 MT total) into the Potosi Formation. The Potosi geomodeling efforts have evolved

  19. Integrated reservoir characterization and flow simulation for well targeting and reservoir management, Iagifu-Hedinia field, Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franklin, S.P.; Livingston, J.E.; Fitzmorris, R.E. )

    1996-01-01

    Infill drilling based on integrated reservoir characterization and flow simulation is increasing recoverable reserves by 20 MMBO, in lagifu-Hedinia Field (IHF). Stratigraphically-zoned models are input to window and full-field flow simulations, and results of the flow simulations target deviated and horizontal wells. Logging and pressure surveys facilitate detailed reservoir management. Flooding surfaces are the dominant control on differential depletion within and between reservoirs. The primary reservoir is the basal Cretaceous Toro Sandstone. Within the IHF, Toro is a 100 m quartz sandstone composed of stacked, coarsening-upward parasequences within a wave-dominated deltaic complex. Flooding surfaces are used to form a hydraulic zonation. The zonation is refined using discontinuities in RIFT pressure gradients and logs from development wells. For flow simulation, models use 3D geostatistical techniques. First, variograms defining spatial correlation are developed. The variograms are used to construct 3D porosity and permeability models which reflect the stratigraphic facies models. Structure models are built using dipmeter, biostratigraphic, and surface data. Deviated wells often cross axial surfaces and geometry is predicted from dip domain and SCAT. Faults are identified using pressure transient data and dipmeter. The Toro reservoir is subnormally pressured and fluid contacts are hydrodynamically tilted. The hydrodynamic flow and tilted contacts are modeled by flow simulation and constrained by maps of the potentiometric surface.

  20. Integrated reservoir characterization and flow simulation for well targeting and reservoir management, Iagifu-Hedinia field, Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franklin, S.P.; Livingston, J.E.; Fitzmorris, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Infill drilling based on integrated reservoir characterization and flow simulation is increasing recoverable reserves by 20 MMBO, in lagifu-Hedinia Field (IHF). Stratigraphically-zoned models are input to window and full-field flow simulations, and results of the flow simulations target deviated and horizontal wells. Logging and pressure surveys facilitate detailed reservoir management. Flooding surfaces are the dominant control on differential depletion within and between reservoirs. The primary reservoir is the basal Cretaceous Toro Sandstone. Within the IHF, Toro is a 100 m quartz sandstone composed of stacked, coarsening-upward parasequences within a wave-dominated deltaic complex. Flooding surfaces are used to form a hydraulic zonation. The zonation is refined using discontinuities in RIFT pressure gradients and logs from development wells. For flow simulation, models use 3D geostatistical techniques. First, variograms defining spatial correlation are developed. The variograms are used to construct 3D porosity and permeability models which reflect the stratigraphic facies models. Structure models are built using dipmeter, biostratigraphic, and surface data. Deviated wells often cross axial surfaces and geometry is predicted from dip domain and SCAT. Faults are identified using pressure transient data and dipmeter. The Toro reservoir is subnormally pressured and fluid contacts are hydrodynamically tilted. The hydrodynamic flow and tilted contacts are modeled by flow simulation and constrained by maps of the potentiometric surface.

  1. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2005-09-30

    Log Analysis technique developed from the NDP project has proven useful in defining additional productive zones and refining completion techniques. This program proved to be especially helpful in locating and evaluating potential recompletion intervals, which has resulted in low development costs with only small incremental increases in lifting costs. To develop additional reserves at lower costs, zones behind pipe in existing wells were evaluated using techniques developed for the Brushy Canyon interval. These techniques were used to complete uphole zones in thirteen of the NDP wells. A total of 14 recompletions were done: four during 1999, four during 2000, two during 2001, and four during 2002-2003. These workovers added reserves of 332,304 barrels of oil (BO) and 640,363 MCFG (thousand cubic feet of gas) at an overall weighted average development cost of $1.87 per BOE (barrel of oil equivalent). A pressure maintenance pilot project in a developed area of the field was not conducted because the pilot area was pressure depleted, and the reservoir in that area was found to be compartmentalized and discontinuous. Economic analyses and simulation studies indicated that immiscible injection of lean hydrocarbon gas for pressure maintenance was not warranted at the NDP and would need to be considered for implementation in similar fields very soon after production has started. Simulation studies suggested that the injection of miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) could recover significant quantities of oil at the NDP, but a source of low-cost CO{sub 2} was not available in the area. Results from the project indicated that further development will be under playa lakes and potash areas that were beyond the regions covered by well control and are not accessible with vertical wells. These areas, covered by 3-D seismic surveys that were obtained as part of the project, were accessed with combinations of deviated/horizontal wells. Three directional/horizontal wells have been

  2. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a

  3. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a

  4. A Parallel Stochastic Framework for Reservoir Characterization and History Matching

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, Sunil G.; Klie, Hector M.; Rodriguez, Adolfo A.; Wheeler, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of parameters that characterize the subsurface is never known to any reasonable level of accuracy required to solve the governing PDEs of multiphase flow or species transport through porous media. This paper presents a numerically cheap, yet efficient, accurate and parallel framework to estimate reservoir parameters, for example, medium permeability, using sensor information from measurements of the solution variables such as phase pressures, phase concentrations, fluxes, and seismic and well log data. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the method.

  5. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  6. Application of Integrated Reservoir management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Pregger; D. Davies; D. Moore; G. Freeman; J. Callard; J.W. Nevans; L. Doublet; R. Vessell; T. Blasingame

    1997-08-31

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  7. THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs … Continuum through Discontinuum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs Continuum through Discontinuum Representations: Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs ...

  8. THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs …Continuum through Discontinuum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs Continuum through Discontinuum Representations: Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs ...

  9. Reservoir Modeling Working Group Meeting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reservoir Modeling Working Group Meeting Reservoir Modeling Working Group Meeting Reservoir Modeling working group meeting presentation on May 10, 2012 at the 2012 Peer Review ...

  10. IPGT Reservoir Modeling Working Group | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IPGT Reservoir Modeling Working Group IPGT Reservoir Modeling Working Group Summary of recommendations and geothermal reservoir benchmarking workshop gtp2012peerreviewreservoirm...

  11. Passive injection: A strategy for mitigating reservoir pressurization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    induced seismicity and brine migration in geologic CO2 storage Citation Details ... induced seismicity and brine migration in geologic CO2 storage Authors: ...

  12. Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and flow-through tests at the Hot Dry rock (HDR) test site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. ... FRACTURING; FRESH WATER; GRANITES; NEW MEXICO; PERMEABILITY; POROSITY; PUMPING; ...

  13. CO2 is dominant greenhouse gas emitted from six hydropower reservoirs in southeastern United States during peak summer emissions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Stewart, Aurthur J.; Fortner, Allison M.; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Mosher, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-06

    During August-September 2012, we sampled six hydropower reservoirs in southeastern United States. for CO2 and CH4 emissions via three pathways: diffusive emissions from water surface; ebullition in the water column; and losses from dam tailwaters during power generation. Average total emission rates of CO2 for the six reservoirs ranged from 1,127 to 2,051 mg m-2 d-1, which is low to moderate compared to CO2 emissions rates reported for tropical hydropower reservoirs and boreal ponds and lakes, and similar to rates reported for other temperate reservoirs. Similar average rates for CH4 were also relatively low, ranging from 5 to 83 mgmore » m-2 d-1. On a whole-reservoir basis, total emissions of CO2 ranged nearly 10-fold, from ~51,000 kg per day for Fontana to ~486,000 kg per day for Guntersville, and total emissions of CH4 ranged nearly 20-fold, from ~5 kg per day for Fontana to ~83 kg per day for Allatoona. Emissions through the tailwater pathway varied among reservoirs, comprising from 20 to 50% of total CO2 emissions and 0 to 90% of CH4 emissions, depending on the reservoir. Furthermore, several explanatory factors related to reservoir morphology and water quality were considered for observed differences among reservoirs.« less

  14. Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maria Cecilia Bravo

    2006-06-30

    This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.

  15. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.

  16. Influence of pore pressure and production-induced changes in pore pressure on in situ stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teufel, L.W.

    1996-02-01

    Knowledge of in situ stress and how stress changes with reservoir depletion and pore pressure drawdown is important in a multi-disciplinary approach to reservoir characterization, reservoir management, and improved oil recovery projects. This report summarizes a compilation of in situ stress data from six fields showing the effects of pore pressure and production-induced changes in pore pressure on the minimum horizontal stress. The in situ stress data and corresponding pore pressure data were obtained from field records of the operating companies and published reports. Horizontal stress was determined from closure pressure data of hydraulic fractures and leak-off tests. The stress measurements clearly demonstrate that the total minimum-horizontal stress is dependent on pore pressure. A decrease in pore pressure either by geologic processes or production of a reservoir will result in a decrease in the total minimum-horizontal stress. The magnitude of changes in stress state with net changes in pore pressure is dependent on local field conditions and cannot be accurately predicted by the uniaxial strain model that is commonly used by the petroleum industry.

  17. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells | Department of Energy Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Project objectives: 1. Optical fibers that resist hydrogen darkeningŽ for several months instead of hours and days at 300 deg. C and higher. 2. Tube

  18. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2005-02-01

    Hunton formation in Oklahoma has displayed some unique production characteristics. These include high initial water-oil and gas-oil ratios, decline in those ratios over time and temporary increase in gas-oil ratio during pressure build up. The formation also displays highly complex geology, but surprising hydrodynamic continuity. This report addresses three key issues related specifically to West Carney Hunton field and, in general, to any other Hunton formation exhibiting similar behavior: (1) What is the primary mechanism by which oil and gas is produced from the field? (2) How can the knowledge gained from studying the existing fields can be extended to other fields which have the potential to produce? (3) What can be done to improve the performance of this reservoir? We have developed a comprehensive model to explain the behavior of the reservoir. By using available production, geological, core and log data, we are able to develop a reservoir model which explains the production behavior in the reservoir. Using easily available information, such as log data, we have established the parameters needed for a field to be economically successful. We provide guidelines in terms of what to look for in a new field and how to develop it. Finally, through laboratory experiments, we show that surfactants can be used to improve the hydrocarbons recovery from the field. In addition, injection of CO{sub 2} or natural gas also will help us recover additional oil from the field.

  19. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and effective Q-values for ...

  20. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and ...

  1. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  2. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    2001-08-07

    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  3. ,"Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data ...

  4. THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs -- Continuum through Discontinuum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity Citation Details ... Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity This work has ...

  5. Sunset Reservoir Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reservoir Solar Power Plant Facility Sunset Reservoir Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic Developer Recurrent Energy Location San Francisco, California Coordinates...

  6. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiggins, M.L.; Evans, R.D.; Brown, R.L.; Gupta, A.

    2001-03-28

    This report focuses on integrating geoscience and engineering data to develop a consistent characterization of the naturally fractured reservoirs. During this reporting period, effort was focused on relating seismic data to reservoir properties of naturally fractured reservoirs, scaling well log data to generate interwell descriptors of these reservoirs, enhancing and debugging a naturally fractured reservoir simulator, and developing a horizontal wellbore model for use in the simulator.

  7. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical

  8. THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs … Continuum through Discontinuum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Representations: Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity | Department of Energy THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs … Continuum through Discontinuum Representations: Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs … Continuum through Discontinuum Representations: Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs … Continuum through Discontinuum Representations: Capturing

  9. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  10. Simulation studies to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The first of a three-year research program to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the recovery of oil and gas from naturally fractured reservoirs has been completed. The objectives of the study are to (1) evaluate the reservoir conditions where fracture closure is significant, and (2) evaluate innovative fluid injection techniques capable of maintaining pressure within the reservoir. Simulation studies were conducted with a dual porosity simulator capable of simulating the performance of vertical and horizontal wells. Each simulator was initialized using properties typical of the Austin Chalk reservoir in Pearsall Field, Texas. Simulations of both vertical and horizontal well performance were made assuming that fracture permeability was insensitive to pressure change. Sensitivity runs indicate that the simulator is predicting the effects of critical reservoir parameters in a logical and consistent manner. The results to-date confirm that horizontal wells can increase both oil recovery rate and total oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs. The year one simulation results will provide the baseline for the ongoing study which will evaluate the performance degradation caused by the sensitivity of fracture permeability to pressure change, and investigate fluid injection pressure maintenance as a means to improve oil recovery performance. The study is likely to conclude that fracture closure decreases oil recovery and that pressure support achieved through fluid injection could be beneficial in improving recovery.

  11. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, M.L.; Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P.

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  12. Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering > Pressure Systems Privacy and Security Notice Skip over navigation Search the JLab Site Pressure Systems Please upgrade your browser. This site's design is only ...

  13. Geostatistics applied to gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meunier, G.; Coulomb, C.; Laille, J.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The spatial distribution of many of the physical parameters connected with a gas reservoir is of primary interest to both engineers and geologists throughout the study, development, and operation of a field. It is therefore desirable for the distribution to be capable of statistical interpretation, to have a simple graphical representation, and to allow data to be entered from either two- or three-dimensional grids. To satisfy these needs while dealing with the geographical variables, new methods have been developed under the name geostatistics. This paper describes briefly the theory of geostatistics and its most recent improvements for the specific problem of subsurface description. The external-drift technique has been emphasized in particular, and in addition, four case studies related to gas reservoirs are presented.

  14. Monitoring the Bulalo geothermal reservoir, Philippines, using precision gravity data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Andres, R.B.; Pedersen, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Precision gravity monitoring of the Bulalo geothermal field began in 1980 to estimate the natural mass recharge to the reservoir. Between 1980 and 1991, gravity decreases exceeding 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} N/kg (250 microgals) were observed in response to fluid withdrawals. A maximum rate of {minus}26 microgals per year was observed near the production center. Mass discharges predicted by recent reservoir simulation modeling generally match those inferred from the observed gravity data. According to simulation studies, no recharge occurred between 1980 and 1984. The mass recharge between 1984 and 1991 was estimated to be 30% of net fluid withdrawal during the same period, equivalent to an average rate of 175 kg/s (630 metric tons per hour).

  15. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir - East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2004-06-30

    The DOE-sponsored project at the East Binger Unit is an investigation into the benefits of reservoir characterization and horizontal wells in this particular setting of geologic and recovery method. The geologic setting is a tight (average porosity of 7% and average permeability of less than 1 millidarcy) Pennsylvanian-age sandstone at about 10,000 feet, and the recovery method is a miscible nitrogen flood. The projected oil recovery of the East Binger Unit, prior to the initiation of this project, was about 25%. Gravity segregation of nitrogen and crude oil was believed to be the principal cause of the poor sweep efficiency, and it was envisioned that with horizontal producing wells in the lower portion of the reservoir and horizontal injection wells near the top, the process could be converted from a lateral displacement process to a vertical displacement/gravity assisted process. Through the characterization and field development work completed in Budget Periods 1 and 2, Binger Operations, LLC (BOL) has developed a different interpretation of the sweep problem as well as a different approach to improving recovery. The sweep problem is now believed to be one of an areal nature, due to a combination of natural and hydraulic fracturing. Vertical wells have provided a much better economic return than have the horizontal wells. The natural and hydraulic fracturing manifests itself as a direction of higher permeability, and the flood is being converted to a line drive flood aligned with this orientation. Consistent with this concept, horizontal wells have been drilled along the line of the fracture orientation, such that hydraulic fracturing leads to 'longitudinal' fractures, in line with the wellbore. As such, the hydraulically fractured horizontal wells are not significantly different than hydraulically fractured vertical wells - save for the potential for a much longer fracture face. This Topical Report contains data from new wells, plus new and updated production

  16. Reservoir compartmentalization and management strategies: Lessons learned in the Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grube, J.P.; Crockett, J.E.; Huff, B.G.

    1997-08-01

    A research project jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Illinois State Geological Survey focused on the Cypress and Aux Vases Formations (Mississippian), major clastic reservoirs in the Illinois Basin. Results from the research showed that understanding the nature and distribution of reservoir compartments, and using effective reservoir management strategies, can significantly improve recovery efficiencies from oil fields in this mature basin. Compartments can be most effectively drained where they are geologically well defined and reservoir management practices are coordinated through unified, compartment-wide, development programs. Our studies showed that the Cypress and Aux Vases reservoirs contain lateral and vertical permeability barriers forming compartments that range in size from isolated, interlaminated sandstone and shale beds to sandstone bodies tens of feet in thickness and more than a mile in length. Stacked or shingled, genetically similar sandstone bodies are commonly separated by thin impermeable intervals that can be difficult to distinguish on logs and can, therefore, cause correlation problems, even between wells drilled on spacing of less than ten acres. Lateral separation of sandstone bodies causes similar problems. Reservoir compartmentalization reduces primary and particularly secondary recovery by trapping pockets of by-passed or banked oil. Compartments can be detected by comparing recovery factors of genetically similar sandstone bodies within a field; using packers to separate commingled intervals and analyzing fluid recoveries and pressures; making detailed core-to-log calibrations that identify compartment boundaries; and analyzing pressure data from waterflood programs.

  17. Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation Using Geomechanics-based Stochastic Analysis of Injection-induced Seismicity; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 4.5.7 Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation Using Geomechanics-based Stochastic Analysis of Injection-induced Seismicity Presentation Number: 027 Investigator: Ghassemi, Ahmad (Texas A&M University) Objectives: To develop a model for seismicity-based reservoir characterization (SBRC) by combining rock mechanics, finite element modeling, geostatistical concepts to establish relationships between microseismicity, reservoir flow and geomechanical characteristics. Average Overall Score:

  18. Design and life-cycle considerations for unconventional-reservoir wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskimins, J.L.

    2009-05-15

    This paper provides an overview of design and life-cycle considerations for certain unconventional-reservoir wells. An overview of unconventional-reservoir definitions is provided. Well design and life-cycle considerations are addressed from three aspects: upfront reservoir development, initial well completion, and well-life and long-term considerations. Upfront-reservoir-development issues discussed include well spacing, well orientation, reservoir stress orientations, and tubular metallurgy. Initial-well-completion issues include maximum treatment pressures and rates, treatment diversion, treatment staging, flowback and cleanup, and dewatering needs. Well-life and long-term discussions include liquid loading, corrosion, refracturing and associated fracture reorientation, and the cost of abandonment. These design considerations are evaluated with case studies for five unconventional-reservoir types: shale gas (Barnett shale), tight gas (Jonah feld), tight oil (Bakken play), coalbed methane (CBM) (San Juan basin), and tight heavy oil (Lost Hills field). In evaluating the life cycle and design of unconventional-reservoir wells, 'one size' does not fit all and valuable knowledge and a shortening of the learning curve can be achieved for new developments by studying similar, more-mature fields.

  19. A reservoir engineering assessment of the San Jacinto-Tizate geothermal field, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostapenko, S.; Spektor, S.; Davila, H.; Porras, E.; Perez, M.

    1996-12-31

    More than twenty years have passed since geothermal research and drilling took place at the geothermal fields in Nicaragua. The well known Momotombo Geothermal Field (70 MWe) has been generating electricity since 1983, and now a new geothermal field is under exploration, the San Jacinto-Tizate. Two reservoirs hydraulic connected were found. The shallow reservoir (270{degrees}C) at the depth of 550 - 1200 meters, and the deep one at > 1600 meters. Both of them are water dominated reservoirs although a two phase condition exist in the upper part of the shallow one. Different transient tests and a multi-well interference test have been carried out, very high transmissivity value were estimated around the well SJ-4 and average values for the others. A preliminary conceptual model of the geothermal system is given in this paper, as the result of the geology, geophysics, hydrology studies, drilling and reservoir evaluation.

  20. A reservoir engineering assessment of the San Jacinto-Tizate Geothermal Field, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostapenko, S.; Spektor, S.; Davila, H.; Porras, E.; Perez, M.

    1996-01-24

    More than twenty yews have passed since geothermal research and drilling took place at the geothermal fields in Nicaragua- Tbe well horn Momotombo Geothermal Field (70 We) has been generating electricity since 1983, and now a new geothermal field is under exploration. the San Jacinto-Tizate. Two reservoirs hydraulic connected were found. The shallow reservoir (270°C) at the depth of 550 - 1200 meters, and the deep one at > 1600 meters. Both of theme are water dominated reservoirs, although a two phase condition exist in the upper part of the shallow one. Different transient tests and a multi-well interference test have been carried out, very high transmissivity value were estimated around the well SJ-4 and average values for the others. A preliminar conceptual model of the geothermal system is given in this paper, as the result of the geology, geophysics, hydrology studies, drilling and reservoir evaluation.

  1. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2001-10-31

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool (NDP) in southeast New Mexico is one of the nine projects selected in 1995 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for participation in the Class III Reservoir Field Demonstration Program. The goals of the DOE cost-shared Class Program are to: (1) extend economic production, (2) increase ultimate recovery, and (3) broaden information exchange and technology application. Reservoirs in the Class III Program are focused on slope basin and deep-basin clastic depositional types. Production at the NDP is from the Brushy Canyon formation, a low-permeability turbidite reservoir in the Delaware Mountain Group of Permian, Guadalupian age. A major challenge in this marginal-quality reservoir is to distinguish oil-productive pay intervals from water-saturated non-pay intervals. Because initial reservoir pressure is only slightly above bubble-point pressure, rapid oil decline rates and high gas/oil ratios are typically observed in the first year of primary production. Limited surface access, caused by the proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, prohibits development with conventional drilling. Reservoir characterization results obtained to date at the NDP show that a proposed pilot injection area appears to be compartmentalized. Because reservoir discontinuities will reduce effectiveness of a pressure maintenance project, the pilot area will be reconsidered in a more continuous part of the reservoir if such areas have sufficient reservoir pressure. Most importantly, the advanced characterization results are being used to design extended reach/horizontal wells to tap into predicted ''sweet spots'' that are inaccessible with conventional vertical wells. The activity at the NDP during the past year has included the completion of the NDP Well No.36 deviated/horizontal well and the completion of additional zones in three wells, the design of the NDP No.33 directional/horizontal well, The planning and regulatory approval for the

  2. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  3. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  4. Skimming' a reservoir for trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenman, L.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Several hydropower facilities are using a new technology for removing floating trash in reservoirs. Representatives from the facilities say the boat, called a trashskimmer, is efficient, easy to maneuver, and transportable. Designed by United Marine International, Inc., the pontoon boat features an operators cab that straddles an open hull between the skis of the pontoon, and uses dual propellers to maneuver through the water. The Marineskimmer allows the operator to approach the trash from the water side upstream of the plant. The Tennessee Valley Authority has used the boat since 1990.

  5. A general formulation for compositional reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, F.; Guzman, J.; Galindo-Nava, A.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the authors present a general formulation to solve the non-linear difference equations that arise in compositional reservoir simulation. The general approach here presented is based on newton`s method and provides a systematic approach to generate several formulations to solve the compositional problem, each possessing a different degree of implicitness and stability characteristics. The Fully-Implicit method is at the higher end of the implicitness spectrum while the IMPECS method, implicit in pressure-explicit in composition and saturation, is at the lower end. They show that all methods may be obtained as particular cases of the fully-implicit method. Regarding the matrix problem, all methods have a similar matrix structure; the composition of the Jacobian matrix is however unique in each case, being in some instances amenable to reductions for optimal solution of the matrix problem. Based on this, a different approach to derive IMPECS type methods is proposed; in this case, the whole set of 2nc + 6 equations, that apply in each gridblock, is reduced to a single pressure equation through matrix reduction operations; this provides a more stable numerical scheme, compared to other published IMPCS methods, in which the subset of thermodynamic equilibrium equations is arbitrarily decoupled form the set of gridblock equations to perform such reduction. The authors discuss how the general formulation here presented can be used to formulate and construct an adaptive-implicit compositional simulators. They also present results on the numerical performance of FI, IMPSEC and IMPECS methods on some test problems.

  6. Targeted Pressure Management During CO2 Sequestration: Optimization of Well Placement and Brine Extraction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Bianchi, Marco

    2014-12-31

    Large-scale pressure increases resulting from carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in the subsurface can potentially impact caprock integrity, induce reactivation of critically stressed faults, and drive CO2 or brine through conductive features into shallow groundwater. Pressure management involving the extraction of native fluids from storage formations can be used to minimize pressure increases while maximizing CO2 storage. However, brine extraction requires pumping, transportation, possibly treatment, and disposal of substantial volumes of extracted brackish or saline water, all of which can be technically challenging and expensive. This paper describes a constrained differential evolution (CDE) algorithm for optimal well placement and injection/ extractionmore » control with the goal of minimizing brine extraction while achieving predefined pressure contraints. The CDE methodology was tested for a simple optimization problem whose solution can be partially obtained with a gradient-based optimization methodology. The CDE successfully estimated the true global optimum for both extraction well location and extraction rate, needed for the test problem. A more complex example application of the developed strategy was also presented for a hypothetical CO2 storage scenario in a heterogeneous reservoir consisting of a critically stressed fault nearby an injection zone. Through the CDE optimization algorithm coupled to a numerical vertically-averaged reservoir model, we successfully estimated optimal rates and locations for CO2 injection and brine extraction wells while simultaneously satisfying multiple pressure buildup constraints to avoid fault activation and caprock fracturing. The study shows that the CDE methodology is a very promising tool to solve also other optimization problems related to GCS, such as reducing ‘Area of Review’, monitoring design, reducing risk of leakage and increasing storage capacity and trapping.« less

  7. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2003-10-01

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have (1) Studied relationships between velocity and permeability. (2) Used independent experimental methods to measure the elastic moduli of clay minerals as functions of pressure and saturation. (3) Applied different statistical methods for characterizing heterogeneity and textures from scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) images of shale microstructures. (4) Analyzed the directional dependence of velocity and attenuation in different reservoir rocks (5) Compared Vp measured under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic stress conditions in sands. (6) Studied stratification as a source of intrinsic anisotropy in sediments using Vp and statistical methods for characterizing textures in sands.

  8. Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation Using Geomechanics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation Using Geomechanics-based Stochastic Analysis of Injection-induced Seismicity; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report ...

  9. Hydrothermal Convection Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater than or equal to 90 degrees C Authors Brook, Mariner, Mabey, Swanson, Guffanti and Muffler Published Journal Assessment of...

  10. Geothermometry At Blackfoot Reservoir Area (Hutsinpiller & Parry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Blackfoot Reservoir Area Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Amy Hutsinpiller, W. T....

  11. Evaluation Of Chemical Geothermometers For Calculating Reservoir...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermometers For Calculating Reservoir Temperatures At Nevada Geothermal Power Plants Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper:...

  12. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W.

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  13. Characterization of Fractures in Geothermal Reservoirs Using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract The optimal design of production in fractured geothermal reservoirs requires knowledge of the resource's connectivity, therefore making fracture characterization highly...

  14. Modeling of Geothermal Reservoirs: Fundamental Processes, Computer...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Geothermal Reservoirs: Fundamental Processes, Computer Simulation and Field Applications Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  15. International reservoir operations agreement helps NW fish &...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or 503-230-5131 International reservoir operations agreement helps Northwest fish and power Portland, Ore. - The Bonneville Power Administration and the British Columbia...

  16. Precise Gravimetry and Geothermal Reservoir Management | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Precise Gravimetry and Geothermal Reservoir Management Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Precise Gravimetry and Geothermal...

  17. Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation using Geomechanics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geomechanics-Based Stochastic Analysis of Injection-Induced Seismicity Analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation using Geomechanics-Based Stochastic Analysis of ...

  18. 201202 Reservoir System Modeling Technologies Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling Applied To The Columbia River - PSR Adjoint Modeling Framework for Real-Time Control of Water - Deltares Reservoir Operations Analysis in the Willamette Water 2100...

  19. Geothermal reservoirs in hydrothermal convection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly exist in hydrothermal convection systems involving fluid circulation downward in areas of recharge and upwards in areas of discharge. Because such reservoirs are not isolated from their surroundings, the nature of thermal and hydrologic connections with the rest of the system may have significant effects on the natural state of the reservoir and on its response to development. Conditions observed at numerous developed and undeveloped geothermal fields are discussed with respect to a basic model of the discharge portion of an active hydrothermal convection system. Effects of reservoir development on surficial discharge of thermal fluid are also delineated.

  20. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  1. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation of the heave performance of a two-body floating-point absorber wave energy system Yi-Hsiang Yu, Ye Li ⇑ National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 7 September 2011 Received in revised form 5 August 2012 Accepted 9 October 2012 Available online 17 October 2012 Keywords: Wave energy conversion Heave Computational Fluid Dynamics Reynolds-averaged

  2. STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see lower average gasoline prices in 2013 and 2014 U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to decline over the next two years. The average pump price for regular unleaded gasoline was $3.63 a gallon during 2012. That is expected to fall to $3.44 this year and then drop to $3.34 in 2014, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Expected lower crude oil prices.....which accounted for about two-thirds of the price of gasoline in 2012....will

  3. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Meara, Jr., D. J.

    1997-05-01

    The overall objective of this project is to use the extensive Gypsy Field laboratory and data set as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. The Gypsy Field laboratory consists of coupled outcrop and subsurface sites which have been characterized to a degree of detail not possible in a production operation. Data from these sites entail geological descriptions, core measurements, well logs, vertical seismic surveys, a 3D seismic survey, crosswell seismic surveys, and pressure transient well tests. The overall project consists of four interdisciplinary sub-projects which are closely interlinked: modeling depositional environments; sweep efficiency; tracer testing; and integrated 3D seismic interpretation. The first of these aims at improving the ability to model complex depositional environments which trap movable oil. The second is a development geophysics project which proposes to improve the quality of reservoir geological models through better use of 3D seismic data. The third investigates the usefulness of a new numerical technique for identifying unswept oil through rapid calculation of sweep efficiency in large reservoir models. The fourth explores what can be learned from tracer tests in complex depositional environments, particularly those which are fluvial dominated.

  4. Reservoir Engineering for Unconventional Gas Reservoirs: What Do We Have to Consider?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarkson, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    The reservoir engineer involved in the development of unconventional gas reservoirs (UGRs) is required to integrate a vast amount of data from disparate sources, and to be familiar with the data collection and assessment. There has been a rapid evolution of technology used to characterize UGR reservoir and hydraulic fracture properties, and there currently are few standardized procedures to be used as guidance. Therefore, more than ever, the reservoir engineer is required to question data sources and have an intimate knowledge of evaluation procedures. We propose a workflow for the optimization of UGR field development to guide discussion of the reservoir engineer's role in the process. Critical issues related to reservoir sample and log analysis, rate-transient and production data analysis, hydraulic and reservoir modeling and economic analysis are raised. Further, we have provided illustrations of each step of the workflow using tight gas examples. Our intent is to provide some guidance for best practices. In addition to reviewing existing methods for reservoir characterization, we introduce new methods for measuring pore size distribution (small-angle neutron scattering), evaluating core-scale heterogeneity, log-core calibration, evaluating core/log data trends to assist with scale-up of core data, and modeling flow-back of reservoir fluids immediately after well stimulation. Our focus in this manuscript is on tight and shale gas reservoirs; reservoir characterization methods for coalbed methane reservoirs have recently been discussed.

  5. THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs …Continuum through Discontinuum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Representations: Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity | Department of Energy THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs …Continuum through Discontinuum Representations: Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs …Continuum through Discontinuum Representations: Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity This research will develop a thorough understanding of complex THMC interactions through

  6. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Don; Koerner, Roy; Moos, Dan; Nguyen, John; Phillips, Chris; Tagbor, Kwasi; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period July - September 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  7. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  8. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  9. Reservoir characterization of the Clough area, Barnett Shale, Wise County, Texas. Topical report, January-July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, N.C.; Lancaster, D.E.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this work was to learn more about the reservoir characteristics in the Barnett Shale. Specifically, from an analysis of pressure, production, interference, and fracture treatment data in three Mitchell Energy Corporation Cough area wells, the authors can infer the relationship between the induced hydraulic fractures and the natural fracture system in the reservoir. The authors are learning something about drainage area size, shape, and orientation.

  10. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2002-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  11. Sediment accumulation rates in Conowingo Reservoir as determined by man-made and natural radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLean, R.I.; Domotor, S.L. ); Summers, J.K.; Wilson, H. ); Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L. )

    1991-05-01

    The Susquehanna River is the major contributor to sediment loadings in the Chesapeake Bay. Because many environmental contaminants are associated with suspended particulates, the degree of particle retention within the reservoirs of the lower Susquehanna River is an important consideration in evaluating contaminant loadings to the Chesapeake Bay. Profiles of weapons-test Cs-137, nuclear power plant-related Cs-134 and Cs-137, and naturally-derived Pb-210 were used to estimate rates of sediment accretion in the Conowingo Reservoir,an impoundmment of the Susquehanna River along the Maryland-Pennsylvania border. Net accretion rates ranged from about 2 cm yr{sup {minus}1} downstream of a nuclear power plant cooling discharge to a high of about 7 cm yr{sup {minus}1} at the mount of an incoming creek. Slight, but consistent, increases in the annual rate of accretion since the creation of the reservoir in 1928 are apparent. The current net average annual sediment load retained by the reservoir is estimated to be 0.4 {times} 10{sup 6} to 1.5 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tons yr{sup {minus}1}. The retained sediment load represents about 8-23% of the long-time average sediment input to the reservoir.

  12. Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H.

    1997-08-01

    We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

  13. Reservoir facies architecture of microtidal barrier systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, W.E.

    1986-06-01

    Sandstone reservoirs deposited in microtidal barrier systems contain large oil and gas reserves in several Gulf Coast basin plays. Three representative Frio Sandstone reservoirs in West Ranch field show that barrier-island sand bodies are complex mosaics of barrier-core, inlet-fill, flood-tidal-delta, washover-fan, barrier-flat, and shoreface facies. The proportions of these facies differ within progradational, aggradational, and transgressive barrier sand bodies. The 41-A reservoir is a progradational barrier sand body. The most important producing facies include the barrier core and crosscutting inlet fill. Permeability and distributions of irreducible water saturation reveal depositional patterns and subdivisions of the sand body into numerous facies-controlled compartments. Both original hydrocarbon saturation and irregularities in water encroachment show that the facies compartments locally affect fluid movement within the reservoir. The Greta reservoir is an aggradational barrier complex. This massive sand body consists of intermixed barrier-core and inlet-fill units. Prominent resistivity compartments are dip oriented, indicating the importance of inlet development during barrier aggradation. Despite the uniform appearance of the Greta reservoir, water encroachment has been irregular. The Glasscock reservoir is characterized by comparatively low permeability and is an atypically thin and discontinuous Frio reservoir. It is interpreted to be a transgressive barrier deposit that consists mainly of large washover-fan and associated barrier-flat sands. Hydrocarbon saturation, drainage, and injection response all reflect the facies geometry typical of a transgressive barrier complex.

  14. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  15. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  17. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Faruk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2003-02-11

    This research was directed toward developing a systematic reservoir characterization methodology which can be used by the petroleum industry to implement infill drilling programs and/or enhanced oil recovery projects in naturally fractured reservoir systems in an environmentally safe and cost effective manner. It was anticipated that the results of this research program will provide geoscientists and engineers with a systematic procedure for properly characterizing a fractured reservoir system and a reservoir/horizontal wellbore simulator model which can be used to select well locations and an effective EOR process to optimize the recovery of the oil and gas reserves from such complex reservoir systems.

  18. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Depleted Reservoir Storage

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Configuration Depleted Reservoir Storage Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Depleted Production Reservoir Underground Natural Gas Storage Well Configuration Depleted Production Reservoir Storage

  19. New applications for high average power beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neau, E.L.; Turman, B.N.; Patterson, E.L.

    1993-08-01

    The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL`s, and ICF drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

  20. The Potosi Reservoir Model 2013c, Property Modeling Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adushita, Yasmin; Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    As part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO2) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from this project as well as two other separately funded projects: the US DOE-funded Illinois Basin–Decatur Project (IBDP) being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) in Macon County, Illinois, and the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) project funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. In 2010, technical performance evaluations on the Cambrian Potosi Formation were performed through reservoir modeling. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the Verification Well #1 (VW1) and the Injection Well (CCS1), structural and stratigraphic formation from three dimensional (3D) seismic data, and field data from several waste water injection wells for Potosi Formation. The intention was for 2.2 million tons per annum (2 million tonnes per annum [MTPA]) of CO2 to be injected for 20 years. In the Task Error! Reference source not found., the 2010 Potosi heterogeneous model (referred to as the "Potosi Dynamic Model 2010") was re-run using a new injection scenario of 3.5 million tons per annum (3.2 MTPA) for 30 years. The extent of the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010, however, appeared too small for the new injection target. The models size was insufficient to accommodate the evolution of the plume. The new model, Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a, was built by extending the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010 grid to 30 by 30 mi (48 by 48 km), while preserving all

  1. Petrofacies analysis - the petrophysical tool for geologic/engineering reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watney, W.L.; Guy, W.J.; Gerlach, P.M.

    1997-08-01

    Petrofacies analysis is defined as the characterization and classification of pore types and fluid saturations as revealed by petrophysical measures of a reservoir. The word {open_quotes}petrofacies{close_quotes} makes an explicit link between petroleum engineers concerns with pore characteristics as arbiters of production performance, and the facies paradigm of geologists as a methodology for genetic understanding and prediction. In petrofacies analysis, the porosity and resistivity axes of the classical Pickett plot are used to map water saturation, bulk volume water, and estimated permeability, as well as capillary pressure information, where it is available. When data points are connected in order of depth within a reservoir, the characteristic patterns reflect reservoir rock character and its interplay with the hydrocarbon column. A third variable can be presented at each point on the crossplot by assigning a color scale that is based on other well logs, often gamma ray or photoelectric effect, or other derived variables. Contrasts between reservoir pore types and fluid saturations will be reflected in changing patterns on the crossplot and can help discriminate and characterize reservoir heterogeneity. Many hundreds of analyses of well logs facilitated by spreadsheet and object-oriented programming have provided the means to distinguish patterns typical of certain complex pore types for sandstones and carbonate reservoirs, occurrences of irreducible water saturation, and presence of transition zones. The result has been an improved means to evaluate potential production such as bypassed pay behind pipe and in old exploration holes, or to assess zonation and continuity of the reservoir. Petrofacies analysis is applied in this example to distinguishing flow units including discrimination of pore type as assessment of reservoir conformance and continuity. The analysis is facilitated through the use of color cross sections and cluster analysis.

  2. Sixth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.

    1980-12-18

    INTRODUCTION TO THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING WORKSHOP, STANFORD GEOTHERMAL PROGRAM Henry J. Ramey, Jr., and Paul Kruger Co-Principal Investigators Ian G. Donaldson Program Manager Stanford Geothermal Program The Sixth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 16, 1980. As with previous Workshops the attendance was around 100 with a significant participation from countries other than the United States (18 attendees from 6 countries). In addition, there were a number of papers from foreign contributors not able to attend. Because of the success of all the earlier workshops there was only one format change, a new scheduling of Tuesday to Thursday rather than the earlier Wednesday through Friday. This change was in general considered for the better and will be retained for the Seventh Workshop. Papers were presented on two and a half of the three days, the panel session, this year on the numerical modeling intercomparison study sponsored by the Department of Energy, being held on the second afternoon. This panel discussion is described in a separate Stanford Geothermal Program Report (SGP-TR42). This year there was a shift in subject of the papers. There was a reduction in the number of papers offered on pressure transients and well testing and an introduction of several new subjects. After overviews by Bob Gray of the Department of Energy and Jack Howard of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, we had papers on field development, geopressured systems, production engineering, well testing, modeling, reservoir physics, reservoir chemistry, and risk analysis. A total of 51 papers were contributed and are printed in these Proceedings. It was, however, necessary to restrict the presentations and not all papers printed were presented. Although the content of the Workshop has changed over the years, the format to date has proved to be satisfactory. The objectives of the Workshop, the bringing together of

  3. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  4. Reservoir monitoring and characterization using satellite geodetic data: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar observations from the Krechba field, Algeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D.W.; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    Deformation in the material overlying an active reservoir is used to monitor pressure change at depth. A sequence of pressure field estimates, eleven in all, allow us to construct a measure of diffusive travel time throughout the reservoir. The dense distribution of travel time values means that we can construct an exactly linear inverse problem for reservoir flow properties. Application to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data gathered over a CO{sub 2} injection in Algeria reveals pressure propagation along two northwest trending corridors. An inversion of the travel times indicates the existence of two northwest-trending high permeability zones. The high permeability features trend in the same direction as the regional fault and fracture zones. Model parameter resolution estimates indicate that the features are well resolved.

  5. Development of Tools for Measuring Temperature, Flow, Pressure, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seismicity of EGS Reservoirs … 300 °C Capable Electronics Platform and Temperature Sensor System for Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Development of Tools for Measuring Temperature, Flow, Pressure, and Seismicity of EGS Reservoirs … 300 °C Capable Electronics Platform and Temperature Sensor System for Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Development of Tools for

  6. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery. ...

  7. Dispersed Fluid Flow in Fractured Reservoirs- an Analysis of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reservoirs- an Analysis of Tracer-Determined Residence Time Distributions Abstract A methodology for analyzing the internal flow characteristics of a fractured geothermal reservoir...

  8. Update on the Raft River Geothermal Reservoir | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Raft River Geothermal Reservoir Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Update on the Raft River Geothermal Reservoir...

  9. Deep Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in the Eastern Snake River...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deep Geothermal Reservoir ...

  10. An Updated Conceptual Model Of The Los Humeros Geothermal Reservoir...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Humeros Geothermal Reservoir (Mexico) Abstract An analysis of production and reservoir engineering data of 42 wells from the Los Humeros geothermal field (Mexico) allowed...

  11. Geysers Hi-T Reservoir Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geysers Hi-T Reservoir Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geysers Hi-T Reservoir Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  12. Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code Comparison Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow and Thermal Behavior of an EGS Reservoir - Geothermal Code Comparison Study ...

  13. Monitoring and Modeling Fluid Flow in a Developing EGS Reservoir...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EGS Reservoir Monitoring and Modeling Fluid Flow in a Developing EGS Reservoir Project ... More Documents & Publications Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks ...

  14. Property:USGSMeanReservoirTemp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Property Name USGSMeanReservoirTemp Property Type Temperature Description Mean estimated reservoir temperature at location based on the USGS 2008 Geothermal...

  15. Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs A Laboratory Study Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs A Laboratory Study ...

  16. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas ... Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields North Dakota Dry Natural Gas ...

  17. ,"West Virginia Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs ... to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs ...

  18. ,"Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    for" ,"Data 1","Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs ... Contents","Data 1: Miscellaneous States Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs ...

  19. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, Lewis A.

    2001-01-01

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  20. A Green's function quantum average atom model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Starrett, Charles Edward

    2015-05-21

    A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.

  1. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on twomore » general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.« less

  2. Reservoir management in a hydrodynamic environment, Iagifu-Hedinia area, Southern Highlands, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, L.I.; Langston, M.V.; Fitzmorris, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    Northwest to southeast regional scale flow in the Toro Sandstone parallels the Papuan Fold and Thrust Belt for a distance of 115 km, passing through Iagifu/Hedinia oil field along the way. This has had a profound effect on oil distribution in the Toro there, having swept the northwest side free of movable oil. A structurally controlled flow restriction causes a local, rapid drop in hydraulic potential, tilting local oil/water contacts up to six degrees and causing the three sandstone members of the Toro to locally behave as separate reservoirs, each with its own hydrocarbon/water contact. Reservoir simulations of Iagifu/Hedinia which include a flowing aquifer are able to match observed production history. Without a flowing aquifer, simulation predicts greater and earlier water production, and a greater pressure drop in the oil leg than has been observed. Reservoir modeling using a flowing aquifer has allowed downhole, structural targeting of later infill wells to be much closer to the OWC than would otherwise have been thought prudent, and has raised questions as to the potential effectiveness of a downdip water injection scheme. Production results from a small satellite field upstream of the main Iagifu/Hedinia field have shown a sudden increase in water production and reservoir pressure after a long period of pressure decline and no water production. This behavior appears to be due to an influx of higher hydraulic potential from a separate reservoir sand, the influx being brought about by pressure draw down during production and consequent breakdown of fault seal.

  3. Performance testing the Phase 2 HDR reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponden, R.F.; Dreesen, D.S. ); Thomson, J.C. )

    1991-01-01

    The geothermal energy program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is directed toward developing the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) technology as an alternate energy source. Positive results have been obtained in previous circulation tests of HDR reservoirs at the Laboratory's test site in Fenton Hill, New Mexico. There still remains however, the need to demonstrate that adequate geothermal energy can be extracted in an efficient manner to support commercial power production. This year, the Laboratory will begin a circulation test of its Phase 2, reservoir. The objectives of this test are to characterize steady-state power production and long-term reservoir performance. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2003-06-30

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are

  5. Predicting the natural state of fractured carbonate reservoirs: An Andector Field, West Texas test of a 3-D RTM simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuncay, K.; Romer, S.; Ortoleva, P.; Hoak, T.; Sundberg, K.

    1998-12-31

    The power of the reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) modeling approach is that it directly uses the laws of geochemistry and geophysics to extrapolate fracture and other characteristics from the borehole or surface to the reservoir interior. The objectives of this facet of the project were to refine and test the viability of the basin/reservoir forward modeling approach to address fractured reservoir in E and P problems. The study attempts to resolve the following issues: role of fracturing and timing on present day location and characteristics; clarifying the roles and interplay of flexure dynamics, changing rock rheological properties, fluid pressuring and tectonic/thermal histories on present day reservoir location and characteristics; and test the integrated RTM modeling/geological data approach on a carbonate reservoir. Sedimentary, thermal and tectonic data from Andector Field, West Texas, were used as input to the RTM basin/reservoir simulator to predict its preproduction state. The results were compared with data from producing reservoirs to test the RTM modeling approach. The effects of production on the state of the field are discussed in a companion report. The authors draw the following conclusions: RTM modeling is an important new tool in fractured reservoir E and P analysis; the strong coupling of RTM processes and the geometric and tensorial complexity of fluid flow and stresses require the type of fully coupled, 3-D RTM model for fracture analysis as pioneered in this project; flexure analysis cannot predict key aspects of fractured reservoir location and characteristics; fracture history over the lifetime of a basin is required to understand the timing of petroleum expulsion and migration and the retention properties of putative reservoirs.

  6. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trentham, Robert C.; Weinbrandt, Richard; Robinson, William C.; Widner, Kevin

    2001-05-03

    The objectives of the project were to: (1) Thoroughly understand the 60-year history of the field. (2) Develop a reservoir description using geology and 3D seismic. (3) Isolate the upper Grayburg in wells producing from multiple intervals to stop cross flow. (4) Re-align and optimize the upper Grayburg waterflood. (5) Determine well condition, identify re-frac candidates, evaluate the effectiveness of well work and obtain bottom hole pressure data for simulation utilizing pressure transient testing field wide. (6) Quantitatively integrate all the data to guide the field operations, including identification of new well locations utilizing reservoir simulation.

  7. Effects of adsorption and capillarity on injection in vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sta. Maria, R.B.; Horne, R.N.

    1996-04-10

    One major motivation for the study of the effects of adsorption in geothermal reservoirs is the phenomenon known as {open_quotes}The Geysers Paradox{close_quotes}. Data from The Geysers field suggest that some water must be stored in the reservoir in a condensed phase even though the prevailing reservoir pressure and temperature dictate superheated conditions. Physical adsorption of steam onto rocks and the thermodynamics of curved interfaces prevailing in the pore spaces of the rock matrix can explain the apparent paradox. These mechanisms make it possible for water and steam to coexist in conditions we normally refer to as {open_quotes}superheated{close_quotes} based on our concept of flat interface thermodynamics (e.g., the Steam Table).

  8. Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edeling, W.N.; Cinnella, P.; Dwight, R.P.

    2014-10-15

    The turbulence closure model is the dominant source of error in most Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes simulations, yet no reliable estimators for this error component currently exist. Here we develop a stochastic, a posteriori error estimate, calibrated to specific classes of flow. It is based on variability in model closure coefficients across multiple flow scenarios, for multiple closure models. The variability is estimated using Bayesian calibration against experimental data for each scenario, and Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging (BMSA) is used to collate the resulting posteriors, to obtain a stochastic estimate of a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in an unmeasured (prediction) scenario. The scenario probabilities in BMSA are chosen using a sensor which automatically weights those scenarios in the calibration set which are similar to the prediction scenario. The methodology is applied to the class of turbulent boundary-layers subject to various pressure gradients. For all considered prediction scenarios the standard-deviation of the stochastic estimate is consistent with the measurement ground truth. Furthermore, the mean of the estimate is more consistently accurate than the individual model predictions.

  9. THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs -- Continuum through Discontinuum Representations. Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elsworth, Derek; Izadi, Ghazal; Gan, Quan; Fang, Yi; Taron, Josh; Sonnenthal, Eric

    2015-07-28

    This work has investigated the roles of effective stress induced by changes in fluid pressure, temperature and chemistry in contributing to the evolution of permeability and induced seismicity in geothermal reservoirs. This work has developed continuum models [1] to represent the progress or seismicity during both stimulation [2] and production [3]. These methods have been used to resolve anomalous observations of induced seismicity at the Newberry Volcano demonstration project [4] through the application of modeling and experimentation. Later work then focuses on the occurrence of late stage seismicity induced by thermal stresses [5] including the codifying of the timing and severity of such responses [6]. Furthermore, mechanistic linkages between observed seismicity and the evolution of permeability have been developed using data from the Newberry project [7] and benchmarked against field injection experiments. Finally, discontinuum models [8] incorporating the roles of discrete fracture networks have been applied to represent stimulation and then thermal recovery for new arrangements of geothermal wells incorporating the development of flow manifolds [9] in order to increase thermal output and longevity in EGS systems.

  10. Fifteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Fifteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23--25, 1990. Major topics included: DOE's geothermal research and development program, well testing, field studies, geosciences, geysers, reinjection, tracers, geochemistry, and modeling.

  11. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zinchenko, A. V.

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  12. Characterization of geothermal reservoir crack patterns using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the time delays of the split waves they determined tomographically the 3-D fracture density distribution in the reservoir. Authors Lou, M.; Rial and J.A. Published Journal...

  13. Magic Reservoir Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    110C383.15 K 230 F 689.67 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 2 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 9 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...

  14. Targeted Pressure Management During CO2 Sequestration: Optimization of Well Placement and Brine Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Bianchi, Marco

    2014-12-31

    Large-scale pressure increases resulting from carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in the subsurface can potentially impact caprock integrity, induce reactivation of critically stressed faults, and drive CO2 or brine through conductive features into shallow groundwater. Pressure management involving the extraction of native fluids from storage formations can be used to minimize pressure increases while maximizing CO2 storage. However, brine extraction requires pumping, transportation, possibly treatment, and disposal of substantial volumes of extracted brackish or saline water, all of which can be technically challenging and expensive. This paper describes a constrained differential evolution (CDE) algorithm for optimal well placement and injection/ extraction control with the goal of minimizing brine extraction while achieving predefined pressure contraints. The CDE methodology was tested for a simple optimization problem whose solution can be partially obtained with a gradient-based optimization methodology. The CDE successfully estimated the true global optimum for both extraction well location and extraction rate, needed for the test problem. A more complex example application of the developed strategy was also presented for a hypothetical CO2 storage scenario in a heterogeneous reservoir consisting of a critically stressed fault nearby an injection zone. Through the CDE optimization algorithm coupled to a numerical vertically-averaged reservoir model, we successfully estimated optimal rates and locations for CO2 injection and brine extraction wells while simultaneously satisfying multiple pressure buildup constraints to avoid fault activation and caprock fracturing. The study shows that the CDE methodology is a very promising tool to solve also other optimization problems related to GCS, such as reducing Area of Review, monitoring design, reducing risk of leakage and increasing storage capacity and trapping.

  15. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly technical progress report, December 13, 1994--March 12, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-12

    Results are presented concerning reservoir performance analysis and effectiveness of hydraulic fracture treatments. A geostatistical analysis task, reservoir simulation, and integrated reservoir description tasks are also described.

  16. Geomechanical modeling of reservoir compaction, surface subsidence, and casing damage at the Belridge diatomite field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FREDRICH,JOANNE T.; DEITRICK,G.L.; ARGUELLO JR.,JOSE G.; DEROUFFIGNAC,E.P.

    2000-05-01

    Geologic, and historical well failure, production, and injection data were analyzed to guide development of three-dimensional geomechanical models of the Belridge diatomite field, California. The central premise of the numerical simulations is that spatial gradients in pore pressure induced by production and injection in a low permeability reservoir may perturb the local stresses and cause subsurface deformation sufficient to result in well failure. Time-dependent reservoir pressure fields that were calculated from three-dimensional black oil reservoir simulations were coupled uni-directionally to three-dimensional non-linear finite element geomechanical simulations. The reservoir models included nearly 100,000 gridblocks (100--200 wells), and covered nearly 20 years of production and injection. The geomechanical models were meshed from structure maps and contained more than 300,000 nodal points. Shear strain localization along weak bedding planes that causes casing dog-legs in the field was accommodated in the model by contact surfaces located immediately above the reservoir and at two locations in the overburden. The geomechanical simulations are validated by comparison of the predicted surface subsidence with field measurements, and by comparison of predicted deformation with observed casing damage. Additionally, simulations performed for two independently developed areas at South Belridge, Sections 33 and 29, corroborate their different well failure histories. The simulations suggest the three types of casing damage observed, and show that although water injection has mitigated surface subsidence, it can, under some circumstances, increase the lateral gradients in effective stress, that in turn can accelerate subsurface horizontal motions. Geomechanical simulation is an important reservoir management tool that can be used to identify optimal operating policies to mitigate casing damage for existing field developments, and applied to incorporate the effect of

  17. Understanding the reservoir important to successful stimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cramer, D.D. )

    1991-04-22

    In anisotropic Bakken shale reservoirs, fracture treatments serve to extend the well bore radius past a disturbed zone and vertically connect discrete intervals. Natural fractures in the near-well bore area strongly control the well deliverability rate. The Bakken is one of the few shale formations in the world with commercial oil production. This article covers the Bakken reservoir properties that influence production and stimulation treatments. The concluding part will discuss the design and effectiveness of the treatments.

  18. PROCEEDINGS FOURTH WORKSHOP GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SGP - TR - 30 PROCEEDINGS FOURTH WORKSHOP GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING c - .- - L Paul Kruger and Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Editors December 13-15, 1978 CONF-781222-29 RECENT RESERVOIR ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENTS AT BRADY HOT SPRINGS, NEVADA J. M. Rudisill Thermal Power Company 601 California St. San Francisco, California 94108 Brady's Hot Springs is a hydrothermal area located approximately 28Km northeast of Fernley, Nevada. Surface manifestations of geothermal activity occur along a north -

  19. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2000-02-18

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 1999, project work has been completed related to data preparation, basic reservoir engineering, developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model, and a rock-log model, well drilling and completions, and surface facilities. Work is continuing on the stochastic geologic model, developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Fault Block IIA Tar (Tar II-A) Zone, and operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction. Thermal-related formation compaction is a concern of the project team due to observed surface subsidence in the local area above the steamflood project. Last quarter on January 12, the steamflood project lost its inexpensive steam source from the Harbor Cogeneration Plant as a result of the recent deregulation of electrical power rates in California. An operational plan was developed and implemented to mitigate the effects of the two situations. Seven water injection wells were placed in service in November and December 1998 on the flanks of the Phase 1 steamflood area to pressure up the reservoir to fill up the existing steam chest. Intensive reservoir engineering and geomechanics studies are continuing to determine the best ways to shut down the steamflood operations in Fault Block II while minimizing any future surface subsidence. The new 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulator model is being used to provide sensitivity cases to optimize production, steam injection, future flank cold water injection and reservoir temperature and pressure. According to the model, reservoir fill up of the steam chest at the current injection rate of 28,000 BPD and gross

  20. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Active Management of Integrated Geothermal–CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations: An Approach to Improve Energy Recovery and Mitigate Risk: FY1 Final Report The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. Based on a range of well schemes, techno-economic analyses of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are conducted to determine the economic benefits of integrating GCS with geothermal energy production. In addition to considering CO2 injection, reservoir analyses are conducted for nitrogen (N2) injection to investigate the potential benefits of incorporating N2 injection with integrated geothermal-GCS, as well as the use of N2 injection as a potential pressure-support and working-fluid option. Phase 1 includes preliminary environmental risk assessments of integrated geothermal-GCS, with the focus on managing reservoir overpressure. Phase 1 also includes an economic survey of pipeline costs, which will be applied in Phase 2 to the analysis of CO2 conveyance costs for techno-economics analyses of integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites. Phase 1 also includes a geospatial GIS survey of potential integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites, which will be used in Phase 2 to conduct sweet-spot analyses that determine where promising geothermal resources are co-located in sedimentary settings conducive to safe CO2 storage, as well as being in adequate proximity to large stationary CO2 sources.

  1. Pressure sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  2. Integrated reservoir characterization: Improvement in heterogeneities stochastic modelling by integration of additional external constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doligez, B.; Eschard, R.; Geffroy, F.

    1997-08-01

    The classical approach to construct reservoir models is to start with a fine scale geological model which is informed with petrophysical properties. Then scaling-up techniques allow to obtain a reservoir model which is compatible with the fluid flow simulators. Geostatistical modelling techniques are widely used to build the geological models before scaling-up. These methods provide equiprobable images of the area under investigation, which honor the well data, and which variability is the same than the variability computed from the data. At an appraisal phase, when few data are available, or when the wells are insufficient to describe all the heterogeneities and the behavior of the field, additional constraints are needed to obtain a more realistic geological model. For example, seismic data or stratigraphic models can provide average reservoir information with an excellent areal coverage, but with a poor vertical resolution. New advances in modelisation techniques allow now to integrate this type of additional external information in order to constrain the simulations. In particular, 2D or 3D seismic derived information grids, or sand-shale ratios maps coming from stratigraphic models can be used as external drifts to compute the geological image of the reservoir at the fine scale. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these new tools, their impact on the final reservoir model, and their sensitivity to some key parameters.

  3. Pressure regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebeling, Jr., Robert W.; Weaver, Robert B.

    1979-01-01

    The pressure within a pressurized flow reactor operated under harsh environmental conditions is controlled by establishing and maintaining a fluidized bed of uniformly sized granular material of selected density by passing the gas from the reactor upwardly therethrough at a rate sufficient to fluidize the bed and varying the height of the bed by adding granular material thereto or removing granular material therefrom to adjust the backpressure on the flow reactor.

  4. PRESSURE TRANSDUCER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sander, H.H.

    1959-10-01

    A pressure or mechanical force transducer particularly adaptable to miniature telemetering systems is described. Basically the device consists of a transistor located within a magnetic field adapted to change in response to mechanical force. The conduction characteristics of the transistor in turn vary proportionally with changes in the magnetic flux across the transistor such that the output (either frequency of amplitude) of the transistor circuit is proportional to mechanical force or pressure.

  5. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu Salama, Amgad

    2014-08-01

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (?, ?) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

  6. Systems and methods for regulating pressure of a filled-in gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stautner, Ernst Wolfgang; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2016-05-03

    A system for regulating a pressure of a filled-in gas is presented. The system includes a reservoir that stores a reservoir gas adsorbed in a sorbent material at a storage temperature, a gas-filled tube containing the filled-in gas, a controller configured to determine a pressure change required in the filled-in gas based upon signals representative of a pressure of the filled-in gas inside the gas-filled tube and a required pressure threshold, determine an updated temperature of the sorbent material based upon the pressure change required in the filled-in gas, and regulate the pressure of the filled-in gas by controlling the reservoir to change the storage temperature of the sorbent material to reach the updated temperature of the sorbent material.

  7. Monitoring and Modeling Fluid Flow in a Developing EGS Reservoir |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy EGS Reservoir Monitoring and Modeling Fluid Flow in a Developing EGS Reservoir Project objectives: Better understand and model fluid injection into a tight reservoir on the edges of a hydrothermal field. Use seismic data to constrain geomechanical/hydrologic/thermal model of reservoir. seismic_fehler_fluid_flow.pdf (1.15 MB) More Documents & Publications Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS Reservoirs Detection and

  8. Geologic aspects of horizontal drilling in self-sourcing reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illich, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Horizontal drilling techniques provide a way to exploit hydrocarbon reserves that are either noneconomic or only marginally economic using vertical drilling techniques. A significant fraction of these reserves is contained in reservoirs that are self-sourcing or in reservoirs that are closely associated with their resources. Most formations drilled as horizontal targets are self-sourcing. The Austin Chalk, Niobrara, Mesaverde, and Bakken are examples of horizontally drilled, self-sourcing reservoir systems. In formations like the Bakken or Austin Chalk, the close relationship between reservoir and source makes risks associated with migration and accumulation less important. Reservoirs of this kind can contain oil or gas and often have little or no associated water. They can be matrix-dominated reservoirs, dual-porosity reservoirs (Mesaverde), or fractured reservoirs (Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara). Fractured, self-sourcing reservoirs also can possess matrix characteristics that contribute increased recovery efficiency. Most reservoirs drilled horizontally possess matrix characteristics that contribute increased recovery efficiency. Most reservoirs drilled horizontally possess highly heterogeneous reservoir systems. Characterization of the style of reservoir heterogeneity in self-sourcing systems is important if the favorable properties of horizontally oriented bore holes are to be realized. Production data and rock mechanics considerations are important in horizontal drilling ventures. Examples of the use of these data for the purpose of defining reservoir characteristics are discussed. Knowledge of lateral changes in reservoir properties is essential if we are to recover known reserves efficiently.

  9. Scale-up in Poroelastic System and Applications to Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J G

    2003-07-01

    A fundamental problem of heterogeneous systems is that the macroscale behavior is not necessarily well-described by equations familiar to us at the meso- or microscale. In relatively simple cases like electrical conduction and elasticity, it is hue that the equations describing macroscale behavior take the same form as those at the microscale. But in more complex systems, these simple results do not hold. Consider fluid flow in porous media where the microscale behavior is well-described by Navier-Stokes' equations for liquid in the pores while the macroscale behavior instead obeys Darcy's equation. Rigorous methods for establishing the form of such equations for macroscale behavior include multiscale homogenization methods and also the volume averaging method. In addition, it has been shown that Biot's equations of poroelasticity follow in a scale-up of the microscale equations of elasticity coupled to Navier-Stokes. Laboratory measurements have shown that Biot's equations indeed hold for simple systems but heterogeneous systems can have quite different behavior. So the question arises whether there is yet another level of scale-up needed to arrive at equations valid for the reservoir scale? And if so, do these equations take the form of Biot's equations or some other form? We will discuss these issues and show that the double-porosity equations play a special role in the scale-up to equations describing reservoir behavior, for fluid pumping, geomechanics, as well as seismic wave propagation.

  10. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  11. SEISMIC AND ROCK PHYSICS DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTISCALE RESERVOIR TEXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mavko

    2004-08-01

    As part of our study on ''Relationships between seismic properties and rock microstructure'', we have continued our work on analyzing well logs and microstructural constraints on seismic signatures. We report results of three studies in this report. The first one deals with fractures and faults that provide the primary control on the underground fluid flow through low permeability massive carbonate rocks. Fault cores often represent lower transmissibility whereas the surrounding damaged rocks and main slip surfaces are high transmissibility elements. We determined the physical properties of fault rocks collected in and around the fault cores of large normal faults in central Italy. After studying the P- and S-wave velocity variation during cycles of confining pressure, we conclude that a rigid pore frame characterizes the fault gouge whereas the fractured limestone comprises pores with a larger aspect ratio. The second study was to characterize the seismic properties of brine as its temperature decreases from 25 C to -21 C. The purpose was to understand how the transmitted wave changes with the onset of freezing. The main practical reason for this experiment was to use partially frozen brine as an analogue for a mixture of methane hydrate and water present in the pore space of a gas hydrate reservoir. In the third study we analyzed variations in dynamic moduli in various carbonate reservoirs. The investigations include log and laboratory data from velocity, porosity, permeability, and attenuation measurements.

  12. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik; Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1989-08-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  13. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  14. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells | Department of Energy Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Green version of the EERE PowerPoint template, for use with PowerPoint 97 through 2004. long_term_temp_egs_wells_peer2013.pdf (385.43 KB) More Documents &

  15. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  16. Seismic imaging of reservoir flow properties: Resolving waterinflux and reservoir permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D.W.; Keers, Henk

    2006-11-27

    Methods for geophysical model assessment, in particuale thecomputation of model parameter resolution, indicate the value and thelimitations of time-lapse data in estimating reservoir flow properties. Atrajectory-based method for computing sensitivities provides an effectivemeans to compute model parameter resolutions. We examine the commonsituation in which water encroaches into a resrvoir from below, as due tothe upward movement of an oil-water contact. Using straight-forwardtechniques we find that, by inclusing reflections off the top and bottomof a reservoir tens of meters thick, we can infer reservoir permeabilitybased upon time-lapse data. We find that, for the caseof water influxfrom below, using multiple time-lapse 'snapshots' does not necessarilyimprove the resolution of reservoir permeability. An application totime-lapse data from the Norne field illustrates that we can resolve thepermeability near a producing well using reflections from threeinterfaces associated with the reservoir.

  17. Fractured shale reservoirs: Towards a realistic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton-Smith, T.

    1996-09-01

    Fractured shale reservoirs are fundamentally unconventional, which is to say that their behavior is qualitatively different from reservoirs characterized by intergranular pore space. Attempts to analyze fractured shale reservoirs are essentially misleading. Reliance on such models can have only negative results for fractured shale oil and gas exploration and development. A realistic model of fractured shale reservoirs begins with the history of the shale as a hydrocarbon source rock. Minimum levels of both kerogen concentration and thermal maturity are required for effective hydrocarbon generation. Hydrocarbon generation results in overpressuring of the shale. At some critical level of repressuring, the shale fractures in the ambient stress field. This primary natural fracture system is fundamental to the future behavior of the fractured shale gas reservoir. The fractures facilitate primary migration of oil and gas out of the shale and into the basin. In this process, all connate water is expelled, leaving the fractured shale oil-wet and saturated with oil and gas. What fluids are eventually produced from the fractured shale depends on the consequent structural and geochemical history. As long as the shale remains hot, oil production may be obtained. (e.g. Bakken Shale, Green River Shale). If the shale is significantly cooled, mainly gas will be produced (e.g. Antrim Shale, Ohio Shale, New Albany Shale). Where secondary natural fracture systems are developed and connect the shale to aquifers or to surface recharge, the fractured shale will also produce water (e.g. Antrim Shale, Indiana New Albany Shale).

  18. Experience in operating the Bratsk Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarov, A.V.

    1984-04-01

    The Bratsk reservoir is the largest in the USSR and second largest in the world. Initially, the reservoir was expected to be filled by the end of 1966. However, the actual filling was not completed until September of 1967. During filling and in the first years of operation it was constantly necessary to deal with floating timber in order to ensure normal operation of the hydrostation, navigation safety, conditions for fishery, and fulfillment of the sanitary requirements. During seasonal variations of the reservoir level about 160 sq km of the shore zone was subjected to variable flooding and waterlogging. Maximum erosion occurred on expanded stretches, and within their limits on slopes composed of loam and sand deposits. Within the narrows, where the banks are composed mainly of hard and soft rocks and wave action is weak, erosion is negligible. Wind setup and setdown cause maximum denivellation of the water surface. The maximum increase of the level during setup reaches 232 cm and the maximum decrease during setdown is 24 cm. Seiche oscillations with various amplitudes and periods are observed on the reservoir surface. The main uses of the complex are hydropower, water transport, timber floating, water supply, and fishery. For the successful development of the shores of reservoirs it is necessary to select the construction sites with consideration of possible occurrence of karstic and landslide processes; the construction of heavy structures requires special karst-control measures. 3 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  19. Eolian reservoir characteristics predicted from dune type

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocurek, G.; Nielson, J.

    1985-02-01

    The nature of eolian-dune reservoirs is strongly influenced by stratification types (in decreasing order of quality: grain-flow, grain-fall, wind-ripple deposits) and their packaging by internal bounding surfaces. These are, in turn, a function of dune surface processes and migration behavior, allowing for predictive models of reservoir behavior. Migrating, simple crescentic dunes produce tabular bodies consisting mainly of grain-flow cross-strata, and form the best, most predictable reservoirs. Reservoir character improves as both original dune height and preserved set thickness increase, because fewer grain-fall deposits and a lower percentage of dune-apron deposits occur in the cross-strata, respectively. It is probable that many linear and star dunes migrate laterally, leaving a blanket of packages of wind ripple laminae reflecting deposition of broad, shifting aprons. This is distinct from models generated by freezing large portions of these dunes in place. Trailing margins of linear and star dunes are prone to reworking by sand-sheet processes that decrease potential reservoir quality. The occurrence of parabolic dunes isolated on vegetated sand sheets results in a core of grain-flow and grain-fall deposits surrounded by less permeable and porous deposits. Compound crescentic dunes, perhaps the most preservable dune type, may yield laterally (1) single sets of cross-strate, (2) compound sets derived from superimposed simple dunes, or (3) a complex of diverse sets derived from superimposed transverse and linear elements.

  20. Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Abstract not ...

  1. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging ...

  2. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman ...

  3. ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  4. ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  5. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for...

  6. Final Report: Development of a Chemical Model to Predict the Interactions between Supercritical CO2, Fluid and Rock in EGS Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPherson, Brian J.; Pan, Feng

    2014-09-24

    This report summarizes development of a coupled-process reservoir model for simulating enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) that utilize supercritical carbon dioxide as a working fluid. Specifically, the project team developed an advanced chemical kinetic model for evaluating important processes in EGS reservoirs, such as mineral precipitation and dissolution at elevated temperature and pressure, and for evaluating potential impacts on EGS surface facilities by related chemical processes. We assembled a new database for better-calibrated simulation of water/brine/ rock/CO2 interactions in EGS reservoirs. This database utilizes existing kinetic and other chemical data, and we updated those data to reflect corrections for elevated temperature and pressure conditions of EGS reservoirs.

  7. POST WATERFLOOD CO2 MISCIBLE FLOOD IN LIGHT OIL FLUVIAL DOMINATED DELTAIC RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Tipton

    2004-04-06

    ultimately develop an accurate economic model. The Port Neches CO{sub 2} Project concentrated upon the tertiary oil recoveries, to be obtained from two sections of the reservoir, which were at different stages of depletion. The large waterflooded fault block had an average remaining oil saturation of 31% while the small partial waterdrive fault block had an oil saturation of 43%.

  8. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Volume III (of 4): Characterization and simulation of representative resources. Final report, February 14, 1995--October 13, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1997-01-13

    Significant innovations have been made in seismic processing and reservoir simulation. In addition, significant advances have been made in deviated and horizontal drilling technologies. Effective application of these technologies along with improved integrated resource management methods offer opportunities to significantly increase Gulf of Mexico production, delay platform abandonments, and preserve access to a substantial remaining oil target for both exploratory drilling and advanced recovery processes. In an effort to illustrate the impact that these new technologies and sources of information can have upon the estimates of recoverable oil in the Gulf of Mexico, additional and detailed data was collected for two previously studied reservoirs: a South March Island reservoir operated by Taylor Energy and Gulf of Mexico reservoir operated by Mobil, whose exact location has been blind-coded at their request, and an additional third representative reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico, the KEKF-1 reservoir in West Delta Block 84 Field. The new data includes reprocessed 2-D seismic data, newly acquired 3-D data, fluid data, fluid samples, pressure data, well test data, well logs, and core data/samples. The new data was used to refine reservoir and geologic characterization of these reservoirs. Further laboratory investigation also provided additional simulation input data in the form of PVT properties, relative permeabilities, capillary pressures, and water compatibility. Geologic investigations were also conducted to refine the models of mud-rich submarine fan architectures used by seismic analysts and reservoir engineers. These results were also used, in part, to assist in the recharacterization of these reservoirs.

  9. The Potosi Reservoir Model 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Valerie; Adushita, Yasmin; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    As a part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon Sandstone as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO2) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from this project as well as two other separately funded projects: the United States Department of Energy-funded Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) in Macon County, Illinois, and the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (IL-ICCS) project funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  10. MHK ISDB/Sensors/HWS Barometric Pressure Sensor | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    by ONSET Data Logger. Spec Sheet: http:www.onsetcomp.comfilesmanualpdfs6122-D-MAN-S-BPA.pdf Description The Barometric Pressure Sensor provides average barometric...