National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for resembling typical ocean

  1. IRAS sources associated with nebulosities resembling Herbig-Haro objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persi, P.; Ferrari-Toniolo, M.; Busso, M.; Robberto, M.; Scaltriti, F.

    1988-04-01

    The IRAS Survey has been used to search 22 nebulosities resembling Herbig-Haro objects for evidence of newly forming stars. Half the peculiar nebulae are found to have associated IRAS sources. From a study of the energy distributions, obtained from JHKL photometry and IRAS flux densities, the physical characteristics of the sources have been derived. The IRAS sources 04073 + 3800(GY 10), 05173-0555(GY 14), and 05439 + 3035(GY 18) have been identified as possible low-mass protostars, while the sources 03134 + 5958(GY 5) and 21004 + 7811(GY 21) are T Tauri stars with nebular disks and surrounding dust envelopes of residual infall. Finally, the IRAS source 04591-0856, associated with the nebula GY 13, could be in an evolutionary stage intermediate between a protostar in the pure infall phase and that of an obscured T Tauri. 26 references.

  2. ARM - Oceans

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... or January of a typical year, especially to the normally cold coast of Ecuador and Peru. ... Nio was initially given to the annual Christmas warm current flowing off the Peru coast. ...

  3. ocean energy technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Tribal Energy Program Intellectual Property Current EC Partnerships How to Partner Small ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers ocean energy technologies HomeTag:ocean ...

  4. Energy conservation in typical Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.; Rumsey, P.

    1997-06-01

    Various policies and programs have been created to promote energy conservation in Asia. Energy conservation centers, energy conservation standards and labeling, commercial building codes, industrial energy use regulations, and utility demand-side management (DSM) are but a few of them. This article attempts to analyze the roles of these different policies and programs in seven typical Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The conclusions show that the two most important features behind the success policies and programs are (1) government policy support and (2) long-run self-sustainability of financial support to the programs.

  5. Ocean Energy Technology Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-08-05

    Introduction to and overview of ocean renewable energy resources and technologies prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy management Program.

  6. Ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, W.H.

    1983-03-17

    A brief explanation of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) concept and an estimate of the amount of energy that can be produced from the ocean resource without introducing environmental concerns are presented. Use of the OTEC system to generate electric power and products which can replace fossil fuels is shown. The OTEC program status and its prospects for the future are discussed.

  7. Contribution of oceanic gas hydrate dissociation to the formation of Arctic Ocean methane plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, M.; Moridis, G.; Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.

    2011-06-01

    Vast quantities of methane are trapped in oceanic hydrate deposits, and there is concern that a rise in the ocean temperature will induce dissociation of these hydrate accumulations, potentially releasing large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. Because methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, such a release could have dramatic climatic consequences. The recent discovery of active methane gas venting along the landward limit of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) on the shallow continental slope (150 m - 400 m) west of Svalbard suggests that this process may already have begun, but the source of the methane has not yet been determined. This study performs 2-D simulations of hydrate dissociation in conditions representative of the Arctic Ocean margin to assess whether such hydrates could contribute to the observed gas release. The results show that shallow, low-saturation hydrate deposits, if subjected to recently observed or future predicted temperature changes at the seafloor, can release quantities of methane at the magnitudes similar to what has been observed, and that the releases will be localized near the landward limit of the GHSZ. Both gradual and rapid warming is simulated, along with a parametric sensitivity analysis, and localized gas release is observed for most of the cases. These results resemble the recently published observations and strongly suggest that hydrate dissociation and methane release as a result of climate change may be a real phenomenon, that it could occur on decadal timescales, and that it already may be occurring.

  8. Ocean energy program summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71% of the earth's surface, they collect and store this energy as waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients. The purpose of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy cost-effectively and in a way that does not harm the environment. The program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where industry can accurately assess whether the technology is a viable energy conversion alternative, or supplement, to current power-generating systems. In past studies, DOE identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which uses the temperature difference between warm surface water and cold deep water, as the most promising of the ocean energy technologies. As a result, the OET Program is concentrating on research that advances the OTEC technology. The program also continues to monitor and study developments in wave energy, ocean current, and salinity gradient concepts; but it is not actively developing these technologies now. 13 figs.

  9. NREL Releases Updated Typical Meteorological Year Data Set -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) today released an updated typical meteorological year (TMY) data set derived from the 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Data Base update. ...

  10. Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup Spun Off From A ... covers new technique that may make solar panel production less expensive The ...

  11. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling Citation Details In-Document...

  12. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  13. Simple ocean carbon cycle models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldeira, K.; Hoffert, M.I.; Siegenthaler, U.

    1994-02-01

    Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

  14. Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.

  15. Ocean energy program summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71{percent} of the earth's surface, this stored energy is realized as waves, currents, and thermal salinity gradients. The purpose of the federal Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable manner. The OET Program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where the commercial sector can assess whether applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives or supplements to systems. Past studies conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) have identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) as the largest potential contributor to United States energy supplies from the ocean resource. As a result, the OET Program concentrates on research to advance OTEC technology. Current program emphasis has shifted to open-cycle OTEC power system research because the closed-cycle OTEC system is at a more advanced stage of development and has already attracted industrial interest. During FY 1989, the OET Program focused primarily on the technical uncertainties associated with near-shore open-cycle OTEC systems ranging in size from 2 to 15 MW{sub e}. Activities were performed under three major program elements: thermodynamic research and analysis, experimental verification and testing, and materials and structures research. These efforts addressed a variety of technical problems whose resolution is crucial to demonstrating the viability of open-cycle OTEC technology. This publications is one of a series of documents on the Renewable Energy programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy. An overview of all the programs is available, entitled Programs in Renewable Energy.

  16. COLLOQUIUM: Ocean Acoustic Ecology: Great Whales, Ocean Scales...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 23, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Ocean Acoustic Ecology: Great Whales, Ocean Scales, Big Data Dr. Christopher Clark Cornell University ...

  17. Oceans '86 conference record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    These five volumes represent the proceedings of the Oceans '86 Conference Washington, DC, 23-25 September 1986. Volume 1 includes papers on Underwater Photography and Sensing; Marine Recreation; Diving; CTACTS (Charleston Tactical Aircrew Combat Training System); Offshore and Coastal Structures; Underwater Welding, Burning and Cutting; Advances in Ocean Mapping; Ocean Energy; Biofouling and Corrosion; Moorings, Cables and Connections; Marine Minerals; Remote Sensing and Satellites; and Acoustics Analysis. Volume 2 covers Data Base Management; Modeling and Simulation; Ocean Current Simulation; Instrumentation; Artificial Reefs and Fisheries; US Status and Trends; Education and Technology Transfer; Economic Potential and Coastal Zone Management; and Water Quality. Volume 3 includes papers on National and Regional Monitoring Strategies; New Techniques and Strategies for Monitoring; Indicator Parameters/Organisms; Historical Data; Crystal Cube for Coastal and Estuarine Degradation; and the Monitoring Gap. Volume 4 covers the Organotin Symposium - Chemistry; Toxicity Studies; and Environmental Monitoring and Modeling. Volume 5 includes papers on Advances in Oceanography; Applied Oceanography; Unmanned Vehicles and ROV's; Manned Vehicles; and Oceanographic Ships.

  18. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal ...

  19. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Name: National Oceanic and...

  20. Ocean Navitas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Condry. Website: www.oceannavitas.com References: Ocean Navitas&127;UNIQ75db538f85b32404-ref-000014E2-QINU&127; This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Ocean...

  1. LLNL Ocean General Circulation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-12-29

    The LLNL OGCM is a numerical ocean modeling tool for use in studying ocean circulation over a wide range of space and time scales, with primary applications to climate change and carbon cycle science.

  2. Publication in Ocean Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication in Ocean Engineering - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  3. Turbines in the ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.G.W.; Charlier, R.H.

    1981-09-01

    It is noted that the relatively high-speed ocean currents flowing northward along the east coast of the U.S. may be able to supply a significant proportion of the future electric power requirements of urban areas. The Gulf Stream core lies only about 20 miles east of Miami here its near-surface water reaches velocities of 4.3 miles per hour. Attention is called to the estimate that the energy available in the current of the Gulf Stream adjacent to Florida is approximately equivalent to that generated by 25 1,000-megawatt power plants. It is also contended that this power could be produced at competitive prices during the 1980s using large turbines moored below the ocean surface near the center of the Stream. Assuming an average ocean-current speed between 4 and 5 knots at the current core, the power density of a hydroturbine could reach 410 watts per square foot, about 100 times that of a wind-driven device of similar scale operating in an airflow of approximately 11 knots.

  4. Ninth Annual Ocean Renewable Energy Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The future of clean, renewable ocean wave energy will be discussed in depth at the 2014 Ocean Renewable Energy Conference.

  5. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  6. Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Typical Oak Ridge cemesto ... Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus

  7. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of windows in buildings similar to the typical buildings. (author)

  8. International Conference on Ocean Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join the Energy Department in Edinburgh, Scotland from February 23–25th for the International Conference on Ocean Energy (ICOE) conference.

  9. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ascari, Matthew

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  10. Predicting aerodynamic characteristic of typical wind turbine airfoils using CFD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, W.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ochs, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Aerospace Engineering Dept.

    1997-09-01

    An investigation was conducted into the capabilities and accuracy of a representative computational fluid dynamics code to predict the flow field and aerodynamic characteristics of typical wind-turbine airfoils. Comparisons of the computed pressure and aerodynamic coefficients were made with wind tunnel data. This work highlights two areas in CFD that require further investigation and development in order to enable accurate numerical simulations of flow about current generation wind-turbine airfoils: transition prediction and turbulence modeling. The results show that the laminar-to turbulent transition point must be modeled correctly to get accurate simulations for attached flow. Calculations also show that the standard turbulence model used in most commercial CFD codes, the k-e model, is not appropriate at angles of attack with flow separation. 14 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Analyzing ocean mixing reveals insight on climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analyzing ocean mixing reveals insight on climate Analyzing ocean mixing reveals insight on climate LANL scientists have developed a computer model that clarifies the complex processes driving ocean mixing in the vast eddies that swirl across hundreds of miles of open ocean. June 24, 2015 A three-dimensional spatial structure of mixing in an idealized ocean simulation, computed using Lagrangian particle statistics. A three-dimensional spatial structure of mixing in an idealized ocean simulation,

  12. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is...

  13. Scott Wilson Oceans | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wilson Oceans Jump to: navigation, search Name: Scott Wilson Oceans Place: Chesterfield, United Kingdom Zip: S30 1JF Sector: Wind energy Product: Specialist in the engineering of...

  14. Hawaii Oceanic Technology Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oceanic Technology Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hawaii Oceanic Technology Inc Region: United States Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: www.hioceanictech.com This...

  15. Ocean Motion International LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Place: Saulsbury, Tennessee Zip: 38067 Sector: Ocean Product: Marine energy technology firm developing ocean wave powered generators. Coordinates: 35.052242,...

  16. Ocean Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ocean Energy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ocean Energy Ltd Address: 3 Casement Square Place: Cobh Region: Ireland Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Phone Number:...

  17. Green Ocean Wave Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ocean Wave Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Ocean Wave Energy Region: United States Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: http: This company is listed in the...

  18. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z.; Sonnenschein, Eva C.; Cariou, Thierry; O’Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R.; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E.; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P.; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M.; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion M. F.; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C.; Kandil, Mahrous M.; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L’Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M.; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A. Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J.; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N.; Gasol, Josep M.; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S.; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M.; Collins, R. Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.

  19. Ocean Renewable Energy Conference X

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 10th annual Ocean Renewable Energy Conference provides attendees a forum to share new ideas and concepts, opportunity to learn from leading-edge practitioners and policy-makers, information...

  20. Ocean Thermal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the ability to produce 10000 TWh per year, which is greater than other types of ocean energy such as tides, marine currents and salinity gradient. OTEC functions best when...

  1. MPAS-Ocean Development Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Douglas W.; Ringler, Todd D.; Petersen, Mark R.; Jones, Philip W.; Maltrud, Mathew E.

    2012-06-13

    The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is a modeling framework developed jointly between NCAR and LANL, built to allow core developers to: rapidly develop new dynamical cores, and leverage improvements made to shared codes. MPAS-Ocean (MPAS-O) is a functioning ocean model capable of high resolution, or highly vairable resolution simulations. The first MPAS-O publication is expected by the end of the year.

  2. Ocean current resource assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean current resource assessment Ocean current resource assessment Ocean current resource assessment Office presentation icon 45_ocean_resource_gtrc_haas.ppt More Documents & Publications Tidal Energy Resource Assessment Free Flow Energy (TRL 1 2 3 Component) - Design and Development of a Cross-Platform Submersible Generator Optimized for the Conditions of Current Energy Conversion

  3. Ocean current wave interaction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, J.G.

    1980-09-20

    A numerical model has been developed to incorporate refraction of ocean surface gravity waves by major ocean currents. The model is initialized with directional wave spectra and verified with aircraft synthetic aperture radar X band spectra, laser profilometer spectra, and pitch and roll buoy data. Data collected during the Marineland test experiment are used as surface truth observations for the wave-current study. Evidence of Gulf Stream refraction and trapping of surface waves as well as caustics in the current is shown and modeled assuming a nonuniform Gulf Stream distribution. Frequency and directional resolution of the wave spectral distribution and the current refraction patterns illustrates the need for further study of ocean current-wave interaction in wave refraction studies.

  4. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; et al

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and theirmore » embedded functional traits.« less

  5. Ocean Energy Technology Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Ocean Energy Technology Basics Ocean Energy Technology Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:18pm Addthis Text Version Photo of low waves in the ocean. A dock is visible in the background. Oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth's surface. As the world's largest solar collectors, oceans contain thermal energy from the sun and produce mechanical energy from tides and waves. Even though the sun affects all ocean activity, the gravitational pull of the moon primarily drives tides, and wind

  6. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockerby, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is reviewed briefly. The two types of OTEC system (open and closed) are described and limitations are pointed out. A bibliography of 148 references on OTEC is given for the time period 1975 to 1980. Entries are arranged alphabetically according to the author's name. (MJJ)

  7. Indian National Institute of Ocean Technology | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Ocean Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name: Indian National Institute of Ocean Technology Place: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Sector: Ocean Product: Research institute...

  8. MHK Technologies/Ocean Treader floating | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    homepage Ocean Treader floating.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Green Ocean Energy Ltd Project(s) where this technology is utilized *MHK ProjectsDevelopment of Ocean...

  9. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Animal, Vegetable or Mineral? Iron is a limiting nutrient in many parts of the oceans, nowhere more so than in the Southern Ocean's photic zone, which receives enough sunlight for...

  10. Ocean Flow Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ocean Flow Energy Place: United Kingdom Zip: NE29 6NL Product: Tidal energy device developer. References: Ocean Flow Energy1 This article...

  11. Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    role of ocean and ice in high-latitude climate change and projecting the impacts of ... COSIM researchers develop, test and apply ocean and ice models in support of DOE Climate ...

  12. Open Ocean Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Edit with form History Open Ocean Energy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Open Ocean Energy Ltd Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: http: This company is listed in the...

  13. Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth, Space Sciences » Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) The COSIM project develops advanced ocean and ice models for evaluating the role of ocean and ice in high-latitude climate change and projecting the impacts of high-latitude change on regions throughout the globe. Contact Us Phil Jones Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics Email Wilbert Weijer Computational Physics and Methods Email Elizabeth Hunke Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics

  14. Global warming and changes in ocean circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

    1998-02-01

    This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

  15. Coastal ocean current response to storm winds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.L.

    1982-03-20

    Design of offshore structures requires knowledge of the appropriate current profile to be used in conjunction with the design wave. Accurate determination of the current profile will depend on reliable current models. Vertical transfer of momentum in storm-driven current models is commonly treated either by using eddy viscosity or by assuming 'slab-like' mixed layer flow. These two fundamentally different approaches predict different current speeds and profiles during severe storms. The existing data base is inadequate to determine which approach is better, but most existing data sets are subject to one or more of four limitations that can lead one improperly to interpret the data as supporting the existence of current velocity shear in otherwise uniform mixed layers. One-dimensional slab models are found to compare favorably with observed wind-driven currents at the Ocean Test Structure in the Gulf of Mexico (deployed in 20 m deep water). By using some reasonably simple assumptions, these slab models are able to replicate many of the significantly features of the wide range of different responses. The character of the response appears to depend on an interaction of stratification and topography. Barotropic responses are characteristic of typical coastal responses; current oriented longshore and are in phase with the wind. Baroclinic responses are dominantly inertial as might be expected in the deep sea, but with an additional near-bottom cross-shore counter flow. The structure of one observed barotropic response is compared to detail to predictions of both slab and eddy viscosity models and found consistent with a slab model and inconsistent with eddy viscosity models. Shear observed during this event was not significantly different from zero, but was significantly below estimated shear predictions of four eddy viscosity models given the peak 0.4 N/m/sup 2/ wind stress.

  16. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Honolulu, Hawaii |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Honolulu, Hawaii National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Honolulu, Hawaii Photo of a Staff Residence at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Hawaii The staff residences at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Hawaii now have solar water heating systems funded by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Center is part of the Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC-NOAA). New

  17. Makai Ocean Engineering Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Southern CA Area Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic, Ocean, Renewable Energy Product: OTEC Number of Employees: 28 Year Founded: 1973 Phone Number: 808.259.8871 Website:...

  18. Ocean Electric Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ocean Electric Power Place: United Kingdom Sector: Renewable Energy Product: UK-based offshore project developer. The firm is actively engaged in the development of offshore...

  19. Hawaii Ocean Science and Technology Park

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Tribal Energy Program Intellectual Property Current EC Partnerships How to Partner Small ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Hawaii Ocean Science and Technology Park ...

  20. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    At bottom left, the kinds of iron species found in two transects of the Southern Ocean are ... (ACC stands for Antarctic Circumpolar Current.) The map shows chlorophyll ...

  1. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    so than in the Southern Ocean's photic zone, which receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis to occur, but whose biological diversity is limited due to a lack of bioavailable...

  2. Ocean Viral Metagenomics (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rohwer, Forest

    2011-04-26

    Forest Rohwer from San Diego State University talks about "Ocean Viral Metagenomics" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  3. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll...

  4. Ocean Renewable Power Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC was founded in 2004 for the purpose of generating reliable, competitive, emission-free electricity from the energy resources of the oceans. Coordinates: 45.511795,...

  5. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Provides Forecasting Support for CLASIC and CHAPS 2007

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NOAA Provides Forecasting Support for CLASIC and CHAPS 2007 Forecasting Challenge While weather experiments in the heart of Tornado Alley typically focus on severe weather, the CLASIC and CHAPS programs will have different emphases. Forecasters from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Norman, Okla. will provide weather forecasting support to these two Department of Energy experiments based in the state. Forecasting support for meteorological research field programs usually

  6. Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spun Off From A Government Lab" (Not) just your typical Lab spin off Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup Spun Off From A Government Lab" Far from Silicon Valley, Descartes Labs aims to turn a national research facility's AI research into new ways of understanding the world. July 30, 2015 Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup Spun Off From A Government Lab" Descartes Labs cofounders Mark

  7. Aquantis Ocean Current Turbine Development Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, Alex J.

    2014-08-23

    The Aquantis® Current Plane (“C-Plane”) technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) and Aquantis, Inc. is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from ocean currents. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced base-load, continuous, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  8. A predictive ocean oil spill model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanderson, J.; Barnette, D.; Papodopoulos, P.; Schaudt, K.; Szabo, D.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Initially, the project focused on creating an ocean oil spill model and working with the major oil companies to compare their data with the Los Alamos global ocean model. As a result of this initial effort, Los Alamos worked closely with the Eddy Joint Industry Project (EJIP), a consortium oil and gas producing companies in the US. The central theme of the project was to use output produced from LANL`s global ocean model to look in detail at ocean currents in selected geographic areas of the world of interest to consortium members. Once ocean currents are well understood this information could be used to create oil spill models, improve offshore exploration and drilling equipment, and aid in the design of semi-permanent offshore production platforms.

  9. VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study () | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Title: VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study VOCALS (VAMOS* Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study) is an international ...

  10. Ocean Energy Projects Developing On and Off America's Shores | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Ocean Energy Projects Developing On and Off America's Shores Ocean Energy Projects Developing On and Off America's Shores January 22, 2013 - 1:14pm Addthis Artist rendering of Ocean Power Technologies' proposed wave park off the coast of Oregon. | Photo courtesy of Ocean Power Technologies. Artist rendering of Ocean Power Technologies' proposed wave park off the coast of Oregon. | Photo courtesy of Ocean Power Technologies. Verdant testing its tidal energy device in New York's East

  11. NREL-Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Resource assessment Website: www.nrel.govotec NREL-Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion Screenshot References: OTEC1 Logo: NREL-Ocean...

  12. Practical Ocean Energy Management Systems Inc POEMS | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ocean Energy Management Systems Inc POEMS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Practical Ocean Energy Management Systems Inc (POEMS) Place: San Diego, California Zip: 92138 Sector:...

  13. Voith Hydro Ocean Current Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ocean Current Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Voith Hydro Ocean Current Technologies Place: Germany Sector: Hydro Product: Germany-based JV between Voith Hydro and...

  14. Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition OREC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Coalition OREC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition (OREC) Place: Potomac, Maryland Zip: 20859 Sector: Ocean Product: US trade association...

  15. MHK Technologies/Ocean Energy Rig | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the MHK database homepage Ocean Energy Rig.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Free Flow 69 Technology Type Click here Axial Flow Turbine Technology Description The Ocean...

  16. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of ocean currents in the United States and the database created with that data. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline...

  17. MHK Technologies/THOR Ocean Current Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    THOR Ocean Current Turbine < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage THOR Ocean Current Turbine.jpg Technology Profile Primary...

  18. Ocean County Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County Landfill Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ocean County Landfill Biomass Facility Facility Ocean County Landfill Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas...

  19. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United...

  20. Ocean Wave Energy Company OWECO | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Company OWECO Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ocean Wave Energy Company (OWECO) Place: Bristol, Rhode Island Sector: Ocean Product: Wave energy device developer. The...

  1. MHK Technologies/Ocean Wave Air Piston | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ocean Wave Air Piston.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Green Ocean Wave Energy Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Attenuator...

  2. Ocean County, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Jersey Manahawkin, New Jersey Mantoloking, New Jersey Mystic Island, New Jersey New Egypt, New Jersey North Beach Haven, New Jersey Ocean Acres, New Jersey Ocean Gate, New...

  3. Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation in the Indonesian Archipelago Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to ...

  4. Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean You are accessing a ...

  5. Adaptive Particle Filtering for Mode Tracking: A Shallow Ocean...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Adaptive Particle Filtering for Mode Tracking: A Shallow Ocean Application Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Adaptive Particle Filtering for Mode Tracking: A Shallow Ocean ...

  6. Feasibility of Tital and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monty Worthington Director of Project Development - Alaska Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean ... * ORPC Alaska and ORPC Solutions (Ocean Renewable Power Company) * The Aleutian ...

  7. New Airborne Technology Measures Ocean Surface Currents for Offshore...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Airborne Technology Measures Ocean Surface Currents for Offshore Energy Production and Emergency Rescue Missions New Airborne Technology Measures Ocean Surface Currents for ...

  8. Memorandum of Understanding On Weather-Dependent and Oceanic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On Weather-Dependent and Oceanic Renewable Energy Resources Memorandum of Understanding On Weather-Dependent and Oceanic Renewable Energy Resources Memorandum of Understanding On ...

  9. Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource This report describes the analysis and ...

  10. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Report about the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization project, which focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy from the world’s ocean thermal resources.

  11. Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

    2005-11-23

    Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion, or OTEC is a technology that extracts power from the ocean's natural thermal gradient. This technology is being pursued by researchers from many nations; in the United States, OTEC research is funded by the US Department of Energy's Ocean Energy Technology program. The program's goal is to develop the technology so that industry can make a competent assessment of its potential -- either as an alternative or as a supplement to conventional energy sources. Federally funded research in components and systems will help OTEC to the threshold of commercialization. This publication provides an overview of the OTEC technology. 47 refs., 25 figs.

  13. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:08 The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is

  14. Ocean Power (4 Activities) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean Power (4 Activities) Ocean Power (4 Activities) Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades 5-8 Subject Water Summary Areas of the country that have an available coastline but are limited in other renewable resources can use the oceans to produce energy. We are familiar with the large hydroelectric dams that dot our nation, creating large reservoirs and flooding millions of acres of land. By turning to the restless seas we can find a source of

  15. EVALUATION OF TROQUE VS CLOSURE BOLT PRELOAD FOR A TYPICAL CONTAINMENT VESSEL UNDER SERVICE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.

    2010-02-16

    Radioactive material package containment vessels typically employ bolted closures of various configurations. Closure bolts must retain the lid of a package and must maintain required seal loads, while subjected to internal pressure, impact loads and vibration. The need for insuring that the specified preload is achieved in closure bolts for radioactive materials packagings has been a continual subject of concern for both designers and regulatory reviewers. The extensive literature on threaded fasteners provides sound guidance on design and torque specification for closure bolts. The literature also shows the uncertainty associated with use of torque to establish preload is typically between 10 and 35%. These studies have been performed under controlled, laboratory conditions. The ability to insure required preload in normal service is, consequently, an important question. The study described here investigated the relationship between indicated torque and resulting bolt load for a typical radioactive materials package closure using methods available under normal service conditions.

  16. Ocean energy resources: the impact of OTEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ditmars, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The status of OTEC technological development is summarized with emphasis on the potential impacts of OTEC power production on the ocean environment, including implications for impacts to climate. (MHR)

  17. Ocean Energy Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    think tank established to accelerate offshore wind technology development that hopes to build a 5GW wind project off the coast of Maine. References: Ocean Energy Institute1 This...

  18. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    productivity in the ocean-in this case, the growth of phytoplankton, the primary plant food source for bigger marine life-and the larger marine life it supports. At bottom left,...

  19. ocean energy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ocean energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine...

  20. MHK Technologies/Ocean | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the MHK database homepage Ocean.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Hydro Green Energy LLC Project(s) where this technology is utilized *MHK ProjectsAlaska 35 *MHK...

  1. Green Ocean Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Ocean Energy Place: Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: AB10 1UP Product: Aberdeen, UK-based private developer of wave device....

  2. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  3. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  4. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  5. Nonhydrostatic Ocean Modeling | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nonhydrostatic Ocean Modeling Start Date: May 11 2016 - 10:00am to 11:00am Building/Room: Building 240/Room 1404 Location: Argonne National Laboratory Speaker(s): Sean Vitousek Speaker(s) Title: Research Assistant Professor, University of Illinois at Chicago Host: Robert Jacob Processes in the ocean span a range of spatiotemporal scales. However, most numerical models are designed to simulate specific coastal processes or specific spatiotemporal scales. Furthermore, numerical models are subject

  6. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  7. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch

  8. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  9. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean » Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity. OTEC works best when the temperature difference between the warmer, top layer of the ocean and the colder, deep ocean water is about 36°F (20°C). These conditions exist in tropical coastal areas, roughly between the Tropic of Capricorn and the

  10. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eden, H.F.; Mooers, C.N.K.

    1990-06-01

    The goal of COPS is to couple a program of regular observations to numerical models, through techniques of data assimilation, in order to provide a predictive capability for the US coastal ocean including the Great Lakes, estuaries, and the entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The objectives of the program include: determining the predictability of the coastal ocean and the processes that govern the predictability; developing efficient prediction systems for the coastal ocean based on the assimilation of real-time observations into numerical models; and coupling the predictive systems for the physical behavior of the coastal ocean to predictive systems for biological, chemical, and geological processes to achieve an interdisciplinary capability. COPS will provide the basis for effective monitoring and prediction of coastal ocean conditions by optimizing the use of increased scientific understanding, improved observations, advanced computer models, and computer graphics to make the best possible estimates of sea level, currents, temperatures, salinities, and other properties of entire coastal regions.

  11. Study of multiband disordered systems using the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yi; Terletska, Hanna; Moore, C.; Ekuma, Chinedu; Tam, Ka-Ming; Berlijn, Tom; Ku, Wei; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2015-11-06

    We generalize the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation to multiband disordered systems. Using our extended formalism, we perform a systematic study of the nonlocal correlation effects induced by disorder on the density of states and the mobility edge of the three-dimensional two-band Anderson model. We include interband and intraband hopping and an intraband disorder potential. Our results are consistent with those obtained by the transfer matrix and the kernel polynomial methods. We also apply the method to KxFe2-ySe2 with Fe vacancies. Despite the strong vacancy disorder and anisotropy, we find the material is not an Anderson insulator. Moreover our resultsmore » demonstrate the application of the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation method to study Anderson localization in real materials.« less

  12. Environmental impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a promising technology for production of energy and usable by-products from solar-generated temperature gradients in the world's oceans. Although considered benign compared to alternative forms of energy generation, deployment of OTEC plants will result in interactions with marine, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments and in socioeconomic interactions with surrounding areas. The Ocean Energy Technology Program of the Department of Energy has funded research to improve the understanding of these interactions. No insurmountable environmental obstacle to OTEC deployment has been uncovered. This document contains a summary of that research for entrepreneurs, utility engineers, and others interested in pursuing OTEC's potential. In addition, it provides a guide to permits, regulations, and licenses applicable to construction of an OTEC plant.

  13. SEASAT altimeter determination of ocean current variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, R.L.; Born, G.H.; Whritner, R.H.

    1982-04-30

    Radar altimeters of great precision (roughly-equal10 cm), such as the one that flew on the SEASAT satellite, are capable of measuring the small oceanic height variations associated with geostrophic ocean currents. An experiment was concluded in the Kuroshio Current east of Japan, verifying this capability. Air-expendable bathythermographs (AXBT's) were dropped to coincide with the SEASAT subtract during flights on September 25 and October 5 and 13, 1978. Changes in surface dynamic height between flights were inferred from the AXBT data. They agreed generally to within +- 10 cm of height changes observed in the altimeter data.

  14. Pelamis Wave Power Ocean Power Delivery Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Ocean Product: Scotland-based company specialising in the use of ocean power for electricity generation via its Pelamis convertor, which has been demonstrated up to 750kW....

  15. Draft environmental assessment: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.; Donat, J.R.; Jepsen, P.; Smookler, M.; Villa, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, for the deployment and operation of a commercial 40-Megawatt (MW) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant (hereafter called the Pilot Plant). A description of the proposed action is presented, and a generic environment typical of the candidate Pilot Plant siting regions is described. An assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action is given, and the risk of credible accidents and mitigating measures to reduce these risks are considered. The Federal and State plans and policies the proposed action will encompass are described. Alternatives to the proposed action are presented. Appendix A presents the navigation and environmental information contained in the US Coast Pilot for each of the candidate sites; Appendix B provides a brief description of the methods and calculations used in the EA. It is concluded that environmental disturbances associated with Pilot Plant activities could potentially cause significant environmental impacts; however, the magnitude of these potential impacts cannot presently be assessed, due to insufficient engineering and environmental information. A site- and design-specific OTEC Pilot Plant Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required to resolve the potentially significant environmental effects associated with Pilot Plant deployment and operation. (WHK)

  16. Memorandum of Understanding On Weather-Dependent and Oceanic Renewable

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Resources | Department of Energy On Weather-Dependent and Oceanic Renewable Energy Resources Memorandum of Understanding On Weather-Dependent and Oceanic Renewable Energy Resources Memorandum of Understanding On Weather-Dependent and Oceanic Renewable Energy Resources between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. PDF icon MOU_DOE_Commerce.pdf More Documents

  17. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    United States Coastline | Department of Energy Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline Report summarizing the results of seven years of numerical model simulations of ocean currents in the United States and the database created with that data. PDF icon Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline More Documents & Publications

  18. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    United States Coastline | Department of Energy Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline Report summarizing the results of seven years of numerical model simulations of ocean currents in the United States and the database created with that data. PDF icon energy_production_ocean_currents_us.pdf More Documents & Publications Assessment of Energy Production

  19. Current practices and new technology in ocean engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuinness, T.; Shih, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on wave power and marine engineering. Topics considered at the conference included remote sensing, ocean current measurement, air and spaceborne instrumentation, marine dynamics, real-time measurements, telemetry systems, seafloor measurement, computer-based data acquisition, materials and devices for underwater work systems, ocean system design analysis and reliability, ocean structure fatigue life prediction, underwater life support systems, sensor design, ocean thermal energy conversion, and wave energy converters.

  20. Ocean thermal energy conversion: report to congress - fiscal year 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-03-31

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) activities related to ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) during fiscal year 1982 are described. The agency focus has been in the areas of providing ocean engineering and technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE), in streamlining the administration of the Federal OTEC licensing system, and in environmental assistance.

  1. Modeling a Typical Winter-time Dust Event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalenderski, S.; Stenchikov, G.; Zhao, Chun

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg/day and ~1.5 Tg/day, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W/m2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  2. Paper and Presentation at OCEANS2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paper and Presentation at OCEANS2015 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  3. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wittig, J. Michael

    1980-01-01

    An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed warm ocean water exits the evaporator through a second prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure located circumferentially about and radially within the first skirt-conduit structure. The radially inner surface of the second skirt conduit structure constitutes a cylinder which functions as the turbine's outer casing and obviates the need for a conventional outer housing. The turbine includes a radially enlarged disc element attached to the shaft for supporting at least one axial row of radially directed blades through which the steam is expanded. A prestressed concrete inner casing structure of the turbine has upstream and downstream portions respectively situated upstream and downstream from the disc element. The radially outer surfaces of the inner casing portions and radially outer periphery of the axially interposed disc cooperatively form a downwardly radially inwardly tapered surface. An annular steam flowpath of increasing flow area in the downward axial direction is radially bounded by the inner and outer prestressed concrete casing structures. The inner casing portions each include a transversely situated prestressed concrete circular wall for rotatably supporting the turbine shaft and associated structure. The turbine blades are substantially radially coextensive with the steam flowpath and receive steam from the evaporator through an annular array of prestressed concrete stationary vanes which extend between the inner and outer casings to provide structural support therefor and impart a desired flow direction to the steam.

  4. Ocean thermal energy conversion: a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuen, P.C.

    1981-10-01

    The OTEC principle is discussed along with general system and cycle types, specific OTEC designs, OTEC applications, and the ocean thermal resource. The historic development of OTEC is briefly reviewed, and the status of French, Japanese, EUROCEAN, and US programs is assessed. US efforts are detailed and DOE's strategy outlined with OTEC-1 and Mini-OTEC information. Power system components of the more technically advanced closed-cycle OTEC concept are discussed. These include: heat exchangers, corrosion and biofouling countermeasures, working fluids, ammonia power systems, and on-platform seawater systems. Several open-cycle features are also discussed. A critical review is presented of the ocean engineering aspects of OTEC power systems. Major subsystems such as platform, cold water pipe, mooring system, dynamic positioning system, power transmission cable system are assessed for their relationships with the ocean environment and with each other. Nine available studies of OTEC costs are reviewed. Tentative comparisons are made between OTEC and traditional fuel costs, and OTEC products and markets are considered. Possible environmental and social effects of OTEC development are discussed. International, national, and local laws regulating OTEC plants and OTEC energy products are reviewed. Tax incentives, attitudes of the utilities, and additional legislative needs are considered. (LEW)

  5. Ocean Energy Program Overview, Fiscal years 1990--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71% of the earth's surface, the oceans collect and store this energy as waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients. The purpose of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Ocean Energy Program is to develop techniques that harness ocean energy cost effectively and in ways that do not harm the environment. The program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point at which industry can accurately assess whether the applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives, or supplements to current power-generating systems. In past studies, DOE identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which uses the temperature difference between warm surface water and cold deep water, as the most promising of the ocean energy technologies. As a result, the Ocean Energy Program has concentrated research that advances OTEC technology. The program also monitored developments in wave energy, ocean current, and salinity gradient concepts. It is not actively developing these technologies now. The mission of the Ocean Energy Program is to develop techniques to harness the vast solar energy stored in the oceans' waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients.

  6. Ocean Carbon Cycle Data from the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The U.S. JGOFS program, a component of the U.S Global Change Research Program, grew out of the recommendations of a National Academy of Sciences workshop in 1984. An ambitious goal was set to understand the controls on the concentrations and fluxes of carbon and associated nutrients in the ocean. A new field of ocean biogeochemistry emerged with an emphasis on quality measurements of carbon system parameters and interdisciplinary field studies of the biological, chemical and physical process which control the ocean carbon cycle. U.S. JGOFS, ended in 2005 with the conclusion of the Synthesis and Modeling Project (SMP). Data are available throughout the U.S. JGOFS web site at http://usjgofs.whoi.edu/ and from the U.S. JGOFS Data System at http://usjgofs.whoi.edu/jg/dir/jgofs/. Major named segments of the project are: Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) Study, Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) Study, Equatorial Pacific Process Study, North Atlantic Bloom Experiment (1989), Arabian Sea Process Study, and the Southern Ocean Process Study.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ?PBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of ?{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 12 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

  8. LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop by using the US NRC approved methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory requirements for postulated pipe ruptures have changed significantly since the first nuclear plants were designed. The Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology is now accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of double-ended guillotine breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. The previous pipe rupture design requirements for nuclear power plant applications are responsible for all the numerous and massive pipe whip restraints and jet shields installed for each plant. This results in significant plant congestion, increased labor costs and radiation dosage for normal maintenance and inspection. Also the restraints increase the probability of interference between the piping and supporting structures during plant heatup, thereby potentially impacting overall plant reliability. The LBB approach to eliminate postulating ruptures in high energy piping systems is a significant improvement to former regulatory methodologies, and therefore, the LBB approach to design is gaining worldwide acceptance. However, the methods and criteria for LBB evaluation depend upon the policy of individual country and significant effort continues towards accomplishing uniformity on a global basis. In this paper the historical development of the U.S. LBB criteria will be traced and the results of an LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop applying U.S. NRC approved methods will be presented. In addition, another approach using the Japanese LBB criteria will be shown and compared with the U.S. criteria. The comparison will be highlighted in this paper with detailed discussion.

  9. Sources and levels of ambient ocean sound near the antarctic peninsula

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dziak, Robert P.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Matsumoto, Haruyoshi; Park, Minkyu; Lee, Won Sang; Fowler, Matt J.; Lau, Tai-Kwan; Haxel, Joseph H.; Mellinger, David K.; et al

    2015-04-14

    Arrays of hydrophones were deployed within the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea (Antarctic Peninsula region) from 2005 to 2009 to record ambient ocean sound at frequencies of up to 125 and 500 Hz. Icequakes, which are broadband, short duration signals derived from fracturing of large free-floating icebergs, are a prominent feature of the ocean soundscape. Icequake activity peaks during austral summer and is minimum during winter, likely following freeze-thaw cycles. Iceberg grounding and rapid disintegration also releases significant acoustic energy, equivalent to large-scale geophysical events. Overall ambient sound levels can be as much as ~10–20 dB higher in the open,more » deep ocean of the Scotia Sea compared to the relatively shallow Bransfield Strait. Noise levels become lowest during the austral winter, as sea-ice cover suppresses wind and wave noise. Ambient noise levels are highest during austral spring and summer, as surface noise, ice cracking and biological activity intensifies. Vocalizations of blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin (B. physalus) whales also dominate the long-term spectra records in the 15–28 and 89 Hz bands. Blue whale call energy is a maximum during austral summer-fall in the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait when ambient noise levels are a maximum and sea-ice cover is a minimum. Fin whale vocalizations were also most common during austral summer-early fall months in both the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea. The hydrophone data overall do not show sustained anthropogenic sources (ships and airguns), likely due to low coastal traffic and the typically rough weather and sea conditions of the Southern Ocean.« less

  10. Deep Ocean Heat Uptake and the Influence of Sea Ice in the Southern Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecilia M. Bitz

    2011-11-22

    Climate sensitivity defines the equilibrium response to climate forcing, but ocean heat uptake is equally important at controlling the transient, response. Heat stored beneath the mixed layer is not in close thermal contact with the atmosphere, and therefore warming below the mixed layer sequesters heat that would otherwise be available to warm the surface, slowing the rate of surface warming. In this study, we investigate mechanisms that control heat uptake, primarily in the Southern Ocean, where roughly 40% of the global heat uptake occurs.

  11. Analyses of High Pressure Molten Debris Dispersion for a Typical PWR Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osamu KAawabata; Mitsuhiro Kajimoto [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    In such severe core damage accident, as small LOCAs with no ECCS injection or station blackout, in which the primary reactor system remains pressurized during core melt down, certain modes of vessel failure would lead to a high pressure ejection of molten core material. In case of a local failure of the lower head, the molten materials would initially be ejected into the cavity beneath the pressure vessel may subsequently be swept out from the cavity to the containment atmosphere and it might cause the early containment failure by direct contact of containment steel liner with core debris. When the contribution of a high-pressure scenario in a core damage frequency increases, early conditional containment failure probability may become large. In the present study, the verification analysis of PHOENICS code and the combining analysis with MELCOR and PHOENICS codes were performed to examine the debris dispersion behavior during high pressure melt ejection. The PHOENICS code which can treat thermal hydraulic phenomena, was applied to the verification analysis for melt dispersion experiments conducted by the Purdue university in the United States. A low pressure melt dispersion experiment at initial pressure 1.4 MPas used metal woods as a molten material was simulated. The analytical results with molten debris dispersion mostly from the model reactor cavity compartment showed an agreement with the experimental result, but the analysis result of a volumetric median diameter of the airborne debris droplets was estimated about 1.5 times of the experimental result. The injection rates of molten debris and steam after reactor vessel failure for a typical PWR plant were analyzed using the MELCOR code. In addition, PHOENICS was applied to a 3D analysis for debris dispersion with low primary pressure at the reactor vessel failure. The analysis result showed that almost all the molten debris were dispersed from the reactor vessel cavity compartment by about 45 seconds after the start of steam release. (authors)

  12. Response of oceanic hydrate-bearing sediments to thermalstresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.J.; Kowalsky, M.B.

    2006-05-01

    In this study, we evaluate the response of oceanicsubsurface systems to thermal stresses caused by the flow of warm fluidsthrough noninsulated well systems crossing hydrate-bearing sediments.Heat transport from warm fluids, originating from deeper reservoirs underproduction, into the geologic media can cause dissociation of the gashydrates. The objective of this study is to determine whether gasevolution from hydrate dissociation can lead to excessive pressurebuildup, and possibly to fracturing of hydrate-bearing formations andtheir confining layers, with potentially adverse consequences on thestability of the suboceanic subsurface. This study also aims to determinewhether the loss of the hydrate--known to have a strong cementing effecton the porous media--in the vicinity of the well, coupled with thesignificant pressure increases, can undermine the structural stability ofthe well assembly.Scoping 1D simulations indicated that the formationintrinsic permeability, the pore compressibility, the temperature of theproduced fluids andthe initial hydrate saturation are the most importantfactors affecting the system response, while the thermal conductivity andporosity (above a certain level) appear to have a secondary effect.Large-scale simulations of realistic systems were also conducted,involving complex well designs and multilayered geologic media withnonuniform distribution of properties and initial hydrate saturationsthat are typical of those expected in natural oceanic systems. Theresults of the 2D study indicate that although the dissociation radiusremains rather limited even after long-term production, low intrinsicpermeability and/or high hydrate saturation can lead to the evolution ofhigh pressures that can threaten the formation and its boundaries withfracturing. Although lower maximum pressures are observed in the absenceof bottom confining layers and in deeper (and thus warmer and morepressurized) systems, the reduction is limited. Wellbore designs withgravel packs that allow gas venting and pressure relief result insubstantially lower pressures.

  13. Adaptive Particle Filtering for Mode Tracking: A Shallow Ocean Application

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Adaptive Particle Filtering for Mode Tracking: A Shallow Ocean Application Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Adaptive Particle Filtering for Mode Tracking: A Shallow Ocean Application Authors: Candy, J V Publication Date: 2011-07-12 OSTI Identifier: 1117989 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-491045 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: OCEANS'11, Kona, HI, United States, Sep 19 - Sep 22, 2011

  14. Adaptive Wavenumber Estimation for Mode Tracking in a Shallow Ocean

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Environment (Conference) | SciTech Connect Adaptive Wavenumber Estimation for Mode Tracking in a Shallow Ocean Environment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Adaptive Wavenumber Estimation for Mode Tracking in a Shallow Ocean Environment Authors: Candy, J V Publication Date: 2012-06-28 OSTI Identifier: 1059076 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-563556 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: IEEE OCEANS '12, Hampton Roads, VA,

  15. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited OCEAN THERMAL EXTRACTABLE ENERGY VISUALIZATION Award # DE-EE0002664 October 28, 2012 Final Technical Report Prepared by Lockheed Martin Mission Systems & Sensors (MS2) DE-EE0002664 Ocean Thermal Energy Resource Assessment Final Draft i 10/28/2012 Project Title: Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization Recipient: Lockheed Martin Corporation Award #: DE-0002664 Working Partners Project Lead: Matthew Ascari - Lockheed Martin

  16. New Airborne Technology Measures Ocean Surface Currents for Offshore Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production and Emergency Rescue Missions | Department of Energy Airborne Technology Measures Ocean Surface Currents for Offshore Energy Production and Emergency Rescue Missions New Airborne Technology Measures Ocean Surface Currents for Offshore Energy Production and Emergency Rescue Missions April 11, 2016 - 10:40am Addthis Ocean surface current velocities on image of sea surface temperatures, March 29, 2015. Figure from “Real Time Observing and Forecasting of Loop Currents in

  17. Dynamic Potential Intensity: An improved representation of the ocean's

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    impact on tropical cyclones (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Dynamic Potential Intensity: An improved representation of the ocean's impact on tropical cyclones Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamic Potential Intensity: An improved representation of the ocean's impact on tropical cyclones To incorporate the effects of tropical cyclone (TC)-induced upper ocean mixing and sea surface temperature (SST) cooling on TC intensification, a vertical average of

  18. Ocean energy program summary: Volume 1, Overview: Fiscal year 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    Past studies conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) have identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) as the largest potential contributor to US energy supplies from the ocean resource. As a result, the OET Program concentrates on research to advance OTEC technology. The program also continues to monitor and study developments in wave energy, ocean current and salinity gradient concepts, but it is not actively developing these technologies at the present time. 8 figs.

  19. Before the Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans - House Natural

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources Committee | Department of Energy Before the Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans - House Natural Resources Committee Before the Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans - House Natural Resources Committee Testimony of Kenneth E. Legg, Administrator Southeastern Power Administration Before the Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans - House Natural Resources Committee PDF icon 3-24-15_Kenneth_Legg FT HNR.pdf More Documents & Publications Before The Subcommittee on Water and

  20. Ocean energy conversion systems annual research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Alternative power cycle concepts to the closed-cycle Rankine are evaluated and those that show potential for delivering power in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable fashion are explored. Concepts are classified according to the ocean energy resource: thermal, waves, currents, and salinity gradient. Research projects have been funded and reported in each of these areas. The lift of seawater entrained in a vertical steam flow can provide potential energy for a conventional hydraulic turbine conversion system. Quantification of the process and assessment of potential costs must be completed to support concept evaluation. Exploratory development is being completed in thermoelectricity and 2-phase nozzles for other thermal concepts. Wave energy concepts are being evaluated by analysis and model testing with present emphasis on pneumatic turbines and wave focussing. Likewise, several conversion approaches to ocean current energy are being evaluated. The use of salinity resources requires further research in membranes or the development of membraneless processes. Using the thermal resource in a Claude cycle process as a power converter is promising, and a program of R and D and subsystem development has been initiated to provide confirmation of the preliminary conclusion.

  1. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report summarizing the results of seven years of numerical model simulations of ocean currents in the United States and the database created with that data. PDF icon ...

  2. Executive Order 13547: Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to climate change and ocean acidification, and coordinate with our national security and foreign policy interests. Download Document PDF icon Executive Order 13547: Stewardship of...

  3. The Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans House Committee...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Turner, Administrator Southwest Power Administration Before the Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans House Committee on Natural Resources PDF icon 3-24-15ChristopherTurner FT ...

  4. MHK Technologies/The Ocean Hydro Electricity Generator Plant...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Ocean Hydro Electricity Generator Plant.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Free Flow 69 Technology Type Click here Axial Flow Turbine Technology Description The O H E...

  5. Ocean Energy Technology Overview: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-07-01

    Introduction to and overview of ocean renewable energy resources and technologies prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy management Program.

  6. Sandia Energy - High-Fidelity Hydrostructural Analysis of Ocean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrostructural Analysis of Ocean Renewable Power Company's (ORPC's) TidGen Turbine Home Renewable Energy Energy Water Power Partnership News News & Events Computational...

  7. MHK Technologies/Ocean Current Linear Turbine | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Current Linear Turbine < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Ocean Current Linear Turbine.jpg Technology Profile Primary...

  8. Before the Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans House Natural...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    House Natural Resources Committee Before the Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans House Natural Resources Committee Testimony of Elliot E. Mainzer, Administrator, Bonneville...

  9. MHK Projects/Development of Ocean Treader | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wave Treader fixed *MHK TechnologiesOcean Treader floating Project Licensing Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Efforts See Tethys << Return to the MHK database...

  10. Before the Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans - House Natural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kenneth E. Legg, Administrator Southeastern Power Administration Before the Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans - House Natural Resources Committee PDF icon 3-24-15KennethL...

  11. Turner Hunt Ocean Renewable (TRL 4 System) - THOR's Power Method...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    More Documents & Publications CX-004722: Categorical Exclusion Determination Vortex Hydro Energy (TRL 5 6 System) - Advanced Integration of Power Take-Off in VIVACE Ocean...

  12. MHK Projects/Greenwave Rhode Island Ocean Wave Energy Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenwave Rhode Island Ocean Wave Energy Project < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":...

  13. Decoding Ancient Ocean Acidification Signals from Plankton Shells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding how these processes occurred in the past guides predictions of future ocean and atmospheric conditions, providing context for current global climate change. While ...

  14. Ocean energy technologies: The state of the art: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, A.D.; Adams, E.E.; Glucksman, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    A state-of-the-art study of ocean energy technologies has been conducted to evaluate their potential use for the generation of electrical power. The more developed technologies are tidal energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), and wave energy. In addition there has been a demonstration of a small ocean current turbine, and proposals have been made for salinity gradient devices and ocean wind turbines. Energy costs were estimated for representative base case systems for tidal, OTEC, and wave energy projects. The tidal energy scheme was predicted to have the lowest energy costs.

  15. Open Ocean Aquaculture & Wave Energy Site | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aquaculture & Wave Energy Site Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Open Ocean Aquaculture & Wave Energy Site Overseeing Organization University of New...

  16. Adaptive Particle Filtering for Mode Tracking: A Shallow Ocean...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: OCEANS'11, Kona, HI, United States, Sep 19 - Sep 22, 2011 Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National ...

  17. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON). Particulate Matter and ... transmittance, elemental composition by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, and ionic ...

  18. Field Observation of the Green Ocean Amazon. Neutral Cluster...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutral Cluster Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) Final Campaign Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Field Observation of the Green Ocean Amazon. Neutral Cluster Air Ion ...

  19. List of Ocean Thermal Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cells Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydrogen Landfill Gas Methanol Ocean Thermal Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Small Hydroelectric...

  20. Marine Fuel Choice For Ocean Going Vessels Within Emission Control...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    with Leidos Corporation to analyze the impact on ocean-going vessel fuel usage of the ... relevant MARPOL and associated U.S. Environmental Protection Agency emissions ...

  1. An Archean Oceanic Felsic Dyke Swarm In A Nascent Arc- The Hunter...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    collectively constitute more than 90% of the dyke swarm. Geochemically, they resemble modern calc-alkaline dacites and rhyolites. Their mantle-normalized incompatible...

  2. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A legislative proposal to develop ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) facilities for power generation was the subject of hearings held on April 10 and May 1, 1980. Following the test of S. 2492 are the statements of 20 witnesses and additional materials submitted for consideration. The need for a large-scale demonstration of OTEC and the need for a Federal regulatory, siting, and financial-assistance framework are the major commercialization issues. S. 2492 provides one-stop licensing by treating the facilities as vessels and making them eligible for loan guarantees. The bill complements S. 1430, which deals with the demonstration program. OTEC development in Hawaii has progressed to a second pilot project. (DCK)

  3. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, M.Dale

    1980-08-01

    Significant achievements in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology have increased the probability of producing OTEC-derived power in this decade with subsequent large-scale commercialization to follow by the turn of the century. Under U.S. Department of Energy funding, Interstate Electronics has prepared an OTEC Programmatic Environmental Assessment (EA) that considers tne development, demonstration, and commercialization of OTEC power systems. The EA considers several tecnnological designs (open cycle and closed cycle), plant configurations (land-based, moored, and plantship), and power usages (baseload electricity and production of ammonia and aluminum). Potencial environmental impacts, health and safety issues, and a status update of international, federal, and state plans and policies, as they may influence OTEC deployments, are included.

  4. Ocean thermal energy conversion: Perspective and status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, A.; Hillis, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of the thermal gradient between the warm surface waters and the deep cold waters of tropical oceans was first proposed by J. A. d'Arsonval in 1881 and tried unsuccessfully be George Claude in 1930. Interest in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and other renewable energy sources revived in the 1970s as a result of oil embargoes. At that time, the emphasis was on large floating plants miles from shore producing 250--400 MW for maintained grids. When the problems of such plants became better understood and the price of oil reversed its upward trend, the emphasis shifted to smaller (10 MW) shore-based plants on tropical islands. Such plants would be especially attractive if they produce fresh water as a by-product. During the past 15 years, major progress has been made in converting OTEC unknowns into knowns. Mini-OTEC proved the closed-cycle concept. Cost-effective heat-exchanger concepts were identified. An effective biofouling control technique was discovered. Aluminum was determined to be promising for OTEC heat exchangers. Heat-transfer augmentation techniques were identified, which promised a reduction on heat-exchanger size and cost. Fresh water was produced by an OTEC open-cycle flash evaporator, using the heat energy in the seawater itself. The current R D emphasis is on the design and construction of a test facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the open-cycle process. The 10 MW shore-based, closed-cycle plant can be built with today's technology; with the incorporation of a flash evaporator, it will produce fresh water as well as electrical power -- both valuable commodities on many tropical islands. The open-cycle process has unknowns that require solution before the technical feasibility can be demonstrated. The economic viability of either cycle depends on reducing the capital costs of OTEC plants and on future trends in the costs of conventional energy sources. 7 refs.

  5. Effects of Ocean Ecosystem on Marine Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Nenes, Athanasios

    2010-01-01

    Using smore » atellite data for the surface ocean, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and cloud microphysical parameters, we show that statistically significant positive correlations exist between ocean ecosystem productivity, the abundance of submicron aerosols, and cloud microphysical properties over different parts of the remote oceans. The correlation coefficient for remotely sensed surface chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl- a ]) and liquid cloud effective radii over productive areas of the oceans varies between − 0.2 and − 0.6 . Special attention is given to identifying (and addressing) problems from correlation analysis used in the previous studies that can lead to erroneous conclusions. A new approach (using the difference between retrieved AOD and predicted sea salt aerosol optical depth, AOD diff ) is developed to explore causal links between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the remote marine atmosphere. We have found that over multiple time periods, 550 nm AOD diff (sensitive to accumulation mode aerosol, which is the prime contributor to CCN) correlates well with [Chl- a ] over the productive waters of the Southern Ocean. Since [Chl- a ] can be used as a proxy of ocean biological productivity, our analysis demonstrates the role of ocean ecology in contributing CCN, thus shaping the microphysical properties of low-level marine clouds.« less

  6. OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) CWP (Cold Water Pipe) Laboratory Test Program. Ocean Systems Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This document presents the plan for validating the ocean systems response codes used in the OTEC community. Ocean systems used here includes the platform, the CWP, and the mooring system. The objectives of the present program are to acquire test data on the response of the ocean system to wave excitation available frequency domain computer codes. If the codes are not fully validated upon comparison of the test data with the calculations, the objectives are to identify discrepancies, establish the range of code usefulness and to recommend improvements. Model tests will be conducted in the OTC model basin with the CWP extending into the 30 foot deep pit. This limits the model scale to 1:110. Three types of prototype CWP's will be modeled: rigid, articulated and compliant. Two mooring stiffnesses will be tested based on the Lockheed mooring study. The model platform is a modified version of the APL barge redesigned to improve seakeeping performance. Computer code calculations will be made with the ROTEC and NOAA/DOE frequency domain codes. Standard response parameters will be compared with the test data (stress and motion maxima, significant and RMS magnitudes as well as selected RAO's). Wave drift forces will be estimated and compared to test data.

  7. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean. Volume 2: Overview and invited papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-15

    This document is a compilation of summaries of papers presented at the Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems workshop. Topics include; marine forecasting, regulatory agencies and regulations, research and application models, research and operational observing, oceanic and atmospheric data assimilation, and coastal physical processes.

  8. An assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion as an advanced electric generation methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heydt, G.T. . School of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a process that employs the temperature difference between surface and deep ocean water to alternately evaporate and condense a working fluid. In the open-cycle OTEC configuration, the working fluid is seawater. In the closed-cycle configuration, a working fluid such as propane is used. In this paper, OTEC is assessed for its practical merits for electric power generation. The process is not new--and its history is reviewed. Because the OTEC principle operates under a small net temperature difference regime, rather large amounts of seawater and working fluid are required. The energy requirements for pumping these fluids may be greater than the energy recovered from the OTEC engine itself. The concept of net power production is discussed. The components of a typical OTEC plant are discussed with emphasis on the evaporator heat exchanger. Operation of an OTEC electric generating station is discussed, including transient operation. Perhaps the most encouraging aspect of OTEC is the recent experiments and efforts at the Natural Energy Laboratory--Hawaii (NELH). The NELH work is summarized in the paper. Remarks are made on bottlenecks and the future of OTEC as an advanced electric generation methodology.

  9. Aquantis 2.5MW Ocean Current Generation Device | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aquantis 2.5MW Ocean Current Generation Device Aquantis 2.5MW Ocean Current Generation Device Aquantis 2.5MW Ocean Current Generation Device File 12aquantisawpdaalexfleming.pptx ...

  10. Mapping the Potential of U.S. Ocean Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    available in the nation's waves, tidal and river currents, and ocean thermal gradients. ... and global wave, tidal, ocean thermal, and continental U.S. river hydrokinetic resources. ...

  11. Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean Authors: Candy, J V Publication Date: 2015-02-12 OSTI Identifier: 1184166 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-667626 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: OCEANS'15, Genova, Italy, May 18 - May 21, 2015 Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL),

  12. Far-field model of the regional influence of effluent plumes from ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, D.P.

    1985-07-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants discharge large volumes of cold water into the upper ocean. A three-dimensional, limited-area model was developed to investigate the regional influence of the far-field effluent plume created by the negatively buoyant discharge. The model was applied to discharges from a 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant into coastal waters characterized by various ambient ocean conditions. A typical ambient temperature structure and nutrient distribution, as well as the behavior of the effluent plume itself, were strongly modified by the discharge-induced circulation. Although temperature perturbations in the plume were small, upward entrainment of nutrients from below the thermocline was significant. The regional influence of discharges from an 80-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant, the interactions between the discharges from two adjacent 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plants, and the effects of coastal boundary and bottom discharge were examined with respect to the regional influence of a 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant located in deep water off a coast (base case).

  13. Theoretical and experimental study of the intermediate field dynamics of ocean thermal energy conversion plants. Progress report 1978-1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jirka, G.H.; Jones, J.M.; Sargent, F.E.

    1980-03-01

    Results are described of a two-year research effort which has been conducted with the following objectives: (1) investigate analytically and experimentally the intermediate field spreading in a steady ocean current; (2) investigate analytically and experimentally the transient intermediate field spreading in a stagnant ocean; (3) compare the results with other available data on buoyancy driven currents in stratified surroundings, including the concurrent experimental program at MIT Parsons Laboratory; and (4) use the results in the formulation of preliminary siting guidelines for multiple OTEC plant interactions. The theoretical background for the intermediate field spreading is given including both steady-state and transient results. The experiments performed in the Stratified Flow Modeling Basin at Cornell University are described, and the data are compared to the theoretical results and to available experimental data from other sources. The application of the intermediate field results to the OTEC design problem is discussed. Typical intermediate field behavior is predicted for different plant sizes (100 MW/sub e/ and 1 MW/sub e/), designs and ambient ocean conditions. (WHK)

  14. Oceanic Communities in a Changing Planet - The Tara Oceans Project (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Raes, Jeroen [University of Brussels

    2011-04-28

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Jeroen Raes of the University of Brussels discusses the Tara-Oceans expedition at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009

  15. MHK Projects/Makai Ocean Energy Research Center | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Project Details Makai Ocean Engineering has designed, owns, and operates a closed-cycle OTEC system in Kailua-Kona Hawaii. True deep cold seawater is drawn from a depth of about...

  16. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report summarizing the results of seven years of numerical model simulations of ocean currents in the United States and the database created with that data. PDF icon Assessment of ...

  17. Changes in Dimethyl Sulfide Oceanic Distribution due to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Elliott, S; Maltrud, M; Erickson, D; Wingenter, O

    2011-02-16

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here they report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. They find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associted with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.

  18. Origin of banded iron formations : oceanic crust leaching & self...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 58 GEOSCIENCES; IRON; LEACHING; OCEANIC CRUST; ORIGIN Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal Articles Find in Google Scholar Find in Google Scholar Search WorldCat ...

  19. MHK Technologies/OceanStar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy efficient process to smooth out the pulse characteristics common to wave energy in order to be electrical grid friendly The OceanStars high level of scalability is...

  20. Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, Alex

    2015-09-16

    The Aquantis 2.5 MW Ocean Current Generation Device technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) is a derivation of wind power generating technology (a means of harnessing a slow moving fluid) adapted to the ocean environment. The Aquantis Project provides an opportunity for accelerated technological development and early commercialization, since it involves the joining of two mature disciplines: ocean engineering and wind turbine design. The Aquantis Current Plane (C-Plane) technology is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from a current flow. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced, continuous, base-load, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  1. Lab researchers develop models to analyze mixing in the ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scales of less than 100 km and timescales on the order of a month. Mesoscale ocean eddies are currents which flow in a roughly circular motion around the center of the eddy. ...

  2. Visualization and analysis of eddies in a global ocean simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Sean J; Hecht, Matthew W; Petersen, Mark; Strelitz, Richard; Maltrud, Mathew E; Ahrens, James P; Hlawitschka, Mario; Hamann, Bernd

    2010-10-15

    Eddies at a scale of approximately one hundred kilometers have been shown to be surprisingly important to understanding large-scale transport of heat and nutrients in the ocean. Due to difficulties in observing the ocean directly, the behavior of eddies below the surface is not very well understood. To fill this gap, we employ a high-resolution simulation of the ocean developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Using large-scale parallel visualization and analysis tools, we produce three-dimensional images of ocean eddies, and also generate a census of eddy distribution and shape averaged over multiple simulation time steps, resulting in a world map of eddy characteristics. As expected from observational studies, our census reveals a higher concentration of eddies at the mid-latitudes than the equator. Our analysis further shows that mid-latitude eddies are thicker, within a range of 1000-2000m, while equatorial eddies are less than 100m thick.

  3. Feasibility of Tital and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass,...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Monty Worthington Director of Project Development - Alaska Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (DE-EE0005624.000) Presented to DOE ...

  4. Ocean Wave Wind Energy Ltd OWWE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Energy Ltd OWWE Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ocean Wave Wind Energy Ltd OWWE Region: Norway Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: www.owwe.net This company is listed...

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSurface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) Campaign Links SHEBA Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note...

  6. Finavera Renewables Ocean Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ocean Energy Ltd Address: 595 Burrard Street Suite 3113 Three Bentall Centre PO Box 49071 Place: Vancouver Zip: V7X 1G4 Region: Canada Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  7. MHK Technologies/Ocean Powered Compressed Air Stations | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Description The Ocean Powered Compressed Air Station is a point absorber that uses an air pump to force air to a landbased generator The device only needs 4m water depth and...

  8. Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cloud Albedo (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean Cloud Albedo Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean Cloud Albedo Small particles called aerosols act as nucleation sites for cloud drop formation, affecting clouds and cloud properties - ultimately influencing the cloud dynamics, lifetime, water path and areal extent that determine the

  9. Polluting of Winter Convective Clouds upon Transition from Ocean Inland

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Over Central California: Contrasting Case Studies (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Polluting of Winter Convective Clouds upon Transition from Ocean Inland Over Central California: Contrasting Case Studies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polluting of Winter Convective Clouds upon Transition from Ocean Inland Over Central California: Contrasting Case Studies In-situ aircraft measurements of aerosol chemical and cloud microphysical properties were conducted during the CalWater

  10. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON). Particulate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Matter and Gases Final Campaign Summary (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON). Particulate Matter and Gases Final Campaign Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON). Particulate Matter and Gases Final Campaign Summary Because of their proven adverse effects on human health and vegetation, and also considering their influence over the local and regional

  11. Radioactivity in the ocean: laws and biological effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the literature on US laws and international agreements, experimental and monitoring data, and ongoing studies to provide background information for environmental assessment and regulatory compliance activities for ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act is the major US legislation governing ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The United States ended its ocean dumping of radioactive wastes in 1970, but other countries have continued ocean dumping under international supervision in the northeast Atlantic. Monitoring of former US disposal sites has neither revealed significant effects on marine biota nor indicated a hazard to human health. Also, no effects on marine organisms have been found that could be attributed to routine discharges into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant. We must improve our ability to predict the oceanic carrying capacity and the fate and effects of ionizing radiation in the marine environment.

  12. An investigation of Bjerknes Compensation in the Southern Ocean in the CCSM4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weijer, Wilbert; Kinstle, Caroline M.

    2012-08-28

    This project aims to understand the relationship between poleward oceanic and atmospheric heat transport in the Southern Ocean by analyzing output from the community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4). In particular, time series of meridional heat transport in both the atmosphere and the ocean are used to study whether variability in ocean heat transport is balanced by opposing changes in atmospheric heat transport, called Bjerknes Compensation. It is shown that the heat storage term in the Southern Ocean has a significant impact on the oceanic heat budget; as a result, no robust coherences between oceanic and atmospheric heat transports could be found at these southern latitudes.

  13. TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsenti, Eric [EMBL Heidelberg

    2013-03-01

    Eric Karsenti of EMBL delivers the closing keynote on "TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  14. Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

  15. Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2009-03-01

    Prediction of the substantial biologically mediated carbon flows in a rapidly changing and acidifying ocean requires model simulations informed by observations of key carbon cycle processes on the appropriate space and time scales. From 2000 to 2004, the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) supported the development of the first low-cost fully-autonomous ocean profiling Carbon Explorers that demonstrated that year-round real-time observations of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration and sedimentation could be achieved in the world's ocean. NOPP also initiated the development of a sensor for particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) suitable for operational deployment across all oceanographic platforms. As a result, PIC profile characterization that once required shipboard sample collection and shipboard or shore based laboratory analysis, is now possible to full ocean depth in real time using a 0.2W sensor operating at 24 Hz. NOPP developments further spawned US DOE support to develop the Carbon Flux Explorer, a free-vehicle capable of following hourly variations of particulate inorganic and organic carbon sedimentation from near surface to kilometer depths for seasons to years and capable of relaying contemporaneous observations via satellite. We have demonstrated the feasibility of real time - low cost carbon observations which are of fundamental value to carbon prediction and when further developed, will lead to a fully enhanced global carbon observatory capable of real time assessment of the ocean carbon sink, a needed constraint for assessment of carbon management policies on a global scale.

  16. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Research Council

    2011-04-22

    The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean—an expanse greater than the land area of all fifty states combined. This vast marine area offers researchers opportunities to investigate the ocean’s role in an integrated Earth system, but also presents challenges to society, including damaging tsunamis and hurricanes, industrial accidents, and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that a broad range of infrastructure is needed to advance our still-incomplete understanding of the ocean. The National Research Council (NRC)’s Ocean Studies Board was asked by the National Science and Technology Council’s Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, comprised of 25 U.S. government agencies, to examine infrastructure needs for ocean research in the year 2030. This request reflects concern, among a myriad of marine issues, over the present state of aging and obsolete infrastructure, insufficient capacity, growing technological gaps, and declining national leadership in marine technological development; issues brought to the nation’s attention in 2004 by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. A 15-member committee of experts identified four themes that encompass 32 future ocean research questions–enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions in the report (e.g., sea level rise, sustainable fisheries, the global water cycle) reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant today, and are likely to take decades of effort to solve. As such, U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations or autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Consequently, a coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments becomes an imperative to address societal needs. Such a plan should be based upon known priorities and should be reviewed every 5-10 years to optimize the federal investment. The committee examined the past 20 years of technological advances and ocean infrastructure investments (such as the rise in use of self-propelled, uncrewed, underwater autonomous vehicles), assessed infrastructure that would be required to address future ocean research questions, and characterized ocean infrastructure trends for 2030. One conclusion was that ships will continue to be essential, especially because they provide a platform for enabling other infrastructure – autonomous and remotely operated vehicles; samplers and sensors; moorings and cabled systems; and perhaps most importantly, the human assets of scientists, technical staff, and students. A comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan should be implemented in order to retain access to the sea. The current report also calls for continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. The committee also provided a framework for prioritizing future investment in ocean infrastructure. They recommend that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit, with particular consideration given to usefulness for addressing important science questions; affordability, efficiency, and longevity; and ability to contribute to other missions or applications. These criteria are the foundation for prioritizing ocean research infrastructure investments by estimating the economic costs and benefits of each potential infrastructure investment, and funding those investments that collectively produce the largest expected net benefit over time. While this type of process is clearly subject to budget constraints, it could quantify the often informal evaluation of linkages between infrastructure, ocean research, the value of information produced, societal objectives, and economic benefits. Addressing the numerous complex science questions facing the entire ocean research enterprise in 2030–from government to academia, industry to nonprofits, local to global scale–represents a major challenge, requiring collaboration across the breadth of the ocean sciences community and nearly seamless coordination between ocean-related federal agencies.

  17. Some ocean engineering considerations in the design of OTEC plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuiness, T.

    1982-08-01

    An alternate energy resource using the temperature differences between warm surface waters and cool bottom waters of the world's oceans, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) utilizes the solar energy potential of nearequatorial water masses and can be applied to generate electrical energy as a baseload augmentation of landside power plants or to process energy-intensive products at sea. Designs of OTEC plants include concepts of floating barge or shipshape structures with large (up to 100-foot diameter, 3,000 feet in length) pipes used to intake cool bottom waters and platforms located in 300-foot water depths similar to oil drilling rigs, also with a pipe to ingest cool waters, but in this case the pipe is laid on continental shelf areas in 25/sup 0/-30/sup 0/ slopes attaining a length of several miles. The ocean engineering design considerations, problem areas, and proposed solutions to data regarding various OTEC plant concepts are the topic of this presentation.

  18. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  19. Ocean FUSRAP: feasibility of ocean disposal of materials from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Progam (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kupferman, S.L.; Anderson, D.R.; Brush, L.H.; Gomez, L.S.; Laul, J.C.; Shephard, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the Department of Energy is designed to identify and evaluate the radiological conditions at sites formerly used by the Corps of Engineers Manhattan Engineer District and the US Atomic Energy Commission. Where required, remedial action will be instituted to remove potential restrictions on the use of the sites due to residual low-level radioactive contamination. A total of 31 sites that may require remedial action has been identified. The purpose of the Ocean FUSRAP Program, which began in March 1981, is to assess the technical, environmental, and institutional feasibility of disposing, in the ocean and on the ocean floor, of FUSRAP soil and rubble which contains traces of natural radioactive materials. The initial focus has been on the Middlesex, New Jersey, Sampling Plant site and surrounding properties, which contain on the order of 100,000 metric tons of material. The Belgian Congo uranium ore and other uranium ores used by the United States were handled at the sampling plant site. In studying the feasibility of ocean disposal of FUSRAP material from Middlesex, New Jersey, we have begun to examine institutional requirements to be met, the composition of the source material with regard to its inventory of toxic chemical and radiochemical components and the impact of the source material in the marine environment. To date we have found nothing that would preclude safe and inexpensive disposal of this material in the ocean.

  20. The annual cycle in the tropical Pacific Ocean based on assimilated ocean data from 1983 to 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, T.M.; Chelliah, M.

    1995-06-01

    An analysis of the tropical Pacific Ocean from January 1983 to December 1992 is used to describe the annual cycle, with the main focus on subsurface temperature variations. Some analysis of ocean-current variations are also considered. Monthly mean fields are generated by assimilation of surface and subsurface temperature observations from ships and buoys. Comparisons with observations show that the analysis reasonably describes large-scale ocean thermal variations. Ocean currents are not assimilated and do not compare as well with observations. However, the ocean-current variations in the analysis are qualitatively similar to the known variations given by others. The authors use harmonic analysis to separate the mean annual cycle and estimate its contribution to total variance. The analysis shows that in most regions the annual cycle of subsurface thermal variations is larger than surface variations and that these variations are associated with changes in the depth of the thermocline. The annual cycle accounts for most of the total surface variance poleward of about 10{degrees} latitude but accounts for much less surface and subsurface total variance near the equator. Large subsurface annual cycles occur near 10{degrees}N associated with shifts of the intertropical convergence zone and along the equator associated with the annual cycle of equatorial wind stress. The hemispherically asymmetric depths of the 20{degrees}C isotherms indicate that the large Southern Hemisphere warm pool, which extends to near the equator, may play an important role in thermal variations on the equator. 51 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Proceedings of the ocean energy information dissemination workshop, December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petty, D.

    1980-04-01

    The workshop was held to discuss the status of marketing ocean energy information and to develop an understanding of information needs and how to satisfy them. Presentations were made by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) staff and media consultants about the effective use of audio-visual and print products, the mass media, and audience needs. Industry and government representatives reported on current efforts in each of their communication programs and outlined future plans. Four target audiences (DOE contractors, researchers, influencers, and general public) were discussed with respect to developing priorities for projects to enhance the commercialization of ocean energy technology.

  2. High-Order/Low-Order methods for ocean modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Newman, Christopher; Womeldorff, Geoff; Chacón, Luis; Knoll, Dana A.

    2015-06-01

    We examine a High Order/Low Order (HOLO) approach for a z-level ocean model and show that the traditional semi-implicit and split-explicit methods, as well as a recent preconditioning strategy, can easily be cast in the framework of HOLO methods. The HOLO formulation admits an implicit-explicit method that is algorithmically scalable and second-order accurate, allowing timesteps much larger than the barotropic time scale. We demonstrate how HOLO approaches, in particular the implicit-explicit method, can provide a solid route for ocean simulation to heterogeneous computing and exascale environments.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC): executive briefing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritton, E.C.; Pei, R.Y.; Hess, R.W.

    1980-08-01

    Documentation is provided of a briefing summarizing the results of an independent quantitative evaluation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) for central station applications. The study concentrated on a central station power plant located in the Gulf of Mexico and delivering power to the mainland United States. The evaluation of OTEC is based on three important issues: resource availability, technical feasibility, and cost.

  4. GLobal Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP): Data and Analyses

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sabine, C. L.; Key, R. M.; Feely, R. A.; Bullister, J. L.; Millero, F. J.; Wanninkhof, R.; Peng, T. H.; Kozyr, A.

    GLODAP information available through CDIAC includes gridded and bottle data, a live server, an interactive atlas that provides access to data plots, and other tools for viewing and interacting with the data. [from http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/oceans/glodap/Glopintrod.htm](Specialized Interface)

  5. Deployment, release and recovery of ocean riser pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Person, Abraham; Wetmore, Sherman B.; McNary, James F.

    1980-11-18

    An ocean thermal energy conversion facility includes a long pipe assembly which is supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. Cold water flows to the facility from deep in the ocean. The pipe assembly comprises an elongate pipe construction and a weight connected to the lower end of the construction by a line of selected length. A floatation collar is connected to the construction at its upper end to cause the construction to have positive buoyancy and a center of buoyancy closer to the upper end of the construction than its center of mass. The weight renders the entire pipe assembly negatively buoyant. In the event that support of the pipe assembly should be lost, as by release of the assembly from the facility hull in an emergency, the assembly sinks to the ocean floor where it is moored by the weight. The pipe construction floats submerged above the ocean floor in a substantially vertical attitude which facilitates recovery of the assembly.

  6. Ocean Barrier Layers Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  7. ALMA imaging of gas and dust in a galaxy protocluster at redshift 5.3: [C II] emission in 'typical' galaxies and dusty starbursts ?1 billion years after the big bang

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Capak, Peter L.; Yan, Lin; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Smol?i?, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva; Yun, Min; Cox, Pierre; Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}?{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) and OH({sup 2}?{sub 1/2} J = 3/2?1/2) emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z = 5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [C II], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 ?m continuum emission toward the SMG. The [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}?{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 10{sup 10} M {sub ?}, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of ?{sub SFR} = 530 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} kpc{sup 2}. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at ?{sub SFR} approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [C II] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}?{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ?95 kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not detected in the continuum, suggesting far-infrared SFRs of <18-54 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}, consistent with a UV-based estimate of 22 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}. The spectral energy distribution of these galaxies is inconsistent with nearby spiral and starburst galaxies, but resembles those of dwarf galaxies. This is consistent with expectations for young starbursts without significant older stellar populations. This suggests that these galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, 'normal' star-forming galaxies at z > 5, showing that ALMA can detect the interstellar medium in 'typical' galaxies in the very early universe.

  8. Typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS analysis using RAMONA-3B code with space-time neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neymotin, L.; Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    A best-estimate analysis of a typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS has been performed using the RAMONA-3B code with three-dimensional neutron kinetics. All safety features, namely, the safety and relief valves, recirculation pump trip, high pressure safety injections and the standby liquid control system (boron injection), were assumed to work as designed. No other operator action was assumed. The results show a strong spatial dependence of reactor power during the transient. After the initial peak of pressure and reactor power, the reactor vessel pressure oscillated between the relief valve set points, and the reactor power oscillated between 20 to 50% of the steady state power until the hot shutdown condition was reached at approximately 1400 seconds. The suppression pool bulk water temperature at this time was predicted to be approx. 96/sup 0/C (205/sup 0/F). In view of code performance and reasonable computer running time, the RAMONA-3B code is recommended for further best-estimate analyses of ATWS-type events in BWRs.

  9. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu Dongjie; Huang Hui; Dai Xiaohu; Zhao Youcai

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

  10. Analysis of a typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS using RAMONA-3B and TRAC-BD1 codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.J.; Neymotin, L.; Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of a typical BWR/4 Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) has been performed using two advanced, best-estimate computer codes, namely, RAMONA-3B and TRAC-BD1. The transient was initiated by an inadvertant closure of all Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIVs) with subsequent failure to scram the reactor. However, all other safety features namely, the safety and relief valves, recirculation pump trip, high pressure coolant injection and the standby liquid (boron) control system were assumed to work as designed. No other operator action was assumed. It has been found that both RAMONA-3B (with three-dimensional neutron kinetics) and TRAC-BD1 (with point kinetics) yielded similar results for the global parameters such as reactor power, system pressure and the suppression pool temperature. Both calculations showed that the reactor can be brought to hot shutdown in approximately twenty to twenty-five minutes with borated water mass flow rate of 2.78 kg/s (43 gpm) with 23800 ppM of boron. The suppression pool water temperature (assuming no pool cooling) at this time could be in the range of 170 to 205/sup 0/F. An additional TRAC-BD1 calculation with RAMONA-3B reactor power indicates that the thermal-hydraulic models in RAMONA-3B, although simpler than those in TRAC-BD1, can adequately represent the system behavior during the ATWS-type transient.

  11. Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, ...

  12. Dehlsen (TRL 5 6 System) - Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dehlsen (TRL 5 6 System) - Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine Project Dehlsen (TRL 5 6 System) - Aquantis C-Plane Ocean Current Turbine Project Dehlsen (TRL 5 6 System) - ...

  13. MHK Technologies/Turbo Ocean Power Generator MadaTech 17 | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turbo Ocean Power Generator MadaTech 17 < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Turbo Ocean Power Generator MadaTech 17.jpg Technology...

  14. Experiments on oxygen desorption from surface warm seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.A. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper presents the results of scoping deaeration experiments conducted with warm surface seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) conditions. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in seawater at three locations (in the supply water, water leaving the predeaerator, and discharge water from an evaporator) were measured and used to estimate oxygen desorption levels. The results suggest that 7 percent to 60 percent of the dissolved oxygen in the supply water was desorbed from seawater in the predeaerator for pressures ranging from 35 to 9 kPa. Bubble injection in the upcomer increased the oxygen desorption rate by 20 percent to 60 percent. The data also indicated that at typical OC-OTEC evaporator pressures, when flash evaporation in the evaporator occurred, 75 percent to 95 percent of the dissolved oxygen was desorbed overall from the warm seawater. The results were used to find the impact of a single-stage predeaeration scheme on the power to remove noncondensable gases in an OC-OTEC plant.

  15. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT-THE ECOLOGY AND GENOMICS OF CO2 FIXATIION IN OCEANIC

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    RIVER PLUMES (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT-THE ECOLOGY AND GENOMICS OF CO2 FIXATIION IN OCEANIC RIVER PLUMES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT-THE ECOLOGY AND GENOMICS OF CO2 FIXATIION IN OCEANIC RIVER PLUMES Oceanic river plumes represent some of the most productive environments on Earth. As major conduits for freshwater and nutrients into the coastal ocean, their impact on water column ecosystems extend for up

  16. Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System May 27, 2010 - 11:46am Addthis Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs A floating platform, simple turbine and tropical oceans could be the key to producing 30 percent or more of the total energy the world consumes today, according to Lockheed Martin. The technology in play: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). Lockheed Martin

  17. Effect of ocean temperature on southwestern U.S. climate analyzed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effect of ocean temperature on southwestern climate Effect of ocean temperature on southwestern U.S. climate analyzed Researchers concluded that only part of the recent temperature rise in the Southwest could be attributed to greenhouse gases. December 19, 2013 Image from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Environmental Visualization Laboratory depicts sea surface temperatures around Greenland from October 2010. Image from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's

  18. Effect of ocean temperature on southwestern U.S. climate analyzed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December » Effect of ocean temperature on southwestern climate Effect of ocean temperature on southwestern U.S. climate analyzed Researchers concluded that only part of the recent temperature rise in the Southwest could be attributed to greenhouse gases. December 19, 2013 Image from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Environmental Visualization Laboratory depicts sea surface temperatures around Greenland from October 2010. Image from National Oceanic and Atmospheric

  19. Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource This report describes the analysis and results of a rigorous assessment of the United States ocean wave energy resource. PDF icon Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource More Documents & Publications Assessment and Mapping of the Riverine Hydrokinetic Resource in the Continental United States

  20. EO 13547: Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes (2010)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 47: Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes (2010) EO 13547: Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes (2010) This order establishes a national policy to ensure the protection, maintenance, and restoration of the health of ocean, coastal, and Great Lakes ecosystems and resources, enhance the sustainability of ocean and coastal economies, preserve our maritime heritage, support sustainable uses and access, provide for adaptive

  1. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, M.Dale

    1980-08-01

    Significant acccrmplishments in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology have increased the probability of producing OTEC-derived power within this decade with subsequent large scale commercialization following by the turn of the century. Under U.S. Department of Energy funding, the Oceanic Engineering Operations of Interstate Electronics Corporation has prepared several OTEC Environmental Assessments over the past years, in particular, the OTEC Programmatic Environmental Assessment. The Programmatic EA considers several technological designs (open- and closed-cycle), plant configuratlons (land-based, moored, and plant-ship), and power usages (baseload electricity, ammonia and aluminum production). Potential environmental impacts, health and safetv issues and a status update of the institutional issues as they influence OTEC deployments, are included.

  2. Ocean energy systems. Quarterly report, October-December 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    Research progress is reported on developing Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems that will provide synthetic fuels (e.g., methanol), energy-intensive products such as ammonia (for fertilizers and chemicals), and aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC (GEOTEC) plants. Another effort that began in the spring of 1982 is a technical advisory role to DOE with respect to their management of the conceptual design activity of the two industry teams that are designing offshore OTEC pilot plants that could deliver power to Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, a program is underway in which tests of a different kind of ocean-energy device, a turbine that is air-driven as a result of wave action in a chamber, are being planned. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 December 1982.

  3. Ocean energy systems. Quarterly report, January-March 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-03-30

    Progress is reported on the development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems that will provide synthetic fuels (e.g., methanol), energy-intensive products such as ammonia (for fertilizers and chemicals), and aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC (GEOTEC) plants. Another effort that began in the spring of 1982 is a technical advisory role to DOE with respect to their management of the conceptual and preliminary design activity of industry teams that are designing a shelf-mounted offshore OTEC pilot plant that could deliver power to Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, a program is underway to evaluate and test the Pneumatic Wave-Energy Conversion System (PWECS), an ocean-energy device consisting of a turbine that is air-driven as a result of wave action in a chamber. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1983.

  4. Warm Bias and Parameterization of Boundary Upwelling in Ocean Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cessi, Paola; Wolfe, Christopher

    2012-11-06

    It has been demonstrated that Eastern Boundary Currents (EBC) are a baroclinic intensification of the interior circulation of the ocean due to the emergence of mesoscale eddies in response to the sharp buoyancy gradients driven by the wind-stress and the thermal surface forcing. The eddies accomplish the heat and salt transport necessary to insure that the subsurface flow is adiabatic, compensating for the heat and salt transport effected by the mean currents. The EBC thus generated occurs on a cross-shore scale of order 20-100 km, and thus this scale needs to be resolved in climate models in order to capture the meridional transport by the EBC. Our result indicate that changes in the near shore currents on the oceanic eastern boundaries are linked not just to local forcing, such as coastal changes in the winds, but depend on the basin-wide circulation as well.

  5. Interpretation of Synthetic Aperture Radar measurements of ocean currents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rufenach, C.L.; Shuchman, R.A.; Lyzenga, D.R.

    1983-02-28

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) experiments hae been performed over the last few years to measure ocean currents inferred from shifts in the Doppler spectral peak. Interpretations of aircraft SAR measurements, when compared with limited surface values, tend to underestimate the currents by about 25%. A theory is developed that modifies the classical Doppler expression showing that the radar measurements are dependent on the radar processor (system) bandwidth and the received signal bandwidth. Measured bandwidths give a correction that increases the inferred current values by about 25%, bringing the measurements into good agreement. This new correction lends credence to the theory and increases the potential for application of SAR systems to future ocean current measurements. SAR measurements should include the determination of processor and signal bandwidths such that this correction can be applied.

  6. Ocean Fertilization and Other Climate Change Mitigation Strategies: An Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.

    2008-07-29

    In order to evaluate ocean fertilization in the larger context of other proposed strategies for reducing the threat of the global warming, a wide range of different climate change mitigation approaches are compared in terms of their long-term potential, stage of development, relative costs and potential risks, as well as public acceptance. This broad comparative analysis is carried out for the following climate change mitigation strategies: supply-side and end-use efficiency improvements, terrestrial and geological carbon sequestration, CO2 ocean disposal and iron fertilization, nuclear power, and renewable energy generation from biomass, passive solar, solar thermal, photovoltaics, hydroelectric and wind. In addition, because of the inherent problems of conducting an objective comparative cost-benefit analysis, two non-technological solutions to global warming are also discussed: curbing population growth and transitioning to a steady-state economy.

  7. Research and development on ocean thermal energy conversion in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uehara, H.

    1982-08-01

    The study of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) in Japan has been conducted under the leadership of a team of the ''Sunshine Project'', a national new energy development project promoted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industries (MITI) since 1974. At present, two experimental OTEC power plants -Nauru's OTEC plant and Imari's OTEC plant are operating. In this paper, the review of research and development activity of these two OTEC plants in Japan is made.

  8. Technical Sessions B. E. Manner National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B. E. Manner National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Wave Propagation Laboratory 130ulder, CO 80303 The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) pirog ram goals are ambitious, and its schedule is demanding. Many of the instruments, proposed for operations at the first Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site as early alS 1992 represent emerging technology and exist only as :special research prototypes. Therefore, an important preparatory step for ARM was an intensive field project in

  9. OCEANS'13 MTS/IEEE SAN DIEGO, SEPTEMBER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OCEANS'13 MTS/IEEE SAN DIEGO, SEPTEMBER 2013 1 Electromechanical Emulation of Hydrokinetic Generators for Renewable Energy Research Jason C. Neely, Member, IEEE, Kelley M. Ruehl, Richard A. Jepsen, Jesse D. Roberts, Steven F. Glover, Senior Member, IEEE, Forest E. White, Member, IEEE, Michael L. Horry Abstract-The pace of research and development efforts to integrate renewable power sources into modern electric utilities continues to increase. These efforts are motivated by a desire for cleaner,

  10. Investigations of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ocean and Ice

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conditions in and Near the Marginal Ice Zone. The "Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment" (MIZOPEX) Final Campaign Summary (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Investigations of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ocean and Ice Conditions in and Near the Marginal Ice Zone. The "Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment" (MIZOPEX) Final Campaign Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigations of Spatial and Temporal

  11. Ocean Carbon and Repeat Hydrographic CLIVAR Program Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Effective management and archival of data is a fundamental requirement for successful scientific research endeavors, and future oceanographic research depends on the availability and clarity of existing data. Two data offices in the US deal with reference-quality global ocean CTD, water sample, and underway data, one (CDIAC) specializing in discrete CO2 and underway surface data, and the other (WHPO/CCHDO) specializing in CTD, hydrographic, and tracer data.

  12. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Kevin A.

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  13. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabine, Christopher; Hankin, S.; Koyuk, H; Bakker, D C E; Pfeil, B; Olsen, A; Metzl, N; Fassbender, A; Manke, A; Malczyk, J; Akl, J; Alin, S R; Bellerby, R G J; Borges, A; Boutin, J; Cai, W-J; Chavez, F P; Chen, A; Cosa, C; Feely, R A; Gonzalez-Davila, M; Goyet, C; Hardman-Mountford, N; Heinze, C; Hoppema, M; Hunt, C W; Hydes, D; Ishii, M; Johannessen, T; Key, R M; Kortzinger, A; Landschutzer, P; Lauvset, S K; Lefevre, N; Lourantou, A; Mintrop, L; Miyazaki, C; Murata, A; Nakadate, A; Nakano, Y; Nakaoka, S; Nojiri, Y; et al.

    2013-01-01

    A well documented, publicly available, global data set for surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC). SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968 2007). The SOCAT gridded data is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust regularly spaced fCO2 product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet, but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address.

  14. CARINA (Carbon dioxide in the Atlantic Ocean) Data from CDIAC

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The idea for CARINA developed at a workshop (CO2 in the northern North Atlantic) that was held at the HANSE-Wissenschaftskolleg (HANSE Institute for Advanced Study) in Delmenhorst, Germany from June 9 to 11, 1999. While the main scientific focus is the North Atlantic, some data from the South Atlantic have been included in the project, along with data from the Arctic Ocean. Data sets go back to 1972, and more than 100 are currently available. The data are also being used in conjunction with other projects and research groups, such as the Atlantic Ocean Carbon Synthesis Group. See the inventory of data at http://store.pangaea.de/Projects/CARBOOCEAN/carina/data_inventory.htm See a detailed table of information on the cruises at http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/CARINA/Carina_table.html and also provides access to data files. The CARBOOCEAN data portal provides a specialized interface for CARINA data, a reference list for historic carbon data, and password protected access to the "Data Underway Warehouse.".

  15. Federal Ocean Energy Technology: Program summary for fiscal year 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is looking for cost-effective ways to harness ocean energy to help power tomorrow's world. Federally sponsored researchers are studying methods to transform the solar heat stored in the ocean's surface waters into electricity as well as new ways to convert wave energy into mechanical energy or electricity. This report provides a summary of research completed during FY 1986. Four major research areas are addressed in the work covered by this report: Thermodynamic Research and Analysis addresses the process and system analyses which provide the underlying understanding of physical effects which constitute the energy conversion processes, Experimental Verification and Testing provides confirmation of the analytical projections and empirical relationships, Materials and Structural Research addresses special materials compatibility issues related to operation in the sea. Much of its focus is on concepts for the system CWP which is a major technology cost driver, and Oceanographic, Environmental, and Geotechnical Research addresss those unique design requirements imposed by construction in steep slope coastal areas.

  16. Vertical dispersion of inertial waves in the upper ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubenstein, D.M.

    1983-05-20

    A linear model of the vertical dispersion of near-inertial waves is developed. A porosity distribution near the bottom of the computational domain minimizes bottom reflections and simulates an ocean of the infinite depth. The model is used to show that the vertical dispersion of near-inertial waves in the upper ocean may, under certain conditions, contribute significanlty to the observed rapid decay of inertial oscillations in the surface layer. The kinetic energy of inertial oscillations at mid-latitudes decays with an e folding time scale of 10 days or less, when the parameter lambda(km)/N(cph)d(m) is less than or of the order of unity, where lambda is the wavelength of the wind-generated near-inertial waves, N is the Vaeisaelae frequency in the upper pycnocline, and d is the surface layer thickness. At the top of the pycnocline the model predicts a velocity maximum, which develops as energy propagates downward, out of the surface layer. However, when the upper pycnocline is sufficiently peaked, a resonant frequency interference effect is predicted. This effect modulates the dissipation of surface layer inertial oscillations, and their magnitude after a storm need not decay monotonically. We also make qualitative comparisons with deep-ocean current meter observations taken during the Mixed Layer Experiment (MILE) and with shallow water (105 m) observations taken in the Baltic Sea.

  17. Self-cleaning inlet screen to an ocean riser pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetmore, S.B.; Person, A.

    1980-06-17

    A long, vertically disposed ocean water upwelling pipe, such as a cold water riser in an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, is fitted at its lower inlet end with a self-cleaning inlet screen. The screen includes a right conical frustum of loose metal netting connected at its larger upper end to the lower end of the pipe. A heavy, negatively buoyant closure is connected across the lower end of the frustum. A weight is suspended below the closure on a line which passes loosely through the closure into the interior of the screen. The line tends to stay stationary as the lower end of the pipe moves, as in response to ocean current vortex shedding and other causes, thus causing the closure to rattle on the line and to shake the netting. The included half-angle of the frustum is approximately 20 so that, on shaking of the netting, marine life accumulated on the netting becomes loose and falls free of the netting. 6 claims.

  18. VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wood, Robert [VOCALS-REx PI, University of Washington; Bretherton, Christopher [GEWEX/GCSS Representative, University of Washington; Huebert, Barry [SOLAS Representative, University of Hawaii; Mechoso, Roberto C. [VOCALS Science Working Group Chair, UCLA; Weller, Robert [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    VOCALS (VAMOS* Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study) is an international CLIVAR program the major goal of which is to develop and promote scientific activities leading to improved understanding of the Southeast Pacific (SEP) coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system on diurnal to inter-annual timescales. The principal program objectives are: 1) the improved understanding and regional/global model representation of aerosol indirect effects over the SEP; 2) the elimination of systematic errors in the region of coupled atmospheric-ocean general circulation models, and improved model simulations and predictions of the coupled climate in the SEP and global impacts of the system variability. VOCALS is organized into two tightly coordinated components: 1) a Regional Experiment (VOCALSREx), and 2) a Modeling Program (VOCALS-Mod). Extended observations (e.g. IMET buoy, satellites, EPIC/PACS cruises) will provide important additional contextual datasets that help to link the field and the modeling components. The coordination through VOCALS of observational and modeling efforts (Fig. 3) will accelerate the rate at which field data can be used to improve simulations and predictions of the tropical climate variability [Copied from the Vocals Program Summary of June 2007, available as a link from the VOCALS web at http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/vocals/]. The CLIVAR sponsored program to under which VOCALS falls is VAMOS, which stands for Variability of the American Monsoon Systems.

  19. Ocean Energy Program Overview, Fiscal years 1990--1991. Programs in utility technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The oceans are the world`s largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71% of the earth`s surface, the oceans collect and store this energy as waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients. The purpose of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Ocean Energy Program is to develop techniques that harness ocean energy cost effectively and in ways that do not harm the environment. The program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point at which industry can accurately assess whether the applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives, or supplements to current power-generating systems. In past studies, DOE identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which uses the temperature difference between warm surface water and cold deep water, as the most promising of the ocean energy technologies. As a result, the Ocean Energy Program has concentrated research that advances OTEC technology. The program also monitored developments in wave energy, ocean current, and salinity gradient concepts. It is not actively developing these technologies now. The mission of the Ocean Energy Program is to develop techniques to harness the vast solar energy stored in the oceans` waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients.

  20. Carbon dioxide release from ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, H.J. ); Guenther, P.R. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper presents the results of recent measurements of CO{sub 2} release from an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) experiment. Based on these data, the rate of short-term CO{sub 2} release from future open-cycle OTEC plants is projected to be 15 to 25 times smaller than that from fossil-fueled electric power plants. OTEC system that incorporate subsurface mixed discharge are expected to result in no long-term release. OTEC plants can significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emissions when substituted for fossil-fueled power generation. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Heat transfer research for ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreith, F.; Bharathan, D.

    1988-02-01

    In this lecture an overview of the heat and mass-transfer phenomena of importance in ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is presented with particular emphasis on open-cycle OTEC systems. Also included is a short historical review of OTEC developments in the past century and a comparison of open and closed-cycle thermodynamics. Finally, results of system analyses, showing the effect of plant size on cost and the near-term potential of using OTEC for combined power production and desalination systems, are briefly discussed.

  2. Heat transfer research for ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreith, F.; Bharathan, D.

    1987-03-01

    In this lecture an overview of the heat- and mass-transfer phenomena of importance in ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is presented with particular emphasis on open-cycle OTEC systems. Also included is a short historical review of OTEC developments in the past century and a comparison of open- and closed-cycle thermodynamics. Finally, results of system analyses, showing the effect of plant size on cost and the near-term potential of using OTEC for combined power production and desalination systems are briefly discussed.

  3. Cleaning of the ocean floor near offshore platforms in the Gulf coast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, C.S.; Smith, S.A. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    For decades in offshore drilling, the drill cuttings were separated from the circulating drilling fluid by the shale shaker and hydrocyclone, and discharged to the ocean. The drilling fluid itself was discharged to the ocean intermittently to maintain its required properties during the drilling process. These discharges contain many environmentally undesirable chemicals, such as hydrocarbons chemical additives and heavy metals. As a result, the ocean floor near some of the offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico are covered by contaminated sediment. Ocean current is not as effective in washing out the discarded ocean muds as previously believed. An attempt was made to clean some of the offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. The quantity and characteristics of the drilling discharges are estimated the technology used to clean the ocean floor near platforms is described, and advanced treatments for hydrocarbon removal, chemical oxidation and activated carbon adsorption, are discussed. 8 references.

  4. The Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans House Committee on Natural

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources | Department of Energy The Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans House Committee on Natural Resources The Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans House Committee on Natural Resources Testimony of Christopher M. Turner, Administrator Southwest Power Administration Before the Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans House Committee on Natural Resources PDF icon 3-24-15_Christopher_Turner FT HNR.pdf More Documents & Publications Before the House Natural Resources Subcommittee

  5. EERE Success Story-Mapping the Potential of U.S. Ocean Energy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Potential of U.S. Ocean Energy EERE Success Story-Mapping the Potential of U.S. Ocean Energy November 6, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In September 2013, EERE completed a series of resource assessments showing the technically recoverable potential energy available in the nation's waves, tidal and river currents, and ocean thermal gradients. These resource assessments are pivotal to understanding water power's potential and making these resources available to contribute to the

  6. Energy Department Releases New Energy 101 Video on Ocean Power | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Releases New Energy 101 Video on Ocean Power Energy Department Releases New Energy 101 Video on Ocean Power April 30, 2013 - 12:40pm Addthis See how marine and hydrokinetic technologies harness the energy of the ocean's waves, tides, and currents and convert it into electricity to power our homes, buildings and cities. Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy FIND OUT MORE Read about the Energy Department's assessments of

  7. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15. Nanoparticle

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Size Distribution (NPSD) Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15. Nanoparticle Size Distribution (NPSD) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15. Nanoparticle Size Distribution (NPSD) Field Campaign Report Aerosol nucleation and initial growth were investigated during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 campaign. Aerosol

  8. About Cost Breakdown Structure for Ocean Current Device Created by Mirko Previsic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ocean Current Device Created by Mirko Previsic Company RE Vision Consulting, LLC Contact mirko@re-vision.net Date 41114 Comments/Notes 1. This spreadsheet provides the background and details of the cost and economic assessment of the Ocean Current Device 2. This spreadsheet supports the primary reports on the Ocean Current device 3. Cost Estimates provided herein are based on concept design and engineering data and have high levels of uncertainties embedded Disclaimer Report Tables Capex and

  9. The Fidelity of Ocean Models With Explicit Eddies (Chapter 17)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClean, J; Jayne, S; Maltrud, M; Ivanova, D

    2007-08-01

    Current practices within the oceanographic community have been reviewed with regard to the use of metrics to assess the realism of the upper-ocean circulation, ventilation processes diagnosed by time-evolving mixed layer depth and mode water formation, and eddy heat fluxes in large-scale fine resolution ocean model simulations. We have striven to understand the fidelity of these simulations in the context of their potential use in future fine-resolution coupled climate system studies. A variety of methodologies are used to assess the veracity of the numerical simulations. Sea surface height variability and the location of western boundary current paths from altimetry have been used routinely as basic indicators of fine-resolution model performance. Drifters and floats have also been used to provide pseudo-Eulerian measures of the mean and variability of surface and sub-surface flows, while statistical comparisons of observed and simulated means have been carried out using James tests. Probability density functions have been used to assess the Gaussian nature of the observed and simulated flows. Length and time scales have been calculated in both Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks from altimetry and drifters, respectively. Concise measures of multiple model performance have been obtained from Taylor diagrams. The time-evolution of the mixed layer depth at monitoring stations has been compared with simulated time series. Finally, eddy heat fluxes are compared to climatological inferences.

  10. Millennial-scale ocean acidification and late Quaternary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riding, Dr Robert E; Liang, Liyuan; Braga, Dr Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification by atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased almost continuously since the last glacial maximum (LGM), 21 000 years ago. It is expected to impair tropical reef development, but effects on reefs at the present day and in the recent past have proved difficult to evaluate. We present evidence that acidification has already significantly reduced the formation of calcified bacterial crusts in tropical reefs. Unlike major reef builders such as coralline algae and corals that more closely control their calcification, bacterial calcification is very sensitive to ambient changes in carbonate chemistry. Bacterial crusts in reef cavities have declined in thickness over the past 14 000 years with largest reduction occurring 12 000 10 000 years ago. We interpret this as an early effect of deglacial ocean acidification on reef calcification and infer that similar crusts were likely to have been thicker when seawater carbonate saturation was increased during earlier glacial intervals, and thinner during interglacials. These changes in crust thickness could have substantially affected reef development over glacial cycles, as rigid crusts significantly strengthen framework and their reduction would have increased the susceptibility of reefs to biological and physical erosion. Bacterial crust decline reveals previously unrecognized millennial-scale acidification effects on tropical reefs. This directs attention to the role of crusts in reef formation and the ability of bioinduced calcification to reflect changes in seawater chemistry. It also provides a long-term context for assessing anticipated anthropogenic effects.

  11. Technological challenges associated with the sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihous, G.C.

    1998-07-01

    The specific technological challenges associated with the delivery of CO{sub 2} into the deep ocean are qualitatively discussed. Since the projected effectiveness of CO{sub 2} oceanic sequestration so far requires ocean depths of kilometer(s) and large flow rates, the necessary pipelines bear some similarities with the cold seawater conduits of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). A unique perspective is thus provided by examining the history of OTEC seawater systems. Design criteria specific to CO{sub 2} delivery pipelines are also mentioned, as well as their impact on future design work.

  12. MHK Projects/Ocean Navitas NaREC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number of Devices Deployed 1 Main Overseeing Organization Ocean Navitas Project Licensing Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Efforts See Tethys << Return to the MHK database...

  13. An update on modeling land-ice/ocean interactions in CESM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asay-davis, Xylar

    2011-01-24

    This talk is an update on ongoing land-ice/ocean coupling work within the Community Earth System Model (CESM). The coupling method is designed to allow simulation of a fully dynamic ice/ocean interface, while requiring minimal modification to the existing ocean model (the Parallel Ocean Program, POP). The method makes use of an immersed boundary method (IBM) to represent the geometry of the ice-ocean interface without requiring that the computational grid be modified in time. We show many of the remaining development challenges that need to be addressed in order to perform global, century long climate runs with fully coupled ocean and ice sheet models. These challenges include moving to a new grid where the computational pole is no longer at the true south pole and several changes to the coupler (the software tool used to communicate between model components) to allow the boundary between land and ocean to vary in time. We discuss benefits for ice/ocean coupling that would be gained from longer-term ocean model development to allow for natural salt fluxes (which conserve both water and salt mass, rather than water volume).

  14. Executive Order 13547: Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This order establishes a national policy to ensure the protection, maintenance, and restoration of the health of ocean, coastal, and Great Lakes ecosystems and resources, enhance the sustainability...

  15. MHK ISDB/Instruments/TRDI Ocean Observer ADCP | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TRDI Ocean Observer ADCP < MHK ISDB Jump to: navigation, search MHK Instrumentation & Sensor Database Menu Home Search Add Instrument Add Sensor Add Company Community FAQ Help...

  16. Ocean Power Technologies (TRL 5 6 System) - PB500, 500 kW Utility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...powertechnologiesinchart.ppt More Documents & Publications Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device Ocean Power Technologies (TRL 7 8 System) - Reedsport ...

  17. MHK Projects/Gulf of Mexico Ocean test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gulf of Mexico Ocean test < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"R...

  18. EO 13547: Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to enhance our understanding of and capacity to respond to climate change and ocean acidification, and coordinate with our national security and foreign policy interests. ...

  19. Energy Use Savings for a Typical New Residential Dwelling Unit Based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2006 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) require a substantial improvement in energy efficiency compared to the 2006 IECC. This report averages the energy use savings for a typical new residential dwelling unit based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC compared to the 2006 IECC. Results are reported by the eight climate zones in the IECC and for the national average.

  20. Renewable energy from the ocean - a guide to OTEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, W.H.; Wu, C.

    1994-01-01

    An enormous renewable energy resource exists in the tropical oceans. The authors of this book state that this resource could be exploited to produce a large fraction of the world's energy needs in the form of methanol or ammonia and that any associated deleterious environmental effects would be minimal. Careful analyses of potential problems, detailed designs of OTEC plant ships, and consideration of costs occupy most of the book. Part of it is devoted to some limited practical experience. With the knowledge set forth a 40-MWe seagoing pilot plant could be constructed. Cost would be about $200 million in 1990 dollars. Construction could be relatively rapid, since most of the components would be commercially available. The authors provide extensive evidence that with experience costs of OTEC would be substantially reduced and that ultimately production of methanol and ammonia by OTEC could be made cost-competitive.

  1. Atmospheric Response to Weddell Sea Open-Ocean Polynya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodos, Travis; Weijer, Wilbert

    2015-07-02

    The atmospheric conditions associated with the rare Weddell Sea open ocean polynya are investigated. The polynya has not been seen since 1976, so data on the event is scarce. The CESM high resolution model is used to investigate multiple atmospheric variables. We analyze three years of polynyas, which are also compared to three years without a polynya. The surface temperature, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, humidity, average wind speed, precipitation, longwave flux, and shortwave flux all increased over the polynya. The sensible heat flux had a higher magnitude than the latent heat flux because conduction and convection were the primary drivers of heat flux. A combination of increased latent heat flux and humidity led to an increase in precipitation. Increased longwave downwelling flux over the polynya indicated the presence of clouds over the polynya. Lastly, the sea level pressure was consistently lower over the polynya because of the presence of a thermal low generated by thermally driven convective updrafts.

  2. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wittig, J. Michael

    1980-01-01

    A generally mushroom-shaped, open cycle OTEC system and distilled water producer which has a skirt-conduit structure extending from the enlarged portion of the mushroom to the ocean. The enlarged part of the mushroom houses a toroidal casing flash evaporator which produces steam which expands through a vertical rotor turbine, partially situated in the center of the blossom portion and partially situated in the mushroom's stem portion. Upon expansion through the turbine, the motive steam enters a shell and tube condenser annularly disposed about the rotor axis and axially situated beneath the turbine in the stem portion. Relatively warm ocean water is circulated up through the radially outer skirt-conduit structure entering the evaporator through a radially outer portion thereof, flashing a portion thereof into motive steam, and draining the unflashed portion from the evaporator through a radially inner skirt-conduit structure. Relatively cold cooling water enters the annular condenser through the radially inner edge and travels radially outwardly into a channel situated along the radially outer edge of the condenser. The channel is also included in the radially inner skirt-conduit structure. The cooling water is segregated from the potable, motive steam condensate which can be used for human consumption or other processes requiring high purity water. The expansion energy of the motive steam is partially converted into rotational mechanical energy of the turbine rotor when the steam is expanded through the shaft attached blades. Such mechanical energy drives a generator also included in the enlarged mushroom portion for producing electrical energy. Such power generation equipment arrangement provides a compact power system from which additional benefits may be obtained by fabricating the enclosing equipment, housings and component casings from low density materials, such as prestressed concrete, to permit those casings and housings to also function as a floating support vessel.

  3. Drake passage and central american seaway controls on the distribution of the oceanic carbon reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fyke, Jeremy G.; D'Orgeville, Marc; Weaver, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    A coupled carbon/climate model is used to explore the impact of Drake Passage opening and Central American Seaway closure on the distribution of carbon in the global oceans. We find that gateway evolution likely played an important role in setting the modern day distribution of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), which is currently characterized by relatively low concentrations in the Atlantic ocean, and high concentrations in the Southern, Indian, and Pacific oceans. In agreement with previous studies, we find a closed Drake Passage in the presence of an open Central American Seaway results in suppressed Atlantic meridional overturning and enhanced southern hemispheric deep convection. Opening of the Drake Passage triggers Antarctic Circumpolar Current flow and a weak Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Subsequent Central American Seaway closure reinforces the AMOC while also stagnating equatorial Pacific subsurface waters. These gateway-derived oceanographic changes are reflected in large shifts to the global distribution of DIC. An initially closed Drake Passage results in high DIC concentrations in the Atlantic and Arctic oceans, and lower DIC concentrations in the Pacific/Indian/Southern oceans. Opening Drake Passage reverses this gradient by lowering mid-depth Atlantic and Arctic DIC concentrations and raising deep Pacific/Indian/Southern Ocean DIC concentrations. Central American Seaway closure further reinforces this trend through additional Atlantic mid-depth DIC decreases, as well as Pacific mid-depth DIC concentration increases, with the net effect being a transition to a modern distribution of oceanic DIC.

  4. Drake passage and central american seaway controls on the distribution of the oceanic carbon reservoir

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fyke, Jeremy G.; D'Orgeville, Marc; Weaver, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    A coupled carbon/climate model is used to explore the impact of Drake Passage opening and Central American Seaway closure on the distribution of carbon in the global oceans. We find that gateway evolution likely played an important role in setting the modern day distribution of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), which is currently characterized by relatively low concentrations in the Atlantic ocean, and high concentrations in the Southern, Indian, and Pacific oceans. In agreement with previous studies, we find a closed Drake Passage in the presence of an open Central American Seaway results in suppressed Atlantic meridional overturning and enhancedmore » southern hemispheric deep convection. Opening of the Drake Passage triggers Antarctic Circumpolar Current flow and a weak Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Subsequent Central American Seaway closure reinforces the AMOC while also stagnating equatorial Pacific subsurface waters. These gateway-derived oceanographic changes are reflected in large shifts to the global distribution of DIC. An initially closed Drake Passage results in high DIC concentrations in the Atlantic and Arctic oceans, and lower DIC concentrations in the Pacific/Indian/Southern oceans. Opening Drake Passage reverses this gradient by lowering mid-depth Atlantic and Arctic DIC concentrations and raising deep Pacific/Indian/Southern Ocean DIC concentrations. Central American Seaway closure further reinforces this trend through additional Atlantic mid-depth DIC decreases, as well as Pacific mid-depth DIC concentration increases, with the net effect being a transition to a modern distribution of oceanic DIC.« less

  5. Final Technical Report: DOE-Biological Ocean Margins Program. Microbial Ecology of Denitrifying Bacteria in the Coastal Ocean.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Kerkhof

    2013-01-01

    The focus of our research was to provide a comprehensive study of the bacterioplankton populations off the coast of New Jersey near the Rutgers University marine field station using terminal restriction fragment polymorphism analysis (TRFLP) coupled to 16S rRNA genes for large data set studies. Our three revised objectives to this study became: (1) to describe bacterioplankton population dynamics in the Mid Atlantic Bight using TRFLP analysis of 16S rRNA genes. (2) to determine whether spatial and temporal factors are driving bacterioplankton community dynamics in the MAB using monthly samping along our transect line over a 2-year period. (3) to identify dominant members of a coastal bacterioplankton population by clonal library analysis of 16S rDNA genes and sequencing of PCR product corresponding to specific TRFLP peaks in the data set. Although open ocean time-series sites have been areas of microbial research for years, relatively little was known about the population dynamics of bacterioplankton communities in the coastal ocean on kilometer spatial and seasonal temporal scales. To gain a better understanding of microbial community variability, monthly samples of bacterial biomass were collected in 1995-1996 along a 34-km transect near the Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO-15) off the New Jersey coast. Surface and bottom sampling was performed at seven stations along a transect line with depths ranging from 1 to 35m (n=178). The data revealed distinct temporal patterns among the bacterioplankton communities in the Mid-Atlantic Bight rather than grouping by sample location or depth (figure 2-next page). Principal components analysis models supported the temporal patterns. In addition, partial least squares regression modeling could not discern a significant correlation from traditional oceanographic physical and phytoplankton nutrient parameters on overall bacterial community variability patterns at LEO-15. These results suggest factors not traditionally measured during oceanographic studies are structuring coastal microbial communities.

  6. Global Ocean Circulation Modeling with an Isopycnic Coordinate Model. Final Report for May 1, 1998 - April 30, 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleck, R.

    2004-05-19

    The overall aim of this project was to continue development of a global version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM) with the intent of turning it into a full-fledged oceanic component of an earth system model.

  7. Experiments on oxygen desorption from surface warm seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.A.

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports the results of scoping deaeration experiments conducted with warm surface seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in seawater at three locations (in the supply water, water leaving a predeaerator, and discharge water from an evaporator) were measured and used to estimate oxygen desorption levels. The results suggest that 7% to 60% of dissolved oxygen in the supply water was desorbed from seawater in the predeaerator for pressures ranging from 9 to 35 kPa. Bubble injection in the upcomer increased the oxygen desorption rate by 20% to 60%. The dependence of oxygen desorption with flow rate could not be determined. The data also indicated that at typical OC-OTEC evaporator pressures when flashing occurred, 75% to 95% of dissolved oxygen was desorbed overall from the warm seawater. The uncertainty in results is larger than one would desire. These uncertainties are attributed to the uncertainties and difficulties in the dissolved oxygen measurements. Methods to improve the measurements for future gas desorption studies for warm surface and cold deep seawater under OC-OTEC conditions are recommended. 14 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

  9. Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power

  10. Ocean Renewable Power Co (ORPC) (TRL 7 8 System)- TidGen (TM) Power System Commercialization Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ocean Renewable Power Co (ORPC) (TRL 7 8 System) - TidGen (TM) Power System Commercialization Project

  11. Oceanic Trace Gases Numeric Data Packages from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Most data sets or packages, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. CDIAC lists the following numeric data packages under the broad heading of Oceanic Trace Gases: Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 ( 01/11/05 - 022405) • Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Parameters during the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 050396 - 070496) • Inorganic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (060403 – 081103) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 010494 - 032194) • Global Ocean Data Analysis Project GLODAP: Results and Data • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (1102 – 120596) and A24, A20, and A22 (053097 – 090397) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Knorr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2 Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; 120 194 – 012296) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, 032994 - 051294) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruise 138-3, -4, and -5 in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P6E, P6C, and P6W, 050292 - 073092) • Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the deepest winter mixed layer depths • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, 080492 – 102192) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A5, 071492 - 081592) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P10, 100593 – 111093) • The International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway fCO2 Systems during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, Dec. 1992-Jan, 1993) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr , Oct. 1992-April 1993) • Surface Water and Atmospheric Underway Carbon Data Obtained During the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean Survey Cruises (R/V Knorr, Dec. 1994 – Jan, 1996) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Akademik Ioffe Cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, Feb.-April 1992) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P17C) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P16C) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P17S and P16S) during the TUNES-2 Expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July-August, 1991 • Total Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Nitrate Measurements in the Southwest Pacific during Austral Autumn, 1990: Results from NOAA/PMEL CGC-90 Cruise • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 15/3 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A9, February March 1991) • Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Surface Water and the Atmosphere During 1986-1989 NOAA/PMEL Cruises in the Pacific and Indian Oceans • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 11/5 in the South Atlantic and Northern Weddell Sea Areas (WOCE sections A-12 and A-21) • Surface Water and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide Observations by Shipboard Automated Gas Chromatography: Results from Expeditions Between 1977 and 1990 • Indian Ocean Radiocarbon: Data from the INDIGO 1, 2, and 3 Cruises • Carbonate Chemistry of the North Pacific Ocean • Carbonate Chemistry of the Weddell Sea • GEOSECS Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Mediterranean Radiocarbon Data •\tTransient Tracers in the Oceans (TTO) - Hydrographic Data and Carbon Dioxide Systems with Revised Carbon Chemistry Data.

  12. High Biomass Low Export Regimes in the Southern Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.

    2006-01-27

    This paper investigates ballasting and remineralization controls of carbon sedimentation in the twilight zone (100-1000 m) of the Southern Ocean. Size-fractionated (<1 {micro}m, 1-51 {micro}m, >51 {micro}m) suspended particulate matter was collected by large volume in-situ filtration from the upper 1000 m in the Subantarctic (55 S, 172 W) and Antarctic (66 S, 172 W) zones of the Southern Ocean during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) in January-February 2002. Particles were analyzed for major chemical constituents (POC, P, biogenic Si, CaCO3), and digital and SEM image analyses of particles were used to aid in the interpretation of the chemical profiles. Twilight zone waters at 66 S in the Antarctic had a steeper decrease in POC with depth than at 55 S in the Subantarctic, with lower POC concentrations in all size fractions at 66 S than at 55 S, despite up to an order of magnitude higher POC in surface waters at 66 S. The decay length scale of >51 {micro}m POC was significantly shorter in the upper twilight zone at 66 S ({delta}{sub e}=26 m) compared to 55 S ({delta}{sub e}=81 m). Particles in the carbonate-producing 55 S did not have higher excess densities than particles from the diatom-dominated 66 S, indicating that there was no direct ballast effect that accounted for deeper POC penetration at 55 S. An indirect ballast effect due to differences in particle packaging and porosities cannot be ruled out, however, as aggregate porosities were high ({approx}97%) and variable. Image analyses point to the importance of particle loss rates from zooplankton grazing and remineralization as determining factors for the difference in twilight zone POC concentrations at 55 S and 66 S, with stronger and more focused shallow remineralization at 66 S. At 66 S, an abundance of large (several mm long) fecal pellets from the surface to 150 m, and almost total removal of large aggregates by 200 m, reflected the actions of a single or few zooplankton species capable of grazing diatoms in the euphotic zone, coupled with a more diverse particle feeding zooplankton community immediately below. Surface waters with high biomass levels and high proportion of biomass in the large size fraction were associated with low particle loading at depth, with all indications implying conditions of low export. The 66 S region exhibits this 'High Biomass, Low Export' (HBLE) condition, with very high >51 {micro}m POC concentrations at the surface ({approx}2.1 {micro}M POC), but low concentrations below 200 m (<0.07 {micro}M POC). The 66 S region remained HBLE after iron fertilization. Iron addition at 55 S caused a ten fold increase in >51 {micro}m biomass concentrations in the euphotic zone, bringing surface POC concentrations to levels found at 66 S ({approx}3.8 {micro}M), and a concurrent decrease in POC concentrations below 200 m. The 55 S region, which began with moderate levels of biomass and stronger particle export, transitioned to being HBLE after iron fertilization. We propose that iron addition to already HBLE waters will not cause mass sedimentation events. The stability of an iron-induced HBLE condition is unknown. Better understanding of biological pump processes in non-HBLE Subantarctic waters is needed.

  13. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea, in spite of the fact that these areas do not have highest potential for future hydrocarbon reserves. Opportunities for improving the mapping and assessment of Arctic hydrocarbon resources include: 1) Refining hydrocarbon potential on a basin-by-basin basis, 2) Developing more realistic and detailed distribution of gas hydrate, and 3) Assessing the likely future scenarios for development of infrastructure and their interaction with hydrocarbon potential. It would also be useful to develop a more sophisticated approach to merging conventional and gas hydrate resource potential that considers the technical uncertainty associated with exploitation of gas hydrate resources. Taken together, additional work in these areas could significantly improve our understanding of the exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbons as ice-free areas increase in the future.

  14. NSF final project report planning and implementation of the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, Hugh D.

    1996-07-01

    Conducted planning and implementation of ocean carbon dioxide hydrographic surveys ocean process studies, time-series studies of Bermuda and Hawaii, and sponsored scientific workshops for those activities.

  15. Ocean thermal energy conversion: Historical highlights, status, and forecast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, G.L.; Avery, W.H.; Francis, E.J.; Richards, D.

    1983-07-01

    In 1881, d'Arsonval conceived the closed-Rankine-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system in which a working fluid is vaporized by heat exchange with cold water drawn from a 700-1200 m depth. In 1930, Claude demonstrated an open-cycle process in Cuba. Surface water was flash-vaporized at 3 kPa to drive a turbine directly (no secondary working fluid) and then was condensed by direct contact with water drawn from a 700-m depth through a 1.6m-diam, 1.75-km-long cold-water pipe (CWP). From a delta T of 14/sup 0/C his undersized turbine generated 22 kW. In 1956 a French team designed a 3.5-MW (net) open-cycle plant for installation off Abidjan on the Ivory Coast of Africa and demonstrated the necessary CWP deployment. The at-sea demonstrations by Mini-OTEC and OTEC-1 and other recent advances in OTEC technology summarized herein represent great progress. All of the types of plants proposed for the DOE's PON program may be worthy of development; certainly work on a grazing plant is needed. Our estimates indicate that the U.S. goals established by Public Law 96-310 leading to 10 GW of OTEC power and energy product equivalents by 1999 are achievable, provided that adequate federal financial incentives are retained to assure the building of the first few plants.

  16. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Authors, Various

    1980-01-01

    The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.

  17. Waterborne noise due to ocean thermal energy conversion plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janota, C.P.; Thompson, D.E.

    1983-07-01

    Public law reflects a United States national commitment to the rapid development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) as an alternate energy source. OTEC plants extract the stored solar energy from the world's tropical seas and in so doing pose a potential for altering the character of the ambient noise there. The sources of noise from an OTEC plant are analyzed in the context of four configurations, two of which were built and tested, and two which are concepts for future full-scale moored facilities. The analysis indicates that the noise resulting from the interaction of turbulence with the seawater pumps is expected to dominate in the frequency range 10 Hz to 1 kHz. Measured radiated noise data from the OTEC-I research plant, located near the island of Hawaii, are compared with the analysis. The measured data diverge from the predicted levels at frequencies above about 60 Hz because of dominant non-OTEC noise sources on this platform. However, at low frequency, the measured broadband noise is comparable to that predicted.

  18. Production of desalinated water using ocean thermal energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) desalination plant that consists of a multistage flash evaporator (MSF), a closed-cycle OTEC power plant, and an appropriate seawater system depending if the desalination plant is land based or floating. OTEC desalination plants of this type are preferred because the production of desalinated water far exceeds that obtained from other OTEC plant types employing the same size seawater system. The focus of the paper is on the multistage flash evaporator. The similarities and differences between conventional MSF and OTEC multistage flash evaporators (OTEC-MSF) are first described. Then the details of the OTEC-MSF evaporator design are discussed and preliminary correlations are recommended for the three major elements: the flash chamber, the moisture removal device, and the condenser. Recent advances such as enhanced condenser tubes, condensers of the compact type, and corrugated-plate moisture separators are introduced into the design. Comparisons of the water production capability, evaporator shell volume, and material cost are then presented for state-of-the-art and the new design concepts. 20 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. The oceanic cycle and global atmospheric budget of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    A significant portion of stratospheric air chemistry is influenced by the existence of carbonyl sulfide (COS). This ubiquitous sulfur gas represents a major source of sulfur to the stratosphere where it is converted to sulfuric acid aerosol particles. Stratospheric aerosols are climatically important because they scatter incoming solar radiation back to space and are able to increase the catalytic destruction of ozone through gas phase reactions on particle surfaces. COS is primarily formed at the surface of the earth, in both marine and terrestrial environments, and is strongly linked to natural biological processes. However, many gaps in the understanding of the global COS cycle still exist, which has led to a global atmospheric budget that is out of balance by a factor of two or more, and a lack of understanding of how human activity has affected the cycling of this gas. The goal of this study was to focus on COS in the marine environment by investigating production/destruction mechanisms and recalculating the ocean-atmosphere flux.

  20. Cyclone-cyclone Interactions through the Ocean Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Foltz, Gregory R.; Knaff, John A.

    2014-10-16

    The intense SST (Sea Surface Temperature) cooling caused by hurricane-induced mixing is restored at timescales on the order of weeks(1) and thus may persist long enough to influence a later hurricane passing over it. Though many studies have evaluated the effects of SST cool-ing induced by a hurricane on its own intensification(2, 3), none has looked at its effect on later storms. Using an analysis of observations and numerical model simulations, we demonstrate that hurricanes may influence the intensity of later hurricanes that pass over their linger-ing wakes. On average, when hurricanes encounter cold wakes, they experience SSTs that are ~0.4oC lower than when they do not encounter wakes and consequently decay(intensify) at a rate that is nearly three times faster(slower). In the region of warm SSTs (* 26.5oC) where the most intense and damaging hurricanes tend to occur, the percentage of hurricanes that encounter lingering cold wakes increases with hurricane frequency and was found to be as high as 40%. Furthermore, we estimate that the cumulative power dissipated(4) by the most energetic hurricanes has been reduced by as much as ~7% in a season through this effect. As the debate on changes in Atlantic hurricane activity associated with global warming(5) continues, the negative feedback between hurricane frequency and intensity resulting from hurricane-hurricane interactions through the ocean pathway deserves attention.

  1. Surface water and atmospheric underway carbon data obtained during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean survey cruises (R/V Knorr, December 1998--January 1996)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozyr, A.; Allison, L.

    1997-11-01

    This data documentation presents the results of the surface water and atmospheric underway measurements of mole fraction of carbon dioxide (xCO{sub 2}), sea surface salinity, and sea surface temperature, obtained during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Indian Ocean survey cruises (December 1994--January 1996). Discrete and underway carbon measurements were made by members of the CO{sub 2} survey team. The survey team is a part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study supported by the US Department of Energy to make carbon-related measurements on the WOCE global survey cruises. Approximately 200,000 surface seawater and 50,000 marine air xCO{sub 2} measurements were recorded.

  2. Suggestion of typical phases of in-vessel fuel-debris by thermodynamic calculation for decommissioning technology of Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Yano, Kimihiko; Kaji, Naoya; Washiya, Tadahiro; Kondo, Yoshikazu; Noguchi, Yoshikazu

    2013-07-01

    For the decommissioning of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), the characterization of fuel-debris in cores of Units 1-3 is necessary. In this study, typical phases of the in-vessel fuel-debris were estimated using a thermodynamic equilibrium (TDE) calculation. The FactSage program and NUCLEA database were applied to estimate the phase equilibria of debris. It was confirmed that the TDE calculation using the database can reproduce the phase separation behavior of debris observed in the Three Mile Island accident. In the TDE calculation of 1F, the oxygen potential [G(O{sub 2})] was assumed to be a variable. At low G(O{sub 2}) where metallic zirconium remains, (U,Zr)O{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2} were found as oxides, and oxygen-dispersed Zr, Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U), and Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2} were found as metals. With an increase in zirconium oxidation, the mass of those metals, especially Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2}, decreased, but the other phases of metals hardly changed qualitatively. Consequently, (U,Zr)O{sub 2} is suggested as a typical phase of oxide, and Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U) is suggested as that of metal. However, a more detailed estimation is necessary to consider the distribution of Fe in the reactor pressure vessel through core-melt progression. (authors)

  3. EA-1890: Reedsport PB150 Deployment and Ocean Test Project, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has selected Ocean Power Technologies (OPT) for approximately $2.4 million in financial assistance and proposes to authorize the expenditure of federal funding to OPT...

  4. Radionuclide tracers for the fate of metals in the Savannah estuary: River-ocean exchange processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.R.; Thein, M.; Larsen, I.L.; Byrd, J.T.; Windom, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    Plutonium-238 from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant labels riverborne particles, providing a unique opportunity for examining the fate of metals in estuaries and for tracing river-ocean exchange processes. Results indicate that plutonium and lead-210 are enriched on estuarine particles and that inputs of plutonium from oceanic sources greatly exceed inputs from riverborne or drainage-basin sources as far upstream as the landward limit of seawater penetration. We suggest that these radionuclides (and other chemically reactive metals) are being scavenged from oceanic water by sorption onto particles in turbid estuarine and coastal areas. Since estuaries, bays, mangroves, and intertidal areas serve as effective traps for fine particles and associated trace substances, these results have important implications concerning the disposal of chemically reactive substances in oceanic waters. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. STOIC: An Assessment of Coupled Model Climatology and Variability in Tropical Ocean Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davey, M.K.; Sperber, K.R.; Huddleston, M

    2000-08-30

    The tropics are regions of strong ocean-atmosphere interaction on seasonal and interannual timescales, so a good representation of observed tropical behavior is a desirable objective for coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (CGCMs). To broaden and update previous assessments (Mechoso et al. 1995, Neelin et al. 1992), two complementary projects were initiated by the CLIVAR Working Group on Seasonal to Interannual Prediction (WGSIP): the El Nino Simulation Intercomparison Project (ENSIP, by Mojib Latif) and STOIC (Study of Tropical Oceans In Coupled models). The aim was to compare models against observations to identify common weaknesses and strengths. Results from ENSIP concentrating on the equatorial Pacific have been described by Latif et al. (2000), hereafter ENSIP2000. A detailed report on STOIC is available via anonymous ftp at email.meto.gov.uk/pub/cr/ ''stoic'' and is summarized in Davey et al. (2000). The STOIC analyses extend beyond the equatorial Pacific, to examine behavior in all three tropical ocean regions.

  6. Scientists Find Ocean 'Dead' Zones Teeming with Life | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW ... Like green plants on land, algae and bacteria in the surface waters of the ocean combine ...

  7. MHK Projects/Ocean Energy Galway Bay IE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at the Irish Marine Institute-run test site in the waters off Galway, Ireland. Ocean Energy conducted a 2006-2007 winter sea trial on its 28 ton OEBuoy prototype at the Irish...

  8. EERE Success Story-Establishing a Testing Center for Ocean Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies in the Pacific Northwest | Department of Energy Establishing a Testing Center for Ocean Energy Technologies in the Pacific Northwest EERE Success Story-Establishing a Testing Center for Ocean Energy Technologies in the Pacific Northwest April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The University of Washington (UW) and Oregon State University (OSU) have partnered with EERE to develop the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC), as one of three National Marine Renewable

  9. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline Final Project Report September 15, 2013 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Award Number: DE-EE0002661 Project Title: Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline Recipient: Georgia Tech Research Corporation Award Number: DE-EE0002661 Working Partners: PI: Dr. Kevin A. Haas - Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Civil and Environmental

  10. Field Observation of the Green Ocean Amazon. Neutral Cluster Air Ion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectrometer (NAIS) Final Campaign Summary (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Field Observation of the Green Ocean Amazon. Neutral Cluster Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) Final Campaign Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Field Observation of the Green Ocean Amazon. Neutral Cluster Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) Final Campaign Summary The neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS) was deployed to the T3 site for Intensive Operations Periods 1 and 2 (IOP1 and IOP2). The NAIS is

  11. Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15. Semi-Volatile Thermal Desorption

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SVTAG) Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15. Semi-Volatile Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SVTAG) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15. Semi-Volatile Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SVTAG) Field Campaign Report In areas where biogenic emissions are oxidized in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants such as SO2,

  12. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15. CHUVA Field

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15. CHUVA Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15. CHUVA Field Campaign Report The physical processes inside clouds are one of the most unknown components of weather and climate systems. A description of cloud processes through the use of standard meteorological parameters in numerical models has to

  13. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Transmission

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electron Microscopy Analysis of Aerosol Particles Field Campaign Report (Program Document) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Program Document: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis of Aerosol Particles Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis of Aerosol Particles Field Campaign Report

  14. Design and analysis of a vertical axis ocean current power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, C.C.; Hartzog, J.R.; Sorge, R.V.; Quigley, J.V.; Adams, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses a calculation of the power generated by a vertical axis ocean current power plant. An analytical model is presented and a computer solution described. Results of the calculation show the optimum angles of the blades about the vertical axis to maximize power output, as well as the total extractable power of the plant for various ocean current velocities. Tow tank tests are described for a scale model of the plant.

  15. Oceanic Trace Gases Numeric Data Packages from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Most data sets or packages, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. CDIAC lists the following numeric data packages under the broad heading of Oceanic Trace Gases: Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 ( 01/11/05 - 022405) Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Parameters during the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 050396 - 070496) Inorganic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (060403 081103) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 010494 - 032194) Global Ocean Data Analysis Project GLODAP: Results and Data Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (1102 120596) and A24, A20, and A22 (053097 090397) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Knorr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2 Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; 120 194 012296) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, 032994 - 051294) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruise 138-3, -4, and -5 in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P6E, P6C, and P6W, 050292 - 073092) Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the deepest winter mixed layer depths Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, 080492 102192) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A5, 071492 - 081592) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P10, 100593 111093) The International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway fCO2 Systems during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, Dec. 1992-Jan, 1993) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr , Oct. 1992-April 1993) Surface Water and Atmospheric Underway Carbon Data Obtained During the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean Survey Cruises (R/V Knorr, Dec. 1994 Jan, 1996) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Akademik Ioffe Cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, Feb.-April 1992) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P17C) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P16C) Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E) Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P17S and P16S) during the TUNES-2 Expedition of the R/V Th

  16. Method and apparatus for efficient injection of CO2 in oceans

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Olivia R.; Tsouris, Constantinos; Liang, Liyuan

    2003-07-29

    A liquid CO.sub.2 injection system produces a negatively buoyant consolidated stream of liquid CO.sub.2, CO.sub.2 hydrate, and water that sinks upon release at ocean depths in the range of 700-1500 m. In this approach, seawater at a predetermined ocean depth is mixed with the liquid CO.sub.2 stream before release into the ocean. Because mixing is conducted at depths where pressures and temperatures are suitable for CO.sub.2 hydrate formation, the consolidated stream issuing from the injector is negatively buoyant, and comprises mixed CO.sub.2 -hydrate/CO.sub.2 -liquid/water phases. The "sinking" characteristic of the produced stream will prolong the metastability of CO.sub.2 ocean sequestration by reducing the CO.sub.2 dissolution rate into water. Furthermore, the deeper the CO.sub.2 hydrate stream sinks after injection, the more stable it becomes internally, the deeper it is dissolved, and the more dispersed is the resulting CO.sub.2 plume. These factors increase efficiency, increase the residence time of CO2 in the ocean, and decrease the cost of CO.sub.2 sequestration while reducing deleterious impacts of free CO.sub.2 gas in ocean water.

  17. Studies of Ocean Predictability at Decade to Century Time Scales Using a Global Ocean General Circulation Model in a Parallel Computing Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, T.P.

    1998-11-30

    The objectives of this report are to determine the structure of oceanic natural variability at time scales of decades to centuries, characterize the physical mechanisms responsible for the variability; determine the relative importance of heat, fresh water, and moment fluxes on the variability; determine the predictability of the variability on these times scales. (B204)

  18. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  19. Tropical Ocean Climate Study (TOCS) and Japan-United States Tropical Ocean Study (JUSTOS) on the R/V KAIYO, 25 Jan to 2 March 1997, to the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean BNL component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, R.M.; Smith, S.

    1997-04-11

    The Japanese U.S. Tropical Ocean Study (JUSTOS) cruise on the R/V KAIYO in the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean was a collaborative effort with participants from the Japanese Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and Brookhaven National Laboratory BNL. This report is a summary of the instruments, measurements, and initial analysis of the BNL portion of the cruise only. It includes a brief description of the instrument system, calibration procedures, problems and resolutions, data collection, processing and data file descriptions. This is a working document, which is meant to provide both a good description of the work and as much information as possible in one place for future analysis.

  20. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valle, Jacques P., E-mail: jacques.vallee@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, National Science Infrastructure portfolio, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  1. Technical and economical aspects of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage in deep oceans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarv, H.; John, J.

    2000-07-01

    The authors examined the technical and economical feasibility of two options for large-scale transportation and ocean sequestration of captured CO{sub 2} at depths of 3000 meters or greater. In one case, CO{sub 2} was pumped from a land-based collection center through six parallel-laid subsea pipelines. Another case considered oceanic tanker transport of liquid carbon dioxide to an offshore floating platform or a barge for vertical injection through a large-diameter pipe to the ocean floor. Based on the preliminary technical and economic analyses, tanker transportation and offshore injection through a large-diameter, 3,000-meter vertical pipeline from a floating structure appears to be the best method for delivering liquid CO{sub 2} to deep ocean floor depressions for distances greater than 400 km. Other benefits of offshore injection are high payload capability and ease of relocation. For shorter distances (less than 400 km), CO{sub 2} delivery by subsea pipelines is more cost-effective. Estimated costs for 500-km transport and storage at a depth of 3000 meters by subsea pipelines or tankers were under 2 dollars per ton of stored CO{sub 2}. Their analyses also indicates that large-scale sequestration of captured CO{sub 2} in oceans is technologically feasible and has many commonalities with other strategies for deepsea natural gas and oil exploration installations.

  2. An assessment of research and development leadership in ocean energy technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruch, V.L.

    1994-04-01

    Japan is clearly the leader in ocean energy technologies. The United Kingdom also has had many ocean energy research projects, but unlike Japan, most of the British projects have not progressed from the feasibility study stage to the demonstration stage. Federally funded ocean energy research in the US was stopped because it was perceived the technologies could not compete with conventional sources of fuel. Despite the probable small market for ocean energy technologies, the short sighted viewpoint of the US government regarding funding of these technologies may be harmful to US economic competitiveness. The technologies may have important uses in other applications, such as offshore construction and oil and gas drilling. Discontinuing the research and development of these technologies may cause the US to lose knowledge and miss market opportunities. If the US wishes to maintain its knowledge base and a market presence for ocean energy technologies, it may wish to consider entering into a cooperative agreement with Japan and/or the United Kingdom. Cooperative agreements are beneficial not only for technology transfer but also for cost-sharing.

  3. Impact of modern climate change on the intercommunication: Global ocean-land (Northern Hemisphere)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobanova, H.V.; Lobanov, V.A.; Stepanenko, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    Two main temperature gradients define the synoptic and climatic conditions on the earth in general: equator-pole gradient and ocean-land gradient. The analysis of temperature on the basis of new cyclic-different-scales conception has been fulfilled in every important part of the climatic system in the Northern Hemisphere for assessment of their vulnerability to modern climate change. Historical time series of monthly surface temperature have been used for this aim in the points of regular grid over the Northern Hemisphere from 1891 to 1992. The main feature of the temperature in main climatic parts of the earth is a complexity of its spatial structure. New methods of spatial decomposition have been developed for the division of this complex fields structure into characteristics of mean value of the field and index of its non-homogeneity or spatial variation. It has been established, that the temperature gradient between ocean and land is increasing that is characterized of the increasing of an intensity of synoptic processes, their spatial non-homogeneity and more frequent appearance of the extreme synoptic events. The models of intercommunications between coefficients of temperature spatial decomposition over the ocean and land have been developed for two time period and the increasing of the relationships closeness has been established between ocean and land as well as the decrease of main planet gradient: the pole(the Polar ocean)-equator.

  4. Diagnosing isopycnal diffusivity in an eddying, idealized midlatitude ocean basin via Lagrangian, in Situ, Global, High-Performance Particle Tracking (LIGHT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfram, Phillip J.; Ringler, Todd D.; Maltrud, Mathew E.; Jacobsen, Douglas W.; Petersen, Mark R.

    2015-08-01

    Isopycnal diffusivity due to stirring by mesoscale eddies in an idealized, wind-forced, eddying, midlatitude ocean basin is computed using Lagrangian, in Situ, Global, High-Performance Particle Tracking (LIGHT). Simulation is performed via LIGHT within the Model for Prediction across Scales Ocean (MPAS-O). Simulations are performed at 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-km resolution, where the first Rossby radius of deformation (RRD) is approximately 30 km. Scalar and tensor diffusivities are estimated at each resolution based on 30 ensemble members using particle cluster statistics. Each ensemble member is composed of 303 665 particles distributed across five potential density surfaces. Diffusivity dependence upon model resolution, velocity spatial scale, and buoyancy surface is quantified and compared with mixing length theory. The spatial structure of diffusivity ranges over approximately two orders of magnitude with values of O(105) m2 s–1 in the region of western boundary current separation to O(103) m2 s–1 in the eastern region of the basin. Dominant mixing occurs at scales twice the size of the first RRD. Model resolution at scales finer than the RRD is necessary to obtain sufficient model fidelity at scales between one and four RRD to accurately represent mixing. Mixing length scaling with eddy kinetic energy and the Lagrangian time scale yield mixing efficiencies that typically range between 0.4 and 0.8. In conclusion, a reduced mixing length in the eastern region of the domain relative to the west suggests there are different mixing regimes outside the baroclinic jet region.

  5. Diagnosing isopycnal diffusivity in an eddying, idealized midlatitude ocean basin via Lagrangian, in Situ, Global, High-Performance Particle Tracking (LIGHT)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wolfram, Phillip J.; Ringler, Todd D.; Maltrud, Mathew E.; Jacobsen, Douglas W.; Petersen, Mark R.

    2015-08-01

    Isopycnal diffusivity due to stirring by mesoscale eddies in an idealized, wind-forced, eddying, midlatitude ocean basin is computed using Lagrangian, in Situ, Global, High-Performance Particle Tracking (LIGHT). Simulation is performed via LIGHT within the Model for Prediction across Scales Ocean (MPAS-O). Simulations are performed at 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-km resolution, where the first Rossby radius of deformation (RRD) is approximately 30 km. Scalar and tensor diffusivities are estimated at each resolution based on 30 ensemble members using particle cluster statistics. Each ensemble member is composed of 303 665 particles distributed across five potential density surfaces. Diffusivity dependence upon modelmore » resolution, velocity spatial scale, and buoyancy surface is quantified and compared with mixing length theory. The spatial structure of diffusivity ranges over approximately two orders of magnitude with values of O(105) m2 s–1 in the region of western boundary current separation to O(103) m2 s–1 in the eastern region of the basin. Dominant mixing occurs at scales twice the size of the first RRD. Model resolution at scales finer than the RRD is necessary to obtain sufficient model fidelity at scales between one and four RRD to accurately represent mixing. Mixing length scaling with eddy kinetic energy and the Lagrangian time scale yield mixing efficiencies that typically range between 0.4 and 0.8. In conclusion, a reduced mixing length in the eastern region of the domain relative to the west suggests there are different mixing regimes outside the baroclinic jet region.« less

  6. Mechanisms Leading to Co-Existence of Gas Hydrate in Ocean Sediments [Part 1 of 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, Steven; Juanes, Ruben

    2011-12-31

    In this project we have sought to explain the co-existence of gas and hydrate phases in sediments within the gas hydrate stability zone. We have focused on the gas/brine interface at the scale of individual grains in the sediment. The capillary forces associated with a gas/brine interface play a dominant role in many processes that occur in the pores of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The mechanical forces associated with the same interface can lead to fracture initiation and propagation in hydrate-bearing sediments. Thus the unifying theme of the research reported here is that pore scale phenomena are key to understanding large scale phenomena in hydrate-bearing sediments whenever a free gas phase is present. Our analysis of pore-scale phenomena in this project has delineated three regimes that govern processes in which the gas phase pressure is increasing: fracturing, capillary fingering and viscous fingering. These regimes are characterized by different morphology of the region invaded by the gas. On the other hand when the gas phase pressure is decreasing, the corresponding regimes are capillary fingering and compaction. In this project, we studied all these regimes except compaction. Many processes of interest in hydrate-bearing sediments can be better understood when placed in the context of the appropriate regime. For example, hydrate formation in sub-permafrost sediments falls in the capillary fingering regime, whereas gas invasion into ocean sediments is likely to fall into the fracturing regime. Our research provides insight into the mechanisms by which gas reservoirs are converted to hydrate as the base of the gas hydrate stability zone descends through the reservoir. If the reservoir was no longer being charged, then variation in grain size distribution within the reservoir explain hydrate saturation profiles such as that at Mt. Elbert, where sand-rich intervals containing little hydrate are interspersed between intervals containing large hydrate saturations. Large volumes (of order one pore volume) of gaseous and aqueous phases must be transported into the gas hydrate stability zone. The driver for this transport is the pressure sink induced by a reduction in occupied pore volume that accompanies the formation of hydrate from gas and water. Pore-scale imbibition models and bed-scale multiphase flow models indicate that the rate-limiting step in converting gas to hydrate is the supply of water to the hydrate stability zone. Moreover, the water supply rate is controlled by capillarity-driven flux for conditions typical of the Alaska North Slope. A meter-scale laboratory experiment confirms that significant volumes of fluid phases move into the hydrate stability zone and that capillarity is essential for the water flux. The model shows that without capillarity-driven flux, large saturations of hydrate cannot form. The observations of thick zones of large saturation at Mallik and Mt Elbert thus suggest that the primary control on these systems is the rate of transport of gaseous and aqueous phases, driven by the pressure sink at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. A key finding of our project is the elucidation of ?capillary fracturing? as a dominant gas transport mechanism in low-permeability media. We initially investigate this phenomenon by means of grain-scale simulations in which we extended a discrete element mechanics code (PFC, by Itasca) to incorporate the dynamics of first single-phase and then multiphase flow. A reductionist model on a square lattice allows us to determine some of the fundamental dependencies of the mode of gas invasion (capillary fingering, viscous fingering, and fracturing) on the parameters of the system. We then show that the morphology of the gas-invaded region exerts a fundamental control on the fabric of methane hydrate formation, and on the overpressures caused by methane hydrate dissociation. We demonstrate the existence of the different invasion regimes by means of controlled laboratory experiments in a radial cell. We collapse the behavior in the form of a phase diagram fully characterized by two dimensionless groups: a modified capillary number and a ?fracturing number? that reflects the balance between the pressure forces that act to open conduits in the granular pack, and frictional forces that resist it. We use all this small-scale knowledge to propose simple mechanistic models of gas migration and hydrate formation at the geologic bed scale. We propose that methane transport in lake and oceanic sediments is controlled by dynamic conduits, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other methane-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.

  7. Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Leo S.

    1999-06-04

    During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic.

  8. Final Report. Coupled simulations of Antarctic Ice-sheet/ocean interactions using POP and CISM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asay-Davis, Xylar Storm

    2015-12-30

    The project performed under this award, referred to from here on as CLARION (CoupLed simulations of Antarctic Ice-sheet/Ocean iNteractions), included important advances in two models of ice sheet and ocean interactions. Despite its short duration (one year), the project made significant progress on its three major foci. First, together with collaborator Daniel Martin at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), I developed the POPSICLES coupled ice sheet-ocean model to the point where it could perform a number of pan-Antarctic simulations under various forcing conditions. The results were presented at a number of major conferences and workshops worldwide, and are currently being incorporated into two manuscripts in preparation.

  9. Simulation of asteroid impact on ocean surfaces, subsequent wave generation and the effect on US shorelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Lomov, Ilya; Miller, Paul L.; Dennison, Deborah S.; Dearborn, David S.; Antoun, Tarabay H.

    2015-05-19

    As part of a larger effort involving members of several other organizations, we have conducted numerical simulations in support of emergency-response exercises of postulated asteroid ocean impacts. We have addressed the problem from source (asteroid entry) to ocean impact (splash) to wave generation, propagation and interaction with the U.S. shoreline. We simulated three impact sites. The first site is located off the east coast by Maryland's shoreline. The second site is located off of the West coast, the San Francisco bay. The third set of sites are situated in the Gulf of Mexico. Asteroid impacts on the ocean surface are conducted using LLNL's hydrocode GEODYN to create the impact wave source for the shallow water wave propagation code, SWWP, a shallow depth averaged water wave code.

  10. Simulation of asteroid impact on ocean surfaces, subsequent wave generation and the effect on US shorelines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Lomov, Ilya; Miller, Paul L.; Dennison, Deborah S.; Dearborn, David S.; Antoun, Tarabay H.

    2015-05-19

    As part of a larger effort involving members of several other organizations, we have conducted numerical simulations in support of emergency-response exercises of postulated asteroid ocean impacts. We have addressed the problem from source (asteroid entry) to ocean impact (splash) to wave generation, propagation and interaction with the U.S. shoreline. We simulated three impact sites. The first site is located off the east coast by Maryland's shoreline. The second site is located off of the West coast, the San Francisco bay. The third set of sites are situated in the Gulf of Mexico. Asteroid impacts on the ocean surface aremore » conducted using LLNL's hydrocode GEODYN to create the impact wave source for the shallow water wave propagation code, SWWP, a shallow depth averaged water wave code.« less

  11. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koracin, Darko; Cerovecki, Ivana; Vellore, Ramesh; Mejia, John; Hatchett, Benjamin; McCord, Travis; McLean, Julie; Dorman, Clive

    2013-04-11

    Executive summary The main objective of the study was to investigate atmospheric and ocean interaction processes in the western Pacific and, in particular, effects of significant ocean heat loss in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions on the lower and upper atmosphere. It is yet to be determined how significant are these processes are on climate scales. The understanding of these processes led us also to development of the methodology of coupling the Weather and Research Forecasting model with the Parallel Ocean Program model for western Pacific regional weather and climate simulations. We tested NCAR-developed research software Coupler 7 for coupling of the WRF and POP models and assessed its usability for regional-scale applications. We completed test simulations using the Coupler 7 framework, but implemented a standard WRF model code with options for both one- and two-way mode coupling. This type of coupling will allow us to seamlessly incorporate new WRF updates and versions in the future. We also performed a long-term WRF simulation (15 years) covering the entire North Pacific as well as high-resolution simulations of a case study which included extreme ocean heat losses in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions. Since the extreme ocean heat loss occurs during winter cold air outbreaks (CAO), we simulated and analyzed a case study of a severe CAO event in January 2000 in detail. We found that the ocean heat loss induced by CAOs is amplified by additional advection from mesocyclones forming on the southern part of the Japan Sea. Large scale synoptic patterns with anomalously strong anticyclone over Siberia and Mongolia, deep Aleutian Low, and the Pacific subtropical ridge are a crucial setup for the CAO. It was found that the onset of the CAO is related to the breaking of atmospheric Rossby waves and vertical transport of vorticity that facilitates meridional advection. The study also indicates that intrinsic parameterization of the surface fluxes within the WRF model needs more evaluation and analysis.

  12. Impacts of ocean albedo alteration on Arctic sea ice restoration and Northern Hemisphere climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cvijanovic, Ivana; Caldeira, Ken; MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is expected to transition into a seasonally ice-free state by mid-century, enhancing Arctic warming and leading to substantial ecological and socio-economic challenges across the Arctic region. It has been proposed that artificially increasing high latitude ocean albedo could restore sea ice, but the climate impacts of such a strategy have not been previously explored. Motivated by this, we investigate the impacts of idealized high latitude ocean albedo changes on Arctic sea ice restoration and climate. In our simulated 4xCO₂ climate, imposing surface albedo alterations over the Arctic Ocean leads to partial sea ice recovery and a modest reduction in Arctic warming. With the most extreme ocean albedo changes, imposed over the area 70°–90°N, September sea ice cover stabilizes at ~40% of its preindustrial value (compared to ~3% without imposed albedo modifications). This is accompanied by an annual mean Arctic surface temperature decrease of ~2 °C but no substantial global mean temperature decrease. Imposed albedo changes and sea ice recovery alter climate outside the Arctic region too, affecting precipitation distribution over parts of the continental United States and Northeastern Pacific. For example, following sea ice recovery, wetter and milder winter conditions are present in the Southwest United States while the East Coast experiences cooling. We conclude that although ocean albedo alteration could lead to some sea ice recovery, it does not appear to be an effective way of offsetting the overall effects of CO₂ induced global warming.

  13. Impacts of ocean albedo alteration on Arctic sea ice restoration and Northern Hemisphere climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cvijanovic, Ivana; Caldeira, Ken; MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is expected to transition into a seasonally ice-free state by mid-century, enhancing Arctic warming and leading to substantial ecological and socio-economic challenges across the Arctic region. It has been proposed that artificially increasing high latitude ocean albedo could restore sea ice, but the climate impacts of such a strategy have not been previously explored. Motivated by this, we investigate the impacts of idealized high latitude ocean albedo changes on Arctic sea ice restoration and climate. In our simulated 4xCO₂ climate, imposing surface albedo alterations over the Arctic Ocean leads to partial sea ice recovery and a modestmore » reduction in Arctic warming. With the most extreme ocean albedo changes, imposed over the area 70°–90°N, September sea ice cover stabilizes at ~40% of its preindustrial value (compared to ~3% without imposed albedo modifications). This is accompanied by an annual mean Arctic surface temperature decrease of ~2 °C but no substantial global mean temperature decrease. Imposed albedo changes and sea ice recovery alter climate outside the Arctic region too, affecting precipitation distribution over parts of the continental United States and Northeastern Pacific. For example, following sea ice recovery, wetter and milder winter conditions are present in the Southwest United States while the East Coast experiences cooling. We conclude that although ocean albedo alteration could lead to some sea ice recovery, it does not appear to be an effective way of offsetting the overall effects of CO₂ induced global warming.« less

  14. THE ROLE OF METHANOL IN THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF TITAN'S PRIMORDIAL OCEAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deschamps, Frederic; Mousis, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2010-12-01

    A key parameter that controls the crystallization of primordial oceans in large icy moons is the presence of anti-freeze compounds, which may have maintained primordial oceans over the age of the solar system. Here we investigate the influence of methanol, a possible anti-freeze candidate, on the crystallization of Titan's primordial ocean. Using a thermodynamic model of the solar nebula and assuming a plausible composition of its initial gas phase, we first calculate the condensation sequence of ices in Saturn's feeding zone, and show that in Titan's building blocks methanol can have a mass fraction of {approx}4 wt% relative to water, i.e., methanol can be up to four times more abundant than ammonia. We then combine available data on the phase diagram of the water-methanol system and scaling laws derived from thermal convection to estimate the influence of methanol on the dynamics of the outer ice I shell and on the heat transfer through this layer. For a fraction of methanol consistent with the building blocks composition we determined, the vigor of convection in the ice I shell is strongly reduced. The effect of 5 wt% methanol is equivalent to that of 3 wt% ammonia. Thus, if methanol is present in the primordial ocean of Titan, the crystallization may stop, and a sub-surface ocean may be maintained between the ice I and high-pressure ice layers. A preliminary estimate indicates that the presence of 4 wt% methanol and 1 wt% ammonia may result in an ocean of thickness at least 90 km.

  15. Water cycling between ocean and mantle: Super-earths need not be waterworlds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2014-01-20

    Large terrestrial planets are expected to have muted topography and deep oceans, implying that most super-Earths should be entirely covered in water, so-called waterworlds. This is important because waterworlds lack a silicate weathering thermostat so their climate is predicted to be less stable than that of planets with exposed continents. In other words, the continuously habitable zone for waterworlds is much narrower than for Earth-like planets. A planet's water is partitioned, however, between a surface reservoir, the ocean, and an interior reservoir, the mantle. Plate tectonics transports water between these reservoirs on geological timescales. Degassing of melt at mid-ocean ridges and serpentinization of oceanic crust depend negatively and positively on seafloor pressure, respectively, providing a stabilizing feedback on long-term ocean volume. Motivated by Earth's approximately steady-state deep water cycle, we develop a two-box model of the hydrosphere and derive steady-state solutions to the water partitioning on terrestrial planets. Critically, hydrostatic seafloor pressure is proportional to surface gravity, so super-Earths with a deep water cycle will tend to store more water in the mantle. We conclude that a tectonically active terrestrial planet of any mass can maintain exposed continents if its water mass fraction is less than ∼0.2%, dramatically increasing the odds that super-Earths are habitable. The greatest source of uncertainty in our study is Earth's current mantle water inventory: the greater its value, the more robust planets are to inundation. Lastly, we discuss how future missions can test our hypothesis by mapping the oceans and continents of massive terrestrial planets.

  16. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Federal Projects in New York and New Jersey and the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Kohn, N.P.; Gruendell, B.D.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Rosman, L.B.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is authorized by Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, and by the Clean Water Act of 1972 (CWA) and Amendments of 1977 to permit, evaluate, and regulate the disposal of dredged material in ocean waters to minimize adverse environmental effects. Compliance with the regulations of the MPRSA calls for physical and biological testing of sediment proposed for dredging prior to its disposal in ocean waters. The testing required by the MPRSA criteria is conducted under a testing manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the `Green Book.` Testing protocols in the Green Book include bulk sediment analysis, grain size analysis, elutriate testing, and biological testing. The biological testing includes bioassays for acute toxicity as well as analysis to determine bioaccumulation of certain contaminants by marine organisms. The objective of the USACE-NYD Federal Projects Program was to evaluate sediment proposed for dredging and unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. The results of analytical measurements and bioassays performed on the test sediments were compared with analyses of sediment from the Mud Dump Reference Site to determine whether the test sediments were acutely toxic to marine organisms or resulted in statistically significantly greater bioaccumulation of contaminants in marine organisms, relative to the reference sediment. Testing for the federal project areas was performed according to the requirements.

  17. Ocean thermal energy conversion: environmental effects assessment program plan, 1981-85. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Act of 1980 calls for a legal regime to encourage commercial OTEC while protecting the oceanic and coastal environments. The Act also requires a generic plan for assessing the environmental effects of OTEC development. The plan outlined in this report establishes a priority list of nine environmental effects and a research strategy for reducing uncertainties, with an emphasis on large-scale and long-term ecosystem implications and on the impacts of multiple facilities. 70 references, 4 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

  18. Ocean thermal energy conversion report to congress: fiscal year 1981. public law 96-320

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    After a section on the background of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, which deals with the national interest and the nature of the industry, this report discusses OTEC technology, the legal regime, environmental considerations and the international impact and future of OTEC. At the current time no amendments to the ACT are recommended. NOAA is analyzing several areas in which technical amendments would clarify the original intent of the Act. The most significant of these relates to the specific requirements for issuance of OTEC licenses for facilities that are located partly on land and partly in ocean waters.

  19. Tapping into Wave and Tidal Ocean Power: 15% Water Power by 2030 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy into Wave and Tidal Ocean Power: 15% Water Power by 2030 Tapping into Wave and Tidal Ocean Power: 15% Water Power by 2030 January 27, 2012 - 11:30am Addthis A map generated by Georgia Tech's tidal energy resource database shows mean current speed of tidal streams. The East Coast, as shown above, has strong tides that could be tapped to produce energy. | Photo courtesy of Georgia Institute of Technology A map generated by Georgia Tech's tidal energy resource database

  20. Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 TECHNICAL REPORT Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource EPRI Project Manager P. Jacobson 3420 Hillview Avenue Palo Alto, CA 94304-1338 USA PO Box 10412 Palo Alto, CA 94303-0813 USA 800.313.3774 650.855.2121 askepri@epri.com 1024637 www.epri.com Final Report, December 2011 Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN

  1. Capturing the Motion of the Ocean: Wave Energy Explained | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Capturing the Motion of the Ocean: Wave Energy Explained Capturing the Motion of the Ocean: Wave Energy Explained July 6, 2015 - 11:44am Addthis Energy Department-supported "Azura" wave energy converter is installed at a U.S. Navy test site in Hawaii. | Photo courtesy of Northwest Energy Innovations. Energy Department-supported "Azura" wave energy converter is installed at a U.S. Navy test site in Hawaii. | Photo courtesy of Northwest Energy Innovations. Matt

  2. Progress in coupling Land Ice and Ocean Models in the MPAS Framework

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect in coupling Land Ice and Ocean Models in the MPAS Framework Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Progress in coupling Land Ice and Ocean Models in the MPAS Framework Authors: Hoffman, Matthew J. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2013-02-14 OSTI Identifier: 1063255 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-20973 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Community Earth System

  3. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT-THE ECOLOGY AND GENOMICS OF CO2 FIXATIION IN OCEANIC

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    RIVER PLUMES (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT-THE ECOLOGY AND GENOMICS OF CO2 FIXATIION IN OCEANIC RIVER PLUMES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT-THE ECOLOGY AND GENOMICS OF CO2 FIXATIION IN OCEANIC RIVER PLUMES × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public

  4. Progress in coupling Land Ice and Ocean Models in the MPAS Framework

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect in coupling Land Ice and Ocean Models in the MPAS Framework Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Progress in coupling Land Ice and Ocean Models in the MPAS Framework × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and

  5. Final Report - Cycling of DOC and DON by novel heterotrophic and photoheterotrophic bacteria in the ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, David F

    2011-06-10

    This report describes a collaboration between Lincoln University and the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment at the University of Delaware and was funded under the Department of Energy Biological Investigations – Ocean Margins Program (BI-OMP). The principal outcomes of the grant are (1) the opportunity for Lincoln students to participate in marine research at the University of Delaware, (2) the opportunity for participating students to present their research at a variety of scientific meetings, (3) the establishment of an environmental science major and a microbial ecology course at Lincoln, (4) the upgrade of research capabilities at Lincoln, and (5) the success of participating students in graduate and professional school.

  6. Marine Diatoms Survive Iron Droughts in the Ocean by Storing Iron in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ferritin Marine Diatoms Survive Iron Droughts in the Ocean by Storing Iron in Ferritin Almost all organisms require iron as a co-factor in numerous metalloproteins and enzymes. In particular, phytoplankton, which are aquatic, free-drifting, single-celled organisms that can harvest energy from the sun, have an elevated demand for iron due to the large role it plays in their photosynthetic machinery. In 30-40% of the world's oceans iron concentrations are low enough to limit the growth of

  7. Method and apparatus for recovering a gas from a gas hydrate located on the ocean floor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyatt, Douglas E.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for recovering a gas from a gas hydrate on the ocean floor includes a flexible cover, a plurality of steerable base members secured to the cover, and a steerable mining module. A suitable source for inflating the cover over the gas hydrate deposit is provided. The mining module, positioned on the gas hydrate deposit, is preferably connected to the cover by a control cable. A gas retrieval conduit or hose extends upwardly from the cover to be connected to a support ship on the ocean surface.

  8. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power estimates from the Stommel model and to help determine the size and capacity of arrays necessary to extract the maximum theoretical power, further estimates of the available power based on the distribution of the kinetic power density in the undisturbed flow was completed. This used estimates of the device spacing and scaling to sum up the total power that the devices would produce. The analysis has shown that considering extraction over a region comprised of the Florida Current portion of the Gulf Stream system, the average power dissipated ranges between 4-6 GW with a mean around 5.1 GW. This corresponds to an average of approximately 45 TWh/yr. However, if the extraction area comprises the entire portion of the Gulf Stream within 200 miles of the US coastline from Florida to North Carolina, the average power dissipated becomes 18.6 GW or 163 TWh/yr. A web based GIS interface, http://www.oceancurrentpower.gatech.edu/, was developed for dissemination of the data. The website includes GIS layers of monthly and yearly mean ocean current velocity and power density for ocean currents along the entire coastline of the United States, as well as joint and marginal probability histograms for current velocities at a horizontal resolution of 4-7 km with 10-25 bins over depth. Various tools are provided for viewing, identifying, filtering and downloading the data.

  9. PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) Database: A Data Synthesis Resource (NDP-92, ORNL/CDIAC-159)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Suzuki, T.; Ishii, M.; Aoyama, M. R; Christian, J. R.; Enyo, K.; Kawano, T.; Key, R. M.; Kosugi, N.; Kozyr, A.; Miller, L. A.; Murata, A.; Nakano, T.; Ono, T.; Saino, T.; Sasaki, K.; Sasano, D; Takatani, Y.; Wakita, M.; Sabine, C.

    PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) was an international collaborative project for synthesis of data on ocean interior carbon and its related parameters in the Pacific Ocean. The North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES), Section on Carbon and Climate (S-CC) supported the project. Hydrographic/hydrochemical datasets have been merged from a total of 272 cruises, including those from cruises conducted between the late 1980s and 2000 but not included in GLODAP, as well as CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography datasets from the 2000s. Adjustments were calculated to account for analytical offsets in dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients (nitrate and nitrite, phosphate, and silicic acid) for each cruise as a result of the secondary quality control procedure, based on crossover analysis using data from deep layers (Tanhua et al., 2010). A total of 59 adjusted datasets from Line P off the west coast of Canada were also merged. Finally, the authors have produced the adjusted PACIFICA database that consists of datasets from a total of 306 cruises that also includes 34 datasets from WOCE Hydrographic Program cruises in the Pacific Ocean conducted in the 1990s. The PACIFICA database is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP-92) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the primary PACIFICA data site at pacifica.pices.jp. The NDP consists of the original cruise data files, adjusted data product, and the documentation.

  10. Space-age tool for direct detection of ocean-surface hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, A.

    1995-06-01

    The phenomena of a Geologist using ultraviolet light to fluoresce drill cuttings in order to investigate whether or not they have oil (The Blackbox Method) is similar to the principle behind the use of the A.L.F. System. A.L.F. stands for: Airborne Laser Fluorosensor. This Active Remote Sensing System was devised to detect and map offshore seepage over large areas in a short time. The aircraft-mounted laser fires a high-intensity pulse of ultra-violet light at the ocean`s surface. The laser beam induces fluorescence from any fresh petroleum films encountered which is collected by a high efficiency telescope. The returning light is then separated into its constituent colors before being passed on to a high-sensitivity detector where the signal is converted to electrical energy and stored on disc. Precise navigational data are recorded simultaneously to enable an accurate slick map to be produced at the required scale. Examples of this data in the Gulf of Mexico Basin are integrated with satellite imagery and follow-up geochem are discussed along with techniques showing ocean-current drift methods and submersible field truthing of where the seep is on the ocean floor.

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - 2008 VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmos-Land Study...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : 2008 VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmos-Land Study (VOCALS) 2008.10.14 - 2008.11.13 Lead...

  12. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Honolulu Laboratory Renewal Project, Honolulu, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-08-01

    This brochure provides an overview of The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Honolulu Laboratory Renewal Project, a project designed to adhere to the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system. Diagrams of the HVAC system and the rainwater collection system are included.

  13. Evidence for a winter sink of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide in the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulshoefer, V.S.; Uher, G.; Andreae, M.O. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    Atmospheric and dissolved carbonyl sulfide (COS) concentrations were measured on 473 samples during three cruises into the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The cruises took place in April/May 1992, January 1994, and September 1994, covering three seasons. In January 1994, persistent undersaturation of COS in seawater with respect to the atmosphere was observed. This is the first data set to show a strong and persistent undersaturation with the mean saturation ratio (SR) being 46% and the standard deviation 13%. In April 1992. the seawater was slightly supersaturated, with a SR of 126{plus_minus}58%. Only in September 1994, strong supersaturation of 214{plus_minus}86% was observed. The measured air concentrations were relatively uniform, averaging 410{plus_minus}67 pptv in January 1994, 466{plus_minus}42 pptv in April 1992, and 396{plus_minus}18 pptv in September 1994. Sea-to-air fluxes of COS were estimated using three different exchange models. We obtained moderate to low COS emissions in September (19 to 33 nmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}) and April/May (5 to 10 nmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), in contrast to a significant flux from the atmosphere into the ocean in January (-76 to -31 nmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}). The strong seasonal variation of COS emissions with the possibility of reversed fluxes into the ocean during winter must be considered in future oceanic source estimates. The possible effect of an open ocean winter sink on global marine emissions of COS could be a reduction by some 10-15%. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Ocean thermal plantships for production of ammonia as the hydrogen carrier.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Pandolfini, P. P.; Kumm, W. H.; Energy Systems; Johns Hopkins Univ.; Arctic Energies, Ltd.

    2009-12-02

    Conventional petroleum, natural gas, and coal are the primary sources of energy that have underpinned modern civilization. Their continued availability in the projected quantities required and the impacts of emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the environment are issues at the forefront of world concerns. New primary sources of energy are being sought that would significantly reduce the emissions of GHGs. One such primary source that can help supply energy, water, and fertilizer without GHG emissions is available in the heretofore unexploited thermal gradients of the tropical oceans. The world's oceans are the largest natural collector and reservoir of solar energy. The potential of ocean energy is limitless for producing base-load electric power or ammonia as the hydrogen carrier and fresh water from seawater. However, until now, ocean energy has been virtually untapped. The general perception is that ocean thermal energy is limited to tropical countries. Therefore, the full potential of at-sea production of (1) ammonia as a hydrogen carrier and (2) desalinated water has not been adequately evaluated. Using ocean thermal plantships for the at-sea co-production of ammonia as a hydrogen carrier and desalinated water offer potential energy, environmental, and economic benefits that support the development of the technology. The introduction of a new widespread solution to our projected energy supply requires lead times of a decade or more. Although continuation of the ocean thermal program from the 1970s would likely have put us in a mitigating position in the early 2000s, we still have a window of opportunity to dedicate some of our conventional energy sources to the development of this renewable energy by the time new sources would be critically needed. The primary objective of this project is to evaluate the technical and economic viability of ocean thermal plantships for the production of ammonia as the hydrogen carrier. This objective is achieved by completing project tasks that consist of updating the John Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) pilot plantship design and extrapolating it to commercial plantships, evaluating a new energy-efficient ammonia synthesis process, evaluating the co-production of desalinated water on plantships, and developing a conceptual design of a satellite plantships system for commercial-scale ammonia production. In addition, an industrial workshop was organized to present the results and develop future goals for commercialization of ocean thermal plantships by 2015. The following goals, arranged in chronological order, were examined at the workshop: (1) Global displacement of petroleum-fuel-based (diesel, fuel oil, naphtha) power generation for freeing up these fuels for transportation, chemical feedstock, and other high-valued uses; (2) At-sea production of desalinated water for regions of critical water shortages; (3) Displacement of carbon-based feed stocks and energy for production of ammonia fertilizers; (4) Development of hydrogen supply to allow economic processing of heavy crude oils and upgrading oil sands; (5) Development of ammonia-fueled distributed energy to displace natural-gas fueled power generation to free up natural gas for higher-value uses and the mitigation of issues associated with imported liquefied natural gas (LNG); and (6) Use of ammonia as a hydrogen carrier for transportation.

  15. Understanding the El Niño-like Oceanic Response in the Tropical Pacific to Global Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-10

    The enhanced central and eastern Pacific SST warming and the associated ocean processes under global warming are investigated using the ocean component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2). The tropical SST warming pattern in the coupled CESM can be faithfully reproduced by the POP2 forced with surface fluxes computed using the aerodynamic bulk formula. By prescribing the wind stress and/or wind speed through the bulk formula, the effects of wind stress change and/or the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback are isolated and their linearity is evaluated in this ocean-alone setting. Result shows that, although the weakening of the equatorial easterlies contributes positively to the El Niño-like SST warming, 80% of which can be simulated by the POP2 without considering the effects of wind change in both mechanical and thermodynamic fluxes. This result points to the importance of the air-sea thermal interaction and the relative feebleness of the ocean dynamical process in the El Niño-like equatorial Pacific SST response to global warming. On the other hand, the wind stress change is found to play a dominant role in the oceanic response in the tropical Pacific, accounting for most of the changes in the equatorial ocean current system and thermal structures, including the weakening of the surface westward currents, the enhancement of the near-surface stratification and the shoaling of the equatorial thermocline. Interestingly, greenhouse gas warming in the absence of wind stress change and WES feedback also contributes substantially to the changes at the subsurface equatorial Pacific. Further, this warming impact can be largely replicated by an idealized ocean experiment forced by a uniform surface heat flux, whereby, arguably, a purest form of oceanic dynamical thermostat is revealed.

  16. Design and cost of near-term OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plants for the production of desalinated water and electric power. [Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C.; Genens, L.

    1990-01-01

    There currently is an increasing need for both potable water and power for many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology fills these needs and is a viable option because of the unlimited supply of ocean thermal energy for the production of both desalinated water and electricity. The OTEC plant design must be flexible to meet the product-mix demands that can be very different from site to site. This paper describes different OTEC plants that can supply various mixes of desalinated water and vapor -- the extremes being either all water and no power or no water and all power. The economics for these plants are also presented. The same flow rates and pipe sizes for both the warm and cold seawater streams are used for different plant designs. The OTEC plant designs are characterized as near-term because no major technical issues need to be resolved or demonstrated. The plant concepts are based on DOE-sponsored experiments dealing with power systems, advanced heat exchanger designs, corrosion and fouling of heat exchange surfaces, and flash evaporation and moisture removal from the vapor using multiple spouts. In addition, the mature multistage flash evaporator technology is incorporated into the plant designs were appropriate. For the supply and discharge warm and cold uncertainties do exist because the required pipe sizes are larger than the maximum currently deployed -- 40-inch high-density polyethylene pipe at Keahole Point in Hawaii. 30 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. "What Controls the Structure and Stability of the Ocean Meridional Overturning Circulation: Implications for Abrupt Climate Change?"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, Alexey

    2013-11-23

    The central goal of this research project is to understand the properties of the ocean meridional overturning circulation (MOC) – a topic critical for understanding climate variability and stability on a variety of timescales (from decadal to centennial and longer). Specifically, we have explored various factors that control the MOC stability and decadal variability in the Atlantic and the ocean thermal structure in general, including the possibility abrupt climate change. We have also continued efforts on improving the performance of coupled ocean-atmosphere GCMs.

  18. The impact of atmospheric aerosols on trace metal chemistry in open ocean surface seawater 3. Lead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maring, H.B.; Duce, R.A. )

    1990-04-15

    Atmospheric aerosols collected at Enewetak Atoll in the tropical North Pacific were exposed to seawater in laboratory experiments to assess the impact of atmospheric aerosols on lead chemistry in surface seawater. The net atmospheric flux of soluble lead to the ocean is between 16 and 32 pmol cm{sup {minus}2}/yr at Enewetak. The stable lead isotopic composition of soluble aerosol lead indicates that it is of anthropogenic origin. Anthropogenic aerosol lead from Central and North America appears to be less soluble and/or to dissolve less rapidly than that from Asia. Dissolved organic matter and possibly lower pH appear to increase the nonaluminosilicate aerosol lead solubility and/or dissolution rate. The isotopic composition of lead in air, seawater and dry deposition suggests that after deposition in the ocean, nonaluminosilicate particulate lead can be reinjected into the atmosphere during sea salt aerosol production.

  19. Coupled land-ocean-atmosphere processes and South Asian monsoon variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meehl, G.A.

    1994-10-14

    Results from a global coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model and a model with specified tropical convective heating anomalies show that the South Asian monsoon was an active part of the tropical biennial oscillation (TBO). Convective heating anomalies over Africa and the western Pacific Ocean associated with the TBO altered the simulated pattern of atmospheric circulation for the Northern Hemisphere winter mid-latitude over Asia. This alteration in the mid-latitude circulation maintained temperature anomalies over South Asia through winter and helped set up the land-sea temperature contrast for subsequent monsoon development. South Asian snow cover contributed to monsoon strength but was symptomatic of the larger scale alteration in the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation pattern. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Remote sensing and spectral analysis of plumes from ocean dumping in the New York Bight Apex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The application of the remote sensing techniques of aerial photography and multispectral scanning in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plumes from ocean dumping of waste materials is investigated in the New York Bight Apex. Plumes resulting from the dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge were observed by Ocean Color Scanner at an altitude of 19.7 km and by Modular Multispectral Scanner and mapping camera at an altitude of 3.0 km. Results of the qualitative analysis of multispectral and photographic data for the mapping, location, and identification of pollution features without concurrent sea truth measurements are presented which demonstrate the usefulness of in-scene calibration. Quantitative distributions of the suspended solids in sewage sludge released in spot and line dumps are also determined by a multiple regression analysis of multispectral and sea truth data.

  1. Ocean-ice/oil-weathering computer program user's manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirstein, B.E.; Redding, R.T.

    1987-10-01

    The ocean-ice/oil-weathering code is written in FORTRAN as a series of stand-alone subroutines that can easily be installed on most any computer. All of the trial-and-error routines, integration routines, and other special routines are written in the code so that nothing more than the normal system functions such as EXP are required. The code is user-interactive and requests input by prompting questions with suggested input. Therefore, the user can actually learn about the nature of crude oil and oil weathering by using this code. The ocean-ice oil-weathering model considers the following weathering processes: evaporation; dispersion (oil into water); moussee (water into oil); and spreading; These processes are used to predict the mass balance and composition of oil remaining in the slick as a function of time and environmental parameters.

  2. Mechanisms Leading to Co-Existence of Gas Hydrate in Ocean Sediments [Part 2 of 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, Steven; Juanes, Ruben

    2011-12-31

    In this project we have sought to explain the co-existence of gas and hydrate phases in sediments within the gas hydrate stability zone. We have focused on the gas/brine interface at the scale of individual grains in the sediment. The capillary forces associated with a gas/brine interface play a dominant role in many processes that occur in the pores of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The mechanical forces associated with the same interface can lead to fracture initiation and propagation in hydrate-bearing sediments. Thus the unifying theme of the research reported here is that pore scale phenomena are key to understanding large scale phenomena in hydrate-bearing sediments whenever a free gas phase is present. Our analysis of pore-scale phenomena in this project has delineated three regimes that govern processes in which the gas phase pressure is increasing: fracturing, capillary fingering and viscous fingering. These regimes are characterized by different morphology of the region invaded by the gas. On the other hand when the gas phase pressure is decreasing, the corresponding regimes are capillary fingering and compaction. In this project, we studied all these regimes except compaction. Many processes of interest in hydrate-bearing sediments can be better understood when placed in the context of the appropriate regime. For example, hydrate formation in sub-permafrost sediments falls in the capillary fingering regime, whereas gas invasion into ocean sediments is likely to fall into the fracturing regime. Our research provides insight into the mechanisms by which gas reservoirs are converted to hydrate as the base of the gas hydrate stability zone descends through the reservoir. If the reservoir was no longer being charged, then variation in grain size distribution within the reservoir explain hydrate saturation profiles such as that at Mt. Elbert, where sand-rich intervals containing little hydrate are interspersed between intervals containing large hydrate saturations. Large volumes (of order one pore volume) of gaseous and aqueous phases must be transported into the gas hydrate stability zone. The driver for this transport is the pressure sink induced by a reduction in occupied pore volume that accompanies the formation of hydrate from gas and water. Pore-scale imbibition models and bed-scale multiphase flow models indicate that the rate-limiting step in converting gas to hydrate is the supply of water to the hydrate stability zone. Moreover, the water supply rate is controlled by capillarity-driven flux for conditions typical of the Alaska North Slope. A meter-scale laboratory experiment confirms that significant volumes of fluid phases move into the hydrate stability zone and that capillarity is essential for the water flux. The model shows that without capillarity-driven flux, large saturations of hydrate cannot form. The observations of thick zones of large saturation at Mallik and Mt Elbert thus suggest that the primary control on these systems is the rate of transport of gaseous and aqueous phases, driven by the pressure sink at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. A key finding of our project is the elucidation of ?capillary fracturing? as a dominant gas transport mechanism in low-permeability media. We initially investigate this phenomenon by means of grain-scale simulations in which we extended a discrete element mechanics code (PFC, by Itasca) to incorporate the dynamics of first singlephase and then multiphase flow. A reductionist model on a square lattice allows us to determine some of the fundamental dependencies of the mode of gas invasion (capillary fingering, viscous fingering, and fracturing) on the parameters of the system. We then show that the morphology of the gas-invaded region exerts a fundamental control on the fabric of methane hydrate formation, and on the overpressures caused by methane hydrate dissociation. We demonstrate the existence of the different invasion regimes by means of controlled laboratory experiments in a radial cell. We collapse the behavior in the form of a phase dia

  3. SCIENCE ON SATURDAY- "A Robot's View of Our Ocean Planet" | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab 16, 2013, 9:30am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium SCIENCE ON SATURDAY- "A Robot's View of Our Ocean Planet" Professor Josh Kohut, Assistant Professor of Oceanography Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography, Rutgers University Presentation: PDF icon SOS16MAR2013_JKohut.pdf Science on Saturday is a series of lectures given by scientists, mathematicians, and other professionals involved in cutting-edge research. Held on Saturday mornings throughout winter, the

  4. Coupling Between Oceanic Upwelling and Cloud-aerosol Properties at the AMF Point Reyes Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, M.; Jensen, M.; Miller, M.; Kollias, P.; Bartholomew, M. J.; Turner, D.; Andrews, E.; Jefferson, A.; Daum, P.

    2008-03-10

    Cloud microphysical properties measured at the ARM Mobile Facility site located on the northern coast of California near Point Reyes, during the 2005 Marine Stratus Radiation, Aerosol and Drizzle experiment, were analyzed to determine their relationship to the coastal sea surface temperature (SST) which was characterized using measurements acquired from a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration offshore buoy. An increase in SST resulting from a relaxation of upwelling, occurring in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of California in summer is observed to strongly correlate with nearby ground measured cloud microphysical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Correlations between these atmospheric and oceanic features provide insight into the interplay between the ocean and cloud radiative properties. We present evidence of this robust correlation and examine the factors controlling these features. The marine boundary layer is in direct contact with the sea surface and is strongly influenced by SST. Moisture and vertical motion are crucial ingredients for cloud development and so we examine the role of SST in providing these key components to the atmosphere. Although upwelling of cold subsurface waters is conventionally thought to increase aerosols in the region, thus increasing clouds, here we observed a relaxation of upwelling associated with changes in the structure of marine stratus clouds. As upwelling relaxes, the SST get warmer, thick clouds with high liquid water paths are observed and persist for a few days. This cycle is repeated throughout the summer upwelling season. A concomitant cyclic increase and decrease of CCN concentration is also observed. Forcing mechanisms and large-scale atmospheric features are discussed. Marine stratocumulus clouds are a critical component of the earth's radiation budget and this site provides an excellent opportunity to study the influence of SST on these clouds.

  5. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: CHUVA Field Campaign Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    166 Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: CHUVA Field Campaign Report LAT Machado March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents

  6. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon : Nanoparticle Size Distribution (NPSD) Field Campaign Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Nanoparticle Size Distribution (NPSD) Field Campaign Report C Kuang P Artaxo S Martin J Wang April 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,

  7. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: CHUVA Field Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    66 Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: CHUVA Field Campaign Report LAT Machado March 2016 CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process

  8. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon : Nanoparticle Size Distribution (NPSD) Field Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    0 Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Nanoparticle Size Distribution (NPSD) Field Campaign Report C Kuang P Artaxo S Martin J Wang April 2016 CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of

  9. DOE/SC-ARM-13-011 Green Ocean Amazon Terrestrial Ecosystem Collaborative Project Science Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Green Ocean Amazon Terrestrial Ecosystem Collaborative Project Science Plan J Chambers May 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would

  10. Evidence for long-lived subduction of an ancient tectonic plate beneath the southern Indian Ocean

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.; Grand, S. P.

    2015-11-14

    In this study, ancient subducted tectonic plates have been observed in past seismic images of the mantle beneath North America and Eurasia, and it is likely that other ancient slab structures have remained largely hidden, particularly in the seismic-data-limited regions beneath the vast oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present a new global tomographic image, which shows a slab-like structure beneath the southern Indian Ocean with coherency from the upper mantle to the core-mantle boundary region—a feature that has never been identified. We postulate that the structure is an ancient tectonic plate that sank into the mantle along anmore » extensive intraoceanic subduction zone that migrated southwestward across the ancient Tethys Ocean in the Mesozoic Era. Slab material still trapped in the transition zone is positioned near the edge of East Gondwana at 140 Ma suggesting that subduction terminated near the margin of the ancient continent prior to breakup and subsequent dispersal of its subcontinents.« less

  11. Evidence for long-lived subduction of an ancient tectonic plate beneath the southern Indian Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.; Grand, S. P.

    2015-11-14

    In this study, ancient subducted tectonic plates have been observed in past seismic images of the mantle beneath North America and Eurasia, and it is likely that other ancient slab structures have remained largely hidden, particularly in the seismic-data-limited regions beneath the vast oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present a new global tomographic image, which shows a slab-like structure beneath the southern Indian Ocean with coherency from the upper mantle to the core-mantle boundary region—a feature that has never been identified. We postulate that the structure is an ancient tectonic plate that sank into the mantle along an extensive intraoceanic subduction zone that migrated southwestward across the ancient Tethys Ocean in the Mesozoic Era. Slab material still trapped in the transition zone is positioned near the edge of East Gondwana at 140 Ma suggesting that subduction terminated near the margin of the ancient continent prior to breakup and subsequent dispersal of its subcontinents.

  12. Ocean Viruses: Tiny entities with Global Impacts ( JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Matthew B [University of Arizona

    2013-01-15

    Matt Sullivan from the University of Arizona on "Ocean Viruses: Tiny Entities with Global Impacts" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  13. Mobile Ocean Test Berth Support: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-413

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LiVecchi, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC), headquartered at the Oregon State University, is establishing the capabilities to test prototype wave energy conversion devices in the ocean. This CRADA will leverage the technical expertise and resources at NREL in the wind industry and in ocean engineering to support and enhance the development of the NNMREC Mobile Ocean Test Berth (MOTB). This CRADA will provide direct support to NNMREC by providing design evaluation and review of the MOTB, developing effective protocols for testing of the MOTB and wave energy conversion devices in the ocean, assisting in the specification of appropriate instrumentation and data acquisition packages, and providing guidance on obtaining and maintaining A2LA (American Association for Laboratory Accreditation) accreditation.

  14. Ocean Viruses: Tiny entities with Global Impacts ( JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Matthew B [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona

    2012-03-22

    Matt Sullivan from the University of Arizona on "Ocean Viruses: Tiny Entities with Global Impacts" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  15. Interaction between surface wind and ocean circulation in the Carolina Capes in a coupled low-order model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, L.; Pietrafesa, L.J.; Raman, S.

    1997-03-18

    Interactions between surface winds and ocean currents over an east-coast continental shelf are studied using a simple mathematical model. The model physics include cross-shelf advection of sea surface temperature (SST) by Ekman drift, upwelling due to Ekman transport divergence, differential heating of the low-level atmosphere by a cross-shelf SST gradient, and the Coriolis effect. Additionally, the effects of diabatic cooling of surface waters due to air-sea heat exchange and of the vertical density stratification on the thickness of the upper ocean Ekman layer are considered. The model results are qualitatively consistent with observed wind-driven coastal ocean circulation and surface wind signatures induced by SST. This simple model also demonstrates that two-way air-sea interaction plays a significant role in the subtidal frequency variability of coastal ocean circulation and mesoscale variability of surface wind fields over coastal waters.

  16. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Project: OTEC support services. Monthly technical status report, October 1-31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-11-14

    The objective of this project is to provide technical engineering and management support services for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) program of the Division of Ocean Energy Systems, DOE. The principal contributions made are outlined for the following tasks: (1) Survey, analysis and recommendation concerning program performance; (2) Program technical monitoring; (3) Technical assessments; (4) OTEC system integration; (5) Environment and siting considerations; and (6) Transmission subsystem considerations.

  17. Upper ocean model of dissolved atmospheric gases. Final report for the period 1 August 1991--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schudlich, R.; Emerson, S.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes results from three years of funding for a modelling study of processes controlling the distribution of metabolic chemical tracers in surface waters. We determined concentrations of the gases O{sub 2}, Ar, N{sub 2}, and the stable isotope ratio ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O) of molecular oxygen in surface waters at Station ALOHA in conjunction with the Global Ocean Flux Study (GOFS) Hawaiian Ocean Time-series project during the years 1989- 90 and 1992-93. Under this contract we have incorporated chemical tracers into an existing ocean mixed-layer model to simulate the physical processes controlling the distribution and seasonal cycle of dissolved gases in the upper ocean. The broad background of concurrent chemical, physical, and biological measurements at Station ALOHA provides enough redundancy of ``ground truth`` to assess the model`s accuracy. Biological oxygen production estimated from modelled chemical tracers agrees with estimates based on measurement of carbon fluxes into the deep ocean and nitrate fluxes into the upper ocean during 1989-90 and 1992-93, verifying for the first time the utility of chemical tracers for determining biological fluxes in the ocean. Our results suggest that in the euphotic zone (the upper 100 m of the ocean), the net biological O{sub 2} production is 1.0-2. 0 moles m{sup -2}yr{sup - 1}. Inert gas (Ar, N{sub 2}) supersaturation levels show that air and bubble injection are important modes of air-sea gas transfer in the Station ALOHA region.

  18. Ocean disposal option for bulk wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides: an assessment case history. [From Niagara Falls storage site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, E.A.; Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-01-01

    There are 180,000 m/sup 3/ of slightly contaminated radioactive wastes (36 pCi/g radium-226) currently stored at the US Department of Energy's Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), near Lewiston, New York. These wastes resulted from the cleanup of soils that were contaminated above the guidelines for unrestricted use of property. An alternative to long-term management of these wastes on land is dispersal in the ocean. A scenario for ocean disposal is present

  19. DE-EE0000319 Final Technical Report [National Open-ocean Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skemp, Susan

    2013-12-29

    Under the authorization provided by Section 634 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-140), in 2009 FAU was awarded U.S. Congressionally Directed Program (CDP) funding through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate and develop technologies to harness the energy of the Florida Current as a source of clean, renewable, base-load power for Florida and the U.S. A second CDP award in 2010 provided additional funding in order to enhance and extend FAU’s activities. These two CDPs in 2009 and 2010 were combined into a single DOE grant, DE-EE0000319, and are the subject of this report. Subsequently, in July 2010 funding was made available under a separate contract, DE-EE0004200. Under that funding, DOE’s Wind and Water Power Program designated FAU’s state of Florida marine renewable energy (MRE) center as the Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center (SNMREC). This report discusses SNMREC activities funded by the DE-EE0000319 grant, but will make reference, as appropriate, to activities that require further investigation under the follow-on grant. The concept of extracting energy from the motions of the oceans has a long history. However, implementation on large scales of the technologies to effect renewable energy recovery from waves, tides, and open-ocean currents is relatively recent. DOE’s establishment of SNMREC recognizes a significant potential for ocean current energy recovery associated with the (relatively) high-speed Florida Current, the reach of the Gulf Stream System flowing through the Straits of Florida, between the Florida Peninsula and the Bahamas Archipelago. The proximity of the very large electrical load center of southeast Florida’s metropolitan area to the resource itself makes this potential all the more attractive. As attractive as this potential energy source is, it is not without its challenges. Although the technology is conceptually simple, its design and implementation in a commercially-viable fashion presents a variety of challenges. Beyond the technology itself (and, especially, the effects on the technology of the harsh oceanic environment), it is important to consider the possible environmental impacts of commercial-scale implementation of oceanic energy extraction. Further, because such implementation represents a completely new undertaking, the human resources required do not exist, so education and training programs are critical to eventual success. This project, establishing a national open-ocean energy laboratory, was designed to address each of these three challenges in a flexible framework allowing for adaptive management as the project proceeded. In particular:  the technology challenge, including resource assessment, evolved during the project to recognize and address the need for a national testing facility in the ocean for small-scale prototype MRE systems developed by industry;  the environmental challenge became formalized and expanded during the permitting process for such a testing facility; and  the human resources/societal challenges, both in terms of the need for education and training and in terms of public acceptance of MRE, stimulated a robust outreach program far beyond that originally envisioned at SNMREC. While all of these activities at SNMREC are ongoing, a number of significant milestones (in addition to the contributions listed in the appendices) were achieved under the auspices of this award. These include:  Planning and site selection for the first-phase test facility, offshore of Dania Beach, FL, including some equipment for the facility, submission of an Interim Policy Lease Application to the U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and completion of an Environmental Assessment by BOEM and a positive Consistency Determination by the State of Florida;  Measurements using acoustic profilers of the current structure and variability in the vicinity of the site under a variety of weather conditions, seasons and time durations;  Design and implementation of instrumentation for the first phase of the offshore testing facility, the wet- and top-side data acquisition systems, and shore-based analysis systems;  Implementation of a laboratory-scale dynamometer system to test generators of up to 25 kW capacity using real-world (simulated) forcing;  Completion of 24 months of (airborne) marine vertebrate surveys and associated analysis of sea turtle offshore activity, marine mammal vocalization research, and ocean current turbine hydrodynamic noise characterization;  Development of a secondary-school (nominally grade 10) curriculum about hydrokinetic MRE, “Energy from the Oceans: The New Renewable”, and training of over 200 high-school teachers in its use and in how to educate their colleagues in application of the material in the classroom;  Presentations to over 50 interested civic groups in the region on various aspects of MRE in SE Florida  A series of public lectures to over 600 residents of south Florida to provide broader education on MRE.  Development of an interactive kiosk for installation in local science museums. These, and other accomplishments detailed in this report contribute to a comprehensive ongoing program at the SNMREC to support the affordable, responsible, and achievable commercialization of MRE. Many of the tasks of this award are continued or will be verified with follow-on funding DE-EE0004200, and its goal: the installation of the world’s first offshore ocean current turbine testing and validation capability.

  20. Large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions in a simplified coupled model of the midlatitude wintertime circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, A.J. )

    1992-02-15

    Midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interactions are studied in simulations from a simplified coupled model that includes synoptic-scale atmospheric variability, ocean current advection of sea surface temperature (SST), and air-sea heat exchange. Although theoretical dynamical ([open quotes]identical twin[close quotes]) predictions using this model have shown that the SST anomalies in this model indeed influence the atmosphere, it is found here that standard cross-correlation and empirical orthogonal function analyses of monthly mean model output yield the standard result, familiar from observational studies, that the atmosphere forces the ocean with little or no feedback. Therefore, these analyses are inconclusive and leave open the question of whether anomalous SST is influencing the atmosphere. In contrast, the authors find that compositing strong warm events of model SST is a useful indicator of ocean forcing the atmosphere. The authors present additional evidence for oceanic influence on the atmosphere, namely, that ocean current advection appears to enhance the persistence of model SST anomalies through a feedback effect that is absent when only heat flux is allowed to influence SST anomaly evolution. Models with more complete physics must ultimately be used to conclusively demonstrate these results. 26 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. ocean energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nif Three NNSA researchers receive President's highest early-career STEM award Yesterday Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz hosted a special ceremony honoring DOE's 13 recipients of the 2016 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), among which were three researchers nominated by NNSA. PECASE recipients are selected for the award by the White... A NIF record: 17 shots in a week During the last week of March, researchers at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at

  2. Complex functionality with minimal computation. Promise and pitfalls of reduced-tracer ocean biogeochemistry models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Galbraith, Eric D.; Dunne, John P.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Slater, Richard D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Dufour, Carolina O.; de Souza, Gregory F.; Bianchi, Daniele; Claret, Mariona; Rodgers, Keith B.; et al

    2015-12-21

    Earth System Models increasingly include ocean biogeochemistry models in order to predict changes in ocean carbon storage, hypoxia, and biological productivity under climate change. However, state-of-the-art ocean biogeochemical models include many advected tracers, that significantly increase the computational resources required, forcing a trade-off with spatial resolution. Here, we compare a state-of the art model with 30 prognostic tracers (TOPAZ) with two reduced-tracer models, one with 6 tracers (BLING), and the other with 3 tracers (miniBLING). The reduced-tracer models employ parameterized, implicit biological functions, which nonetheless capture many of the most important processes resolved by TOPAZ. All three are embedded inmore » the same coupled climate model. Despite the large difference in tracer number, the absence of tracers for living organic matter is shown to have a minimal impact on the transport of nutrient elements, and the three models produce similar mean annual preindustrial distributions of macronutrients, oxygen, and carbon. Significant differences do exist among the models, in particular the seasonal cycle of biomass and export production, but it does not appear that these are necessary consequences of the reduced tracer number. With increasing CO2, changes in dissolved oxygen and anthropogenic carbon uptake are very similar across the different models. Thus, while the reduced-tracer models do not explicitly resolve the diversity and internal dynamics of marine ecosystems, we demonstrate that such models are applicable to a broad suite of major biogeochemical concerns, including anthropogenic change. Lastly, these results are very promising for the further development and application of reduced-tracer biogeochemical models that incorporate ‘‘sub-ecosystem-scale’’ parameterizations.« less

  3. Complex functionality with minimal computation. Promise and pitfalls of reduced-tracer ocean biogeochemistry models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbraith, Eric D.; Dunne, John P.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Slater, Richard D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Dufour, Carolina O.; de Souza, Gregory F.; Bianchi, Daniele; Claret, Mariona; Rodgers, Keith B.; Marvasti, Seyedehsafoura Sedigh

    2015-12-21

    Earth System Models increasingly include ocean biogeochemistry models in order to predict changes in ocean carbon storage, hypoxia, and biological productivity under climate change. However, state-of-the-art ocean biogeochemical models include many advected tracers, that significantly increase the computational resources required, forcing a trade-off with spatial resolution. Here, we compare a state-of the art model with 30 prognostic tracers (TOPAZ) with two reduced-tracer models, one with 6 tracers (BLING), and the other with 3 tracers (miniBLING). The reduced-tracer models employ parameterized, implicit biological functions, which nonetheless capture many of the most important processes resolved by TOPAZ. All three are embedded in the same coupled climate model. Despite the large difference in tracer number, the absence of tracers for living organic matter is shown to have a minimal impact on the transport of nutrient elements, and the three models produce similar mean annual preindustrial distributions of macronutrients, oxygen, and carbon. Significant differences do exist among the models, in particular the seasonal cycle of biomass and export production, but it does not appear that these are necessary consequences of the reduced tracer number. With increasing CO2, changes in dissolved oxygen and anthropogenic carbon uptake are very similar across the different models. Thus, while the reduced-tracer models do not explicitly resolve the diversity and internal dynamics of marine ecosystems, we demonstrate that such models are applicable to a broad suite of major biogeochemical concerns, including anthropogenic change. Lastly, these results are very promising for the further development and application of reduced-tracer biogeochemical models that incorporate ‘‘sub-ecosystem-scale’’ parameterizations.

  4. Cycling of DOC and DON by Novel Heterotrophic and Photoheterotrophic Bacteria in the Ocean: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirchman, David L

    2008-12-09

    The flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM) through aquatic bacterial communities is a major process in carbon cycling in the oceans and other aquatic systems. Our work addressed the general hypothesis that the phylogenetic make-up of bacterial communities and the abundances of key types of bacteria are important factors influencing the processing of DOM in aquatic ecosystems. Since most bacteria are not easily cultivated, the phylogenetic diversity of these microbes has to be assessed using culture-independent approaches. Even if the relevant bacteria were cultivated, their activity in the lab would likely differ from that under environmental conditions. This project found variation in DOM uptake by the major bacterial groups found in coastal waters. In brief, the data suggest substantial differences among groups in the use of high and molecular weight DOM components. It also made key discoveries about the role of light in affecting this uptake especially by cyanobacteria. In the North Atlantic Ocean, for example, over half of the light-stimulated uptake was by the coccoid cyanobacterium, Prochlorococcus, with the remaining uptake due to Synechococcus and other photoheterotrophic bacteria. The project also examined in detail the degradation of one organic matter component, chitin, which is often said to be the second most abundant compound in the biosphere. The findings of this project contribute to our understanding of DOM fluxes and microbial dynamics supported by those fluxes. It is possible that these findings will lead to improvements in models of the carbon cycle that have compartments for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the largest pool of organic carbon in the oceans.

  5. Definitional mission: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, S.R.; Ross, J.M.

    1990-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the commercial viability of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) electric power plant at the Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. It was concluded that various technology improvements and economic factors have converged to present a feasible opportunity. United States industrial and research organizations are technically capable of developing a commercial OTEC industry for domestic and export markets. It is estimated that 100% of OTEC equipment and services could be supplied by United States firms. However, Japan has aggressively pursued OTEC development with an apparent goal of dominating the export market.

  6. The Future of Technology Is Hiding on the Ocean Floor | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Future of Technology Is Hiding on the Ocean Floor Gizmodo editor Maddie Stone writes about the potential for mining rare earths from manganese nodules located on the deep sea floor. In the story, Stone talks with Critical Materials Director Alex King about the need and uses for rare earths. The story includes the improbable recruitment of billionaire industrialist and recluse Howard Hughes by the CIA to build a ship to supposedly harvest these nodules. In fact, that was just a cover story to

  7. Pavlos Kollias Associate Professor Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pavlos Kollias Associate Professor Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University Room 817, Burnside Hall, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 0B9 Tel.: (514) 398-1500 Fax: (514) 398-6115 Email: pavlos.kollias@mcgill.ca https://www.mcgill.ca/meteo/facultystaff/kollias http://radarscience.weebly.com Susanne Crewell Professor Institute of Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne Pohligstr. 3, Raum 3.123, 50969 Köln, Germany Tel.: +49 (0)221 470-5286 Fax:

  8. Collaborative project. Ocean-atmosphere interaction from meso- to planetary-scale. Mechanics, parameterization, and variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saravanan, Ramalingam; Small, Justin

    2015-12-01

    Most climate models are currently run with grid spacings of around 100km, which, with today’s computing power, allows for long (up to 1000 year) simulations, or ensembles of simulations to explore climate change and variability. However this grid spacing does not resolve important components of the weather/climate system such as atmospheric fronts and mesoscale systems, and ocean boundary currents and eddies. The overall aim of this project has been to look at the effect of these small-scale features on the weather/climate system using a suite of high and low resolution climate models, idealized models and observations. High-resolution global coupled integrations using CAM/CESM were carried out at NCAR by the lead PI. At TAMU, we have complemented the work at NCAR by analyzing datasets from the high-resolution (28km) CESM integrations (Small et al., 2014) as well as very high resolution (9km, 3km) runs using a coupled regional climate (CRCM) carried out locally. The main tasks carried out were: 1. Analysis of surface wind in observations and high-resolution CAM/CCSM simulations 2. Development of a feature-tracking algorithm for studying midlatitude air-sea interaction by following oceanic mesoscale eddies and creating composites of the atmospheric response overlying the eddies. 3. Applying the Lagrangian analysis technique in the Gulf Stream region to compare data from observational reanalyses, global CESM coupled simulations, 9km regional coupled simulations and 3km convection-resolving regional coupled simulations. Our main findings are that oceanic mesoscale eddies influence not just the atmospheric boundary layer above them, but also the lower portions of the free troposphere above the boundary layer. Such a vertical response could have implications for a remote influence of Gulf Stream oceanic eddies on North Atlantic weather patterns through modulation of the storm track, similar to what has been noted in the North Pacific. The coarse resolution observational reanalyses perhaps underestimate the atmospheric response, but the 28km global model resolution appears to be adequate to capture some, but not all, aspects of the boundary response. The higher resolution regional models show a stronger response in certain fields such as the latent heat flux.

  9. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael

    2012-06-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawai’i and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the predicted economies of scale as technology and efficiency improvements are realized and larger more economical plants deployed. Utilizing global high resolution OTEC resource assessment from the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project (an independent DOE project), Global Energy Supply Curves were generated for Grid Connected and Energy Carrier OTEC plants deployed in 2045 when the predicted technology and efficiencies improvements are fully realized. The Global Energy Supply Curves present the LCOE versus capacity in ascending order with the richest, lowest cost resource locations being harvested first. These curves demonstrate the vast ocean thermal resource and potential OTEC capacity that can be harvested with little change in LCOE.

  10. SPECIAL ACQUISITION REQUIREMENTS ─ TYPICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Then they must be appropriately mitigated, preferably by written communication from the contracting officer that includes the rationale for Federal involvement. An example of a ...

  11. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model system for studies of interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin and precipitation over the Southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Chung-Chieng A.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ultimate objective of this research project is to make understanding and predicting regional climate easier. The long-term goals of this project are (1) to construct a coupled ocean-atmosphere model (COAM) system, (2) use it to explore the interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin, and (3) determine climate effects on the precipitation over the Southwestern United States. During this project life, three major tasks were completed: (1) Mesoscale ocean and atmospheric model; (2) global-coupled ocean and atmospheric modeling: completed the coupling of LANL POP global ocean model with NCAR CCM2+ global atmospheric model; and (3) global nested-grid ocean modeling: designed the boundary interface for the nested-grid ocean models.

  12. Role of the oceans in the atmospheric cycle of carbonyl sulfide. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is both the dominant sulfur gas in the remote troposphere and, along with volcanoes, a major source of sulfur for the stratospheric sulfate layer. Prior to this work the ocean was regarded as a major sink for atmospheric OCS. The purpose of this study has been to assess the magnitude of the global air-sea flux of OCS. The author designed an analytical system which was centered around a Varian-3700 gas chromatograph with a flame-photometric detector. To increase the sensitivity of the detector, the hydrogen gas for the flame was doped with sulfur hexafloride. Air samples were concentrated in a liquid nitrogen cooled freeze-out loop, then injected into the gas chromatograph. Water samples purged with sulfur-free zero-air which was analyzed similarly. The author also built a permeation tube system for chemical standardization. This equipment was taken on two oceanographic cruises on the Pacific Ocean on board the NOAA ship DISCOVERER, one in the spring of 1983 and a second in the spring of 1984. Both of these cruises included measurements of air and sea-water concentrations of OCS.

  13. Photoproduction of carbonyl sulfide in south Pacific Ocean waters as a function of irradiation wavelength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, P.S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); [Pacific Marine Environmental Lab., Seattle, WA (United States); Johnson, J.E. [Pacific Marine Environmental Lab., Seattle, WA (United States)] [Pacific Marine Environmental Lab., Seattle, WA (United States); [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Andrews, S.S.; Zafiriou, O.C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, MA (United States)] [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, MA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) photoproduction rates were measured at selected wavelengths of ultraviolet light between 297 and 405 nm in sea water samples from the southern Pacific Ocean. Near-surface and column production rate spectra for natural sunlit waters were calculated using sea-surface sunlight data measured near the austral summer solstice. These plots show that photoproduction rates are at a maximum at 313 nm in tropical waters and at 336 nm in Antarctic waters. Tropical surface and column rates were found to be 68 pM/day and 360 nmol/m{sup 2}/day, respectively, and Antarctic surface and column rates were found to be 101 pM/day and 620 nmol/m{sup 2}/day, respectively. A high degree of variability was observed between photoproduction rates from different ocean regions, with coastal rates being the highest, suggesting that natural environmental variability is an important factor. Photoproduction rates at 297 nm were found to be constant at individual locations with increasing irradiation time. Relative photoproduction rates from this work are compared to previously measured rates from coastal sea water. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Role of the oceans in the atmospheric cycle of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is both the dominant sulfur gas in the remote troposphere and, along with volcanoes, a major source of sulfur for the stratospheric sulfate layer. Prior to this work the ocean was regarded as a major sink for atmospheric OCS. The purpose of this study has been to assess the magnitude of the global air-sea flux of OCS. The author designed an analytical system which was centered around a Varian-3700 gas chromatograph with a flame-photometric detector. To increase the sensitivity of the detector, the hydrogen gas for the flame was doped with sulfur hexafluoride. Air samples were concentrated in a liquid nitrogen cooled freeze-out loop, then injected into the gas chromatograph. Water samples purged with sulfur-free zero-air which was analyzed similarly. He also built a permeation tube system for chemical standardization. This equipment was taken on two oceanographic cruises on the Pacific Ocean, one in the spring of 1983 and a second in the spring of 1983. Both of these cruises included measurements of air and seawater concentrations of OCS from the equator to the Aleutian Islands. The Henry's law constant of solubility for OCS was measured in the laboratory for filtered and boiled seawater at three temperatures.

  15. Characteristics of surface current flow inferred from a global ocean current data set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meehl, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    A seasonal global ocean-current data set (OCDS) digitized on a 5/sup 0/ grid from long-term mean shipdrift-derived currents from pilot charts is presented and described. Annual zonal means of v-component currents show subtropical convergence zones which moved closest to the equator during the respective winters in each hemisphere. Net annual v-component surface flow at the equator is northward. Zonally average u-component currents have greatest seasonal variance in the tropics with strongest westward currents in the winter hemisphere. An ensemble of ocean currents measured by buoys and current meters compares favorably with OCDS data in spite of widely varying time and space scales. The OCDS currents and directly measured currents are about twice as large as computed geostrophic currents. An analysis of equatorial Pacific currents suggests that dynamic topography and sea-level change indicative of the geostrophic flow component cannot be relied on solely to infer absolute strength of surface currents which include a strong Ekman component. Comparison of OCDS v-component currents and meridional transports predicted by Ekman theory shows agreement in the sign of transports in the midlatitudes and tropics in both hemispheres. Ekman depths required to scale OCDS v-component currents to computed Ekman transports are reasonable at most latitudes with layer depths deepening closer to the equator.

  16. California cooperative oceanic fisheries investigations. Reports volume 37, January 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olfe, J.

    1996-10-01

    Scientists from the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), the Southwest Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego (UCSD), have collaborated for 46 years in the longest-running large-scale study ever undertaken in the ocean. This study was begun in order to understand the causes of changes in population, over time, of commercially important fishes in California`s coastal waters. When the study began, the Pacific sardine was by far the most significant species of economic concern to the State of California. Because its population changes were thought to be caused by a diversity of atmospheric, oceanic, and biological variables, a wide array of measurements in the California Current region were begun and have been continued to this day. This long time series of data allows not only a better understanding of the flux of fish populations, but also lays the foundation for understanding interdecadal and secular change in the seas. This document contains papers from symposium of the 1995 CalCOFI Conference related to interdecadal changes in the ecology of the California current.

  17. Forcing, feedbacks and climate sensitivity in CMIP5 coupled atmosphere-ocean climate models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Andrews, Timothy; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Webb, Mark J.; Taylor, Karl E.

    2012-05-15

    We quantify forcing and feedbacks across available CMIP5 coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) by analysing simulations forced by an abrupt quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. This is the first application of the linear forcing-feedback regression analysis of Gregory et al. (2004) to an ensemble of AOGCMs. The range of equilibrium climate sensitivity is 2.1–4.7 K. Differences in cloud feedbacks continue to be important contributors to this range. Some models show small deviations from a linear dependence of top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes on global surface temperature change. We show that this phenomenon largely arises from shortwave cloud radiative effects overmore » the ocean and is consistent with independent estimates of forcing using fixed sea-surface temperature methods. Moreover, we suggest that future research should focus more on understanding transient climate change, including any time-scale dependence of the forcing and/or feedback, rather than on the equilibrium response to large instantaneous forcing.« less

  18. The footprint of the inter-decadal Pacific oscillation in Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dong, Lu; Zhou, Tianjun; Dai, Aiguo; Song, Fengfei; Wu, Bo; Chen, Xiaolong

    2016-02-17

    Superimposed on a pronounced warming trend, the Indian Ocean (IO) sea surface temperatures (SSTs) also show considerable decadal variations that can cause regional climate oscillations around the IO. However, the mechanisms of the IO decadal variability remain unclear. Here we perform numerical experiments using a state-of-the-art, fully coupled climate model in which the external forcings with or without the observed SSTs in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean (TEP) are applied for 1871–2012. Both the observed timing and magnitude of the IO decadal variations are well reproduced in those experiments with the TEP SSTs prescribed to observations. Although the external forcingsmore » account for most of the warming trend, the decadal variability in IO SSTs is dominated by internal variability that is induced by the TEP SSTs, especially the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). The IPO weakens (enhances) the warming of the external forcings by about 50% over the IO during IPO’s cold (warm) phase, which contributes about 10% to the recent global warming hiatus since 1999. As a result, the decadal variability in IO SSTs is modulated by the IPO-induced atmospheric adjustment through changing surface heat fluxes, sea surface height and thermocline depth.« less

  19. Input of 129I into the western Pacific Ocean resulting from the Fukushima nuclear event

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumey, S. J.; Guilderson, T. P.; Brown, T. A.; Broek, T.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2013-04-02

    We present an initial characterization of the input of 129I into the Pacific Ocean resulting from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident. This characterization is based primarily on 129I measurements on samples collected from a research cruise conducted in waters off the eastern coast of Japan in June 2011. The resulting measurements were compared with samples intended to reflect pre-Fukushima background that were collected during a May 2011 transect of the Pacific by a commercial container vessel. In surface waters, we observed peak 129I concentrations of ~300 μBq/m3 which represents an elevation of nearly three orders of magnitude compared to pre-Fukushimamore » backgrounds. The 129I results were coupled with 137Cs measurements from the same cruise and derived an average 129I/137Cs activity ratio of 0.442 × 10-6 for the effluent from Fukushima. Finally, we present 129I depth profiles from five stations from this cruise which form the basis for future studies of ocean transport and mixing process as well as estimations of the total budget of 129I released into the Pacific.« less

  20. Development of a demonstration power plant by ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, F.; Takazawa, K.; Terayama, T.

    1984-01-01

    At the opening ceremony, the system was praised by leading figures invited from the Oceanic non-oil-producing countries. The power generation test of the OTEC demonstration plant was completed with many new records attained. As engineers who have participated in this project, the authors believe that they have gained confidence in their ability to construct a first-stage commercial OTEC plant of the built-on-land type, though admitting that there still remain some points to be improved. Subjects requiring further study are improvements of material and installation methods enabling the use of water intake piping with larger diameters, further improvement of heat transfer performance at the seawater side (tube inside) of the heat transfer tubes, etc. Since the commercialization of an OTEC system depends mainly on the economical level of the system, cost reduction in the manufacture of equipment and construction is also required.

  1. Potential impact of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) on fisheries. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, E.P.; Hoss, D.E.; Matsumoto, W.M.; Peters, D.S.; Seki, M.P.

    1986-06-01

    The commercial development of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) operations will involve some environmental perturbations for which there is no precedent experience. The pumping of very large volumes of warm surface water and cold deep water and its subsequent discharge will result in the impingement, entrainment, and redistribution of biota. Additional stresses to biota will be caused by biocide usage and temperature depressions. However, the artificial upwelling of nutrients associated with the pumping of cold deep water, and the artificial reef created by an OTEC plant may have positive effects on the local environment. Although more detailed information is needed to assess the net effect of an OTEC operation on fisheries, certain assumptions and calculations are made, supporting the conclusion that the potential risk to fisheries is not signnificant enough to deter the early development of OTEC. It will be necessary to monitor a commercial-scale plant in order to remove many of the remaining uncertainties.

  2. Integration of ocean thermal energy conversion power plants with existing power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arunasalam, N.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of integrating an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant with existing power systems is studied. A nonlinear model of an OTEC power system is developed. The dynamics of the large local induction motor load, and the coaxial cable connection to the mainland are included in the model. The effect of the motor load and the coaxial cable on the steady-state stability of the OTEC power plant is investigated using linearized analysis. The transient stability of the OTEC system is investigated through simulation. The contribution made by the motor load and the coaxial cable to the transient stability is studied. The occurrence of self excitation phenomena is analyzed using linear methods and simulation. The effects of wave and vessel motion on the electrical power output of the OTEC plant is investigated.

  3. Ocean thermal energy conversion power system development. Final design report: PSD-I, Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-06-30

    The PSD-I program provides a heat exchanger sytem consisting of an evaporator, condenser and various ancillaries with ammonia used as a working fluid in a closed simulated Rankine cycle. It is to be installed on the Chepachet Research Vessel for test and evaluation of a number of OTEC concepts in a true ocean environment. It is one of several test articles to be tested. Primary design concerns include control of biofouling, corrosion and erosion of aluminum tubes, selection of materials, and the development of a basis for scale-up to large heat exchangers so as to ultimately demonstrate economic feasibility on a commercial scale. The PSD-I test article is devised to verify thermodynamic, environmental, and mechanical performance of basic design concepts. The detailed design, development, fabrication, checklist, delivery, installation support, and operation support for the Test Article Heat Exchangers are described. (WHK)

  4. Final Progress Report: Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James P. Barry; Peter G. Brewer

    2004-05-25

    OAK-B135 This report summarizes activities and results of investigations of the potential environmental consequences of direct injection of carbon dioxide into the deep-sea as a carbon sequestration method. Results of field experiments using small scale in situ releases of liquid CO2 are described in detail. The major conclusions of these experiments are that mortality rates of deep sea biota will vary depending on the concentrations of CO2 in deep ocean waters that result from a carbon sequestration project. Large changes in seawater acidity and carbon dioxide content near CO2 release sites will likely cause significant harm to deep-sea marine life. Smaller changes in seawater chemistry at greater distances from release sites will be less harmful, but may result in significant ecosystem changes.

  5. International and United States documents on oceans law and policy. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Volume 3 of the five-volume compilation contains major international documents relating to ocean issues. It groups the documents under 11 major headings: Polar Policy (Arctic and Antarctic); Marine scientific research and development; Non-living resources under national jurisdiction; Exclusive economic zone; Deep seabed mining; Maritime boundaries; Dispute prevention and settlement; Special regimes (including canals, straits, etc.); Communication (undersea cables and broadcasting); and Arms control and the law of naval warfare. The title page for each document includes full citations. While most are presented in their entirety, a few have been edited to save space. A separate abstract on Deep seabed mining was prepared for the Energy Data Base and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis.

  6. Prospects for Simulating Macromolecular Surfactant Chemistry at the Ocean-Atmosphere Boundary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, S.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Deal, C.; Liu, Xiaohong; Long, M.; Ogunro, O.; Russell, Lynn M.; Wingenter, O.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic lipids and polymers are surveyed for their ability to adsorb at the water-air interfaces associated with bubbles, marine microlayers and particles in the overlying boundary layer. Representative ocean biogeochemical regimes are defined in order to estimate local concentrations for the major macromolecular classes. Surfactant equilibria and maximum excess are then derived based on a network of model compounds. Relative local coverage and upward mass transport follow directly, and specific chemical structures can be placed into regional rank order. Lipids and denatured protein-like polymers dominate at the selected locations. The assigned monolayer phase states are variable, whether assessed along bubbles or at the atmospheric spray droplet perimeter. Since oceanic film compositions prove to be irregular, effects on gas and organic transfer are expected to exhibit geographic dependence as well. Moreover, the core arguments extend across the sea-air interface into aerosol-cloud systems. Fundamental nascent chemical properties including mass to carbon ratio and density depend strongly on the geochemical state of source waters. High surface pressures may suppress the Kelvin effect, and marine organic hygroscopicities are almost entirely unconstrained. While bubble adsorption provides a well-known means for transporting lipidic or proteinaceous material into sea spray, the same cannot be said of polysaccharides. Carbohydrates tend to be strongly hydrophilic so that their excess carbon mass is low despite stacked polymeric geometries. Since sugars are abundant in the marine aerosol, gel-based mechanisms may be required to achieve uplift. Uncertainties in the surfactant logic distill to a global scale dearth of information regarding two dimensional kinetics and equilibria. Nonetheless simulations are recommended, to initiate the process of systems level quantification.

  7. A FALSE POSITIVE FOR OCEAN GLINT ON EXOPLANETS: THE LATITUDE-ALBEDO EFFECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Abbot, Dorian S. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Voigt, Aiko [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, D-20146, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-06-10

    Identifying liquid water on the surface of planets is a high priority, as this traditionally defines habitability. One proposed signature of oceans is specular reflection ('glint'), which increases the apparent albedo of a planet at crescent phases. We post-process a global climate model of an Earth-like planet to simulate reflected light curves. Significantly, we obtain glint-like phase variations even though we do not include specular reflection in our model. This false positive is the product of two generic properties: (1) for modest obliquities, a planet's poles receive less orbit-averaged stellar flux than its equator, so the poles are more likely to be covered in highly reflective snow and ice; and (2) we show that reflected light from a modest-obliquity planet at crescent phases probes higher latitudes than at gibbous phases, therefore a planet's apparent albedo will naturally increase at crescent phase. We suggest that this 'latitude-albedo effect' will operate even for large obliquities: in that case the equator receives less orbit-averaged flux than the poles, and the equator is preferentially sampled at crescent phase. Using rotational and orbital color variations to map the surfaces of directly imaged planets and estimate their obliquity will therefore be a necessary pre-condition for properly interpreting their reflected phase variations. The latitude-albedo effect is a particularly convincing glint false positive for zero-obliquity planets, and such worlds are not amenable to latitudinal mapping. This effect severely limits the utility of specular reflection for detecting oceans on exoplanets.

  8. Polluting of Winter Convective Clouds upon Transition from Ocean Inland Over Central California: Contrasting Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; Prather, Kimberly; Suski, Kaitlyn; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf

    2014-01-01

    In-situ aircraft measurements of aerosol chemical and cloud microphysical properties were conducted during the CalWater campaign in February and March 2011 over the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the coastal waters of central California. The main objective was to elucidate the impacts of aerosol properties on clouds and precipitation forming processes. In order to accomplish this, we compared contrasting cases of clouds that ingested aerosols from different sources. The results showed that clouds containing pristine oceanic air had low cloud drop concentrations and started to develop rain 500 m above their base. This occurred both over the ocean and over the Sierra Nevada, mainly in the early morning when the radiatively cooled stable continental boundary layer was decoupled from the cloud base. Supercooled rain dominated the precipitation that formed in growing convective clouds in the pristine air, up to the -21C isotherm level. A contrasting situation was documented in the afternoon over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, when the clouds ingested high pollution aerosol concentrations produced in the Central Valley. This led to slow growth of the cloud drop effective radius with height and suppressed and even prevented the initiation of warm rain while contributing to the development of ice hydrometeors in the form of graupel. Our results show that cloud condensation and ice nuclei were the limiting factors that controlled warm rain and ice processes, respectively, while the unpolluted clouds in the same air mass produced precipitation quite efficiently. These findings provide the motivation for deeper investigations into the nature of the aerosols seeding clouds.

  9. Initial Value Predictability of Intrinsic Oceanic Modes and Implications for Decadal Prediction over North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branstator, Grant

    2014-12-09

    The overall aim of our project was to quantify and characterize predictability of the climate as it pertains to decadal time scale predictions. By predictability we mean the degree to which a climate forecast can be distinguished from the climate that exists at initial forecast time, taking into consideration the growth of uncertainty that occurs as a result of the climate system being chaotic. In our project we were especially interested in predictability that arises from initializing forecasts from some specific state though we also contrast this predictability with predictability arising from forecasting the reaction of the system to external forcing – for example changes in greenhouse gas concentration. Also, we put special emphasis on the predictability of prominent intrinsic patterns of the system because they often dominate system behavior. Highlights from this work include: • Development of novel methods for estimating the predictability of climate forecast models. • Quantification of the initial value predictability limits of ocean heat content and the overturning circulation in the Atlantic as they are represented in various state of the artclimate models. These limits varied substantially from model to model but on average were about a decade with North Atlantic heat content tending to be more predictable than North Pacific heat content. • Comparison of predictability resulting from knowledge of the current state of the climate system with predictability resulting from estimates of how the climate system will react to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. It turned out that knowledge of the initial state produces a larger impact on forecasts for the first 5 to 10 years of projections. • Estimation of tbe predictability of dominant patterns of ocean variability including well-known patterns of variability in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. For the most part these patterns were predictable for 5 to 10 years. • Determination of especially predictable patterns in the North Atlantic. The most predictable of these retain predictability substantially longer than generic patterns, with some being predictable for two decades.

  10. Do Coupled Climate Models Correctly SImulate the Upward Branch of the Deept Ocean Global Conveyor?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarmiento, Jorge L; Downes, Stephanie; Bianchi, Daniele

    2013-01-17

    The large-scale meridional overturning circulation (MOC) connects the deep ocean, a major reservoir of carbon, to the other components of the climate system and must therefore be accurately represented in Earth System Models. Our project aims to address the specific question of the pathways and mechanisms controlling the upwelling branch of the MOC, a subject of significant disagreement between models and observational syntheses, and among general circulation models. Observations of these pathways are limited, particularly in regions of complex hydrography such as the Southern Ocean. As such, we rely on models to examine theories of the overturning circulation, both physically and biogeochemically. This grant focused on a particular aspect of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) where there is currently significant disagreement between models and observationally based analyses of the MOC, and amongst general circulation models. In particular, the research focused on addressing the following questions: 1. Where does the deep water that sinks in the polar regions rise to the surface? 2. What processes are responsible for this rise? 3. Do state-of-the-art coupled GCMs capture these processes? Our research had three key components: observational synthesis, model development and model analysis. In this final report we outline the key results from these areas of research for the 2007 to 2012 grant period. The research described here was carried out primarily by graduate student, Daniele Bianchi (now a Postdoc at McGill University, Canada), and Postdoc Stephanie Downes (now a Research Fellow at The Australian national University, Australia). Additional support was provided for programmers Jennifer Simeon as well as Rick Slater.

  11. A review and critique of the socioeconomic impact assessment for the Kahe Point Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, R; Gopalakrishnan, C; Samples, K

    1988-01-01

    This report addresses the adequacy of Ocean Thermal Corporation's socioeconomic impact assessment of its 40-MWe closed-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot plant proposed for Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii. The socioeconomic impacts identified as relevant to the plant were assessed in detail, including potential economic-demographic, public-service and fiscal, ocean-use, aesthetic, cultural, and energy impacts. The economic-demographic impact assessment does not estimate the full extent of population and income changes or second-order effects associated with the plant. There is no subjective assessment of perceptions on the part of local communities concerning probable changes in land values, housing, and population. Anticipated public-service and fiscal impacts are found to be relatively unimportant; however, the measurement of the impact of the plant on tax revenues needs improvement. The assessment does not sufficiently consider the objective and subjective assessment of ocean-use, aesthetic, and cultural impacts, which are of major significance to the local communities. The quantification of physical impacts, perceptions of impacts, and potential mitigation measures is inadequate. The energy impacts need to be updated to reflect the recent declines in oil prices and price projections. An assessment of low-probability, high-risk occurrences may be necessary. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Ocean thermal energy at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, quarterly report. Report for Jan-Mar 82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The following are included: Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)--OTEC pilot plant conceptual design review; OTEC methanol; review of electrolyzer development programs and requirements; financial and legal considerations in OTEC implementation; potential navy sites for GEOTEC systems; hybrid geothermal-OTEC power plants: single-cycle performance estimates; and supervision of testing of pneumatic wave energy conversion system.

  13. Collaborative project. Ocean-atmosphere interaction from meso-to planetary-scale. Mechanisms, parameterization, and variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small, Richard; Bryan, Frank; Tribbia, Joseph; Park, Sungsu; Dennis, John; Saravanan, R.; Schneider, Niklas; Kwon, Young-Oh

    2015-06-11

    This project aims to improve long term global climate simulations by resolving ocean mesoscale activity and the corresponding response in the atmosphere. The main computational objectives are; i) to perform and assess Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations with the new Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) spectral element dynamical core; ii) use static mesh refinement to focus on oceanic fronts; iii) develop a new Earth System Modeling tool to investigate the atmospheric response to fronts by selectively filtering surface flux fields in the CESM coupler. The climate research objectives are 1) to improve the coupling of ocean fronts and the atmospheric boundary layer via investigations of dependency on model resolution and stability functions: 2) to understand and simulate the ensuing tropospheric response that has recently been documented in observations: and 3) to investigate the relationship of ocean frontal variability to low frequency climate variability and the accompanying storm tracks and extremes in high resolution simulations. This is a collaborative multi-institution project consisting of computational scientists, climate scientists and climate model developers. It specifically aims at DOE objectives of advancing simulation and predictive capability of climate models through improvements in resolution and physical process representation.

  14. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization- Final Technical Report on Award DE-EE0002664. October 28, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ascari, Matthew B.; Hanson, Howard P.; Rauchenstein, Lynn; Van Zwieten, James; Bharathan, Desikan; Heimiller, Donna; Langle, Nicholas; Scott, George N.; Potemra, James; Nagurny, N. John; Jansen, Eugene

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world's ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today's state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources. The OTEEV project leverages existing NREL renewable energy GIS technologies and integrates extractable energy estimated from quality-controlled data and projected optimal achievable energy conversion rates. Input data are synthesized from a broad range of existing in-situ measurements and ground-truthed numerical models with temporal and spatial resolutions sufficient to reflect the local resource. Energy production rates are calculated for regions based on conversion rates estimated for current technology, local energy density of the resource, and sustainable resource extraction. Plant spacing and maximum production rates are then estimated based on a default plant size and transmission mechanisms. The resulting data are organized, displayed, and accessed using a multi-layered GIS mapping tool, http://maps.nrel.gov/mhk_atlas with a user-friendly graphical user interface.

  15. Biogenic iron oxyhydroxide formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents: Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toner, Brandy M.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Wirth, Richard; Chan, Clara S.; McCollom, Thomas; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2008-05-22

    Here we examine Fe speciation within Fe-encrusted biofilms formed during 2-month seafloor incubations of sulfide mineral assemblages at the Main Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The biofilms were distributed heterogeneously across the surface of the incubated sulfide and composed primarily of particles with a twisted stalk morphology resembling those produced by some aerobic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms. Our objectives were to determine the form of biofilm-associated Fe, and identify the sulfide minerals associated with microbial growth. We used micro-focused synchrotron-radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping (mu XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu EXAFS), and X-ray diffraction (mu XRD) in conjunction with focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning, and highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and mineralogical composition of an Fe-encrusted biofilm was queried at different spatial scales, and the spatial relationship between primary sulfide and secondary oxyhydroxide minerals was resolved. The Fe-encrusted biofilms formed preferentially at pyrrhotite-rich (Fe1-xS, 0<_ x<_ 0.2) regions of the incubated chimney sulfide. At the nanometer spatial scale, particles within the biofilm exhibiting lattice fringing and diffraction patterns consistent with 2-line ferrihydrite were identified infrequently. At the micron spatial scale, Fe mu EXAFS spectroscopy and mu XRD measurements indicate that the dominant form of biofilm Fe is a short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxide characterized by pervasive edge-sharing Fe-O6 octahedral linkages. Double corner-sharing Fe-O6 linkages, which are common to Fe oxyhydroxide mineral structures of 2-line ferrihydrite, 6-line ferrihydrite, and goethite, were not detected in the biogenic iron oxyhydroxide (BIO). The suspended development of the BIO mineral structure is consistent with Fe(III) hydrolysis and polymerization in the presence of high concentrations of Fe-complexing ligands. We hypothesize that microbiologically produced Fe-complexing ligands may play critical roles in both the delivery of Fe(II) to oxidases, and the limited Fe(III) oxyhydroxide crystallinity observed within the biofilm. Our research provides insight into the structure and formation of naturally occurring, microbiologically produced Fe oxyhydroxide minerals in the deep-sea. We describe the initiation of microbial seafloor weathering, and the morphological and mineralogical signals that result from that process. Our observations provide a starting point from which progressively older and more extensively weathered seafloor sulfide minerals may be examined, with the ultimate goal of improved interpretation of ancient microbial processes and associated biological signatures.

  16. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Bruce Albert

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data, the Project Team developed a conceptual tidal energy project design utilizing ORPC’s TidGen® Power System. While the Project Team has not committed to ORPC technology for future development of a False Pass project, this conceptual design was critical to informing the Project’s economic analysis. The results showed that power from a tidal energy project could be provided to the City of False at a rate at or below the cost of diesel generated electricity and sold to commercial customers at rates competitive with current market rates, providing a stable, flat priced, environmentally sound alternative to the diesel generation currently utilized for energy in the community. The Project Team concluded that with additional grants and private investment a tidal energy project at False Pass is well-positioned to be the first tidal energy project to be developed in Alaska, and the first tidal energy project to be interconnected to an isolated micro grid in the world. A viable project will be a model for similar projects in coastal Alaska.

  17. MEASUREMENTS OF PAST 14C LEVELS AND 13C/12C RATIOS IN THE SURFACE WATERS OF THE WORLD'S SUBPOLAR OCEANS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T A

    2010-04-22

    Under this project we have developed methods that allow the reconstruction of past {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean by measuring the {sup 14}C contents of archived salmon scales. The overall goal of this research was to reduce of the uncertainty in the uptake of fossil CO{sub 2} by the oceans and thereby improve the quantification of the global carbon cycle and to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs), with their three dimensional global spatial coverage and temporal modeling capabilities, provide the best route to accurately calculating the total uptake of CO{sub 2} by the oceans and, hence, to achieving the desired reduction in uncertainty. {sup 14}C has played, and continues to play, a central role in the validation of the OGCMs calculations, particularly with respect to those model components which govern the uptake of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and the transport of this carbon within the oceans. Under this project, we have developed time-series records of the {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of three areas of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean. As the previously available data on the time-history of oceanic surface water {sup 14}C levels are very limited, these time-series records provide significant new {sup 14}C data to constrain and validate the OGCMs.

  18. Environmental Risk Evaluation System – An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Hanna, Luke A.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Blake, Kara M.; Anderson, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Deployment and operation of ocean energy devices does not represent the first foray into industrialization of the oceans; shipping, nearshore development, waste disposal, subsea mining, oil and gas extraction, and large-scale commercial fishing all coexist in various states of equilibrium with the marine environment. In most cases these industries were developed without a clear understanding of the likely outcomes of large-scale development. In virtually every country where the harvest of ocean energy is emerging, regulators and stakeholders require that the industry examine potential effects of devices, minimize the footprint of effects, and provide management measures that either avoid the impacts or mitigate to further reduce the residual impacts. The ERES analysis is based on scenarios that are consistent with sequences of events that lead to adverse impacts, distinguishing between episodic, intermittent, and chronic risks. In the context of ocean energy development, an episodic scenario might involve the exceedingly rare but potentially devastating event of an oil spill from vessels caused by the presence of the device, while vulnerable receptors are present; understanding the risk of such a scenario involves determining the probability of the occurrence by examining factors such as the petroleum content of ocean energy devices, the vessel traffic volume and the proximity of shipping lanes to the ocean energy devices, the reliability of the control measures to avoid an episodic event, and the likely presence of seabirds, marine mammals, or fish that may be affected by oil. In contrast, chronic risk scenarios involve events or circumstances that are continuous, so that risk characterization involves assessing only the severity of the consequences. An example of a chronic risk scenario might be the toxicity to marine organisms due to low-level chemical releases from anti-biofouling paints and coatings that may be used on devices, and the effect that the level of toxicity may have on marine flora and fauna. Between these two extremes are intermittent events, such as encounters between fish and rotating tidal turbine blades that will occur only when fish are present and the tidal device is turning. A key feature of understanding risk is describing the uncertainty associated with the occurrence of an episodic, intermittent, or chronic event, as well as the uncertainty of the resulting consequences.

  19. Seawater test results of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zangrando, F.; Bharathan, D.; Link, H. ); Panchal, C.B. )

    1994-01-01

    Key components of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion systems--the flash evaporator, mist eliminator, passive predeaerator, two surface condenser stages, and two direct-contact condenser stages--have been tested using seawater. These components operate at lower steam pressures and higher inlet noncondensable gas concentrations than do conventional power plant heat exchangers. The rate of heat exchanged between the evaporator and the condenser is on the order of 1.25MW-thermal, requiring a warm seawater flow of about 0.1 m[sup 3]/s; the cold seawater flow is on the order of half the warm water flow. In addition to characterizing the performance of the various components, the system has produced potable water from condensation of the steam produced in the evaporator. The information obtained in these tests is being used to design a larger scale experiment in which net power production is expected to be demonstrate for the first time using OC-OTEC technology.

  20. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion moored pipe/mobile platform design study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, H.O.; McNatt, T.R.; Ross, J.M.; Stambaugh, K.A.; Watts, J.L.

    1982-07-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Moored Pipe/Mobile Platform (MP-Squared) Design Study was carried out to investigate an innovative approach to the moored floating OTEC plant. In the past, a number of concepts have been examined by NOAA for floating OTEC plants. These concepts have considered various configurations for platforms, cold water pipes and mooring systems. In most cases the cold water pipe (CWP) was permanently attached to the platform and the platform was permanently moored on station. Even though CWP concepts incorporating articulated joints or flexible pipes were used, the CWP stresses induced by platform motion were frequently excessive and beyond the design limits of the CWP. This was especially true in the survival (100-year storm) case. It may be feasible that the concept of a permanently moored CWP attached through a flexible transition CWP to the platform could reduce the degree of technical risk by de-coupling the CWP from the motions of the platform. In addition, if the platform is capable of disconnecting from the CWP during survival conditions, even less technical risk may be inherent in the OTEC system. The MP-Squared Design Study was an engineering evaluation of the concepts described above. The effort has been carried through to the conceptual design level, and culminated in model tests in an experimental wave basin.

  1. Open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion surface-condenser design analysis and computer program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Rabas, T.J.

    1991-05-01

    This report documents a computer program for designing a surface condenser that condenses low-pressure steam in an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant. The primary emphasis is on the open-cycle (OC) OTEC power system, although the same condenser design can be used for conventional and hybrid cycles because of their highly similar operating conditions. In an OC-OTEC system, the pressure level is very low (deep vacuums), temperature differences are small, and the inlet noncondensable gas concentrations are high. Because current condenser designs, such as the shell-and-tube, are not adequate for such conditions, a plate-fin configuration is selected. This design can be implemented in aluminum, which makes it very cost-effective when compared with other state-of-the-art vacuum steam condenser designs. Support for selecting a plate-fin heat exchanger for OC-OTEC steam condensation can be found in the sizing (geometric details) and rating (heat transfer and pressure drop) calculations presented. These calculations are then used in a computer program to obtain all the necessary thermal performance details for developing design specifications for a plate-fin steam condenser. 20 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Waterborne noise due to ocean thermal energy conversion plants. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janota, C.P.; Thompson, D.E.

    1982-06-17

    Public law reflects a United States national commitment to the rapid development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) as an alternate energy source. OTEC plants extract the stored solar energy from the world's tropical seas and in so doing pose a potential for altering the character of the ambient noise there. The sources of noise from an OTEC plant are analyzed in the context of four configurations, two of which were built and tested, and two which are concepts for future full-scale moored facilities. The analysis indicates that the noise resulting from the interaction of turbulence with the sea-water pumps is expected to dominate in the frequency range 10 Hz to 1 kHZ. Measured radiated noise data from the OTEC-I research plant, located near the island of Hawaii, are compared with the analysis. The measured data diverge from the predicted levels at frequencies above about 60 Hz because of dominant non-OTEC noise sources on this platform. However, at low frequency, the measured broadband noise is comparable to that predicted.

  3. Innovative turbine concepts for open-cycle OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of preliminary studies conducted to identify and evaluate three innovative concepts for an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) steam turbine that could significantly reduce the cost of OTEC electrical power plants. The three concepts are (1) a crossflow turbine, (2) a vertical-axis, axial-flow turbine, and (3) a double-flow, radial-inflow turbine with mixed-flow blading. In all cases, the innovation involves the use of lightweight, composite plastic blading and a physical geometry that facilitates efficient fluid flow to and from the other major system components and reduces the structural requirements for both the turbine or the system vacuum enclosure, or both. The performance, mechanical design, and cost of each of the concepts are developed to varying degrees but in sufficient detail to show that the potential exists for cost reductions to the goals established in the US Department of Energy's planning documents. Specifically, results showed that an axial turbine operating with 33% higher steam throughput and 7% lower efficiency than the most efficient configuration provides the most cost-effective open-cycle OTEC system. The vacuum enclosure can be significantly modified to reduce costs by establishing better interfaces with the system. 33 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. The Cobb-Eickelberg seamount chain: Hotspot volcanism with mid-ocean ridge basalt affinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desonie, D.L.; Duncan, R.A. )

    1990-08-10

    Cobb hotspot, currently located beneath Axial seamount on the Juan de Fuca ridge, has the temporal but not the isotopic characteristics usually attributed to a mantle plume. The earlier volcanic products of the hotspot, form eight volcanoes in the Cobb-Eickelberg seamount (CES) chain, show a westward age progression away from the hotspot and a westward increase in the age difference between the seamounts and the crust on which they formed. These results are consistent with movement of the Pacific plate over a fixed Cobb hotspot and eventual encroachment by the westwardly migrating Juan de Fuca ridge. CES lavas are slightly enriched in alkalies and incompatible elements relative to those of the Juan de Fuca ridge but they have Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions virtually identical to those found along the ridge. Therefore, Cobb hotspot is a stationary, upper mantle melting anomaly whose volcanic products show strong mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) affinity. These observations can be explained by low degrees of partial melting of entrained heterogeneous upper mantle MORB source material within a thermally driven lower mantle diapir or by an intrinsic MORB-like composition of the deeper mantle source region from which northeast Pacific plumes rise.

  5. Use of Advanced Meteorological Model Output for Coastal Ocean Modeling in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Wang, Taiping

    2011-06-01

    It is a great challenge to specify meteorological forcing in estuarine and coastal circulation modeling using observed data because of the lack of complete datasets. As a result of this limitation, water temperature is often not simulated in estuarine and coastal modeling, with the assumption that density-induced currents are generally dominated by salinity gradients. However, in many situations, temperature gradients could be sufficiently large to influence the baroclinic motion. In this paper, we present an approach to simulate water temperature using outputs from advanced meteorological models. This modeling approach was applied to simulate annual variations of water temperatures of Puget Sound, a fjordal estuary in the Pacific Northwest of USA. Meteorological parameters from North American Region Re-analysis (NARR) model outputs were evaluated with comparisons to observed data at real-time meteorological stations. Model results demonstrated that NARR outputs can be used to drive coastal ocean models for realistic simulations of long-term water-temperature distributions in Puget Sound. Model results indicated that the net flux from NARR can be further improved with the additional information from real-time observations.

  6. Development of an operational global ocean climatology through the use of remotely sensed sea surface temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, T.M.

    1995-05-09

    Monthly mean satellite-derived sea surface temperature SST data have been derived globally using daytime and nighttime AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) multi-channel data. From a 12 year data set (1982-1993), valid monthly daytime and nighttime climatologies were created using an eight year subset (1984-1990, 1993). Based on buoy comparisons, four years were omitted due to volcanic aerosol corruption (El Chichon 1982/83, Mt. Pinatubo 1991/92). These resulting monthly climatologies provide SST fields at approximately 1/3rd degree latitude/longitude resolution. Difference fields have been created comparing the new satellite climatology with the older and coarser-resolution climatology constructed from conventional SST data. Regional and zonal climatology differences were also created to highlight the deficiencies, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, in the older climatology believed to result primarily from a lack of buoy/ship (in situ) data. Such comparisons made it clear that the satellite climatology provided a much better product. Ocean current systems, El Nino, La Nina, and other water mass characteristics all appear with better detail and accuracy within the high-resolution satellite climatology.

  7. Nonlinear dynamic response of submarine pipelines in contact with the ocean floor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic response of a submarine pipeline to wave and current excitation is investigated by the finite-element method. The pipeline, in contact with soft clay on the ocean floor, is modeled as a continuous beam. Small-deflection theory with geometric stiffening is employed. Pipeline tension, used in the geometric stiffness matrix, is calculated using pipeline stretch. The hydrodynamic forces are calculated using the modified Morison equation. The excitation involves a long-crested regular wave propagating perpendicular to the pipeline axis with or with out the current. The distributed drag and lift forces are converted into multisegment concentrated forces by means of the beam shape functions, and the inertia force is treated as a uniformly distributed force on each element. The soil-resistance forces due to lateral sliding on a plane surface are calculated using either an elasto-plastic or a hysteretic pipeline-soil interaction model. The Newmark Method is used to integrate the nonlinear equations of dynamic equilibrium using an iterative scheme within each time step. It is found from this study that the use of geometric stiffness is necessary for pipelines in a marine environment. The significant effect of geometric stiffening on pipeline responses for cases involving current is demonstrated.

  8. Characterization of U.S. Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Test Sites: A Catalogue of Met-Ocean Data.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallman, Ann Renee; Neary, Vincent Sinclair

    2014-10-01

    This report presents met - ocean data and wave energy characteristics at three U.S. wave energy converter (WEC) test and potential deployment sites . Its purpose is to enable the compari son of wave resource characteristics among sites as well as the select io n of test sites that are most suitable for a developer's device and that best meet their testing needs and objectives . It also provides essential inputs for the design of WEC test devices and planning WEC tests, including the planning of deployment and op eration s and maintenance. For each site, this report catalogues wave statistics recommended in the (draft) International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Specification (IEC 62600 - 101 TS) on Wave Energy Characterization, as well as the frequency of oc currence of weather windows and extreme sea states, and statistics on wind and ocean currents. It also provides useful information on test site infrastructure and services .

  9. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.

    2013-10-30

    This project covers facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) for federal research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG) for estuary habitat restoration. The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps], U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The EOS is tasked by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the Action Agencies (AAs) to design and coordinate implementation of the federal RME plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary, including the river’s plume in the ocean. Initiated in 2002, the EOS is composed of members from BPA, the Corps, NMFS, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) Marine Sciences Laboratory, and other agencies as necessary.

  10. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabine, C.L.; Key, R.M.; Hall, M.; Kozyr, A.

    1999-08-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and radiocarbon (delta 14C), at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) during the R/V Thomas G. Thompson oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Suva, Fiji, on October 5, 1993, and ended in Yokohama, Japan, on November 10, 1993. Measurements made along WOCE Section P10 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by conductivity temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO2, TALK, delta 14C, and underway pCO2.

  11. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY10 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-10-26

    The Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. The EOS is one of multiple work groups in the federal research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed in response to responsibilities arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the FCRPS. The EOS is tasked by NOAA Fisheries and the Action Agencies to design and coordinate implementation of the federal RME plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary, including the plume.

  12. Identification of types of businesses with potential interest in operating and/or exporting ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    This study describes the characteristics of three selected Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)-based lines of business, examines other lines of business and identifies those with similar characteristics, and indicates the types of businesses/corporations that could be expected to have potential interest in operating and/or exporting OTEC plants. An OTEC line of business model is developed to assist companies in making an internal corporate assessment as to whether OTEC should be in their business plan.

  13. Characterization of U.S. Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Test Sites: A Catalogue of Met-Ocean Data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8206 Unlimited Release Printed September 2014 Characterization of U.S. Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Test Sites: A Catalogue of Met-Ocean Data Ann R. Dallman, Vincent S. Neary Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security

  14. Effects of Localized Energy Extraction in an Idealized, Energetically Complete Numerical Model of an Ocean-Estuary Tidal System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    localized energy extraction in an idealized, energetically complete numerical model of an ocean-estuary tidal system MHK Instrumentation, Measurement & Computer Modeling Workshop, Broomfield CO, July 10 2012 Mitsuhiro Kawase and Marisa Gedney Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center / School of Oceanography University of Washington Seattle WA 98195 United States * Far-field (Estuary-wide) - Changes in the tidal range - Changes in tidal currents  Near-field (Vicinity of the

  15. Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15: Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SVTAG)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Green Leases Green Leases Green Lease Policies and Procedures for Lease Acquisition Green Lease Policies and Procedures Policy Memorandum Attachment 1: Green Lease Policies and Procedures for Lease Acquisition Attachment 2: Solicitation for Offers with New and Revised Green Lease Text Attachment 3: Instructions for Use of Green Lease Solicitation Paragraph Reference Chart Attachment 4: Unrevised SFO Paragraphs Reissued

    X16-009 Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15: Semi-Volatile Thermal

  16. Prognostic residual mean flow in an ocean general circulation model and its relation to prognostic Eulerian mean flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saenz, Juan A.; Chen, Qingshan; Ringler, Todd

    2015-05-19

    Recent work has shown that taking the thickness-weighted average (TWA) of the Boussinesq equations in buoyancy coordinates results in exact equations governing the prognostic residual mean flow where eddy–mean flow interactions appear in the horizontal momentum equations as the divergence of the Eliassen–Palm flux tensor (EPFT). It has been proposed that, given the mathematical tractability of the TWA equations, the physical interpretation of the EPFT, and its relation to potential vorticity fluxes, the TWA is an appropriate framework for modeling ocean circulation with parameterized eddies. The authors test the feasibility of this proposition and investigate the connections between the TWA framework and the conventional framework used in models, where Eulerian mean flow prognostic variables are solved for. Using the TWA framework as a starting point, this study explores the well-known connections between vertical transfer of horizontal momentum by eddy form drag and eddy overturning by the bolus velocity, used by Greatbatch and Lamb and Gent and McWilliams to parameterize eddies. After implementing the TWA framework in an ocean general circulation model, we verify our analysis by comparing the flows in an idealized Southern Ocean configuration simulated using the TWA and conventional frameworks with the same mesoscale eddy parameterization.

  17. Prognostic residual mean flow in an ocean general circulation model and its relation to prognostic Eulerian mean flow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saenz, Juan A.; Chen, Qingshan; Ringler, Todd

    2015-05-19

    Recent work has shown that taking the thickness-weighted average (TWA) of the Boussinesq equations in buoyancy coordinates results in exact equations governing the prognostic residual mean flow where eddy–mean flow interactions appear in the horizontal momentum equations as the divergence of the Eliassen–Palm flux tensor (EPFT). It has been proposed that, given the mathematical tractability of the TWA equations, the physical interpretation of the EPFT, and its relation to potential vorticity fluxes, the TWA is an appropriate framework for modeling ocean circulation with parameterized eddies. The authors test the feasibility of this proposition and investigate the connections between the TWAmore » framework and the conventional framework used in models, where Eulerian mean flow prognostic variables are solved for. Using the TWA framework as a starting point, this study explores the well-known connections between vertical transfer of horizontal momentum by eddy form drag and eddy overturning by the bolus velocity, used by Greatbatch and Lamb and Gent and McWilliams to parameterize eddies. After implementing the TWA framework in an ocean general circulation model, we verify our analysis by comparing the flows in an idealized Southern Ocean configuration simulated using the TWA and conventional frameworks with the same mesoscale eddy parameterization.« less

  18. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring and Evaluation FY08 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, GE; Diefenderfer, HL

    2008-09-29

    The Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. In fiscal year 2008 (FY08), EOS project accomplishments included (1) subgroup meetings; (2) participation in the estuary work group of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership; (3) project management via BPA's project tracking system, Pisces; (4) quarterly project status reports; and (5) a major revision to the Estuary RME document and its subsequent regional release (new version January 2008). Many of the estuary RME recommendations in this document were incorporated into the Biological Opinion on FCRPS operations (May 2008). In summary, the FY08 EOS project resulted in expanded, substantive coordination with other regional RME forums, a new version of the federal Estuary RME program document, and implementation coordination. This annual report is a FY08 deliverable for the project titled Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup.

  19. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY08 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2008-09-29

    The Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The goal of the EOS project is to facilitate activities of the estuary/ocean RME subgroup as it coordinates design and implementation of federal RME in the lower Columbia River and estuary. In fiscal year 2008 (FY08), EOS project accomplishments included 1) subgroup meetings; 2) participation in the estuary work group of the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership; 3) project management via the project tracking system, Pisces; 4) quarterly project status reports; and 5) a major revision to the Estuary RME document and its subsequent regional release (new version January 2008). Many of the estuary RME recommendations in this document were incorporated into the Biological Opinion on hydrosystem operations (May 2008). In summary, the FY08 EOS project resulted in expanded, substantive coordination with other regional RME forums, a new version of the federal Estuary RME program document, and implementation coordination. This annual report is a FY08 deliverable for the project titled Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup.

  20. An acoustically controlled tetherless underwater vehicle for installation and maintenance of neutrino detectors in the deep ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballou, Philip J.

    1997-02-01

    The task of installing and servicing high energy neutrino detectors in the deep ocean from a surface support vessel is problematic using conventional tethered systems. An array of multiple detector strings rising 500 m from the ocean floor, and forming a grid with 50 m spacing between the strings, presents a substantial entanglement hazard for equipment cables deployed from the surface. Such tasks may be accomplished with fewer risks using a tetherless underwater remotely operated vehicle that has a local acoustic telemetry link to send control commands and sensor data between the vehicle and a stationary hydrophone suspended above or just outside the perimeter of the work site. The Phase I effort involves the development of an underwater acoustic telemetry link for vehicle control and sensor feedback, the evaluation of video compression methods for real-time acoustic transmission of video through the water, and the defining of local control routines on board the vehicle to allow it to perform certain basic maneuvering tasks autonomously, or to initiate a self-rescue if the acoustic control link should be lost. In Phase II, a prototype tetherless vehicle system will be designed and constructed to demonstrate the ability to install cable interconnections within a detector array at 4 km depth. The same control technology could be used with a larger more powerful vehicle to maneuver the detector strings into desired positions as they are being lowered to the ocean floor.

  1. Future projection of mean and variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon and Indian Ocean Climate systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annamalai, H

    2014-09-15

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the ability of the CMIP3/5 models to simulate the Indian-Ocean monsoon systems. The PI along with post-docs investigated research issues ranging from synoptic systems to long-term trends over the Asian monsoon region. The PI applied diagnostic tools such as moist static energy (MSE) to isolate: the moist and radiative processes responsible for extended monsoon breaks over South Asia, precursors in the ENSO-monsoon association, reasons for the drying tendency over South Asia and the possible effect on tropical Indian Ocean climate anomalies influencing certain aspects of ENSO characteristics. By diagnosing various observations and coupled model simulations, we developed working hypothesis and tested them by carrying out sensitivity experiments with both linear and nonlinear models. Possible physical and dynamical reasons for model sensitivities were deduced. On the teleconnection front, the ability of CMIP5 models in representing the monsoon-desert mechanism was examined recently. Further more, we have applied a suite of diagnostics and have performed an in depth analysis on CMIP5 integrations to isolate the possible reasons for the ENSO-monsoon linkage or lack thereof. The PI has collaborated with Dr. K.R. Sperber of PCMDI and other CLIVAR Asian-Australian monsoon panel members in understanding the ability of CMIP3/5 models in capturing monsoon and its spectrum of variability. The objective and process-based diagnostics aided in selecting models that best represent the present-day monsoon and its variability that are then employed for future projections. Two major highlights were an invitation to write a review on present understanding monsoons in a changing climate in Nature Climate Change, and identification of an east-west shift in observed monsoon rainfall (more rainfall over tropical western Pacific and drying tendency over South Asia) in the last six decades and attributing that shift to SST rise over the tropical western Pacific. On the training of post-doctoral scientists: the PI spent considerable amount of time and efforts in introducing the post-docs into climate modeling and designing the numerical experiments. With training provided and knowledge gained, post-docs worked in the project obtained long term positions elsewhere. The PI also enjoyed the experience in managing the works and educating work ethics to the younger generation. Based on the research achievements and publications, the PI gave invited talks in major international monsoon conferences/workshops, and gave lectures in various research organizations in the last six years. Finally, during the project period, the PI attended all the DOE organized PIs meeting and presented the major results. Some of the major implications of the project include: (i) Sustained observational efforts are necessary to monitor the three-dimensional moisture distribution over the Asian monsoon region that would aid in better understanding, modeling and predicting severe monsoons well in advance and (ii) process-based diagnostics lead pathways for model improvements.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Manacapuru, Brazil for the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON) Field Campaign

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Amazon rain forest in Brazil is the largest broadleaf forest in the world, covering 7 million square kilometers of the Amazon Basin in South America. It represents over half of the planets remaining rain forests, and comprises the most biodiverse tract of tropical rain forest on the planet. Due to the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest, the area has a strong impact on the climate in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the intricacies of the natural state of the Amazon rain forest, the Green Ocean Amazon, or GOAMAZON, field campaign is a two-year scientific collaboration among U.S. and Brazilian research organizations. They are conducting a variety of different experiments with dozens of measurement tools, using both ground and aerial instrumentation, including the ARM Aerial Facility's G-1 aircraft. For more information on the holistic view of the campaign, see the Department of Energys GOAMAZON website. As a critical component of GOAMAZON, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will obtain measurements near Manacapuru, south of Manaus, Brazil, from January to December 2014. The city of Manaus, with a population of 3 million, uses high-sulfur oil as their primary source of electricity. The AMF site is situated to measure the atmospheric extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the nearby cities pollution plume, as it regularly intersects with the site. Along with other instrument systems located at the Manacapuru site, this deployment will enable scientists to study how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity.

  3. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition: Expanding theUniverse of Protein Families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yooseph, Shibu; Sutton, Granger; Rusch, Douglas B.; Halpern,Aaron L.; Williamson, Shannon J.; Remington, Karin; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Heidelberg, Karla B.; Manning, Gerard; Li, Weizhong; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Cieplak, Piotr; Miller, Christopher S.; Li, Huiying; Mashiyama, Susan T.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; van Belle, Christopher; Chandonia, John-Marc; Soergel, David A.; Zhai, Yufeng; Natarajan, Kannan; Lee, Shaun; Raphael,Benjamin J.; Bafna, Vineet; Friedman, Robert; Brenner, Steven E.; Godzik,Adam; Eisenberg, David; Dixon, Jack E.; Taylor, Susan S.; Strausberg,Robert L.; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J.Craig

    2006-03-23

    Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans) from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.

  4. Detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using LCROSS Earth observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Ennico, Kimberly; Meadows, Victoria S.; Sparks, William; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Bussey, D. Ben J.; Breiner, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) observed the distant Earth on three occasions in 2009. These data span a range of phase angles, including a rare crescent phase view. For each epoch, the satellite acquired near-infrared and mid-infrared full-disk images, and partial-disk spectra at 0.26-0.65 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 500) and 1.17-2.48 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 50). Spectra show strong absorption features due to water vapor and ozone, which is a biosignature gas. We perform a significant recalibration of the UV-visible spectra and provide the first comparison of high-resolution visible Earth spectra to the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. We find good agreement with the observations, reproducing the absolute brightness and dynamic range at all wavelengths for all observation epochs, thus validating the model to within the ∼10% data calibration uncertainty. Data-model comparisons reveal a strong ocean glint signature in the crescent phase data set, which is well matched by our model predictions throughout the observed wavelength range. This provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, where the glint signal is strongest. We examine the detection of the ozone 255 nm Hartley and 400-700 nm Chappuis bands. While the Hartley band is the strongest ozone feature in Earth's spectrum, false positives for its detection could exist. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for future exoplanet characterization missions.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Manacapuru, Brazil for the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON) Field Campaign

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Amazon rain forest in Brazil is the largest broadleaf forest in the world, covering 7 million square kilometers of the Amazon Basin in South America. It represents over half of the planet’s remaining rain forests, and comprises the most biodiverse tract of tropical rain forest on the planet. Due to the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest, the area has a strong impact on the climate in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the intricacies of the natural state of the Amazon rain forest, the Green Ocean Amazon, or GOAMAZON, field campaign is a two-year scientific collaboration among U.S. and Brazilian research organizations. They are conducting a variety of different experiments with dozens of measurement tools, using both ground and aerial instrumentation, including the ARM Aerial Facility's G-1 aircraft. For more information on the holistic view of the campaign, see the Department of Energy’s GOAMAZON website. As a critical component of GOAMAZON, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will obtain measurements near Manacapuru, south of Manaus, Brazil, from January to December 2014. The city of Manaus, with a population of 3 million, uses high-sulfur oil as their primary source of electricity. The AMF site is situated to measure the atmospheric extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the nearby cities’ pollution plume, as it regularly intersects with the site. Along with other instrument systems located at the Manacapuru site, this deployment will enable scientists to study how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity.

  6. Riser-cable development for ocean-thermal-energy conversion plants. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    Developmental testing and analysis of OTEC riser cables and component materials has been undertaken. Two full-size riser cables have been manufactured and tested, one using cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation, the other using self-contained, oil filled (SCOF) insulation. These cables and their components have been subjected to testing which simulates handling and insulation prior to OTEC service, as well as the electrical and mechanical loads predicted in service. Results of testing and analyses to date indicate that the XLPE cable has significant potential in the OTEC riser application. The cable has performed well in mechanical and electrical testing. The results for the SCOF cable are mixed. The SCOF cable collapses due to pressure at depths typical of OTEC service; slippage may occur within the insulation or between the conductor and insulation which could result in early cable failure. Particular attention must be paid to alleviating these problems in future cable design efforts. Implications of these findings for cable and system development are presented for use by OTEC platform designers. These findings are subject to change as additional test data are obtained.

  7. Saharan dust as a causal factor of hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and cloud cover over the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Sliva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Long, Charles N.; Kalashnikova, Olga; Alpert, Pinhas

    2015-07-09

    Meridional distribution of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the tropical Atlantic Ocean (30°N – 30°S) was analyzed to assess seasonal variations of meridional AOT asymmetry. Ten-year MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) data (July 2002 – June 2012) confirms that the Sahara desert emits a significant amount of dust into the atmosphere over the Atlantic Ocean. Only over the Atlantic Ocean did MERRAero show that desert dust dominates other aerosol species and is responsible for meridional aerosol asymmetry between the tropical North and South Atlantic. Over the 10-year period under consideration, both MISR measurements and MERRAero data showed a pronounced meridional AOT asymmetry. The meridional AOT asymmetry, characterized by the hemispheric ratio (RAOT) of AOT averaged separately over the North and over the South Atlantic, was about 1.7. Seasonally, meridional AOT asymmetry over the Atlantic was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence is maximal (RAOT ranged from 2 to 2.4). There was no noticeable meridional aerosol asymmetry in total AOT from September to October. During this period the contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to total AOT in the South Atlantic was comparable to the contribution of dust aerosols to total AOT in the North Atlantic. During the same 10-year period, MODIS cloud fraction (CF) data showed that there was no noticeable asymmetry in meridional CF distribution in different seasons (the hemispheric ratio of CF ranged from 1.0 to 1.2). MODIS CF data illustrated significant cloud cover (CF of 0.7 – 0.9) with limited precipitation ability along the Saharan Air Layer.

  8. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Annual Report for 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2015-08-01

    This document is the annual report for the period September 1, 2014 through August 31, 2015 for the project—Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the project for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The EOS and ERTG are part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) and habitat restoration efforts, respectively, developed by the Action Agencies (BPA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps or USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and implemented under the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). BPA/Corps (2015) explain the CEERP and the role of RME and the ERTG. For the purposes of this report, the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) includes the floodplain from Bonneville Dam down through the lower river and estuary into the river’s plume in the ocean. The main purpose of this project is to facilitate EOS and ERTG meetings and work products. Other purposes are to provide technical support for CEERP adaptive management, CEERP restoration design challenges, and tributary RME. From 2002 through 2008, the EOS worked to design the federal RME program for the estuary/ocean (Johnson et al. 2008). From 2009 to the present day, EOS activities have involved RME implementation; however, EOS activities were minimal during the current reporting period. PNNL provided technical support to CEERP’s adaptive management process by convening 1.2 meetings of the Action Agencies (AAs) and drafting material for the “CEERP 2015 Restoration and Monitoring Plan” (BPA/Corps 2015).

  9. Environmental impacts of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2}. Fifth quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tester, J.W.; Adams, E.E.

    1996-02-01

    The workshop had two major components: a review of current issues and projects regarding dissolution Of CO{sub 2} in the ocean followed by a specific proposal for a field experiment in a Norwegian fjord. Attachment I contains the agenda and participants for the meeting. Attachment II summarizes each presentation. The challenge of ocean dissolution Of CO{sub 2} involves understanding the trade-offs between costs, benefits (length Of CO{sub 2} sequestration), and environmental impacts (both from direct CO{sub 2} injection and from indirect dissolution as is occurring today). It is quite apparent that we still require a great deal more information than exists today to make rational decisions. Specifically, we need more research directed at the technology for dissolving the CO{sub 2} and at understanding the environmental impacts. While paper studies and laboratory experience are useful, we are approaching the time to move our research into the field. While attendees thought a field experiment in a Norwegian fjord would be a useful exercise, two key concerns were aired: (1) We need to better understand the goals of this experiment and how it relates to the bigger picture. To address this concern a comprehensive list of research needs should be generated. Then, a list of possible field experiments (including the Norwegian fjord) should be generated that allow us to address these questions. (2) Not enough details were presented on the Norwegian fjord experiment. For example, a key question is the scale (i.e. CO{sub 2} flow rate, duration) of the experiment. A follow-up action is to generate a more detailed experimental plan. In summary, the workshop left the following impressions. (3) More research is required to understand the role CO{sub 2} dissolution in the ocean can lay in mitigating global climate change. Field experiments will be required and the timing should be soon. (4) More work is required in developing a research plan for field experiments.

  10. Saharan dust as a causal factor of hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and cloud cover over the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Sliva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Long, Charles N.; Kalashnikova, Olga; Alpert, Pinhas

    2015-07-09

    Meridional distribution of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the tropical Atlantic Ocean (30°N – 30°S) was analyzed to assess seasonal variations of meridional AOT asymmetry. Ten-year MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) data (July 2002 – June 2012) confirms that the Sahara desert emits a significant amount of dust into the atmosphere over the Atlantic Ocean. Only over the Atlantic Ocean did MERRAero show that desert dust dominates other aerosol species and is responsible for meridional aerosol asymmetry between the tropical North and South Atlantic. Over the 10-year period under consideration, both MISR measurements and MERRAero data showed a pronounced meridional AOTmore » asymmetry. The meridional AOT asymmetry, characterized by the hemispheric ratio (RAOT) of AOT averaged separately over the North and over the South Atlantic, was about 1.7. Seasonally, meridional AOT asymmetry over the Atlantic was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence is maximal (RAOT ranged from 2 to 2.4). There was no noticeable meridional aerosol asymmetry in total AOT from September to October. During this period the contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to total AOT in the South Atlantic was comparable to the contribution of dust aerosols to total AOT in the North Atlantic. During the same 10-year period, MODIS cloud fraction (CF) data showed that there was no noticeable asymmetry in meridional CF distribution in different seasons (the hemispheric ratio of CF ranged from 1.0 to 1.2). MODIS CF data illustrated significant cloud cover (CF of 0.7 – 0.9) with limited precipitation ability along the Saharan Air Layer.« less

  11. Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15: Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SVTAG)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X16-009 Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15: Semi-Volatile Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SVTAG) Field Campaign Report AH Goldstein LD Yee G Issacman-VanWertz RA Wernis March 2016 CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,

  12. Physical Mechanisms for the Maintenance of GCM-Simulated Madden-Julian Oscillation over the Indian Ocean and Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Liping; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2011-05-05

    The kinetic energy budget is conducted to analyze the physical processes responsible for the improved Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) simulated by the Iowa State University general circulation models (ISUGCM). The modified deep convection scheme that includes the revised convection closure, convection trigger condition and convective momentum transport (CMT) enhances the equatorial (10oS-10oN) MJO-related perturbation kinetic energy (PKE) in the upper troposphere and leads to more robust and coherent eastward propagating MJO signal. In the MJO source region-the Indian Ocean (45oE-120oE), the upper-tropospheric MJO PKE is maintained by the vertical convergence of wave energy flux and the barotropic conversion through the horizontal shear of mean flow. In the convectively active region-the western Pacific (120oE-180o), the upper-tropospheric MJO PKE is supported by the convergence of horizontal and vertical wave energy fluxes. Over the central-eastern Pacific (180o-120oW), where convection is suppressed, the upper-tropospheric MJO PKE is mainly due to the horizontal convergence of wave energy flux. The deep convection trigger condition produces stronger convective heating which enhances the perturbation available potential energy (PAPE) production and the upward wave energy fluxes, and leads to the increased MJO PKE over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. The trigger condition also enhances the MJO PKE over the central-eastern Pacific through the increased convergence of meridional wave energy flux from the subtropical latitudes of both hemispheres. The revised convection closure affects the response of mean zonal wind shear to the convective heating over the Indian Ocean and leads to the enhanced upper-tropospheric MJO PKE through the barotropic conversion. The stronger eastward wave energy flux due to the increase of convective heating over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific by the revised closure is favorable to the eastward propagation of MJO and the convergence of horizontal wave energy flux over the central-eastern Pacific. The convection-induced momentum tendency tends to decelerate the upper-tropospheric wind which results in a negative work to the PKE budget in the upper troposphere. However, the convection momentum tendency accelerates the westerly wind below 800 hPa over the western Pacific, which is partially responsible for the improved MJO simulation.

  13. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2014-09-01

    This document is the annual report for fiscal year 2014 for the project called Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the project for the Bonneville Power Administration. The EOS and ERTG are part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation and habitat restoration efforts, respectively, developed by the Action Agencies (BPA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System and implemented under the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program.

  14. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup for Federal Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation, FY09 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.

    2009-10-22

    This document is the annual report for fiscal year 2009 (FY09) for the project called Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS). The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps or USACE], U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS).

  15. The Role of Moist Processes in the Intrinsic Predictability of Indian Ocean Cyclones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taraphdar, Sourav; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Fuqing; Abhilash, S.; Goswami, B. N.

    2014-07-16

    The role of moist processes and the possibility of error cascade from cloud scale processes affecting the intrinsic predictable time scale of a high resolution convection permitting model within the environment of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the Indian region are investigated. Consistent with past studies of extra-tropical cyclones, it is demonstrated that moist processes play a major role in forecast error growth which may ultimately limit the intrinsic predictability of the TCs. Small errors in the initial conditions may grow rapidly and cascades from smaller scales to the larger scales through strong diabatic heating and nonlinearities associated with moist convection. Results from a suite of twin perturbation experiments for four tropical cyclones suggest that the error growth is significantly higher in cloud permitting simulation at 3.3 km resolutions compared to simulations at 3.3 km and 10 km resolution with parameterized convection. Convective parameterizations with prescribed convective time scales typically longer than the model time step allows the effects of microphysical tendencies to average out so convection responds to a smoother dynamical forcing. Without convective parameterizations, the finer-scale instabilities resolved at 3.3 km resolution and stronger vertical motion that results from the cloud microphysical parameterizations removing super-saturation at each model time step can ultimately feed the error growth in convection permitting simulations. This implies that careful considerations and/or improvements in cloud parameterizations are needed if numerical predictions are to be improved through increased model resolution. Rapid upscale error growth from convective scales may ultimately limit the intrinsic mesoscale predictability of the TCs, which further supports the needs for probabilistic forecasts of these events, even at the mesoscales.

  16. The effect of variable atmospheric forcing on oceanic subduction of a passive tracer in a numerical model: Implications for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horsfall, F.; Bleck, R.; Hanson, H.P.

    1997-11-01

    This study addresses the issue of the ocean`s response to the changing climate. The objectives is to determine the effect of variable atmospheric forcing on the ocean on decadal time scales, specifically on the subduction of a passive tracer. In the context of the model used in this study, this tracer is {open_quotes}tagged{close_quotes} water that is subducted into the thermocline and into the deep ocean. The model used in this study is the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model which has a realistic Atlantic domain from 20{degrees}S to 60{degrees}N. There are twelve model layers, the first (top) layer being the thermodynamically active mixed layer and the lower eleven layers all having constant potential density ({sigma}{sub {theta}}). The atmospheric forcing changes vary latitudinally, allowing for a maximum increase in wind at midlatitudes and a maximum increase in temperature at the poles. In these experiments, it was found that wind speed and temperature effects dominate in bringing about changes in mixed-layer depth and in tracer penetration at high latitudes, with wind speed effects having the greater weight. It is apparent from the results that the weakening of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation is dependent on the atmospheric changes in air temperature and in the wind field. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Input of 129I into the western Pacific Ocean resulting from the Fukushima nuclear event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumey, S. J.; Guilderson, T. P.; Brown, T. A.; Broek, T.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2013-04-02

    We present an initial characterization of the input of 129I into the Pacific Ocean resulting from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident. This characterization is based primarily on 129I measurements on samples collected from a research cruise conducted in waters off the eastern coast of Japan in June 2011. The resulting measurements were compared with samples intended to reflect pre-Fukushima background that were collected during a May 2011 transect of the Pacific by a commercial container vessel. In surface waters, we observed peak 129I concentrations of ~300 μBq/m3 which represents an elevation of nearly three orders of magnitude compared to pre-Fukushima backgrounds. The 129I results were coupled with 137Cs measurements from the same cruise and derived an average 129I/137Cs activity ratio of 0.442 × 10-6 for the effluent from Fukushima. Finally, we present 129I depth profiles from five stations from this cruise which form the basis for future studies of ocean transport and mixing process as well as estimations of the total budget of 129I released into the Pacific.

  18. Iron Fertilization of the Southern Ocean: Regional Simulation and Analysis of C-Sequestration in the Ross Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Arrigo

    2012-03-13

    A modified version of the dynamic 3-dimensional mesoscale Coupled Ice, Atmosphere, and Ocean model (CIAO) of the Ross Sea ecosystem has been used to simulate the impact of environmental perturbations upon primary production and biogenic CO2 uptake. The Ross Sea supports two taxonomically, and spatially distinct phytoplankton populations; the haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica and diatoms. Nutrient utilization ratios predict that P. antarctica and diatoms will be driven to nitrate and phosphate limitation, respectively. Model and field data have confirmed that the Ross Sea is iron limited with only two-thirds of the macronutrients consumed by the phytoplankton by the end of the growing season. In this study, the CIAO model was improved to simulate a third macronutrient (phosphate), dissolved organic carbon, air-sea gas exchange, and the carbonate system. This enabled us to effectively model pCO2 and subsequently oceanic CO2 uptake via gas exchange, allowing investigations into the affect of alleviating iron limitation on both pCO2 and nutrient drawdown.

  19. Accelerating Ocean Energy to the Marketplace – Environmental Research at the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Cada, G. F.; Roberts, Jesse; Bevelhimer, Mark

    2010-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) has mobilized its National Laboratories to address the broad range of environmental effects of ocean and river energy development. The National Laboratories are using a risk-based approach to set priorities among environmental effects, and to direct research activities. Case studies will be constructed to determine the most significant environmental effects of ocean energy harvest for tidal systems in temperate estuaries, for wave energy installations in temperate coastal areas, wave installations in sub-tropical waters, and riverine energy installations in large rivers. In addition, the National Laboratories are investigating the effects of energy removal from waves, tides and river currents using numerical modeling studies. Laboratory and field research is also underway to understand the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), acoustic noise, toxicity from anti-biofouling coatings, effects on benthic habitats, and physical interactions with tidal and wave devices on marine and freshwater organisms and ecosystems. Outreach and interactions with stakeholders allow the National Laboratories to understand and mitigate for use conflicts and to provide useful information for marine spatial planning at the national and regional level.

  20. Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica from 1991 to 1993: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    Analyses of ocean currents in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are relevant to the transport and dispersal of wastewater from the McMurdo Station sewage outfall pipe. Observations of ocean currents during the initial phases of this study have been presented by Howington and McFeters. These studies, using coliform bacterial counts as an indicator of dispersion of the wastewater plume and current meters to measure flow patterns, indicated that dispersal of the plume by local currents does not effectively remove the plume from the vicinity of McMurdo Sound, under the present outfall pipe location. Moreover, these studies suggest that, although the flow pattern is generally consistent with transport of the plume away from McMurdo Station, episodes of current reversal are sufficient to transport the wastewater plume along the shore toward the southeast, eventually overlapping the seawater intake area near the McMurdo jetty. Several concerns included (a) impacts of wastewater inputs to nearshore benthic and pelagic habitats adjacent to McMurdo Station, (b) effects of wastewater input to the McMurdo Station fresh water intake source, and (c) reduction in human impacts on the McMurdo Sound ecosystem. These concerns motivated studies to characterize nearshore currents more extensively in relation to dispersal of the wastewater plume. This report discusses analysis results of current observations from November 1992 to November 1993.

  1. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAT GRANDELLI, P.E.; GREG ROCHELEAU; JOHN HAMRICK, Ph.D.; MATT CHURCH, Ph.D.; BRIAN POWELL, Ph.D.

    2012-09-29

    This paper describes the modeling work by Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. to simulate the biochemical effects of of the nutrient-enhanced seawater plumes that are discharged by one or several 100 megawatt OTEC plants. The modeling is needed to properly design OTEC plants that can operate sustainably with acceptably low biological impact. In order to quantify the effect of discharge configuration and phytoplankton response, Makai Ocean Engineering implemented a biological and physical model for the waters surrounding O`ahu, Hawai`i, using the EPA-approved Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). Each EFDC grid cell was approximately 1 square kilometer by 20 meters deep, and used a time step of three hours. The biological model was set up to simulate the biochemical response for three classes of organisms: Picoplankton (< 2 um) such as prochlorococccus, nanoplankton (2-20 um), and microplankton (> 20 um) e.g., diatoms. The dynamic biological phytoplankton model was calibrated using chemical and biological data collected for the Hawaii Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project. Peer review of the biological modeling was performed. The physical oceanography model uses boundary conditions from a surrounding Hawai'i Regional Ocean Model, (ROM) operated by the University of Hawai`i and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. The ROM provided tides, basin scale circulation, mesoscale variability, and atmospheric forcing into the edges of the EFDC computational domain. This model is the most accurate and sophisticated Hawai'ian Regional Ocean Model presently available, assimilating real-time oceanographic observations, as well as model calibration based upon temperature, current and salinity data collected during 2010 near the simulated OTEC site. The ROM program manager peer-reviewed Makai's implementation of the ROM output into our EFDC model. The supporting oceanographic data was collected for a Naval Facilities Engineering Command / Makai project. Results: The model was run for a 100 MW OTEC Plant consisting of four separate ducts, discharging a total combined flow rate of 420 m3/s of warm water and 320 m3/s of cold water in a mixed discharge at 70 meters deep. Each duct was assumed to have a discharge port diameter of 10.5m producing a downward discharge velocity of about 2.18 m/s. The natural system, as measured in the HOTS program, has an average concentration of 10-15 mgC/m3. To calibrate the biological model, we first ran the model with no OTEC plant and varied biological parameters until the simulated data was a good match to the HOTS observations. This modeling showed that phytoplankton concentration were patchy and highly dynamic. The patchiness was a good match with the data variability observed within the HOTS data sets. We then ran the model with simulated OTEC intake and discharge flows and associated nutrients. Directly under the OTEC plant, the near-field plume has an average terminal depth of 172 meters, with a volumetric dilution of 13:1. The average terminal plume temperature was 19.8oC. Nitrate concentrations are 1 to 2 umol/kg above ambient. The advecting plume then further dilutes to less than 1 umol/kg above ambient within a few kilometers downstream, while remaining at depth. Because this terminal near-field plume is well below the 1% light limited depths (~120m), no immediate biological utilization of the nutrients occurs. As the nitrate is advected and dispersed downstream, a fraction of the deep ocean nutrients (< 0.5 umol/kg perturbation) mix upward where they are utilized by the ambient phytoplankton population. This occurs approximately twenty-five kilometers downstream from the plant at 110 - 70 meters depth. For pico-phytoplankton, modeling results indicate that this nutrient perturbation causes a phytoplankton perturbation of approximately 1 mgC/m3 (~10% of average ambient concentrations) that covers an area 10x5 km in size at the 70 to 90m depth. Thus, the perturbations are well within the natural variability of the system, generally corresponding to a 10 to 15% increase above the average pico-phytoplankton biomass. This perturbation exhibits a meandering horizontal plume trajectory and spatial extent, but remains similar in magnitude (generally 1-2 mgC/m3). The diatom perturbations become more noticeable after three weeks of the simulation period, when the nearshore diatom population trends towards a greater concentration of 1 to 3 mgC/m3 . Relative to the background concentrations, this increased response is a fraction of the ambient, with perturbations remaining within fluctuations of the existing system. The perturbations were quantified by post-processing each time-step of model simulations without OTEC plants, with identical simulations that included OTEC plumes. Without this post processing, the 10-25% perturbations were obscured by the larger dynamic variations naturally caused by ocean circulation.

  2. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 4 January - 21 March 1994)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozyr, Alex

    2005-06-30

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Maurice Ewing cruise in the South Atlantic Ocean on the A17 WOCE section. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), this cruise was also a part of the French WOCE program consisting of three expeditions (CITHER 1, 2, and 3) focused on the South Atlantic Ocean. The A17 section was occupied during the CITHER 2 expedition, which began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 4, 1994 and finished in Cayenne, French Guyana, on March 21, 1994. During this period the ship stopped in Salvador de Bahia and Recife, Brazil, to take on supplies and exchange personnel. Upon completion of the cruise the ship transited to Fort de France, Martinique. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  3. Heat transfer in ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Proceedings of the wanter mnnual Meeting, Chicago, IL, November 16-21, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are: condensation heat transfer on long vertical, axially ridged tubes tests of the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University (APL/JHU) folded-tube, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) heat exchanger the design of a 1.0-MW OTEC heat exchanger for ocean testing and convective vaporization and condensation in serrated-fin channels. Also considered are: heat tranfer studies of an improved heat transfer monitor for OTEC an analysis of the mist lift process for mist flow, open-cycle OTEC the heat transfer characteristics of working fluids for OTEC and a comparison of major OTEC power system characteristics.

  4. Comparative Metagenomics of Gut and Ocean: Identification of Microbial Marker Genes for Complex Environmental Properties(2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bork, Peer

    2011-06-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Peer Bork of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory on "Comparative Metagenomics of Gut and Ocean: Identification of Microbial Marker Genes for Complex Environmental Properties" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  5. Comparative Metagenomics of Gut and Ocean: Identification of Microbial Marker Genes for Complex Environmental Properties(2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bork, Peer

    2011-03-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Peer Bork of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory on "Comparative Metagenomics of Gut and Ocean: Identification of Microbial Marker Genes for Complex Environmental Properties" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  6. Ice at the Interface: Atmosphere-Ice-Ocean Boundary Layer Processes and Their Role in Polar Change---Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunke, Elizabeth C.

    2012-07-23

    The atmosphere-ocean boundary layer in which sea ice resides includes many complex processes that require a more realistic treatment in GCMs, particularly as models move toward full earth system descriptions. The primary purpose of the workshop was to define and discuss such coupled processes from observational and modeling points of view, including insight from both the Arctic and Antarctic systems. The workshop met each of its overarching goals, including fostering collaboration among experimentalists, theorists and modelers, proposing modeling strategies, and ascertaining data availability and needs. Several scientific themes emerged from the workshop, such as the importance of episodic or extreme events, precipitation, stratification above and below the ice, and the marginal ice zone, whose seasonal Arctic migrations now traverse more territory than in the past.

  7. Ocean pC02 Data from the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 1994 - 2009

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Takahashi, T.

    The Earth Institute of Columbia University has, as an overarching goal, to help achieve sustainable development primarily by expanding the world's understanding of Earth as one integrated system. The Earth Institute encompasses centers of excellence with an established reputation for groundbreaking research, including the renowned Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), home to more than 200 researchers who study Earth and its systems. The Carbon Dioxide Research Group, led by Dr. Taro Takahashi, studies pCO2 in seawater, carbon sequestration models related to deep aquifers, and air-sea CO2 flux. Datasets from ocean cruises in the years 1994 to the present are made available from this website, along with a list of publications, and cruise maps.

  8. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  9. Final Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER64432 "New Grid and Discretization Technologies for Ocean and Ice Simulations"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunzburger, Max

    2013-03-12

    The work reported is in pursuit of these goals: high-quality unstructured, non-uniform Voronoi and Delaunay grids; improved finite element and finite volume discretization schemes; and improved finite element and finite volume discretization schemes. These are sought for application to spherical and three-dimensional applications suitable for ocean, atmosphere, ice-sheet, and other climate modeling applications.

  10. TEXT-ALTERNATIVE VERSION: LEDs GO IVY LEAGUE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Narrator: A typical university campus resembles a mini city, with wide ranging interior and exterior lighting applications, making a college or university an ideal testing ground when considering...

  11. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVII : Effects of Ocean Covariates and Release Timing on First Ocean-Year Survival of Fall Chinook Salmon from Oregon and Washington Coastal Hatcheries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-05-01

    Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i.e., early spring transition occurred, p < 0.05), (2) improved survival during strong downwelling conditions (Bakun units < -250). Survival decreased during weak downwelling conditions (Bakun units between -180 and -100). Strong to moderately strong correlations between January upwelling and April SST (r = 0.5), June SST (r = 0.6), and the North Pacific Index (NPI) of Aleutian Low strength (r > 0.7) suggest January is a period when important effects originate and play out over ensuing months. Significant inverse trend with survival (p < 0.05) was found for Bakun indices in December, indicating strong downwelling improved survival. Higher-than-average adult return rates were observed for cohorts from brood-years 1982-1983, strong El Nino years. Individual hatcheries were found to have unique age-class strength and age-at-return characteristics.

  12. Technology Development Plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valent, P.J.; Riggins, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides an overview of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high-quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep-penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor-resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35/degree/ and in water depths to 1300 m. 74 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Results of scoping tests for open-cycle OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) components operating with seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zangrando, F; Bharathan, D; Green, H J; Link, H F; Parsons, B K; Parsons, J M; Pesaran, A A; Panchal, C B

    1990-09-01

    This report presents comprehensive documentation of the experimental research conducted on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) components operating with seawater as a working fluid. The results of this research are presented in the context of previous analysis and fresh-water testing; they provide a basis for understanding and predicting with confidence the performance of all components of an OC-OTEC system except the turbine. Seawater tests have confirmed the results that were obtained in fresh-water tests and predicted by the analytical models of the components. A sound technical basis has been established for the design of larger systems in which net power will be produced for the first time from OC-OTEC technology. Design and operation of a complete OC-OTEC system that produces power will provide sufficient confidence to warrant complete transfer of OC-OTEC technology to the private sector. Each components performance is described in a separate chapter written by the principal investigator responsible for technical aspects of the specific tests. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. Study to develop an inspection, maintenance, and repair plan for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) modular experiment plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The inspection, maintenance and repair (IM and R) of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Modular Experiment Plant (Pilot Plant) have been studied in two phases: Task I and Task II. Task I phase developed IM and R identification forms, identified requirements for routine and post casualty IM and R, and categorized and outlined potential procedures to perform IM and R activities. The efforts of the Task II phase have been directed to meet the following objectives: to provide feedback to the OTEC marine systems designs to assure that such designs reflect appropriate consideration of IM and R methods and unit costs, resulting in designs with reduced life cycle costs; to include technical information concerning OTEC IM and R possibilities to NOAA/DOE; to outline a basis in which the anticipated IM and R contributions to life cycle costs can be developed for any specific OTEC plant design; to identify IM and R methods within the state-of-the-art in the offshore industry; to determine the application of potential IM and R procedures for the commercial operation of OTEC 10/40 Pilot Plant(s); and input into the US government formulation of statutory and regulatory IM and R requirements for OTEC plants.

  15. Conceptual design of an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharathan, D.; Green, H.J.; Link, H.F.; Parsons, B.K.; Parsons, J.M.; Zangrando, F.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. 71 refs., 41 figs., 34 tabs.

  16. Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume II. Industry profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-12-22

    Econoimc profiles of the industries most affected by the construction, deployment, and operation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) powerplants are presented. Six industries which will contribute materials and/or components to the construction of OTEC plants have been identified and are profiled here. These industries are: steel industry, concrete industry, titanium metal industry, fabricated structural metals industry, fiber glass-reinforced plastics industry, and electrical transmission cable industry. The economic profiles for these industries detail the industry's history, its financial and economic characteristics, its technological and production traits, resource constraints that might impede its operation, and its relation to OTEC. Some of the historical data collected and described in the profile include output, value of shipments, number of firms, prices, employment, imports and exports, and supply-demand forecasts. For most of the profiled industries, data from 1958 through 1980 were examined. In addition, profiles are included on the sectors of the economy which will actualy construct, deploy, and supply the OTEC platforms.

  17. Ocean thermal energy conversion gas desorption studies. Volume 1. Design of experiments. [Open-cycle power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golshani, A.; Chen, F.C.

    1980-10-01

    Seawater deaeration is a process affecting almost all proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) open-cycle power systems. If the noncondensable dissolved air is not removed from a power system, it will accumulate in thecondenser, reduce the effectiveness of condensation, and result in deterioration of system performance. A gas desorption study is being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the goal of mitigating these effects; this study is designed to investigate the vacuum deaeration process for low-temperature OTEC conditions where conventional steam stripping deaeration may not be applicable. The first in a series describing the ORNL studies, this report (1) considers the design of experiments and discusses theories of gas desorption, (2) reviews previous relevant studies, (3) describes the design of a gas desorption test loop, and (4) presents the test plan for achieving program objectives. Results of the first series of verification tests and the uncertainties encountered are also discussed. A packed column was employed in these verification tests and test data generally behaved as in previous similar studies. Results expressed as the height of transfer unit (HTU) can be correlated with the liquid flow rate by HTU = 4.93L/sup 0/ /sup 25/. End effects were appreciable for the vacuum deaeration system, and a correlation of them to applied vacuum pressure was derived.

  18. Location of high-frequency P wave microseismic noise in the Pacific Ocean using multiple small aperture arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pyle, Moira L.; Koper, Keith D.; Euler, Garrett G.; Burlacu, Relu

    2015-04-20

    We investigate source locations of P-wave microseisms within a narrow frequency band (0.67–1.33 Hz) that is significantly higher than the classic microseism band (~0.05–0.3 Hz). Employing a backprojection method, we analyze data recorded during January 2010 from five International Monitoring System arrays that border the Pacific Ocean. We develop a ranking scheme that allows us to combine beam power from multiple arrays to obtain robust locations of the microseisms. Some individual arrays exhibit a strong regional component, but results from the combination of all arrays show high-frequency P wave energy emanating from the North Pacific basin, in general agreement withmore » previous observations in the double-frequency (DF) microseism band (~0.1–0.3 Hz). This suggests that the North Pacific source of ambient P noise covers a broad range of frequencies and that the wave-wave interaction model is likely valid at shorter periods.« less

  19. Structure of The Dixie Valley Geothermal System, a "Typical"...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geothermal system have been debated for some time. The primary structural model ahs been a single fault with 54 dip. New data including a detailed gravity survey,...

  20. Fracture mechanics evaluation for at typical PWR primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, T.; Shimizu, S.; Ogata, Y.

    1997-04-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years.

  1. ''A ground water resources study of a Pacific Ocean atoll - Tarawa, Gilbert Islands,'' by J. W. Lloyd, J. C. Miles, G. R. Chessmand, and S. F. Bugg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheatcraft, S.W.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1981-10-01

    Several inherent problems in the methodology employed in the ground water resource study of Tarawa Atoll (Lloyd, et al., 1981) are described. Studies of Enewetak Atoll have provided data that require a significantly different conceptual model of the atoll hydrogeology system. Comparison of well, lagoon, and ocean tidal observations with a mathematical model that assumes horizontal tidal propagation indicates that the observed results are more consistent with a system that is controlled by vertical coupling between the unconsolidated surface aquifer and an underlying aquifer of more permeable limestone. This indicates that most fresh water recharged to the aquifer migrates downward and mixes with the sea water in a deeper aquifer providing easy exchange with the ocean. Lloyd, et al., do not take tidal mixing or vertical transport into account and it therefore seems likely that fresh water inventories are significantly overestimated. Failure to include these significant loss terms in the island water budget may also account for calculated heads above ground level. (JMT)

  2. Ocean-current measurements at the Farallon Islands Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, 1977-1978. Includes appendix. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The report discusses the results of ocean bottom current measurements obtain from the Farallon Islands Low-Level Waste Disposal Site off the California coast, near San Francisco. The report includes a discussion of the velocity of the currents over the time period and area measured relative to large-scale currents off the California coast, and the possibility for shoreward transport of LLW Materials from the Farallon Islands Site.

  3. EDDY RESOLVING NUTRIENT ECODYNAMICS IN THE GLOBAL PARALLEL OCEAN PROGRAM AND CONNECTIONS WITH TRACE GASES IN THE SULFUR, HALOGEN AND NMHC CYCLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. CHU; S. ELLIOTT

    2000-08-01

    Ecodynamics and the sea-air transfer of climate relevant trace gases are intimately coupled in the oceanic mixed layer. Ventilation of species such as dimethyl sulfide and methyl bromide constitutes a key linkage within the earth system. We are creating a research tool for the study of marine trace gas distributions by implementing coupled ecology-gas chemistry in the high resolution Parallel Ocean Program (POP). The fundamental circulation model is eddy resolving, with cell sizes averaging 0.15 degree (lat/long). Here we describe ecochemistry integration. Density dependent mortality and iron geochemistry have enhanced agreement with chlorophyll measurements. Indications are that dimethyl sulfide production rates must be adjusted for latitude dependence to match recent compilations. This may reflect the need for phytoplankton to conserve nitrogen by favoring sulfurous osmolytes. Global simulations are also available for carbonyl sulfide, the methyl halides and for nonmethane hydrocarbons. We discuss future applications including interaction with atmospheric chemistry models, high resolution biogeochemical snapshots and the study of open ocean fertilization.

  4. Numerical techniques for steady two-dimensional transcritical stratified flow problems, with an application to the intermediate field dynamics of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, J.M.; Jirka, G.H.; Caughey, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The development of predictive techniques for the predominantly horizontal, layered fluid motions that result when a continuous buoyant source is discharged into an ambient fluid at a bounding surface, interface or equilibrium level is studied. Although the numerical techniques developed are applicable to general discharge configurations, the model development is focused on the particular case of a radial source of buoyancy and momentum discharged into a uniform ambient crossflow. The resulting density current is analyzed by application of the depth-integrated hydrodynamic equations. The density current dynamics are shown to vary with the relative intermediate- to near-field strengths, as characterized by the ratio of their respective length scales. The complete range of this interaction, from small near-field effects to large near-field effects, is investigated. Results are presented as the depth integrated velocity and current thickness distributions for different field strength values. The model predictions are compared to two sets of laboratory data and to limited field information, involving a river discharge and a submerged outfall into the ocean. Good agreement is obtained in all cases. Finally, the model results are applied to the prediction of a river plume into a coastal ocean current and to the continuous discharge from an OTEC plant operating in the stratified ocean. In both cases, the results indicate the significant horizontal extent (order of several kilometers) of the resulting current, together with their limited vertical extent (order of several meters). Their strong sensitivity to ambient current magnitude and stratification strength is demonstrated.

  5. Development of a Kelp-type Structure Module in a Coastal Ocean Model to Assess the Hydrodynamic Impact of Seawater Uranium Extraction Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Taiping; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Long, Wen; Gill, Gary A.

    2014-02-07

    In recent years, with the rapid growth of global energy demand, the interest in extracting uranium from seawater for nuclear energy has been renewed. While extracting seawater uranium is not yet commercially viable, it serves as a backstop to the conventional uranium resources and provides an essentially unlimited supply of uranium resource. With recent advances in seawater uranium extraction technology, extracting uranium from seawater could be economically feasible when the extraction devices are deployed at a large scale (e.g., several hundred km2). There is concern however that the large scale deployment of adsorbent farms could result in potential impacts to the hydrodynamic flow field in an oceanic setting. In this study, a kelp-type structure module was incorporated into a coastal ocean model to simulate the blockage effect of uranium extraction devices on the flow field. The module was quantitatively validated against laboratory flume experiments for both velocity and turbulence profiles. The model-data comparison showed an overall good agreement and validated the approach of applying the model to assess the potential hydrodynamic impact of uranium extraction devices or other underwater structures in coastal oceans.

  6. Mechanisms of Convective Cloud Organization by Cold Pools over Tropical Warm Ocean during the AMIE/DYNAMO Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Rowe, Angela; Burleyson, Casey D.; Martini, Matus; de Szoeke, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms of convective cloud organization by precipitation-driven cold pools over the warm tropical Indian Ocean during the 2011 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment / Dynamics of the MJO (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign. A high-resolution regional model simulation is performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model during the transition from suppressed to active phases of the November 2011 MJO. The simulated cold pool lifetimes, spatial extent and thermodynamic properties agree well with the radar and ship-borne observations from the field campaign. The thermodynamic and dynamic structures of the outflow boundaries of isolated and intersecting cold pools in the simulation and the associated secondary cloud populations are examined. Intersecting cold pools last more than twice as long, are twice as large, 41% more intense (measured by buoyancy), and 62% deeper than isolated cold pools. Consequently, intersecting cold pools trigger 73% more convective clouds than isolated ones. This is possibly due to stronger outflows that enhance secondary updraft velocities by up to 45%. However, cold pool-triggered convective clouds grow into deep convection not because of the stronger secondary updrafts at cloud base, but rather due to closer spacing (aggregation) between clouds and larger cloud clusters that formed along the cold pool boundaries when they intersect. The close spacing of large clouds moistens the local environment and reduces entrainment drying, allowing the clouds to further develop into deep convection. Implications to the design of future convective parameterization with cold pool-modulated entrainment rates are discussed.

  7. ARM - Oceanic Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  8. Ocean | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Categories: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks Sectors...

  9. ocean wave energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wave energy - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  10. A critical evaluation of the upper ocean heat budget in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data for the south central equatorial Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu H.; Lin W.; Liu, X.; Zhang, M.

    2011-08-26

    Coupled ocean-atmospheric models suffer from the common bias of a spurious rain belt south of the central equatorial Pacific throughout the year. Observational constraints on key processes responsible for this bias are scarce. The recently available reanalysis from a coupled model system for the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data is a potential benchmark for climate models in this region. Its suitability for model evaluation and validation, however, needs to be established. This paper examines the mixed layer heat budget and the ocean surface currents - key factors for the sea surface temperature control in the double Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone in the central Pacific - from 5{sup o}S to 10{sup o}S and 170{sup o}E to 150{sup o}W. Two independent approaches are used. The first approach is through comparison of CFSR data with collocated station observations from field experiments; the second is through the residual analysis of the heat budget of the mixed layer. We show that the CFSR overestimates the net surface flux in this region by 23 W m{sup -2}. The overestimated net surface flux is mainly due to an even larger overestimation of shortwave radiation by 44 W m{sup -2}, which is compensated by a surface latent heat flux overestimated by 14 W m{sup -2}. However, the quality of surface currents and the associated oceanic heat transport in CFSR are not compromised by the surface flux biases, and they agree with the best available estimates. The uncertainties of the observational data from field experiments are also briefly discussed in the present study.

  11. Measurements of gas sorption from seawater and the influence of gas release on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penney, T.R.; Althof, J.A.

    1985-06-01

    The technical community has questioned the validity and cost-effectiveness of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems because of the unknown effect of noncondensable gas on heat exchanger performance and the power needed to run vacuum equipment to remove this gas. To date, studies of seawater gas desorption have not been prototypical for system level analysis. This study gives preliminary gas desorption data on a vertical spout, direct contact evaporator and multiple condenser geometries. Results indicate that dissolved gas can be substantially removed before the seawater enters the heat exchange process, reducing the uncertainty and effect of inert gas on heat exchanger performance.

  12. Nuclear, multichannel-sonic, ultrasonic analyses for determination of degree of fracturing and alteration in a fast formation: The deep ocean crust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.N.; O'Malley, H.; Newmark, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Multichannel, Full-Waveform Sonic Logs offer quantitative information on the response of the formation to propagating acoustic energy. When coupled with ultrasonic borehole imagery, these logs show clear evidence of fractures intersecting the wellbore. P-wave, S-wave, Stoneley and late arriving normal modal CODA all show energy and frequency changes across fracture zones. One critical ingredient missing from the sonic-ultrasonic cross-correlations to date, has been the ability to estimate the quantity of alteration material infilling fractures. A new nuclear analysis technique has been developed to extract a reliable estimate of the amount of clay infilling in highly fractured basalts from the oceanic crust.

  13. 40-MW(e) OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plant at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii: a case study of potential biological impacts. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, J.T.

    1987-02-01

    Construction and operation of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) facility will affect marine, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. The nature and degree of OTEC environmental impacts have been subjects of numerous studies and reports. The proposed 40-MWe OTEC plant at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii has been the focus of much of the work. The first section provides a summary of pertinent design features of the proposed plant, including standard operating parameters. Next, salient elements of the biological oceanography in the region of the proposed development are summarized. The following sections discuss expected impacts of construction and operation of the plant, and finally, significant aspects of modeling studies conducted in support of the Kahe OTEC plant development are presented.

  14. Location of high-frequency P wave microseismic noise in the Pacific Ocean using multiple small aperture arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyle, Moira L.; Koper, Keith D.; Euler, Garrett G.; Burlacu, Relu

    2015-04-20

    We investigate source locations of P-wave microseisms within a narrow frequency band (0.671.33 Hz) that is significantly higher than the classic microseism band (~0.050.3 Hz). Employing a backprojection method, we analyze data recorded during January 2010 from five International Monitoring System arrays that border the Pacific Ocean. We develop a ranking scheme that allows us to combine beam power from multiple arrays to obtain robust locations of the microseisms. Some individual arrays exhibit a strong regional component, but results from the combination of all arrays show high-frequency P wave energy emanating from the North Pacific basin, in general agreement with previous observations in the double-frequency (DF) microseism band (~0.10.3 Hz). This suggests that the North Pacific source of ambient P noise covers a broad range of frequencies and that the wave-wave interaction model is likely valid at shorter periods.

  15. Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

    1991-01-01

    Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

  16. NREL and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Support of Ocean Renewable Power Company's TidGen™ Power System Technology Readiness Advancement Initiative Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LiVecchi, Al

    2015-05-07

    This document summarizes the tasks identified for National Laboratory technical support of Ocean Renewable Power Corporation (ORPC) DOE grant awarded under the FY10 Industry Solicitation DE-FOA-0000293: Technology Readiness Advancement Initiative. The system ORPC will deploy in Cobscook Bay, ME is known as the TidGen™ Power System. The Turbine Generator Unit (TGU) each have a rated capacity of 150 to 175 kW, and they are mounted on bottom support frames and connected to an onshore substation using an underwater power and control cable. This system is designed for tidal energy applications in water depths from 60 to 150 feet. In funding provided separately by DOE, National Laboratory partners NREL and SNL will provide in-kind resources and technical expertise to help ensure that industry projects meet DOE WWPP (Wind and Water Power Program) objectives by reducing risk to these high value projects.

  17. On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Hsi-Yen; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Yongkang; Xiao, Heng; Neelin, David; Ji, Xuan

    2013-11-15

    The impact of global tropical climate to perturbations in land surface processes (LSP) are evaluated using perturbations given by different LSP representations of continental-scale in a global climate model that includes atmosphere-ocean interactions. One representation is a simple land scheme, which specifies climatological albedos and soil moisture availability. The other representation is the more comprehensive Simplified Simple Biosphere Model, which allows for interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes. The results demonstrate that LSP processes such as interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes have strong impacts on the seasonal mean states and seasonal cycles of global precipitation, clouds, and surface air temperature. The impact is especially significant over the tropical Pacific. To explore the mechanisms for such impact, different LSP representations are confined to selected continental-scale regions where strong interactions of climate-vegetation biophysical processes are present. We find that the largest impact is mainly from LSP perturbations over the tropical African continent. The impact is through anomalous convective heating in tropical Africa due to changes in the surface heat fluxes, which in turn affect basinwide teleconnections in the Pacific through equatorial wave dynamics. The modifications in the equatorial Pacific climate are further enhanced by strong air-sea coupling between surface wind stress and upwelling, as well as effect of ocean memory. Our results further suggest that correct representations of land surface processes, land use change and the associated changes in the deep convection over tropical Africa are crucial to reducing the uncertainty when performing future climate projections under different climate change scenarios.

  18. Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy reve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta; Smith, Brennan T

    2008-02-01

    Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue, while meeting other legal water requirements. Reservoir optimization schemes used in practice do not seek flow regimes that maximize aquatic ecosystem health. Here, we review optimization studies that considered environmental goals in one of three approaches. The first approach seeks flow regimes that maximize hydropower generation, while satisfying legal requirements, including environmental (or minimum) flows. Solutions from this approach are often used in practice to operate hydropower projects. In the second approach, flow releases from a dam are timed to meet water quality constraints on dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature and nutrients. In the third approach, flow releases are timed to improve the health of fish populations. We conclude by suggesting three steps for bringing multi-objective reservoir operation closer to the goal of ecological sustainability: (1) conduct research to identify which features of flow variation are essential for river health and to quantify these relationships, (2) develop valuation methods to assess the total value of river health and (3) develop optimal control softwares that combine water balance modelling with models that predict ecosystem responses to flow.

  19. Final Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-07ER64470 [“Incorporation of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) into the Community Climate System Model (CCSM): Evaluation and Climate Applications”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassignet, Eric P

    2013-03-18

    The primary goal of the project entitled “Incorporation of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) into the Community Climate System Model (CCSM): Evaluation and Climate Applications” was to systematically investigate the performance of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) as an alternative oceanic component of the NCAR’s Community Climate System Model (CCSM). We have configured two versions of the fully coupled CCSM3/HYCOM: one with a medium resolution (T42) Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) and the other with higher resolution (T85). We have performed a comprehensive analysis of the 400-year fully coupled CCSM3/HYCOM simulations and compared the results with those from CCSM3/POP and with climatological observations, and also we have performed tuning of critical model parameters, including Smagorinsky viscosity, isopycnal diffusivity, and background vertical diffusivity. The analysis shows that most oceanic features are well represented in the CCSM3/HYCOM. The coupled CCSM3/HYCOM (T42) has been integrated for 400 years, and the results have been archived and transferred to the High Performance Computer in the Florida State Univesity. In the last year, we have made comprehensive diagnostics of the long-term simulations by the comparison with the original CCSM3/POP simulation and with the observations. To gain some understanding of the model biases, the mean climate and modes of climate variability of the two models are compared with observations. The examination includes the Northern and Southern Annular Modes (NAM and SAM), the Pacific-North-American (PNA) pattern, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and the main Southern Ocean SST mode. We also compared the performance of ENSO simulation in the coupled models. This report summarizes the main findings from the comparison of long-term CCSM3/HYCOM and CCSM3/POP simulations.

  20. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

  1. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

  2. The PD-1/PD-L1 complex resembles the antigen-binding Fv domains of antibodies and T cell receptors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, David Yin-wei; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Iwasaki, Masashi; Gittis, Apostolos G.; Su, Hua-Poo; Mikami, Bunzo; Okazaki, Taku; Honjo, Tasuku; Minato, Nagahiro; Garboczi, David N. (NIH); (Kyoto)

    2008-07-29

    Signaling through the programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitory receptor upon binding its ligand, PD-L1, suppresses immune responses against autoantigens and tumors and plays an important role in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. Release from PD-1 inhibitory signaling revives 'exhausted' virus-specific T cells in chronic viral infections. Here we present the crystal structure of murine PD-1 in complex with human PD-L1. PD-1 and PD-L1 interact through the conserved front and side of their Ig variable (IgV) domains, as do the IgV domains of antibodies and T cell receptors. This places the loops at the ends of the IgV domains on the same side of the PD-1/PD-L1 complex, forming a surface that is similar to the antigen-binding surface of antibodies and T cell receptors. Mapping conserved residues allowed the identification of residues that are important in forming the PD-1/PD-L1 interface. Based on the structure, we show that some reported loss-of-binding mutations involve the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction but that others compromise protein folding. The PD-1/PD-L1 interaction described here may be blocked by antibodies or by designed small-molecule drugs to lower inhibitory signaling that results in a stronger immune response. The immune receptor-like loops offer a new surface for further study and potentially the design of molecules that would affect PD-1/PD-L1 complex formation and thereby modulate the immune response.

  3. ARM - Lesson Plans: Ocean Currents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  4. Ocean Acidification Workshop in Anchorage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This workshop aims to bring concerned and/or interested individuals together to hear the latest research, policy implications, community perspectives, and potential impacts along Alaska’s coast and...

  5. Ocean dumping of dredged material in the New York Bight Apex. Hearing before the Committee on Public Works and Transportation, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session, April 11, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    New York City's proposal to dump contaminated dredge spoil six miles out in the Atlantic Ocean prompted a hearing on the possible environmental and economic effects. Test samples taken in 1981 showed unacceptable levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), while samples taken in 1983 were approved by the Army Corps of Engineers for dumping. Questions about the sampling procedures, siltation, and contamination of fish and beaches were raised. The 21 witnesses included local and state officials of the affected areas and representatives of the Corps, environmental groups, and the fishing industry. (DCK)

  6. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr, October 1992--April 1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, S.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, S.C.; Reid, J.L.; Swift, J.H.; Talley, L.D.

    1998-06-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide concentration (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples collected during three expeditions of the Research Vessel (R/V) Knorr in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the first cruise (WOCE Section P16A/P17A) began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on October 6, 1992, and returned to Papeete on November 25, 1992. The second cruise (WOCE Section P17E/P19S) began in Papeete on December 4, 1992, and finished in Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 22, 1993. The third expedition (WOCE Section P19C) started in Punta Arenas, on February 22 and finished in Panama City, Panama, on April 13, 1993. During the three expeditions, 422 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], as well as discrete measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 and 20 C. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  7. Estimating solar access of typical residential rooftops: A case study in San Jose, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen M.; Gupta, Smita; Akbari, Hashem; Pomerantz, Melvin

    2008-03-03

    Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes rooftop shading in a residential neighborhood of San Jose, CA, one of four regions analyzed in a wider study of the solar access of California homes.High-resolution orthophotos and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and buildings in a 4 km2 residential neighborhood. Hourly shading of roofing planes (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. Parcel boundaries were used to determine the extent to which roofing planes were shaded by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels.In the year in which surface heights were measured (2005), shadows from all sources ("total shading") reduced the insolation received by S-, SW-, and W-facing residential roofing planes in the study area by 13 - 16percent. Shadows cast by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels reduced insolation by no more than 2percent. After 30 years of simulated maximal tree growth, annual total shading increased to 19 - 22percent, and annual extraparcel shading increased to 3 - 4percent.

  8. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    one year to the next (i.e., February 2001 data were compared with February 2000 data). ... GDP and VMT Trends, 1960-2015 Month-Year 3-month Moving Average Gas Price Change From ...

  9. U.S EPA Research Triangle Park Campus, Typical Office Wing

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Research Triangle Park, NC The EPA's new RTP campus includes laboratories and offices for over 2,000 people. One of the three 3-story office blocks is described here. The building sits on the shore of an artificial lake, and is part of a larger campus of federal facilities that share a central cooling plant.

  10. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fact 859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most Recent Event to Affect Crude Oil Prices - Dataset Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for ...

  11. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Refinery Output - Dataset | Department of Energy Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output File fotw#890_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008 - Dataset LCC Guidance Rates 2010 DOE EERE Vehicle Technologies Program Merit Review - Advanced Combustion Dataset | Department of Energy

    Vehicle Miles of Travel is up in 2015 File fotw#903_web.xlsx More Documents &

  12. Diagnosis of the Marine Low Cloud Simulation in the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS)-Modular Ocean Model v4 (MOM4) coupled model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Heng; Mechoso, C. R.; Sun, Rui; Han, J.; Pan, H. L.; Park, S.; Hannay, Cecile; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Teixeira, J.

    2014-07-25

    We present a diagnostic analysis of the marine low cloud climatology simulated by two state-of-the-art coupled atmosphere-ocean models: the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS). In both models, the shallow convection and boundary layer turbulence parameterizations have been recently updated: both models now use a mass-flux scheme for the parameterization of shallow convection, and a turbulence parameterization capable of handling Stratocumulus (Sc)-topped Planetary Boundary Layers (PBLs). For shallow convection, both models employ a convective trigger function based on the concept of convective inhibition and both include explicit convective overshooting/penetrative entrainment formulation. For Sc-topped PBL, both models treat explicitly turbulence mixing and cloud-top entrainment driven by cloud-top radiative cooling. Our focus is on the climatological transition from Sc to shallow Cumulus (Cu)-topped PBL in the subtropical eastern oceans. We show that in the CESM the coastal Sc-topped PBLs in the subtropical Eastern Pacific are well-simulated but the climatological transition from Sc to shallow Cu is too abrupt and happens too close to the coast. By contrast, in the GFS coupled simulation the coastal Sc amount and PBL depth are severely underestimated while the transition from Sc to shallow Cu is delayed and offshore Sc cover is too extensive in the subtropical Eastern Pacific. We discuss the possible connections between such differences in the simulations and differences in the parameterizations of shallow convection and boundary layer turbulence in the two models.

  13. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, December 1992-January 1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozyr, A.

    1998-12-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Rio de Janeiro on December 27, 1992, and ended after 36 days at sea in Capetown, South Africa, on January 31, 1993. Measurements made along WOCE Section A10 included pressure, temperature, and salinity [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-1 1 , CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, TALK, and underway pCO{sub 2}. The TCO{sub 2} was measured by using two Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzers (SOMMAs) for extracting CO{sub 2} from seawater samples that were coupled to a coulometer for detection of the extracted CO{sub 2}. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-} 1.9 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-}2.0 {micro}mol/kg. Underway pCO{sub 2} was measured by infrared photometry with a precision of {+-} 2.0 {micro}atm. The work aboard the R/V Meteor was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76CHOO016, and the Bundesministerium fir Forschung und Technologies through grants 03F0545A and MPG 099/1.

  14. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, March 29 - May 12, 1994)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozyr, A.

    2002-05-09

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and the fugacity of CO{sub 2} (fCO{sub 2}) at hydrographic stations during the R/V Meteor oceanographic cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A8). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Recife, Brazil, on March 29, 1994, and ended after 35 days at sea in Walvis Bay, Namibia, on May 12, 1994. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. TCO{sub 2} was measured using two single-operator multiparameter metabolic analyzers (SOMMA) coupled to a coulometer for extracting and detecting CO{sub 2} from seawater samples. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-}1.17 {micro}mol/kg. For the second carbonate system parameter, the fCO{sub 2} was measured in discrete samples by equilibrating a known volume of liquid phase (seawater) with a known volume of a gas phase containing a known mixture of CO{sub 2} in gaseous nitrogen (N{sub 2}). After equilibration, the gas phase CO{sub 2} concentration was determined by flame ionization detection following the catalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to methane (CH{sub 4}). The precision of these measurements was less than or equal to 1.0%. The R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 90 data retrieval routine files, a readme file, and this printed documentation that describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  15. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE sections P17S and P16S) during the tunes-2-expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-12-31

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), discrete partial pressure of TCO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), and total alkalinity (TALK), during the Research Vessel (R/V) Thomas Washington TUNES Leg 2 Expedition in the central South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on July 16, 1991, and returned to Papeete on August 25, 1991. WOCE Meridional Sections P17S along 135{degrees} W and P16S along 150{degrees} W were completed during the 40-day expedition. A total of 97 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P17S and P16S included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature and depth sensor; bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; CFC-12; CFC- 11; TCO{sub 2}; TALK; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 20{degrees}C. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in 1000 seawater samples was determined with a coulometric analysis system, the pCO{sub 2} in 940 water samples was determined with an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system, while the TALK concentration in 139 samples was determined on shore at the laboratory of C. Goyet of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with an alkalinity titration system. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements for the Certified Reference Material (Batch {number_sign}6) were made and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 {plus_minus} 1.5 {mu}mol/kg. This mean value agrees within a standard deviation of the 2304.6 {plus_minus} 1.6 {mu}mol/kg (N=9) value determined with the manometer of C. D. Keeling at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). Replicate samples from 11 Niskin bottles at 4 stations were also collected for later shore-based reference analyses of TCO{sub 2} and TALK by vacuum extraction and manometry in the laboratory of C. D. Keeling of SIO.

  16. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 (11 January - 24 February, 2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozyr, Alex

    2006-08-30

    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrient, inorganic carbon, organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and bomb 14C system parameters performed during the A16S_2005 cruise, which took place from January 11 to February 24, 2005, aboard research vessel (R/V) Ronald H. Brown under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The R/V Ronald H. Brown departed Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 11, 2005, and ended its cruise in Fortaleza, Brazil, on February 24, 2005. The research conducted was one of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/repeat hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from 36 depths at 121 stations. The data presented in this report include the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CFC, 14C, hydrographic, and other chemical measurements. The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16S_2005 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  17. Task 3: PNNL Visit by JAEA Researchers to Participate in TODAM Code Applications to Fukushima Rivers and to Evaluate the Feasibility of Adaptation of FLESCOT Code to Simulate Radionuclide Transport in the Pacific Ocean Coastal Water Around Fukushima

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Yasuo

    2013-03-29

    Four JAEA researchers visited PNNL for two weeks in February, 2013 to learn the PNNL-developed, unsteady, one-dimensional, river model, TODAM and the PNNL-developed, time-dependent, three dimensional, coastal water model, FLESCOT. These codes predict sediment and contaminant concentrations by accounting sediment-radionuclide interactions, e.g., adsorption/desorption and transport-deposition-resuspension of sediment-sorbed radionuclides. The objective of the river and coastal water modeling is to simulate • 134Cs and 137Cs migration in Fukushima rivers and the coastal water, and • their accumulation in the river and ocean bed along the Fukushima coast. Forecasting the future cesium behavior in the river and coastal water under various scenarios would enable JAEA to assess the effectiveness of various on-land remediation activities and if required, possible river and coastal water clean-up operations to reduce the contamination of the river and coastal water, agricultural products, fish and other aquatic biota. PNNL presented the following during the JAEA visit to PNNL: • TODAM and FLESCOT’s theories and mathematical formulations • TODAM and FLESCOT model structures • Past TODAM and FLESCOT applications • Demonstrating these two codes' capabilities by applying them to simple hypothetical river and coastal water cases. • Initial application of TODAM to the Ukedo River in Fukushima and JAEA researchers' participation in its modeling. PNNL also presented the relevant topics relevant to Fukushima environmental assessment and remediation, including • PNNL molecular modeling and EMSL computer facilities • Cesium adsorption/desorption characteristics • Experiences of connecting molecular science research results to macro model applications to the environment • EMSL tour • Hanford Site road tour. PNNL and JAEA also developed future course of actions for joint research projects on the Fukushima environmental and remediation assessments.

  18. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Program Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs, R E

    1980-01-01

    The Office of the Associate Laboratory Director for Energy and Environmental Technology has established the OTEC Program Management Office to be responsible for the ANL-assigned tasks of the OTEC Program under DOE's Chicago Operations and Regional Office (DOE/CORO). The ANL OTEC Program Management Plan is essentially a management-by-objective plan. The principal objective of the program is to provide lead technical support to CORO in its capacity as manager of the DOE power-system program. The Argonne OTEC Program is divided into three components: the first deals with development of heat exchangers and other components of OTEC power systems, the second with development of biofouling counter-measures and corrosion-resistant materials for these components in seawater service, and the third with environmental and climatic impacts of OTEC power-system operation. The essential points of the Management Plan are summarized, and the OTEC Program is described. The organization of the OTEC Program at ANL is described including the functions, responsibilities, and authorities of the organizational groupings. The system and policies necessary for the support and control functions within the organization are discussed. These functions cross organizational lines, in that they are common to all of the organization groups. Also included are requirements for internal and external reports.

  19. Ocean Prospect Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Pelamis wave power device, and intends to commercialise it in the UK and Australia. Coordinates: 42.55678, -88.050449 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"map...

  20. Ocean Energy Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Clean Energy Innovation and Job Creation | Department of Energy $12 Million i6 Green Investment to Promote Clean Energy Innovation and Job Creation Obama Administration Announces $12 Million i6 Green Investment to Promote Clean Energy Innovation and Job Creation September 29, 2011 - 2:22pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Obama Administration today announced the six winners of the i6 Green Challenge, an initiative to drive technology commercialization and entrepreneurship in support of a green