Sample records for research surface properties

  1. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.C.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of this proposed research are to refine further the inverse liquid chromatography technique for the study of surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals in water, to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals by inverse liquid chromatography, and to evaluate floatability of various treated coals in conjunction with surface properties of coals. Alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, heptanol, 1-hexadecanol, 2-methyl-pentanol, 4-methyl-2-penthanol (methylisobutyl carbinol), n-octanol, s-octanol, and cyclohexanol as probe compounds are utilized to evaluate hydrophilicity of coals and coal minerals. N-alkanes such as hexane, heptane and octane, and stearic acid are employed as probe compounds to evaluate hydrophobicity of coals and coal minerals. Aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene as probe compounds are used to examine aromaticity of coal surface. Aromatic acids such as o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, phenol and B-naphthol are used to detect aromatic acidic sites of coal surface. Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and aromaticity of surfaces for either raw coals or treated coals in water are relatively determined by evaluating both equilibrium physical/chemical adsorption and dynamic adsorption of probe compounds on various raw coals and treated coals to compare affinities of coals for water.

  2. Atmospheric and Surface Science Research Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric and Surface Science Research Laboratory Idaho National Laboratory (INL) researchers are contributing to the scientific understanding of contaminant transport through...

  3. Seventh BES (Basic Energy Sciences) catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  4. Nanotextured Anti-Icing Surfaces | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demonstrate Promising Anti-icing Nano Surfaces GE Scientists Demonstrate Promising Anti-icing Nano Surfaces GE Global Research today presented new research findings on its...

  5. Mechanical and tribological properties of ion beam-processed surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodali, P.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this work was to broaden the applications of well-established surface modification techniques and to elucidate the various wear mechanisms that occur in sliding contact of ion-beam processed surfaces. The investigation included characterization and evaluation of coatings and modified surfaces synthesized by three surface engineering methods; namely, beam-line ion implantation, plasma-source ion implantation, and DC magnetron sputtering. Correlation among measured properties such as surface hardness, fracture toughness, and wear behavior was also examined. This dissertation focused on the following areas of research: (1) investigating the mechanical and tribological properties of mixed implantation of carbon and nitrogen into single crystal silicon by beam-line implantation; (2) characterizing the mechanical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings processed by plasma source ion implantation; and (3) developing and evaluating metastable boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) compound coatings for mechanical and tribological properties. The surface hardness of a mixed carbon-nitrogen implant sample improved significantly compared to the unimplanted sample. However, the enhancement in the wear factor of this sample was found to be less significant than carbon-implanted samples. The presence of nitrogen might be responsible for the degraded wear behavior since nitrogen-implantation alone resulted in no improvement in the wear factor. DLC coatings have low friction, low wear factor, and high hardness. The fracture toughness of DLC coatings has been estimated for the first time. The wear mechanism in DLC coatings investigated with a ruby slider under a contact stress of 1 GPa was determined to be plastic deformation. The preliminary data on metastable BCN compound coatings indicated high friction, low wear factor, and high hardness.

  6. Surface Properties of Photo-Oxidized Bituminous Coals: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural weathering has a detrimental effect on the hydrophobic nature of coal, which in turn can influence clean-coal recovery during flotation. Few techniques are available that can establish the quality of coal surfaces and that have a short analysis time to provide input for process control. Luminescence emissions which can be quantified with an optical microscope and photometer system, are measurably influenced by degree of weathering as well as by mild storage deterioration. In addition, it has been shown that when vitrinite is irradiated with a relatively high intensity flux of violet- or ultraviolet- light in the presence of air, photo-oxidation of the surface occurs. The combination of measuring the change in luminescence emission intensity with degree of surface oxidation provided the impetus for the current investigation. The principal aim of this research was to determine whether clear correlations could be established among surface oxygen functionality, hydrophobicity induced by photo-oxidation, and measurements of luminescence intensity and alteration. If successful, the project would result in quantitative luminescence techniques based on optical microscopy that would provide a measure of the changes in surface properties as a function of oxidation and relate them to coal cleanability. Two analytical techniques were designed to achieve these goals. Polished surfaces of vitrain bands or a narrow size fraction of powdered vitrain concentrates were photo-oxidized using violet or ultraviolet light fluxes and then changes in surface properties and chemistry were measured using a variety of near-surface analytical techniques. Results from this investigation demonstrate that quantitative luminescence intensity measurements can be performed on fracture surfaces of bituminous rank coals (vitrains) and that the data obtained do reveal significant variations depending upon the level of surface oxidation. Photo-oxidation induced by violet or ultraviolet light fluxes does result in a progressive and significant increase in the amount of near-surface oxygen concentration at about the same level regardless of bituminous coal rank. These incremental changes in oxygen concentration appear to lower the hydrophobicity as shown by contact angle measurements on polished surfaces. Although this influence diminished as coal rank increased, the level of oxygen uptake was about the same, suggesting that the type of oxygen functionality formed during oxidation may be of great importance in modifying surface hydrophobicity. Changes in functional-group chemistry, measured by a variety of near-surface techniques, showed a general increase in the concentration of carbonyl-containing groups while those of CH{sub 2} groups decreased. All of these observations follow the trends observed in previous investigations of naturally weathered coals. The photo-oxidation technique also resulted in the development of phenolic, ester and anhydride moieties instead of the expected emplacement of carboxylic acid groups which are normally associated with naturally weathered coals. The importance of this observation is that esters and anhydrides would result in a more hydrophobic surface in comparison to the more hydrophilic surface resulting from acid functionality. This observation is consistent with the results of film flotation of UV-irradiated powdered vitrain in which floatability was generally observed to increase with increasing photo- oxidation.

  7. Modification of surface properties of copper-refractory metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA)

    1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface properties of copper-refractory metal (CU-RF) alloy bodies are modified by heat treatments which cause the refractory metal to form a coating on the exterior surfaces of the alloy body. The alloys have a copper matrix with particles or dendrites of the refractory metal dispersed therein, which may be niobium, vanadium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, or tungsten. The surface properties of the bodies are changed from those of copper to that of the refractory metal.

  8. Method for determining surface properties of microparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B. (Ridgewood, NJ)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Second harmonic generation (SHG), sum frequency generation (SFG) and difference frequency generation (DFG) can be used for surface analysis or characterization of microparticles having a non-metallic surface feature. The microparticles can be centrosymmetric or such that non-metallic molecules of interest are centrosymmetrically distributed inside and outside the microparticles but not at the surface of the microparticles where the asymmetry aligns the molecules. The signal is quadratic in incident laser intensity or proportional to the product of two incident laser intensities for SFG, it is sharply peaked at the second harmonic wavelength, quadratic in the density of molecules adsorbed onto the microparticle surface, and linear in microparticles density. In medical or pharmacological applications, molecules of interest may be of drugs or toxins, for example.

  9. 2011 Chemical Reactions at Surfaces Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Stair

    2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gordon Research Conference on Chemical Reactions at Surfaces is dedicated to promoting and advancing the fundamental science of interfacial chemistry and physics by providing surface scientists with the foremost venue for presentation and discussion of research occurring at the frontiers of their fields.

  10. The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling and Rate Capability of Lithium Positive Electrode Materials The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on...

  11. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hosseini, S. H. R., E-mail: hosseini@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Akiyama, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Lukeš, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague, Prague 18200 (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000?Hz, with 0.5?J per pulse energy output at 25?kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  12. Electrical Properties of Mineral Surfaces for Increasing Water Sorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the presence of O2.2,4,5 In addition to controlling Mn concentrations, the nanostructures sequester heavy-metal and the associated toxic metals can be remobilized. N the electrical properties of mineral surfaces and thereby affect reactions with charged species such as metal

  13. Research Skills Lecture 16: Intellectual Property Rights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullinaria, John

    and Wikipedia) #12;L16-2 Important IPR Issues What is an Intellectual Property Right (IPR)? IPR Legislation The four main types of IPR: Copyright Moral rights Patents Trademarks Plagiarism Issues specific, and unobvious (and has some value in the marketplace). Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are concerned

  14. Front surface thermal property measurements of air plasma spray coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Ted; Kakuda, Tyler [University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5070 (United States); Kulkarni, Anand [Siemens Energy, Orlando, Florida 32826-2399 (United States)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A front-surface measurement for determining the thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings has been applied to air plasma spray coatings. The measurement is used to determine all independent thermal properties of the coating simultaneously. Furthermore, with minimal requirements placed on the sample and zero sample preparation, measurements can be made under previously impossible conditions, such as on serviceable engine parts. Previous application of this technique was limited to relatively thin coatings, where a one-dimensional heat transfer model is applied. In this paper, the influence of heat spreading on the measurement of thicker coatings is investigated with the development of a two-dimensional heat transfer model.

  15. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties. Quarterly progress report, September--December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.C.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of this proposed research are to refine further the inverse liquid chromatography technique for the study of surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals in water, to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals by inverse liquid chromatography, and to evaluate floatability of various treated coals in conjunction with surface properties of coals. Alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, heptanol, 1-hexadecanol, 2-methyl-pentanol, 4-methyl-2-penthanol (methylisobutyl carbinol), n-octanol, s-octanol, and cyclohexanol as probe compounds are utilized to evaluate hydrophilicity of coals and coal minerals. N-alkanes such as hexane, heptane and octane, and stearic acid are employed as probe compounds to evaluate hydrophobicity of coals and coal minerals. Aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene as probe compounds are used to examine aromaticity of coal surface. Aromatic acids such as o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, phenol and B-naphthol are used to detect aromatic acidic sites of coal surface. Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and aromaticity of surfaces for either raw coals or treated coals in water are relatively determined by evaluating both equilibrium physical/chemical adsorption and dynamic adsorption of probe compounds on various raw coals and treated coals to compare affinities of coals for water.

  16. Enhancing the Properties of Carbon and Gold Substrates by Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer Anne Harnisch

    2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of both carbon and gold substrates are easily affected by the judicious choice of a surface modification protocol. Several such processes for altering surface composition have been published in literature. The research presented in this thesis primarily focuses on the development of on-column methods to modify carbon stationary phases used in electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). To this end, both porous graphitic carbon (PGC) and glassy carbon (GC) particles have been modified on-column by the electroreduction of arenediazonium salts and the oxidation of arylacetate anions (the Kolbe reaction). Once modified, the carbon stationary phases show enhanced chromatographic performance both in conventional liquid chromatographic columns and EMLC columns. Additionally, one may also exploit the creation of aryl films to by electroreduction of arenediazonium salts in the creation of nanostructured materials. The formation of mercaptobenzene film on the surface of a GC electrode provides a linking platform for the chemisorption of gold nanoparticles. After deposition of nanoparticles, the surface chemistry of the gold can be further altered by self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation via the chemisorption of a second thiol species. Finally, the properties of gold films can be altered such that they display carbon-like behavior through the formation of benzenehexathiol (BHT) SAMs. BHT chemisorbs to the gold surface in a previously unprecedented planar fashion. Carbon and gold substrates can be chemically altered by several methodologies resulting in new surface properties. The development of modification protocols and their application in the analytical arena is considered herein.

  17. Fast Superposition and Comparison of Spherical Harmonic Molecular Surfaces & Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Dave

    · Superpose & compare SH molecular surfaces and properties · Command-line program, reads & writes Parasurf SDF CPU... Fitting Mode ­ One Reference, Multiple Moving Molecules · unix% parafit a.sdf b.sdf c.sdf ... · creates b a.sdf, c a.sdf (b and c in frame of a), etc. · No need to re-run Mopac/ParaSurf ­ new SDFs

  18. Studies of the viscoelastic properties of water confined between surfaces of specified chemical nature.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, Jack E.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Moore, Nathan W.; Feibelman, Peter J.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work completed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 10-0973 of the same title. Understanding the molecular origin of the no-slip boundary condition remains vitally important for understanding molecular transport in biological, environmental and energy-related processes, with broad technological implications. Moreover, the viscoelastic properties of fluids in nanoconfinement or near surfaces are not well-understood. We have critically reviewed progress in this area, evaluated key experimental and theoretical methods, and made unique and important discoveries addressing these and related scientific questions. Thematically, the discoveries include insight into the orientation of water molecules on metal surfaces, the premelting of ice, the nucleation of water and alcohol vapors between surface asperities and the lubricity of these molecules when confined inside nanopores, the influence of water nucleation on adhesion to salts and silicates, and the growth and superplasticity of NaCl nanowires.

  19. Transfer of solution reactivity properties to electrode surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abruna, H.D.; Calvert, J.M.; Denisevich, P.; Ellis, C.D.; Meyer, T.J.; Murphy, W.R. Jr.; Murray, R.R.; Sullivan, B.P.; Walsh, J.L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polypyridyl complexes of ruthenium and especially those based on 2,2'-bipyridine have an extensive and well-developed solution chemistry. The observed chemistry includes important photochemical reactions and reactions of coordinated ligands. Successful procedures have been developed for the preparation of electrode interfaces which contain Ru-bpy chemical sites. The procedures are based on silane attachments to metal oxide surfaces, physical adsorption of polymers, and electropolymerization. The results of electrochemical experiments on the resulting interfaces show that the Ru-bpy sites retain many of their solution chemical properties, which include two examples of sustained oxidative catalysis. However, the interface itself can play a significant role in determining properties. Perhaps the most dramatic cases are those where the interface contains spatially separated bilayers containing Ru-bpy sites having different redox potentials or those containing a single layer exposed to a redox couple in the external solution. In either case, directed (unidirectional) charge transfer through the inner layer and charge trapping outside the inner layer can be shown to occur.

  20. Exploring Self-Assembly and Photomechanical Switching Properties of Molecules at Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jongweon

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    11.4 Self-Assembly Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.512.2 Self-Assembly of TTB-AB on GaAs(110) . . . . . . . 12.3at Surfaces 4 Self-Assembly Properties of Azobenzene on Au(

  1. The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Rate Capability of Lithium Positive Electrode Materials The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling and Rate Capability of Lithium Positive Electrode...

  2. Improvement of surface properties of turbine blade by laser surface alloying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Eom, H.S.; Chang, W.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The blades in a top-over reduction gas turbine (TRT), run by blast furnace gas (BFG: mixture of CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}) in an iron and steel making mill, are significantly impared by erosion and corrosion. This study evaluated the feasibility of laser consolidation of the thermal sprayed coating for improved bond strength, erosion resistance, and for reducing the number of pores. In addition, laser in-situ coating (laser surface alloying technique), in which the same coating material (Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} + CrNi powder) used for thermal spraying was blown (by powder feeder) into the moving molten pool generated by laser, was also performed and compared with laser consolidation. The properties of laser-treated specimens were evaluated and compared with the untreated substrate and plasma coating. The properties evaluated were solid particle erosion, corrosion (anodic polarization), bond strength, hardness, density of porosity, and microstructural chaca teristics [OLM, SEM (EPMA), TEM, XRD]. As may be expected, laser consolidation enhanced the erosion resistance, bond strength, and reduced the porosity density as compared to the as-plasma-coated condition. The mechanism for the degradation of the plasma coating of the turbine was found to be a repetitive action of erosion, corrosion penetration through pores, and impative spalling. The laser-alloyed Layer showed almost the same properties as that of the consolidated layer and was a strong function of parameters (specific energy density, line mass, and powder feed rate). The laser-alloyed coating consisted of three different layers of microstructures.

  3. Physical properties and surface/interface analysis of nanocrystalline...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and surfaceinterface analysis of nanocrystalline WO3 films grown under variable oxygen gas flow rates. Physical properties and surfaceinterface analysis of nanocrystalline...

  4. Control of physical properties on solid surface via laser processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Nishimura, Akihiko [Applied Laser Technology Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 65-20 Kizaki, Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In a safety operation of a nuclear power plant, vapor conditions such as a droplet or liquid membrane toward a solid surface of a heat exchanger and reactor vessel is important. In the present study, focusing on the droplet, the wettability on solid surface and surface free energy of solid are evaluated. In addition, wettability on a metal plate fabricated by laser processing is also considered for the nuclear engineering application.

  5. The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (ANL) Research Objectives: To develop fundamental understanding of surface chemistry and bulk cation distributions on cycling performance and rate capability To...

  6. Surface-active properties of humic and sulfochlorohumic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryabova, I.N.; Mustafina, G.A.; Akkulova, Z.G.; Satymbaeva, A.S. [Kazakh Academy of Sciences, Karaganda (Kazakhstan)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface tension of alkaline solutions of humic acids and their sulfochloroderivatives, which are synthesized by sulfonation of chlorohumic acids isolated from coal chlorinated by the electrochemical method, is investigated. It is established that humic compounds possess weak surface activity. Basic adsorption parameters are calculated.

  7. Influence of surface segregation on magnetic properties of FePt nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Hongyan [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States) [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Lei, Yinkai; Datta, Aditi; Wang, Guofeng [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)

    2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface segregation leads to chemical disordering in magnetic alloy nanostructures and thus could have profound impact upon the magnetic properties of these nanostructures. In this study, we used the first-principles density functional theory calculation method to determine how Pt surface segregation (exchanging interior Pt with surface Fe atoms) would affect the magnetic properties of L1{sub 0} ordered FePt nanoparticles. For both cuboid and cuboctahedral FePt nanoparticles, we predicted that the Pt surface segregation process could cause a decrease in total magnetic moments, a change in (easy and/or hard) magnetization axes, and a reduction in magnetic anisotropy.

  8. Surface Properties of Advanced Materials and Their Applications in Ballistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun, Huisung

    2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    to facilitate design and development of new materials for tribological applications. The research will focus on improving of the gun barrel performances. Experimental approaches will be used for combining analysis with basic thermal energy transfer principles...

  9. Reversible stimulus-responsive polymers for the control of the surface interfacial and nanomechanical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, Miao, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfaces with reversible stimulus-responsive properties have great potential for a wide variety of applications, such as transport, separation, and detection of biomolecules, controlled adhesion, friction, and lubrication ...

  10. Effects of mechanical properties and surface friction on elasto-plastic sliding contact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, Subra

    Effects of mechanical properties and surface friction on elasto-plastic sliding contact S and many recent computational studies have established quantitative relationships between elasto-plastic systematically quantified the effect of the plastic deformation characteristics on the frictional sliding

  11. Cooperative Research and Development of Primary Surface Recuperator for Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escola, George

    2007-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Recuperators have been identified as key components of advanced gas turbines systems that achieve a measure of improvement in operating efficiency and lead the field in achieving very low emissions. Every gas turbine manufacturer that is studying, developing, or commercializing advanced recuperated gas turbine cycles requests that recuperators operate at higher temperature without a reduction in design life and must cost less. The Solar Cooperative Research and Development of Primary Surface Recuperator for Advanced Microturbine Systems Program is directed towards meeting the future requirements of advanced gas turbine systems by the following: (1) The development of advanced alloys that will allow recuperator inlet exhaust gas temperatures to increase without significant cost increase. (2) Further characterization of the creep and oxidation (dry and humid air) properties of nickel alloy foils (less than 0.13 mm thick) to allow the economical use of these materials. (3) Increasing the use of advanced robotic systems and advanced in-process statistical measurement systems.

  12. The effect of soil hydraulic properties vs. soil texture in land surface models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, Eric

    depths in the soil column controls the partitioning of the two key energy fluxes of concern in climateThe effect of soil hydraulic properties vs. soil texture in land surface models E. D. Gutmann and E and difficulties in scaling existing data. In particular, the spatial distribution of Soil Hydraulic Properties

  13. Gold Nanorods as Contrast Agents for Biological Imaging: Optical Properties, Surface Conjugation and Photothermal Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Ji-Xin

    Review Gold Nanorods as Contrast Agents for Biological Imaging: Optical Properties, Surface and scattering in the near-infrared (NIR) region, making them attractive probes for in vitro and in vivo imaging modalities such as optical coherence tomography or photoacoustic tomography. Careful control over surface

  14. Effects of Surface Properties on Adhesion of Protein to Biomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Fangzhou

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    of implants. The present research evaluates and analyzes the adhesive strength of proteins on pure High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Single Wall Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) enhanced HDPE composites, Ti-C:H coating and Ti6Al4V alloys (grade 2). The adhesive...

  15. Water Research 38 (2004) 33313339 Testing a surface tension-based model to predict the salting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbert, Bruce

    Water Research 38 (2004) 3331­3339 Testing a surface tension-based model to predict the salting out associated with transferring solutes from water to a salt solution to the difference in surface tensions likely reflects the inability of the simple surface tension model to account for all interactions among

  16. Surface transport properties of Fe-based superconductors: The influence of degradation and inhomogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plecenik, T.; Gregor, M.; Sobota, R.; Truchly, M.; Satrapinskyy, L.; Kus, P.; Plecenik, A. [Department of Experimental Physics, FMPI, Comenius University, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)] [Department of Experimental Physics, FMPI, Comenius University, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kurth, F.; Holzapfel, B.; Iida, K. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, P. O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, P. O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface properties of Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} epitaxial superconducting thin films were inspected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM), and point contact spectroscopy (PCS). It has been shown that surface of Fe-based superconductors degrades rapidly if being exposed to air, what results in suppression of gap-like structure on PCS spectra. Moreover, SSRM measurements revealed inhomogeneous surface conductivity, what is consistent with strong dependence of PCS spectra on contact position. Presented results suggest that fresh surface and small probing area should be assured for surface sensitive measurements like PCS to obtain intrinsic properties of Fe-based superconductors.

  17. Exploring Infrared Properties of Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nurur Rahman; Justin H. Howell; George Helou; Joseph M. Mazzarella; Brent Buckalew

    2007-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Abridged: We present analysis of Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the three low surface brightness (LSB) optical giant galaxies Malin 1, UGC 6614 and UGC 9024. Mid- and far-infrared morphology, spectral energy distributions, and integrated colors are used to derive the dust mass, dust-to-gas mass ratio, total infrared luminosity, and star formation rate (SFR). The 8 micron images indicate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules are present in the central regions of all three metal-poor LSB galaxies. The diffuse optical disks of Malin 1 and UGC 9024 remain undetected at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The dustiest of the three LSB galaxies, UGC 6614, has infrared morphology that varies significantly with wavelength. The 8 and 24 micron emission is co-spatial with H\\alpha emission previously observed in the outer ring of UGC 6614. The estimated dust-to-gas ratios, from less than 10^{-3} to 10^{-2}, support previous indications that the LSB galaxies are relatively dust poor compared to the HSB galaxies. The total infrared luminosities are approximately 1/3 to 1/2 the blue band luminosities, suggesting that old stellar populations are the primary source of dust heating in these LSB objects. The SFR estimated from the infrared data ranges ~0.01-0.88 M_sun yr^{-1}, consistent with results from optical studies.

  18. MODIFICATION OF SURFACE AND TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF DLC FILMS BY ADDING SILVER CONTENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hanshen S.; Endrino, Jose L.; Anders, Andre

    2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The incorporation of silver into the diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings has shown excellent potential in various applications; therefore the surface and tribological properties of silver-containing DLC thin films deserve to be investigated. In this study we have deposited silver-containing hydrogenated and hydrogen-free DLC coatings by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) methods. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nano-scratch tests were used to study the surface and tribological properties. The silver incorporation had only slight effects on hydrogenated DLC coatings. However, the incorporation of silver has significant effect on hydrogen-free DLC of smoothing the surface and increasing the surface energy. Those effects have been illustrated and explained in the context of experimental results.

  19. Nanotextured Anti-Icing Surfaces | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn F.Demonstrate Promising Anti-icing Nano Surfaces

  20. EDIC RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1 Verification of Liveness Properties in Transactional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that avoids common problems associated with conventional locking techniques. The correctness of concurrent properties. Safety properties can be ensured by simply aborting operations. Therefore, besides safety checking problem of the implementation to a finite state problem. Index Terms--formal methods

  1. A comparison of land surface model soil hydraulic properties estimated by inverse modeling and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, Eric

    of water in the soil. This in turn plays an important role in the water and energy cycles at the land depths in the soil column controls the partitioning of two key energy fluxes of concern in climate modelsA comparison of land surface model soil hydraulic properties estimated by inverse modeling

  2. 1 Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties from the inversion of surface 2 Streaming Potential (SP) anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sailhac, Pascal

    1 Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties from the inversion of surface 2 Streaming Potential (SP with the geometry of the water table. It follows that 11 SP measurements can be used to estimate aquifer hydraulic and found that we 14 are able to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and the depth 15 and the thickness

  3. Relating Microwave Backscatter Azimuth Modulation to Surface Properties of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Relating Microwave Backscatter Azimuth Modulation to Surface Properties of the Greenland Ice Sheet modulation of the normalized radar cross- section in satellite data sets over Greenland is investigated. Data sastrugi are estimated. I. INTRODUCTION The Greenland ice sheet is a critical area of study in esti- mating

  4. Probing anharmonic properties of nuclear surface vibration by heavy-ion fusion reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Takigawa; K. Hagino; S. Kuyucak

    1997-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Describing fusion reactions between ^{16}O and ^{154}Dy and, between ^{16}O and ^{144}Sm by the $sd-$ and $sdf-$ interacting boson model, we show that heavy-ion fusion reactions are strongly affected by anharmonic properties of nuclear surface vibrations and nuclear shape, and thus provide a powerful method to study details of nuclear structure and dynamics.

  5. Computer simulations of the wetting properties of neon on heterogeneous surfaces Stefano Curtarolo,1,2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtarolo, Stefano

    Computer simulations of the wetting properties of neon on heterogeneous surfaces Stefano Curtarolo Received 31 August 1998 We use the grand canonical Monte Carlo method to study the nature of wetting the grand canonical Monte Carlo method of statistical mechanics to compute the nature of wetting transitions

  6. Non-linear optical properties of surfaces : Extraction of the signal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botti, Silvana

    is strong enough, we get non-linear effects in materials Raman effect in optical fiber[1] HarmonicNon-linear optical properties of surfaces : Extraction of the signal Nicolas Tancogne-Dejean and Valérie Véniard Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, Ecole Polytechnique CNRS 91128 Palaiseau, France 1 Young

  7. Effects of the roughness characteristics on the wire tool surface for the electrical discharge machining properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuzawa, Yasushi; Yamashita, Masahide; Mamuro, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Ken [Nagaoka University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata, 940-2188 (Japan); Ogata, Masayoshi [Macoho Co., Ltd. 525 Kanawa, Isurugi-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2032 JAPAN (Japan)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) has been investigated to obtain the better discharge machining properties of the removal rate and the surface roughness in a few decades. Recently, it revealed that the rough tool electrodes can improve the WEDM properties for some sort of materials. In this study, the rough wire electrodes using a wet blasting method was developed and evaluated the machining performance for the insulated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the WEDM processes. As the results, it could not recognize the advantage of roughness wire electrode under the high-energy condition, but it found that the electro-conductive layer thickness became thinner in comparison with those of normal wires. On the contrary, it could be obtained the better surface roughness in the low energy condition. It was supposed that the roughed wire surface generates the homogeneous dispersion discharges on the workpiece.

  8. Evolving research directions in Surface OceanLower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evolving research directions in Surface Ocean­Lower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science Cliff S. Law. Understanding the exchange of energy, gases and particles at the ocean­atmosphere interface is critical­Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) coordinates multi-disciplinary ocean­ atmosphere research projects that quantify

  9. Petrophysical properties of saprolites from the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site, Tennessee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Petrophysical properties of saprolites from the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site Karaoulis2 ABSTRACT At the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge site, near Oak Ridge, Tennessee methods have been used to locate contami- nant migration at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Chal

  10. Project of Rotating Carbon High-Power Neutron Target. Research of Graphite Properties for Production of High Intensity Neutron Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubin, K V; Bak, P A; Kot, N K; Logatchev, P V

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project of Rotating Carbon High-Power Neutron Target. Research of Graphite Properties for Production of High Intensity Neutron Source

  11. Method And Apparatus For Two Dimensional Surface Property Analysis Based On Boundary Measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for determining properties of a conductive film is disclosed. A plurality of probe locations selected around a periphery of the conductive film define a plurality of measurement lines between each probe location and all other probe locations. Electrical resistance may be measured along each of the measurement lines. A lumped parameter model may be developed based on the measured values of electrical resistance. The lumped parameter model may be used to estimate resistivity at one or more selected locations encompassed by the plurality of probe locations. The resistivity may be extrapolated to other physical properties if the conductive film includes a correlation between resistivity and the other physical properties. A profile of the conductive film may be developed by determining resistivity at a plurality of locations. The conductive film may be applied to a structure such that resistivity may be estimated and profiled for the structure's surface.

  12. Los Alamos researchers uncover new properties in nanocomposite oxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6,LocalNuclearandplantsLos Alamos

  13. Intellectual Property Provisions (GLB-115) Grant Research, Development, or

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA,Fermi NationalBusiness PlanPostingOctoberofResearch,

  14. Los Alamos researchers uncover new properties in nanocomposite oxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recovery challenge fund Las Conchas recoveryNuclearPhysicistResearcherMap

  15. Tribological Properties of Self-assembled Monolayers on Au, SiOx and Si Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KIM,HYUN I.; BOIADJIEV,V.; HOUSTON,JACK E.; ZHU,X.-Y; KIELY,J.D.

    2000-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Using interracial force microscopy (IFM), the tribological properties of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on Si surfaces produced by a new chemical strategy are investigated and compared to those of classical SAM systems, which include alkanethiols on Au and alkylsilanes on SiO{sub x}. The new SAM films are prepared by depositing n-alkyl chains with OH-terminations onto Cl-terminated Si substrates. The chemical nature of the actual lubricating molecules, n-dodecyl, is kept constant in all three thin film systems for direct comparison and similarities and differences in tribological properties are observed. The adhesion strength is virtually identical for all three systems; however, frictional properties differ due to differences in film packing. Differences in the chemical bonds that attach the lubricant molecules to the substrate are also discussed as they influence variations in film wear and durability. It is demonstrated that the new SAM films are capable of controlling the friction and adhesion of Si surfaces as well as the classical SAMs in addition to providing a greater potential to be more reproducible and more durable.

  16. Surface properties of liquid mercury: a comparison of density-dependent and density-independent force fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Iakovlev; D. Bedrov; M. Müller

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface properties of liquid mercury (Hg) at a temperature of 293 K are investigated by classical Molecular Dynamics simulation using density-independent (DI) and density-dependent (DD) force fields. The latter force fields were introduced to improve the description of surface properties. Both force fields yield lower values of the surface tension in comparison to experimental data. Moreover, the density-dependent force field results in an anomalous thermodynamic behavior. These findings are rationalized by liquid-state theory. An optimized, density-independent force field is proposed that yields a higher surface tension and, at the same time, provides an accurate description of the liquid-vapor coexistence.

  17. Frictional properties between fine grained limestone, dolomite and sandstone along precut surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Takeshi

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of all the combinations of rocks in contact. Th following are the experimental variables: (1) Angle between cut surface and load axis: 45 0 (2) Confining pressure: 350, 700, 1, 000, 1, 400 bars. -4 (3) Strain-rate: 10 / sec. (4) Temperature... 13 4. 0 P =1 c gl, 00 400 (bars) 700 4. 0 3. 0 700 350 A 350 2. 0 eLO A 2. 0 4. 0 6. 0 Strain (X) Figure 1-a. Stress-strain curves of Tennessee Sandstone against Tennessee Sandstone. 4. 0 2. 0 4. 0 6. 0 Strain (%%d) Figure 1-b...

  18. Characterization of the molecular structure and mechanical properties of polymer surfaces and protein/polymer interfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koffas, Telly Stelianos

    2004-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and other complementary surface-sensitive techniques have been used to study the surface molecular structure and surface mechanical behavior of biologically-relevant polymer systems. SFG and AFM have emerged as powerful analytical tools to deduce structure/property relationships, in situ, for polymers at air, liquid and solid interfaces. The experiments described in this dissertation have been performed to understand how polymer surface properties are linked to polymer bulk composition, substrate hydrophobicity, changes in the ambient environment (e.g., humidity and temperature), or the adsorption of macromolecules. The correlation of spectroscopic and mechanical data by SFG and AFM can become a powerful methodology to study and engineer materials with tailored surface properties. The overarching theme of this research is the interrogation of systems of increasing structural complexity, which allows us to extend conclusions made on simpler model systems. We begin by systematically describing the surface molecular composition and mechanical properties of polymers, copolymers, and blends having simple linear architectures. Subsequent chapters focus on networked hydrogel materials used as soft contact lenses and the adsorption of protein and surfactant at the polymer/liquid interface. The power of SFG is immediately demonstrated in experiments which identify the chemical parameters that influence the molecular composition and ordering of a polymer chain's side groups at the polymer/air and polymer/liquid interfaces. In general, side groups with increasingly greater hydrophobic character will be more surface active in air. Larger side groups impose steric restrictions, thus they will tend to be more randomly ordered than smaller hydrophobic groups. If exposed to a hydrophilic environment, such as water, the polymer chain will attempt to orient more of its hydrophilic groups to the surface in order to minimize the total surface energy. With an understanding of the structural and environmental parameters which govern polymer surface structure, SFG is then used to explore the effects of surface hydrophobicity and solvent polarity on the orientation and ordering of amphiphilic neutral polymers adsorbed at the solid/liquid interface. SFG spectra show that poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) adsorb with their hydrophobic moieties preferentially oriented toward hydrophobic polystyrene surfaces. These same moieties, however, disorder when adsorbed onto a hydrophilic silica/water interface. Water is identified as a critical factor for mediating the orientation and ordering of hydrophobic moieties in polymers adsorbed at hydrophobic interfaces. The role of bulk water content and water vapor, as they influence hydrogel surface structure and mechanics, continues to be explored in the next series of experiments. A method was developed to probe the surface viscoelastic properties of hydroxylethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based contact lens materials by analyzing AFM force-distance curves. AFM analysis indicates that the interfacial region is dehydrated, relative to the bulk. Experiments performed on poly(HEMA+MA) (MA = methacrylic acid), a more hydrophilic copolymer with greater bulk water content, show even greater water depletion at the surface. SFG spectra, as well as surface energy arguments, suggest that the more hydrophilic polymer component (such as MA) is not favored at the air interface; this may explain anomalies in water retention at the hydrogel surface. Adsorption of lysozyme onto poly(HEMA+MA) was found to further reduce near-surface viscous behavior, suggesting lower surface water content. Lastly, protein adsorption is studied using a model polymer system of polystyrene covalently bound with a monolayer of bovine serum albumin. SFG results indicate that some amino acid residues in proteins adopt preferred orientations. SFG spectra also show that the phenyl rings of the bare polystyrene substrate in contact with air or

  19. Atomistic simulation of surface functionalization on the interfacial properties of graphene-polymer nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. C.; Lai, Z. B.; Galpaya, D.; Yan, C., E-mail: c2.yan@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, G.P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane (Australia); Hu, N. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Zhou, L. M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene has been increasingly used as nano sized fillers to create a broad range of nanocomposites with exceptional properties. The interfaces between fillers and matrix play a critical role in dictating the overall performance of a composite. However, the load transfer mechanism along graphene-polymer interface has not been well understood. In this study, we conducted molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the influence of surface functionalization and layer length on the interfacial load transfer in graphene-polymer nanocomposites. The simulation results show that oxygen-functionalized graphene leads to larger interfacial shear force than hydrogen-functionalized and pristine ones during pull-out process. The increase of oxygen coverage and layer length enhances interfacial shear force. Further increase of oxygen coverage to about 7% leads to a saturated interfacial shear force. A model was also established to demonstrate that the mechanism of interfacial load transfer consists of two contributing parts, including the formation of new surface and relative sliding along the interface. These results are believed to be useful in development of new graphene-based nanocomposites with better interfacial properties.

  20. Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMaio, Ernest Vincent, 1964-

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfaces is a collection of four individual essays which focus on the characteristics and tactile qualities of surfaces within a variety of perceived landscapes. Each essay concentrates on a unique surface theme and purpose; ...

  1. Nuclear matter properties, phenomenological theory of clustering at the nuclear surface, and symmetry energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q. N. Usmani; Nooraihan Abdullah; K. Anwar; Zaliman Sauli

    2011-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a phenomenological theory of nuclei that incorporates clustering at the nuclear surface in a general form. The theory explains the recently extracted large symmetry energy by Natowitz et al. at low densities of nuclear matter and is fully consistent with the static properties of nuclei. In phenomenological way clusters of all sizes, shapes along with medium modifications are included. Symmetric nuclear matter properties are discussed in detail. Arguments are given that lead to an equation of state of nuclear matter consistent with clustering in the low density region. We also discuss properties of asymmetric nuclear matter. Because of clustering, an interesting interpretation of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter emerges. As a framework, an extended version of Thomas Fermi theory is adopted for nuclei which also contain phenomenological pairing and Wigner contributions. This theory connects the nuclear matter equation of state, which incorporate clustering at low densities, with clustering in nuclei at the nuclear surface. Calculations are performed for various equation of state of nuclear matter. We consider measured binding energies of 2149 nuclei for N, Z \\geq 8. The importance of quartic term in symmetry energy is demonstrated at and below the saturation density of nuclear matter. It is shown that it is largely related to the use of, ab initio, realistic equation of state of neutron matter, particularly the contribution arising from the three neutron interaction and somewhat to clustering. Reasons for these are discussed. Because of clustering the neutron skin thickness in nuclei is found to reduce significantly. Theory predicts new situations and regimes to be explored both theoretically and experimentally.

  2. Optimization of the optical properties of nanostructured silicon surfaces for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Di; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Lambert, Y.; Deblock, Y.; Stiévenard, D., E-mail: didier.stievenard@isen.fr [Institut d'Electronique et de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies, IEMN, (CNRS, UMR 8520), Groupe de Physique, Cité scientifique, avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Cristini-Robbe, O. [PHLAM, UMR8523, Université de Lille 1, 59652 Villeneuve d'Asq Cedex (France); Xu, T. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Application, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Faucher, M. [Institut d'Electronique et de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies, IEMN, (CNRS, UMR 8520), Groupe NAM6, Cité scientifique, avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d'Asq (France)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface nanostructuration is an important challenge for the optimization of light trapping in solar cell. We present simulations on both the optical properties and the efficiency of micro pillars—MPs—or nanocones—NCs—silicon based solar cells together with measurements on their associated optical absorption. We address the simulation using the Finite Difference Time Domain method, well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of nanostructures. We study the effect of the period, the bottom diameter, the top diameter, and the height of the MPs or NCs on the efficiency, assuming that one absorbed photon induces one exciton. This allows us to give a kind of abacus involving all the geometrical parameters of the nanostructured surface with regard to the efficiency of the associated solar cell. We also show that for a given ratio of the diameter over the period, the best efficiency is obtained for small diameters. For small lengths, MPs are extended to NCs by changing the angle between the bottom surface and the vertical face of the MPs. The best efficiency is obtained for an angle of the order of 70°. Finally, nanostructures have been processed and allow comparing experimental results with simulations. In every case, a good agreement is found.

  3. Modifications of the surface properties of metals by oxide overlayers: 1, Oxidized zirconium deposited on the Pt(100) single crystal surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardi, U.; Ross, P.N.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic zirconium was deposited on a single crystal Pt(100) surface by thermal evaporation in UHV conditions. The deposit was oxidized by exposure to oxygen immediately after deposition. Oxidized zirconium was found to grow on the platinum ace by the layer-by-layer mechanism. The adsorption of carbon monoxide on the surface was studied as a function of the zirconium coverage. The results show that oxidized zirconium forms a chemically inert layer which blocks the adsorptive sites of the underlying platinum substrate. The properties of the free Pt surface were unaffected by the presence of the oxidized zirconium layer.

  4. Texas AgriLife Research Procedure 21.01.10.A1.01 Surplus or Salvage Property Page 1 of 2 Texas AgriLife Research Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas AgriLife Research Procedure 21.01.10.A1.01 Surplus or Salvage Property Page 1 of 2 Texas AgriLife Research Procedures 21.01.10.A1.01 SURPLUS OR SALVAGE PROPERTY Approved: February 17, 2011 Next Scheduled Review: February 17, 2013 PROCEDURE STATEMENT This procedure establishes disposal methods for surplus

  5. Research Paper j Using Petri Net Tools to Study Properties and Dynamics of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Daniel L.

    Research Paper j Using Petri Net Tools to Study Properties and Dynamics of Biological Systems MOR PELEG, PHD, DANIEL RUBIN, MD, MSC, RUSS B. ALTMAN, MD, PHD A b s t r a c t Petri Nets (PNs concurrent dynamic systems is Petri Nets (PNs).1 An advantage of PNs is that they can represent system

  6. Iwww.upenn.edu/almanac ALMANAC SUPPLEMENT July 13, 2010 Patent and Tangible Research Property

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushman, Frederic

    Iwww.upenn.edu/almanac ALMANAC SUPPLEMENT July 13, 2010 Patent and Tangible Research Property, the Trustees hereby decree as follows: Article 2. Policy and Procedures on Inventions and Patents 2.0 Policy Statement on Inventions and Patents. It is the policy of the University that all INVENTIONS, together

  7. 2010-05-19 Revised Patent Policy v6 Patent and Tangible Research Property

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2010-05-19 Revised Patent Policy v6 Patent and Tangible Research Property Policies and Procedures hereby decree as follows: Article 2. Policy and Procedures on Inventions and Patents 2.0 Policy Statement on Inventions and Patents. It is the policy of the University that all INVENTIONS, together with associated MATE

  8. Ash Deposit Formation and Deposit Properties. A Comprehensive Summary of Research Conducted at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry L. Baxter

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work performed at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility over the past eight years on the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. This work has been done under four broad categories: coal characterization, fly ash formation, ash deposition, and deposit property development. The objective was to provide sufficient understanding of these four areas to be able to predict coal behavior in current and advanced conversion systems. This work has led to new characterization techniques for fuels that provide, for the first time, systematic and species specific information regarding the inorganic material. The transformations of inorganic material during combustion can be described in terms of the net effects of the transformations of these individual species. Deposit formation mechanisms provide a framework for predicting deposition rates for abroad range of particle sizes. Predictions based on these rates many times are quite accurate although there are important exceptions. A rigorous framework for evaluating deposit has been established. Substantial data have been obtained with which to exercise this framework, but this portion of the work is less mature than is any other. Accurate prediction of deposit properties as functions of fuel properties, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions represents the single most critical area where additional research is needed.

  9. Surface driven effects on magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic LaFeO{sub 3} nanocrystalline ferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sendil Kumar, A., E-mail: sendilphy@gmail.com, E-mail: anilb42@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana 500 046 (India); Manivel Raja, M. [Advanced Magnetics Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad, Telangana 500 058 (India); Bhatnagar, Anil K., E-mail: sendilphy@gmail.com, E-mail: anilb42@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana 500 046 (India); School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana 500 046 (India)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    LaFeO{sub 3} nanocrystalline ferrites were synthesized through sol-gel method in different size distributions and the effect of finite size on magnetic properties is investigated. Results of magnetization and Mössbauer measurements show that superparamagnetism and weak ferromagnetic behavior in some of the size distributions. The origin of the superparamagnetism is from fine particles similar to ferromagnetic single domains and the weak ferromagnetism comes from surface spin disorder caused by Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The magnetic ground state of LaFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles differs from that of bulk, and the ground state is dictated by the finite size effect because density of states depends on the dimensionality of the sample.

  10. High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research1 Mark A. Bourassa1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    ), and in 2008, the Wilkins Ice Shelf51 collapsed equally quickly (Scambos et al. 2009). Ocean heat content1 High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research1 2 Mark A-latitude surface fluxes will require close collaboration among meteorologists,33 oceanographers, ice physicists

  11. Structural and electronic properties of cobalt carbide Co2C and its surface stability: Density functional theory study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weixue

    .V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Transition metal carbides (TMCs), typically including all 3 d ele- ments and 4 d/5 d elements of groups 3­6 early transition metals, possess unique physical and chemicalStructural and electronic properties of cobalt carbide Co2C and its surface stability: Density

  12. Influence of surface defects and local structure on acid/base properties and oxidation pathways over metal oxide surfaces. Final report, June 1990--January 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, D.F.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report covers work done during project period one and project period two. All the work in project period one was focused on the selective oxidation of oxygenated hydrocarbons over the SnO{sub 2}(110) single crystal surface. In project period two, the emphasis was on the acid/base properties of SnO{sub 2}(110) as well as two different Cu{sub 2}O single crystal surfaces. Prior to the summary of results, a description of these different surfaces is given as background information. Results are described for the dissociation and reaction of Bronsted acids (methanol, formic acid, water, formaldehyde, acetone, propene, acetic acid, and carbon monoxide). Results from project period two include: ammonia adsorption, CO{sub 2} adsorption, propene adsorption and oxidation, with tin oxides; complimentary work with copper oxides; and STM investigations.

  13. Electronic and structural properties of vacancies on and below the GaP,,110... surface G. Schwarz, A. Kley, J. Neugebauer, and M. Scheffler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electronic and structural properties of vacancies on and below the GaP,,110... surface G. Schwarz and electronic structure of neutral surface and subsurface vacancies at the GaP 110 surface. The cation as well as the anion surface vacancy show a pronounced inward relaxation of the three nearest-neighbor atoms towards

  14. Structural stability and electronic properties of low-index surfaces of SnS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tritsaris, Georgios A.; Malone, Brad D. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Kaxiras, Efthimios, E-mail: kaxiras@physics.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film photovoltaic cells are increasingly important for cost-effective solar energy harvesting. Layered SnS is a promising absorber material due to its high optical absorption in the visible and good doping characteristics. We use first-principles calculations based on density functional theory to study structures of low-index surfaces of SnS using stoichiometric and oxygen-containing structural models, in order to elucidate their possible effect on the efficiency of the photovoltaic device. We find that the surface energy is minimized for the surface with orientation parallel to the layer stacking direction. Compared to stoichiometric surfaces, the oxygen-containing surfaces exhibit fewer electronic states near the band gap. This reduction of near-gap surface states by oxygen should reduce recombination losses at grain boundaries and interfaces of the SnS absorber, and should be beneficial to the efficiency of the solar cell.

  15. Tailoring of Pore Structures and Surface Properties of Syndiotactic Polystyrene Aerogels.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiao

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This work focused on tailoring of pore structures and properties of syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) aerogels, using proper selection of materials and preparation techniques, and further… (more)

  16. Structural and electrochemical properties of nanostructured nickel silicides by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiao [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Bingsen [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Li, Chuang; Shao, Zhengfeng [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Su, Dangsheng [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Williams, Christopher T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States); Liang, Changhai, E-mail: changhai@dlut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been synthesized by reduction and silification of high-surface-area nickel oxide, and exhibited remarkably like-noble metal property, lower electric resistivity, and ferromagnetism at room temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have been prepared by reduction and silification of high-surface-area NiO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of nickel silicides changed with increasing reaction temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si doping into nickel changed the magnetic properties of metallic nickel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have remarkably lower electric resistivity and like-noble metal property. -- Abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been prepared by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide (145 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) produced via precipitation. The prepared materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic and electrochemical measurements. The nickel silicide formation involves the following sequence: NiO (cubic) {yields} Ni (cubic) {yields} Ni{sub 2}Si (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi{sub 2} (cubic), with particles growing from 13.7 to 21.3 nm. The nickel silicides are ferromagnetic at room temperature, and their saturation magnetization values change drastically with the increase of Si content. Nickel silicides have remarkably low electrical resistivity and noble metal-like properties because of a constriction of the Ni d band and an increase of the electronic density of states. The results suggest that such silicides are promising candidates as inexpensive yet functional materials for applications in electrochemistry as well as catalysis.

  17. High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research Mark A. Bourassa1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    , the Wilkins Ice Shelf collapsed equally quickly (Scambos et al. 2009). Ocean heat content is rising rapidlyHigh-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research Mark A. Bourassa1 conditions for the measurement and estimation of air­sea and ice fluxes, limiting understanding of related

  18. High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research1 Mark A. Bourassa1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    ), and in 2008, the Wilkins Ice Shelf51 collapsed equally quickly (Scambos et al. 2009). Ocean heat content1 High-Latitude Ocean and Sea Ice Surface Fluxes: Challenges for Climate Research1 2 Mark A conditions for the measurement and estimation of air­27 sea and ice fluxes, limiting understanding of related

  19. Fundamentals of Reservoir Surface Energy as Related to Surface Properties, Wettability, Capillary Action, and Oil Recovery from Fractured Reservoirs by Spontaneous Imbibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Zhengxin Tong; Evren Unsal; Siluni Wickramathilaka; Shaochang Wo; Peigui Yin

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

  20. Fundamentals of reservoir surface energy as related to surface properties, wettability, capillary action, and oil recovery from fractured reservoirs by spontaneous imbibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Jason Zhengxin Tong; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

    2006-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

  1. Fundamentals of Reservoir Surface Energy as Related to Surface Properties, Wettability, Capillary Action and Oil Recovery from Fractured Reservoirs by Spontaneous Imbibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

    2006-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

  2. Fundamentals of reservoir surface energy as related to surface properties, wettability, capillary action, and oil recovery from fractured reservoirs by spontaneous imbibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Jason Zhengxin Tong; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

  3. FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR SURFACE ENERGY AS RELATED TO SURFACE PROPERTIES, WETTABILITY, CAPILLARY ACTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FROM FRACTURED RESERVOIRS BY SPONTANEOUS IMBIBITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed-wet rocks. Imbibition measurements will include novel sensitive pressure measurements designed to elucidate the basic mechanisms that determine induction time and drive the very slow rate of spontaneous imbibition commonly observed for mixed-wet rocks. In further demonstration of concepts, three approaches to improved oil recovery from fractured reservoirs will be tested; use of surfactants to promote imbibition in oil wet rocks by wettability alteration: manipulation of injection brine composition: reduction of the capillary back pressure which opposes production of oil at the fracture face.

  4. Electrical transport and mechanical properties of alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers on silicon surfaces probed by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Young; Qi, Yabing; Ashby, Paul D.; Hendriksen, Bas L.M.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The correlation between molecular conductivity and mechanical properties (molecular deformation and frictional responses) of hexadecylsilane self-assembled monolayers was studied with conductive probe atomic force microscopy/friction force microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum. Current and friction were measured as a function of applied pressure, simultaneously, while imaging the topography of self-assembled monolayer molecule islands and silicon surfaces covered with a thin oxide layer. Friction images reveal lower friction over the molecules forming islands than over the bare silicon surface, indicating the lubricating functionality of alkylsilane molecules. By measuring the tunneling current change due to changing of the height of the molecular islands by tilting the molecules under pressure from the tip, we obtained an effective conductance decay constant ({beta}) of 0.52/{angstrom}.

  5. Description of Induced Nuclear Fission with Skyrme Energy Functionals: I. Static Potential Energy Surfaces and Fission Fragment Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Schunck; D. Duke; H. Carr; A. Knoll

    2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Eighty years after its experimental discovery, a microscopic description of induced nuclear fission based solely on the interactions between neutrons and protons and quantum many-body methods still poses formidable challenges. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the development of a predictive microscopic framework for the accurate calculation of static properties of fission fragments for hot fission and thermal or slow neutrons. To this end, we focus on the 239Pu(n,f) reaction and employ nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme energy densities. Potential energy surfaces are computed at the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation with up to five collective variables. We find that the triaxial degree of freedom plays an important role, both near the fission barrier and at scission. The impact of the parameterization of the Skyrme energy density on deformation properties from the ground-state up to scission is also quantified. We introduce a general template for the detailed description of fission fragment properties. It is based on the careful analysis of the scission point, using both advanced topological methods and recently proposed quantum many-body techniques. We conclude that an accurate prediction of fission fragment properties at low incident neutron energies, although technologically demanding, should be within the reach of current nuclear density functional theory.

  6. Soil surface properties in Mediterranean mountain ecosystems: Effects of environmental factors and implications of management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    and implications of management C. Oyonarte a,*, V. Aranda b , P. Durante a a Department of Soil Science, CITE II hand, the type of plant cover and management do not influence the geochemical properties of the soil management of forests (Hopmans et al., 2005). Criteria for sustainability must consider ecosystem integrity

  7. Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 25, 293314, 2010 IMPROVED ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR SURFACE-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    a large influence on the airgap magnetic field distribution and therefore on the motor performances (noise FOR SURFACE- MOUNTED PM MOTORS CONSIDERING SLOTTING EFFECTS AND ARMATURE REACTION T. Lubin, S. Mezani, and A of the magnetic field distribution in surface-mounted permanent-magnet (PM) motors for any pole and slot

  8. RESEARCH ARTICLE Statistics of the surface temperature field of an air/water interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saylor, John R.

    is the coefficient of thermal expansion, m is the kinematic viscosity, a is the thermal diffusivity, DTRESEARCH ARTICLE Statistics of the surface temperature field of an air/water interface under air

  9. Continental Shelf Research 25 (2005) 227242 Influence of stratification on decaying surface seiche modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cushman-Roisin, Benoit

    of ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi Dr=r p ). Those seiches also decay over time, as wave radiation gradually takes their energy away of flooding at Venice. r 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Seiches; Surface waves

  10. Friction as a probe of surface properties of a polymer glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lionel Bureau

    2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We probe the temperature dependence of friction at the interface between a glassy poly(methylmethacrylate) lens and a flat substrate coated with a methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer. The monolayer exhibits density defects which act as pinning sites for the polymer chains. We show that the shear response of such an interface supports the existence, at the surface of the glassy polymer, of a nanometer-thick layer of mobile chains. Friction can be ascribed to the interplay between viscouslike dissipation in this layer and depinning of chains adsorbed on the substrate. We further show that the pinning dynamics is controlled by \\beta rotational motions localized at the interface.

  11. Establishing material properties for thin asphalt concrete surfaces on granular bases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosson, Barry Thomas

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cross-section of a Goodyear Hi -Miler 10. 00-20 14-ply bias truck tire carcass was obtained; the input data for the Tielking tire model was developed by measuring cord locations, angles, and plies on a section of the tire; and the tire pressure.... Since little work in the past has been done in the area of thin asphalt concrete surface analysis, re-evaluation of several assumptions concerning the tire load were necessary. The truck tire pressures on Texas highways have dramatically increased...

  12. The structure and properties of a simple model mixture of amphiphilic molecules and ions at a solid surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pizio, O., E-mail: pizio@unam.mx [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Soko?owski, S., E-mail: stefan.sokolowski@gmail.com [Department for the Modeling of Physico-Chemical Processes, Maria Curie-Sk?odowska University, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Soko?owska, Z. [Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Do?wiadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin (Poland)] [Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Do?wiadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin (Poland)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate microscopic structure, adsorption, and electric properties of a mixture that consists of amphiphilic molecules and charged hard spheres in contact with uncharged or charged solid surfaces. The amphiphilic molecules are modeled as spheres composed of attractive and repulsive parts. The electrolyte component of the mixture is considered in the framework of the restricted primitive model (RPM). The system is studied using a density functional theory that combines fundamental measure theory for hard sphere mixtures, weighted density approach for inhomogeneous charged hard spheres, and a mean-field approximation to describe anisotropic interactions. Our principal focus is in exploring the effects brought by the presence of ions on the distribution of amphiphilic particles at the wall, as well as the effects of amphiphilic molecules on the electric double layer formed at solid surface. In particular, we have found that under certain thermodynamic conditions a long-range translational and orientational order can develop. The presence of amphiphiles produces changes of the shape of the differential capacitance from symmetric or non-symmetric bell-like to camel-like. Moreover, for some systems the value of the potential of the zero charge is non-zero, in contrast to the RPM at a charged surface.

  13. Multicycle rapid thermal annealing optimization of Mg-implanted GaN: Evolution of surface, optical, and structural properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenlee, Jordan D., E-mail: jordan.greenlee.ctr@nrl.navy.mil [National Research Council, 500 Fifth St. NW, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Feigelson, Boris N.; Anderson, Travis J.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Mastro, Michael A.; Eddy, Charles R.; Hobart, Karl D.; Kub, Francis J. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Tadjer, Marko J. [American Society for Engineering Education, 1818 N St. NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The first step of a multi-cycle rapid thermal annealing process was systematically studied. The surface, structure, and optical properties of Mg implanted GaN thin films annealed at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200?°C were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Nomarski microscopy. The GaN thin films are capped with two layers of in-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition -grown AlN and annealed in 24 bar of N{sub 2} overpressure to avoid GaN decomposition. The crystal quality of the GaN improves with increasing annealing temperature as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and the full widths at half maximums of the E{sub 2} and A{sub 1} (LO) Raman modes. The crystal quality of films annealed above 1100?°C exceeds the quality of the as-grown films. At 1200?°C, Mg is optically activated, which is determined by photoluminescence measurements. However, at 1200?°C, the GaN begins to decompose as evidenced by pit formation on the surface of the samples. Therefore, it was determined that the optimal temperature for the first step in a multi-cycle rapid thermal anneal process should be conducted at 1150?°C due to crystal quality and surface morphology considerations.

  14. Relative and kinetic properties of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide on a graphite surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchon, B.; Tysoe, W.T.; Carrazza, J.; Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1988-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) results after chemisorption of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) on polycrystalline graphite are presented. CO adsorbs onto graphite with a very low sticking coefficient. After CO chemisorption CO (mass 28 amu) desorbs in two temperature regions, between 400 and 700 K and between 1000 and 1300 K, and CO/sub 2/ (mass 44 amu) desorbs below 950 K. The intensity of the CO/sub 2/ signal is less than 1 order of magnitude lower than the CO intensity. After CO/sub 2/ adsorption the major desorption product is CO at high temperatures (1000 < T (K) < 1300), whereas a small amount of CO/sub 2/ desorbs around 450 K. The adsorption of C/sup 16/O/sub 2/ and C/sup 18/O/sub 2/ mixture leads to a nearly total oxygen scrambling of the CO/sub 2/ desorbed. A mechanism for CO and CO/sub 2/ interconversion on the graphite surface is presented in terms of surface oxide species, mainly lactones and semiquinones, and their relative stability. Assignments of the TPD features are proposed accordingly. Reaction studies on the CO/sub 2/ gasification of clean graphite and the CO disproportionation (Boudouard reaction) have been performed. A good agreement is found between the activation energies obtained and the desorption energies calculated from the analysis of the TPD results.

  15. Sputtering properties of copper-lithium alloys at reactor-level temperatures and surface erosion rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; Lam, N.Q.; DeWald, A.B.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous experiments on copper-lithium alloys at temperatures up to 250/sup 0/C and with erosion rates of .01 to .1 monolayer per second have shown that in the electric and magnetic field environment of a magnetic-confinement fusion reactor, it is possible to maintain a lithium overlayer which will significantly reduce the copper erosion rate. We have extended these experiments to the reactor-relevant regime of 350 to 400/sup 0/C, with erosion rates approaching one monolayer per second. By comparison with the lower flux experiments, it is found that radiation damage effects start to dominate both the surface concentration and depth profile of the lithium. The subsurface region of enhanced lithium concentration is broadened, while the surface concentration is not depleted as rapidly per incident ion as in the low flux case. The time-dependent lithium depth profile is calculated using a computer code developed at Argonne which includes both Gibbsian segregation and radiation-induced effects. The experimental results are compared with these calculations. It is found that the sputtering behavior of the copper-lithium alloy is highly dependent on the mass and energy spectrum of the incident particles, the sample temperature, subsurface structure, and the partial sputtering yields of the alloy components.

  16. Compressive strength, plastic flow properties, and surface frictional effects of 1100, 3003 and 6061 aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinkerton, G.W.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to find aluminum alloys that are effective for use as wire vacuum seals in the 800MeV particle accelerator located at the Louis Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) in Los Alamos, NM. Three alloys, Al 1100, Al 3003, and Al 6061, are investigated under uniaxial compression to determine stresses for a given height reduction from 0 to 70 percent, and to find plastic flow and surface interaction effects. Right-circular cylindrical specimens are compressed on-end (cylindrically) and radially (for modeling as compressed wire). Aluminum 1100 and 3003 alloys are compared for length to diameter ratios of 1 and 2 for both compression types, and are then compared to results of radial compression of annealed small diameter Al 1100 wire currently used at LAMPE. The specimens are also compressed between three different platen surfaces, polished steel, etched steel, and aluminum 6061-T6, to determine effects of friction. The Al 3003 alloy exhibits 20 to 25% lower stresses at all height reductions than Al 1100 for both cylindrical and radial compression.

  17. ARM Climate Research Facility Spectral Surface Albedo Value-Added Product (VAP) Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, S; Gaustad, K; Long, C; Mlawer, E

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the input requirements, output data products, and methodology for the Spectral Surface Albedo (SURFSPECALB) value-added product (VAP). The SURFSPECALB VAP produces a best-estimate near-continuous high spectral resolution albedo data product using measurements from multifilter radiometers (MFRs). The VAP first identifies best estimates for the MFR downwelling and upwelling shortwave irradiance values, and then calculates narrowband spectral albedo from these best-estimate irradiance values. The methodology for finding the best-estimate values is based on a simple process of screening suspect data and backfilling screened and missing data with estimated values when possible. The resulting best-estimate MFR narrowband spectral albedos are used to determine a daily surface type (snow, 100% vegetation, partial vegetation, or 0% vegetation). For non-snow surfaces, a piecewise continuous function is used to estimate a high spectral resolution albedo at 1 min temporal and 10 cm-1 spectral resolution.

  18. Macrostructure-dependent photocatalytic property of high-surface-area porous titania films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, T., E-mail: t-kimura@aist.go.jp [Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous titania films with different macrostructures were prepared with precise control of condensation degree and density of the oxide frameworks in the presence of spherical aggregates of polystyrene-block-poly(oxyethylene) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer. Following detailed explanation of the formation mechanisms of three (reticular, spherical, and large spherical) macrostructures by the colloidal PS-b-PEO templating, structural variation of the titania frameworks during calcination were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, photocatalytic performance of the macroporous titania films was evaluated through simple degradation experiments of methylene blue under an UV irradiation. Consequently, absolute surface area of the film and crystallinity of the titania frameworks were important for understanding the photocatalytic performance, but the catalytic performance can be improved further by the macrostructural design that controls diffusivity of the targeted molecules inside the film and their accessibility to active sites.

  19. Single Dirac Cone Topological Surface State and Unusual Thermoelectric Property of Compounds from a New Topological Insulator Family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y

    2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) study on TlBiTe2 and TlBiSe2 from a Thallium-based III-V-VI2 ternary chalcogenides family revealed a single surface Dirac cone at the center of the Brillouin zone for both compounds. For TlBiSe{sub 2}, the large bulk gap ({approx} 200meV) makes it a topological insulator with better mechanical properties than the previous binary 3D topological insualtor family. For TlBiTe{sub 2}, the observed negative bulk gap indicates it as a semi-metal, rather than a narrow gap semi-conductor as conventionally believed; this semi-metality naturally explains its mysteriously small thermoelectric figure of merit comparing to other compounds in the family. Finally, the unique band structures of TlBiTe{sub 2} also suggests it as a candidate for topological superconductors.

  20. Effect of doping on growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip placed over cylindrical surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santolia, Isha; Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.; Sharma, Rinku [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Bawana Road, Delhi 110 042 (India)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical investigations to study the effect of doping of hetero-atoms on the growth and field emission properties of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) tip placed over a cylindrical surface in complex plasma have been carried out. A theoretical model incorporating kinetics of plasma species such as electron, ions, and neutral atoms including doping elements like nitrogen (N) and boron (B) and energy balance of CNTs in a complex plasma has been developed. The effect of doping elements of N and B on the growth of CNTs, namely, the tip radius has been carried out for typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that N and B as doping elements affect the radius of CNTs extensively. We obtain small radii of CNT doped with N and large radius of CNT doped with B. The field emission characteristics from CNTs have therefore been suggested on the basis of results obtained. Some of theoretical results are in compliance with the existing experimental observations.

  1. Robust surface electronic properties of topological insulators: Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plucinski, L.; Herdt, A. [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Mussler, G.; Krumrain, J.; Gruetzmacher, D. [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Juelich Aachen Research Alliance-Fundamentals of Future Information Technologies (JARA-FIT), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Suga, S. [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Schneider, C. M. [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Juelich Aachen Research Alliance-Fundamentals of Future Information Technologies (JARA-FIT), D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface electronic properties of the important topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} are shown to be robust under an extended surface preparation procedure, which includes exposure to atmosphere and subsequent cleaning and recrystallization by an optimized in situ sputter-anneal procedure under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Clear Dirac-cone features are displayed in high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectra from the resulting samples, indicating remarkable insensitivity of the topological surface state to cleaning-induced surface roughness.

  2. Investigation of microstructure, surface morphology, and hardness properties of PtIr films by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chao-Te; Liu, Bo-Heng; Chang, Chun-Ming; Lin, Yu-Wei [Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Pt{sub 1-x}Ir{sub x} films with x varying from 22.76 to 63.25 at. % are deposited on (100) Si wafer substrates at 400 deg. C by magnetron sputtering deposition. The effects of the Ir concentration on the microstructure, morphology, and hardness of PtIr films are investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and nanoindentation system. The columnar structures are observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that PtIr films have preferred orientation along Pt(111) when the Ir concentration is below 50.84 at. %. When the Ir content is more than 50.84 at. %, the PtIr film shifts to another preferred orientation, Ir(111). The surface morphology is analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The roughness of the PtIr films decreases with increasing Ir content. The hardness of all the PtIr films is below 20 GPa. The maximum hardness of the PtIr films is about 14.9 GPa when the Ir concentration is 57.9 at. %.

  3. Determination of elastic properties of a MnO{sub 2} coating by surface acoustic wave velocity dispersion analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sermeus, J.; Glorieux, C., E-mail: christ.glorieux@fys.kuleuven.be [Laboratory for Acoustics and Thermal Physics, KU Leuven, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Sinha, R.; Vereecken, P. M. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Center for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KU Leuven, University of Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vanstreels, K. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    MnO{sub 2} is a material of interest in the development of high energy-density batteries, specifically as a coating material for internal 3D structures, thus ensuring rapid energy deployment. Its electrochemical properties have been mapped extensively, but there are, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no records of the elastic properties of thin film MnO{sub 2}. Impulsive stimulated thermal scattering (ISTS), also known as the heterodyne diffraction or transient grating technique, was used to determine the Young's modulus (E) and porosity (?) of a 500?nm thick MnO{sub 2} coating on a Si(001) substrate. ISTS is an all optical method that is able to excite and detect surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on opaque samples. From the measured SAW velocity dispersion, the Young's modulus and porosity were determined to be E?=?25?±?1?GPa and ?=42±1%, respectively. These values were confirmed by independent techniques and determined by a most-squares analysis of the carefully fitted SAW velocity dispersion. This study demonstrates the ability of the presented technique to determine the elastic parameters of a thin, porous film on an anisotropic substrate.

  4. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this research in the area of ash transport was to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics and consequences of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the products of coal combustion. To accomplish this for a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing fireside'' surface of the deposit. This level of understanding and predictive capability could ultimately be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation.

  5. Molecularly Controlled Modulation of Conductance on Azobenzene Monolayer-Modified Silicon Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    to regulate the electrical properties of the solid surfaces by introducing -electron-donating or -electron is an important research approach, which allows the use of the cooperative properties of these solids

  6. 2014 CHEMICAL REACTIONS AT SURFACES GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE AND GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR (APRIL 28-MAY 3, 2013 - LES DIABLERETS CONFERENCE CENTER, LES DIABLERETS, SWITZERLAND)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stair, Peter C.

    2013-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    presentations on chemistry at solid and liquid surfaces of relevance to catalysis, synthesis, photochemistry, environmental science, and tribology. Topics include: Fundamental Surface Chemistry; Catalysis; Solid Liquid and Aerosol Interfaces; Surface Photochemistry; Synthesis of Surfaces; Environmental Interfaces; Hot Topics in Surface Chemical Reactions; Tribology; Gas-Surface Scattering and Reactions; Novel Materials and Environments.

  7. Production and measurement of engineered surfaces for inertial confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hatch, Douglas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rivera, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial Confinement Fusion uses the optical energy from a very high power laser to implode spherical capsules that contain a fuel mixture of deuterium and tritium. The capsules are made of either Beryllium, plastic, or glass and range from 0.1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. As a capsule implodes, thereby compressing the fuel to reach nuclear fusion conditions, it achieves temperatures of millions of degrees Centigrade and very high pressures. In this state, the capsule materials act like fluids and often a low density fluidic material will push on a higher density material which can be a very unstable condition depending upon the smoothness of the interface between the two materials. This unstable condition is called a hydrodynamic instabillity which results in the mixing of the two materials. If the mixing occurs between the fuel and a non-fuel material, it can stop the fusion reaction just like adding significant amounts of water to gasoline can stop the operation of an automobile. Another region in the capsule where surface roughness can cause capsule performance degradation is at a joint. For instance, many capsules are made of hemispheres that are joined together. If the joint surfaces are too rough, then there will an effective reduction in density at the joint. This density reduction can cause a non-uniform implosion which will reduce the fusion energy coming out of the capsule.

  8. A Nano Surface Icephobic Coating Delays Ice Formation | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICSHe β-Research andAFishing forAA Month toNano

  9. Greenland ice sheet surface mass-balance variability: 19912003 Byrd Polar Research Center, The Ohio State University, 1090 Carmack Road, Columbus, OH 43210-1002, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Box, Jason E.

    Greenland ice sheet surface mass-balance variability: 1991­2003 J.E. BOX Byrd Polar Research Center. There is little evidence for a total ice-sheet surface mass-balance trend, although the meltwater runoff has a positive trend and, combined with iceberg discharge and basal melting estimates, suggests the ice sheet

  10. Effects of grinding on properties of Mg-PSZ ceramics prepared by the surface enrichment of zirconia powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deb, S.; Das, S.R. [Central Glass and Ceramics Research Inst., Calcutta (India). Ceramic Processing Section

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial grade zirconia powders of mean particle size of 3.21 microns were super-ground in wet condition in alcoholic medium in a Planetary Ball-Mill for 12-hours using a zirconia pot as well as balls, in order to avoid contaminations from the grinding media. Sedigraph analysis data show the mean particle sizes within the range of 0.4 to 0.2 micron. The super-ground zirconia powders were then treated with appropriate acid and alkali solutions in order to enrich the surfaces of zirconia powders. The chemical analysis reports depict the enrichment phenomena of the processed zirconia powders. Magnesium oxide of different mole percentages (3 to 9%) have been incorporated to the above super-ground and enriched zirconia powder and green specimens were prepared by pressing with a suitable pressure of 200 MPa to yield the green compaction density of 3.06 gm/cm{sup 3}. The compacted green specimens were sintered without pressure at 1,480 C in air followed by normal cooling. X-ray diffraction patterns of the above sintered and cooled specimens have confirmed the formation of Mg-PSZ ceramics with 40% tetragonal phase. The sintered PSZ-products have shown very good surface properties but at the cost of transverse rupture strength. The effects of grinding were observed on the above Mg-PSZ ceramics which exhibit very little change in the tetragonal phase even after 30-minutes of grinding with a 60-mesh diamond wheel at a normal pressure of 4 kg/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Electrical properties of germanium-based insulator-semiconductor structures with an insulating layer of polynucleotides, and their monomer components on the surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yafyasov, A. M., E-mail: yafyasov@bk.ru; Bakulev, V. M.; Konorov, P. P.; Bogevolnov, V. V. [St. Petersburg State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that adsorption of nucleic acid molecules and their monomeric components, i.e., nitrogenous bases, from aqueous solutions results in the formation of an insulating layer on the germanium surface. Comparatively small values of the insulator charge and the surface-state density point to promising applications of nucleotides for both the formation of germanium-based insulator-semiconductor structures with nanoscale insulating layers and low surface-state densities at the phase interface, and for germanium surface passivation. Changes in the electronic properties of the space-charge region of germanium during nucleotide adsorption on its surface can be used as a method for determining the nucleotide molecule concentration in aqueous solutions.

  12. Preparation, characterization, surface chemistry, and corrosion properties of Ni-TM-P alloys produced by autocatalytic reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza Gonzalez, O.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Autocatalytic or electroless deposition of Ni-P film alloys was reviewed and considered as a model for the deposition of ternary alloys such as Ni-TM-P where TM is W-Mo and Cr. This study is a comprehensive analysis of the parameters that influence each one of the steps involved in a successful deposition. It starts in the preparation of the substrate to be plated; special attention is given to the mechanical polishing, degreasing and chemical activation. The degree of cleanliness provides the film's quality of adherence. The bath's chemical composition is explained in terms of the role played by each of the bath components such as Ni and P, complexing agents, buffers, stabilizers and other additives. The characterization of the autocatalytic film was done from the structural, chemical-composition, and surface-chemistry perspectives. Chemical and electrochemical mechanisms of autocatalytic deposition of Ni-TM-P and chemical kinetics were studied. Results show that the deposition of Ni-W-P is mostly a chemical mechanism; deposition of Ni-Mo-P is governed by both chemical and electrochemical mechanisms; and Ni-Cr-P deposition is only possible when the process is controlled by an electrochemical mechanism. Corrosion results show that structure or chemical composition alone are not sufficient to provide excellent corrosion-resistant properties for electroless films.

  13. The influence of surface properties on the plasma dynamics in radio-frequency driven oxygen plasmas: Measurements and simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greb, Arthur; Niemi, Kari; O'Connell, Deborah; Gans, Timo [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)] [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma parameters and dynamics in capacitively coupled oxygen plasmas are investigated for different surface conditions. Metastable species concentration, electronegativity, spatial distribution of particle densities as well as the ionization dynamics are significantly influenced by the surface loss probability of metastable singlet delta oxygen (SDO). Simulated surface conditions are compared to experiments in the plasma-surface interface region using phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy. It is demonstrated how in-situ measurements of excitation features can be used to determine SDO surface loss probabilities for different surface materials.

  14. The effect of ice crystal surface roughness on the retrieval of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yu

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of the surface roughness of ice crystals is not routinely accounted for in current cloud retrieval algorithms that are based on pre-computed lookup libraries. In this study, we investigate the effect of ice crystal surface roughness...

  15. Current status, research needs, and opportunities in applications of surface processing to transportation and utilities technologies. Proceedings of a December 1991 workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Landgrebe, A.R. [eds.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goal of surface processing is to develop innovative methods of surface modification and characterization for optimum performance and environmental protection for cost-effective operational lifetimes of systems, materials, and components used in transportation and utilities. These proceedings document the principal discussions and conclusions reached at the workshop; they document chapters about the current status of surface characterization with focus on composition, structure, bonding, and atomic-scale topography of surfaces. Also documented are chapters on the current status of surface modification techniques: electrochemical, plasma-aided, reactive and nonreactive physical vapor deposition, sol-gel coatings, high-energy ion implantation, ion-assisted deposition, organized molecular assemblies, solar energy. Brief chapters in the appendices document basic research in surface science by NSF, Air Force, and DOE. Participants at the workshop were invited to serve on 10 working groups. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base where appropriate.

  16. PARAMETERIZATIONS FOR THE KELVIN (SURFACE TENSION) EFFECT ON THE EQUILIBRIUM RADIUS AND ASSOCIATED OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PARAMETERIZATIONS FOR THE KELVIN (SURFACE TENSION) EFFECT ON THE EQUILIBRIUM RADIUS AND ASSOCIATED as the volume-equivalent dry radius rdry) and the fractional relative humidity h (RH/100). Surface tension also the dependence of the equilibrium size of a particle with given rdry at given relative humidity on surface

  17. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallant, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Franz, Jim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Alnajjar, Mikhail [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Cannella, William C [Chevron, USA; Fairbridge, Craig [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada; Hager, Darcy [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada; Dettman, Heather [CANMET Energy; Luecke, Jon [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Ratcliff, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Zigler, Brad [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

  18. Research on the stability, electronic properties, and structure of a-Si:H and its alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Street, R.A.; Jackson, W.B.; Johnson, N.; Nebel, C.; Hack, M.; Santos, P.; Thompson, R.; Tsai, C.C.; Walker, J. (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, CA (United States))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective is to obtain a comprehensive understanding of structure and electronic properties of a-Si:H as they apply to solar cells. First observations were of light enhancement and field suppression of H diffusion in a-Si:H. Theoretical studies were made of hydrogen density of states distribution and its relation to defect metastability. Reduced density of light induced defect is observed in a-Si:H deposited in a remote hydrogen plasma reactor at 400 C. Kinetics of metastable defect creation using forward bias in a p-i-n diode to induce defects were studied and compared to light-induced defect creation in the same devices. Studies were made of transport at high electric field and low temperature. Detailed studies were made of kinetics of dopant metastability in n-type and p-type a-Si:H.

  19. Validation of Surface Retrieved Cloud Optical Properties with in situ Measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) South Great Plains Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min, Qilong; Duan, M.; Marchand, Roger T.

    2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface inferred cloud optical properties from a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer have been validated against the in situ measurements during the second ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE II) field campaign at the ARM South Great Plains (SGP) site. On the basis of eight effective radius profiles measured by the in situ Forward Spectra Scattering Probe (FSSP), our retrieved cloud effective radii for single-layer warm water clouds agree well with in situ measurements, within 5.5%. The sensitivity study also illustrates that for this case a 13% uncertainty in observed liquid water path (LWP, 20 g/m2) results in 1.5% difference in retrieved cloud optical depth and 12.7% difference in referred cloud effective radius, on average. The uncertainty of the LWP measured by the microwave radiometer (MWR) is the major contributor to the uncertainty of retrieved cloud effective radius. Further, we conclude that the uncertainty of our inferred cloud optical properties is better than 5% for warm water clouds based on a surface closure study, in which cloud optical properties inferred from narrowband irradiances are applied to a shortwave model and the modeled broadband fluxes are compared to a surface pyranometer.

  20. Research on the electronic and optical properties of polymer and other organic molecular thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of the work is to find materials and methods of optimization of organic layered electroluminescent cells and to study such properties of polymers and other organic materials that can be used in various opto-electronic devices. The summary of results obtained during the first year of work is presented. They are: (1) the possibility to produce electroluminescent cells using a vacuum deposition photoresist technology for commercial photoresists has been demonstrated; (2) the idea to replace the polyaryl polymers by other polymers with weaker hole conductivity for optimization of electroluminescent cells with ITO-Al electrodes has been suggested. The goal is to obtain amorphous processable thin films of radiative recombination layers in electroluminescent devices; (3) procedures of preparation of high-quality vacuum-deposited poly (p-phenylene) (PPP) films on various substrates have been developed; (4) it was found for the first time that the fluorescence intensity of PPP films depends on the degree of polymerization; (5) the role of interfaces between organic compounds, on one side, and metals or semiconductors, on the other side, has been studied and quenching of the fluorescence caused by semiconductor layer in thin sandwiches has been observed; (6) studies of the dynamics of photoexcitations revealed the exciton self-trapping in quasi-one-dimensional aggregates; and (7) conditions for preparation of highly crystalline fullerene C{sub 60} films by vacuum deposition have been found. Composites of C{sub 60} with conjugated polymers have been prepared.

  1. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 21, PAGES 3465-3468, NOVEMBER 1, 2000 Increasing background ozone in surface air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    that an important consideration for pollution control strategies is the O3 back- ground present in surface air over background ozone in surface air over the United States C.-Y. Cynthia Lin, Daniel J. Jacob, J. William Munger in surface air over the United States from 1980 to 1998 is examined using monthly probability distributions

  2. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 40, 16, doi:10.1002/2013GL058114, 2013 Surface exchange between the Weddell and Scotia Seas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Andrew

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 40, 1­6, doi:10.1002/2013GL058114, 2013 Surface exchange between and Scotia Seas, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, doi:10.1002/2013GL058114. 1. Introduction [2] The intermittent. All Rights Reserved. 0094-8276/13/10.1002/2013GL058114 [3] The intricate structure of the Weddell Sea

  3. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 15, PAGES 2245-2248, AUGUST 1, 2000 Sub-surface nuclear tests monitoring through the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hourdin, Chez Frédéric

    ) which should detect nuclear tests down to 1 kiloton (kt) TNT equivalent anywhere on the planet. The IMS), hydroacoustic and infrasound waves will help check for underground, under-water and atmospheric nuclear testsGEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 15, PAGES 2245-2248, AUGUST 1, 2000 Sub-surface nuclear

  4. Influence of particle size and water coverage on the thermodynamic properties of water confined on the surface of SnO2 cassiterite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Elinor [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Ross, Dr. Nancy [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Parker, Stewart F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL; Woodfield, Brian [Brigham Young University; Woodfield, K [Brigham Young University; Rytting, M [Brigham Young University; Boerio-Goates, Juliana [Brigham Young University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California, Davis

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data for SnO2 nanoparticles of three different sizes and varying hydration levels are presented. Data were recorded on five nanoparticle samples that had the following compositions: 2 nm SnO2*0.82H2O, 6 nm SnO2*0.055H2O, 6 nm SnO2*0.095H2O, 20 nm SnO2*0.072H2O, and 20 nm SnO2*0.092H2O. The isochoric heat capacity and vibrational entropy values at 298 K for the water confined on the surface of these nanoparticles were calculated from the vibrational density of states that were extracted from the INS data. This study has shown that the hydration level of the SnO2 nanoparticles influences the thermodynamic properties of the water layers and, most importantly, that there appears to be a critical size limit for SnO2 between 2 and 6 nm below which the particle size also affects these properties and above which it does not. These results have been compared with those for isostructural rutile-TiO2 nanoparticles [TiO2*0.22H2O and TiO2*0.37H2O], which indicated that water on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles is more tightly bound and experiences a greater degree of restricted motion with respect to water on the surface of SnO2 nanoparticles. This is believed to be a consequence of the difference in chemical composition, and hence surface properties, of these metal oxide nanoparticles.

  5. Effects of Surface Treatments on Mechanical Properties and Water Resistance of Kenaf Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Xiaofeng; Qui, Renhui; Fifield, Leonard S.; Simmons, Kevin L.; li, Kaichang

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of surface treatments on the strength and water resistance of kenaf fiber-reinforced unsaturated polyester (UPE) composites were investigated. A new coupling agent that consists of 1,6-diisocyanato-hexane (DIH) and 2-hydroxylethyl acrylate (HEA) was investigated for surface treatments of kenaf fibers. The surface treatments were found to significantly enhance the tensile strength, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and water resistance of the resulting kenaf UPE composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed that DIH-HEA was covalently bonded onto kenaf fibers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the composites revealed that chemical treatment of kenaf fibers with a combination of DIH and HEA improved the interfacial adhesion between kenaf fibers and UPE resin in the DIHHEA-treated kenafUPE composites. The mechanisms by which the chemical treatment of kenaf fiber surfaces improved strength and water resistance of the resulting kenaf UPE composites were discussed.

  6. Surface characterization and mechanical property of TiN/Ti-coated NiTi alloy by PIIID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    significantly reduces the friction coefficient and improves wear resistance of the NiTi alloy. © 2006 Elsevier B prosthesis, heart valve replacement and biosensors [6,7]. TiN surface coating has also been found

  7. A series of M-M' heterometallic coordination polymers: syntheses, structures and surface photoelectric properties (M=Ni/Co, M'=Cd/Zn)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Niu, Shu-Yun, E-mail: syniu@sohu.co [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Jin, Jing; Meng, Qin; Chi, Yu-Xian; Xing, Yong-Heng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Zhang, Guang-Ning [Institute of Chemistry for Functionalized Materials, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Four new heterometallic polymers, [NiCd(mal){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]n.2nH{sub 2}O 1, [NiZn{sub 2}(Hcit){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]n 2, [CoCd{sub 2}(Hcit){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]n 3, [CoZn{sub 2}(Hcit){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]n 4 (H{sub 2}mal=malonic acid, H{sub 4}cit=citric acid) were synthesized and characterized. The photoelectric properties of the polymers were discussed by the surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). The structural analyses indicate 1 is a Ni-Cd heterometallic polymer with 3D structure bridged by the mal{sup 2-} group. 2-4 are all heterometallic polymers with 2D structures bridged by the Hcit{sup 3-} group. The results of SPS for the four polymers reveal that there are wide photovoltage response bands in the range of 300-800 nm, which indicates that they all possess photoelectric conversion properties. By the introduction of the other metals, the SPS of heterometallic polymers are broadened obviously than the SPS of monometallic complexes. Moreover, the relationships between SPS and UV-Vis absorption spectra have been discussed. -- Graphical Abstract: Four heterometallic polymers, Ni-Cd, Ni-Zn, Co-Cd, Co-Zn, were synthesized and characterized. The photoelectric properties of heterometallic polymers were discussed by SPS. The introduction of heterometallic ions will broaden the SPS of corresponded monometallic complexes. Display Omitted highlights: > Four new heterometallic coordination polymers were reported. > The surface photoelectric properties of heterometallic polymers were studied by SPS. > They all possess photoelectric conversion properties. > The SPS of heterometallic polymers are broadened than that of monometallic complexes.

  8. PROCESSING, MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY CORRELATION IN Al-B4C SURFACE COMPOSITE PRODUCED VIA FRICTION STIR PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komarasamy, Mageshwari; Mishra, Rajiv S.; Baumann, John A.; Grant, Glenn J.; Hovanski, Yuri

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to prepare surface composites (SC) composed of B4C particles in 5024 Al matrix. The processing parameters, such as hole pattern and geometry,and the number of FSP passes, were optimized to obtain uniform powder distribution. The micrographs revealed a homogeneous distribution of the particles with good interfacial bonding. The hardness of the composite was uniform across the processed region which again indicates the uniformity of powder distribution. The modulus of the surface composite was measured using strain gage and showed a significant improvement. This improvement in modulus lies in the load sharing capability from the soft matrix to the hard particles.

  9. Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » RemovingResearch CORE-SHELL NANOPARTICLES AND

  10. Z .Applied Surface Science 109r110 1997 595600 Correlation between plasma dynamics and thin film properties in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    properties in pulsed laser deposition H.S. Kwok a,) , H.S. Kim b , D.H. Kim c , W.P. Shen d , X.W. Sun a , R-of-flight studies of both ions and neutrals confirm the existence of an optimal velocity distribution for optimal temperature super- conducting films, ferroelectric ceramic films, semi- conducting films of all combinations

  11. Impact of environmental conditions on the chemical surface properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin-film solar cell absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauschild, D., E-mail: dirk.hauschild@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de, E-mail: l.weinhardt@kit.edu; Meyer, F. [Experimental Physics VII, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Pohlner, S.; Lechner, R.; Dietmüller, R.; Palm, J. [AVANCIS GmbH and Co. KG, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); Heske, C. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engesserstr. 18/20, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Weinhardt, L., E-mail: dirk.hauschild@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de, E-mail: l.weinhardt@kit.edu [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Reinert, F. [Experimental Physics VII, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Gemeinschaftslabor für Nanoanalytik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmentally driven aging effects play a crucial role in thin-film solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2}, both for long-term stability and short air exposure during production. For a better understanding of such effects, Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} absorber surfaces were investigated by x-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy after exposure to different environmental conditions. Identical absorbers were stored in a nitrogen atmosphere, in damp heat, and under ambient conditions for up to 14 days. We find varying degrees of diffusion of sulfur, copper, and sodium towards the surface, with potential impact on the electronic surface structure (band gap) and the properties of the interface to a buffer layer in a solar cell device. Furthermore, we observe an oxidation (in decreasing order) of indium, copper, and selenium (but no oxidation of sulfur). And finally, varying amounts of carbon- and oxygen-containing adsorbates are found. In particular, the findings suggest that, for ambient air exposure, sodium carbonate is formed at the surface.

  12. DOI: 10.1002/chem.200702012 Properties of Alkali Metal Atoms Deposited on a MgO Surface: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    , such as in tungsten bronzes, this may turn a wide-gap insulating oxide into a material with metallic conductivity, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) on the surface of MgO powders and thin films has been stud- ied by means of EPR. These reductions in the hfccs are due to polarization effects and are not connected to ionization of the alkali

  13. ORNL results for Test Case 1 of the International Atomic Energy Agency`s research program on the safety assessment of Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorne, D.J.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Kocher, D.C.; Little, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Roemer, E.K. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started the Coordinated Research Program entitled ```The Safety Assessment of Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities.`` The program is aimed at improving the confidence in the modeling results for safety assessments of waste disposal facilities. The program has been given the acronym NSARS (Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) for ease of reference. The purpose of this report is to present the ORNL modeling results for the first test case (i.e., Test Case 1) of the IAEA NSARS program. Test Case 1 is based on near-surface disposal of radionuclides that are subsequently leached to a saturated-sand aquifer. Exposure to radionuclides results from use of a well screened in the aquifer and from intrusion into the repository. Two repository concepts were defined in Test Case 1: a simple earth trench and an engineered vault.

  14. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 609 2000 Materials Research Society Comparison of Structural Properties and Solar Cell Performance of a-Si:H Films Prepared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    of Structural Properties and Solar Cell Performance of a-Si:H Films Prepared at Various Deposition Rates using be made. EXPERIMENT The a-Si:H films and nip solar cells were fabricated using a research-scale, multi (above 5 Ă?/s) for intrinsic layers (i-layer) of solar cells has been well documented. In an effort

  15. Jaekwang Lee Postdoctoral Research Associate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    , and decide if they are suitable for efficient energy applications. Tree core research subjects are; (1) understanding chemical doping and functionalization effect for energy applications, and predicting optimal conditions; (2) understanding and optimizing surface and interface properties for maximal energy efficiency

  16. Mechanical and charge transport properties of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au (111) surface: The Role of Molecular Tilt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulleregan, Alice; Qi, Yabing; Ratera, Imma; Park, Jeong Y.; Ashby, Paul D.; Quek, Su Ying; Neaton, J. B.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2007-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between charge transport and mechanical properties of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on Au(111) films has been investigated using an atomic force microscope with a conductive tip. Molecular tilts induced by the pressure applied by the tip cause stepwise increases in film conductivity. A decay constant {beta} = 0.57 {+-} 0.03 {angstrom}{sup -1} was found for the current passing through the film as a function of tip-substrate separation due to this molecular tilt. This is significantly smaller than the value of {approx} 1 {angstrom}{sup -1} found when the separation is changed by changing the length of the alkanethiol molecules. Calculations indicate that for isolated dithiol molecules S-bonded to hollow sites, the junction conductance does not vary significantly as a function of molecular tilt. The impact of S-Au bonding on SAM conductance is discussed.

  17. Role of surface states and defects in the ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of CuS quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mary, K. A. Ann; Unnikrishnan, N. V., E-mail: nvu100@yahoo.com [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report facile preparation of water dispersible CuS quantum dots (2–4 nm) and nanoparticles (5–11 nm) through a nontoxic, green, one-pot synthesis method. Optical and microstructural studies indicate the presence of surface states and defects (dislocations, stacking faults, and twins) in the quantum dots. The smaller crystallite size and quantum dot formation have significant effects on the high energy excitonic and low energy plasmonic absorption bands. Effective two-photon absorption coefficients measured using 100 fs laser pulses employing open-aperture Z-scan in the plasmonic region of 800 nm reveal that CuS quantum dots are better ultrafast optical limiters compared to CuS nanoparticles.

  18. Properties study of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Guozhong; Yu Yanzhen; Zhao Zhongjian; Li Jianquan; Li Changchun

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manuscript addresses treating cotton stalk fiber surface with styrene acrylic emulsion, which improves the interfacial combined state of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite effectively and improves its mechanical properties notably. Mixes less slag, ordinary Portland cement, etc., to modify gypsum base. The electron microscope was utilized to analyze and research on the effect on composite properties of the abovementioned mixtures.

  19. Engineering properties of Resedimented Ugnu Clay from the Alaskan North Slope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Cullen A. (Cullen Albert)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research determined the engineering properties of laboratory Resedimented Ugnu Clay (RUC) specimens created using recovered material from 3800 ft below the surface of the Alaskan Northern Slope to aid with future ...

  20. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment. Final technical report, September 1, 1986--April 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this research in the area of ash transport was to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics and consequences of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the products of coal combustion. To accomplish this for a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing ``fireside`` surface of the deposit. This level of understanding and predictive capability could ultimately be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation.

  1. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the present reporting period, we have initiated work on (a) the interpretation of our recent data (see QTR5) on deposition rates under the simultaneous influence of inertia and thermophoresis, (b) the possible rate of particle photophoresis in environments characterized by high radiative heat loads. and (c) the influence of particle size distributions on total mass deposition rates. The fruits of these initiatives will be reported in subsequent quarterly technical reports. Here, we focus on our recent theoretical results in the important but previously uncharted area of the relations between particulate deposition mechanisms, deposit microstructure and deposit properties. Experimental verification of some of the most interesting predictions will be the subject of future HTCRE-Lab studies. Recent discussions with fouling engineers have convinced us that despite recent advances in our ability to predict particle deposition rates in convective-diffusion environments, the important connection between resulting deposit properties (effective thermal conductivity permeability, [hor ellipsis]) and deposition mechanism remain poorly understood and only scarcely studied. Accordingly, as part of this DOE-PETC program we have developed a discrete stochastic model to simulate particulate deposition processes resulting from a combination of deposition mechanisms.

  2. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During this third quarter of Grant DE-FG22-86 PC 90756, we have obtained preliminary experimental results on the deposition behavior of submicron and supermicron solid particles (MgO, Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) on a two-dimensional surface exposed to a high temperature/velocity particle laden'' atmospheric pressure jet. The uniform velocity ( plug flow'') jet, with temperatures up to about 1520 K, derives from a pressurized gaseous fuel microcombustion chamber (110 cc) equipped with a platinum guiding (exit) channel. Particles were generated by several methods (Berglund-Liu type aerosol generator, ultrasonic nebulizer, or syringe feeder with aerodynamic particle off-take) and were introduced into the combustion chamber with a carrier stream of nitrogen or air. Laser light scattering and reflectivity techniques were used for the study of particle deposition, supplemented by post-mortem microscopy on the exposed surface. We observed a linear deposition rate of submicron particles due to the thermophoretic mechanism (until the first layer was developed) under both high and low velocity conditions. On the contrary, supermicron particle deposits reach a steady-state, evidently due to a dynamic equilibrium between particle deposition and dislodging caused by the impacting particles. At several temperatures particle-free subsonic gas jets (up to 120 m/sec) were unable to remove the submicron particle layer.

  3. Copolymerization of divinylbenzene and 4-vinylpyridine using initiated chemical vapor deposition for surface modification and its applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Ernesto, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research investigates the copolymerization of divinylbenzene and 4- vinylpyridine into organic thin films that exhibit conformal, stable, and uniform surface properties. Thin films were grown using initiated chemical ...

  4. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--Surface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) 6th Annual PI Meeting: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen Ed., T.C.

    2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    On behalf of the Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) program managers in the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD), Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), welcome to the 2011 SBR Principal Investigators meeting. Thank you in advance for your attendance and your presentations at this year's meeting. As the events in Japan continue to unfold, we are all reminded that the research we perform on radionuclide behavior in the environment has implications beyond legacy waste cleanup and in fact has its place in the discussion on the expanded use of nuclear power. As in the past, there are three broad objectives to the Principal Investigators meeting: (1) to provide opportunities to share research results and promote interactions among the SBR scientists and other invited guests; (2) to evaluate the progress of each project within the program; and (3) to showcase the scientific expertise and research progress over the past year to senior managers within the DOE Office of Science, the technology offices within DOE, and other invited attendees from other Federal Agencies. This past year has seen a few significant changes within BER and within the SBR program. In November, our Associate Director for BER, Anna Palmisano, retired from Federal service. Just this month, Dr. Sharlene Weatherwax (Division Director for Biological Systems Sciences) has been named as the new Associate Director for BER. In August, BER welcomed Dr. Gary Geernaert as the new Division Director for CESD. Gary joins the division from Los Alamos National Laboratory with a background in atmospheric science. Within the SBR program, a new Strategic Plan was completed last June (currently posted on the SBR and the Office of Science website). The new strategic plan is intended to foster integration within the Environmental Systems Science portion of the BER budget that includes both SBR and Terrestrial Ecosystem Sciences (TES). Both these programs share a goal of advancing a predictive understanding of environmental processes and utilizing iterative, multidisciplinary approaches to understand complex environmental systems of relevance to DOE. CESD in general is undergoing continued discussions on integration among its programs in an effort to develop a new strategic plan for the division. This effort also includes identifying opportunities for integration with BER's Biological Systems Science Division (BSSD). The program this year includes three poster presentation sessions, six plenary sessions, and three breakout sessions. The plenary session on Tuesday morning will feature introductory presentations by BER program staff and three keynote addresses from Dr. Ken Bencala (USGS), Dr. Michael (Mick) Follows (MIT) and Dr. Sue Brantley (PSU) that will lead into three breakout sessions Tuesday afternoon. The breakout sessions are intended to highlight key developments in SBR research and foster a dialog among session participants on scientific paths forward in each particular area. The SBR program managers are asking for input from the SBR community at these sessions to help guide future efforts and/or identify areas of integration within BER programs. On Wednesday, plenary sessions will continue in the morning, followed by an early afternoon poster session. After an extended break for lunch, plenary sessions will continue in the afternoon, followed by an evening poster session. Thursday's plenary session will focus on selected highlights of research efforts at the IFRC sites and on a new potential TES field effort in the Arctic. This new field site is an obvious point of integration between the SBR and TES programs.

  5. Research Administration Index of Commonly Used Acronyms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salama, Khaled

    /Property System Review CRADA Cooperative Research and Development Agreement CRS Congressional Research Service CSR

  6. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A real-time laser light-reflectivity technique is being used to study simultaneous thermophoretic and inertial influences on the deposition behavior of MgO particles produced via ultrasonic nebulization (submicrometer range). The deposition surface (a concave platinum ribbon) is exposed to a high velocity/temperature jet of alkali sulfate-free combustion products exiting from a seeded (C3[sub 3]H[sub 8]/air) microcombustor (110 cm[sup 3]). The reflectivity data were calibrated against deposition rates obtained from SEM pictures of the target, and were normalized with the nominal particle feed rate, in order to obtain the mass transfer Stanton number, St[sub m], trends depicted in Figure 1. For the submicron (ca. 0.7[mu]m) particles inertial effects appear to set in at Stokes (Stk) numbers of O(10[sup [minus]2]) (an order of magnitude lower than the ones needed for pure'' inertial impaction), affecting significantly the dominant thermophoretic deposition mechanism. A first order (in Stk) theoretical analysis of the problem in which particle inertia is treated as equivalent to pressure diffusion,'' cannot explain the observed dependence of the deposition rate on Stk. We are presently formulating a Lagrangian approach, valid for all values of Stk, in order to interpret these data. In addition, a Single Particle Counter (SPC) and Transit Time Velocimeter (TTV), are being developed, to allow more precise measurements of particle feed rates and velocities.

  7. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Little is yet known (theoretically or experimentally) about the simultaneous effects of particle inertia, particle thermophoresis and high mass loading on the important engineering problem of predicting deposition rates from flowing dusty'' gases. For this reason, we investigate the motion of particles present at nonnegligible mass loading in a flowing nonisothermal gaseous medium and their deposition on strongly cooled or heated solid objects by examining the instructive case of steady axisymmetric dusty gas'' flow between two infinite disks: an inlet (porous) disk and the impermeable target'' disk -- a flow not unlike that encountered in recent seeded-flame experiments. Since this stagnation flow/geometry admits interesting self-similar solutions at all Reynolds numbers, we are able to predict laminar flow mass-, momentum- and energy-transfer rate coefficients over a wide range of particle mass loadings, dimensionless particle relaxation times (Stokes numbers), dimensionless thermophoretic diffusivities, and gas Reynolds numbers. As a by-product, we illustrate the accuracy and possible improvement of our previous diffusion model'' for tightly coupled dusty gas systems. Moreover, we report new results illustrating the dependence of the important critical'' Stokes number (for incipient particle impaction) on particle mass loading and wall/gas temperature ratio for dust-laden gas motion towards overheated'' solid surfaces. The present formulation and insulating transport coefficients should not only be useful in explaining/predicting recent deposition rate trends in seeded'' flame experiments, but also highly mass-loaded systems of technological interest.

  8. Analysis and Research on the Thermal Properties of Energy-efficient Building Glass: A Case Study in PVB Laminated Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Z.; Meng, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , are analyzed. The methods on usage of energy-saving glass are promoted based on the differences of their thermal properties. Meanwhile, a new kind of glass?PVB laminated glass (Fig.1), is introduced. Fl at cl ear gl ass 0. 05mmLOWE coati ng Fl at cl ear g... lass 3 mm( 5 mm) 0. 38mmPVB 3 mm( 5 mm) 0. 38mmPVB Fig. 1 Structure of PVB laminated glass ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Envelope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency, Vol.II-4-5 2. EVALUATION STANDARDS OF SOLAR-OPTICAL PROPERTY The main...

  9. Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF): Data from the QCD Group's Research into Properties of the Strong Interaction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    ,

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a Tevatron experiment at Fermilab. The Tevatron, a powerful particle accelerator, accelerates protons and antiprotons close to the speed of light, and then makes them collide head-on inside the CDF detector. The CDF detector is used to study the products of such collisions. The CDF Physics Group at Fermilab is organized into six working groups, each with a specific focus. The QCD group studies the properties of the strong interaction. Their public web page makes data and numerous figures available from both CDF Runs I and II.

  10. Measuring Complementary Electronic Structure Properties of both Deposited and Gas Phase Clusters using STM, UPS, and PES: Size-Selected Clusters on Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, Kit H.

    2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, we studied size-selected cluster interactions with surfaces, with other clusters on surfaces, and with external stimuli. These studies focused on mobility as a function of cluster size, surface morphologies as a function of composition and coverage, ion-induced modification and reactivity of clusters as a function of composition, the structural evolution of cluster cuboids culminating in the characterization of theoretically-predicted “baby crystal” clusters, and unusual fractal pattern formation due to deposition.

  11. Thermodynamic properties of interfacial water from its infrared signatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .g., 1]. This justifies the intensity of researches about high resolution measurements of solids surfaces, published in "16th International Conference on the Properties of Water and Steam, Londres : Royaume condenser. We use a double path single masking aperture size of 3x3 µm which allows us to work in dual

  12. Solid Electrolyte/Electrode Interfaces: Atomistic Behavior Analyzed Via UHV-AFM, Surface Spectroscopies, and Computer Simulations Computational and Experimental Studies of the Cathode/Electrolyte Interface in Oxide Thin Film Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garofalini, Stephen H.

    2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of the research were to understand the structural, dynamic, and chemical properties of solid electrolyte surfaces and the cathode/electrolyte interface at an atomistic and nanometer level using both computational and experimental techniques.

  13. THE TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT SURFACE STRUCTURE, COMPOSITION AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF THE CLEAN SrTiO3(111) CRYSTAL FACE: LEED, AES, ELS AND UPS STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Wei Jen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CRYSTAL.FACE: LEED, AES, ELS AND UPS STUDIES Wei Jen Lo andtaken Fig. cont'd. Fig. 9. The UPS spectrum of the Ar ionclean SrTi03 surface Fig. 10. The UPS spectrum of the clean,

  14. Integrating optical techniques such as reflection, interferometry, scattering and fluorescence; bulk and surface acoustic waves; and microfluidics for measuring refractive index, viscosity, diffusion, surface tension, cell properties, and for sorting cells.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lapsley, Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The dream of all researchers working on microfluidic technology is the realization of fully automated and integrated systems for point-of-care diagnostics. Such systems are typically… (more)

  15. technology offer Research and Transfer Support | Tanja Sovic-Gasser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szmolyan, Peter

    technology offer Research and Transfer Support | Tanja Sovic-Gasser Favoritenstrasse 16/E0154 | A of the deposition process their surface topography can be adjusted for repellent - "easy to clean" properties-current pulse phase are major problems in industrial applications. Technology Electroplating is done at constant

  16. Control of surface and interface properties is key to the design and optimization of a huge range of emerging technologies, from smart coatings, organic electronics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    stakeholders of surface gradient library technologies include NCMC members Air Products and Chemicals, LORD Corporation, PPG, Dow Chemical, BASF, and Bayer. Combinatorial Approaches to Thin Film Nanomaterials POLYMERS of substrate chemical functionalization on the structure and performance of polymer thin film materials

  17. Using Radar, Lidar and Radiometer Data from NSA and SHEBA to Quantify Cloud Property Effects on the Surface Heat Budget in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janet Intrieri; Mathhew Shupe

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud and radiation data from two distinctly different Arctic areas are analyzed to study the differences between coastal Alaskan and open Arctic Ocean region clouds and their respective influence on the surface radiation budget. The cloud and radiation datasets were obtained from (1) the DOE North Slope of Alaska (NSA) facility in the coastal town of Barrow, Alaska, and (2) the SHEBA field program, which was conducted from an icebreaker frozen in, and drifting with, the sea-ice for one year in the Western Arctic Ocean. Radar, lidar, radiometer, and sounding measurements from both locations were used to produce annual cycles of cloud occurrence and height, atmospheric temperature and humidity, surface longwave and shortwave broadband fluxes, surface albedo, and cloud radiative forcing. In general, both regions revealed a similar annual trend of cloud occurrence fraction with minimum values in winter (60-75%) and maximum values during spring, summer and fall (80-90%). However, the annual average cloud occurrence fraction for SHEBA (76%) was lower than the 6-year average cloud occurrence at NSA (92%). Both Arctic areas also showed similar annual cycle trends of cloud forcing with clouds warming the surface through most of the year and a period of surface cooling during the summer, when cloud shading effects overwhelm cloud greenhouse effects. The greatest difference between the two regions was observed in the magnitude of the cloud cooling effect (i.e., shortwave cloud forcing), which was significantly stronger at NSA and lasted for a longer period of time than at SHEBA. This is predominantly due to the longer and stronger melt season at NSA (i.e., albedo values that are much lower coupled with Sun angles that are somewhat higher) than the melt season observed over the ice pack at SHEBA. Longwave cloud forcing values were comparable between the two sites indicating a general similarity in cloudiness and atmospheric temperature and humidity structure between the two regions.

  18. Testing the Influence of Surface Tension and Finite Width of QGP Bags on the QCD Matter EOS Properties at NICA Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyrill A. Bugaev

    2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Here I give some strong arguments that the central issues for theoretical studies of the (tri)critical endpoint of the QCD phase diagram are the surface tension of large/heavy QGP bags and their medium dependent width. Then I discuss three major directions to further develop the realistic exactly solvable statistical models which simultaneously are able to describe the 1-st order deconfinement phase transition, the 2-nd order one and the cross-over. Also I analyze the most necessary projects that have to be studied in order to formulate the reliable and convincing signals of the mixed phase formation at NICA energies.

  19. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,transfer at the siding surface. Direct solar radiation tosiding, reflected solar radiation from nearby surfaces,

  20. Develop a statewide, integrated extension education and applied research program related to surface and groundwater quality protection, with specific emphasis on nonpoint sources, onsite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    courses. Address education and research needs in wastewater treatment technologies, water capture) and other environmental issues of concern to rural communities, agricultural producers, agribusiness and reuse, and conservation technologies that address identified needs in both rural and urban sectors

  1. Photocatalysis Currently, the research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vollmer, Heribert

    , various surfaces are coated with thin transparent titanium dioxide layers which degrade adhering fatty is a major focus of this research area. Filtration, extraction, chromatography and membrane adsorption

  2. Electronic structure, molecular bonding and potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruedenberg, K. [Ames Laboratory, IA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By virtue of the universal validity of the generalized Born-Oppenheimer separation, potential energy surfaces (PES`) represent the central conceptual as well as quantitative entities of chemical physics and provide the basis for the understanding of most physicochemical phenomena in many diverse fields. The research in this group deals with the elucidation of general properties of PES` as well as with the quantitative determination of PES` for concrete systems, in particular pertaining to reactions involving carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen molecules.

  3. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  4. Materials research at selected Japanese laboratories. Based on a 1992 visit: Overview, summary of highlights, notes on laboratories and topics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I visited Japan from June 29 to August 1, 1992. The purpose of this visit was to assess the status of materials science research at selected governmental, university and industrial laboratories and to established acquaintances with Japanese researchers. The areas of research covered by these visits included ceramics, oxide superconductors, intermetallics alloys, superhard materials and diamond films, high-temperature materials and properties, mechanical properties, fracture, creep, fatigue, defects, materials for nuclear reactor applications and irradiation effects, high pressure synthesis, self-propagating high temperature synthesis, microanalysis, magnetic properties and magnetic facilities, and surface science.

  5. Reliability of the LaCoste-Romberg Surface Ship Gravity Meter S-9 during cruise 60-H-13 of the Texas A. & M. Research Vessel "Hidalgo"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiburis, Edward Frank

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ship gravity meter Disturbing external accelerations Correcting for ship accelerations Eotvos correction . Navigation control Purpose of investigation THE LaCOSTE-ROMBERG SURFACE SHIP GRAVITY METER General statement Horizontal accelerometers... in the gravity measurements that are many times greater than the permissible error. Hence, the effects of these accelerations must be eliminated. Also, accelerations produced by the Eotvos effect, due to the east-west component of ship speed, affect the meter...

  6. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal...

  7. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING). III. THE DEPENDENCE OF ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR GAS SURFACE DENSITIES ON GALAXY PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Tony; Xue, Rui [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bolatto, Alberto D.; Fisher, David B.; Vogel, Stuart N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)] [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Blitz, Leo [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Bigiel, Frank [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ott, Jürgen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)] [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Rahman, Nurur [Department of Physics, C1 Lab 140, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa)] [Department of Physics, C1 Lab 140, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the correlation between CO and H I emission in 18 nearby galaxies from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) at sub-kpc and kpc scales. Our sample, spanning a wide range in stellar mass and metallicity, reveals evidence for a metallicity dependence of the H I column density measured in regions exhibiting CO emission. Such a dependence is predicted by the equilibrium model of McKee and Krumholz, which balances H{sub 2} formation and dissociation. The observed H I column density is often smaller than predicted by the model, an effect we attribute to unresolved clumping, although values close to the model prediction are also seen. We do not observe H I column densities much larger than predicted, as might be expected were there a diffuse H I component that did not contribute to H{sub 2} shielding. We also find that the H{sub 2} column density inferred from CO correlates strongly with the stellar surface density, suggesting that the local supply of molecular gas is tightly regulated by the stellar disk.

  8. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 36, L10705, DOI:10.1029/2009GL037812, 2009 Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics of Tropical Sea Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jeffrey B.

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 36, L10705, DOI:10.1029/2009GL037812, 2009 Nonequilibrium Variability, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L10705, doi:10.1029/2009GL037812. To view the published open abstract, go to http://dx.doi.org and enter the DOI. 0094-8276/09/2009GL037812$5.00 and Cohen, 1995; Evans

  9. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle: Deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment: Quarterly technical report, June 1, 1988--August 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE-PETC has initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year experimental and theoretical research program directed toward providing engineers with the data, methods, and rational correlations needed to improve the generality and accuracy of prediction of inorganic particle deposition rates under typical coal combustion conditions i.e., those leading to the importance of thermophoretically-enhanced diffusion (submicron mode) and the inertially-enhanced ''impaction'' (supermicron mode), often in the presence of simultaneous alkali salt vapor condensation. After a brief statement of objectives (Section 2) we outline our experimental and theoretical progress during this quarterly reporting period (Section 3), with our results summarized in the references documented in Section 5. Section 4 gives relevant administrative information (personnel, research plans). 15 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  11. Surface phonons of III-V semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Pradip Kumar

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are the simplest of all semiconductor surfaces. Their atomic relaxations and electronic surface states are rather well understood. There have, however, been surprisingly few experimental studies of their vibrational properties, and ours in the first detailed...

  12. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment: Quarterly technical report, September 1, 1987-November 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE-PETC has initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year experimental and theoretical research program directed toward providing engineers with the data, methods, and rational correlations needed to dramatically improve the generality and accuracy of prediction of inorganic particle deposition rates under typical coal combustion conditions (i.e., those leading to the importance of thermophoretically-enhanced diffusion (submicron mode) and the inertially-enhanced ''impaction'' (supermicron mode)), often in the presence of simultaneous alkali salt vapor condensation. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

  14. Characterization of fundamental catalytic properties of MoS2/WS2 nanotubes and nanoclusters for desulfurization catalysis - a surface temperature study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Burghaus

    2012-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The prior project consisted of two main project lines. First, characterization of novel nanomaterials for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) applications. Second, studying more traditional model systems for HDS such as vapor-deposited silica-supported Mo and MoSx clusters. In the first subproject, we studied WS2 and MoS2 fullerene-like nanoparticles as well as WS2 nanotubes. Thiophene (C4H4S) was used as the probe molecule. Interestingly, metallic and sulfur-like adsorption sites could be identified on the silica-supported fullerene-particles system. Similar structures are seen for the traditional system (vapor-deposited clusters). Thus, this may be a kinetics fingerprint feature of modern HDS model systems. In addition, kinetics data allowed characterization of the different adsorption sites for thiophene on and inside WS2 nanotube bundles. The latter is a unique feature of nanotubes that has not been reported before for any inorganic nanotube system; however, examples are known for carbon nanotubes, including prior work of the PI. Although HDS has been studied for decades, utilizing nanotubes as nanosized HDS reactors has never been tried before, as far as we know. This is of interest from a fundamental perspective. Unfortunately, the HDS activity of the nanocatalysts at ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions was close to the detection limit of our techniques. Therefore, we propose to run experiments at ambient pressure on related nanopowder samples as part of the renewal application utilizing a now-available GC (gas chromatograph) setup. In addition, Ni and Co doped nanocatalyts are proposed for study. These dopants will boost the catalytic activity. In the second subproject of the prior grant, we studied HDS-related chemistry on more traditional supported cluster catalysts. Mo clusters supported by physical vapor deposition (PVD) on silica have been characterized. Two reaction pathways are evident when adsorbing thiophene on Mo and MoSx clusters: molecular adsorption and dissociation. PVD Mo clusters turned out to be very reactive toward thiophene bond activation. Sulfur and carbon residuals form, which poison the catalyst and sulfide the Mo clusters. Sulfided silica-supported MoSx samples are not reactive toward thiophene bond activation. In addition to S and C deposits, H2, H2S, and small organic molecules were detected in the gas phase. Catalyst reactivation procedures, including O2 and atomic hydrogen treatments, have been tested. Cluster size effects have been seen: thiophene adsorbs molecularly with larger binding energies on smaller clusters. However, larger clusters have smaller activation energy for C4H4S bond activation than smaller clusters. The latter is consistent with early catalysis studies. Kinetics and dynamics parameters have been determined quantitatively. We spent a significant amount of time on upgrades of our equipment. A 2nd-hand refurbished X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) has been integrated into the existing molecular beam scattering system and is already operational (supported by the DoE supplemental grant available in October 2009). We also added a time of flight (TOF) system to the beam scattering apparatus and improved on the accessible impact energy range (new nozzle heater and gas mixing manifold) for the beam scattering experiments. In addition, a GC-based powder atmospheric flow reactor for studies on powder samples is now operational. Furthermore, a 2nd UHV kinetics system has been upgraded as well. In summary, mostly single crystal systems have so far been considered in basic science studies about HDS. Industrial catalysts, however, can be better approximated with the supported cluster systems that we studied in this project. Furthermore, an entirely new class of HDS systems, namely fullerene-like particles and inorganic nanotubes, has been included. Studying new materials and systems has the potential to impact science and technology. The systems investigated are closely related to energy and environmental-related surface science/catalysis. This prior project, conducted at NDSU by a sma

  15. Intellectual Property Provisions (CDSB-115) Cooperative Agreement...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CDSB-115) Cooperative Agreement - Special Data Statute Research, Development, or Demonstration Domestic Small Business Intellectual Property Provisions (CDSB-115) Cooperative...

  16. Structure-Property Relationship in Metal Carbides and Bimetallic Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jingguan [University of Delaware] [University of Delaware

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of our DOE/BES sponsored research is to use carbide and bimetallic catalysts as model systems to demonstrate the feasibility of tuning the catalytic activity, selectivity and stability. Our efforts involve three parallel approaches, with the aim at studying single crystal model surfaces and bridging the “materials gap” and “pressure gap” between fundamental surface science studies and real world catalysis. The utilization of the three parallel approaches has led to the discovery of many intriguing catalytic properties of carbide and bimetallic surfaces and catalysts. During the past funding period we have utilized these combined research approaches to explore the possibility of predicting and verifying bimetallic and carbide combinations with enhanced catalytic activity, selectivity and stability.

  17. Correlations between surface structure and catalytic activity/selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, D.W.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective is to address the keys to understanding the relation between surface structure and catalytic activity/selectivity. Of concern are questions related to enhanced catalytic properties of mixed-metal catalysts and critical active site requirements for molecular synthesis and rearrangement. The experimental approach utilizes a microcatalytic reactor contiguous to a surface analysis system, an arrangement which allows in vacuo transfer of the catalyst from one chamber to the other. Surface techniques being used include Auger (AES), UV and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and XPS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). Our research program builds upon our previous experience relating the results of single crystal kinetic measurements with the results obtained with supported analogs. As well we are exploiting our recent work on the preparation, the characterization, and the determination of the catalytic properties of ultra-thin metal and metal oxide films. The program is proceeding toward the study of the unique catalytic properties of ultrathin metal films; the investigation of the critical ensemble size requirements for principal catalytic reaction types; and the modelling of supported catalysts using ultra-thin planar oxide surfaces.

  18. Designing liquid repellent surfaces for fabrics, feathers and fog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chhatre, Shreerang S. (Shreerang Sharad)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Omniphobicity refers to a property of surfaces which are not wetted by water, oils, alcohols and other low surface tension liquids. Robust omniphobic surfaces can be applied in many areas including fabrics with chemical / ...

  19. OPTICAL AND DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF UNDOPED AND DOPED SEMICONDUCTOR NANOSTRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, C D; Zhang, J Z

    2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides an overview of some recent research activities on the study of optical and dynamic properties of semiconductor nanomaterials. The emphasis is on unique aspects of these properties in nanostructures as compared to bulk materials. Linear, including absorption and luminescence, and nonlinear optical as well as dynamic properties of semiconductor nanoparticles are discussed with focus on their dependence on particle size, shape, and surface characteristics. Both doped and undoped semiconductor nanomaterials are highlighted and contrasted to illustrate the use of doping to effectively alter and probe nanomaterial properties. Some emerging applications of optical nanomaterials are discussed towards the end of the chapter, including solar energy conversion, optical sensing of chemicals and biochemicals, solid state lighting, photocatalysis, and photoelectrochemistry.

  20. APOLLO XVII LUNAR SURFACE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Urner Raymond Watts Timothy White PERSONNEL Raytheon Company, Engineering Manager University of Toronto Raytheon Company, Assistant Program Manager M.I.T., Earth and Planetary Sciences Raytheon Company, Field Engineering Raytheon Company, Manufacturing Manager NASA/MSC, Program Manager Raytheon Company Raytheon

  1. Property:SurfaceManager | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExploration JumpSanyalTempWellhead Jump to: navigation,SmallWindWebsiteStratInfo

  2. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Weigao

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an attractive analytical technique, which enables single-molecule sensitive detection and provides its special chemical fingerprints. During the past decades, researchers have ...

  3. Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings for Microfluidics and MEMs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branson, Eric D.; Singh, Seema [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA] [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Houston, Jack E.; van Swol, Frank B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low solid interfacial energy and fractally rough surface topography confer to Lotus plants superhydrophobic (SH) properties like high contact angles, rolling and bouncing of liquid droplets, and self-cleaning of particle contaminants. This project exploits the porous fractal structure of a novel, synthetic SH surface for aerosol collection, its self-cleaning properties for particle concentration, and its slippery nature 3 to enhance the performance of fluidic and MEMS devices. We propose to understand fundamentally the conditions needed to cause liquid droplets to roll rather than flow/slide on a surface and how this %22rolling transition%22 influences the boundary condition describing fluid flow in a pipe or micro-channel. Rolling of droplets is important for aerosol collection strategies because it allows trapped particles to be concentrated and transported in liquid droplets with no need for a pre-defined/micromachined fluidic architecture. The fluid/solid boundary condition is important because it governs flow resistance and rheology and establishes the fluid velocity profile. Although many research groups are exploring SH surfaces, our team is the first to unambiguously determine their effects on fluid flow and rheology. SH surfaces could impact all future SNL designs of collectors, fluidic devices, MEMS, and NEMS. Interfaced with inertial focusing aerosol collectors, SH surfaces would allow size-specific particle populations to be collected, concentrated, and transported to a fluidic interface without loss. In microfluidic systems, we expect to reduce the energy/power required to pump fluids and actuate MEMS. Plug-like (rather than parabolic) velocity profiles can greatly improve resolution of chip-based separations and enable unprecedented control of concentration profiles and residence times in fluidic-based micro-reactors. Patterned SH/hydrophilic channels could induce mixing in microchannels and enable development of microflow control elements. Acknowledgements This work was funded by Sandia National Laboratory's Laboratory Directed Research & Development program (LDRD). Some coating processes were conducted in the cleanroom facility located at the University of New Mexico's Center for High Technology Materials (CHTM). SEM images were performed at UNM's Center for Micro-Engineering on equipment funded by a NSF New Mexico EPSCoR grant. 4

  4. Large piezoresistive effect in surface conductive nanocrystalline diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssens, S. D., E-mail: stoffel.d.janssens@gmail.com; Haenen, K., E-mail: ken.haenen@uhasselt.be [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Drijkoningen, S. [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface conductivity in hydrogen-terminated single crystal diamond is an intriguing phenomenon for fundamental reasons as well as for application driven research. Surface conductivity is also observed in hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond although the electronic transport mechanisms remain unclear. In this work, the piezoresistive properties of intrinsic surface conductive nanocrystalline diamond are investigated. A gauge factor of 35 is calculated from bulging a diamond membrane of 350?nm thick, with a diameter of 656??m and a sheet resistance of 1.45 M?/sq. The large piezoresistive effect is reasoned to originate directly from strain-induced changes in the resistivity of the grain boundaries. Additionally, we ascribe a small time-dependent fraction of the piezoresistive effect to charge trapping of charge carriers at grain boundaries. In conclusion, time-dependent piezoresistive effect measurements act as a tool for deeper understanding the complex electronic transport mechanisms induced by grain boundaries in a polycrystalline material or nanocomposite.

  5. INVENT SEMINAR Intellectual Property & Commercialisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrys, Mark

    ­ Invent, DCU Protection of our intellectual property rights is becoming increasingly important as we of protection and exploitation of intellectual property. It will also detail the financial benefit scheme in protection of intellectual property. · Patenting process. · Maintaining high quality, verifiable research

  6. 2010 Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupont, DL

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented in poster format at the March 2010 Atmospheric System Research Science Team Meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland. More than 260 posters were presented during the Science Team Meeting. Posters were sorted into the following subject areas: aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions, aerosol properties, atmospheric state and surface, cloud properties, field campaigns, infrastructure and outreach, instruments, modeling, and radiation. To put these posters in context, the status of ASR at the time of the meeting is provided here.

  7. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville {number_sign}2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  8. Chemistry and Materials Science progress report, first half FY 1992. Weapons-Supporting Research and Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains sections on: Fundamentals of the physics and processing of metals; interfaces, adhesion, and bonding; energetic materials; plutonium research; synchrotron radiation-based materials science; atomistic approach to the interaction of surfaces with the environment: actinide studies; properties of carbon fibers; buried layer formation using ion implantation; active coherent control of chemical reaction dynamics; inorganic and organic aerogels; synthesis and characterization of melamine-formaldehyde aerogels; structural transformation and precursor phenomena in advanced materials; magnetic ultrathin films, surfaces, and overlayers; ductile-phase toughening of refractory-metal intermetallics; particle-solid interactions; electronic structure evolution of metal clusters; and nanoscale lithography induced chemically or physically by modified scanned probe microscopy.

  9. Historic Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    education, and technical preservation assistance for properties at LANL. Potential Los Alamos park properties include buildings in the town of Los Alamos associated with the...

  10. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, Regan W. (1033 Tramway La. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); VanDevender, J. Pace (7604 Lamplighter NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications.

  11. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, R.W.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams is disclosed. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications. 16 figs.

  12. Mechanical Engineering Department engineering research: Annual report, FY 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denney, R.M.; Essary, K.L.; Genin, M.S.; Highstone, H.H.; Hymer, J.D.; Taft, S.O. (eds.)

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides information on the five areas of research interest in LLNL's Mechanical Engineering Department. In Computer Code Development, a solid geometric modeling program is described. In Dynamic Systems and Control, structure control and structure dynamics are discussed. Fabrication technology involves machine cutting, interferometry, and automated optical component manufacturing. Materials engineering reports on composite material research and measurement of molten metal surface properties. In Nondestructive Evaluation, NMR, CAT, and ultrasound machines are applied to manufacturing processes. A model for underground collapse is developed. Finally, an alternative heat exchanger is investigated for use in a fusion power plant. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 13 reports in this publication. (JDH)

  13. Surface compression *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    89-0455), and the Army High Performance Computing Research Center. Correspondence to: RA. DeVore, Department of Mathematics, University of South

  14. Programmable surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

  15. JournalofGeophysicalResearch: EarthSurface RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashkenazy, Yossi "Yosef"

    , Hezi Yizhaq1 , Eli Zaady3 , and Yosef Ashkenazy1 1Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics disturbance area below which crust recovery is much faster · Sde-Hallamish sand dunes become more active of vegetation. In July 2008, 10 � 10 m plots on the four dune habitats (crest, interdune, north slope, and south

  16. Plasmons in Graphene: Fundamental Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soljaèiæ, Marin

    INVITED P A P E R Plasmons in Graphene: Fundamental Properties and Potential Applications in graphene have intriguing fundamen- tal properties and hold great potential for applications. They enable via gate voltage, providing an advantage for graphene's plasmons over surface plasmons (SPs

  17. Correlations between surface structure and catalytic activity/selectivity. Progress report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, D.W.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary focus of this research is to address those issues which are keys to understanding the relationship between surface properties and catalytic activity/selectivity. These issues also impact the understanding of the origins of the enhanced catalytic properties of mixed-metal catalysts. The experimental approach utilizes a microcatalytic reactor contiguous to a surface analysis system, an arrangement which allows in vacuo transfer of the catalyst from one chamber to the other. Surface techniques being used include Auger (AES), ultraviolet and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and XPS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy (STM and AFM). This research program builds upon previous experience relating the results of single crystal kinetic measurements with the results obtained with supported analogs. As well, the authors are exploiting recent work on the preparation, the characterization, and the determination of the catalytic properties of ultra-thin metal and metal oxide films. Specifically, the program is proceeding toward three goals: (1) the study of the unique catalytic properties of ultrathin metal films; (2) the investigation of the critical ensemble size requirements for principal catalytic reaction types; and (3) the modelling of supported catalysts using ultra-thin planar oxide surfaces.

  18. Method of sputter etching a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr., Charles H. (Seattle, WA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface of a target is textured by co-sputter etching the target surface with a seed material adjacent thereto, while the target surface is maintained at a pre-selected temperature. By pre-selecting the temperature of the surface while sputter etching, it is possible to predetermine the reflectance properties of the etched surface. The surface may be textured to absorb sunlight efficiently and have minimal emittance in the infrared region so as to be well-suited for use as a solar absorber for photothermal energy conversion.

  19. Method of sputter etching a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, C.H. Jr.

    1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface of a target is textured by co-sputter etching the target surface with a seed material adjacent thereto, while the target surface is maintained at a pre-selected temperature. By pre-selecting the temperature of the surface while sputter etching, it is possible to predetermine the reflectance properties of the etched surface. The surface may be textured to absorb sunlight efficiently and have minimal emittance in the infrared region so as to be well-suited for use as a solar absorber for photothermal energy conversion. 4 figs.

  20. Structural, microstructural and surface properties of a specific CeO{sub 2}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} multiphase system obtained at 600 {sup o}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourja, Lamia; Bakiz, Bahcine [Institut Materiaux Microelectronique et Nanosciences de Provence, IM2NP, UMR CNRS 6242, Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, BP 20132, 83957 La Garde Cedex (France); Laboratoire Materiaux et Environnement LME, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Ibn Zohr, BP 8106, Cite Dakhla, Agadir, Maroc (Morocco); Benlhachemi, Abdeljalil; Ezahri, Mohamed [Laboratoire Materiaux et Environnement LME, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Ibn Zohr, BP 8106, Cite Dakhla, Agadir, Maroc (Morocco); Villain, Sylvie [Institut Materiaux Microelectronique et Nanosciences de Provence, IM2NP, UMR CNRS 6242, Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, BP 20132, 83957 La Garde Cedex (France); Crosnier, Olivier [Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Polytech Nantes, rue Christian Pauc BP 50609, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Favotto, Claude [Institut Materiaux Microelectronique et Nanosciences de Provence, IM2NP, UMR CNRS 6242, Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, BP 20132, 83957 La Garde Cedex (France); Gavarri, Jean-Raymond, E-mail: gavarri.jr@univ-tln.f [Institut Materiaux Microelectronique et Nanosciences de Provence, IM2NP, UMR CNRS 6242, Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, BP 20132, 83957 La Garde Cedex (France)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycrystalline samples of (1-x) CeO{sub 2}-x/2 Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases, where x is the atom fraction of bismuth have been synthesized by the precipitation process and after the thermal treatment at 600 {sup o}C, under air. Samples are first characterized by the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. To determine the samples specific surface areas, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses have been performed. In the composition range 0{<=}x{<=}0.20, a cubic solid solution with fluorite structure is obtained. For compositions x comprised between 0.30 and 0.90, two types of T' (or {beta}') and T (or {beta}) tetragonal phases, similar to the well-known {beta}' or {beta} Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} metastable structural varieties, are observed. However, the crystal cell volumes of these {beta}' or {beta} Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases increase with the composition x in bismuth: this might be due to the presence of defects or substitution by cerium atoms, in the tetragonal lattices. Using X-ray diffraction profile analyses, correlations between bismuth composition x and crystal sizes or lattice distortions have been established. The solid-gas interactions between these polycrystalline materials and air-CH{sub 4} and air-CO flows have been studied as a function of temperature and composition x, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses of the conversions of CH{sub 4} and CO gases into the CO{sub 2} gas. The transformations of CH{sub 4} and CO molecules as a function of time and temperature are determined through the intensities of FTIR CO{sub 2} absorption bands. Using the specific surface areas determined from BET analyses, these FTIR intensities have been normalized and compared. For all bismuth compositions, a low catalytic reactivity is observed with air-CH{sub 4} gas flows, while, for the highest bismuth compositions, a high catalytic reactivity is observed with air-CO gas flows. -- Graphical abstract: Catalytic efficiencies of CeO{sub 2}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}system: catalytic actions on methane (on the left) or carbon monoxide (on the right) of (1-x)CeO{sub 2}-x/2 Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples, as a function of the fraction x, and for fixed temperatures: on the vertical axis, the intensities of CO{sub 2} FTIR absorption bands are reported. Strong efficiency of bismuth rich samples for CO conversion. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Stabilization of metastable polymorph Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases in the mix system [(1-x)CeO{sub 2}+(x/2)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}] at 600 {sup o}C. {yields} Solid gas interactions between this system and air-CO or air-CH{sub 4} gas flows at various temperatures and bismuth compositions. {yields} High efficiency of bismuth rich samples to convert CO into CO{sub 2}.

  1. AiR surface: AiR surface 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    AiR surface: 1 PDA AiR surface 1 1: AiR surface () () 2 [1] [2] 3 AiR surface AiR surface surface surface surface 3.1 surface [3]( 3 ) surface 3.2 surface surface AiR surface 4 AiR surface surface AiR surface: Virtual Touch Panel

  2. Electrical and Thermoelectrical Transport Properties of Graphene.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deqi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Graphene is a newly discovered material. It has many excellent properties, which make the research of this new material very important not only for the… (more)

  3. An experimental study of nanobubbles on hydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Abhinandan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the recent development of microfluidic systems, miniaturization of flow devices has become a real challenge. Microchannels, however, are characterized by a large surface area-to-volume ratio so that surface properties ...

  4. Studying femtosecond-laser hyperdoping by controlling surface morphology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winkler, Mark T.

    We study the fundamental properties of femtosecond-laser (fs-laser) hyperdoping by developing techniques to control the surface morphology following laser irradiation. By decoupling the formation of surface roughness from ...

  5. INVESTIGATION OF BREAKDOWN INDUCED SURFACE DAMAGE ON 805 MHZ PILLBOX CAVITY INTERIOR SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, M.R.; Chung, M.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Tollestrup,A.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.; Torun, Y.; Bowring, D.; Flanagan, G.

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The MuCool Test Area (MTA) at Fermilab is a facility to develop the technology required for ionization cooling for a future Muon Collider and/or Neutrino Factory. As part of this research program, we have tested two 805 MHz vacuum RF cavities in a multi-Tesla magnetic field to study the effects of the static magnetic field on the cavity operation. This study gives useful information on field emitters in the cavity, dark current, surface conditioning, breakdown mechanisms and material properties of the cavity. All these factors determine the maximum accelerating gradient in the cavity. This paper discusses the image processing technique for quantitative estimation of spark damage spot distribution on cavity interior surfaces. The distribution is compared with the electric field distribution predicted by a computer code calculation. The local spark density is proportional to probability of surface breakdown and shows a power law dependence on the maximum electric field (E). This E dependence is consistent with the dark current calculated from the Fowler-Nordheim equation.

  6. Frost formation and ice adhesion on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varanasi, Kripa K.

    We study frost formation and its impact on icephobic properties of superhydrophobic surfaces. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope, we show that frost nucleation occurs indiscriminately on superhydrophobic ...

  7. apollo lunar surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    APOLLO XVII LUNAR SURFACE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES EXPERIMENT Physics Websites Summary: Raytheon Company, Assistant Program Manager M.I.T., Earth and Planetary Sciences Raytheon...

  8. automatic lunar surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    APOLLO XVII LUNAR SURFACE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES EXPERIMENT Physics Websites Summary: Raytheon Company, Assistant Program Manager M.I.T., Earth and Planetary Sciences Raytheon...

  9. Nanoscale Material Properties | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn F. Geisz,AerialStaffNanotechnology Drives New

  10. Influence of plasma-based in-situ surface cleaning procedures on HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As gate stack properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chobpattana, Varistha; Mates, Thomas E.; Mitchell, William J.; Zhang, Jack Y.; Stemmer, Susanne [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)] [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)

    2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the influence of variations in the process parameters of an in-situ surface cleaning procedure, consisting of alternating cycles of nitrogen plasma and trimethylaluminum dosing, on the interface trap density of highly scaled HfO{sub 2} gate dielectrics deposited on n-In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As by atomic layer deposition. We discuss the interface chemistry of stacks resulting from the pre-deposition exposure to nitrogen plasma/trimethylaluminum cycles. Measurements of interface trap densities, interface chemistry, and surface morphology show that variations in the cleaning process have a large effect on nucleation and surface coverage, which in turn are crucial for achieving low interface state densities.

  11. Personal Property

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides non-regulatory guidance and information to assist DOE organizations and contractors in implementing the DOE-wide and site-specific personal property management programs. It supplements the policy, requirements, and responsibilities information contained in the DOE Order cited above and clarifies the regulatory requirements contained in the Federal Property Management Regulation (FMR) and specific contracts.

  12. Numerical Modeling of Nonlinear Surface Waves caused by Surface Effect Ships Dynamics and Kinematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grilli, Stéphan T.

    Numerical Modeling of Nonlinear Surface Waves caused by Surface Effect Ships Dynamics and Kinematics Hong Gun Sung½ and Stephan T. Grilli¾ ½ Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Daejeon model fully nonlinear free surface waves caused by a translating dis- turbance made of a pressure patch

  13. Materials Research in the Information Age

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Research in the Information Age Accelerating Advanced Material Development NERSC Science Gateway a 'Google of Material Properties' October 31, 2011 | Tags: Materials...

  14. Effects of dispersion and support on adsorption, catalytic and electronic properties of cobalt/alumina CO hydrogenation catalysts: (Technical progress report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, C.H. Jr.

    1986-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The continued investigation of dispersion and metal-support interactions and their effects upon the adsorption, activity/selectivity, and electronic properties of the metal in cobalt/alumina (and to a lesser extent on iron/alumina) catalysts is proposed. The objectives of this research are to determine the effects of surface structure and metal dispersion on the adsorption and catalytic properties of cobalt, and determine the effects of metal-support interactions, i.e., effects of decorating support species on metal crystallites and of direct electronic interactions between metal clusters and the support, on the adsoprtion, catalytic and electronic properties of cobalt supported on alumina.

  15. Sliding contact at plastically graded surfaces and applications to surface design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasad, Anamika, 1979-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tailored gradation in elastic-plastic properties is known to offer avenues for suppressing surface damage during normal indentation and sliding contact. These graded materials have potential applications in diverse areas ...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - atlantic surface water Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface water Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atlantic surface water Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL....

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation of Li surface erosion and bubble formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    .49.Sf Keywords: Liquid metal; Lithium; Ion-surface interactions 1. Introduction Bombardment Structure and dynamical properties of liquid Li containing He atoms were studied by the Molecular Dynamics characteristics of light low-energy ions on a liquid Li surface and their diffusion properties have attracted much

  18. September 2012 BASIN RESEARCH AND ENERGY GEOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    September 2012 BASIN RESEARCH AND ENERGY GEOLOGY STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK at BINGHAMTON research programs in geochemistry, sedimentary geology, or Earth surface processes with the potential the position, visit the Geological Sciences and Environmental Studies website (www.geology

  19. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Tao; Craig A. Blue

    2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, novel surface treatment technologies, High Density Infrared (HDI) and Laser Surface Engineering (LSE) surface coating processes were developed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated specimens were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of ASTM A36 (raw coal screen section) and can be significantly increased by applying HDI and LSE coating processes. Field testing has been performed using a LSE-treated screen panel and it showed a 2 times improvement of the service life.

  20. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Tao; R. Honaker; B. K. Parekh

    2007-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, novel surface treatment technologies, High Density Infrared (HDI) and Laser Surface Engineering (LSE) surface coating processes were developed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral and coal processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated specimens were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of ASTM A36 (raw coal screen section) and can be significantly increased by applying HDI and LSE coating processes. Field testing has been performed using a LSE-treated screen panel and it showed a significant improvement of the service life.

  1. Parametrization-independent elliptic surface grid generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, Britt Bille

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The generation of computational grids on surfaces of three-dimensional configurations is an important component of many areas of computational research, both as a boundary grid for volume grid generation or to perform ...

  2. Research Statement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    entries in the natural numbers, into an undergraduate research project. ..... and developing the undergraduate research project described at the end of Section 2,

  3. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Madden-Julian Oscillation Heating: to Tilt or Not to Tilt For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research...

  4. Research Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL Research Library: delivering essential knowledge services for national security sciences since 1947 About the Research Library The Basics Mission We deliver agile, responsive...

  5. Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramaniam, Anandh

    Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of shapes of crystals are important: (i) growth shape and (ii) equilibrium shape Surface/interface energy surfaces. The joining of two phases creates an interface. (Two orientations of the same crystalline phase

  6. SUPER HARD SURFACED POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansur, Louis K [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhattacharya, R [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL] [ORNL; Clemons, Art [ORNL] [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, H B [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL] [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, E H [Consultant, Milpitas, CA] [Consultant, Milpitas, CA; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL] [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL] [ORNL; Rivard, John D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy ion beam surface treatments were applied to a selected group of polymers. Of the six materials in the present study, four were thermoplastics (polycarbonate, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene) and two were thermosets (epoxy and polyimide). The particular epoxy evaluated in this work is one of the resins used in formulating fiber reinforced composites for military helicopter blades. Measures of mechanical properties of the near surface regions were obtained by nanoindentation hardness and pin on disk wear. Attempts were also made to measure erosion resistance by particle impact. All materials were hardness tested. Pristine materials were very soft, having values in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 GPa. Ion beam treatment increased hardness by up to 50 times compared to untreated materials. For reference, all materials were hardened to values higher than those typical of stainless steels. Wear tests were carried out on three of the materials, PET, PI and epoxy. On the ion beam treated epoxy no wear could be detected, whereas the untreated material showed significant wear.

  7. THE VALUE OF BOREHOLE -TO-SURFACE INFORMATION IN NEAR-SURFACE CROSSWELL SEISMIC TOMOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    seismic reflection cannot (e.g. Liberty et al., 1999; Musil et al., 2002). The images producedTHE VALUE OF BOREHOLE -TO-SURFACE INFORMATION IN NEAR-SURFACE CROSSWELL SEISMIC TOMOGRAPHY Geoff J properties is important in many fields. One method that can image the seismic velocity structure

  8. SUPRI heavy oil research program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigham, W.E.; Ramey, H.J.; Castanier, L.M.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress of the research performed by the Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI) during the past three years. Some of SUPRI's past results are discussed briefly for the following five projects: flow properties studies;in-situ combustion; additives to improve mobility control; reservoir definition; and support services. Abstracts of technical reports published from 1990--1993 are also included.

  9. Material Property Estimation for Direct Detection of DNAPL using Integrated Ground-Penetrating Radar Velocity, Imaging and Attribute Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Bradford; Stephen Holbrook; Scott B. Smithson

    2004-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this project is direct detection of DNAPL's specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from multi-fold surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine state-of-the-art GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material property estimation to determine the location and extent of residual and/or pooled DNAPL in both the vadose and saturated zones. An important byproduct of our research is state-of-the-art imaging which allows us to pinpoint attribute anomalies, characterize stratigraphy, identify fracture zones, and locate buried objects.

  10. Wetting and friction on superoleophobic surfaces March 20, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    then focus on their friction properties, and es- tablish an important condition for their use as super-lubricating,15­18 . Similar surfaces can be produced to repel oil, but repelling both oil and water with the same surface is a true challenge since surfaces that repel water are usu- ally attracting oils. The recently introduced

  11. GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by the NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, in any advertising or sales promotion which would indicate or indirectly the advertised product to be used or purchased because of this NOAA Environmental Research and dispersion of pollutants; surface waves and oscillation5-critical to lake transportation, boating

  12. A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, Ian M.

    A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo surface and sea-ice energy budgets were measured near 87.5°N during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study regimes, characterized by varying cloud, thermody- namic and solar properties. An initial warm, melt

  13. The transport properties of activated carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    di Vittorio, S.L. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Dresselhaus, M.S. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Endo, M. (Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Issi, J-P.; Piraux, L.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport properties of activated isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers with surface area 1000 m{sup 2}/g have been investigated. We report preliminary results on the electrical conductivity, the magnetoresistance, the thermal conductivity and the thermopower of these fibers as a function of temperature. Comparisons are made to transport properties of other disordered carbons. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Final report for the project "Improving the understanding of surface-atmosphere radiative interactions by mapping surface reflectance over the ARM CART site" (award DE-FG02-02ER63351)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander P. Trishchenko; Yi Luo; Konstantin V. Khlopenkov, William M. Park; Zhanqing Li; Maureen Cribb

    2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface spectral reflectance (albedo) is a fundamental variable affecting the transfer of solar radiation and the Earth’s climate. It determines the proportion of solar energy absorbed by the surface and reflected back to the atmosphere. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified surface albedo among key factors influencing climate radiative forcing. Accurate knowledge of surface reflective properties is important for advancing weather forecasting and climate change impact studies. It is also important for determining radiative impact and acceptable levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which makes this work strongly linked to major scientific objectives of the Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Most significant accomplishments of eth project are listed below. I) Surface albedo/BRDF datasets from 1995 to the end of 2004 have been produced. They were made available to the ARM community and other interested users through the CCRS public ftp site ftp://ftp.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ad/CCRS_ARM/ and ARM IOP data archive under “PI data Trishchenko”. II) Surface albedo properties over the ARM SGP area have been described for 10-year period. Comparison with ECMWF data product showed some deficiencies in the ECMWF surface scheme, such as missing some seasonal variability and no dependence on sky-conditions which biases surface energy budget and has some influence of the diurnal cycle of upward radiation and atmospheric absorption. III) Four surface albedo Intensive Observation Period (IOP) Field Campaigns have been conducted for every season (August, 2002, May 2003, February 2004 and October 2004). Data have been prepared, documented and transferred to ARM IOP archive. Nine peer-reviewed journal papers and 26 conference papers have been published.

  15. Controlling ice nucleation through surface hydrophilicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen J. Cox; Shawn M. Kathmann; Ben Slater; Angelos Michaelides

    2015-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Ice formation is one of the most common and important processes on Earth and almost always occurs at the surface of a material. A basic understanding of how the physiochemical properties of a material's surface affects its ability to form ice has remained elusive. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations to directly probe heterogeneous ice nucleation at an hexagonal surface of a nanoparticle of varying hydrophilicity. Surprisingly, we find that structurally identical surfaces can both inhibit and promote ice formation and analogous to a chemical catalyst, it is found that an optimal interaction between the surface and the water exists for promoting ice nucleation. We use our microscopic understanding of the mechanism to design a modified surface in silico with enhanced ice nucleating ability.

  16. Task 6 - Subtask 1: PNNL Visit by JAEA Researchers to Evaluate the Feasibility of the FLESCOT Code for the Future JAEA Use for the Fukushima Surface Water Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) researchers visited Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for seven working days and have evaluated the suitability and adaptability of FLESCOT to a JAEA’s supercomputer system to effectively simulate cesium behavior in dam reservoirs, river mouths, and coastal areas in Fukushima contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. PNNL showed the following to JAEA visitors during the seven-working day period: • FLESCOT source code • User’s manual • FLESCOT description – Program structure – Algorism – Solver – Boundary condition handling – Data definition – Input and output methods – How to run. During the visit, JAEA had access to FLESCOT to run with an input data set to evaluate the capacity and feasibility of adapting it to a JAEA super computer with massive parallel processors. As a part of this evaluation, PNNL ran FLESCOT for sample cases of the contaminant migration simulation to further describe FLESCOT in action. JAEA and PNNL researchers also evaluated time spent for each subroutine of FLESCOT, and the JAEA researcher implemented some initial parallelization schemes to FLESCOT. Based on this code evaluation, JAEA and PNNL determined that FLESCOT is • applicable to Fukushima lakes/dam reservoirs, river mouth areas, and coastal water • feasible to implement parallelization for the JAEA supercomputer. In addition, PNNL and JAEA researchers discussed molecular modeling approaches on cesium adsorption mechanisms to enhance the JAEA molecular modeling activities. PNNL and JAEA also discussed specific collaboration of molecular and computational modeling activities.

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1994 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Atmospheric and climate research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) occurs in conjunction with the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) and with the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) Program. Solicitations for proposals and peer review were used to select research projects for funding in FY 1995. Nearly all ongoing projects were brought to a close in FY 1994. Therefore, the articles in this volume include a summary of the long-term accomplishments as well as the FY 1994 progress made on these projects. The following articles present summaries of the progress in FY 1994 under these research tasks: continental and oceanic fate of pollutants; research aircraft operations; ASCOT program management; coupling/decoupling of synoptic and valley circulations; interactions between surface exchange processes and atmospheric circulations; and direct simulations of atmospheric turbulence. Climate change research at PNL is aimed at reducing uncertainties in the fundamental processes that control climate systems that currently prevent accurate predictions of climate change and its effects. PNL is responsible for coordinating and integrating the field and laboratory measurement programs, modeling studies, and data analysis activities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. In FY 1994, PNL scientists conducted 3 research projects under the ARM program. In the first project, the sensitivity of GCM grid-ad meteorological properties to subgrid-scale variations in surface fluxes and subgrid-scale circulation patterns is being tested in a single column model. In the second project, a new and computationally efficient scheme has been developed for parameterizing stratus cloud microphysics in general circulation models. In the last project, a balloon-borne instrument package is being developed for making research-quality measurements of radiative flux divergence profiles in the lowest 1,500 meters of the Earth`s atmosphere.

  18. Effect of ZrO{sub 2}-doping of nanosized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgO system on its structural, surface and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Neveen A. [National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)] [National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); El-Molla, Sahar A., E-mail: saharelmolla@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, Ghada M.; Fagal, Gehan A. [National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)] [National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Preparation and characterization nano-sized ZrO{sub 2}-doped Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgO system. ? Pure and doped solids calcined at 500 and 700 °C are mesoporous adsorbents. ? ZrO{sub 2}-doping increased the lattice constant “a” of MgO lattice to an extent proportional to the amount of ZrO{sub 2} added. ? The catalytic activity in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition was found to increase as a function of dopant concentration. -- Abstract: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgO system was prepared by wet impregnation method followed by treatment with different amounts of Zr-dopant salt then heating at 500 and 700 °C. The dopant concentrations were 0.48, 0.95 and 1.4 mol% ZrO{sub 2}. Pure and variously doped solids were characterized using XRD, N{sub 2}-adsorption isotherms carried out at ?196 °C and catalytic decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous solution at 25–35 °C. The results revealed that the nanosized MgO phase was only detected in the diffractograms of pure and doped solids calcined at 500 °C. Heating pure and doped solids at 700 °C produced nanosized MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase together with MgO phase. Pure and ZrO{sub 2}-doped solids calcined at 500 and 700 °C are mesoporous adsorbents. The doping process brought about a measurable decrease in the S{sub BET} of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgO system with subsequent increase in its catalytic activity. The catalytic activity of the investigated system toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition, expressed as reaction rate constant per unit surface area was found to increase as a function of dopant concentration. The maximum increase in the reaction rate constant per unit surface area measured for the reaction carried out at 30 °C attained 125% for the heavily doped samples. This significant increase was based on the catalytic activity of pure catalyst sample measured under the same conditions.

  19. Geophysical and transport properties of reservoir rocks. Final report for task 4: Measurements and analysis of seismic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of research on the seismic properties of reservoir rocks is to develop a basic understanding of the effects of rock microstructure and its contained pore fluids on seismic velocities and attenuation. Ultimately, this knowledge would be used to extract reservoir properties information such as the porosity, permeability, clay content, fluid saturation, and fluid type from borehole, cross-borehole, and surface seismic measurements to improve the planning and control of oil and gas recovery. This thesis presents laboratory ultrasonic measurements for three granular materials and attempts to relate the microstructural properties and the properties of the pore fluids to P- and S-wave velocities and attenuation. These experimental results show that artificial porous materials with sintered grains and a sandstone with partially cemented grains exhibit complexities in P- and S-wave attenuation that cannot be adequately explained by existing micromechanical theories. It is likely that some of the complexity observed in the seismic attenuation is controlled by details of the rock microstructure, such as the grain contact area and grain shape, and by the arrangement of the grain packing. To examine these effects, a numerical method was developed for analyzing wave propagation in a grain packing. The method is based on a dynamic boundary integral equation and incorporates generalized stiffness boundary conditions between individual grains to account for viscous losses and grain contact scattering.

  20. Correlations between surface structure and catalytic activity/selectivity. Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, D.W.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective is to address the keys to understanding the relation between surface structure and catalytic activity/selectivity. Of concern are questions related to enhanced catalytic properties of mixed-metal catalysts and critical active site requirements for molecular synthesis and rearrangement. The experimental approach utilizes a microcatalytic reactor contiguous to a surface analysis system, an arrangement which allows in vacuo transfer of the catalyst from one chamber to the other. Surface techniques being used include Auger (AES), UV and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and XPS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). Our research program builds upon our previous experience relating the results of single crystal kinetic measurements with the results obtained with supported analogs. As well we are exploiting our recent work on the preparation, the characterization, and the determination of the catalytic properties of ultra-thin metal and metal oxide films. The program is proceeding toward the study of the unique catalytic properties of ultrathin metal films; the investigation of the critical ensemble size requirements for principal catalytic reaction types; and the modelling of supported catalysts using ultra-thin planar oxide surfaces.

  1. Hydrophilization of Liquid Surfaces by Plasma Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor Multanen; Gilad Chaniel; Roman Grynyov; Ron Yosef Loew; Naor Siany; Edward Bormashenko

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of the cold radiofrequency air plasma on the surface properties of silicone oils (polydimethylsiloxane) was studied. Silicone oils of various molecular masses were markedly hydrophilized by the cold air plasma treatment. A pronounced decrease of the apparent water contact angles was observed after plasma treatment. A general theoretical approach to the calculation of apparent contact angles is proposed. The treated liquid surfaces demonstrated hydrophobic recovery. The characteristic time of the hydrophobic recovery grew with the molecular mass of the silicone oil.

  2. West Virginia Property Tax Briefing Paper Amy Higginbotham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    West Virginia Property Tax Briefing Paper By Amy Higginbotham Arzu Sen Dr. Tami Gurley-Calvez Bureau of Business and Economic Research College of Business and Economics West Virginia University 2009 ...........................................................................................................................1 History of the West Virginia Property Tax

  3. Rigidly rotating ZAMO surfaces in the Kerr spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei V. Frolov; Valeri P. Frolov

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A stationary observer in the Kerr spacetime has zero angular momentum if his/her angular velocity $\\omega$ has a particular value, which depends on the position of the observer. Worldlines of such zero angular momentum observers (ZAMOs) with the same value of the angular velocity $\\omega$ form a three dimensional surface, which has the property that the Killing vectors generating time translation and rotation are tangent to it. We call such a surface a rigidly rotating ZAMO surface. This definition allows a natural generalization to the surfaces inside the black hole, where ZAMO's trajectories formally become spacelike. A general property of such a surface is that there exist linear combinations of the Killing vectors with constant coefficients which make them orthogonal on it. In this paper we discuss properties of the rigidly rotating ZAMO surfaces both outside and inside the black hole and relevance of these objects to a couple of interesting physical problems.

  4. surface science | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface science surface science Leads No leads are available at this time. Nonlinear Photoemission Electron Micrographs of Plasmonic Nanoholes in Gold Thin Films. Abstract:...

  5. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment. Quarterly technical report No. 6, December 1, 1987--February 28, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the present reporting period, we have initiated work on (a) the interpretation of our recent data (see QTR5) on deposition rates under the simultaneous influence of inertia and thermophoresis, (b) the possible rate of particle photophoresis in environments characterized by high radiative heat loads. and (c) the influence of particle size distributions on total mass deposition rates. The fruits of these initiatives will be reported in subsequent quarterly technical reports. Here, we focus on our recent theoretical results in the important but previously uncharted area of the relations between particulate deposition mechanisms, deposit microstructure and deposit properties. Experimental verification of some of the most interesting predictions will be the subject of future HTCRE-Lab studies. Recent discussions with fouling engineers have convinced us that despite recent advances in our ability to predict particle deposition rates in convective-diffusion environments, the important connection between resulting deposit properties (effective thermal conductivity permeability, {hor_ellipsis}) and deposition mechanism remain poorly understood and only scarcely studied. Accordingly, as part of this DOE-PETC program we have developed a discrete stochastic model to simulate particulate deposition processes resulting from a combination of deposition mechanisms.

  6. Available DOE Property - SRSCRO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformationCenterResearch HighlightsTools PrintableCARIBUAuthorCausality |property

  7. 3301DEVELOPMENT AND DISEASE RESEARCH ARTICLE INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Matt

    variants, others persist after birth and thus represent congenital malformations. In this context, a common)-rich plaques on their apical surfaces to maintain the `water-tight' properties of this epithelium (Jenkins

  8. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment. Quarterly technical report No. 3, March 1, 1987--May 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During this third quarter of Grant DE-FG22-86 PC 90756, we have obtained preliminary experimental results on the deposition behavior of submicron and supermicron solid particles (MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on a two-dimensional surface exposed to a high temperature/velocity particle ``laden`` atmospheric pressure jet. The uniform velocity (``plug flow``) jet, with temperatures up to about 1520 K, derives from a pressurized gaseous fuel microcombustion chamber (110 cc) equipped with a platinum guiding (exit) channel. Particles were generated by several methods (Berglund-Liu type aerosol generator, ultrasonic nebulizer, or syringe feeder with aerodynamic particle off-take) and were introduced into the combustion chamber with a carrier stream of nitrogen or air. Laser light scattering and reflectivity techniques were used for the study of particle deposition, supplemented by post-mortem microscopy on the exposed surface. We observed a linear deposition rate of submicron particles due to the thermophoretic mechanism (until the first layer was developed) under both high and low velocity conditions. On the contrary, supermicron particle deposits reach a steady-state, evidently due to a dynamic equilibrium between particle deposition and dislodging caused by the impacting particles. At several temperatures particle-free subsonic gas jets (up to 120 m/sec) were unable to remove the submicron particle layer.

  9. Conversion of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} to syngas over Ni-Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} nanocatalyst synthesized via plasma assisted co-impregnation method: Surface properties and catalytic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahemi, Nader; Haghighi, Mohammad [Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reactor and Catalysis Research Center (RCRC), Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akbar Babaluo, Ali [Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanostructure Material Research Center (NMRC), Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fallah Jafari, Mahdi [National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company (NIORDC), National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), P.O. Box 15815-3499, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company (NIORDC), National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), P.O. Box 15815-3499, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorram, Sirous [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy (RIAPA), University of Tabriz, P.O. Box: 51665-163, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy (RIAPA), University of Tabriz, P.O. Box: 51665-163, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst promoted by Co and ZrO{sub 2} was prepared by co-impregnation method and treated with glow discharge plasma. The catalytic activity of the synthesized nanocatalysts has been tested toward conversion of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} to syngas. The physicochemical characterizations like XRD, EDX, FESEM, TEM, BET, FTIR, and XPS show that plasma treatment results in smaller particle size, more surface concentration, and uniform morphology. The dispersion of nickel in plasma-treated nanocatalyst was also significantly improved, which was helpful for controlling the ensemble size of active phase atoms on the support surface. Improved physicochemical properties caused 20%–30% enhancement in activity of plasma-treated nanocatalyst that means to achieve the same H{sub 2} or CO yield, the plasma-treated nanocatalyst needed about 100 °C lower reaction temperature. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio got closer to 1 at higher temperatures and finally at 850 °C H{sub 2}/CO = 1 is attained for plasma-treated nanocatalyst. Plasma-treated nanocatalyst due to smaller Ni particles and strong interaction between active phase and support has lower tendency to keep carbon species on its structure and hence excellent stability can be observed for this catalyst.

  10. Methodology and concepts for the design of surface storage fills at the Anvil Points Oil Shale Retort Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohm, W.E. Jr.; Krinitzsky, E.L.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary obtectives in design of surface disposal fills for processed and raw oil shales are: (a) to insure long-term physical stability, and (b) to prevent surface runoff, surface erosion, and possible subsurface seepage from degrading the water quality of streams and ground water, it was concluded that the analysis and design of spent shale disposal fills should be based on sound geotechnical engineeering principles, considerable experience, and good judgment. An understanding of the source of variability of spent shale materials and its effect on engineering properties is a first step in developing fill design. A second important step is the assessment of long-term changes in the properties of spent shale within a disposal fill. This assessment requires consideration of possible thermal, hydrochemical, and physical interactions within the fill and between the fill and site environment. The site environment is site-specific and depends on the geological, surface and subsurface hydrological, and geotechnical characteristics of the site. The variability of spent shale materials is a direct function of variations in mineral and chemical composition of the raw shale and of the processes applied. Current technology for the design and construction of spent shale disposal fills has not been proven by experience. A major problem is the large quantities of spent shale generated for surface disposal and the lack of available sites other than large gulches in the oil shale country of the western United States. Conceptual research fill designs developed in this study should be refined and constructed to provide needed information on in situ properties and long-term performance. Research fills planned by others should be augmented to obtain needed information, especially for codisposal of spent shales with treated waste water, raw shale fines, and process dust.

  11. PROPERTY MANUAL Berkeley Laboratory Property Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    of Energy (DOE). The Property Management charter ensures the efficient and effective protection and controlPROPERTY MANUAL Issued by Berkeley Laboratory Property Management Lawrence Berkeley National of Property Management Policies · I. Parties and Organizations Responsible for Property · II. Acquiring

  12. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Pan

    2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis report describes the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The technical scope, content, and management of this analysis report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 2, 4, and 8). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), the Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB) Cross-Drift, and/or boreholes; air-injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in the ESF; and data from laboratory testing of core samples. In addition, the report ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]) also serves as a source report by providing the geological framework model of the site. This report is a revision of the model report under the same title (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161773]), which in turn superceded the analysis report under the same title. The principal purpose of this work is to provide representative uncalibrated estimates of fracture and matrix properties for use in the model report Calibrated Properties Model. The term ''uncalibrated'' is used to distinguish the properties or parameters estimated in this report from those obtained from the inversion modeling used in ''Calibrated Properties Model''. The present work also provides fracture geometry properties for generating dual-permeability grids as documented in the scientific analyses report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling''.

  13. Equity Risk Premium and Insecure Property Right

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magin, Konstantin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magin, K. , 2012. The Equity Risk Premium Puzzle: A Res-Edelstein, The Coleman Fung Risk Management Research CenterMagin, K. , 2009. Equity Risk Premium and Insecure Property

  14. The Division of Research Affairs (DRA) and the Technology Transfer Office (TTO work together to serve SDSU for the management of new intellectual property developed by SDSU faculty and staff. Both play

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    The Division of Research Affairs (DRA) and the Technology Transfer Office (TTO work together are important documents for technology transfer; they can be both free as well as generate revenue, they allow

  15. LASER CLEANING OF CONTAMINATED PAINTED SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames A. Grisanti; Charlene R. Crocker; Robert R. Jensen

    1999-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Several techniques are available or under development for surface decontamination in nuclear facilities. Each technique has its merits; however, none of them is universally the best choice for all surface decontamination applications. Because of the multitude of factors which influence the environmental and economic aspects of selecting a surface decontamination technique, it is difficult to select the best method in a given situation; an objective basis for comparing techniques is needed. The objective of this project was to develop a software tool for use by personnel selecting a surface decontamination technique. The software incorporates performance data for available surface decontamination techniques. The beta release version of the Surface Decontamination Assistant Software has been completed and has undergone testing at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. Minor modifications to the software were completed, and a final release version of the software is ready to be issued.

  16. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Tao; Craig A. Blue

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, wear problems of mineral processing equipment including screens, sieve bends, heavy media vessel, dewatering centrifuge, etc., were identified. A novel surface treatment technology, high density infrared (HDI) surface coating process was proposed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated samples were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of AISI 4140 and ASTM A36 steels can be increased 3 and 5 folds, respectively by the application of HDI coatings.

  17. Historic Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas in theinPlasticsreduction .Historic Properties

  18. Intellectual Property Provisions (GNP-115) Grant and Cooperative...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Intellectual Property Provisions (GNP-115) Grant and Cooperative Agreement Research, Development, or Demonstration Non-Federal Entity (State, Local government, Indian tribe,...

  19. Intellectual Property Provisions (GDLB-115) Grant - Special Data...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    GDLB-115) Grant - Special Data Statute Research, Development, or Demonstration Large Business and Foreign Entity Intellectual Property Provisions (GDLB-115) Grant - Special Data...

  20. Intellectual Property Provisions (GDSB-115) Grant - Special Data...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    GDSB-115) Grant - Special Data Statute Research, Development, or Demonstration Domestic Small Business Intellectual Property Provisions (GDSB-115) Grant - Special Data Statute...

  1. NISTIR 7078 TIN Techniques for Data Analysis and Surface Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Javier

    NISTIR 7078 TIN Techniques for Data Analysis and Surface Construction Building and Fire Research Institute of Standards and Technology #12;NISTIR 7078 TIN Techniques for Data Analysis and Surface This report addresses the task of meshing point clouds by triangulated elevated surfaces referred to as TIN

  2. Effect of Land Surface Heterogeneity on Satellite Near-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    in regulating the energy and water balance at the soil surface and it is therefore a crucial variable for many. SMOS will carry an L-band (1.4GHz) microwave radiometer and will provide near-surface soil moisture highly heterogeneous land surface conditions. The principal objectives of this research are to (i) test

  3. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    López-Buendía, Angel M., E-mail: buendia@uv.es [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Benjamin Franklin 17, 46380 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)] [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain); Climent, Verónica [Lafarge Cementos, Polígono Sepes, Isaac Newton s/n, 46500 Sagunto, Valencia (Spain)] [Lafarge Cementos, Polígono Sepes, Isaac Newton s/n, 46500 Sagunto, Valencia (Spain); Guillem, Celia [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)] [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in the mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.

  4. Research Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Monitoring and Research Nanotechnology: The Science of the Small Algae to Biofuels: Squeezing Power from Pond Scum Living with Wildfire: A Shared Community...

  5. Crosscutting Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to, and encourage, greater synergy among disciplines and across each of the Clean Coal Research Program (CCRP) core technology areas. Its mission space is bound by...

  6. WILD QUOTIENT SINGULARITIES OF SURFACES DINO LORENZINI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenzini, Dino J.

    WILD QUOTIENT SINGULARITIES OF SURFACES DINO LORENZINI Abstract. Let (B, MB) be a noetherian in this article three structural properties of wild quotient singularities, which suggest that in general, one exhibit explicitly the resolution graphs of an infinite set of wild Z/2Z-singularities, using some results

  7. Rational nanostructuring of surfaces for extraordinary icephobicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    to the same extremely low, robust nucleation temperature of $Ă?24 C for over three orders of magnitude change lubricant impregnated surfaces23,24 which exhibit remarkable droplet roll-off properties have been studied of repeated measurements. Our measurements were performed under the condition of saturated humidity

  8. Dynamic Surface Tension Behaviour in a Photoresponsive Surfactant System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cicciarelli, Bradley A.

    We report on the surface properties of a photoresponsive surfactant that incorporates the light-sensitive azobenzene group into its tail. Cis-trans photo-isomerization of this group alters the ability of the surfactant to ...

  9. Micro- and nano- scale experimental approach to surface engineer metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asthana, Pranay

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    metals for enhanced surface properties. A micro- and nano- scale experimental approach has been used to achieve these objectives. Novel principles of nano technology are incorporated into the experiments. Friction has the potential to generate sufficient...

  10. Energy and momentum transfer of He atoms scattered from a lithium fluoride crystal surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manson, Joseph R.

    Energy and momentum transfer of He atoms scattered from a lithium fluoride crystal surface H. Legge­surface inter- action is usually described in terms of averaged properties such as the average energy exchange interaction potential has been extensivel

  11. Surface spectroscopic characterization of oxide thin films and bimetallic model catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Tao

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . The interaction of metal clusters (Ag) with defects was examined by work function measurements. On various Pd related bimetallic alloy surfaces, CO chemisorption behavior was addressed by IRAS and TPD. Observed changes in the surface chemical properties during...

  12. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment. Quarterly technical report No. 10, December 1, 1988--February 28, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Little is yet known (theoretically or experimentally) about the simultaneous effects of particle inertia, particle thermophoresis and high mass loading on the important engineering problem of predicting deposition rates from flowing ``dusty`` gases. For this reason, we investigate the motion of particles present at nonnegligible mass loading in a flowing nonisothermal gaseous medium and their deposition on strongly cooled or heated solid objects by examining the instructive case of steady axisymmetric ``dusty gas`` flow between two infinite disks: an inlet (porous) disk and the impermeable ``target`` disk -- a flow not unlike that encountered in recent seeded-flame experiments. Since this stagnation flow/geometry admits interesting self-similar solutions at all Reynolds numbers, we are able to predict laminar flow mass-, momentum- and energy-transfer rate coefficients over a wide range of particle mass loadings, dimensionless particle relaxation times (Stokes numbers), dimensionless thermophoretic diffusivities, and gas Reynolds numbers. As a by-product, we illustrate the accuracy and possible improvement of our previous ``diffusion model`` for tightly coupled dusty gas systems. Moreover, we report new results illustrating the dependence of the important ``critical`` Stokes number (for incipient particle impaction) on particle mass loading and wall/gas temperature ratio for dust-laden gas motion towards ``overheated`` solid surfaces. The present formulation and insulating transport coefficients should not only be useful in explaining/predicting recent deposition rate trends in ``seeded`` flame experiments, but also highly mass-loaded systems of technological interest.

  13. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment. Quarterly report No. 9, September 1, 1988--November 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A real-time laser light-reflectivity technique is being used to study simultaneous thermophoretic and inertial influences on the deposition behavior of MgO particles produced via ultrasonic nebulization (submicrometer range). The deposition surface (a concave platinum ribbon) is exposed to a high velocity/temperature jet of alkali sulfate-free combustion products exiting from a seeded (C3{sub 3}H{sub 8}/air) microcombustor (110 cm{sup 3}). The reflectivity data were calibrated against deposition rates obtained from SEM pictures of the target, and were normalized with the nominal particle feed rate, in order to obtain the mass transfer Stanton number, St{sub m}, trends depicted in Figure 1. For the submicron (ca. 0.7{mu}m) particles inertial effects appear to set in at Stokes (Stk) numbers of O(10{sup {minus}2}) (an order of magnitude lower than the ones needed for ``pure`` inertial impaction), affecting significantly the dominant thermophoretic deposition mechanism. A first order (in Stk) theoretical analysis of the problem in which particle inertia is treated as equivalent to ``pressure diffusion,`` cannot explain the observed dependence of the deposition rate on Stk. We are presently formulating a Lagrangian approach, valid for all values of Stk, in order to interpret these data. In addition, a Single Particle Counter (SPC) and Transit Time Velocimeter (TTV), are being developed, to allow more precise measurements of particle feed rates and velocities.

  14. NCMS PWB Surface Finishes Team project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kokas, J.; DeSantis, C. [United Technologies Corp., Farmington, CT (United States). Hamilton Standard Div.; Wenger, G. [AT and T, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NCMS PWB Surface Finishes Consortium is just about at the end of the five year program. Dozens of projects related to surface finishes and PWB solder-ability were performed by the team throughout the program, and many of them are listed in this paper. They are listed with a cross reference to where and when a technical paper was presented describing the results of the research. However, due to time and space constraints, this paper can summarize the details of only three of the major research projects accomplished by the team. The first project described is an ``Evaluation of PWB Surface Finishes.`` It describes the solderability, reliability, and wire bondability of numerous surface finishes. The second project outlined is an ``Evaluation of PWB Solderability Test Methods.`` The third project outlined is the ``Development and Evaluation of Organic Solderability Preservatives.``

  15. Geothermal Reservoir Technology Research Program: Abstracts of selected research projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, M.J. (ed.)

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research projects are described in the following areas: geothermal exploration, mapping reservoir properties and reservoir monitoring, and well testing, simulation, and predicting reservoir performance. The objectives, technical approach, and project status of each project are presented. The background, research results, and future plans for each project are discussed. The names, addresses, and telephone and telefax numbers are given for the DOE program manager and the principal investigators. (MHR)

  16. On Deviations from Gaussian Statistics for Surface Gravity Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Onorato; A. R. Osborne; M. Serio

    2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we discuss some issues concerning the statistical properties of ocean surface waves. We show that, using the approach of weak turbulence theory, deviations from Gaussian statistics can be naturally included. In particular we discuss the role of bound and free modes for the determination of the statistical properties of the surface elevation. General formulas for skewness and kurtosis as a function of the spectral wave action density are here derived.

  17. What controls surface tension and cell sorting in tissue formation and morphogenesis?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    What controls surface tension and cell sorting in tissue formation and morphogenesis? Living as an emergent material property called surface tension. Similarly, cohesive interactions between cells, mediated surface tension of cohesive cells is, however, more complex than conventional surface tension. Like

  18. Novel Stabilization Mechanism on Polar Surfaces: ZnO(0001)-Zn Olga Dulub,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Ulrike

    ¨r Materialphysik and Centre for Computational Materials Science, Universita¨t Wien, A-1090 Wien, Austria (Received identification of the stabilization mechanisms of polar ZnO surfaces and the resulting surface properties would will cancel the polarity. If the Zn-terminated surface is less positive and the O-terminated surface layer

  19. IIT Bombay offers to license intellectual property (IP) created through its research and development efforts and which are available in the form of patents, patent applications, design, trademark, copy-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayanan, H.

    mechanical energy storage and release device 607/MUM/2004 EE 2 Absorption module 155/MUM/2002 EE 3 applications 959/MUM/2006 EE 12 Process for energy efficient conditioning of air using liquid dessicant 272/MUM Research & Development #12;Energy and Environment Code Title of patent Application No. EE 1 A novel

  20. On the Interaction between Marine Boundary Layer Cellular Cloudiness and Surface Heat Fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Wang, Hailong; Yamaguchi, T.

    2014-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction between marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness and surface uxes of sensible and latent heat is investigated. The investigation focuses on the non-precipitating closed-cell state and the precipitating open-cell state at low geostrophic wind speed. The Advanced Research WRF model is used to conduct cloud-system-resolving simulations with interactive surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol, and with a detailed representation of the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds. The mechanisms responsible for the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the surface heat fluxes in the closed- and open-cell state are investigated and explained. It is found that the horizontal spatial structure of the closed-cell state determines, by entrainment of dry free tropospheric air, the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and water vapor, and, to a lesser degree, of the surface sensible and latent heat flux. The synchronized dynamics of the the open-cell state drives oscillations in surface air temperature, water vapor, and in the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol. Open-cell cloud formation, cloud optical depth and liquid water path, and cloud and rain water path are identified as good predictors of the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and sensible heat flux, but not of surface water vapor and latent heat flux. It is shown that by enhancing the surface sensible heat flux, the open-cell state creates conditions by which it is maintained. While the open-cell state under consideration is not depleted in aerosol, and is insensitive to variations in sea-salt fluxes, it also enhances the sea-salt flux relative to the closed-cell state. In aerosol-depleted conditions, this enhancement may replenish the aerosol needed for cloud formation, and hence contribute to the perpetuation of the open-cell state as well. Spatial homogenization of the surface fluxes is found to have only a small effect on cloud properties in the investigated cases. This indicates that sub-grid scale spatial variability in the surface flux of sensible and latent heat and of sea salt aerosol may not be required in large scale and global models to describe marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness.

  1. Research Help

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » RemovingResearchGallery ResearchHelp Research

  2. surface chemistry | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface chemistry surface chemistry Leads No leads are available at this time. FeSSZ-13 as an NH3-SCR Catalyst: A Reaction Kinetics and FTIRMössbauer Spectroscopic Study....

  3. Probing thermal waves on the free surface of various media: Surface Fluctuation Specular Reflection Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Astrid Tay; Caroline Thibierge; Daničle Fournier; Christian Frétigny; François Lequeux; Cécile Monteux; Jean-Paul Roger; Laurence Talini

    2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal motion gives rise to fluctuations in free surfaces; the propagation of the thermally excited waves on such surfaces depends on the mechanical properties of the medium. Their measurement can therefore provide information on those properties. We have developed an optical tool to probe the thermally excited waves on free surfaces: Surface Fluctuation Specular Reflection (SFSR) spectroscopy. It consists in measuring the fluctuations in the position of a laser beam, which is specularly reflected onto the free surface of a medium, and is therefore sensitive to the roughness of that surface. We show how the measured signal is related to the medium properties. We also present measurements performed on Newtonian liquids as well as on a viscoelastic solid; we show that, in all cases, there is a very good agreement between experimental and computed spectra. SFSR thus applies to a broad range of materials. It moreover offers a very good temporal resolution and should provide a useful tool for dynamical measurements on complex fluids.

  4. AR Researchers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles with an emphasis in cooperative unmanned vehicle research and intelligent remote sensing. Cal Christensen, M.S., P.E., P.M.P Cal...

  5. IR Researchers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers Eric D. Larsen Eric D. Larsen is a mechanical engineer at the Idaho National Laboratorywith 19 years of experience in design and integration of electro-mechanical and...

  6. SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shouhong

    SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION DIJKSTRA, SENGUL, WANG INTRODUCTION LINEAR THEORY MAIN THEOREMS CONCLUDING REMARKS DYNAMIC TRANSITIONS OF SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION H.Dijkstra T. Sengul S. Wang #12;SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION DIJKSTRA, SENGUL, WANG INTRODUCTION LINEAR THEORY MAIN THEOREMS

  7. Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Biomass Program works with industry, academia and national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. Through research, development, and demonstration efforts geared at the development of integrated biorefineries, the Biomass Program is helping transform the nation's renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost competitive, high performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower.(From the Biomass Program's home page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/) The Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database allows the user to choose from more than 150 types of biomass samples. The specialized interface then guides the user through choices within the sample (such as "Ash" as a choice in the "Hardwood" sample and displays tables based on choice of composition properties, structure properties, elemental properties, extractive properties, etc.

  8. Fine tuning of graphene-metal adhesion by surface alloying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    Fine tuning of graphene-metal adhesion by surface alloying D. Alfe`1,2 , M. Pozzo1 , E. Miniussi3 route for governing the interaction between graphene and metal through the selective choice characterization of the properties of graphene on a model PtRu surface alloy on Ru(0001), with a concentration

  9. 1 INTRODUCTION Researches in unsaturated soil mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 INTRODUCTION Researches in unsaturated soil mechanics considerably developed in the past decades exchanges during shearing were also monitored, and Experimental unsaturated soil mechanics Pierre Delage- mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented. The water retention properties of unsaturated soils

  10. Surface evolver simulations of drops on microposts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew L. Blow; Julia M. Yeomans

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An important feature in the design of superhydrophobic surfaces is their robustness against collapse from the Cassie-Baxter configuration to the Wenzel state. Upon such a transition a surface loses its properties of low adhesion and friction. We describe how to adapt the Surface Evolver algorithm to predict the parameters and mechanism of the collapse transition on posts of arbitrary shape. In particular, contributions to the free energy evaluated over the solid-liquid surface are reduced to line integrals to give good convergence. The algorithm is validated for straight, vertical and inclined, posts. Numerical results for curved posts with a horizontal section at their ends show that these are more efficient in stabilising the Cassie state than straight posts, and identify whether the interface first depins from the post sides or the post tips.

  11. Surface cleanliness measurement procedure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  12. Beyond Plants Indicators and Soil Surface Properties in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    micro-aggregates · Gives soil its dark color Short term Long term #12;Biotic Integrity Organic matter and mortality · Erosion · Vegetation changes · Establishment and growth of invasive plants · Water yields and water quality · Air quality · Wildlife habitat · Carbon sequestration #12;Transitions Cause

  13. Controlling Surface Properties of Transparent Conducting Oxides | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User GroupInformationE-Gov ContactsContractOffice of ScientificCenter |

  14. Surface Contamination Guidelines/Radiological Clearance of Property |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of Energy Strain Rate4Superhard CoatingNovemberDecember 23,Supporting

  15. Surface Electronic Properties and Site-Specific Laser Desorption Processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystalline GalliumSuppression of conductivity in Mn-DopedBi-Directionalof

  16. Plasma Treatment of Bulk Niobium Surface for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marija Raskovic; H. Phillips; Anne-Marie Valente

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed electric discharges were used to demonstrate the validity of plasma surface treatment of superconducting radio-frequency cavities. The experiments were performed on disc-shaped Nb samples and compared with identical samples treated with buffer chemical polishing techniques. The results of several standard surface analytical techniques indicate that plasma-treated samples have comparable or superior properties regarding the surface roughness and composition.

  17. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface Hydrology of the Eastern Palouse Region Project Number 1434HQ96GR02667 Start Date 09/01/1997 End;Problem and Research Objectives Most soils in the eastern Palouse region of northern Idaho contain

  18. GR via Characteristic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simonetta Frittelli; Carlos Kozameh; Ted Newman

    1995-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We reformulate the Einstein equations as equations for families of surfaces on a four-manifold. These surfaces eventually become characteristic surfaces for an Einstein metric (with or without sources). In particular they are formulated in terms of two functions on R4xS2, i.e. the sphere bundle over space-time, - one of the functions playing the role of a conformal factor for a family of associated conformal metrics, the other function describing an S2's worth of surfaces at each space-time point. It is from these families of surfaces themselves that the conformal metric - conformal to an Einstein metric - is constructed; the conformal factor turns them into Einstein metrics. The surfaces are null surfaces with respect to this metric.

  19. MSRIP 2014 Faculty Research Projects The following faculty research projects are organized by colleges, and then

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    . Anderson Graduate School of Management Management Faculty Mentor: Dr. Ye Li Research Setting: Lab and Field and Technology (CE-CERT) Faculty Mentor: Dr. Kanok Boriboonsomsin Research Setting: Lab Research Project: Dr the inventorying methods of on-road mobile emissions, evaluating strategies to reduce greenhouse gases from surface

  20. Research update: Materials compatibility and lubricant research (MCLR) program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szymurski, S.R.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since September 1991, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute (ARTI) has been conducting materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC and HCFC refrigerant alternatives. This work has been supported by a grant from the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technology, with co-funding from the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute (ARI). During the first two and one-half years of this program, ARTI has subcontracted and managed twenty-one research projects totaling over $5.2 million. This research has included materials compatibility tests, refrigerant-lubricant interaction studies, measurement of thermophysical properties, and development of accelerated test methods. This paper summarizes results to date and discusses plans for future research for the Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program.

  1. Elastic properties of HMX.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sewell, T. D. (Thomas D.); Bedrov, D. (Dmitry); Menikoff, Ralph; Smith, G. D. (Grant D.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate isothermal elastic properties for {beta}-, {alpha}-, and {delta}-HMX. The complete elastic tensor for each polymorph was determined at room temperature and pressure via analysis of microscopic strain fluctuations using formalism due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76,2662 (1982)]. Additionally, the isothermal compression curve was computed for {beta}-HMX for 0 {le} p {le} 10.6 GPa; the bulk modulus K and its pressure derivative K{prime} were obtained from two fitting forms employed previously in experimental studies of the {beta}-HMX equation of state. Overall, the results indicate good agreement between the bulk modulus predicted from the measured and calculated compression curves. The bulk modulus determined directly from the elastic tensor of {beta}-HMX is in significant disagreement with the compression curve-based results. The explanation for this discrepancy is an area of current research.

  2. GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , or to this publication furnished by the NOAA Environmen- tal Research Laboratories, in any advertising or sales promotion an intent to cause directly or indirectly the advertised product to be used or purchased because-critical to eco- systems analysis and an understanding of the transport and dispersion of pollutants; surface

  3. GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by the NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, in any advertising or sales promotion which would indicate directly or indirectly the advertised product to be used or purchased because of this NOAA Environmental of the transport and dispersion of pollutants; surface waves and oscillations-critical to lake transportation

  4. Research departments Materials Research Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and alleviate atmospheric pollution in colla- boration with DMU (the National En- vironmental Research Institute Countries is also part of this department. Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department (Formerly

  5. Research Gallery

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » RemovingResearchGallery Research Gallery

  6. Research Highlight

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  7. Research Highlight

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » RemovingResearchGallery ResearchHelpA New

  8. Research Highlight

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » RemovingResearchGallery ResearchHelpA

  9. Research Highlight

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » RemovingResearchGallery ResearchHelpAA Novel

  10. Research Highlight

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » RemovingResearchGallery ResearchHelpAA

  11. Research Highlight

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » RemovingResearchGallery ResearchHelpAAFilling

  12. Research Highlight

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  13. Research Highlight

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest RegionatSearch Welcome toResearch Areas Our VisionResearch FacilitiesThe Two

  14. Research Highlight

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  15. Research Highlights

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  16. Research Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  17. Research Opportunities

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  18. Research | JCESR

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  19. Research Highlight

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORVEnergyResearch Form Research FormURTests

  20. Research Highlight

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  1. Research Highlight

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  2. Research universities for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)] [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The `public outcomes` from research universities are educated students and research that extends the frontiers of knowledge. Measures of these `public outcomes` are inadequate to permit either research or education consumers to select research universities based on quantitative performance data. Research universities annually spend over $20 billion on research; 60% of these funds are provided by Federal sources. Federal funding for university research has recently grown at an annual rate near 6% during a time period when other performers of Federal research have experienced real funding cuts. Ten universities receive about 25% of the Federal funds spent on university research. Numerous studies of US research universities are reporting storm clouds. Concerns include balancing research and teaching, the narrow focus of engineering education, college costs, continuing education, and public funding of foreign student education. The absence of research on the `public outcomes` from university research results in opinion, politics, and mythology forming the basis of too many decisions. Therefore, the authors recommend studies of other nations` research universities, studies of various economic models of university research, analysis of the peer review process and how well it identifies the most capable research practitioners and at what cost, and studies of research university ownership of intellectual property that can lead to increased `public outcomes` from publicly-funded research performed by research universities. They advocate two practices that could increase the `public outcomes` from university research. These are the development of science roadmaps that link science research to `public outcomes` and `public outcome` metrics. Changes in the university research culture and expanded use of the Internet could also lead to increased `public outcomes`. They recommend the use of tax incentives to encourage companies to develop research partnerships with research universities.

  3. Design of Surface Micromachined Compliant MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Anthony Bradley

    2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMs, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focused on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  4. Design of Surface micromachined Compliant MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Anthony Bradley

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMS, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focuses on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  5. Lubricated boride surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Bindal, Cuma (Sakarya, TR); Fenske, G. R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultralow friction properties available through the annealation and subsequent cooling of various boron-containing substrates, articles and/or components.

  6. Lubricated boride surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, A.; Bindal, C.; Fenske, G.R.

    1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultralow friction properties are available through the annealation and subsequent cooling of various boron-containing substrates, articles and/or components. 16 figs.

  7. Polarization Dependence of Palladium Deposition on Ferroelectric Lithium Niobate (0001) Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    ,3­5]. These polarization dependent differences in intrinsic sur- face properties also affect their interactions with adsorPolarization Dependence of Palladium Deposition on Ferroelectric Lithium Niobate (0001) Surfaces on the geometric properties of Pd deposited on the positive and negative surfaces of LiNbO3 (0001). We predict

  8. EMSL - surface chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface-chemistry en FeSSZ-13 as an NH3-SCR Catalyst: A Reaction Kinetics and FTIRMössbauer Spectroscopic Study. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

  9. Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic and morphological properties of coal associated with rapid heating decomposition pathways is essential to progress in coal utilization technology. Specifically, knowledge of the heat of devolatilization, surface area and density of coal as a function of rank characteristics, temperature and extent of devolatilization in the context of rapid heating conditions is essential to the fundamental determination of kinetic parameters of coal devolatilization. These same properties are also needed to refine existing devolatilization sub-models utilized in large-scale modeling of coal combustion systems. The objective of this research is to obtain data on the thermodynamic properties and morphology of coal under conditions of rapid heating. Specifically, the total heat of devolatilization, external surface area, BET surface area and true density will be measured for representative coal samples. The coal ranks to be investigated will include a high volatile A bituminous (PSOC 1451 D) and a low volatile bituminous (PSOC 1516D). An anthracite (PSOC 1468) will be used as a non-volatile coal reference. In addition, for one coal, the contribution of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization will be measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars.

  10. Research | Energy Frontier Research Centers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest RegionatSearch Welcome toResearch Areas OurLANLSoftware &Research Home

  11. Research | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest RegionatSearch Welcome toResearch Areas OurLANLSoftwareCenterResearch

  12. Spin properties of very shallow nitrogen vacancy defects in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ofori-Okai, Benjamin Kwasi

    We investigate spin and optical properties of individual nitrogen vacancy centers located within 1–10 nm from the diamond surface. We observe stable defects with a characteristic optically detected magnetic-resonance ...

  13. Transformations in TRIP-assisted Steels: Microstructure and Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Sourabh

    generated during the drawing operation on the strain- induced transformation of austenite. 35 2.8 Special properties Stretch formability In this test, rectangular blanks marked with circular grids on the surface by electrochemical etching method are deformed...

  14. Reservoir characterization using experimental design and response surface methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Harshal

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research combines a statistical tool called experimental design/response surface methodology with reservoir modeling and flow simulation for the purpose of reservoir characterization. Very often, it requires large number of reservoir simulation...

  15. Studies of the 3D surface roughness height

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avisane, Anita; Rudzitis, Janis; Kumermanis, Maris [Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Riga Technical University, Ezermalas str. 6k, Riga (Latvia)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays nano-coatings occupy more and more significant place in technology. Innovative, functional coatings acquire new aspects from the point of view of modern technologies, considering the aggregate of physical properties that can be achieved manipulating in the production process with the properties of coatings’ surfaces on micro- and nano-level. Nano-coatings are applied on machine parts, friction surfaces, contacting parts, corrosion surfaces, transparent conducting films (TCF), etc. The equipment available at present for the production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with highest quality is based on expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) material; therefore cheaper alternatives are being searched for. One such offered alternative is zink oxide (ZnO) nano-coatings. Evaluating the TCF physical and mechanical properties and in view of the new ISO standard (EN ISO 25178) on the introduction of surface texture (3D surface roughness) in the engineering calculations, it is necessary to examine the height of 3D surface roughness, which is one of the most significant roughness parameters. The given paper studies the average values of 3D surface roughness height and the most often applied distribution laws are as follows: the normal distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The 3D surface is simulated by a normal random field.

  16. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared atEffect of Dry Deposition ofObservationalMBL Aerosol Properties

  17. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31RamanMeasuringSingle-Scattering Properties of

  18. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31RamanMeasuringSingle-Scattering Properties

  19. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31RamanMeasuringSingle-Scattering PropertiesThe

  20. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31RamanMeasuringSingle-Scattering PropertiesTheIce

  1. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278,Validating Single Column ModelsBlackA NewMultiyearSurface

  2. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278,Validating SinglePossible Impact ofCirrus CloudNew Surface

  3. Editorial, Workshop on New Directions for Advanced Computer Simulations and Experiments in Fusion-Related Plasma-Surface Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, John T [ORNL; Krstic, Predrag S [ORNL; Meyer, Fred W [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because plasma-boundary physics encompasses some of the most important unresolved issues for both the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and future fusion power reactors, there is a strong interest in the fusion community for better understanding and characterization of plasma-wall interactions. Chemical and physical sputtering cause the erosion of the limiters/divertor plates and vacuum vessel walls (made of C, Be and W, for example) and degrade fusion performance by diluting the fusion fuel and excessively cooling the core, while carbon redeposition could produce long-term in-vessel tritium retention, degrading the superior thermo-mechanical properties of the carbon materials. Mixed plasma-facing materials are proposed, requiring optimization for different power and particle flux characteristics. Knowledge of material properties as well as characteristics of the plasma-material interaction are prerequisites for such optimizations. Computational power will soon reach hundreds of teraflops, so that theoretical and plasma science expertise can be matched with new experimental capabilities in order to mount a strong response to these challenges. To begin to address such questions, a Workshop on New Directions for Advanced Computer Simulations and Experiments in Fusion-Related Plasma-Surface Interactions for Fusion (PSIF) was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 21 to 23 March, 2005. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together researchers in fusion related plasma-wall interactions in order to address these topics and to identify the most needed and promising directions for study, to exchange opinions on the present depth of knowledge of surface properties for the main fusion-related materials, e.g., C, Be and W, especially for sputtering, reflection, and deuterium (tritium) retention properties. The goal was to suggest the most important next steps needed for such basic computational and experimental work to be facilitated by researchers in fusion, material, and physical sciences. Representatives from many fusion research laboratories attended, and 25 talks were given, the majority of them making up the content of these Workshop proceedings. The presentations of all talks and further information on the Workshop are available at http://www-cfadc.phy.ornl.gov/psif/home.html. The workshop talks dealt with identification of needs from the perspective of integrated fusion simulation and ITER design, recent developments and perspectives on computation of plasma-facing surface properties using the current and expected new generation of computation capability, and with the status of dedicated laboratory experiments which characterize the underlying processes of PSIF. The Workshop summary and conclusions are being published in Nuclear Fusion 45 (2005).

  4. Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Broom, Belt, Carpet) Shot Peened Exposed Aggregate Porous (Pervious) Concrete Milled HMA and SurfaceImproving Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics Pooled Fund TPF-5(139) National Concrete do with this knowledge? #12;Better Design and Construction Practices for Texturing Concrete Pavement

  5. Research and Development with Full Scale Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sijpheer, N.; Bakker, E.J.; Opstelten, I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the research programs of the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) concerns the built environment. Several facilities to conduct the research activities are at ECN's disposal. One of these facilities, are five research dwellings...

  6. Surface-States and Surface Resonances in Inp, Inas, and Insb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BERES, RP; Allen, Roland E.; DOW, JD.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 26, NUMBER 10 15 NOVEMBER 1982 Surface states and surface resonances in Inp, InAs, and InSb Richard P. Beres and Roland E. Allen Department ofPhysics, Texas A&M Uniuersity, College Station, Texas 77843 John D. Dow... Department ofPhysics and IrIaterials Research Laboratory, Uniuersity of Illinois at Urbana Ch-ampaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (Received 16 February 1982) Dispersion curves E(k) are predicted for both bound and resonant surface electronic states...

  7. Research Portfolio Report Ultra-Deepwater: Surface Systems and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared atEffect of DryCorrection MethodORD's

  8. The influence of surface preparation on the electrochemistry of boron doped diamond: A study of the reduction of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    ; Surface modification 1. Introduction Electrodes based on polycrystalline diamond are presently generating significant interest. Polycrystalline diamond possesses physical properties that suggest that electrodesThe influence of surface preparation on the electrochemistry of boron doped diamond: A study

  9. Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research Supporting researchers in low- and middle-income countries to carry out health- related research within their own countries. Gl bal Health #12;3 | Global Health Research #12;Global Health Research | 4 We are a global charitable foundation dedicated

  10. The Cauchy problem for Liouville equation and Bryant surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gálvez, José Antonio

    The Cauchy problem for Liouville equation and Bryant surfaces Jos´e A. G´alveza and Pablo Mirab by R. Bryant in his 1987's seminal paper [Bry], in which he derived a holomorphic representation . After Bryant's work, the above class of surfaces has become a fashion research topic, and has received

  11. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy'Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?s Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4 will determine how fuel cells Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?taken as systems behave over periods of time that should show how their reformers and other subsystems deteriorate with time.

  12. Sponsored Projects Accounting TO: Business Managers and Research Administrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    property for utilization on sponsored research. Such property is categorized as University-owned, Government-owned, or Government-furnished. The policies and procedures contained within this document address. Gindhart, Director DATE: February 05, 2004 SUBJECT: Government Funded Property Policies and Procedures

  13. Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katamine, N.M.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

  14. Soviet image pattern recognition research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M. (eds.) (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA). Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center); Klinger, A. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Computer Science); Aggarwal, J.K. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA)); George, N.J. (Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Inst. of Optics); Haralick, R.M. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (USA). Dept. of Electric

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an assessment of the published Soviet image pattern recognition (IPR) research and was written by a panel of six US academic experts in that research field. Image pattern recognition is a set of technological research topics involving automatic or interactive computer processing of pictorial information, utilizing optical, electronic, and computer technologies. This report focuses on IPR system configuration (optical, hybrid, digital), and current research. The topical chapter headings are Image Processing Hardware and Software Preprocessing, Statistical Pattern Recognition, Computer Vision, and Optical Techniques and Systems. Soviet research in all areas of IPR is strong in theory, but limited by poor availability of equipment for generating and handling digital images, and digital computer hardware and software. Nevertheless, some Soviet IPR achievements compare favorably with those of the West. There is strong Soviet research in statistical pattern recognition, where fundamental relationships related to the factors determining error rates in classification of images are being developed. There has been good Soviet work in enhancement and restoration of images (visible and radar) of the surface of Venus. There is a strong Soviet development program in optics and optical processing related to IPR. Nevertheless, the state of Soviet research in computer vision is ten to fifteen years behind the West, because of the lack of adequate hardware and software. The Soviet scientists in the area appear competent and knowledgeable of Western work, so that any improvement in their research output would be derived from access to more capable equipment. 402 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. SURFACE TENSION In the fall a fisherman's boat is often surrounded by fallen leaves that are lying on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    - 1 of 9 - SURFACE TENSION Definition In the fall a fisherman's boat is often surrounded by fallen force. Instead, the force balancing a leaf's weight arises because of the surface tension of the water. Surface tension is a property that allows the surface of a liquid to behave somewhat as a trampoline does

  16. de Sitter Extremal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayan, K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study extremal surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary ${\\cal I}^+$, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focussing on strip subregions). We find real extremal surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past lightcone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We find also complex extremal surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real-valued. In $dS_4$ the area is real and has some structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual $CFT_3$. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in $AdS$. We also discuss extremal surfaces in the $dS$ black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The $dS_4$ black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surface...

  17. APPARENT WATER OPTICAL PROPERTIES AT THE CARIBBEAN TIME SERIES STATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    APPARENT WATER OPTICAL PROPERTIES AT THE CARIBBEAN TIME SERIES STATION Roy A. Armstrong, Jose M of Puerto Rico MayagĂĽez, Puerto Rico 00681 ABSTRACT The Caribbean Time Series, located 28 nautical miles in near- surface waters of the northeastern Caribbean Basin. Apparent optical properties such as, remote

  18. Nanomanipulation Experiments Exploring Frictional and Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falvo, Michael

    Nanomanipulation Experiments Exploring Frictional and Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes M that places the human operator directly into the feedback loop that controls surface manipulations. Using. The mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes have been demonstrated to be extraordinary. They have an elastic

  19. Intrinsic elastic properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrates by nanoindentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Understanding the mechanical properties of concrete is one of the main purpose of the science of cement [1,2]. This is not a straightforward question as concrete is a complex heterogeneous material and its properties depend on its measurements on porous samples? Only Surface Force Microscopy is able to carry out indentation at a nanoscopic

  20. II. Properties of Water 1. Ice and Liquid water structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Terry

    Heat Capacity 4. Solvent Properties 5. Dissociation: Acids & Bases / pH II. Organic Chemistry A transport in plants #12;Water has a high specific heat capacity specific heat capacity = amount of energyII. Properties of Water 1. Ice and Liquid water structure 2. Cohesion / Surface Tension 3. High

  1. University Research

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched5 Industrial CarbonArticles News News Homeuniversity-research/ The Office of Science

  2. Research Highlight

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » RemovingResearchGallery

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » RemovingResearchGalleryAre Increases

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » RemovingResearchGalleryAre IncreasesEvaluation

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » RemovingResearchGalleryAre

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » RemovingResearchGalleryAreQuantifying the

  9. Research Highlight

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » RemovingResearchGalleryAreQuantifying

  10. Research Projects

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A B C D E F G H I J KAustin » Research

  11. PNNL: Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest RegionatSearch Welcome to the Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryResearch

  12. Research Areas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest RegionatSearch Welcome toResearch Areas Our Vision National User Facilities

  13. Research Areas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  14. Research Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  15. Research Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  16. Research | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest RegionatSearch Welcome toResearch Areas OurLANLSoftwareCenter

  17. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORVEnergyResearch Form

  18. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORVEnergyResearch FormGeneral Formulation

  19. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORVEnergyResearch FormGeneral FormulationAn

  20. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORVEnergyResearch FormGeneral

  1. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORVEnergyResearch FormGeneralIntegrated

  2. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORVEnergyResearch

  3. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORVEnergyResearchCloud Observations at

  4. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORVEnergyResearchCloud Observations atARM

  5. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORVEnergyResearchCloud Observations

  6. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORVEnergyResearchCloud

  7. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORVEnergyResearchCloudObservational

  8. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORVEnergyResearchCloudObservationalA

  9. On the surface tension of directed linear polymers V. B. Priezzhev and S. A. Terletsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    599 On the surface tension of directed linear polymers V. B. Priezzhev and S. A. Terletsky Joint 03C13/2 coïncide avec celle obtenue pour la tension de surface d'un modèle isotrope par des arguments properties [1-3]. When p is large, the surface tension depends on the intermolecular interaction

  10. Towards the zero-surface-tension limit in granular fingering instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Towards the zero-surface-tension limit in granular fingering instability XIANG CHENG*, LEI Hele­Shaw system to explore the zero-surface-tension property of granular `fluids'16 . We demonstrate-unrealizable singular hydrodynamics predicted in the zero-surface-tension limit of normal fluid fingering2,17­23 . Above

  11. Feasibility of measuring surface electron spin dynamics by inelastic scattering of metastable helium atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kais, Sabre

    helium atoms M. El-Batanouny, G. Murthy, and C. R. Willis Department of Physics, Boston University atoms (He*) from surfaces of magnetic insulators to study the dynamical properties of surface electron a metastable He atom and the surface electron spins are determined by a configuration interaction calculation

  12. Surface plasmon resonance enhanced optical absorption spectroscopy for studying molecular adsorbates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Nongjian

    reflectance WMR ,6 and electrochemical potential modu- lated reflectance EMR ,7­11 have been developed. ATR surface. WMR improves the signal-to-noise-ratio via wavelength modulation. Neither ATR nor WMR is surface is surface specific, but lim- ited to molecules with electrochemical or Stark properties. It has been shown

  13. Fabrication of "Roll-off" and "Sticky" Superhydrophobic Cellulose Surfaces via Plasma Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breedveld, Victor

    to date are not biodegradable, renewable, or mechanically flexible and are often expensive, which limits their potential applications. In contrast, cellulose, a biodegradable, renewable, flexible, inexpensive properties: (1) surface roughness and (2) low surface energy. So far superhydrophobic surfaces have been

  14. About Influence of Ionic Beams of Metals of IVB-VIB Groups on Structure and Properties of a Target at Various Modes of Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurbatova, E. I.; Klimanov, V. A.; Ksenofontov, A. I.; Fridlyander, I. N. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskoe shosse, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A complex of special properties of materials and a threshold of their working temperatures which is frequently limited 500-550 degree sign C define the level of modern technological development and, first of all, for nuclear-industrial plants. The alloys on the basis of iron are the most widespread kind of constructional materials, and therefore an increase of their special properties (high-temperature strength, corrosion stability, durability and other characteristics) is of great value. The ionic beams with a low energy (300-1,500 eV) which can change the structure and the properties of a target, in particular iron and its alloys were used for the solution of these problems in the present work. In this work theoretical and experimental results of the research of the process of impact interaction of the ionic beams with iron are also given. The properties of a iron surface with the help of modern methods of physical and chemical analyse are investigated. The opportunities to produce new surface properties of iron using the ionic beams are shown. On the basis of the results obtained the supplementary work directions are analyzed.

  15. Thermophysical Properties of U-10MO Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. M. Phillips; G. S. Mickum; D. E. Burkes

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of thermophysical properties of unirradiated uranium alloyed with ten weight percent molybdenum (U 10Mo), with particular focus on those material properties needed for modeling of new fuels for HPRRs (High Performance Research Reactors). The report contains both historical data available in the literature on U-10Mo, as well as more recent results conducted by the Global Threat Reduction Initiative fuel development program. The main use of the report is intended as a standard U-10Mo alloy properties reference for reactor models and simulations.

  16. Enhanced surface flashover strength in vacuum of polymethylmethacrylate by surface modification using atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Tao, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Yang, Wenjin; Zhang, Cheng; Yan, Ping [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Niu, Zheng [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Schamiloglu, Edl [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer materials, such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), are widely used as insulators in vacuum. The insulating performance of a high-voltage vacuum system is mainly limited by surface flashover of the insulators rather than bulk breakdown. Non-thermal plasmas are an efficient method to modify the chemical and physical properties of polymer material surfaces, and enhance the surface insulating performance. In this letter, an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge is used to treat the PMMA surface to improve the surface flashover strength in vacuum. Experimental results indicate that the plasma treatment method using Ar and CF{sub 4} (10:1) as the working gas can etch the PMMA surface, introduce fluoride groups to the surface, and then alter the surface characteristics of the PMMA. The increase in the surface roughness can introduce physical traps that can capture free electrons, and the fluorination can enhance the charge capturing ability. The increase in the surface roughness and the introduction of the fluoride groups can enhance the PMMA hydrophobic ability, improve the charge capturing ability, decrease the secondary electron emission yield, increase the surface resistance, and improve the surface flashover voltage in vacuum.

  17. Abstract of Invited Talk to be Presented at Sixteenth International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    of Accelerators in Research and Industry Denton, Texas - November 1-4, 2000 Properties of Estuarine Sediments from

  18. Near-Field Imaging of Infinite Rough Surfaces in Dielectric Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, G. and Li, P.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    May 15, 2014 ... of modern science and technology, including surface chemistry, biology, materials science, and ... Research Plan of NSFC (91130004), and a special research grant from Zhejiang University. ‡ .... for energy absorption.

  19. Surface wave interferometry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halliday, David Fraser

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis concerns the application of seismic interferometry to surface waves. Seismic interferometry is the process by which the wavefield between two recording locations is estimated, resulting in new recordings at ...

  20. A surface ionization source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buzatu, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main part of the work described herein is the development and testing of a surface ionization source for use on a collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy apparatus. A description of the previously existing fast beam apparatus is given...

  1. Structured surfaces for hemocompatibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrauth, Anthony J

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rise of micro- and nano-technologies has brought to light intriguing examples of scale-driven performance in a diverse array of fields. The quest to create highly hydrophobic surfaces is one such field. The application ...

  2. SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Y.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Optics Lett. i, 393 See, for3, 1980 SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y.R. Shen, C.K. Chen, andde Janiero SURFRACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y. R. Shen, C. K. Chen,

  3. Entropy and surfaceness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casper, James Kyle

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The layer of the Earth's atmosphere which contains clouds and weather systems is a thin thermoregulatory surface. It maintains an exact energy budget between the Earth and the Sun. Recent work in theoretical physics is ...

  4. Asteroid Surface Geophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murdoch, Naomi; Schwartz, Stephen R; Miyamoto, Hideaki

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids preserve records of geophysical processes that have occurred both at their surfaces and sometimes also in their interiors. As a result of the unique micro-gravity environment that these bodies posses, a complex and varied geophysics has given birth to fascinating features that we are just now beginning to understand. The processes that formed such features were first hypothesised through detailed spacecraft observations and have been further studied using theoretical, numerical and experimental methods that often combine several scientific disciplines. These multiple approaches are now merging towards a further understanding of the geophysical states of the surfaces of asteroids. In this chapter we provide a concise summary of what the scientific community has learned so far about the surfaces of these small planetary bodies and the processes that have shaped them. We also discuss the state of the art in terms of experimental techniques and numerical simulations that...

  5. Abstracts and research accomplishments of university coal research projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Principal Investigators of the grants supported by the University Coal Research Program were requested to submit abstracts and highlight accomplishments of their projects in time for distribution at a grantees conference. This book is a compilation of the material received in response to the request. Abstracts discuss the following area: coal science, coal surface science, reaction chemistry, advanced process concepts, engineering fundamentals and thermodynamics, environmental science.

  6. Research on droplet formation for application to kraft black liquors: Final report: Tasks I and III, report No. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stockel, I.H.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to generate technical data with which to design nozzles for kraft black liquor recovery boilers which can reduce under and over size droplets and adjust for changing black liquor properties and production requirements. The research is organized into five tasks: Droplet formation from a single jet, theoretical and experimental--ambient gas medium; Surface tensions of black liquor; Aerodynamic/hydrodynamic stability/instability of droplets once formed; Black liquor droplet formation from a single jet--furnace gas medium; Prototype of a new nozzle design. 88 figs.

  7. Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); Wu, Zhengwei, E-mail: wuzw@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Center of Low Temperature Plasma Application, Yunnan Aerospace Industry Company, Kunming, 650229 Yunnan (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the single-fluid plasma model, a theoretical investigation of surface electromagnetic waves in a warm quantum magnetized inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The surface electromagnetic waves are assumed to propagate on the plane between a vacuum and a warm quantum magnetized plasma. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model includes quantum diffraction effect (Bohm potential), and quantum statistical pressure is used to derive the new dispersion relation of surface electromagnetic waves. And the general dispersion relation is analyzed in some special cases of interest. It is shown that surface plasma oscillations can be propagated due to quantum effects, and the propagation velocity is enhanced. Furthermore, the external magnetic field has a significant effect on surface wave's dispersion equation. Our work should be of a useful tool for investigating the physical characteristic of surface waves and physical properties of the bounded quantum plasmas.

  8. The Zeta Potential of Surface-Functionalized Metallic Nanorod Particles in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, G M; Rose, K A; Tok, J B; Pannu, S S; Chuang, F S; Sha, M Y; Chakarova, G; Penn, S G

    2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic nanoparticles suspended in aqueous solutions, and functionalized with chemical and biological surface coatings, are important elements in basic and applied nanoscience research. Many applications require an understanding of the electrokinetic or colloidal properties of such particles. In this paper we describe the results of experiments to measure the zeta potential of metallic nanorod particles in aqueous saline solutions, including the effects of pH, ionic strength, metallic composition, and surface functionalization state. Particle substrates tested include gold, silver, and palladium monometallic particles as well as gold/silver bimetallic particles. Surface functionalization conditions included 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), mercaptoethanol (ME), and mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (MESA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), as well as MUA layers subsequently derivatized with proteins. Zeta potential data for typical charge-stabilized polystyrene particles are also presented for comparison. Experimental data are compared with theory. The results of these studies are useful in predicting and controlling the aggregation, adhesion, and transport of functionalized metallic nanoparticles within microfluidic devices and other systems.

  9. 2010 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT 2010 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT 2010 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT RESEARCH REPORT2010ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT2010ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    2010 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT 2010 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT 2010 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT RESEARCH REPORT2010ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT2010ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT 2010 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT 2010 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT 2010 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT RESEARCH REPORT2010ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT2010ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

  10. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  11. Engineering Database of Liquid Salt Thermophysical and Thermochemical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Matthias A. Ebner; Piyush Sabharwall; Phil Sharpe

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to provide a review of thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of candidate molten salt coolants, which may be used as a primary coolant within a nuclear reactor or heat transport medium from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to a processing plant, for example, a hydrogen-production plant. Thermodynamic properties of four types of molten salts, including LiF-BeF2 (67 and 33 mol%, respectively; also known as FLiBe), LiF-NaF-KF (46.5, 11.5, and 52 mol%, also known as FLiNaK), and KCl-MgCl2 (67 and 33 mol%), and sodium nitrate-sodium nitrite-potassium nitrate (NaNO3–NaNO2–KNO3, (7-49-44 or 7-40-53 mol%) have been investigated. Limitations of existing correlations to predict density, viscosity, specific heat capacity, surface tension, and thermal conductivity, were identified. The impact of thermodynamic properties on the heat transfer, especially Nusselt number was also discussed. Stability of the molten salts with structural alloys and their compatibility with the structural alloys was studied. Nickel and alloys with dense Ni coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides but not so in chlorides. Of the chromium containing alloys, Hastelloy N appears to have the best corrosion resistance in fluorides, while Haynes 230 was most resistant in chloride. In general, alloys with increasing carbon and chromium content are increasingly subject to corrosion by the fluoride salts FLiBe and FLiNaK, due to attack and dissolution of the intergranular chromium carbide. Future research to obtain needed information was identified.

  12. Researcher Profile This cheatsheet will briefly explain how to utilise your Researcher Profile in IRMA.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in their research area. It can be utilized to find potential supervisors for students. 5) Coding: A list of three Fields of Research for which you will be submitted in the ERA. These fields also help us and external Property such as Patents, Plant Breeders Rights and Registered Designs are submitted in the assessment

  13. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo Giunti; Alexander Studenikin

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A short review on electromagnetic properties of neutrinos is presented. In spite of many efforts in the theoretical and experimental studies of neutrino electromagnetic properties, they still remain one of the main puzzles related to neutrinos.

  14. Surface Water Quality Standards (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act states regulations for the quality of surface water in the state. It also states designated uses of classified surface waters, surface water quality criteria and an antidegradation policy...

  15. Surface Water Management Areas (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation establishes surface water management areas, geographically defined surface water areas in which the State Water Control Board has deemed the levels or supply of surface water to be...

  16. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dosimeter and probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dosimeter and probe for measuring exposure to chemical and biological compounds is disclosed. The dosimeter or probe includes a collector which may be analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The collector comprises a surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active material having a coating applied thereto to improve the adsorption properties of the collector. The collector may also be used in automated sequential devises, in probe array devices.

  17. Cloud Properties and Precipitation Formation Processes Observed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    of spring time precipitation that develops in the Riyadh, Saudi Arabia region. · What are the cloud properties for developing cloud in the Riyadh, Saudi Arabia region. Research Objective #12;#12;Quality is based on calibration conducted by Kelly bosch and Dennis Afseth at Weather Modification Inc. (WMI) on 22

  18. Computing Science INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeavons, Peter

    between Siemens, Munich and the University of Oxford Research Project sponsored by Siemens AG, Munich CS the intellectual property of software. An obfuscation is a behaviour preserving program transformation which aims implemented. Acknowledgements I would like to thank to Siemens AG, Munich for sponsor- ing the work and

  19. Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property Services 2005 A n n u a l R e p o r t #12;The UCSD Technology Transfer Advisory Committee (TTAC) is responsible for general oversight of the UCSD Technology chancellor of Research. It meets periodically to assess UCSD technology transfer policy and guide

  20. Evaluation of flyash surface phenomena and the application of surface analysis technology. Summary report: Phase I. [44 elements; 86 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.D.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The factors governing the formation of flyash surfaces during and following coal combustion are reviewed. The competing chemical and physical processes during the evolution of inorganic material in coal during combustion into flyash are described with respect to various surface segregation processes. Two mechanisms leading to surface enrichment are volatilization-condensation processes and diffusion processes within individual flyash particles. The experimental evidence for each of these processes is reviewed. It is shown that the volatilization-condensation process is the major factor leading to trace element enrichment in smaller flyash particles. Evidence also exists from surface analyses of flyash and representative mineral matter that diffusion processes may lead to surface enrichment of elements not volatilized or cause transport of surface-condensed elements into the flyash matrix. The semiquantitative determination of the relative importance of these two processes can be determined by comparison of concentration versus particle size profiles with surface-depth profiles obtained using surface analysis techniques. A brief description of organic transformations on flyash surfaces is also presented. The various surface analytical techniques are reviewed and the relatively new technique of Static-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy is suggested as having significant advantages in studies of surfaces and diffusion processes in model systems. Several recommendations are made for research relevant to flyash formation and processes occurring on flyash surfaces.

  1. SURFACE ALFVEN WAVES IN SOLAR FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goossens, M.; Andries, J.; Soler, R.; Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Arregui, I.; Terradas, J., E-mail: marcel.goossens@wis.kuleuven.be [Solar Physics Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere. Alfven waves and magneto-sonic waves are particular classes of MHD waves. These wave modes are clearly different and have pure properties in uniform plasmas of infinite extent only. Due to plasma non-uniformity, MHD waves have mixed properties and cannot be classified as pure Alfven or magneto-sonic waves. However, vorticity is a quantity unequivocally related to Alfven waves as compression is for magneto-sonic waves. Here, we investigate MHD waves superimposed on a one-dimensional non-uniform straight cylinder with constant magnetic field. For a piecewise constant density profile, we find that the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves have the same properties as surface Alfven waves at a true discontinuity in density. Contrary to the classic Alfven waves in a uniform plasma of infinite extent, vorticity is zero everywhere except at the cylinder boundary. If the discontinuity in density is replaced with a continuous variation of density, vorticity is spread out over the whole interval with non-uniform density. The fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves do not need compression to exist unlike the radial overtones. In thin magnetic cylinders, the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves with phase velocities between the internal and the external Alfven velocities can be considered as surface Alfven waves. On the contrary, the radial overtones can be related to fast-like magneto-sonic modes.

  2. Dual surface interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pardue, R.M.; Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarterwave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  3. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  4. Selecting Refining and Evaluating Properties for Program Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodoo, Nii

    2003-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This research proposes and evaluates techniques for selectingpredicates for conditional program propertiesÂ?thatis, implications such as p ) q whose consequent must betrue whenever the predicate is true. Conditional ...

  5. Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids Lubricants Containing Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Wei

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, there has been an increase in research in the application of ionic liquids containing nanoparticles as lubricants due to their properties such as thermally stability, non-volatility and non-flammability. The purpose of this thesis...

  6. Study of ice cloud properties using infrared spectral data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Kevin James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this thesis involves the study of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties using both hyperspectral and narrowband infrared spectral data. First, ice cloud models are developed for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding...

  7. IPR Conditions, 25 January 2006 1 Intellectual Property Rights Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Cindio, Fiorella

    IPR Conditions, 25 January 2006 1 Intellectual Property Rights Conditions for Collaborative Research Projects (IPR Conditions) I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES These rules should promote the protection guarantee the protection of the participants' intellectual assets. These IPR Conditions establish rules

  8. Ordered arrays of nanocrystals : synthesis, properties and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhaviripudi, Sreekar

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoscale materials, including nanocrystals and carbon nanotubes, exhibit an appealing array of physical properties, and provide an interesting prospect for research both from a fundamental as well as a technological ...

  9. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization tools'' foreconomically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. The goal of our research in the area of mineral mattertransport is to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the particle-laden products of coal combustion. To accomplish thisfor a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing fireside'' surface of deposits. This level of understanding and predictive capability could be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation. It is also expected that this research activity will not only directly benefit the ash deposition R D community -- but also generically closely related technologies of importance to DOE (e.g. hot-gas clean-up, particulate solids handling,...).

  10. Research and Commercialization Grants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Board of Research and Commercialization Technology provides grants for renewable resource research and development projects, among other types, to be conducted at research and commercialization...

  11. Research Library Discontinues OPPIE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About the Library Research Library Discontinues OPPIE Research Library Discontinues OPPIE Find more information below. Questions? 505-667-5809 Email The Research Library is...

  12. Toward tuning the surface functionalization of small ceria nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xing; Wang, Binghui [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)] [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States); Grulke, Eric A.; Beck, Matthew J., E-mail: m.beck@uky.edu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States); Center for Computational Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding and controlling the performance of ceria nanoparticle (CNP) catalysts requires knowledge of the detailed structure and property of CNP surfaces and any attached functional groups. Here we report thermogravimetric analysis results showing that hydrothermally synthesized ?30 nm CNPs are decorated with 12.9 hydroxyl groups per nm{sup 2} of CNP surface. Quantum mechanical calculations of the density and distribution of bound surface groups imply a scaling relationship for surface group density that balances formal charges in the functionalized CNP system. Computational results for CNPs with only hydroxyl surface groups yield a predicted density of bound hydroxyl groups for ?30 nm CNPs that is ?33% higher than measured densities. Quantitative agreement between predicted and measured hydroxyl surface densities is achieved when calculations consider CNPs with both –OH and –O{sub x} surface groups. For this more general treatment of CNP surface functionalizations, quantum mechanical calculations predict a range of stable surface group configurations that depend on the chemical potentials of O and H, and demonstrate the potential to tune CNP surface functionalizations by varying temperature and/or partial pressures of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O.

  13. Tribochemical properties of metastable states of transition metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Prasenjit

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    challenges in directing the reaction kinetics. This dissertation studied the dynamics and kinetics of oxidation of transitional metals, particularly on tantalum through mechanical forces. This is a new area of research in surface science. Experimentally using...

  14. Method for measuring thermal properties using a long-wavelength infrared thermal image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM); Costin, Laurence S. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Jody L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moya, Mary M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mercier, Jeffrey A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for estimating the thermal properties of surface materials using long-wavelength thermal imagery by exploiting the differential heating histories of ground points in the vicinity of shadows. The use of differential heating histories of different ground points of the same surface material allows the use of a single image acquisition step to provide the necessary variation in measured parameters for calculation of the thermal properties of surface materials.

  15. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  16. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childs, E.L.

    1984-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g., >600 g/1 of NaNO/sub 3/, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH < 6.

  17. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childs, Everett L. (Boulder, CO)

    1984-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g.,>600 g/l of NaNO.sub.3, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH<6.

  18. Growth of plasma-polymerized thin films by PECVD method and study on their surface and optical characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    Growth of plasma-polymerized thin films by PECVD method and study on their surface and optical properties of plasma-polymerized organic thin films with various RF power. AFM data showed that the plasma-polymerized. The surface and optical properties of as-grown plasma-polymerized thin films were analyzed by contact angle

  19. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, John C.

    2010-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  20. Properties of Iterated Multiple Belief Revision Dongmo Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Dongmo

    in the community of belief revision[2][5][9][10][13][17]. The major concern in the research is the reducibilityProperties of Iterated Multiple Belief Revision Dongmo Zhang School of Computing and Information investigate the properties of iterated multiple belief revision. We examine several typical assumptions

  1. Comparison of glass surfaces as a countertop material to existing surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turo, Laura A.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gleen Glass, a small production glass company that creates countertops, was selected for the Technology Assistance Program through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Gleen Glass was seeking material property analysis comparing glass as a countertop material to current surfaces (i.e. marble, granite and engineered stone). With samples provided from Gleen Glass, testing was done on granite, marble, and 3 different glass surfaces ('Journey,' 'Pebble,' and 'Gleen'). Results showed the glass surfaces have a lower density, lower water absorption, and are stronger in compressive and flexural tests as compared to granite and marble. Thermal shock tests showed the glass failed when objects with a high thermal mass are placed directly on them, whereas marble and granite did not fracture under these conditions.

  2. Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grabbe, A.; Michalske, T.A.; Smith, W.L.

    1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating. 11 figs.

  3. Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grabbe, Alexis (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry Arthur (Bernalillo, NM); Smith, William Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

  4. Method for chemical surface modification of fumed silica particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grabbe, A.; Michalske, T.A.; Smith, W.L.

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating. 11 figs.

  5. Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grabbe, Alexis (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry Arthur (Cedar Crest, NM); Smith, William Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditons. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

  6. Method for chemical surface modification of fumed silica particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grabbe, Alexis (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry Arthur (Cedar Crest, NM); Smith, William Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

  7. Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grabbe, Alexis (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry Arthur (Cedar Crest, NM); Smith, William Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating.

  8. Chemical anchoring of organic conducting polymers to semiconducting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO); Honda, Kenji (Wheatridge, CO)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, an improved method of coating electrodes with conductive polymer films and/or preselected catalysts is provided. The charge-conductive polymer is covalently or coordinatively attached to the electrode surface to strengthen the adhesion characteristics of the polymer to the electrode surface or to improve charge-conductive properties between the conductive polymer and the electrode surface. Covalent or coordinative attachment is achieved by a number of alternative methods including covalently or coordinatively attaching the desired monomer to the electrode by means of a suitable coupling reagent and, thereafter, electrochemically polymerizing the monomer in situ.

  9. Chemical anchoring of organic conducting polymers to semiconducting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.; Honda, K.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, an improved method of coating electrodes with conductive polymer films and/or preselected catalysts is provided. The charge conductive polymer is covalently or coordinatively attached to the electrode surface to strengthen the adhesion characteristics of the polymer to the electrode surface or to improve charge conductive properties between the conductive polymer and the electrode surface. Covalent or coordinative attachment is achieved by a number of alternative methods including covalently or coordinatively attaching the desired monomer to the electrode by means of a suitable coupling reagent and, thereafter, electrochemically polymerizing the monomer in situ.

  10. Adsorption structure of water molecules on the Be(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yu; Li, Yanfang [LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Wang, Shuangxi [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhang, Ping, E-mail: zhang-ping@iapcm.ac.cn [LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    By using density functional theory calculations, we systematically investigate the adsorption of water molecules at different coverages on the Be(0001) surface. The coverage dependence of the prototype water structures and energetics for water adlayer growth are systematically studied. The structures, energetics, and electronic properties are calculated and compared with other available studies. Through our systematic investigations, we find that water molecules form clusters or chains on the Be(0001) surface at low coverages. When increasing the water coverage, water molecules tend to form a 2?×?2 hexagonal network on the Be(0001) surface.

  11. Perfluorodiethoxymethane on nickel and nickel oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, J.

    1994-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of perfluorodiethoxymethane with a nickel single crystal, Ni(100); a nickel crystal with chemisorbed oxygen, Ni(100)-c(2x2)O; and a nickel crystal with nickel oxide crystallites, NiO(100) is investigated in an ultra high vacuum environment using thermal desorption spectroscopy and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Nickel, a component of hard disk drives and stainless steel, is used to represent metal surfaces in these {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} systems. Perfluorodiethoxymethane is used in this study as a model compound of industrial perfluoropolyether lubricants. These lubricants are known for their exceptional stability, except in the presence of metals. Perfluorodiethoxymethane contains the acetal group (-OCF{sub 2}O-), believed to be particularly vulnerable to attack in the presence of Lewis acids. Since the surfaces studied show increasing Lewis acidity at the nickel atom sites, one might expect to see increasing decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane due to acidic attack of the acetal group. No decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane is observed on the clean Ni(100) surface, while more research is needed to determine whether a small decomposition pathway is observed on the oxygenated surfaces, or whether sample impurities are interfering with results. The strength of the bonding of perfluorodiethoxymethane to the surface is found to increase as the nickel atoms sites become more acidic in moving from Ni(100) to Ni (100)-c(2x2)O to NiO (100).

  12. Onset of surface superconductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giamarchi, T.; Beal-Monod, M.T. (Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud 91405 Orsay, (France)); Valls, O.T. (Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, (France) Center for the Science and Application of Superconductivity, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (USA))

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the onset of superconductivity in the surface region of a metal. Surface effects are particularly important in systems with a short bulk coherence length {xi}{sub 0}. We show that, to the accuracy of the calculation, the surface transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital S}} equals the bulk transition temperature {ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital B}} if the electron-electron interaction is of the standard BCS form, i.e., a single attractive square well, extending up to some critical energy {omega}{sub 0} much smaller than the Fermi energy {var epsilon}{sub {ital F}}. If one takes into account, in addition, the repulsive part of the interaction extending beyond {omega}{sub 0} up to energies of order {var epsilon}{sub {ital F}}, then one may have {ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital S}}{gt}{ital T}{sub {ital c}{ital B}} in certain cases, although, due to restrictions imposed on the parameter values by various physical conditions, the relative increase of {ital T}{sub {ital c}} is very small, typically 10{sup {minus}3}, at least in the weak coupling limit. However, we also find a considerable gap enhancement, of order 20%, near the surface which could be of interest for critical-current measurements. Therefore we suggest an experimental reexamination of systems with short {xi}{sub 0}, i.e., superconducting degenerate semiconductors and the new high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} oxides in confined geometries where the surface-to-volume ratio is non-negligible.

  13. MagLab researchers uncover groundbreaking properties of promising...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Jason' Li Zhiqiang "Jason" Li TALLAHASSEE, Fla. - MagLab scientists working with graphene - a stronger-than steel, but feathery light material with myriad of intriguing...

  14. Intellectual Property Provisions (CLB-115) Cooperative Agreement Research,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA,Fermi NationalBusiness PlanPostingOctoberof EnergyData

  15. Intellectual Property Provisions (CSB-1003) Cooperative Agreement Research,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA,Fermi NationalBusiness PlanPostingOctoberof EnergyDataDevelopment,

  16. Intellectual Property Provisions (CSB-115) Cooperative Agreement Research,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA,Fermi NationalBusiness PlanPostingOctoberof

  17. Intellectual Property Provisions (GSB-115) Grant Research, Development, or

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA,Fermi NationalBusiness

  18. Researchers use machine learning to find useful structural properties in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A B C D E FSouthwestPowerneutron

  19. Los Alamos researchers uncover new properties in nanocomposite...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is on the order of nanometers, roughly 1000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. September 23, 2014 Schematic depicting distinct dislocation networks for SrO- and...

  20. Chemistry and materials science research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The research reported here in summary form was conducted under the auspices of Weapons-Supporting Research (WSR) and Institutional Research and Development (IR D). The period covered is the first half of FY90. The results reported here are for work in progress; thus, they may be preliminary, fragmentary, or incomplete. Research in the following areas are briefly described: energetic materials, tritium, high-Tc superconductors, interfaces, adhesion, bonding, fundamental aspects of metal processing, plutonium, synchrotron-radiation-based materials science, photocatalysis on doped aerogels, laser-induced chemistry, laser-produced molecular plasmas, chemistry of defects, dta equipment development, electronic structure study of the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Al-Li Alloys, and the structure-property link in sub-nanometer materials.

  1. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, L.M.

    1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position. 17 figs.

  2. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  3. Surface decontamination compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright; Karen E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cooper, David C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Demmer, Ricky L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tripp, Julia L. (Pocatello, ID); Hull, Laurence C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Clay-based compositions capable of absorbing contaminants from surfaces or objects having surface faces may be applied to a surface and later removed, the removed clay-based compositions absorbing at least a portion of the contaminant from the surface or object to which it was applied.

  4. Numerical Analysis of Cell Deformation of Twophase Flow with Discontinuous Viscosity and Nonlinear Surface Tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­linear Surface Tension Zhilin Li and Sharon Lubkin Center For Research in Scientific Computation & Department equations, cell deformation, non­linear surface tension, jump conditions, interface, discontinuous and non boundary separating two fluids that have equal or different viscosity and non­linear surface tension

  5. Studies of metal/carbon surface chemistry. June 1, 1985-August 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koel, B.E.

    1985-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research is to identify stable surface species formed from molecular adsorption and reaction on metal/carbon surfaces. This research has practical application in improving the fundamental understanding of catalytic coal gasification. Well-defined model catalysts for carbon gasification will be studied by vapor depositing alkali and transition metal atoms on carbon surfaces. Vibrational spectroscopy using HREELS and photoelectron spectroscopy of these surfaces will be used to develop an atomic-level understanding of the chemical bonding, structure, and reactivity of the metal carbon surface and of the adsorbed molecular species. 1 fig.

  6. Portable spotter for fluorescent contaminants on surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuresko, Daniel D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable fluorescence-based spotter for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contamination on personnel and work area surfaces under ambient lighting conditions is provided. This instrument employs beam modulation and phase sensitive detection for discriminating between fluorescence from organic materials from reflected background light and inorganic fluorescent material. The device uses excitation and emission filters to provide differentiation between classes of aromatic organic compounds. Certain inorganic fluorescent materials, including heavy metal compounds, may also be distinguished from the organic compounds, despite both having similar optical properties.

  7. Surface plasmon-enhanced photovoltaic device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostecki, Robert; Mao, Samuel

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic devices are driven by intense photoemission of "hot" electrons from a suitable nanostructured metal. The metal should be an electron source with surface plasmon resonance within the visible and near-visible spectrum range (near IR to near UV (about 300 to 1000 nm)). Suitable metals include silver, gold, copper and alloys of silver, gold and copper with each other. Silver is particularly preferred for its advantageous opto-electronic properties in the near UV and visible spectrum range, relatively low cost, and simplicity of processing.

  8. Surface modification: advantages, techniques, and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adequate performance of materials at elevated temperatures is a potential problem in many systems within the chemical, petroleum, process, and power-generating industries. Degradation of materials occurs because of interaction between the structural material and the exposure environment. These interactions are generally undesired chemical reactions that can lead to accelerated wastage and alter the functional requirements and/or structural integrity of the materials. Therefore, material selection for high-temperature applications must be based not only on a material strength properties but also on resistance to the complex environments prevalent in the anticipated exposure environment. As plants become larger, the satisfactory performance and reliability of components play a greater role in plant availability and economics. However, system designers are becoming increasingly concerned with finding the least expensive material that will satisfactorily perform the design function for the desired service life. This present paper addresses the benefits of surface modification and identified several criteria for selection and application of modified surfaces in the power sector. A brief review is presented on potential methods for modification of surfaces, with the emphasis on coatings. In the final section of the paper, several examples address the requirements of different energy systems and surface modification avenues that have been applied to resolve the issues.

  9. Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.

    2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Wildfire is a frequent perturbation in shrub steppe ecosystems, altering the flora, fauna, atmosphere, and soil of these systems. Research on the fire effects has focused mostly on natural ecosystems with essentially no attention on engineered systems like surface barriers. The scope of the project is to use a simulated wildfire to induce changes in an engineered surface barrier and document the effects on barrier performance. The main objective is to quantify the effects of burning and the resulting post-fire conditions on alterations in soil physical properties; hydrologic response, particularly the water balance; geochemical properties; and biological properties. A secondary objective is to use the lessons learned to maximize fire protection in the design of long-term monitoring systems based on electronic sensors. A simulated wildfire will be initiated, controlled and monitored at the 200-BP-1 barrier in collaboration with the Hanford Fire Department during the fall of 2008. The north half of the barrier will be divided into nine 12 x 12 m plots, each of which will be randomly assigned a fuel load of 2 kg m-2 or 4 kg m-2. Each plot will be ignited around the perimeter and flames allowed to carry to the centre. Any remaining unburned vegetation will be manually burned off using a drip torch. Progress of the fire and its effects will be monitored using point measurements of thermal, hydrologic, and biotic variables. Three measures of fire intensity will be used to characterize fire behavior: (1) flame height, (2) the maximum temperature at three vertical profile levels, and (3) total duration of elevated temperature at these levels. Pre-burn plant information, including species diversity, plant height, and canopy diameter will be measured on shrubs from the plots to be burned and from control plots at the McGee ranch. General assessments of shrub survival, recovery, and recruitment will be made after the fire. Near-surface soil samples will be collected pre- and post-burn to determine changes in the gravel content of the surface layer so as to quantify inflationary or deflationary responses to fire and to reveal the ability of the surface to resist post-fire erosive stresses. Measures of bulk density, water repellency, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity will be used to characterize changes in infiltration rates and water storage capacity following the fire. Samples will also be analyzed to quantify geochemical changes including changes in soil pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, and the concentration of macro nutrients (e.g. N, P, K) and other elements such as Na, Mg, Ca, that are critical to the post-fire recovery revegetation. Soil CO2 emissions will be measured monthly for one year following the burn to document post-fire stimulation of carbon turnover and soil biogenic emissions. Surface and subsurface temperature measurements at and near monitoring installations will be used to document fire effects on electronic equipment. The results of this study will be used to bridge the gaps in knowledge on the effects of fire on engineered ecosystems (e.g. surface barriers), particularly the hydrologic and biotic characteristics that govern the water and energy balance. These results will also support the development of practical fire management techniques for barriers that are compatible with wildfire suppression strategies. Furthermore, lessons learned will be use to develop installation strategies needed to protect electronic monitoring equipment from the intense heat of fire and the potential damaging effects of smoke and fire extinguishing agents. Such information is needed to better understand long-term barrier performance under extreme conditions, especially if site maintenance and operational funding is lost for activities such as barrier revegetation.

  10. Energy Frontier Research Centers | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials | Research Areas | Energy Frontier Research Centers SHARE Energy Frontier Research Centers Advanced Materials research...

  11. Summaries of FY 1993 geosciences research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy supports research in the geosciences in order to provide a sound foundation of fundamental knowledge in those areas of the geosciences that are germane to the DOE`s many missions. The Geosciences Research Program is supported by the Office of Energy Research. The participants in this program include DOE laboratories, academic institutions, and other governmental agencies. These activities are formalized by a contract or grant between the DOE and the organization performing the work, providing funds for salaries, equipment, research materials, and overhead. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geophysics, geochemistry, resource evaluation, solar-terrestrial interactions, and their subdivisions including earth dynamics, properties of earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar-atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas.

  12. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials.

  13. Technical Article 38 Plating & Surface Finishing March 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    and hydrocarbon gases where poi- soning of a metal or metal carbide target surface is utilized.7,8 More recently) sources have been shown to produce fluxes with very high metal ion fractions similar to those produced report on the properties and performance of HIPIMS-etched titanium-containing DLC (Me-DLC) and metal

  14. Pocked surface neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas (Whitmore Lake, MI); Klann, Raymond (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

  15. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive research continued on catalysts based on novel anion-treated (mainly sulfated) oxides and oxyhydroxides of iron [Fe{sub x}O{sub y}/SO{sub 4}]. In addition, sulfated oxides of tin as well as molybdenum promoted iron oxides were used. Incorporation of small amounts of sulfate, molybdate, or tungstate anions by wet precipitation/impregnation methods was found to increase the surface acidic character of iron oxides; more importantly, it reduced the grain sizes significantly with corresponding increases in specific surface areas. These anion-treated iron and tin oxides were more active for direct coal liquefaction and coal-heavy oil coprocessing than their untreated counterparts. With these catalyst systems, higher conversion levels are obtained as compared to the soluble precursors of iron and molybdenum at the same catalyst metalloading (3500 ppm iron and 50 ppm molybdenum with respect to coal). Sulfated iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were equally active as coal liquefaction catalysts. The sulfate, molybdate, and tungstate anions were found to have similar promotional effects on the properties and activities of iron oxides. One step in the synthesis of anion-treated iron and tin oxides is precipitation as hydroxides using either urea or ammonium hydroxide. The catalysts prepared using urea as a precipitation agent were more reproducible than those using ammonium, hydroxide in terms of activities and properties. These catalysts/catalyst precursors were characterized by several techniques to determine their physical (size and structure related) and chemical (acidity) properties. Sulfated and molybdated iron oxides were found to have grain sizes as small as 10-20 nm. An attempt was made to correlate the physicochemical properties of these catalysts with their activity for coal liquefaction.

  16. Surface profiling interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takacs, Peter Z. (P.O. Box 385, Upton, NY 11973); Qian, Shi-Nan (Hefei Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and, Hefei, Anhui, CN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a long-trace surface profiler for the non-contact measurement of surface profile, slope error and curvature on cylindrical synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The optical system is based upon the concept of a pencil-beam interferometer with an inherent large depth-of-field. The key feature of the optical system is the zero-path-difference beam splitter, which separates the laser beam into two colinear, variable-separation probe beams. A linear array detector is used to record the interference fringe in the image, and analysis of the fringe location as a function of scan position allows one to reconstruct the surface profile. The optical head is mounted on an air bearing slide with the capability to measure long aspheric optics, typical of those encountered in SR applications. A novel feature of the optical system is the use of a transverse "outrigger" beam which provides information on the relative alignment of the scan axis to the cylinder optic symmetry axis.

  17. Observation of Floquet-Bloch States on the Surface of a Topological Insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Y. H.

    The unique electronic properties of the surface electrons in a topological insulator are protected by time-reversal symmetry. Circularly polarized light naturally breaks time-reversal symmetry, which may lead to an exotic ...

  18. Electric field based fabrication methods for multi-scale structured surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joung, Young Soo

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of micro/nano scale surface structures and properties is crucial to developing novel functional materials. From an engineering point of view, the development of scalable and economical micro/nano-fabrication methods ...

  19. Defining the role of elastic lubricants and micro textured surfaces in lubricated, sliding friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hupp, Sara J. (Sara Jean), 1979-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solutions for reducing friction in sliding, lubricated systems include modifying lubricant rheology using polymers and adding a micro-scale texture to the sliding surfaces, but the mechanism of how lubrication properties ...

  20. Vegetation, soils, and surface hydrology of playa landforms in the Rio Grande Plains, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farley, Andrea Lee

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Playas in the Rio Grande Plains of southern Texas were compared with respect to their: 1) size, shape, soil properties, and microtopography, 2) vegetation composition and structure, 3) surface water accumulation potential, and 4) disturbance history...

  1. The role of electric charge in microdroplets impacting on conducting surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez, Alessandro

    dynamic viscosity.12 For typical ES droplets impacting a grounded surface, We O 10 and Oh O 0 than 10%. All tests are performed using ethanol, a liquid with good electro- spraying properties. Its

  2. Nanostructured multifunctional materials for control of light transport and surface wettability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hyungryul

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological surfaces have evolved to optimize their structures and physical and chemical properties at the micro/nanoscale for adaptation to different environments, exhibiting a wide variety of beneficial functions, ranging ...

  3. DOE research on atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, S.E.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric aerosols are the subject of a significant component of research within DOE`s environmental research activities, mainly under two programs within the Department`s Environmental Sciences Division, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). Research activities conducted under these programs include laboratory experiments, field measurements, and theoretical and modeling studies. The objectives and scope of these programs are briefly summarized. The ARM Program is the Department`s major research activity focusing on atmospheric processes pertinent to understanding global climate and developing the capability of predicting global climate change in response to energy related activities. The ARM approach consists mainly of testing and improving models using long-term measurements of atmospheric radiation and controlling variables at highly instrumented sites in north central Oklahoma, in the Tropical Western Pacific, and on the North Slope of Alaska. Atmospheric chemistry research within DOE addresses primarily the issue of atmospheric response to emissions from energy-generation sources. As such this program deals with the broad topic known commonly as the atmospheric source-receptor sequence. This sequence consists of all aspects of energy-related pollutants from the time they are emitted from their sources to the time they are redeposited at the Earth`s surface.

  4. Friction and Adhesion Forces of Bacillus thuringiensis Spores on Planar Surfaces in Atmospheric Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kweon, Hyojin [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetic friction force and the adhesion force of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on planar surfaces in atmospheric systems were studied using atomic force microscopy. The influence of relative humidity (RH) on these forces varied for different surface properties including hydrophobicity, roughness, and surface charge. The friction force of the spore was greater on a rougher surface than on mica, which is atomically flat. As RH increases, the friction force of the spores decreases on mica whereas it increases on rough surfaces. The influence of RH on the interaction forces between hydrophobic surfaces is not as strong as for hydrophilic surfaces. The friction force of the spore is linear to the sum of the adhesion force and normal load on the hydrophobic surface. The poorly defined surface structure of the spore and the adsorption of contaminants from the surrounding atmosphere are believed to cause a discrepancy between the calculated and measured adhesion forces.

  5. Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, Drew F., E-mail: Drew.Parsons@anu.edu.au; Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of surface forces is presented. The model contains two chief elements. First, surface roughness is represented as a probability distribution of surface heights around an average surface height. A roughness-averaged force is determined by taking an average of the classic flat-surface force, weighing all possible separation distances against the probability distributions of surface heights. Second the model adds a repulsive contact force due to the elastic contact of asperities. We derive a simple analytic expression for the contact force. The general impact of roughness is to amplify the long range behaviour of noncontact (DLVO) forces. The impact of the elastic contact force is to provide a repulsive wall which is felt at a separation between surfaces that scales with the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the surfaces. The model therefore provides a means of distinguishing between “true zero,” where the separation between the average centres of each surface is zero, and “apparent zero,” defined by the onset of the repulsive contact wall. A normal distribution may be assumed for the surface probability distribution, characterised by the RMS roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alternatively the probability distribution may be defined by the histogram of heights measured by AFM. Both methods of treating surface roughness are compared against the classic smooth surface calculation and experimental AFM measurement.

  6. Supri heavy oil research program. Annual report, February 8, 1994--February 7, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigham, W.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research projects on enhanced recovery are reported on in this report. Studies include: flow properties; in-situ combustion; steam with additives; and field support definitions.

  7. Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushman, Frederic

    Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research Foundation Medical Research Foundation Research Foundation Medical Student Research Fellowships Scientists of Tomorrow #12 medical Provides medical Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research

  8. Investigation of boiling heat transfer at a surface with a system of cylindrical cavities under conditions of free motion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilova, G.N.; Reznikov, V.I.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors propose a mathematical model for the intensification of boiling heat transfer and the subsequent increase in thermal efficiency of the cylindrical heat transfer surfaces in an evaporative cooling system. The boiling curves for water, ethanol, and freon 113 are calculated for a surface with artificial nucleation sites. The model incorporates such coolant properties as surface tension, specific heat, and vaporization heat.

  9. JV Task 120 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Loreal Heebink; David Hassett; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher

    2009-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') is the core coal combustion product (CCP) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCPs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCP utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program, which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCP performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 2007 to 2009 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCPs. The tasks were included in four categories: (1) Environmental Evaluations of CCPs; (2) Evaluation of Impacts on CCPs from Emission Controls; (3) Construction and Product-Related Activities; and (4) Technology Transfer and Maintenance Tasks. All tasks are designed to work toward achieving the CARRC overall goal and supporting objectives. The various tasks are coordinated in order to provide broad and useful technical data for CARRC members. Special projects provide an opportunity for non-CARRC members to sponsor specific research or technology transfer consistent with CARRC goals. This report covers CARRC activities from January 2007 through March 2009. These activities have been reported in CARRC Annual Reports and in member meetings over the past 2 years. CARRC continues to work with industry and various government agencies with its research, development, demonstration, and promotional activities nearing completion at the time of submission of this report. CARRC expects to continue its service to the coal ash industry in 2009 and beyond to work toward the common goal of advancing coal ash utilization by solving CCP-related technical issues and promoting the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically viable management of these complex and changing materials.

  10. X-1 ROEBELING ET AL.: SEVIRI & AVHRR CLOUD PROPERTY RETRIEVALS Cloud property retrievals for climate monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Generation (METEOSAT-8) and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the National Oceanic a consistent and high quality dataset of SEVIRI and AVHRR retrieved cloud properties for climate research studies. Clouds strongly modulate the energy balance of the Earth and its atmosphere through

  11. JV Task 6 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Erick Zacher

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP), which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCB performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 1998 to 2007 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. CARRC topical reports were prepared on several completed tasks. Specific CARRC 1998B2007 accomplishments included: (1) Development of several ASTM International Standard Guides for CCB utilization applications. (2) Organization and presentation of training courses for CCB professionals and teachers. (3) Development of online resources including the Coal Ash Resource Center, Ash from Biomass in Coal (ABC) of cocombustion ash characteristics, and the Buyer's Guide to Coal-Ash Containing Products. In addition, development of expanded information on the environmental performance of CCBs in utilization settings included the following: (1) Development of information on physical properties and engineering performance for concrete, soil-ash blends, and other products. (2) Training of students through participation in CARRC research projects. (3) Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.

  12. ANTARCTIC CLIMATE & ECOSYSTEMS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH CENTRE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phipps, Steven J.

    , including economic damage or loss or injury to person or property, regardless of whether the Antarctic Centre Program. A U S T R A L I A ACE also has formal partnerships with the Department of the Environment be addressed to: The Manager Communications Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre Private

  13. RESEARCH BRIEF wcec.ucdavis.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    the water coil, and properties of the spray water. Digital on/off control of duct heaters was usedRESEARCH BRIEF wcec.ucdavis.edu FOR MORE INFORMATION: Testing Non-Chemical Water Treatment Methods water treatment systems that have potential for use in evaporative cooling applications. · Test two

  14. ENERGY GENERATION RESEARCH PIER Energy Generation Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENERGY GENERATION RESEARCH PIER Energy Generation Research www.energy.ca.gov/research/ renewable/ November 2010 Sonoma County RESCO A Local Level Approach to Renewable Energy Portfolios. The Issue To address energy usage that contributes to climate change, California has enacted legislation to guide

  15. Summaries of FY 1995 geosciences research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs. The Geosciences Research Program includes research in geophysics, geochemistry, resource evaluation, solar-terrestrial interactions, and their subdivisions including earth dynamics, properties of earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar/atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas. All such research is related either direct or indirect to the Department of Energy`s long-range technological needs.

  16. Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

  17. surface science ELSEVIER Surface Science384 (1997) 192 200

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    surface science ELSEVIER Surface Science384 (1997) 192 200 An ab initio Hartree-Fock study Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD, UK Received 3June 1996;acceptedfor publication 27 March 1997 arrangement is found consisting of localisedspinson the surface titanium atoms. © 1997Elsevier

  18. Sweet Surface Area

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAbout »LabSustainability Ames Laboratory isSweet Surface

  19. Subsurface characterization of the San Jacinto River Research site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leik, Jason Allan

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to develop an effective petroleum repudiation ics. strategy, the interaction between surface and shallow subsurface water was determined for the San Jacinto River Oi1 Spill Remediation Research site. The ten-acre wetland is located...

  20. External Research Funding Agreements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    1 External Research Funding Agreements University Policy No: RH8200 Classification: Research and university employees under Research Funding Agreements. DEFINITIONS 2.00 Research Funding Agreement means funding provided through an agreement with the university to be used for research purposes, whether