National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for research reactor conversion

  1. Research Reactor Conversion | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reactor Conversion | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the...

  2. Conversion Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the NIST Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, D. J.; Baek, J. S.; Hanson, A. L.; Cheng, L-Y; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

    2015-01-30

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the NIST research reactor (aka NBSR); a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a preliminary version of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for approval prior to conversion. The report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis in any conversion SAR is to explain the differences between the LEU and HEU cores and to show the acceptability of the new design; there is no need to repeat information regarding the current reactor that will not change upon conversion. Hence, as seen in the report, the bulk of the SAR is devoted to Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis.

  3. Friction pressure drop measurements and flow distribution analysis for LEU conversion study of MIT Research Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Susanna Yuen-Ting

    2008-01-01

    The MIT Nuclear Research Reactor (MITR) is the only research reactor in the United States that utilizes plate-type fuel elements with longitudinal fins to augment heat transfer. Recent studies on the conversion to low-enriched ...

  4. Thermal hydraulic limits analysis for the MIT Research Reactor low enrichment uranium core conversion using statistical propagation of parametric uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, Keng-Yen

    2012-01-01

    The MIT Research Reactor (MITR) is evaluating the conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. In addition to the fuel element re-design from 15 to 18 plates per element, a reactor ...

  5. Accident Analysis for the NIST Research Reactor Before and After Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek J.; Diamond D.; Cuadra, A.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.R.

    2012-09-30

    Postulated accidents have been analyzed for the 20 MW D2O-moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analysis has been carried out for the present core, which contains high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and for a proposed equilibrium core with low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations were performed with the MCNPX code to determine homogenized fuel compositions in the lower and upper halves of each fuel element and to determine the resulting neutronic properties of the core. The accident analysis employed a model of the primary loop with the RELAP5 code. The model includes the primary pumps, shutdown pumps outlet valves, heat exchanger, fuel elements, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow accident resulting from loss of electrical power with an assumption of failure of shutdown cooling pumps, (4) loss-of-flow accident resulting from a primary pump seizure, and (5) loss-of-flow accident resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve. In addition, natural circulation cooling at low power operation was analyzed. The analysis shows that the conversion will not lead to significant changes in the safety analysis and the calculated minimum critical heat flux ratio and maximum clad temperature assure that there is adequate margin to fuel failure.

  6. Development of a core design optimization tool and analysis in support of the planned LEU conversion of the MIT Research Reactor (MITR-II)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connaway, Heather M. (Heather Moira)

    2012-01-01

    The MIT Research Reactor (MITR-II) is currently undergoing analysis for the planned conversion from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU), as part of a global effort to minimize the availability of ...

  7. Neutronic safety and transient analyses for potential LEU conversion of the IR-8 research reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deen, J. R.; Hanan, N. A.; Smith, R. S.; Matos, J. E.; Egorenkov, P. M.; Nasonov, V. A.

    1999-09-27

    Kinetic parameters, isothermal reactivity feedback coefficients and three transients for the IR-8 research reactor cores loaded with either HEU(90%), HEU(36%), or LEU (19.75%) fuel assemblies (FA) were calculated using three dimensional diffusion theory flux solutions, RELAP5/MOD3.2 and PARET. The prompt neutron generation time and effective delayed neutron fractions were calculated for fresh and beginning-of-equilibrium-cycle cores. Isothermal reactivity feedback coefficients were calculated for changes in coolant density, coolant temperature and fuel temperature in fresh and equilibrium cores. These kinetic parameters and reactivity coefficients were used in transient analysis models to predict power histories, and peak fuel, clad and coolant temperatures. The transients modeled were a rapid and slow loss-of-flow, a slow reactivity insertion, and a fast reactivity insertion.

  8. Thermal hydraulics analysis of the MIT research reactor in support of a low enrichment uranium (LEU) core conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Yu-Chih, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    The MIT research reactor (MITR) is converting from the existing high enrichment uranium (HEU) core to a low enrichment uranium (LEU) core using a high-density monolithic UMo fuel. The design of an optimum LEU core for the ...

  9. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  10. Apparatus for feeding an MTG conversion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, C.H.; Schreiner, M. Jr.

    1989-05-02

    A continuous system is described comprising: first distillation means; second distillation means; pressurized chemical reactor means containing dehydration catalyst; methanol-to-gasoline conversion reactor means containing conversion catalyst; means for passing a crude methanol feed containing a minor amount of water to an upper stage of the first distillation means; means for maintaining the first distillation means at a pressure at least equal to the pressure of the pressurized chemical reactor means; means for withdrawing dehydration product from pressurized chemical reactor means; means for adding dehydration product to an intermediate stage of the first distillation means; means for withdrawing from first distillation means a first overhead stream comprising essentially water-free dimethylether; means for withdrawing from first distillation means a first bottoms stream containing aqueous methanol; means for passing the dimethylether-containing first overhead stream from the first distillation means to methanol-to-gasoline conversion reactor means; means for passing the first bottoms stream containing aqueous methanol from the first distillation means to the second distillation means; means for withdrawing from second distillation means a second overhead stream comprising methanol; means for withdrawing from second distillation means a second bottoms stream comprising water; means for passing the second overhead methanol stream to pressurized chemical reactor means; and means for recycling the dehydration product to an intermediate stage of the first distillation means.

  11. Cross section generation strategy for high conversion light water reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Bryan R. (Bryan Robert)

    2011-01-01

    High conversion water reactors (HCWR), such as the Resource-renewable Boiling Water Reactor (RBWR), are being designed with axial heterogeneity of alternating fissile and blanket zones to achieve a conversion ratio of ...

  12. Developing fuel management capabilities based on coupled Monte Carlo depletion in support of the MIT Research Reactor (MITR) conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, Paul K. (Paul Kollath)

    2009-01-01

    Pursuant to a 1986 NRC ruling, the MIT Reactor (MITR) is planning on converting from the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) for fuel. Prior studies have shown that the MITR will be able to ...

  13. Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) was the first reactor built in the U.S. for peacetime atomic research following World War II.  Construction began in 1947 and the reactor started...

  14. Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems for nuclear reactors :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Sanchez, Travis

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of a Sandia National Laboratories internally funded research program to study the coupling of nuclear reactors to gas dynamic Brayton power conversion systems. The research focused on developing integrated dynamic system models, fabricating a 10-30 kWe closed loop Brayton cycle, and validating these models by operating the Brayton test-loop. The work tasks were performed in three major areas. First, the system equations and dynamic models for reactors and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems were developed and implemented in SIMULINKTM. Within this effort, both steady state and dynamic system models for all the components (turbines, compressors, reactors, ducting, alternators, heat exchangers, and space based radiators) were developed and assembled into complete systems for gas cooled reactors, liquid metal reactors, and electrically heated simulators. Various control modules that use proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback loops for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed were also developed and implemented. The simulation code is called RPCSIM (Reactor Power and Control Simulator). In the second task an open cycle commercially available Capstone C30 micro-turbine power generator was modified to provide a small inexpensive closed Brayton cycle test loop called the Sandia Brayton test-Loop (SBL-30). The Capstone gas-turbine unit housing was modified to permit the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller to form a closed loop. The Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator were used without modification. The Capstone systems nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system also were reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled by adjusting the alternator load by using the electrical grid as the load bank. The SBL-30 test loop was operated at the manufacturers site (Barber-Nichols Inc.) and installed and operated at Sandia. A sufficiently detailed description of the loop is provided in this report along with the design characteristics of the turbo-alternator-compressor set to allow other researchers to compare their results with those measured in the Sandia test-loop. The third task consisted of a validation effort. In this task the test loop was operated and compared with the modeled results to develop a more complete understanding of this electrically heated closed power generation system and to validate the model. The measured and predicted system temperatures and pressures are in good agreement, indicating that the model is a reasonable representation of the test loop. Typical deviations between the model and the hardware results are less than 10%. Additional tests were performed to assess the capability of the Brayton engine to continue to remove decay heat after the reactor/heater is shutdown, to develop safe and effective control strategies, and to access the effectiveness of gas inventory control as an alternative means to provide load following. In one test the heater power was turned off to simulate a rapid reactor shutdown, and the turbomachinery was driven solely by the sensible heat stored in the heater for over 71 minutes without external power input. This is an important safety feature for CBC systems as it means that the closed Brayton loop will keep cooling the reactor without the need for auxiliary power (other than that needed to circulate the waste heat rejection coolant) provided the heat sink is available.

  15. GLOBAL THREAT REDUCTION INITIATIVE REACTOR CONVERSION PROGRAM: STATUS AND CURRENT PLANS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staples, Parrish A.; Leach, Wayne; Lacey, Jennifer M.

    2009-10-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Reactor Conversion Program supports the minimization, and to the extent possible, elimination of the use of high enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian nuclear applications by working to convert research and test reactors and radioisotope production processes to the use of low enriched uranium (LEU). The Reactor Conversion Program is a technical pillar of the NNSA Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) which is a key organization for implementing U.S. HEU minimization policy and works to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material domestically and abroad.

  16. DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1, 2001 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.C. BROWN

    2001-09-30

    OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1, 2001 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2001

  17. Advanced Reactor Research and Development Funding Opportunity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reactor Research and Development Funding Opportunity Announcement Advanced Reactor Research and Development Funding Opportunity Announcement The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)...

  18. Conversion and standardization of university reactor fuels using low-enrichment uranium - options and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.R.; Matos, J.E.; Young, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    The highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel used in twenty United States university reactors can be viewed as contributing to the risk of theft or diversion of weapons-useable material. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued a policy statement expressing its concern and has published a proposed rule on limiting the use of HEU in NRC-licensed non-power reactors. The fuel options, functional impacts, licensing, and scheduling of conversion and standardization of these reactor fuels to use of low-enrichment uranium (LEU) have been assessed. The university reactors span a wide range in form and function, from medium-power intense neutron sources where HEU fuel may be required, to low-power training and research facilities where HEU fuel is unnecessary. Conversion provides an opportunity to standardize university reactor fuels and improve reactor utilization in some cases. The entire program is estimated to cost about $10 million and to last about five years. Planning for conversion and standardization is facilitated by the US Department of Energy. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Microplasma Ball Reactor for Liquid Hydrocarbon Conversion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slavens, Stephen M

    2014-04-24

    As the world’s light oil reserves diminish, the use of alternative fuels is becoming more of a necessity. In order to make use of alternative fuels, alternative processes must be developed. The goal of this research is to convert long, complex chain...

  20. 2012 Annual Report Research Reactor Infrastructure Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Morrell

    2012-11-01

    The content of this report is the 2012 Annual Report for the Research Reactor Infrastructure Program.

  1. Novel, Integrated Reactor / Power Conversion System (LMR-AMTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pablo Rubiolo, Principal Investigator

    2003-03-21

    The main features of this project were the development of a long life (up to 10 years) Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) and a static conversion subsystem comprising an Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric (AMTEC) topping cycle and a ThermoElectric (TE) Bottom cycle. Various coupling options of the LMR with the energy conversion subsystem were explored and, base in the performances found in this analysis, an Indirect Coupling (IC) between the LMR and the AMTEC/TE converters with Alkali Metal Boilers (AMB) was chosen as the reference design. The performance model of the fully integrated sodium-and potassium-AMTEC/TE converters shows that a combined conversion efficiency in excess of 30% could be achieved by the plant. (B204)

  2. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Advanced Test Reactor LEU Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd D. Christensen; Michael A. Lehto; Noel R. Duckwitz

    2012-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located in the ATR Complex of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), was constructed in the 1960s for the purpose of irradiating reactor fuels and materials. Other irradiation services, such as radioisotope production, are also performed at ATR. The ATR is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) matrix (UAlx) in an aluminum sandwich plate cladding. The National Nuclear Security Administration Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) strategic mission includes efforts to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material at civilian sites around the world. Converting research reactors from using HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) was originally started in 1978 as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Within this strategic mission, GTRI has three goals that provide a comprehensive approach to achieving this mission: The first goal, the driver for the modification that is the subject of this determination, is to convert research reactors from using HEU to LEU. Thus the mission of the ATR LEU Fuel Conversion Project is to convert the ATR and Advanced Test Reactor Critical facility (ATRC) (two of the six U.S. High-Performance Research Reactors [HPRR]) to LEU fuel by 2017. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues that lead to the conclusion that the project is a major modification.

  3. International Research Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leopando, Leonardo; Warnecke, Ernst

    2008-01-15

    Many research reactors have been or will be shut down and are candidates for decommissioning. Most of the respective countries neither have a decommissioning policy nor the required expertise and funds to effectively implement a decommissioning project. The IAEA established the Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P) to help answer this need. It was agreed to involve the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) as model reactor to demonstrate 'hands-on' experience as it is just starting the decommissioning process. Other facilities may be included in the project as they fit into the scope of R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P and complement to the PRR-1 decommissioning activities. The key outcome of the R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P will be the decommissioning of the PRR-1 reactor. On the way to this final goal the preparation of safety related documents (i.e., decommissioning plan, environmental impact assessment, safety analysis report, health and safety plan, cost estimate, etc.) and the licensing process as well as the actual dismantling activities could provide a model to other countries involved in the project. It is expected that the R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P would initiate activities related to planning and funding of decommissioning activities in the participating countries if that has not yet been done.

  4. Power conversion system design for supercritical carbon dioxide cooled indirect cycle nuclear reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

    2008-01-01

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO?) cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples nicely to many Generation IV nuclear reactors. This work investigates the power conversion system design and ...

  5. Design of passive decay heat removal system for the lead cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitman, Joshua (Joshua J.)

    2007-01-01

    The lead-cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor shows many benefits over other fast-reactor designs; however, the higher power rating and denser primary coolant present difficulties for the design of a passive decay ...

  6. Reduced enrichment for research and test reactors: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The 15th annual Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) international meeting was organized by Ris{o} National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency and Argonne National Laboratory. The topics of the meeting were the following: National Programs, Fuel Fabrication, Licensing Aspects, States of Conversion, Fuel Testing, and Fuel Cycle. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  7. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastrucutre TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Morrell

    2011-03-01

    The United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program at the Idaho National Laboratory manages and provides project management, technical, quality engineering, quality inspection and nuclear material support for the United States Department of Energy sponsored University Reactor Fuels Program. This program provides fresh, unirradiated nuclear fuel to Domestic University Research Reactor Facilities and is responsible for the return of the DOE-owned, irradiated nuclear fuel over the life of the program. This presentation will introduce the program management team, the universities supported by the program, the status of the program and focus on the return process of irradiated nuclear fuel for long term storage at DOE managed receipt facilities. It will include lessons learned from research reactor facilities that have successfully shipped spent fuel elements to DOE receipt facilities.

  8. Ocean energy conversion systems annual research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Alternative power cycle concepts to the closed-cycle Rankine are evaluated and those that show potential for delivering power in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable fashion are explored. Concepts are classified according to the ocean energy resource: thermal, waves, currents, and salinity gradient. Research projects have been funded and reported in each of these areas. The lift of seawater entrained in a vertical steam flow can provide potential energy for a conventional hydraulic turbine conversion system. Quantification of the process and assessment of potential costs must be completed to support concept evaluation. Exploratory development is being completed in thermoelectricity and 2-phase nozzles for other thermal concepts. Wave energy concepts are being evaluated by analysis and model testing with present emphasis on pneumatic turbines and wave focussing. Likewise, several conversion approaches to ocean current energy are being evaluated. The use of salinity resources requires further research in membranes or the development of membraneless processes. Using the thermal resource in a Claude cycle process as a power converter is promising, and a program of R and D and subsystem development has been initiated to provide confirmation of the preliminary conclusion.

  9. Design, analysis and optimization of the power conversion system for the Modular Pebble Bed Reactor System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunyun, 1968-

    2003-01-01

    The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor system (MPBR) requires a gas turbine cycle (Brayton cycle) as the power conversion system for it to achieve economic competitiveness as a GenIV nuclear system. The availability of controllable ...

  10. Thermal hydraulic design and analysis of a large lead-cooled reactor with flexible conversion ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikiforova, Anna S., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation Project, a part of the Nuclear Cycle Technology and Policy Program funded by the Department of Energy through the Nuclear Energy ...

  11. Design, Analysis and Optimization of the Power Conversion System for the Modular Pebble Bed Reactor System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design, Analysis and Optimization of the Power Conversion System for the Modular Pebble Bed Reactor August 31, 2003 Certified by Ronald G. Ballinger Professor of Nuclear Engineering and Materials Science;2 #12;Design, Analysis, and Optimization of the Power Conversion System for the Modular Pebble Bed

  12. Supply of enriched uranium for research reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, H. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Since the RERTR-meeting In Newport/USA in 1990 the author delivered a series of papers in connection with the fuel cycle for research reactors dealing with its front-end. In these papers the author underlined the need for unified specifications for enriched uranium metal suitable for the production of fuel elements and made proposals with regard to the re-use of in Europe reprocessed highly enriched uranium. With regard to the fuel cycle of research reactors the research reactor community was since 1989 more concentrating on the problems of its back-end since the USA stopped the acceptance of spent research reactor fuel on December 31, 1988. Now, since it is apparent that these back-end problem have been solved by AEA`s ability to reprocess and the preparedness of the USA to again accept physically spent research reactor fuel the author is focusing with this paper again on the front-end of the fuel cycle on the question whether there is at all a safe supply of low and high enriched uranium for research reactors in the future.

  13. Biomass thermal conversion research at SERI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milne, T. A.; Desrosiers, R. E.; Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    SERI's involvement in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals is reviewed. The scope and activities of the Biomass Thermal Conversion and Exploratory Branch are reviewed. The current status and future plans for three tasks are presented: (1) Pyrolysis Mechanisms; (2) High Pressure O/sub 2/ Gasifier; and (3) Gasification Test Facility.

  14. Fuel elements of research reactor CM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlov, A.V.; Morozov, A.V.; Vatulin, A.V.; Ershov, S.A.

    2013-07-01

    In 1961 the CM research reactor was commissioned at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Dimitrovgrad, Russia), it was intended to carry on investigations and the production of transuranium nuclides. The reactor is of a tank type. Original fuel assembly contained plate fuels that were spaced with vanes and corrugated bands. Nickel was used as a cladding material, fuel meat was produced from UO{sub 2} + electrolytic nickel composition. Fuel plates have been replaced by self-spacing cross-shaped dispersion fuels clad in stainless steel. In 2005 the reactor was updated. The purpose of this updating was to increase the quantity of irradiation channels in the reactor core and to improve the neutron balance. The updating was implemented at the expense of 20 % reduction in the quantity of fuel elements in the core which released a space for extra channels and decreased the mass of structural materials in the core. The updated reactor is loaded with modified standard fuel elements with 20 % higher uranium masses. At the same time stainless steel in fuel assembly shrouds was substituted by zirconium alloy. Today in progress are investigations and work to promote the second stage of reactor updating that involve developments of cross-shaped fuel elements having low neutron absorption matrix materials. This article gives an historical account of the design and main technical changes that occurred for the CM reactor since its commissioning.

  15. DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 15,2000 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30,2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.C. BROWN

    2002-02-01

    OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 15,2000 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30,2001

  16. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Tehran Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hadi; Nematollahi, Mohammad Reza; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2004-07-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. In this paper the application of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment to the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) is presented. The level 1 PSA application involved: Familiarization with the plant, selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, event tree constructions and quantification, fault tree constructions and quantification, human reliability, component failure data base development and dependent failure analysis. Each of the steps of the analysis given above is discussed with highlights from the selected results. Quantification of the constructed models is done using SAPHIRE software. This Study shows that the obtained core damage frequency for Tehran Research Reactor (8.368 E-6 per year) well meets the IAEA criterion for existing nuclear power plants (1E-4). But safety improvement suggestions are offered to decrease the most probable accidents. (authors)

  17. Design of a 2400MW liquid-salt cooled flexible conversion ratio reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petroski, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    A 2400MWth liquid-salt cooled flexible conversion ratio reactor was designed, utilizing the ternary chloride salt NaCl-KCl-MgCI2 (30%-20%-50%) as coolant. The reference design uses a wire-wrapped, hex lattice core, and is ...

  18. NREL: Biomass Research - Biochemical Conversion Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:News Releases |NRELBiochemical Conversion

  19. Testing of an advanced thermochemical conversion reactor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the results of work conducted by MTCI to verify and confirm experimentally the ability of the MTCI gasification process to effectively generate a high-quality, medium-Btu gas from a wider variety of feedstock and waste than that attainable in air-blown, direct gasification systems. The system's overall simplicity, due to the compact nature of the pulse combustor, and the high heat transfer rates attainable within the pulsating flow resonance tubes, provide a decided and near-term potential economic advantage for the MTCI indirect gasification system. The primary objective of this project was the design, construction, and testing of a Process Design Verification System for an indirectly heated, thermochemical fluid-bed reactor and a pulse combustor an an integrated system that can process alternative renewable sources of energy such as biomass, black liquor, municipal solid waste and waste hydrocarbons, including heavy oils into a useful product gas. The test objectives for the biomass portion of this program were to establish definitive performance data on biomass feedstocks covering a wide range of feedstock qualities and characteristics. The test objectives for the black liquor portion of this program were to verify the operation of the indirect gasifier on commercial black liquor containing 65 percent solids at several temperature levels and to characterize the bed carbon content, bed solids particle size and sulfur distribution as a function of gasification conditions. 6 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.

  20. Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder, G.L.

    2005-10-03

    This report documents the work performed during the first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Research Announcement (NRA) Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs. The document includes an optimization of both 100-kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} (at the propulsion unit) Rankine cycle power conversion systems. In order to perform the mass optimization of these systems, several parametric evaluations of different design options were investigated. These options included feed and reheat, vapor superheat levels entering the turbine, three different material types, and multiple heat rejection system designs. The overall masses of these Nb-1%Zr systems are approximately 3100 kg and 6300 kg for the 100- kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} systems, respectively, each with two totally redundant power conversion units, including the mass of the single reactor and shield. Initial conceptual designs for each of the components were developed in order to estimate component masses. In addition, an overall system concept was presented that was designed to fit within the launch envelope of a heavy lift vehicle. A technology development plan is presented in the report that describes the major efforts that are required to reach a technology readiness level of 6. A 10-year development plan was proposed.

  1. Light Water Reactor Fuel Cladding Research and Testing | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Light Water Reactor Fuel Cladding Research June 01, 2013 Severe Accident Test Station ORNL is the focus point for Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel cladding research and testing. The...

  2. Reliability analysis of a passive cooling system using a response surface with an application to the Flexible Conversion Ratio Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fong, Christopher J. (Christopher Joseph)

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive risk-informed methodology for passive safety system design and performance assessment is presented and demonstrated on the Flexible Conversion Ratio Reactor (FCRR). First, the methodology provides a framework ...

  3. Research and Medical Isotope Reactor Supply | Y-12 National Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Y-12 tops the short list of the world's most secure, reliable uranium feedstock suppliers for dozens of research and test reactors on six continents. These reactors can be...

  4. Reactor Safety Research: Semiannual report, January-June 1986: Reactor Safety Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting, under USNRC sponsorship, phenomenological research related to the safety of commercial nuclear power reactors. The research includes experiments to simulate the phenomenology of accident conditions and the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety systems performance behavior under abnormal conditions. The objective of this work is to provide NRC requisite data bases and analytical methods to (1) identify and define safety issues, (2) understand the progression of risk-significant accident sequences, and (3) conduct safety assessments. The collective NRC-sponsored effort at Sandia National Laboratories is directed at enhancing the technology base supporting licensing decisions.

  5. Lunar electric power systems utilizing the SP-100 reactor coupled to dynamic conversion systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harty, R.B.; Durand, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    An integration study was performed by Rocketdyne under contract to NASA-LeRC. The study was concerned with coupling an SP-0100 reactor to either a Brayton or Stirling power conversion system. The application was for a surface power system to supply power requirements to a lunar base. A power level of 550 kWe was selected based on the NASA Space Exploration Initiative 90-day study. Reliability studies were initially performed to determine optimum power conversion redundancy. This study resulted in selecting three operating engines and one stand-by unit. Integration design studies indicated that either the Brayton or Stirling power conversion systems could be integrated with the PS-100 reactor. The Stirling system had an integration advantage because of smaller piping size and fewer components. The Stirling engine, however, is more complex and heavier than the Brayton rotating unit, which tends to off-set the Stirling integration advantage. From a performance consideration, the Brayton had a 9 percent mass advantage, and the Stirling had a 50 percent radiator advantage.

  6. NUCLEAR POWER AND RESEARCH REACTORS 1939 1942 1943 1944

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;#12;11 #12;2 NUCLEAR POWER AND RESEARCH REACTORS 1939 1942 1943 1944 Nuclear fission discovered 430 nuclear power reactors are operating in the world, and 103 nuclear power plants produce 20, naval reactors, and nuclear power plants. Oak Ridge experiments byArt Snell in 1944 showed that 10 tons

  7. Preliminary core design studies for the advanced burner reactor over a wide range of conversion ratios.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E. A.; Yang, W. S.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-05-05

    A consistent set of designs for 1000 MWt commercial-scale sodium-cooled Advance Burner Reactors (ABR) have been developed for both metal and oxide-fueled cores with conversion ratios from breakeven (CR=1.0) to fertile-free (CR=0.0). These designs are expected to satisfy thermal and irradiation damage limits based on the currently available data. The very low conversion ratio designs require fuel that is beyond the current fuel database, which is anticipated to be qualified by and for the Advanced Burned Test Reactor. Safety and kinetic parameters were calculated, but a safety analysis was not performed. Development of these designs was required to achieve the primary goal of this study, which was to generate representative fuel cycle mass flows for system studies of ABRs as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). There are slight variations with conversion ratio but the basic ABR configuration consists of 144 fuel assemblies and between 9 and 22 primary control assemblies for both the metal and oxide-fueled cores. Preliminary design studies indicated that it is feasible to design the ABR to accommodate a wide range of conversion ratio by employing different assembly designs and including sufficient control assemblies to accommodate the large reactivity swing at low conversion ratios. The assemblies are designed to fit within the same geometry, but the size and number of fuel pins within each assembly are significantly different in order to achieve the target conversion ratio while still satisfying thermal limits. Current irradiation experience would allow for a conversion ratio of somewhat below 0.75. The fuel qualification for the first ABR should expand this experience to allow for much lower conversion ratios and higher bunrups. The current designs were based on assumptions about the performance of high and very high enrichment fuel, which results in significant uncertainty about the details of the designs. However, the basic fuel cycle performance trends such as conversion ratio and mass flow parameters are less sensitive to these parameters and the current results should provide a good basis for static and dynamic system analysis. The conversion ratio is fundamentally a ratio of the macroscopic cross section of U-238 capture to that of TRU fission. Since the microscopic cross sections only change moderately with fuel design and isotopic concentration for the fast reactor, a specific conversion ratio requires a specific enrichment. The approximate average charge enrichment (TRU/HM) is 14%, 21%, 33%, 56%, and 100% for conversion ratios of 1.0, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, and 0.0 for the metal-fueled cores. The approximate average charge enrichment is 17%, 25%, 38%, 60%, and 100% for conversion ratios of 1.0, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, and 0.0 for the oxide-fueled core. For the split batch cores, the maximum enrichment will be somewhat higher. For both the metal and oxide-fueled cores, the reactivity feedback coefficients and kinetics parameters seem reasonable. The maximum single control assembly reactivity faults may be too large for the low conversion ratio designs. The average reactivity of the primary control assemblies was increased, which may cause the maximum reactivity of the central control assembly to be excessive. The values of the reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters show that some values appear to improve significantly at lower conversion ratios while others appear far less favorable. Detailed safety analysis is required to determine if these designs have adequate safety margins or if appropriate design modifications are required. Detailed system analysis data has been generated for both metal and oxide-fueled core designs over the entire range of potential burner reactors. Additional data has been calculated for a few alternative fuel cycles. The systems data has been summarized in this report and the detailed data will be provided to the systems analysis team so that static and dynamic system analyses can be performed.

  8. An Account of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Thirteen Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, Murray Wilford

    2009-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has built and operated 13 nuclear reactors in its 66-year history. The first was the graphite reactor, the world's first operational nuclear reactor, which served as a plutonium production pilot plant during World War II. It was followed by two aqueous-homogeneous reactors and two red-hot molten-salt reactors that were parts of power-reactor development programs and by eight others designed for research and radioisotope production. One of the eight was an all-metal fast burst reactor used for health physics studies. All of the others were light-water cooled and moderated, including the famous swimming-pool reactor that was copied dozens of times around the world. Two of the reactors were hoisted 200 feet into the air to study the shielding needs of proposed nuclear-powered aircraft. The final reactor, and the only one still operating today, is the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) that was built particularly for the production of californium and other heavy elements. With the world's highest flux and recent upgrades that include the addition of a cold neutron source, the 44-year-old HFIR continues to be a valuable tool for research and isotope production, attracting some 500 scientific visitors and guests to Oak Ridge each year. This report describes all of the reactors and their histories.

  9. Proceedings of the 1990 International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The global effort to reduce, and possibly, eliminate the international traffic in highly-enriched uranium caused by its use in research reactors requires extensive cooperation and free exchange of information among all participants. To foster this free exchange of information, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the thirteenth of a series which began in 1978. The common effort brought together, past, a large number of specialists from many countries. On hundred twenty-three participants from 26 countries, including scientists, reactor operators, and personnel from commercial fuel suppliers, research centers, and government organizations, convened in Newport, Rhode Island to discuss their results, their activities, and their plans relative to converting research reactors to low-enriched fuels. As more and more reactors convert to the use of low-enriched uranium, the emphasis of our effort has begun to shift from research and development to tasks more directly related to implementation of the new fuels and technologies that have been developed, and to refinements of those fuels and technologies. It is appropriate, for this reason, that the emphasis of this meeting was placed on safety and on conversion experiences. This individual papers in this report have been cataloged separately.

  10. Steam Generator Component Model in a Combined Cycle of Power Conversion Unit for Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Chang H; Han, James; Barner, Robert; Sherman, Steven R

    2007-06-01

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold 1) efficient low cost energy generation and 2) hydrogen production. Although a next generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual-purpose. While hydrogen production and advanced energy cycles are still in its early stages of development, research towards coupling a high temperature reactor, electrical generation and hydrogen production is under way. A combined cycle is considered as one of the power conversion units to be coupled to the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). The combined cycle configuration consists of a Brayton top cycle coupled to a Rankine bottoming cycle by means of a steam generator. A detailed sizing and pressure drop model of a steam generator is not available in the HYSYS processes code. Therefore a four region model was developed for implementation into HYSYS. The focus of this study was the validation of a HYSYS steam generator model of two phase flow correlations. The correlations calculated the size and heat exchange of the steam generator. To assess the model, those calculations were input into a RELAP5 model and its results were compared with HYSYS results. The comparison showed many differences in parameters such as the heat transfer coefficients and revealed the different methods used by the codes. Despite differences in approach, the overall results of heat transfer were in good agreement.

  11. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.; Lambert, J.; Hayes, S.; Sackett, J.; Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  12. On the RA research reactor fuel management problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matausek, M.V.; Marinkovic, N.

    1997-12-01

    After 25 yr of operation, the Soviet-origin 6.5-MW heavy water RA research reactor was shut down in 1984. Basic facts about RA reactor operation, aging, reconstruction, and spent-fuel disposal have been presented and discussed in earlier papers. The following paragraphs present recent activities and results related to important fuel management problems.

  13. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renfro, David G; Cook, David Howard; Freels, James D; Griffin, Frederick P; Ilas, Germina; Sease, John D; Chandler, David

    2012-03-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  14. Research Reactor Preparations for the Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium from Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin; C. Paunoiu; M. Ciocanescu

    2010-03-01

    In June 2009 two air shipments transported both unirradiated (fresh) and irradiated (spent) Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from two research reactors in Romania to the Russian Federation for conversion to low enriched uranium. The Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti (SCN Pitesti) shipped 30.1 kg of HEU fresh fuel pellets to Dimitrovgrad, Russia and the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) shipped 23.7 kilograms of HEU spent fuel assemblies from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both HEU shipments were coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), were managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), and were conducted in cooperation with the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Both shipments were transported by truck to and from respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at secure nuclear facilities in Russia until the material is converted into low enriched uranium. These shipments resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the research reactor preparations and license approvals that were necessary to safely and securely complete these air shipments of nuclear fuel.

  15. Annular Core Research Reactor - Critical to Science-Based Weapons...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    to science-based weapons design and certification. The ACRR is a pool-type research reactor (Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility) that has been in operation since the 1970s...

  16. Development of Technical Nuclear Forensics for Spent Research Reactor Fuel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sternat, Matthew Ryan 1982-

    2012-11-20

    Pre-detonation technical nuclear forensics techniques for research reactor spent fuel were developed in a collaborative project with Savannah River National Lab ratory. An inverse analysis method was employed to reconstruct ...

  17. The fight to save the university research reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobeck, L.M.; Perez, P.B.

    1993-10-01

    This article looks at impacts of Nuclear Regulatory Commission actions on nonprofit educational reactors. In mid-July the NRC issued a ruling on fee policy, which eliminated the historical fee exemeption for nonprofit research reactors. The ensuing regulatory fees placed an economic burden on these facilities which was likely to close many of them. On September 13, the NRC agreed to reconsider this rule. In part this reflects that this rule had an impact on a larger user base than just research reactors. The article summarizes this problem, and tries to put it in perspective for the reader.

  18. Background Radiation Measurements at High Power Research Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashenfelter, J; Baldenegro, C X; Band, H R; Barclay, G; Bass, C D; Berish, D; Bowden, N S; Bryan, C D; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, R; Classen, T; Davee, D; Dean, D; Deichert, G; Dolinski, M J; Dolph, J; Dwyer, D A; Fan, S; Gaison, J K; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilje, K; Glenn, A; Green, M; Han, K; Hans, S; Heeger, K M; Heffron, B; Jaffe, D E; Kettell, S; Langford, T J; Littlejohn, B R; Martinez, D; McKeown, R D; Morrell, S; Mueller, P E; Mumm, H P; Napolitano, J; Norcini, D; Pushin, D; Romero, E; Rosero, R; Saldana, L; Seilhan, B S; Sharma, R; Stemen, N T; Surukuchi, P T; Thompson, S J; Varner, R L; Wang, W; Watson, S M; White, B; White, C; Wilhelmi, J; Williams, C; Wise, T; Yao, H; Yeh, M; Yen, Y -R; Zhang, C; Zhang, X

    2015-01-01

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including $\\gamma$-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. The general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  19. Background Radiation Measurements at High Power Research Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Ashenfelter; B. Balantekin; C. X. Baldenegro; H. R. Band; G. Barclay; C. D. Bass; D. Berish; N. S. Bowden; C. D. Bryan; J. J. Cherwinka; R. Chu; T. Classen; D. Davee; D. Dean; G. Deichert; M. J. Dolinski; J. Dolph; D. A. Dwyer; S. Fan; J. K. Gaison; A. Galindo-Uribarri; K. Gilje; A. Glenn; M. Green; K. Han; S. Hans; K. M. Heeger; B. Heffron; D. E. Jaffe; S. Kettell; T. J. Langford; B. R. Littlejohn; D. Martinez; R. D. McKeown; S. Morrell; P. E. Mueller; H. P. Mumm; J. Napolitano; D. Norcini; D. Pushin; E. Romero; R. Rosero; L. Saldana; B. S. Seilhan; R. Sharma; N. T. Stemen; P. T. Surukuchi; S. J. Thompson; R. L. Varner; W. Wang; S. M. Watson; B. White; C. White; J. Wilhelmi; C. Williams; T. Wise; H. Yao; M. Yeh; Y. -R. Yen; C. Zhang; X. Zhang

    2015-06-11

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including $\\gamma$-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. The general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  20. Background Radiation Measurements at High Power Research Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Ashenfelter; B. Balantekin; C. X. Baldenegro; H. R. Band; G. Barclay; C. D. Bass; D. Berish; N. S. Bowden; C. D. Bryan; J. J. Cherwinka; R. Chu; T. Classen; D. Davee; D. Dean; G. Deichert; M. J. Dolinski; J. Dolph; D. A. Dwyer; S. Fan; J. K. Gaison; A. Galindo-Uribarri; K. Gilje; A. Glenn; M. Green; K. Han; S. Hans; K. M. Heeger; B. Heffron; D. E. Jaffe; S. Kettell; T. J. Langford; B. R. Littlejohn; D. Martinez; R. D. McKeown; S. Morrell; P. E. Mueller; H. P. Mumm; J. Napolitano; D. Norcini; D. Pushin; E. Romero; R. Rosero; L. Saldana; B. S. Seilhan; R. Sharma; N. T. Stemen; P. T. Surukuchi; S. J. Thompson; R. L. Varner; W. Wang; S. M. Watson; B. White; C. White; J. Wilhelmi; C. Williams; T. Wise; H. Yao; M. Yeh; Y. -R. Yen; C. Zhang; X. Zhang

    2015-11-11

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including $\\gamma$-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. The general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  1. Research and educational activities at the MIT Research Reactor : Fiscal year 1968

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Nuclear Engineering; 7102 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Research Reactor. Staff; U.S. Atomic Energy Commission

    1968-01-01

    A report of research and educational activities which utilized the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, five-megawatt, heavy water, research reactor during fiscal year 1968 has been prepared for administrative use at MIT ...

  2. Reactor Physics Methods and Preconceptual Core Design Analyses for Conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor to Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Nigg; Sean R. Morrell

    2012-09-01

    Under the current long-term DOE policy and planning scenario, both the ATR and the ATRC will be reconfigured at an appropriate time within the next several years to operate with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This will be accomplished under the auspices of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, administered by the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). At a minimum, the internal design and composition of the fuel element plates and support structure will change, to accommodate the need for low enrichment in a manner that maintains total core excess reactivity at a suitable level for anticipated operational needs throughout each cycle while respecting all control and shutdown margin requirements and power distribution limits. The complete engineering design and optimization of LEU cores for the ATR and the ATRC will require significant multi-year efforts in the areas of fuel design, development and testing, as well as a complete re-analysis of the relevant reactor physics parameters for a core composed of LEU fuel, with possible control system modifications. Ultimately, revalidation of the computational physics parameters per applicable national and international standards against data from experimental measurements for prototypes of the new ATR and ATRC core designs will also be required for Safety Analysis Report (SAR) changes to support routine operations with LEU. This report is focused on reactor physics analyses conducted during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 to support the initial development of several potential preconceptual fuel element designs that are suitable candidates for further study and refinement during FY-2013 and beyond. In a separate, but related, effort in the general area of computational support for ATR operations, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting a focused multiyear effort to introduce modern high-fidelity computational reactor physics software and associated validation protocols to replace several obsolete components of the current analytical tool set used for ATR neutronics support. This aggressive computational and experimental campaign will have a broad strategic impact on the operation of the ATR, both in terms of improved computational efficiency and accuracy for support of ongoing DOE programs as well as in terms of national and international recognition of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). It will also greatly facilitate the LEU conversion effort, since the upgraded computational capabilities are now at a stage where they can be, and in fact have been, used for the required physics analysis from the beginning. In this context, extensive scoping neutronics analyses were completed for six preconceptual candidate LEU fuel element designs for the ATR (and for its companion critical facility, ATRC). Of these, four exhibited neutronics performance in what is believed to be an acceptable range. However, there are currently some concerns with regard to fabricability and mechanical performance that have emerged for one of the four latter concepts. Thus three concepts have been selected for more comprehensive conceptual design analysis during the upcoming fiscal year.

  3. Reactor Safety Research: Semiannual report, July-December 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting, under USNRC sponsorship, phenomenological research related to the safety of commercial nuclear power reactors. The research includes experiments to simulate the phenomenology of the accident conditions and the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety systems performance and behavior under abnormal conditions. The objective of this work is to provide NRC requisite data bases and analytical methods to (1) identify and define safety issues, (2) understand the progression of risk-significant accident sequences, and (3) conduct safety assessments. The collective NRC-sponsored effort at Sandia National Laboratories is directed at enhancing the tehcnology base supporting licensing decisions.

  4. Yale High Energy Physics Research: Precision Studies of Reactor Antineutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeger, Karsten M.

    2014-09-13

    This report presents experimental research at the intensity frontier of particle physics with particular focus on the study of reactor antineutrinos and the precision measurement of neutrino oscillations. The experimental neutrino physics group of Professor Heeger and Senior Scientist Band at Yale University has had leading responsibilities in the construction and operation of the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment and made critical contributions to the discovery of non-zero$\\theta_{13}$. Heeger and Band led the Daya Bay detector management team and are now overseeing the operations of the antineutrino detectors. Postdoctoral researchers and students in this group have made leading contributions to the Daya Bay analysis including the prediction of the reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum, the analysis of the oscillation signal, and the precision determination of the target mass yielding unprecedented precision in the relative detector uncertainty. Heeger's group is now leading an R\\&D effort towards a short-baseline oscillation experiment, called PROSPECT, at a US research reactor and the development of antineutrino detectors with advanced background discrimination.

  5. RESEARCH Open Access Evidence for GC-biased gene conversion as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarvis, Erich D.

    RESEARCH Open Access Evidence for GC-biased gene conversion as a driver of between, consistent with recombination-associated GC biased gene conversion (gBGC) more strongly impacting populations and a greater number of meioses per unit time; that is, a shorter generation time. Thus, in accord

  6. Design and optimization of a high thermal flux research reactor via Kriging-based algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kempf, Stephanie Anne

    2011-01-01

    In response to increasing demands for the services of research reactors, a 5 MW LEU-fueled research reactor core is developed and optimized to provide high thermal flux within specified limits upon thermal hydraulic ...

  7. Evaluation of ethane as a power conversion system working fluid for fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    A supercritical ethane working fluid Brayton power conversion system is evaluated as an alternative to carbon dioxide. The HSC® chemical kinetics code was used to study thermal dissociation and chemical interactions for ...

  8. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion - Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have organized our research into three Thematic Research Groups (TRGs) with expertise in theory, materials synthesis, characterization, simulation, device fabrication, and...

  9. Thermochemical Conversion Research and Development: Gasification and Pyrolysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    Biomass gasification and pyrolysis research and development activities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  10. Long life catalytic membrane reactors for spontaneous conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, M., White, J., Deych, S., Millard, J., Myers, M., Sammells, A.

    1997-10-01

    This program is focusing on the development of mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials based on the brown millerite structure for use in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs). These CMRs are being evaluated for promoting the spontaneous and highly selective oxidative reforming of carbon dioxide / natural gas mixtures to synthesis gas.

  11. Qualification of JEFF3.1.1 library for high conversion reactor calculations using the ERASME/R experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vidal, J. F.; Noguere, G.; Peneliau, Y.; Santamarina, A.

    2012-07-01

    With its low CO{sub 2} production, Nuclear Energy appears to be an efficient solution to the global warming due to green-house effect. However, current LWR reactors are poor uranium users and, pending the development of Fast Neutron Reactors, alternative concepts of PWR with higher conversion ratio (HCPWR) are being studied again at CEA, first studies dating from the middle 80's. In these French designs, low moderation ratio has been performed by tightening the lattice pitch, achieving a conversion ratio of 0.8-0.9 with a MOX fuel coming from PWR UOX recycling. Theses HCPWRs are characterized by a harder neutron spectrum and the calculation uncertainties on the fundamental neutronics parameters are increased by a factor 3 regarding a standard PWR lattice, due to the major contribution of the Plutonium isotopes and of the epithermal energy range to the reaction rates. In order to reduce these uncertainties, a 3-year experimental validation program called ERASME has been performed by CEA from 1984 to 1986 in the EOLE reactor. Monte Carlo analysis of the ERASME/R experiments with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI4 allowed the qualification of the recommended JEFF.3.1.1 library for major neutronics parameters. K{sub eff} of the MOX under-moderated lattice is over-predicted by 440 {+-} 830 pcm (2{sigma}); the conversion ratio, indicator of the good use of uranium, is also slightly over-predicted: 2 % {+-} 4 % (2{sigma}) and the same for B4C absorber rods worth and soluble boron worth, over-predicted by 2 %, both in the 2 standard deviations range. The radial fission maps of heterogeneities (water-holes, B4C and fertile rods) are well reproduced: maximal (C-E)/E dispersion is 1.3 %, maximal power peak error is 2.7 %. The void reactivity worth is the only parameter poorly calculated with an overprediction of +12.4% {+-} 1.5%. ERASME/R analysis of MOX reactivity, void effect and spectral indexes will contribute to the reevaluation of {sup 241}Am and Plutonium isotopes nuclear data for the next library JEFF3.2. (authors)

  12. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  13. Role of research reactors in training of NPP personnel with special focus on training reactor VR-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sklenka, L.; Rataj, J.; Frybort, J.; Huml, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Reactors, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical Univ. in Prague, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 8, 180 00 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Research reactors play an important role in providing key personnel of nuclear power plants a hands-on experience from operation and experiments at nuclear facilities. Training of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) staff is usually deeply theoretical with an extensive utilisation of simulators and computer visualisation. But a direct sensing of the reactor response to various actions can only improve the personnel awareness of important aspects of reactor operation. Training Reactor VR-1 and its utilization for training of NPP operators and other professionals from Czech Republic and Slovakia is described. Typical experimental exercises and good practices in organization of a training program are demonstrated. (authors)

  14. Eastern Europe Research Reactor Initiative nuclear education and training courses - Current activities and future challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snoj, L.; Sklenka, L.; Rataj, J.; Boeck, H.

    2012-07-01

    The Eastern Europe Research Reactor Initiative was established in January 2008 to enhance cooperation between the Research Reactors in Eastern Europe. It covers three areas of research reactor utilisation: irradiation of materials and fuel, radioisotope production, neutron beam experiments, education and training. In the field of education and training an EERRI training course was developed. The training programme has been elaborated with the purpose to assist IAEA Member States, which consider building a research reactor (RR) as a first step to develop nuclear competence and infrastructure in the Country. The major strength of the reactor is utilisation of three different research reactors and a lot of practical exercises. Due to high level of adaptability, the course can be tailored to specific needs of institutions with limited or no access to research reactors. (authors)

  15. University Research Reactor Task Force to the Nuclear Energy Research

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutoryin theNuclear Energy Research andofRod BeeverDataAdvisory

  16. Research Program - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation |Publications TheGashomeResearchResearch

  17. Research Program - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation |Publications TheGashomeResearchResearchIn the

  18. Research Program - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation |Publications TheGashomeResearchResearchIn theWe

  19. Research Program - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation |Publications TheGashomeResearchResearchIn theWeThe

  20. A global approach of the representativity concept: Application on a high-conversion light water reactor MOX lattice case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, N. D.; Blaise, P.; Santamarina, A.

    2013-07-01

    The development of new types of reactor and the increase in the safety specifications and requirements induce an enhancement in both nuclear data knowledge and a better understanding of the neutronic properties of the new systems. This enhancement is made possible using ad hoc critical mock-up experiments. The main difficulty is to design these experiments in order to obtain the most valuable information. Its quantification is usually made by using representativity and transposition concepts. These theories enable to extract some information about a quantity of interest (an integral parameter) on a configuration, but generally a posteriori. This paper presents a more global approach of this theory, with the idea of optimizing the representativity of a new experiment, and its transposition a priori, based on a multiparametric approach. Using a quadratic sum, we show the possibility to define a global representativity which permits to take into account several quantities of interest at the same time. The maximization of this factor gives information about all quantities of interest. An optimization method of this value in relation to technological parameters (over-clad diameter, atom concentration) is illustrated on a high-conversion light water reactor MOX lattice case. This example tackles the problematic of plutonium experiment for the plutonium aging and a solution through the optimization of both the over-clad and the plutonium content. (authors)

  1. Opportunities for Materials Science and Biological Research at the OPAL Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, S. J.

    2008-03-17

    Neutron scattering techniques have evolved over more than 1/2 century into a powerful set of tools for determination of atomic and molecular structures. Modern facilities offer the possibility to determine complex structures over length scales from {approx}0.1 nm to {approx}500 nm. They can also provide information on atomic and molecular dynamics, on magnetic interactions and on the location and behaviour of hydrogen in a variety of materials. The OPAL Research Reactor is a 20 megawatt pool type reactor using low enriched uranium fuel, and cooled by water. OPAL is a multipurpose neutron factory with modern facilities for neutron beam research, radioisotope production and irradiation services. The neutron beam facility has been designed to compete with the best beam facilities in the world. After six years in construction, the reactor and neutron beam facilities are now being commissioned, and we will commence scientific experiments later this year. The presentation will include an outline of the strengths of neutron scattering and a description of the OPAL research reactor, with particular emphasis on it's scientific infrastructure. It will also provide an overview of the opportunities for research in materials science and biology that will be possible at OPAL, and mechanisms for accessing the facilities. The discussion will emphasize how researchers from around the world can utilize these exciting new facilities.

  2. IGORR-IV -- Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenbalm, K.F. [comp.] [comp.

    1995-12-31

    The International Group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Twenty-nine papers were presented in five sessions and written versions of the papers or hard copies of the vugraphs used are published in these proceedings. The five sessions were: (1) Operating Research Reactors and Facility Upgrades; (2) Research Reactors in Design and Construction; (3) ANS Closeout Activities; (4) and (5) Research, Development, and Analysis Results.

  3. Semiconductor Physics and Quantum Solar Energy Conversion PV-related research at CvO University Oldenburg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semiconductor Physics and Quantum Solar Energy Conversion PV-related research at CvO University Oldenburg GRECO Cvo UNI OL/ Nds.PV-Symp. 06-2009 semiconductor physics / quantum solar energy conversion;Semiconductor Physics and Quantum Solar Energy Conversion Semiconductor Physics and Quantum Solar Energy

  4. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat PumpsTechnologies |LibraryCenter (LMI-EFRC) Research

  5. Reprocessing of research reactor fuel the Dounreay option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cartwright, P.

    1997-08-01

    Reprocessing is a proven process for the treatment of spent U/Al Research Reactor fuel. At Dounreay 12679 elements have been reprocessed during the past 30 years. For reactors converting to LEU fuel the uranium recovered in reprocessing can be blended down to less than 20% U{sub 235}, enrichment and be fabricated into new elements. For reactors already converted to LEU it is technically possible to reprocess spent silicide fuel to reduce the U{sub 235} burden and present to a repository only stable conditioned waste. The main waste stream from reprocessing which contains the Fission products is collected in underground storage tanks where it is kept for a period of at least five years before being converted to a stable solid form for return to the country of origin for subsequent storage/disposal. Discharges to the environment from reprocessing are low and are limited to the radioactive gases contained in the spent fuel and a low level liquid waste steam. Both of these discharges are independently monitored, and controlled within strict discharge limits set by the UK Government`s Scottish Office. Transportation of spent fuel to Dounreay has been undertaken using many routes from mainland Europe and has utilised over the past few years both chartered and scheduled vessel services. Several different transport containers have been handled and are currently licensed in the UK. This paper provides a short history of MTR reprocessing at Dounreay, and provides information to show reprocessing can satisfy the needs of MTR operators, showing that reprocessing is a valuable asset in non-proliferation terms, offers a complete solution and is environmentally acceptable.

  6. Current Research on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, R. M.; Magrini-Bair, K. A.; Nimlos, M. R.; Pepiot, P.; Donohoe, B. S.; Hensley, J. E.; Phillips, S. D.

    2012-04-05

    The thermochemical research platform at the National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is primarily focused on conversion of biomass to transportation fuels using non-biological techniques. Research is conducted in three general areas relating to fuels synthesis via thermochemical conversion by gasification: (1) Biomass gasification fundamentals, chemistry and mechanisms of tar formation; (2) Catalytic tar reforming and syngas cleaning; and (3) Syngas conversion to mixed alcohols. In addition, the platform supports activities in both technoeconomic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) of thermochemical conversion processes. Results from the TEA and LCA are used to inform and guide laboratory research for alternative biomass-to-fuels strategies. Detailed process models are developed using the best available material and energy balance information and unit operations models created at NREL and elsewhere. These models are used to identify cost drivers which then form the basis for research programs aimed at reducing costs and improving process efficiency while maintaining sustainability and an overall net reduction in greenhouse gases.

  7. Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) - Survey of Materials Research and Development Needs to Assess Viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2003-09-01

    Supercritical water-cooled reactors (SCWRs) are among the most promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency [i.e., about 45% vs. 33% of current light water reactors (LWRs)] and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs achieve this with superior thermodynamic conditions (i.e., high operating pressure and temperature), and by reducing the containment volume and eliminating the need for recirculation and jet pumps, pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers. The reference SCWR design in the U.S. is a direct cycle, thermal spectrum, light-water-cooled and moderated reactor with an operating pressure of 25 MPa and inlet/outlet coolant temperature of 280/500 °C. The inlet flow splits, partly to a down-comer and partly to a plenum at the top of the reactor pressure vessel to flow downward through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core, where the coolant density is only about 15-20% that of liquid water. The SCWR uses a power conversion cycle similar to that used in supercritical fossil-fired plants: high- intermediate- and low-pressure turbines are employed with one moisture-separator re-heater and up to eight feedwater heaters. The reference power is 3575 MWt, the net electric power is 1600 MWe and the thermal efficiency is 44.8%. The fuel is low-enriched uranium oxide fuel and the plant is designed primarily for base load operation. The purpose of this report is to survey existing materials for fossil, fission and fusion applications and identify the materials research and development needed to establish the SCWR viabilitya with regard to possible materials of construction. The two most significant materials related factors in going from the current LWR designs to the SCWR are the increase in outlet coolant temperature from 300 to 500 °C and the possible compatibility issues associated with the supercritical water environment. • Reactor pressure vessel • Pumps and piping

  8. Sodium fast reactor fuels and materials : research needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R.; Porter, Douglas; Wright, Art; Lambert, John; Hayes, Steven; Natesan, Ken; Ott, Larry J.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2011-09-01

    An expert panel was assembled to identify gaps in fuels and materials research prior to licensing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) design. The expert panel considered both metal and oxide fuels, various cladding and duct materials, structural materials, fuel performance codes, fabrication capability and records, and transient behavior of fuel types. A methodology was developed to rate the relative importance of phenomena and properties both as to importance to a regulatory body and the maturity of the technology base. The technology base for fuels and cladding was divided into three regimes: information of high maturity under conservative operating conditions, information of low maturity under more aggressive operating conditions, and future design expectations where meager data exist.

  9. Nuclear plant-aging research on reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the rsults of a review of the Reactor Trip System (RTS) and the Engineered Safety Feature Actuating System (ESFAS) operating experiences reported in Licensee Event Reports (LER)s, the Nuclear Power Experience data base, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, and plant maintenance records. Our purpose is to evaluate the potential significance of aging, including cycling, trips, and testing as contributors to degradation of the RTS and ESFAS. Tables are presented that show the percentage of events for RTS and ESFAS classified by cause, components, and subcomponents for each of the Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors. A representative Babcock and Wilcox plant was selected for detailed study. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research guidelines were followed in performing the detailed study that identified materials susceptible to aging, stressors, environmental factors, and failure modes for the RTS and ESFAS as generic instrumentation and control systems. Functional indicators of degradation are listed, testing requirements evaluated, and regulatory issues discussed.

  10. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofu, Tanju; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Bari, R.; Wigeland, Roald; Denman, Matthew R.; Flanagan, George F.

    2012-05-01

    This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident sequences and initiators, source term characterization, codes and methods, and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this report to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for the SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the Applied Technology designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust Knowledge Management and Preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with Applied Technology and Knowledge Management.

  11. Investigation of the Performance of D2O-Cooled High-Conversion Reactors for Fuel Cycle Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-09-01

    This report presents FY13 activities for the analysis of D2O cooled tight-pitch High-Conversion PWRs (HCPWRs) with U-Pu and Th-U fueled cores aiming at break-even or near breeder conditions while retaining the negative void reactivity. The analyses are carried out from several aspects which could not be covered in FY12 activities. SCALE 6.1 code system is utilized, and a series of simple 3D fuel pin-cell models are developed in order to perform Monte Carlo based criticality and burnup calculations. The performance of U-Pu fueled cores with axial and internal blankets is analyzed in terms of their impact on the relative fissile Pu mass balance, initial Pu enrichment, and void coefficient. In FY12, Pu conversion performances of D2O-cooled HCPWRs fueled with MOX were evaluated with small sized axial/internal DU blankets (approximately 4cm of axial length) in order to ensure the negative void reactivity, which evidently limits the conversion performance of HCPWRs. In this fiscal year report, the axial sizes of DU blankets are extended up to 30 cm in order to evaluate the amount of DU necessary to reach break-even and/or breeding conditions. Several attempts are made in order to attain the milestone of the HCPWR designs (i.e., break-even condition and negative void reactivity) by modeling of HCPWRs under different conditions such as boiling of D2O coolant, MOX with different 235U enrichment, and different target burnups. A similar set of analyses are performed for Th-U fueled cores. Several promising characteristics of 233U over other fissile like 239Pu and 235U, most notably its higher fission neutrons per absorption in thermal and epithermal ranges combined with lower ___ in the fast range than 239Pu allows Th-U cores to be taller than MOX ones. Such an advantage results in 4% higher relative fissile mass balance than that of U-Pu fueled cores while retaining the negative void reactivity until the target burnup of 51 GWd/t. Several other distinctions between U-Pu and Th-U fueled cores are identified by evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of keff, mass balance, and void coefficient. The effect of advanced iron alloy cladding (i.e., FeCrAl) on the performance of Pu conversion in MOX fueled cores is studied instead of using standard stainless-steel cladding. Variations in clad thickness and coolant-to-fuel volume ratio are also exercised. The use of FeCrAl instead of SS as a cladding alloy reduces the required Pu enrichment and improves the Pu conversion rate primarily due to the absence of nickel in the cladding alloy that results in the reduction of the neutron absorption. Also the difference in void coefficients between SS and FeCrAl alloys is nearly 500 pcm over the entire burnup range. The report also shows sensitivity and uncertainty analyses in order to characterize D2O cooled HCPWRs from different aspects. The uncertainties of integral parameters (keff and void coefficient) for selected reactor cores are evaluated at different burnup points in order to find similarities and trends respect to D2O-HCPWR.

  12. Instrumentation for Neutron Scattering at the Missouri University Research Reactor Paul F. Miceli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montfrooij, Wouter

    Instrumentation for Neutron Scattering at the Missouri University Research Reactor Paul F. Miceli Research Reactor (MURR) provides significant thermal neutron flux, which enables neutron scattering]. There are presently 5 instruments located on the beam port floor that are dedicated to neutron scattering: (1) TRIAX

  13. Second generation Research Reactor Fuel Container (RRFC-II).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhold, M. E.; Baker, M. C.; Bourret, S. C.; Harker, W. C.; Pelowitz, D. G.; Polk, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    The second generation Research Reactor Fuel Counter (RRFC-II) has been developed to measure the remaining {sup 235}U content in foreign spent Material Test Reactor (MTR)-type fuel being returned to the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRS) for interim storage and subsequent disposal. The fuel to be measured started as fresh fuel nominally with 93% enriched Uraniuin alloyed with A1 clad in Al. The fuel was irradiated to levels of up to 65% burnup. The RRFC-II, which will be located in the L-Basin spent fuel pool, is intended to assay the {sup 235}U content using a combination of passive neutron coincidence counting, active neutron coincidence counting, and active-multiplicity analysis. Measurements will be done underwater, eliminating the need for costly and hazardous handling operations of spent fuel out of water. The underwater portion of the RRFC-II consists of a watertight stainless steel housing containing neutron and gamma detectors and a scanning active neutron source. The portion of the system that resides above water consists of data-processing electronics; electromechanical drive electronics; a computer to control the operation of the counter, to collect, and to analyze data; and a touch screen interface located at the equipment rack. The RRFC-II is an improved version of the Los Alamos-designed RRFC already installed in the SRS Receipts Basin for Offsite Fuel. The RRFC-II has been fabricated and is scheduled for installation in late FY 2001 pending acceptance testing by Savannah River Site personnel.

  14. Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Survey of Materials Research and Development Needs to Support Early Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Shaber; G. Baccaglini; S. Ball; T. Burchell; B. Corwin; T. Fewell; M. Labar; P. MacDonald; P. Rittenhouse; Russ Vollam; F. Southworth

    2003-01-01

    The VHTR reference concept is a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an outlet temperature of 1000 C or higher. It is expected that the VHTR will be purchased in the future as either an electricity producing plant with a direct cycle gas turbine or a hydrogen producing (or other process heat application) plant. The process heat version of the VHTR will require that an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and primary gas circulator be located in an adjoining power conversion vessel. A third VHTR mission - actinide burning - can be accomplished with either the hydrogen-production or gas turbine designs. The first ''demonstration'' VHTR will produce both electricity and hydrogen using the IHX to transfer the heat to either a hydrogen production plant or the gas turbine. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will be designed to assure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage during accidents. The fuel cycle will be a once-through very high burnup low-enriched uranium fuel cycle. The purpose of this report is to identify the materials research and development needs for the VHTR. To do this, we focused on the plant design described in Section 2, which is similar to the GT-MHR plant design (850 C core outlet temperature). For system or component designs that present significant material challenges (or far greater expense) there may be some viable design alternatives or options that can reduce development needs or allow use of available (cheaper) materials. Nevertheless, we were not able to assess those alternatives in the time allotted for this report and, to move forward with this material research and development assessment, the authors of this report felt that it was necessary to use a GT-MHR type design as the baseline design.

  15. 478 IEEE Transactionson Energy Conversion,vol.7, No. 3, September1092. THE PENN STATE INTELLIGENT DISTRIBUTED CONTROL RESEARCH LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    also been interfaced to the PSU TRIGA nuclear research reactor and enables research in optimal, robust,microprocessor-based control, intelligent control, robust control, distributed control, hierarchical control, nuclear power reactor power plant. This test-bed, which may be expanded to simulate other nuclear power plant

  16. Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    * Complete reactor control rod system. * Note: Does not include the steam turbine generator portion of the power plant. - Sensitive nuclear technology: Any information...

  17. Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Sandia National Laboratories achieves 10,000th reactor pulse operation | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the...

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Program of International Technical Cooperation for Research Reactor Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chong, D.; Manning, M.; Ellis, R.; Apt, K.; Flaim, S.; Sylvester, K.

    2004-10-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) has initiated collaborations with the national nuclear authorities of Egypt, Peru, and Romania for the purpose of advancing the commercial potential and utilization of their respective research reactors. Under its Office of International Safeguards ''Sister Laboratory'' program, DOE/NNSA has undertaken numerous technical collaborations over the past decade intended to promote peaceful applications of nuclear technology. Among these has been technical assistance in research reactor applications, such as neutron activation analysis, nuclear analysis, reactor physics, and medical radioisotope production. The current collaborations are intended to provide the subject countries with a methodology for greater commercialization of research reactor products and services. Our primary goal is the transfer of knowledge, both in administrative and technical issues, needed for the establishment of an effective business plan and utilization strategy for the continued operation of the countries' research reactors. Technical consultation, cooperation, and the information transfer provided are related to: identification, evaluation, and assessment of current research reactor capabilities for products and services; identification of opportunities for technical upgrades for new or expanded products and services; advice and consultation on research reactor upgrades and technical modifications; characterization of markets for reactor products and services; identification of competition and estimation of potential for market penetration; integration of technical constraints; estimation of cash flow streams; and case studies.

  19. DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long Term Operations Program – Joint Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Description of Joint DOE and EPRI research and development programs related to reactor sustainability INL/EXT-12-24562

  20. PREPARING THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR FOR CONVERSION TO LOW ENRICHED URANIUM FUEL ? RETURN TO 100 MW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kevin Arthur [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel as a replacement for the current, high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been under study since 2006. Reactor performance studies have been completed for conceptual plate designs and show that maintaining reactor performance while converting to LEU fuel requires returning the reactor power to 100 MW from 85 MW. The analyses required to up-rate the reactor power and the methods to perform these analyses are discussed. Comments regarding the regulatory approval process are provided along with a conceptual schedule.

  1. Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research and Development by the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Matlack, Katie [Georgia Institute of Technology; Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Light, Glenn [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The Department of Energy s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a five year effort which works to develop the fundamental scientific basis to understand, predict, and measure changes in materials and systems, structure, and components as they age in environments associated with continued long-term operations of existing commercial nuclear power reactors. This year, the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of this program has placed emphasis on emerging Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods which support these objectives. DOE funded Research and Development (R&D) on emerging NDE techniques to support commercial nuclear reactor sustainability is expected to begin next year. This summer, the MAaD Pathway invited subject matter experts to participate in a series of workshops which developed the basis for the research plan of these DOE R&D NDE activities. This document presents the results of one of these workshops which are the DOE LWRS NDE R&D Roadmap for Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV). These workshops made a substantial effort to coordinate the DOE NDE R&D with that already underway or planned by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) through their representation at these workshops.

  2. EA-0912: Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to accept 409 spent fuel elements from eight foreign research reactors in seven European countries.  The spent fuel would be shipped across...

  3. Two U.S. University Research Reactors to be Converted From Highly...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy (DOE) has begun to convert research reactors from using highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium fuel (LEU) at the University of Florida and Texas A&M...

  4. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for thermo-hydraulic calculation of research reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartini, Entin; Andiwijayakusuma, Dinan [Center for Development of Nuclear Informatics - National Nuclear Energy Agency PUSPIPTEK, Serpong, Tangerang, Banten (Indonesia)] [Center for Development of Nuclear Informatics - National Nuclear Energy Agency PUSPIPTEK, Serpong, Tangerang, Banten (Indonesia); Isnaeni, Muh Darwis [Center for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety- National Nuclear Energy Agency PUSPIPTEK, Serpong, Tangerang, Banten (Indonesia)] [Center for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety- National Nuclear Energy Agency PUSPIPTEK, Serpong, Tangerang, Banten (Indonesia)

    2013-09-09

    The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of input parameters on thermohydraulic calculations for a research reactor has successfully done in this research. The uncertainty analysis was carried out on input parameters for thermohydraulic calculation of sub-channel analysis using Code COOLOD-N. The input parameters include radial peaking factor, the increase bulk coolant temperature, heat flux factor and the increase temperature cladding and fuel meat at research reactor utilizing plate fuel element. The input uncertainty of 1% - 4% were used in nominal power calculation. The bubble detachment parameters were computed for S ratio (the safety margin against the onset of flow instability ratio) which were used to determine safety level in line with the design of 'Reactor Serba Guna-G. A. Siwabessy' (RSG-GA Siwabessy). It was concluded from the calculation results that using the uncertainty input more than 3% was beyond the safety margin of reactor operation.

  5. Technician's Perspective on an Ever-Changing Research Environment: Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thibodeaux, J.; Hensley, J.

    2013-01-01

    The biomass thermochemical conversion platform at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) develops and demonstrates processes for the conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals including gasification, pyrolysis, syngas clean-up, and catalytic synthesis of alcohol and hydrocarbon fuels. In this talk, I will discuss the challenges of being a technician in this type of research environment, including handling and working with catalytic materials and hazardous chemicals, building systems without being given all of the necessary specifications, pushing the limits of the systems through ever-changing experiments, and achieving two-way communication with engineers and supervisors. I will do this by way of two examples from recent research. First, I will describe a unique operate-to-failure experiment in the gasification of chicken litter that resulted in the formation of a solid plug in the gasifier, requiring several technicians to chisel the material out. Second, I will compare and contrast bench scale and pilot scale catalyst research, including instances where both are conducted simultaneously from common upstream equipment. By way of example, I hope to illustrate the importance of researchers 1) understanding the technicians' perspective on tasks, 2) openly communicating among all team members, and 3) knowing when to voice opinions. I believe the examples in this talk will highlight the crucial role of a technical staff: skills attained by years of experience to build and operate research and production systems. The talk will also showcase the responsibilities of NREL technicians and highlight some interesting behind-the-scenes work that makes data generation from NREL's thermochemical process development unit possible.

  6. Sandia Energy - Wavelength Conversion Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wavelength Conversion Materials Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC Overview Wavelength Conversion Materials Wavelength Conversion MaterialsAlyssa...

  7. MODULAR PEBBLE BED REACTOR PROJECT UNIVERSITY RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    includes the development of a fission gas release model, particle temperature distributions, internal conceptual design for a gas-cooled, modular, pebble bed reactor. Key technology areas associated particle pressure, migration of fission products, and chemical attack of fuel particle layers. · A balance

  8. Plant Design and Cost Estimation of a Natural Circulation Lead-Bismuth Reactor with Helium Power Conversion Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D.

    The analysis of an indirect helium power conversion system with lead-bismuth natural circulation primary system has been performed. The work of this report is focused on 1) identifying the allowable design region for the ...

  9. Air pollution control technology for municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities: capabilities and research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, J F; Young, J C

    1980-09-01

    Three major categories of waste-to-energy conversion processes in full-scale operation or advanced demonstration stages in the US are co-combustion, mass incineration, and pyrolysis. These methods are described and some information on US conversion facilities is tabulated. Conclusions and recommendations dealing with the operation, performance, and research needs for these facilities are given. Section II identifies research needs concerning air pollution aspects of the waste-to-energy processes and reviews significant operating and research findings for the co-combustion, mass incinceration, and pyrolysis waste-to-energy systems.

  10. Investigation into direct conversion with medium energy He-ion beams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guild-Bingham, Avery A.

    2005-02-17

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) Direct Energy Conversion project has identified the fission fragment magnetic collimator reactor (FFMCR) as a promising direct fission fragment conversion concept. The US DOE NERI Proof... of fission fragments which are the highly charged particles released as a result of nuclear fission. Prototypes based on some of those studies were constructed and irradiated in research reactors which experimentally confirmed the basic physics concepts...

  11. Syngas Production By Thermochemical Conversion Of H2o And Co2 Mixtures Using A Novel Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearlman, Howard; Chen, Chien-Hua

    2014-08-27

    The Department of Energy awarded Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) an SBIR Phase II contract (#DE-SC0004729) to develop a high-temperature solar thermochemical reactor for syngas production using water and/or carbon dioxide as feedstocks. The technology aims to provide a renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels, promote energy independence and mitigate adverse issues associated with climate change by essentially recycling carbon from carbon dioxide emitted by the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. To commercialize the technology and drive down the cost of solar fuels, new advances are needed in materials development and reactor design, both of which are integral elements in this program.

  12. Assumptions and Criteria for Performing a Feasability Study of the Conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Core to Use Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primm, R.T., III; Ellis, R.J.; Gehin, J.C.; Moses, D.L.; Binder, J.L.; Xoubi, N. (U. of Cincinnati)

    2006-02-01

    A computational study will be initiated during fiscal year 2006 to examine the feasibility of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from highly enriched uranium fuel to low-enriched uranium. The study will be limited to steady-state, nominal operation, reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic analyses of a uranium-molybdenum alloy that would be substituted for the current fuel powder--U{sub 3}O{sub 8} mixed with aluminum. The purposes of this document are to (1) define the scope of studies to be conducted, (2) define the methodologies to be used to conduct the studies, (3) define the assumptions that serve as input to the methodologies, (4) provide an efficient means for communication with the Department of Energy and American research reactor operators, and (5) expedite review and commentary by those parties.

  13. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Energy Conversion 1976-2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mines, Gregory L.

    2010-09-01

    This report, the last in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in energy conversion and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  14. MANAGEMENT OF RESEARCH AND TEST REACTOR ALUMINUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL - A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, D.

    2010-07-11

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Program is responsible for the receipt and storage of aluminum research reactor spent nuclear fuel or used fuel until ultimate disposition. Aluminum research reactor used fuel is currently being stored or is anticipated to be returned to the U.S. and stored at DOE-EM storage facilities at the Savannah River Site and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This paper assesses the technologies and the options for safe transportation/receipt and interim storage of aluminum research reactor spent fuel and reviews the comprehensive strategy for its management. The U.S. Department of Energy uses the Appendix A, Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Criteria, to identify the physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics of spent nuclear fuel to be returned to the United States under the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program. The fuel is further evaluated for acceptance through assessments of the fuel at the foreign sites that include corrosion damage and handleability. Transport involves use of commercial shipping casks with defined leakage rates that can provide containment of the fuel, some of which are breached. Options for safe storage include wet storage and dry storage. Both options must fully address potential degradation of the aluminum during the storage period. This paper focuses on the various options for safe transport and storage with respect to technology maturity and application.

  15. Golden Mountains The Altai Republic in the Russian Federation Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute Kobayashi Tooru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

    1 Golden Mountains ­ The Altai Republic in the Russian Federation Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute Kobayashi Tooru It is said that Altai also means golden mountains. The development to these mountains easier especially during the warm summer season. Being geographically located at the central

  16. Environmental Assessment of Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy has completed the Environmental Assessment (EA) of Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel and issued a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the proposed action. The EA and FONSI are enclosed for your information. The Department has decided to accept a limited number of spent nuclear fuel elements (409 elements) containing uranium that was enriched in the United States from eight research reactors in Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland. This action is necessary to maintain the viability of a major US nuclear weapons nonproliferation program to limit or eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium in civil programs. The purpose of the EA is to maintain the cooperation of the foreign research reactor operators with the nonproliferation program while a more extensive Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is prepared on a proposed broader policy involving the acceptance of up to 15,000 foreign research reactor spent fuel elements over a 10 to 15 year period. Based on an evaluation of transport by commercial container liner or chartered vessel, five eastern seaboard ports, and truck and train modes of transporting the spent fuel overland to the Savannah River Sits, the Department has concluded that no significant impact would result from any combination of port and made of transport. In addition, no significant impacts were found from interim storage of spent fuel at the Savannah River Site.

  17. Research and Medical Isotope Reactor Supply | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 WinnersAffiliatesMadden-JulianOut withResearch Sheds LightComplex

  18. EVALUATION OF CORE PHYSICS ANALYSIS METHODS FOR CONVERSION OF THE INL ADVANCED TEST REACTOR TO LOW-ENRICHMENT FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark DeHart; Gray S. Chang

    2012-04-01

    Computational neutronics studies to support the possible conversion of the ATR to LEU are underway. Simultaneously, INL is engaged in a physics methods upgrade project to put into place modern computational neutronics tools for future support of ATR fuel cycle and experiment analysis. A number of experimental measurements have been performed in the ATRC in support of the methods upgrade project, and are being used to validate the new core physics methods. The current computational neutronics work is focused on performance of scoping calculations for the ATR core loaded with a candidate LEU fuel design. This will serve as independent confirmation of analyses that have been performed previously, and will evaluate some of the new computational methods for analysis of a candidate LEU fuel for ATR.

  19. Development of Regulatory Technical Requirements for the Advanced Integral Type Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik; Kim, Hho Jung

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the current status of the study on the development of regulatory technical requirements for the licensing review of an advanced integral type research reactor of which the license application is expected in a few years. According to the Atomic Energy Act of Korea, both research and education reactors are subject to the technical requirements for power reactors in the licensing review. But, some of the requirements may not be applicable or insufficient for the licensing reviews of reactors with unique design features. Thus it is necessary to identify which review topics or areas can not be addressed by the existing requirements and to develop the required ones newly or supplement appropriately. Through the study performed so far, it has been identified that the following requirements need to be developed newly for the licensing review of SMART-P: the use of proven technology, the interfacial facility, the non-safety systems, and the metallic fuels. The approach and basis for the development of each of the requirements are discussed. (authors)

  20. Testing of a Transport Cask for Research Reactor Spent Fuel - 13003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mourao, Rogerio P.; Leite da Silva, Luiz; Miranda, Carlos A.; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Quintana, Jose F.A.; Saliba, Roberto O.; Novara, Oscar E.

    2013-07-01

    Since the beginning of the last decade three Latin American countries that operate research reactors - Argentina, Brazil and Chile - have been joining efforts to improve the regional capability in the management of spent fuel elements from the TRIGA and MTR reactors operated in the region. A main drive in this initiative, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the fact that no definite solution regarding the back end of the research reactor fuel cycle has been taken by any of the participating country. However, any long-term solution - either disposition in a repository or storage away from reactor - will involve at some stage the transportation of the spent fuel through public roads. Therefore, a licensed cask that provides adequate shielding, assurance of subcriticality, and conformance to internationally accepted safety, security and safeguards regimes is considered a strategic part of any future solution to be adopted at a regional level. As a step in this direction, a packaging for the transport of irradiated fuel for MTR and TRIGA research reactors was designed by the tri-national team and a half-scale model equipped with the MTR version of the internal basket was constructed in Argentina and Brazil and tested in Brazil. Three test campaigns have been carried out so far, covering both normal conditions of transportation and hypothetical accident conditions. After failing the tests in the first two test series, the specimen successfully underwent the last test sequence. A second specimen, incorporating the structural improvements in view of the previous tests results, will be tested in the near future. Numerical simulations of the free drop and thermal tests are being carried out in parallel, in order to validate the computational modeling that is going to be used as a support for the package certification. (authors)

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Instrumentation and Controls Technology Research for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces (ICHMI) are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to resolve the technical challenges that may compromise the effective and efficient utilization of modern ICHMI technology and consequently inhibit realization of the benefits offered by expanded utilization of nuclear power. Consequently, key DOE programs have substantial ICHMI RD&D elements to their respective research portfolio. This article describes current ICHMI research to support the development of advanced small modular reactors.

  2. Planning Document for an NBSR Conversion Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond D. J.; Baek J.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

    2013-09-25

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the National Bureau of Standards Reactor (NBSR). The NBSR is a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a planning document for the conversion Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to, and approved by, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) before the reactor could be converted.This report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis herein is on the SAR chapters that require significant changes as a result of conversion, primarily Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis. The document provides information on the proposed design for the LEU fuel elements and identifies what information is still missing. This document is intended to assist ongoing fuel development efforts, and to provide a platform for the development of the final conversion SAR. This report contributes directly to the reactor conversion pillar of the GTRI program, but also acts as a boundary condition for the fuel development and fuel fabrication pillars.

  3. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

  4. A simple setup for neutron tomography at the Portuguese Nuclear Research Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Stanojev Pereira; J. G. Marques; R. Pugliesi

    2012-05-15

    A simple setup for neutron radiography and tomography was recently installed at the Portuguese Research Reactor. The objective of this work was to determine the operational characteristics of the installed setup, namely the irradiation time to obtain the best dynamic range for individual images and the spatial resolution. The performance of the equipment was demonstrated by imaging a fragment of a 17th century decorative tile.

  5. Decommissioning of German Research Reactors Under the Governance of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research - 12154

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weigl, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Projekttraeger Karlsruhe (PTKA-WTE), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Since 1956, nuclear research and development (R and D) in Germany has been supported by the Federal Government. The goal was to help German industry to become competitive in all fields of nuclear technology. National research centers were established and demonstration plants were built. In the meantime, all these facilities were shut down and are now in a state of decommissioning and dismantling (D and D). Meanwhile, Germany is one of the leading countries in the world in the field of D and D. Two big demonstration plants, the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant (KKN) a heavy-water cooled pressure tube reactor with carbon-dioxide cooling and the Karlstein Superheated Steam Reactor (HDR) a boiling light water reactor with a thermal power of 100 MW, are totally dismantled and 'green field' is reached. Another big project was finished in 2008. The Forschungs-Reaktor Juelich 1 (FRJ1), a research reactor with a thermal power of 10 MW was completely dismantled and in September 2008 an oak tree was planted on a green field at the site, where the FRJ1 was standing before. This is another example for German success in the field of D and D. Within these projects a lot of new solutions and innovative techniques were tested, which were developed at German universities and in small and medium sized companies mostly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Some examples are underwater-cutting technologies like plasma arc cutting and contact arc metal cutting. This clearly shows that research on the field of D and D is important for the future. Moreover, these research activities are important to save the know-how in nuclear engineering in Germany and will enable enterprises to compete on the increasing market of D and D services. The author assumes that an efficient decommissioning of nuclear installations will help stabilize the credibility of nuclear energy. Some critics of nuclear energy are insisting that a return to 'green field sites' is not possible. The successful completion of two big D and D projects (HDR and KKN), which reached green field conditions, are showing quite the contrary. Moreover, research on D and D technologies offers the possibility to educate students on a field of nuclear technology, which will be very important in the future. In these days D and D companies are seeking for a lot of young engineers and this will not change in the coming years. (authors)

  6. Pit disassembly and conversion demonstration environmental assessment and research and development activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-01

    A significant portion of the surplus plutonium is in the form of pits, a nuclear weapons component. Pits are composed of plutonium which is sealed in a metallic shell. These pits would need to be safely disassembled and permanently converted to an unclassified form that would be suitable for long-term disposition and international inspection. To determine the feasibility of an integrated pit disassembly and conversion system, a Pit Disassembly and Conversion Demonstration is proposed to take place at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This demonstration would be done in existing buildings and facilities, and would involve the disassembly of up to 250 pits and conversion of the recovered plutonium to plutonium metal ingots and plutonium dioxide. This demonstration also includes the conversion of up to 80 kilograms of clean plutonium metal to plutonium dioxide because, as part of the disposition process, some surplus plutonium metal may be converted to plutonium dioxide in the same facility as the surplus pits. The equipment to be used for the proposed demonstration addressed in this EA would use some parts of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) capability, other existing equipment/capacities, plus new equipment that was developed at other sites. In addition, small-scale R and D activities are currently underway as part of the overall surplus plutonium disposition program. These R and D activities are related to pit disassembly and conversion, MOX fuel fabrication, and immobilization (in glass and ceramic forms). They are described in Section 7.0. On May 16, 1997, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) notified potentially affected states and tribes that this EA would be prepared in accordance with NEPA. This EA has been prepared to provide sufficient information for DOE to determine whether a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is warranted or whether an EIS must be prepared.

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF U10MO MONOLITHIC MINIPLATES FOR RESEARCH AND TEST REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakan Ozaltun & Herman Shen

    2011-11-01

    This article presents assessment of the mechanical behavior of U-10wt% Mo (U10Mo) alloy based monolithic fuel plates subject to irradiation. Monolithic, plate-type fuel is a new fuel form being developed for research and test reactors to achieve higher uranium densities within the reactor core to allow the use of low-enriched uranium fuel in high-performance reactors. Identification of the stress/strain characteristics is important for understanding the in-reactor performance of these plate-type fuels. For this work, three distinct cases were considered: (1) fabrication induced residual stresses (2) thermal cycling of fabricated plates; and finally (3) transient mechanical behavior under actual operating conditions. Because the temperatures approach the melting temperature of the cladding during the fabrication and thermal cycling, high temperature material properties were incorporated to improve the accuracy. Once residual stress fields due to fabrication process were identified, solution was used as initial state for the subsequent simulations. For thermal cycling simulation, elasto-plastic material model with thermal creep was constructed and residual stresses caused by the fabrication process were included. For in-service simulation, coupled fluid-thermal-structural interaction was considered. First, temperature field on the plates was calculated and this field was used to compute the thermal stresses. For time dependent mechanical behavior, thermal creep of cladding, volumetric swelling and fission induced creep of the fuel foil were considered. The analysis showed that the stresses evolve very rapidly in the reactor. While swelling of the foil increases the stress of the foil, irradiation induced creep causes stress relaxation.

  8. OVERVIEW OF CRITERIA FOR INTERIM WET & DRY STORAGE OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.; Vinson, D.; Iyer, N.; Fisher, D.

    2010-11-03

    Following discharge from research reactors, spent nuclear fuel may be stored 'wet' in water pools or basins, or it may be stored 'dry' in various configurations including non-sealed or sealed containers until retrieved for ultimate disposition. Interim safe storage practices are based on avoiding degradation to the fuel that would impact functions related to safety. Recommended practices including environmental controls with technical bases, are outlined for wet storage and dry storage of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based research reactor fuel. For wet storage, water quality must be maintained to minimize corrosion degradation of aluminum fuel. For dry storage, vented canister storage of aluminum fuel readily provides a safe storage configuration. For sealed dry storage, drying must be performed so as to minimize water that would cause additional corrosion and hydrogen generation. Consideration must also be given to the potential for radiolytically-generated hydrogen from the bound water in the attendant oxyhydroxides on aluminum fuel from reactor operation for dry storage systems.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Research Foundations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of gamma-ray radiation. The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) is used for reactor-driven laser experiments, space reactor fuels development, pulse reactor kinetics, reactor...

  10. RELAP5 Application to Accident Analysis of the NIST Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, J.; Cuadra Gascon, A.; Cheng, L.Y.; Diamond, D.

    2012-03-18

    Detailed safety analyses have been performed for the 20 MW D{sub 2}O moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The time-dependent analysis of the primary system is determined with a RELAP5 transient analysis model that includes the reactor vessel, the pump, heat exchanger, fuel element geometry, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. A post-processing of the simulation results has been conducted to evaluate minimum critical heat flux ratio (CHFR) using the Sudo-Kaminaga correlation. Evaluations are performed for the following accidents: (1) the control rod withdrawal startup accident and (2) the maximum reactivity insertion accident. In both cases the RELAP5 results indicate that there is adequate margin to CHF and no damage to the fuel will occur because of sufficient coolant flow through the fuel channels and the negative scram reactivity insertion.

  11. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program is responsible for performing research and development on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. Studies of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels have been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual design studies. These design studies generally focus on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Three realistic candidate materials have been identified by this process: conventional light water reactor RPV steels A508/533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and modified 9Cr 1Mo ferritic martenistic steel. Based on superior strength and higher temperature limits, the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has been identified by the majority of design engineers as the preferred choice for the RPV. All of the vendors have concluded, however, that with adequate engineered cooling of the vessel, the A508/533 steels are also acceptable.

  12. An American company thinks it can have a commercial reactor ready and working within a decade ONE of the clichs of nuclear-power research is that a commercial fusion reactor is only 30 years away, and always1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    South Bohemia, University of

    of the clichés of nuclear-power research is that a commercial fusion reactor is only 30 years away, and always1An American company thinks it can have a commercial reactor ready and working within a decade ONE that Lockheed Martin,2 a big American engineering and defence company, has a new design for a fusion reactor

  13. Estimate of radiation release from MIT reactor with low enriched uranium (LEU) core during maximum hypothetical accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plumer, Kevin E. (Kevin Edward)

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with a 1986 NRC ruling, the MIT Research Reactor (MITR) is planning on converting from the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) for fuel. A component of the conversion analysis ...

  14. Development of a system model for advanced small modular reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a system model that can be used to analyze three advance small modular reactor (SMR) designs through their lifetime. Neutronics of these reactor designs were evaluated using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX/6). The system models were developed in Matlab and Simulink. A major thrust of this research was the initial scoping analysis of Sandia's concept of a long-life fast reactor (LLFR). The inherent characteristic of this conceptual design is to minimize the change in reactivity over the lifetime of the reactor. This allows the reactor to operate substantially longer at full power than traditional light water reactors (LWRs) or other SMR designs (e.g. high temperature gas reactor (HTGR)). The system model has subroutines for lifetime reactor feedback and operation calculations, thermal hydraulic effects, load demand changes and a simplified SCO2 Brayton cycle for power conversion.

  15. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and EMTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed data that support the results given in Volume 1, including unit-component data.

  16. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production, with an outlet gas temperature in the range of 750°C, and a design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. This technology development plan details the additional research and development (R&D) required to design and license the NGNP RPV, assuming that A 508/A 533 is the material of construction. The majority of additional information that is required is related to long-term aging behavior at NGNP vessel temperatures, which are somewhat above those commonly encountered in the existing database from LWR experience. Additional data are also required for the anticipated NGNP environment. An assessment of required R&D for a Grade 91 vessel has been retained from the first revision of the R&D plan in Appendix B in somewhat less detail. Considerably more development is required for this steel compared to A 508/A 533 including additional irradiation testing for expected NGNP operating temperatures, high-temperature mechanical properties, and extensive studies of long-term microstructural stability.

  17. System Upgrades at the Advanced Test Reactor Help Ensure that Nuclear Energy Research Continues at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Wise

    2011-12-01

    Fully operational in 1967, the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a first-of-its-kind materials test reactor. Located on the Idaho National Laboratory’s desert site, this reactor remains at the forefront of nuclear science, producing extremely high neutron irradiation in a relatively short time span. The Advanced Test Reactor is also the only U.S. reactor that can replicate multiple reactor environments concurrently. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Department of Energy recently invested over 13 million dollars to replace three of ATR’s instrumentation and control systems. The new systems offer the latest software and technology advancements, ensuring the availability of the reactor for future energy research. Engineers and project managers successfully completed the four year project in March while the ATR was in a scheduled maintenance outage. “These new systems represent state-of-the-art monitoring and annunciation capabilities,” said Don Feldman, ATR Station Manager. “They are comparable to systems currently used for advanced reactor designs planned for construction in the U.S. and in operation in some foreign countries.”

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TXDOT CNG fleet conversion. Volume 2. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Euritt, M.A.; Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-08-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes compressed natural gas (CNG). Based on an analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a natural gas vehicle (NGV) program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $47 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower priced natural gas, infrastructure costs for a fast-fueling station, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $596, or about 4.9 cents more per vehicle mile of travel. Based on the cost-effectiveness analysis and assumptions, there are currently no TxDOT stations suitable for conversion to compressed natural gas.

  19. NOVEL CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR THE NEW AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH REACTOR OPAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, S. R.; Kennedy, S. J.; Kim, S.; Schulz, J. C.; Thiering, R.; Gilbert, E. P.; Lu, W.; James, M.; Robinson, R. A.

    2008-03-16

    In August 2006 the new 20MW low enriched uranium research reactor OPAL went critical. The reactor has 3 main functions, radio pharmaceutical production, silicon irradiation and as a neutron source. Commissioning on 7 neutron scattering instruments began in December 2006. Three of these instruments (Small Angle Neutron Scattering, Reflectometer and Time-of-flight Spectrometer) utilize cold neutrons.The OPAL Cold Neutron Source, located inside the reactor, is a 20L liquid deuterium moderated source operating at 20K, 330kPa with a nominal refrigeration capacity of 5 kW and a peak flux at 4.2meV (equivalent to a wavelength of 0.4nm). The Thermosiphon and Moderator Chamber are cooled by helium gas delivered at 19.8K using the Brayton cycle. The helium is compressed by two 250kW compressors (one with a variable frequency drive to lower power consumption).A 5 Tesla BSCCO (2223) horizontal field HTS magnet will be delivered in the 2{sup nd} half of 2007 for use on all the cold neutron instruments. The magnet is cooled by a pulse tube cryocooler operating at 20K. The magnet design allows for the neutron beam to pass both axially and transverse to the field. Samples will be mounted in a 4K to 800K Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryofurnace, with the ability to apply a variable electric field in-situ. The magnet is mounted onto a tilt stage. The sample can thus be studied under a wide variety of conditions.A cryogen free 7.4 Tesla Nb-Ti vertical field LTS magnet, commissioned in 2005 will be used on neutron diffraction experiments. It is cooled by a standard GM cryocooler operating at 4.2K. The sample is mounted in a 2{sup nd} GM cryocooler (4K-300K) and a variable electric field can be applied.

  20. Technical Support to SBIR Phase II Project: Improved Conversion of Cellulose Waste to Ethanol Using a Dual Bioreactor System: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-310

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, M.

    2013-04-01

    Over-dependence on fossil fuel has spurred research on alternative energy. Inedible plant materials such as grass and corn stover represent abundant renewable natural resources that can be transformed into biofuel. Problems in enzymatic conversion of biomass to sugars include the use of incomplete synergistic enzymes, end-product inhibition, and adsorption and loss of enzymes necessitating their use in large quantities. Technova Corporation will develop a defined consortium of natural microorganisms that will efficiently break down biomass to energy-rich soluble sugars, and convert them to cleaner-burning ethanol fuel. The project will also develop a novel biocatalytic hybrid reactor system dedicated to this bioprocess, which embodies recent advances in nanotechnology. NREL will participate to develop a continuous fermentation process.

  1. Small modular reactors (SMRs) such...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ARO), using soluble boron in the coolant for reactivity control. Conversely, boiling water reactors (BWRs) typically maneuver their control blades as often as every 2 GWdmtU...

  2. The progress of neutron texture diffractometer at China Advanced Research Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, MeiJuan; Liu, YunTao; Tian, GengFang; Gao, JianBo; Yu, ZhouXiang; Li, YuQing; Wu, LiQi; Yang, LinFeng; Sun, Kai; Wang, HongLi; Chen, DongFeng

    2015-01-01

    The first neutron texture diffractometer in China has been built at China Advanced Research Reactor due to the strong demands of texture measurement with neutrons from domestic user community. This neutron texture diffractometer has high neutron intensity, moderate resolution and is mainly applied to study the texture in the commonly used industrial materials and engineering components. In this paper, the design and characteristics of this instrument are described. The results for calibration with neutrons and quantitative texture analysis of Zr alloy plate are presented. The comparison of texture measurement among different neutron texture diffractometer of HIPPO at LANSCE, Kowari at ANSTO and neutron texture diffractometer at CARR illustrates the reliable performance of this texture diffractometer.

  3. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1984-08-01

    Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

  4. Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid hydrocarbon fuels: Vol. 6, The modeling and design of a staged indirect liquefaction reactor: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    A staged reactor was designed to convert biomass to useful fuels. The reactor consists of three stages. The first stage is a concentric combustor/pyrolyzer system where the biomass is gasified in a fluidized bed at high temperatures in the absence of oxygen. The second stage is a cyclonic scrubber where particulates and condensable materials are removed from the gas stream while the gas is cooled. In the final stage the gas undergoes a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a fluidized bed or slurry reactor. Mathematical models of the system were developed and used to create computer programs that would predict the behavior of the bed. The models were based on fundamental phenomena and were used to predict key dimensions of the staged reactor system. A transparent plastic, full-scale, cold flow reactor simulator was built using the models' predictions. The simulator was used to refine the models and determine the operating characteristics of the reactor. The design was determined to be workable and potentially useful. The reactor was, however, difficult to operate and would require extensive automated control systems.

  5. Dismantling Structures and Equipment of the MR Reactor and its Loop Facilities at the National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' - 12051

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkov, V.G.; Danilovich, A.S.; Zverkov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, O.P.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Lemus, A.V.; Muzrukova, V.D.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Semenov, S.G.; Fadin, S.Yu.; Shisha, A.D.; Chesnokov, A.V.

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 a design of decommissioning of research reactors MR and RFT has been developed in the National research Center 'Kurchatov institute'. The design has been approved by Russian State Authority in July 2009 year and has received the positive conclusion of ecological expertise. In 2009-2010 a preparation for decommissioning of reactors MR and RFT was spent. Within the frames of a preparation a characterization, sorting and removal of radioactive objects, including the irradiated fuel, from reactor storage facilities and pool have been executed. During carrying out of a preparation on removal of radioactive objects from reactor sluice pool water treating has been spent. For these purposes modular installation for clearing and processing of a liquid radioactive waste 'Aqua - Express' was used. As a result of works it was possible to lower volume activity of water on three orders in magnitude that has allowed improving essentially of radiating conditions in a reactor hall. Auxiliary systems of ventilation, energy and heat supplies, monitoring systems of radiating conditions of premises of the reactor and its loop-back installations are reconstructed. In 2011 the license for a decommissioning of the specified reactors has been received and there are begun dismantling works. Within the frames of works under the design the armature and pipelines are dismantled in a under floor space of a reactor hall where a moving and taking away pipelines of loop facilities and the first contour of the MR reactor were replaced. A dismantle of the main equipment of loop facility with the gas coolant has been spent. Technologies which were used on dismantle of the radioactive contaminated equipment are presented, the basic works on reconstruction of systems of maintenance of on the decommissioning works are described, the sequence of works on the decommissioning of reactors MR and RFT is shown. Dismantling works were carried out with application of means of a dust suppression that, in aggregate with standard means at such works of individual protection of the personnel and devices of radiating control, has allowed to lower risk of action of radiation on the personnel, the population and environment at the expense of reduction of volume activity of radioactive aerosols in air. (authors)

  6. Deployment of Smart 3D Subsurface Contaminant Characterization at the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T.; Heiser, J.; Kalb, P.; Milian, L.; Newson, C.; Lilimpakas, M.; Daniels, T.

    2002-02-26

    The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) Historical Site Assessment (BNL 1999) identified contamination inside the Below Grade Ducts (BGD) resulting from the deposition of fission and activation products from the pile on the inner carbon steel liner during reactor operations. Due to partial flooding of the BGD since shutdown, some of this contamination may have leaked out of the ducts into the surrounding soils. The baseline remediation plan for cleanup of contaminated soils beneath the BGD involves complete removal of the ducts, followed by surveying the underlying and surrounding soils, then removing soil that has been contaminated above cleanup goals. Alternatively, if soil contamination around and beneath the BGD is either non-existent/minimal (below cleanup goals) or is very localized and can be ''surgically removed'' at a reasonable cost, the BGD can be decontaminated and left in place. The focus of this Department of Energy Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (DOE ASTD) project was to determine the extent (location, type, and level) of soil contamination surrounding the BGD and to present this data to the stakeholders as part of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) process. A suite of innovative characterization tools was used to complete the characterization of the soil surrounding the BGD in a cost-effective and timely fashion and in a manner acceptable to the stakeholders. The tools consisted of a tracer gas leak detection system that was used to define the gaseous leak paths out of the BGD and guide soil characterization studies, a small-footprint Geoprobe to reach areas surrounding the BGD that were difficult to access, two novel, field-deployed, radiological analysis systems (ISOCS and BetaScint) and a three-dimensional (3D) visualization system to facilitate data analysis/interpretation. All of the technologies performed as well or better than expected and the characterization could not have been completed in the same time or at the same cost without implementing this approach.

  7. Development and operation of research-scale IIIV nanowire growth reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    ,300,000.18­20 Unfortu- nately, the cost of commercial reactors presents a high barrier of entry into semiconductor,a A. M. Bergman, and J. R. Pettab Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey at the nanometer scale. However, the costs associated with commercial nanowire growth reactors are prohibitive

  8. Summary engineering description of underwater fuel storage facility for foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlke, H.J.; Johnson, D.A.; Rawlins, J.K.; Searle, D.K.; Wachs, G.W.

    1994-10-01

    This document is a summary description for an Underwater Fuel Storage Facility (UFSF) for foreign research reactor (FRR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). A FRR SNF environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared and will include both wet and dry storage facilities as storage alternatives. For the UFSF presented in this document, a specific site is not chosen. This facility can be sited at any one of the five locations under consideration in the EIS. These locations are the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Hanford, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Nevada Test Site. Generic facility environmental impacts and emissions are provided in this report. A baseline fuel element is defined in Section 2.2, and the results of a fission product analysis are presented. Requirements for a storage facility have been researched and are summarized in Section 3. Section 4 describes three facility options: (1) the Centralized-UFSF, which would store the entire fuel element quantity in a single facility at a single location, (2) the Regionalized Large-UFSF, which would store 75% of the fuel element quantity in some region of the country, and (3) the Regionalized Small-UFSF, which would store 25% of the fuel element quantity, with the possibility of a number of these facilities in various regions throughout the country. The operational philosophy is presented in Section 5, and Section 6 contains a description of the equipment. Section 7 defines the utilities required for the facility. Cost estimates are discussed in Section 8, and detailed cost estimates are included. Impacts to worker safety, public safety, and the environment are discussed in Section 9. Accidental releases are presented in Section 10. Standard Environmental Impact Forms are included in Section 11.

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Research and Development Program Plan -- Fiscal Year 2009–2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60-year operating licenses. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary this year. U.S. regulators have begun considering extended operations of nuclear power plants and the research needed to support long-term operations. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Research and Development (R&D) Program, developed and sponsored by the Department of Energy, is performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs. The purpose of the LWRS R&D Program is to provide technical foundations for licensing and managing long-term, safe and economical operation of the current operating nuclear power plants. The LWRS R&D Program vision is captured in the following statements: Existing operating nuclear power plants will continue to safely provide clean and economic electricity well beyond their first license- extension period, significantly contributing to reduction of United States and global carbon emissions, enhancement of national energy security, and protection of the environment. There is a comprehensive technical basis for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, economical operation of nuclear power plants. Sustaining the existing operating U.S. fleet also will improve its international engagement and leadership on nuclear safety and security issues.

  10. Advanced reactor safety research quarterly report, October-December 1982. Volume 24

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1984-04-01

    This report describes progress in a number of activities dealing with current safety issues relevant to both light water reactors (LWRs) and breeder reactors. The work includes a broad range of experiments to simulate accidental conditions to provide the required data base to understand important accident sequences and to serve as a basis for development and verification of the complex computer simulation models and codes used in accident analysis and licensing reviews. Such a program must include the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety system performance under a broad variety of abnormal conditions. Current major emphasis is focused on providing information to NRC relevant to (1) its deliberations and decisions dealing with severe LWR accidents and (2) its safety evaluation of the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor.

  11. Conceptual Design of Molten Salt Loop Experiment for MIT Research Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bean, Malcolm K.

    2011-08-01

    Molten salt is a promising coolant candidate for Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) Gen-IV designs. The low neutron absorption, high thermal capacity, chemical inertness, and high boiling point at low pressure of ...

  12. Research on the external fluid mechanics of ocean thermal energy conversion plants : report covering experiments in a current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fry, David J. (David James)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes a set of experiments in a physical model study to explore plume transport and recirculation potential for a range of generic Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant designs and ambient conditions. ...

  13. Two Methods for Converting a Heavy-Water Research Reactor to Use Low-Enriched-Uranium Fuel to Improve Proliferation Resistance After Startup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemp, R. Scott

    This article demonstrates the feasibility of converting a heavy-water research reactor from natural to low-enriched uranium in order to slow the production of weapon-usable plutonium, even if the core cannot be physically ...

  14. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 2: Severe accident research, thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs, high-burnup fuel behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.

    1995-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24-26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting.

  15. Design a solar reactor to study interacting economic factors in the conversion of nitrogen compounds to cell protein by photosynthetic microflora 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miao, Chin-Sheng

    1975-01-01

    in the completion of this thesis, but for all the other phases of their assistance in the author's graduate work. Gratitude is expressed to Nr. Raymond Piwonka for the technical assistance and counsel in the construction of the model solar reactor. The author...$() successfully operated a pilot plant for growing algae over a period of a year. Algae growth rates obtained with this equipment compare favorably with those reported elsewhere with a maximum rate of 14. 4 gram/sq. m, /day of dry Chlorella pyrenoidosa. All...

  16. The BGU/CERN solar hydrothermal reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertolucci, Sergio; Caspers, Fritz; Garb, Yaakov; Gross, Amit; Pauletta, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel solar hydrothermal reactor (SHR) under development by Ben Gurion University (BGU) and the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. We describe in broad terms the several novel aspects of the device and, by extension, of the niche it occupies: in particular, enabling direct off-grid conversion of a range of organic feedstocks to sterile useable (solid, liquid) fuels, nutrients, products using only solar energy and water. We then provide a brief description of the high temperature high efficiency panels that provide process heat to the hydrothermal reactor, and review the basics of hydrothermal processes and conversion taking place in this. We conclude with a description of a simulation of the pilot system that will begin operation later this year.

  17. Argonne Liquid-Metal Advanced Burner Reactor : components and in-vessel system thermal-hydraulic research and testing experience - pathway forward.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasza, K.; Grandy, C.; Chang, Y.; Khalil, H.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-06-30

    This white paper provides an overview and status report of the thermal-hydraulic nuclear research and development, both experimental and computational, conducted predominantly at Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne from the early 1970s through the early 1990s was the Department of Energy's (DOE's) lead lab for thermal-hydraulic development of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). During the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, Argonne conducted thermal-hydraulic studies and experiments on individual reactor components supporting the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). From the mid-1980s and into the early 1990s, Argonne conducted studies on phenomena related to forced- and natural-convection thermal buoyancy in complete in-vessel models of the General Electric (GE) Prototype Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) and Rockwell International (RI) Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR). These two reactor initiatives involved Argonne working closely with U.S. industry and DOE. This paper describes the very important impact of thermal hydraulics dominated by thermal buoyancy forces on reactor global operation and on the behavior/performance of individual components during postulated off-normal accident events with low flow. Utilizing Argonne's LMR expertise and design knowledge is vital to the further development of safe, reliable, and high-performance LMRs. Argonne believes there remains an important need for continued research and development on thermal-hydraulic design in support of DOE's and the international community's renewed thrust for developing and demonstrating the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) reactor(s) and the associated Argonne Liquid Metal-Advanced Burner Reactor (LM-ABR). This white paper highlights that further understanding is needed regarding reactor design under coolant low-flow events. These safety-related events are associated with the transition from normal high-flow operation to natural circulation. Low-flow coolant events are the most difficult to design for because they involve the most complex thermal-hydraulic behavior induced by the dominance of thermal-buoyancy forces acting on the coolants. Such behavior can cause multiple-component flow interaction phenomena, which are not adequately understood or appreciated by reactor designers as to their impact on reactor performance and safety. Since the early 1990s, when DOE canceled the U.S. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program, little has been done experimentally to further understand the importance of the complex thermal-buoyancy phenomena and their impact on reactor design or to improve the ability of three-dimensional (3-D) transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and structures codes to model the phenomena. An improved experimental data base and the associated improved validated codes would provide needed design tools to the reactor community. The improved codes would also facilitate scale-up from small-scale testing to prototype size and would facilitate comparing performance of one reactor/component design with another. The codes would also have relevance to the design and safety of water-cooled reactors. To accomplish the preceding, it is proposed to establish a national GNEP-LMR research and development center at Argonne having as its foundation state-of-art science-based infrastructure consisting of: (a) thermal-hydraulic experimental capabilities for conducting both water and sodium testing of individual reactor components and complete reactor in-vessel models and (b) a computational modeling development and validation capability that is strongly interfaced with the experimental facilities. The proposed center would greatly advance capabilities for reactor development by establishing the validity of high-fidelity (i.e., close to first principles) models and tools. Such tools could be used directly for reactor design or for qualifying/tuning of lower-fidelity models, which now require costly experimental qualification for each different type of design

  18. Prototype Tests for the Recovery and Conversion of UF6Chemisorbed in NaF Traps for the Molten Salt Reactor Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Cul, G.D.

    2000-06-07

    The remediation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site includes the removal of about 37 kg of uranium. Of that inventory, about 23 kg have already been removed from the piping system and chemisorbed in 25 NaF traps. This material is being stored in Building 3019. The planned recovery of {approx}11 kg of uranium from the fuel salt will generate another 15 to 19 NaF traps. The remaining 2 to 3 kg of uranium are present in activated charcoal beds, which are also scheduled to be removed from the reactor site. Since all of these materials (NaF traps and the uranium-laden charcoal) are not suitable for long-term storage, they will be converted to a chemical form [uranium oxide (U{sub 3}O{sub 8})], which is suitable for long-term storage. This document describes the process that will be used to recover and convert the uranium in the NaF traps into a stable oxide for long-term storage. Included are a description of the process, equipment, test results, and lessons learned. The process was developed for remote operation in a hot cell. Lessons learned from the prototype testing were incorporated into the process design.

  19. Prototype Tests for the Recovery and Conversion of UF6 Chemisorbed in NaF Traps for the Molten Salt Reactor Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Icenhour, A.S.; Simmons, D.W.

    2000-04-01

    The remediation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site includes the removal of about 37 kg of uranium. Of that inventory, about 23 kg have already been removed from the piping system and chemisorbed in 25 NaF traps. This material is being stored in Building 3019. The planned recovery of -11 kg of uranium from the fuel salt will generate another 15 to 19 NaF traps. The remaining 2 to 3 kg of uranium are present in activated charcoal beds, which are also scheduled to be removed from the reactor site. Since all of these materials (NaF traps and the uranium-laden charcoal) are not suitable for long-term storage, they will be converted to a chemical form [uranium oxide], which is suitable for long-term storage. This document describes the process that will be used to recover and convert the uranium in the NaF traps into a stable oxide for long-term storage. Included are a description of the process, equipment, test results, and lessons learned. The process was developed for remote operation in a hot cell. Lessons learned from the prototype testing were incorporated into the process design.

  20. Apparatus and method for improving electrostatic precipitator performance by plasma reactor conversion of SO.sub.2 to SO.sub.3

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Hann-Sheng (Darien, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process that utilize a low temperature nonequilibrium plasma reactor, for improving the particulate removal efficiency of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are disclosed. A portion of the flue gas, that contains a low level of SO.sub.2 O.sub.2 H.sub.2 O, and particulate matter, is passed through a low temperature plasma reactor, which defines a plasma volume, thereby oxidizing a portion of the SO.sub.2 present in the flue gas into SO.sub.3. An SO.sub.2 rich flue gas is thereby generated. The SO.sub.3 rich flue gas is then returned to the primary flow of the flue gas in the exhaust treatment system prior to the ESP. This allows the SO.sub.3 to react with water to form H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 that is in turn is absorbed by fly ash in the gas stream in order to improve the removal efficiency of the EPS.

  1. Neutronic Analyses for HEU to LEU fuel conversion of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, E. H.; Newton, T. H.; Bergeron, A.; Horelik, N.; Stevens, J. G (Nuclear Engineering Division); ( NS)

    2011-03-02

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) reactor (MITR-II), based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is a research reactor designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most research and test reactors both domestic and international have started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on a mixture of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of compact high performance reactors like the MITR-II. This report presents the results of steady state neutronic safety analyses for conversion of MITR-II from the use of HEU fuel to the use of U-Mo LEU fuel. The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the safety analyses meet current requirements for an LEU core replacement of MITR-II.

  2. Advanced reactor safety research. Quarterly report, April-June 1982. Volume 22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1983-10-01

    Overall objective of this work is to provide NRC a comprehensive data base essential to (1) defining key safety issues, (2) understanding risk-significant accident sequences, (3) developing and verifying models used in safety assessments, and (4) assuring the public that power reactor systems will not be licensed and placed in commercial service in the United States without appropriate consideration being given to their effects on health and safety. This report describes progress in a number of activities dealing with current safety issues relevant to both light water and breeder reactors. The work includes a broad range of experiments to simulate accidental conditions to provide the required data base to understand important accident sequences and to serve as a basis for development and verification of the complex computer simulation models and codes used in accident analysis and licensing reviews. Such a program must include the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety system performance under a broad variety of abnormal conditions. Current major emphasis is focused on providing information to NRC relevant to (1) its deliberations and decisions dealing with severe LWR accidents, and (2) its safety evaluation of the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor.

  3. Research and Development Assessments for Prometheus eavy Ion and Laser Driven Inertial Fusion Energy Reactor Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    -ion and laser drivers. INTRODUCTION Two commercial central station electric power plants have been conceptually designed and analyzed in the Prometheus[11study led by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. These plants use reactors, (2) provide programmatic-decision makers with a list of important R&D tasks that need

  4. LOCA simulation in the national research universal reactor program: postirradiation examination results for the third materials experiment (MT-3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rausch, W.N.

    1984-04-01

    A series of in-reactor experiments were conducted using full-length 32-rod pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel bundles as part of the Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Simulation Program. The third materials experiment (MT-3) was the sixth in the series of thermal-hydraulic and materials deformation/rutpure experiments conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. The main objective of the experiment was to evaluate ballooning and rupture during active two-phase cooling in the temperature range from 1400 to 1500/sup 0/F (1030 to 1090 K). The 12 test rods in the center of the 32-rod bundle were initially pressurized to 550 psi (3.8 MPa) to insure rupture in the correct temperature range. All 12 of the rods ruptured, with an average peak bundle strain of approx. 55%. The UKAEA also funded destructive postirradiation examination (PIE) of several of the ruptured rods from the MT-3 experiment. This report describes the work performed and presents the PIE results. Information obtained during the PIE included cladding thickness measurements metallography, and particle size analysis of the cracked and broken fuel pellets.

  5. Methane conversion to methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, R.D.; Falconer, J.L.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this research study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor for the partial oxidation of methane. The specific goals are to demonstrate that we can improve product yield, demonstrate the optimal conditions for membrane reactor operation, determine the transport properties of the membrane, and provide demonstration of the process at the pilot plant scale. The last goal will be performed by Unocal, Inc., our industrial partner, upon successful completion of this study.

  6. Methane conversion to methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, R.D.; Falconer, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a catalytic membrane reactor for the partial oxidation of methane. The specific goals are to demonstrate that we can improve product yield, demonstrate the optimal conditions for membrane reactor operation, determine the transport properties of the membrane, and provide demonstration of the process at the pilot plant scale. The last goal will be performed by Unocal, Inc., our industrial partner, upon successful completion of this study.

  7. Research Update: Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition of ZnO thin films: Reactors, doping, and devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Nelson, Shelby F.; Illiberi, Andrea; Poodt, Paul; Roozeboom, Fred; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.

    2015-04-02

    given to describe this system, but in this research update, we standardize its name to the Cambridge University Close Proximity (CUCP) reactor (design details are given in Ref. 24). An illustration of the CUCP gas manifold is given in Fig. 2... times, as indicated. Reprinted with permission from D. Muñoz-Rojas, H. Sun, D. C. Iza, J. Weickert, L. Chen, H. Wang, L. Schmidt-Mende, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl. 21, 393 (2013). Copyright 2013 Wiley-VCH. adherent...

  8. Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission twentieth water reactor safety information meeting; Volume 2, Severe accident research, Thermal hydraulics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, A.J. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twentieth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 21--23, 1992. The papers describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included 10 different papers presented by researchersfrom CEC, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain and Taiwan. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N. [Institution Project center ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-21

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and ?–ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

  10. Joint Statement of Intent Concerning the Arak Heavy Water Reactor Research

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA Public CommentInverted Attic9: JohnofReactor Modernization

  11. Solar Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Synthesis Gas: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-00335

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Netter, J.

    2013-08-01

    The CRADA is established to facilitate the development of solar thermal technology to efficiently and economically convert biomass into useful products (synthesis gas and derivatives) that can replace fossil fuels. NREL's High Flux Solar Furnace will be utilized to validate system modeling, evaluate candidate reactor materials, conduct on-sun testing of the process, and assist in the development of solar process control system. This work is part of a DOE-USDA 3-year, $1M grant.

  12. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels. Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Abhijit; Sahir, Asad; Tan, Eric; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Meyer, Pimphan; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John Lukas

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructurecompatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis.

  13. Direct Conversion Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

  14. Theoretical analysis of the subcritical experiments performed in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. M.; Dos Santos, A. [Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Universitaria, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The theoretical analysis of the subcritical experiments performed at the IPEN/MB-01 reactor employing the coupled NJOY/AMPX-II/TORT systems was successfully accomplished. All the analysis was performed employing ENDF/B-VII.0. The theoretical approach follows all the steps of the subcritical model of Gandini and Salvatores. The theory/experiment comparison reveals that the calculated subcritical reactivity is in a very good agreement to the experimental values. The subcritical index ({xi}) shows some discrepancies although in this particular case some work still have to be made to model in a better way the neutron source present in the experiments. (authors)

  15. A History or Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Energy Conversion 1976-2006

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in: Statement ofAEnergy Conversion 1976

  16. "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News &...

  17. "Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion"...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    "Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion" Webinar Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News...

  18. Research on direct containment heating and pressurized melt expulsion from the reactor coolant system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Pilch, M.; Brockmann, J.E.; Powers, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The expulsion of high temperature core debris from the reactor cavity into the containment atmosphere has recently been identified as an important potential contributor to containment failure in the event of a severe accident. Experiments and analyses have shown that failure of the reactor vessel while the primary system is pressurized can result in the rapid discharge of molten core debris into the cavity. Gas from the blowdown of the coolant system may then entrain the debris as fine particulate that may be carried out of the cavity region. Containment loading can result from the combustion of hydrogen produced by the interaction of the debris with steam from the primary system and from thermal and chemical energy transferred from the debris to the atmosphere is directed towards identifying and quantifying the phenomena associated with the pressurized discharge of the core debris and the direct containment heating processes. Experiments are being performed to provide the information needed to develop phenomenological models for use in system level code predictions. Emphasis has been primarily on the use of scaled cavities (ranging from 1:10 to 1:50 linear scale) and the quantification of the extent of the material dispersed. Information has been obtained on the physics of the jet behavior, the entrainment of the debris, debris characteristics (e.g., size and number distributions), debris-gas heat transfer and chemistry, aerosol generation, and the influence of water. Models and codes are reviewed and discussed and representative calculations are presented.

  19. Reactor Safety Research Programs. Quarterly report, July-September 1984. Volume 3. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edler, S.K.

    1985-02-01

    This document summarizes work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory from July 1 through September 30, 1984, for the Division of Accident Evaluation and the Division of Engineering Technology, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Results from an instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program being performed at Halden, Norway, are reported. Accelerated pellet-cladding interaction modeling is being conducted to predict the probability of fuel rod failure under normal operating conditions. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision making regarding pipe-to-pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. High-temperature materials property tests are being conducted to provide data on severe core damage fuel behavior. Thermal-hydraulic models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Severe fuel damage accident tests are being conducted in the NRU Reactor, Chalk River, Canada.

  20. Reactor safety research programs. Quarterly report, January-March 1984. Vol. 1. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edler, S.K.

    1984-06-01

    This document summarizes work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory from January 1 through March 31, 1984, for the Division of Accident Evaluation and the Division of Engineering Technology, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Results from an instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program being performed at Halden, Norway, are reported. Accelerated pellet-cladding interaction modeling is being conducted to predict the probability of fuel rod failure under normal operating conditions. Experimental data on analytical models are being provided to aid in decision making regarding pipe-to-pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. High-temperature materials property tests are being conducted to provide data on severe core damage fuel behavior. Thermal-hydraulic models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Severe fuel damage accident tests are being conducted at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada.

  1. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Miley, Don

    2013-05-28

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  3. Impact of the HEU/LEU conversion on experimental facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marek, M.; Kysela, J.; Ernest, J.; Flibor, S.; Broz, V. [Reactor Services Division, Nuclear Research Institute Rez, plc., Husinec 130, CZ-25068 (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-15

    The LVR-15 reactor is a multipurpose research facility used for basic research on horizontal channels, material and corrosion studies in loops and irradiation rigs, and for the isotope production. A conversion from HEU (IRT-2M 36%, so far used) to LEU (IRT-3M 19.5%, IRT- 4M 19.5%) is planned till 2010. The influence of the new type of fuel on the performance of the experimental facilities operated at the reactor has been studied. The comparison of the calculated neutron fluence rates and spectra using NODER operational code (3D nodal diffusion) and MCNP code for both the fresh and depleted cores was performed. Results of the analyses and future plans are presented in the article. (author)

  4. Direct conversion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  5. Decommissioning of the Dragon High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Located at the Former United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) Research Site at Winfrith - 13180

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Anthony A. [Research Sites Restoration Ltd, Winfrith, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [Research Sites Restoration Ltd, Winfrith, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The Dragon Reactor was constructed at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Winfrith in Dorset through the late 1950's and into the early 1960's. It was a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTR) with helium gas coolant and graphite moderation. It operated as a fuel testing and demonstration reactor at up to 20 MW (Thermal) from 1964 until 1975, when international funding for this project was terminated. The fuel was removed from the core in 1976 and the reactor was put into Safestore. To meet the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) objective to 'drive hazard reduction' [1] it is necessary to decommission and remediate all the Research Sites Restoration Ltd (RSRL) facilities. This includes the Dragon Reactor where the activated core, pressure vessel and control rods and the contaminated primary circuit (including a {sup 90}Sr source) still remain. It is essential to remove these hazards at the appropriate time and return the area occupied by the reactor to a safe condition. (author)

  6. Preliminary Investigation of Zircaloy-4 as a Research Reactor Cladding Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian K Castle

    2012-05-01

    As part of a scoping study for the ATR fuel conversion project, an initial comparison of the material properties of Zircaloy-4 and Aluminum-6061 (T6 and O-temper) is performed to provide a preliminary evaluation of Zircaloy-4 for possible inclusion as a candidate cladding material for ATR fuel elements. The current fuel design for the ATR uses Aluminum 6061 (T6 and O temper) as a cladding and structural material in the fuel element and to date, no fuel failures have been reported. Based on this successful and longstanding operating history, Zircaloy-4 properties will be evaluated against the material properties for aluminum-6061. The preliminary investigation will focus on a comparison of density, oxidation rates, water chemistry requirements, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and neutronic properties.

  7. Decommissioning the Romanian Water-Cooled Water-Moderated Research Reactor: New Environmental Perspective on the Management of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barariu, G.; Giumanca, R. [Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activity (RAAN), Subsidiary of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Objectives (SITON), 111 Atomistilor St., Bucuresti-Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    Pre-feasibility and feasibility studies were performed for decommissioning of the water-cooled water-moderated research reactor (WWER) located in Bucharest - Magurele, Romania. Using these studies as a starting point, the preferred safe management strategy for radioactive wastes produced by reactor decommissioning is outlined. The strategy must account for reactor decommissioning, as well as for the rehabilitation of the existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant and for the upgrade of the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at Baita-Bihor. Furthermore, the final rehabilitation of the laboratories and ecological reconstruction of the grounds need to be provided for, in accordance with national and international regulations. In accordance with IAEA recommendations at the time, the pre-feasibility study proposed three stages of decommissioning. However, since then new ideas have surfaced with regard to decommissioning. Thus, taking into account the current IAEA ideology, the feasibility study proposes that decommissioning of the WWER be done in one stage to an unrestricted clearance level of the reactor building in an Immediate Dismantling option. Different options and the corresponding derived preferred option for waste management are discussed taking into account safety measures, but also considering technical, logistical and economic factors. For this purpose, possible types of waste created during each decommissioning stage are reviewed. An approximate inventory of each type of radioactive waste is presented. The proposed waste management strategy is selected in accordance with the recommended international basic safety standards identified in the previous phase of the project. The existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (RWTP) from the Horia Hulubei Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering (IFIN-HH), which has been in service with no significant upgrade since 1974, will need refurbishing due to deterioration, as well as upgrading in order to ensure the plant complies with current safety standards. This plant will also need to be adapted to treat wastes generated by WWER dismantling. The Baita-Bihor National Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility consists of two galleries in an abandoned uranium mine located in the central-western part of the Bihor Mountains in Transylvania. The galleries lie at a depth of 840 m. The facility requires a considerable overhaul. Several steps recommended for the upgrade of the facility are explored. Environmental concerns have lately become a crucial part of the radioactive waste management strategy. As such, all decisions must be made with great regard for land utilization around nuclear objectives. (authors)

  8. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion This research, which is relevant to the...

  9. Design of a low enrichment, enhanced fast flux core for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Tyler Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, there is limited test reactor capacity to perform the required irradiation experiments on advanced fast reactor materials and fuel designs. This is particularly true in the U.S., which no longer has an operating ...

  10. Basic research needs in seven energy-related technologies, conservation, conversion, transmission and storage, environmental fission, fossil, geothermal, and solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This volume comprises seven studies performed by seven groups at seven national laboratories. The laboratories were selected because of their assigned lead roles in research pertaining to the respective technologies. Researches were requested to solicit views of other workers in the fields.

  11. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  12. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Schaidle, Josh; Biddy, Mary; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to DME, which is subsequently converted via homologation reactions to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon products.

  13. Quantum conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Mazilu

    2015-08-06

    The electromagnetic momentum transferred transfered to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ($\\hbar k$) does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the transformation, including units, of the classical fields to wave-function equivalent fields.

  14. Prompt Neutron Lifetime for the NBSR Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, A.L.; Diamond, D.

    2012-06-24

    In preparation for the proposed conversion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, certain point kinetics parameters must be calculated. We report here values of the prompt neutron lifetime that have been calculated using three independent methods. All three sets of calculations demonstrate that the prompt neutron lifetime is shorter for the LEU fuel when compared to the HEU fuel and longer for the equilibrium end-of-cycle (EOC) condition when compared to the equilibrium startup (SU) condition for both the HEU and LEU fuels.

  15. Plasmonic conversion of solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavero, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, BasicS. Pillai and M. A. Green, Solar Energy Materials and SolarPlasmonic conversion of solar energy César Clavero Plasma

  16. Principal investigator: Majid Bahrami, PhD, P. Eng., Associate Professor Tier II Canada Research Chair in Alternative Energy Conversion Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    technology for a range of uses, from alternative energy vehicles to batteries and building applications Chair in Alternative Energy Conversion Systems School of Mechatronic Systems Engineering, Simon Fraser for Alternative Energy Conversion seeks to improve energy conversion efficiency in devices such as compact heat

  17. A RESEARCH ON SEAMLESS PLATFORM CHANGE OF REACTOR PROTECTION SYSTEM FROM PLC TO FPGA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1. INTRODUCTION A safety grade PLC is an industrial digital computer used to develop safety Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701, Republic of Korea 2 Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Man. The 'FBDtoVerilog' mechanically transforms FBDs into behaviorally-equivalent [38] Verilog programs, and all V

  18. Nuclear Fission Reactor Safety Research in FP7 and future perspectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbil, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The European Union (?U) has defined in the Europe 2020 strategy and 2050 Energy Roadmap its long-term vision for establishing a secure, sustainable and competitive energy system and setting up legally binding targets by 2020 for reducing greenhouse emissions, by increasing energy efficiency and the share of renewable energy sources while including a significant share from nuclear fission. Nuclear energy can enable the further reduction in harmful emissions and can contribute to the EU’s competitive energy system, security of supply and independence from fossil fuels. Nuclear fission is a valuable option for those 14 EU countries that promote its use as part of their national energy mix. The European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies (EGE) adopted its Opinion No.27 ‘An ethical framework for assessing research, production and use of energy’ and proposed an integrated ethics approach for the research, production and use of energy in the EU, seeking equilibrium among four criteria – access ...

  19. Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 Knorr, D.; Lukas,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 Knorr, D.; Lukas, J.; Schoen, P. 09 BIOMASS FUELS BIOFUELS CONVERSION;...

  20. The Optimized Integration of the Decontamination Plan and the Radwaste Management Plan into Decommissioning Plan to the VVR-S Research Reactor from Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barariu, G. [National Authority for Nuclear Activity-Subsidiary of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects (Romania)

    2008-07-01

    The paper presents the progress of the Decontamination Plan and Radioactive Waste Management Plan which accompanies the Decommissioning Plan for research reactor VVR-S located in Magurele, Ilfov, near Bucharest, Romania. The new variant of the Decommissioning Plan was elaborated taking into account the IAEA recommendation concerning radioactive waste management. A new feasibility study for VVR-S decommissioning was also elaborated. The preferred safe management strategy for radioactive wastes produced by reactor decommissioning is outlined. The strategy must account for reactor decommissioning, as well as rehabilitation of the existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant and the upgrade of the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at Baita-Bihor. Furthermore, the final rehabilitation of the laboratories and reusing of cleaned reactor building is envisaged. An inventory of each type of radioactive waste is presented. The proposed waste management strategy is selected in accordance with the IAEA assistance. Environmental concerns are a part of the radioactive waste management strategy. In conclusion: The current version 8 of the Draft Decommissioning Plan which include the Integrated concept of Decontamination and Decommissioning and Radwaste Management, reflects the substantial work that has been incorporated by IFIN-HH in collaboration with SITON, which has resulted in substantial improvement in document The decommissioning strategy must take into account costs for VVR-S Reactor decommissioning, as well as costs for much needed refurbishments to the radioactive waste treatment plant and the Baita-Bihor waste disposal repository. Several improvements to the Baita-Bihor repository and IFIN-HH waste treatment facility were proposed. The quantities and composition of the radioactive waste generated by VVR-S Reactor dismantling were again estimated by streams and the best demonstrated practicable processing solution was proposed. The estimated quantities of materials to be managed in the near future raise some issues that need to be solved swiftly, such as treatment of aluminum and lead and graphite management. It is envisaged that these materials to be treated to Subsidiary for Nuclear Research (SCN) Pitesti. (authors)

  1. Successful Completion of the Largest Shipment of Russian Research Reactor High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Czech Republic to Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Jeff Chamberlin

    2008-07-01

    On December 8, 2007, the largest shipment of high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel was successfully made from a Russian-designed nuclear research reactor in the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. This accomplishment is the culmination of years of planning, negotiations, and hard work. The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program in support of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. In February 2003, RRRFR Program representatives met with the Nuclear Research Institute in Rež, Czech Republic, and discussed the return of their high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. Nearly 5 years later, the shipment was made. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, coordination, and cooperation required to make this important international shipment.

  2. The high conversion LC-Fining process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanDriesen, R.P.; Strangio, V.A.; Rhoe, A.; Kolstad, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Residual oil hydrocracking has been practiced at moderate conversions for many years on a wide range of feedstocks. Processes utilizing expanded bed reactors have been proven to be effective in the hydrocracking of these heavy residual feedstocks. Conversions up to 60% vacuum bottoms to distillates were routinely obtained in several commercial units. More recently Amoco has been operating an LC-Fining unit in their Texas City refinery at conversions as high as 80%. Normal conversion in this plant however is 60-65%. LC-Fining is an expanded bed resid hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization process developed by Cities Service and Lummus Crest. There are a number of factors which may limit the conversion in any given plant site. These include compatibility problems with the liquid product, settling out of heavy hydrocarbons in downstream equipment or fouling of the catalyst in the reactor which in the extreme results in coking of the catalyst bed. The operator of a residual hydrocracker maintains conversion at a sufficiently low level to avoid these problems. Recent advances in the LC-Fining technology have led to the development of the High Conversion LC-Fining Process which is capable of operation at conversions of 95% and higher without any of these problems.

  3. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  4. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the...

  5. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 The research was...

  6. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the two...

  7. Power distributions in fresh and depleted LEU and HEU cores of the MITR reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, E.H.; Horelik, N.E.; Dunn, F.E.; Newton, T.H., Jr.; Hu, L.; Stevens, J.G. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (2MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory and Nuclear Science and Engineering Department)

    2012-04-04

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR-II) is a research reactor in Cambridge, Massachusetts designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most research and test reactors both domestic and international have started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like the MITR-II reactor. Toward this goal, core geometry and power distributions are presented. Distributions of power are calculated for LEU cores depleted with MCODE using an MCNP5 Monte Carlo model. The MCNP5 HEU and LEU MITR models were previously compared to experimental benchmark data for the MITR-II. This same model was used with a finer spatial depletion in order to generate power distributions for the LEU cores. The objective of this work is to generate and characterize a series of fresh and depleted core peak power distributions, and provide a thermal hydraulic evaluation of the geometry which should be considered for subsequent thermal hydraulic safety analyses.

  8. Implementation of MPC and A systems at the VNIIEF research (reactor) site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skripka, G.; Koloyartsev, V.; Mikijchuk, N. [Rossijskij Federal`nyj Yadernyj Tsentr, Arzamas (Russian Federation). Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Inst. Ehksperimental`noj Fiziki] [and others

    1996-09-01

    As part of the US-Russian Lab-to-Lab program for strengthening nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A), an integrated MPC and A system is being installed at a large site within the VNIIEF complex to upgrade safeguards on the nuclear material stored and used at this site. In addition to storage facilities, the site houses a number of critical facilities at which nuclear physics research is conducted. The design of the MPC and A system is based on the test bed work presented earlier and provides the functions of nondestructive measurements for plutonium and highly enriched uranium, item control, personnel access control, radiation portal monitoring, and computed on-line accounting. The system controls, monitors, and accounts for nuclear material and people as the material moves through three material balance areas, a measurement room, and a number of control points. It also assists with physical inventory taking. The instrumentation used to implement these functions will include US commercial equipment as well as Russian-designed and -fabricated items.

  9. The mitigation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to more useful carbon chemicals is a research topic that is at the forefront of current engineering and sustainability applications. Direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The mitigation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to more useful carbon chemicals is a research studies indicate that titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing materials serve as the best photocatalyst for CO2O2 materials allows one to increase the yield of certain products such as carbon monoxide (CO

  10. Control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carstens, Nathan, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-C02) recompression cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples well to numerous advanced nuclear reactor designs. This thesis investigates the dynamic simulation ...

  11. Direct Conversion of Biomass to Fuel | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Conversion of Biomass to Fuel UGA, ORNL research team engineers microbes for the direct conversion of biomass to fuel July 11, 2014 New research from the University of...

  12. OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

  13. Benchmark Evaluation of the NRAD Reactor LEU Core Startup Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. D. Bess; T. L. Maddock; M. A. Marshall

    2011-09-01

    The Neutron Radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250-kW TRIGA-(Training, Research, Isotope Production, General Atomics)-conversion-type reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory; it is primarily used for neutron radiography analysis of irradiated and unirradiated fuels and materials. The NRAD reactor was converted from HEU to LEU fuel with 60 fuel elements and brought critical on March 31, 2010. This configuration of the NRAD reactor has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment and is available in the 2011 editions of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (ICSBEP Handbook) and the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook). Significant effort went into precisely characterizing all aspects of the reactor core dimensions and material properties; detailed analyses of reactor parameters minimized experimental uncertainties. The largest contributors to the total benchmark uncertainty were the 234U, 236U, Er, and Hf content in the fuel; the manganese content in the stainless steel cladding; and the unknown level of water saturation in the graphite reflector blocks. A simplified benchmark model of the NRAD reactor was prepared with a keff of 1.0012 {+-} 0.0029 (1s). Monte Carlo calculations with MCNP5 and KENO-VI and various neutron cross section libraries were performed and compared with the benchmark eigenvalue for the 60-fuel-element core configuration; all calculated eigenvalues are between 0.3 and 0.8% greater than the benchmark value. Benchmark evaluations of the NRAD reactor are beneficial in understanding biases and uncertainties affecting criticality safety analyses of storage, handling, or transportation applications with LEU-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  14. Natural gas/diesel conversions - the outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiore, V.B.; Joyce, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    High conversion costs and technical inadequacies of available equipment have limited diesel to compressed natural gas (CNG) conversions, a process which can use either fumigation, pilot oil injection, or spark-ignition for vehicle ignition. An overview of Gas Research Institute conversion research projects includes a summary of major problems associated with performance, cost, and reliability of the systems. A summary table identifies projects by organization and location, then provides project objectives, funding, future plans, and comments where the information is available.

  15. Cost Effective Bioethanol via Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover, Saccharification, and Conversion via a Novel Fermentation Organism: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-12-485

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowe, N.

    2014-05-01

    This research program will convert acid pretreated corn stover to sugars at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and then transfer these sugars to Honda R&D and its partner the Green Earth Institute (GEI) for conversion to ethanol via a novel fermentation organism. In phase one, NREL will adapt its pretreatment and saccharification process to the unique attributes of this organism, and Honda R&D/GEI will increase the sugar conversion rate as well as the yield and titer of the resulting ethanol. In later phases, NREL, Honda R&D, and GEI will work together at NREL to optimize and scale-up to pilot-scale the Honda R&D/GEI bioethanol production process. The final stage will be to undertake a pilot-scale test at NREL of the optimized bioethanol conversion process.

  16. Thermochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    The state-of-the-art thermochemical conversion pilot plant includes several configurable, complementary unit operations for testing and developing various reactors, filters, catalysts, and other unit operations. NREL engineers and scientists as well as clients can test new processes and feedstocks in a timely, cost-effective, and safe manner to obtain extensive performance data on processes or equipment.

  17. Nuclear reactor safeguards and monitoring with antineutrino detectors A. Bernsteina)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gratta, Giorgio

    Nuclear reactor safeguards and monitoring with antineutrino detectors A. Bernsteina) Sandia of nuclear reactor types, including power reactors, research reactors, and plutonium production reactors-understood principles that govern the core's evolution in time, can be used to determine whether the reactor is being

  18. Reactor Physics Scoping and Characterization Study on Implementation of TRIGA Fuel in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer Lyons; Wade R. Marcum; Mark D. DeHart; Sean R. Morrell

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program and the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), is conducting feasibility studies for the conversion of its fuel from a highly enriched uranium (HEU) composition to a low enriched uranium (LEU) composition. These studies have considered a wide variety of LEU plate-type fuels to replace the current HEU fuel. Continuing to investigate potential alternatives to the present HEU fuel form, this study presents a preliminary analysis of TRIGA® fuel within the current ATR fuel envelopes and compares it to the functional requirements delineated by the Naval Reactors Program, which includes: greater than 4.8E+14 fissions/s/g of 235U, a fast to thermal neutron flux ratio that is less than 5% deviation of its current value, a constant cycle power within the corner lobes, and an operational cycle length of 56 days at 120 MW. Other parameters outside those put forth by the Naval Reactors Program which are investigated herein include axial and radial power profiles, effective delayed neutron fraction, and mean neutron generation time.

  19. FISSION REACTORS KEYWORDS: high-temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    REACTORS WITH SUPERCRITICAL CO2 CYCLES BILGE YILDIZ,* KATHERINE J. HOHNHOLT, and MUJID S. KAZIMI-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) supported by a supercritical CO2 (SCO2) recompression Brayton cycle by a supercritical CO2 ~SCO2! power conversion system that is directly coupled to an advanced gas-cooled reactor

  20. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion - Team...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Staff Team & Research Slideshow Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of...

  2. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE BROOKHAVEN GRAPHITE RESEARCH REACTOR ENGINEERED CAP, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK DCN 5098-SR-07-0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-07-15

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has reviewed the project documentation and data for the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) Engineered Cap at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York. The Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA) have completed removal of affected soils and performed as-left surveys by BSA associated with the BGRR Engineered Cap. Sample results have been submitted, as required, to demonstrate that remediation efforts comply with the cleanup goal of {approx}15 mrem/yr above background to a resident in 50 years (BNL 2011a).

  3. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  4. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  5. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  6. Establishing a Cost Basis for Converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from High Enriched to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primm, Trent; Guida, Tracey

    2010-02-01

    Under the auspices of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program, the National Nuclear Security Administration /Department of Energy (NNSA/DOE) has, as a goal, to convert research reactors worldwide from weapons grade to non-weapons grade uranium. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is one of the candidates for conversion of fuel from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). A well documented business model, including tasks, costs, and schedules was developed to plan the conversion of HFIR. Using Microsoft Project, a detailed outline of the conversion program was established and consists of LEU fuel design activities, a fresh fuel shipping cask, improvements to the HFIR reactor building, and spent fuel operations. Current-value costs total $76 million dollars, include over 100 subtasks, and will take over 10 years to complete. The model and schedule follows the path of the fuel from receipt from fuel fabricator to delivery to spent fuel storage and illustrates the duration, start, and completion dates of each subtask to be completed. Assumptions that form the basis of the cost estimate have significant impact on cost and schedule.

  7. 4 year PhD Studentships : Electrochemical Energy Conversion. Applications are invited for a fouryear PhD Research position in the Physical and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    and medium temperature fuel cells, and the optimization of the latter reactions at electrode and storage, and its cold combustion in a fuel cell to generate electricity. There has been a considerable splitting reactors and fuel cells. This project will use a range of state of art electrochemical techniques

  8. The use of U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ dispersed in aluminum in plate-type fuel elements for research and test reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Domagala, R.F.; Hofman, G.L.; Wiencek, T.C.; Copeland, G.L.; Hobbs, R.W.; Senn, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    A high-density fuel based on U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ dispersed in aluminum has been developed and tested for use in converting plate-type research and test reactors from the use of highly enriched uranium to the use of low-enriched uranium. Results of preirradiation testing and the irradiation and postirradiation examination of miniature fuel plates and full-sized fuel elements are summarized. Swelling of the U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ fuel particles is a linear function of the fission density in the particle to well beyond the fission density achievable in low-enriched fuels. U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ particle swelling rate is approximately the same as that of the commonly used UAl/sub x/ fuel particle. The presence of minor amounts of U/sub 3/Si or uranium solid solution in the fuel result in greater, but still acceptable, fuel swelling. Blister threshold temperatures are at least as high as those of currently used fuels. An exothermic reaction occurs near the aluminum melting temperature, but the measured energy releases were low enough not to substantially worsen the consequences of an accident. U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-aluminum dispersion fuel with uranium densities up to at least 4.8 Mg/m/sup 3/ is a suitable LEU fuel for typical plate-type research and test reactors. 42 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Catalytic conversion of solar thermal produced pyrolysis gases to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanley, T.R.; Benham, C.B.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of a simulated pyrolysis gas and synthesis gas using a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst system in a fluidized-bed reactor is investigated. Liquid fuels were produced between 550 and 660/sup 0/F (288 and 349/sup 0/C) for the simulated pyrolysis gas feed. An analysis of both liquid and gaseous product streams is performed. This investigation indicates a need for more extensive research with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon-monoxide usage ratios and with respect to the role of alkenes in fuel production.

  10. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting. Volume 3, Primary system integrity; Aging research, products and applications; Structural and seismic engineering; Seismology and geology: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through July 1999.

  12. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through June 1998.

  13. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through November 1999.

  14. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through February 1999.

  15. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through April 1998.

  16. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through September 1999.

  17. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through January 2000.

  18. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through December 1999.

  19. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through October 1999.

  20. Research on the HYLIFE liquid-first-wall concept for future laser-fusion reactors. Final report No. 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1980-09-01

    It has been proposed to protect the structural walls of a future laser fusion reactor with a curtain or fluid-wall of liquid lithium jets. As part of the investigation of this concept, experiments have been performed on planar sheet water jets issuing vertically downward from slit nozzles. The nozzles were subjected to transverse forced harmonic excitation to simulate the vibrational environment of the laser fusion reactor, and experiments were run at both 1 atm and at lower ambient pressures. Linear temporal stability theory is shown to predict the onset of the unstable regime and the initial spatial growth rates quite well for the cases where the amplitudes of the nozzle vibration are not too large and the waveform is nearly sinusoidal. In addition, both the linear theory and a simplified trajectory theory are shown to predict the initial wave envelope amplitudes very well. For larger amplitude nozzle excitation, the waveform becomes highly nonlinear and non-sinusoidal and can resemble a sawtooth waveform in some cases; these latter experimental results can only be partially explained by existing theories at the present time.

  1. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Reactor Physics, Thermal-hydraulics and Depletion Uncertainty Analysis: Description of the Benchmark Test Cases and Phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederik Reitsma; Gerhard Strydom; Bismark Tyobeka; Kostadin Ivanov

    2012-10-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The uncertainties in the HTR analysis tools are today typically assessed with sensitivity analysis and then a few important input uncertainties (typically based on a PIRT process) are varied in the analysis to find a spread in the parameter of importance. However, one wish to apply a more fundamental approach to determine the predictive capability and accuracies of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations used for reactor design and safety assessment. Today there is a broader acceptance of the use of uncertainty analysis even in safety studies and it has been accepted by regulators in some cases to replace the traditional conservative analysis. Finally, there is also a renewed focus in supplying reliable covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) that can then be used in uncertainty methods. Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are therefore becoming an essential component of any significant effort in data and simulation improvement. In order to address uncertainty in analysis and methods in the HTGR community the IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling early in 2012. The project is built on the experience of the OECD/NEA Light Water Reactor (LWR) Uncertainty Analysis in Best-Estimate Modelling (UAM) benchmark activity, but focuses specifically on the peculiarities of HTGR designs and its simulation requirements. Two benchmark problems were defined with the prismatic type design represented by the MHTGR-350 design from General Atomics (GA) while a 250 MW modular pebble bed design, similar to the INET (China) and indirect-cycle PBMR (South Africa) designs are also included. In the paper more detail on the benchmark cases, the different specific phases and tasks and the latest status and plans are presented.

  2. Plasmonic conversion of solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavero, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    solar energy conversion .This new paradigm of solar energy conversion, based on theon this field, solar energy conversion aimed at photovoltaic

  3. Methane activation using Kr and Xe in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Lee, Dae Hoon Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Woo Seok; Song, Young-Hoon

    2014-10-15

    Methane has interested many researchers as a possible new energy source, but the high stability of methane causes a bottleneck in methane activation, limiting its practical utilization. To determine how to effectively activate methane using non-thermal plasma, the conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gases—Ar, Kr, and Xe—as additives. In addition to the methane conversion results at various applied voltages, the discharge characteristics such as electron temperature and electron density were calculated through zero-dimensional calculations. Moreover, the threshold energies of excitation and ionization were used to distinguish the dominant particle for activating methane between electrons, excited atoms, and ionized atoms. From the experiments and calculations, the selection of the additive noble gas is found to affect not only the conversion of methane but also the selectivity of product gases even under similar electron temperature and electron density conditions.

  4. Kinetics of high-conversion hydrocracking of bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagaishi, H.; Gray, M.R.; Chan, E.W.; Sanford, E.C.

    1995-12-31

    Residues are complex mixtures of thousands of components. This mixture will change during hydrocracking, so that high conversion may result in a residue material with different characteristics from the starting material. Our objective is to determine the kinetics of residue conversion and yields of distillates at high conversions, and to relate these observations to the underlying chemical reactions. Athabasca bitumen was reacted in a 1-L CSTR in a multipass operation. Product from the first pass was collected, then run through the reactor again and so on, giving kinetic data under conditions that simulated a multi-reactor or packed-bed operation. Experiments were run both with hydrocracking catalyst and without added catalyst. Products were analyzed by distillation, elemental analysis, NMR, and GPC. These data will be used to derive a kinetic model for hydrocracking of bitumen residue covering a wide range of conversion (from 30% to 95%+), based on the underlying chemistry.

  5. Method for direct conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons to liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2006-03-07

    A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.

  6. Nonthermal plasma systems and methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Nelson, Lee O.; Detering, Brent A.

    2005-05-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  7. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion - Tutorials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition | Prof. Stacey Bent - Jun 3, 2013 Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S....

  8. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion - Partners

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    them for specific reductive or energy-generating processes. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S....

  9. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion - Outside...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    contact Elizabeth Mattson at emattson(at)stanford.edu. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S....

  10. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion - Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical University of Denmark on computational modeling. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S....

  11. Methane coupling by membrane reactor. Quarterly technical progress report, June 25--September 24, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Y.H.

    1997-11-02

    A new reactor module was constructed as a porous membrane reactor or radial flow reactor for the study of methane oxidative coupling. A Mn-W-Na/SiO{sub 2} catalyst was prepared by the slurry mixing method and its catalytic activity was evaluated in a porous alumina membrane reactor. Experimental results showed that the Mn-W-Na/SiO{sub 2} catalyst calcined at 900 C was not stable during methane oxidative coupling. After 1,050 C calcination the catalyst became stable, however its activity was not as good as the one prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. The dense membrane tube obtained from Eltron Research Inc. was tested in a membrane reactor for the catalytic oxidative coupling of methane. The Mn-W-Na/SiO{sub 2} catalyst prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method was packed inside the membrane tube. The initial oxygen flux was 0.02 cc/cm{sup 2}-min. It increased to 0.34 cc/cm{sup 2}-min after reaction and remained unchanged during a period of 31 days on stream. In a temperature range of 688 C to 977 C, the increase in oxygen flux with temperature obeyed the Arrhenius law. The C{sub 2} yield was about 10% at a methane conversion of 20%. The yield of the membrane reactor with Eltron membrane tube was higher than that with the Argonne membrane tube.

  12. Recovery and Blend-Down Uranium for Beneficial use in Commercial Reactors - 13373

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magoulas, Virginia [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In April 2001 the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) signed an Interagency Agreement to transfer approximately 33 MT of off-specification (off-spec) highly enriched uranium (HEU) from DOE to TVA for conversion to commercial reactor fuel. Since that time additional surplus off-spec HEU material has been added to the program, making the total approximately 46 MT off-spec HEU. The disposition path for approximately half (23 MT) of this 46 MT of surplus HEU material, was down blending through the H-canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HEU is purified through the H-canyon processes, and then blended with natural uranium (NU) to form low enriched uranium (LEU) solution with a 4.95% U-235 isotopic content. This material was then transported to a TVA subcontractor who converted the solution to uranium oxide and then fabricated into commercial light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This fuel is now powering TVA reactors and supplying electricity to approximately 1 million households in the TVA region. There is still in excess of approximately 10 to 14 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for use in either currently designed light water reactors, ?5% enriched LEU, or be made available for use in subsequent advanced 'fast' reactor fuel designs, ?19% LEU. (authors)

  13. Sandia Energy - Advanced Research & Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Development Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Advanced Research & Development Advanced Research & DevelopmentCoryne...

  14. 1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

  15. Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  16. Compact Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Pharis E. [Williams Research, P.O. Box 554, Los Alamos, NM87544 (United States)

    2007-01-30

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  17. Reactor Technology | Nuclear Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactor Technology Advanced Reactor Concepts Advanced Instrumentation & Controls Light Water Reactor Sustainability Safety and Regulatory Technology Small Modular Reactors Nuclear...

  18. Phoenix: A Reactor Burnup Code With Uncertainty Quantification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spence, Grant R

    2014-12-15

    , and will continue to be, an area of great interest in nuclear research. Several methods have been developed to simulate reactor burnup; however, quantifying the uncertainty in reactor burnup simulations is in its relative infancy. This research developed a...

  19. Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division (RNSD)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RNSD Home Research Groups Advanced Reactor Systems & Safety Nuclear Data & Criticality Safety Nuclear Security Modeling Radiation Safety Information Computational Center Radiation...

  20. CONSORTIUM FOR ADVANCED SIMULATION OF LIGHT WATER REACTORS (CASL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Problem Integration Virtual Reactor Integration (VRI) Bridging the gap between research and engineering. Chemistry Mesh Motion Quality Improvement Multi- resolution...

  1. Summer 2014 Undergraduate Research Experience in Physics: Materials and Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) nuclear reactor found on a college campus. The MU Research Reactor (MURR) provides advanced research experiments, theory, and modeling and span a variety of research projects (see http

  2. Reactor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A reactor apparatus for hydrocracking a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous feedstock to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the hydrocarbonaceous feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst.

  3. High Temperature Gas Reactors Andrew C. Kadak, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heat Exchanger Design · Core Power Distribution Monitoring · Pebble Flow Experiments · Non Reactors #12;GT-MHR Module General Arrangement #12;GT-MHR Combines Meltdown-Proof Advanced Reactor and Gas MWt and 600 MWt Cores #12;GT-MHR Flow Schematic #12;Flow through Power Conversion Vessel #12;Modular

  4. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-03-26

    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical project. The main point of preference for the offered reactor is its likely cheapness as a power source. Key words: Micro-thermonuclear reactor, Multi-reflex AB-thermonuclear reactor, Self-magnetic AB-thermonuclear reactor, aerospace thermonuclear engine.

  5. Research and development of rapid hydrogenation for coal conversion to synthetic motor fuels (riser cracking of coal). Final report, April 1, 1976-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, D. A.; Beeson, J. L.; Oberle, R. D.

    1981-02-01

    The objective of the program described was to develop a noncatalytic process for the hydropyrolysis of lignite and coal to produce high-octane blending gasoline constituents, methane, ethane, and carbon oxides. The process would operate in a balanced plant mode, using spent char to generate process hydrogen by steam-oxygen gasification. The technical program included the construction and operating of a bench-scale unit (5-10 lb/hr), the design, construction, and operation of a process development unit (PDU) (100 lb/hr), and a final technical and economic assessment of the process, called Riser Cracking of Coal. In the bench-scale unit program, 143 runs were made investigating the effects of pressure, temperature, heating rate, residence time, and particle size, processing North Dakota lignite in hydrogen. Some runs were made in which the hydrogen was preheated to pyrolysis temperatures prior to contact with the coal, and, also, in which steam was substituted for half of the hydrogen. Attempts to operate the bench-scale unit at 1200 psig and 1475/sup 0/F were not successful. Depth of carbon conversion was found to be influenced by hydrogen pressure, hydrogen-to-coal ratio, and the severity of the thermal treatment. The composition of hydrocarbon liquids produced was found to change with severity. At low severity, the liquids contained sizable fractions of phenols and cresols. At high severity, the fraction of phenols and cresols was much reduced, with an attendant increase in BTX. In operating the PDU, it was necessary to use more oxygen than was planned to achieve pyrolysis temperatures because of heat losses, and portions of hydrocarbon products were lost through combustion with a large increase in carbon oxide yields. Economic studies, however, showed that selling prices for gasoline blending stock, fuel oil, and fuel gas are competitive in current markets, so that the process is held to warrant further development.

  6. Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    9, CCTP; Dodson, Rustin

    1998-01-01

    UNIT 9: SPATIAL DATA CONVERSION Written by Rustin Dodson,Programs Page 1 Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion freezingPrograms Page 2 Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion Export USGS

  7. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  8. DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for transportation fuel Concept developed at RISØ and DTU Anne Belinda Thomsen (RISØ) Birgitte K. Ahring (DTU) #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass: Biogas #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Pre-treatment Step Biomass is macerated The biomass is cut in small

  9. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolley, Robert D; Miller, Laurence F

    2014-04-01

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  10. Challenges in the Development of Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Sabharwall; M.C. Teague; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; M.W. Patterson

    2012-08-01

    Past generations of nuclear reactors have been successively developed and the next generation is currently being developed, demonstrating the constant progress and technical and industrial vitality of nuclear energy. In 2000 US Department of Energy launched Generation IV International Forum (GIF) which is one of the main international frameworks for the development of future nuclear systems. The six systems that were selected were: sodium cooled fast reactor, lead cooled fast reactor, supercritical water cooled reactor, very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR), gas cooled fast reactor and molten salt reactor. This paper discusses some of the proposed advanced reactor concepts that are currently being researched to varying degrees in the United States, and highlights some of the major challenges these concepts must overcome to establish their feasibility and to satisfy licensing requirements.

  11. Proposed Design and Operation of a Heat Pipe Reactor using the Sandia National Laboratories Annular Core Test Facility and Existing UZrH Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Pandya, Tara; Peters, Curtis [Sandia National Laboratories, Org 6872 MS-1146, PO Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2005-02-06

    Heat Pipe Reactors (HPR) for space power conversion systems offer a number of advantages not easily provided by other systems. They require no pumping, their design easily deals with freezing and thawing of the liquid metal, and they can provide substantial levels of redundancy. Nevertheless, no reactor has ever been operated and cooled with heat pipes, and the startup and other operational characteristics of these systems remain largely unknown. Signification deviations from normal reactor heat removal mechanisms exist, because the heat pipes have fundamental heat removal limits due to sonic flow issues at low temperatures. This paper proposes an early prototypic test of a Heat Pipe Reactor (using existing 20% enriched nuclear fuel pins) to determine the operational characteristics of the HPR. The proposed design is similar in design to the HOMER and SAFE-300 HPR designs (Elliot, Lipinski, and Poston, 2003; Houts, et. al, 2003). However, this reactor uses existing UZrH fuel pins that are coupled to potassium heat pipes modules. The prototype reactor would be located in the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor Facility where the fuel pins currently reside. The proposed reactor would use the heat pipes to transport the heat from the UZrH fuel pins to a water pool above the core, and the heat transport to the water pool would be controlled by adjusting the pressure and gas type within a small annulus around each heat pipe. The reactor would operate as a self-critical assembly at power levels up to 200 kWth. Because the nuclear heated HPR test uses existing fuel and because it would be performed in an existing facility with the appropriate safety authorization basis, the test could be performed rapidly and inexpensively. This approach makes it possible to validate the operation of a HPR and also measure the feedback mechanisms for a typical HPR design. A test of this nature would be the world's first operating Heat Pipe Reactor. This reactor is therefore called 'HPR-1'.

  12. Stabilized Spheromak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, T

    2007-04-03

    The U.S. fusion energy program is focused on research with the potential for studying plasmas at thermonuclear temperatures, currently epitomized by the tokamak-based International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) but also continuing exploratory work on other plasma confinement concepts. Among the latter is the spheromak pursued on the SSPX facility at LLNL. Experiments in SSPX using electrostatic current drive by coaxial guns have now demonstrated stable spheromaks with good heat confinement, if the plasma is maintained near a Taylor state, but the anticipated high current amplification by gun injection has not yet been achieved. In future experiments and reactors, creating and maintaining a stable spheromak configuration at high magnetic field strength may require auxiliary current drive using neutral beams or RF power. Here we show that neutral beam current drive soon to be explored on SSPX could yield a compact spheromak reactor with current drive efficiency comparable to that of steady state tokamaks. Thus, while more will be learned about electrostatic current drive in coming months, results already achieved in SSPX could point to a productive parallel development path pursuing auxiliary current drive, consistent with plans to install neutral beams on SSPX in the near future. Among possible outcomes, spheromak research could also yield pulsed fusion reactors at lower capital cost than any fusion concept yet proposed.

  13. Catalytic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaron, Timothy Mark (East Amherst, NY); Shah, Minish Mahendra (East Amherst, NY); Jibb, Richard John (Amherst, NY)

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  14. New Approaches to Full Spectrum Solar Energy Conversion | U.S...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    New Approaches to Full Spectrum Solar Energy Conversion Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events...

  15. Foreign Research Reactor/Domestic Research Reactor Receipt Coordinator,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) |FinalIndustrialFollowingFor yourMatteo ManeraSavannah

  16. Neutronic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wende, Charles W. J. (Augusta, GA); Babcock, Dale F. (Wilmington, DE); Menegus, Robert L. (Wilmington, DE)

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

  17. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  18. Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qvist, Staffan Alexander

    2013-01-01

    increase for a typical sodium fast reactor fuel rod geometryof the new Russian sodium fast reactor BN-800 [111]. Thethe strong focus of sodium fast reactor research to avoid

  19. Biochemical Conversion: Using Enzymes, Microbes, and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-26

    This fact sheet describes the Bioenergy Technologies Office's biochemical conversion work and processes. BETO conducts collaborative research, development, and demonstration projects to improve several processing routes for the conversion of cellulosic biomass.

  20. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glashausser, Charles

    Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Frank Zimmermann #12;Solar Electricity Generation Consumes no fuel Electrode Valence Band Conduction Band Fermi Level I- /I3 - Redox Potential Dye 1D 3D* 1D* Energy Levels Counter Electrode Valence Band Conduction Band Fermi Level I- /I3 - Redox Potential Dye 1D 3D* 1D* Energy

  1. ENERGY CONVERSION Spring 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    , 5th Edition Michael J. Moran and Howard N. Shapiro, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, NY, 2004, John Willey 2010. 3) Alternative Energy Systems and Applications, by B.K. Hodge, John Willey 2010. 41 ENSC 461 ENERGY CONVERSION Spring 2011 Instructor: Dr. Majid Bahrami 4372 Email

  2. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project 2001-001, Westinghouse Electric Co. Grant Number: DE-FG07-02SF22533, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% versus about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors [LWRs]) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus, the need for a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators, and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies: LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which are also in use around the world. The reference SCWR design for the U.S. program is a direct cycle system operating at 25.0 MPa, with core inlet and outlet temperatures of 280 and 500 C, respectively. The coolant density decreases from about 760 kg/m3 at the core inlet to about 90 kg/m3 at the core outlet. The inlet flow splits with about 10% of the inlet flow going down the space between the core barrel and the reactor pressure vessel (the downcomer) and about 90% of the inlet flow going to the plenum at the top of the rector pressure vessel, to then flow down through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. Here it mixes with the feedwater from the downcomer and flows upward to remove the heat in the fuel channels. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core. The coolant is heated to about 500 C and delivered to the turbine. The purpose of this NERI project was to assess the reference U.S. Generation IV SCWR design and explore alternatives to determine feasibility. The project was organized into three tasks: Task 1. Fuel-cycle Neutronic Analysis and Reactor Core Design Task 2. Fuel Cladding and Structural Material Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking Task 3. Plant Engineering and Reactor Safety Analysis. moderator rods. materials.

  3. Angora Goats for Conversion of Arizona Chaparral: Early Results1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angora Goats for Conversion of Arizona Chaparral: Early Results1 O. D. Knipe2 1 Presented located at the Station's Research Work Unit at Tempe, in cooperation with Arizona State Univer- sity quarter century has shown that conversion of Arizona chaparral to grass significantly increases water

  4. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels February 7, 2013 Fuels synthesis insight forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into fuels. The team led by Los Alamos published the research. Trash to Treasure "Efficient conversion of non-food biomass into fuels and chemical

  5. Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Research Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Research thorium test foil A...

  6. Domestic U.S. Reactor Conversions: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    This Site Budget IG Web Policy Privacy No Fear Act Accessibility FOIA Sitemap Federal Government The White House DOE.gov USA.gov Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA...

  7. US, Russian Federation Sign Joint Statement on Reactor Conversion |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment| Department of Energy Office ofProductionPresidentonDepartment of

  8. Chemistry of Furan Conversion into Aromatics and Olefins over HZSM-5: A Model Biomass Conversion Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Huber, George W.

    2011-06-03

    The conversion of furan (a model of cellulosic biomass) over HZSM-5 was investigated in a thermogravimetric analysis–mass spectrometry system, in situ Fourier transform infrared analysis, and in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor. Furan adsorbed as oligomers at room temperature with a 1.73 of adsorbed furan/Al ratio. These oligomers were polycyclic aromatic compounds that were converted to CO, CO?, aromatics, and olefins at temperatures from 400 to 600 °C. Aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, and naphthalene), oligomer isomers (e.g., benzofuran, 2,2-methylenebisfuran, and benzodioxane), and heavy oxygenates (C??{sub +} oligomers) were identified as intermediates formed inside HZSM-5 at different reaction temperatures. During furan conversion, graphite-type coke formed on the catalyst surface, which caused the aromatics and olefins formation to deactivate within the first 30 min of time on-stream. We have measured the effects of space velocity and temperature for furan conversion to help us understand the chemistry of biomass conversion inside zeolite catalysts. The major products for furan conversion included CO, CO?, allene, C?–C? olefins, benzene, toluene, styrene, benzofuran, indene, and naphthalene. The aromatics (benzene and toluene) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) selectivity decreased with increasing space velocity. Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as allene, cyclopentadiene, and aromatics selectivity increased with increasing space velocity. The product distribution was selective to olefins and CO at high temperatures (650 °C) but was selective to aromatics (benzene and toluene) at intermediate temperatures (450–600 °C). At low temperatures (450 °C), benzofuran and coke contributed 60% of the carbon selectivity. Several different reactions were occurring for furan conversion over zeolites. Some important reactions that we have identified in this study include Diels–Alder condensation (e.g., two furans form benzofuran and water), decarbonylation (e.g., furan forms CO and allene), oligomerization (allene forms olefins and aromatics plus hydrogen), and alkylation (e.g., furan plus olefins). The product distribution was far from thermodynamic equilibrium.

  9. Irradiation Experiment Conceptual Design Parameters for NBSR Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown N. R.; Brown,N.R.; Baek,J.S; Hanson, A.L.; Cuadra,A.; Cheng,L.Y.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-03-31

    It has been proposed to convert the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor, known as the NBSR, from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The motivation to convert the NBSR to LEU fuel is to reduce the risk of proliferation of special nuclear material. This report is a compilation of relevant information from recent studies related to the proposed conversion using a metal alloy of LEU with 10 w/o molybdenum. The objective is to inform the design of the mini-plate and full-size plate irradiation experiments that are being planned. This report provides relevant dimensions of the fuel elements, and the following parameters at steady state: average and maximum fission rate density and fission density, fuel temperature distribution for the plate with maximum local temperature, and two-dimensional heat flux profiles of fuel plates with high power densities. . The latter profiles are given for plates in both the inner and outer core zones and for cores with both fresh and depleted shim arms (reactivity control devices). In addition, a summary of the methodology to obtain these results is presented.

  10. Irradiation Experiment Conceptual Design Parameters for NBSR Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N. R.; Brown, N. R.; Baek, J. S; Hanson, A. L.; Cuadra, A.; Cheng, L. Y.; Diamond, D. J.

    2014-04-30

    It has been proposed to convert the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor, known as the NBSR, from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-Enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The motivation to convert the NBSR to LEU fuel is to reduce the risk of proliferation of special nuclear material. This report is a compilation of relevant information from recent studies related to the proposed conversion using a metal alloy of LEU with 10 w/o molybdenum. The objective is to inform the design of the mini-plate and full-size-Plate irradiation experiments that are being planned. This report provides relevant dimensions of the fuel elements, and the following parameters at steady state: average and maximum fission rate density and fission density, fuel temperature distribution for the plate with maximum local temperature, and two-dimensional heat flux profiles of fuel plates with high power densities. The latter profiles are given for plates in both the inner and outer core zones and for cores with both fresh and depleted shim arms (reactivity control devices). A summary of the methodology to obtain these results is presented. Fuel element tolerance assumptions and hot channel factors used in the safety analysis are also given.

  11. Neutron Radiography Reactor Reactivity -- Focused Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Woolstenhulme; Randal Damiana; Kenneth Schreck; Ann Marie Phillips; Dana Hewit

    2010-11-01

    As part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was converted from using highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. After the conversion, NRAD resumed operations and is meeting operational requirements. Radiography image quality and the number of images that can be produced in a given time frame match pre-conversion capabilities. However, following the conversion, NRAD’s excess reactivity with the LEU fuel was less than it had been with the HEU fuel. Although some differences between model predictions and actual performance are to be expected, the lack of flexibility in NRAD’s safety documentation prevented adjusting the reactivity by adding more fuel, until the safety documentation could be modified. To aid future reactor conversions, a reactivity-focused Lessons Learned meeting was held. This report summarizes the findings of the lessons learned meeting and addresses specific questions posed by DOE regarding NRAD’s conversion and reactivity.

  12. Structure of processes in flow reactor and closed reactor: Flow reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    Structure of processes in flow reactor and closed reactor: Flow reactor Closed reactor Active Zone -- chemical quasi- equilibria, similarity principles and macroscopic kinetics", in: Lectures on Plasma Physics

  13. Wind energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longrigg, Paul (Golden, CO)

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  14. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity.

  15. NREL: Biomass Research - Thermochemical Conversion Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:News ReleasesChemical

  16. Energy Conversion, an Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES ScienceInformationInformation AdministrationHeavyEnergy

  17. Energy Conversion, an Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES ScienceInformationInformation

  18. Energy Conversion, an Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not find what youSummerEmployment Opportunities Thank youBlog Energy

  19. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

    2008-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

  20. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion - Contact...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tel 650.723.6488 Fax 650.723.5034 emattson(at)stanford.edu Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S....

  1. Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons PDF explaining the biological process of bioenergy Biological Conversion of Sugars...

  2. Reactor accelerator coupling experiments: a feasability study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woddi Venkat Krishna, Taraknath

    2006-08-16

    ) ______________________________ William E. Burchill (Head of Department) ______________________________ Marvin L. Adams (Member) ______________________________ Ronald J. Ellis (Member) May 2005 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering iii ABSTRACT Reactor... (Commissariat ? l??nergie Atomique), EDF (Electricit? de France), and FRAMATOME. This experimental program takes place at the research reactor MASURCA (MAquette de SURg?n?rateur ? CAdarache) of the CEA Nuclear Center of Cadarache. It is devoted to the study...

  3. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.

  4. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  5. Comparison and validation of HEU and LEU modeling results to HEU experimental benchmark data for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MITR reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newton, T. H.; Wilson, E. H; Bergeron, A.; Horelik, N.; Stevens, J. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (MIT Nuclear Reactor Lab.)

    2011-03-02

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR-II) is a research reactor in Cambridge, Massachusetts designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most research and test reactors both domestic and international have started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like the MITR-II reactor. Towards this goal, comparisons of MCNP5 Monte Carlo neutronic modeling results for HEU and LEU cores have been performed. Validation of the model has been based upon comparison to HEU experimental benchmark data for the MITR-II. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a model which could represent the experimental HEU data, and therefore could provide a basis to demonstrate LEU core performance. This report presents an overview of MITR-II model geometry and material definitions which have been verified, and updated as required during the course of validation to represent the specifications of the MITR-II reactor. Results of calculations are presented for comparisons to historical HEU start-up data from 1975-1976, and to other experimental benchmark data available for the MITR-II Reactor through 2009. This report also presents results of steady state neutronic analysis of an all-fresh LEU fueled core. Where possible, HEU and LEU calculations were performed for conditions equivalent to HEU experiments, which serves as a starting point for safety analyses for conversion of MITR-II from the use of HEU fuel to the use of UMo LEU fuel.

  6. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2010, Prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, May 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Lewis D. A. Hagemeyer Y. U. McCormick

    2012-07-07

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2010 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no NRC-licensed low-level waste disposal facilities currently in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Annual reports for 2010 were received from a total of 190 NRC licensees. The summation of reports submitted by the 190 licensees indicated that 192,424 individuals were monitored, 81,961 of whom received a measurable dose. When adjusted for transient workers who worked at more than one licensee during the year, there were actually 142,471 monitored individuals and 62,782 who received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 10,617 person-rem, which represents a 12% decrease from the 2009 value. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease in collective dose at commercial nuclear power reactors, as well as a decrease in the collective dose for most of the other categories of NRC licensees. The number of individuals receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in an average measurable dose of 0.13 rem for 2010. The average measurable dose is defined as the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) divided by the number of individuals receiving a measurable dose. In calendar year 2010, the average annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor (LWR) licensees was 83 person-rem. This represents a 14% decrease from the value reported for 2009 (96 person-rem). The decrease in collective dose for commercial nuclear power reactors was due to an 11% decrease in total outage hours in 2010. During outages, activities involving increased radiation exposure such as refueling and maintenance are performed while the reactor is not in operation. The average annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 137 personrem for 35 BWRs, and 55 person-rem for 69 pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Analyses of transient individual data indicate that 29,333 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient individuals by multiple licensees. The adjustment to account for transient individuals has been specifically noted in footnotes in the figures and tables for commercial nuclear power reactors. In 2010, the average measurable dose per individual for all licensees calculated from reported data was 0.13 rem. Although the average measurable dose per individual from data submitted by licensees was 0.13 rem, a corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose per individual of 0.17 rem.

  7. Feasibility of breeding in hard spectrum boiling water reactors with oxide and nitride fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Bo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and fuel performance aspects of using nitride fuel in place of oxides in Pu-based high conversion light water reactor designs. Using the higher density nitride fuel ...

  8. Reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marica Baldoncini; Ivan Callegari; Giovanni Fiorentini; Fabio Mantovani; Barbara Ricci; Virginia Strati; Gerti Xhixha

    2015-02-16

    Antineutrinos produced at nuclear reactors constitute a severe source of background for the detection of geoneutrinos, which bring to the Earth's surface information about natural radioactivity in the whole planet. In this framework we provide a reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors, in view of reactors operational records yearly published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). We evaluate the expected signal from commercial reactors for ongoing (KamLAND and Borexino), planned (SNO+) and proposed (Juno, RENO-50, LENA and Hanohano) experimental sites. Uncertainties related to reactor antineutrino production, propagation and detection processes are estimated using a Monte Carlo based approach, which provides an overall site dependent uncertainty on the signal in the geoneutrino energy window on the order of 3%. We also implement the off-equilibrium correction to the reference reactor spectra associated with the long-lived isotopes and we estimate a 2.4% increase of the unoscillated event rate in the geoneutrino energy window due to the storage of spent nuclear fuels in the cooling pools. We predict that the research reactors contribute to less than 0.2% to the commercial reactor signal in the investigated 14 sites. We perform a multitemporal analysis of the expected reactor signal over a time lapse of 10 years using reactor operational records collected in a comprehensive database published at www.fe.infn.it/antineutrino.

  9. Proceedings of the 25th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P.A.; Schertz, W.W.; Till, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 25th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Volume 5 is organized under the following headings: Photovoltaics I, Photovoltaics II, Geothermal power, Thermochemical conversion of biomass, Energy from waste and biomass, Solar thermal systems for environmental applications, Solar thermal low temperature systems and components, Solar thermal high temperature systems and components, Wind systems, Space power sterling technology Stirling cooler developments, Stirling solar terrestrial I, Stirling solar terrestrial II, Stirling engine generator sets, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling engine loss understanding, Novel engine concepts, Coal conversion and utilization, Power cycles, MHD water propulsion I, Underwater vehicle powerplants - performance, MHD underwater propulsion II, Nuclear power, Update of advanced nuclear power reactor concepts.

  10. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  11. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  12. Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) FY04 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. D. Weaver; T. C. Totemeier; D. E. Clark; E. E. Feldman; E. A. Hoffman; R. B. Vilim; T. Y. C. Wei; J. Gan; M. K. Meyer; W. F. Gale; M. J. Driscoll; M. Golay; G. Apostolakis; K. Czerwinski

    2004-09-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radio toxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. Nevertheless, the GFR was chosen as one of only six Generation IV systems to be pursued based on its ability to meet the Generation IV goals in sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, proliferation resistance and physical protection.

  13. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    webinarcarbohydratesproduction.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...

  14. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop Innovative Topics for Advanced Biofuels...

  15. Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Conversion Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Energy Conversion 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lawrence Berkeley...

  16. Apparatus and methods for direct conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons to liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2006-04-25

    A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.

  17. Energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  18. Energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  19. Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sensitivities and uncertainties in full-scale multi physics Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) simulations Research & Development VERA COBRA-TF Dakota Hydra-TH Insilico MAMBA MPACT...

  20. SRS Small Modular Reactors

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-05-21

    The small modular reactor program at the Savannah River Site and the Savannah River National Laboratory.

  1. Reactor safety method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vachon, Lawrence J. (Clairton, PA)

    1980-03-11

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.

  2. Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    My research interests. Numerical method of stochastic partial differential equations; Uncertainty Quantification; High-order numerical method; Domain ...

  3. Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    author

    Research Interests. Mathematical biology: Computational modelling of biological systems, experimental design and control of cellular processes. Applied math: ...

  4. Effect of coal rank and process conditions on temperature distribution in a liquefaction reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalitham, R.V.; Moniz, M.

    1986-04-01

    The temperature distribution in a liquefaction reactor in the integrated TSL process is studied. The effects of gas and slurry superficial velocities, process solvent characteristics, reactor length, and catalyst sulfiding agent on the exotherm and temperature difference in the reactor are studied. A substantial temperature difference is observed with subbituminous coal as compared with bituminous coal, at comparable reactor conditions. Some of the factors that are believed to have contributed to the large exotherm and temperature difference in the reactor are slow kinetics and high reaction heat for subbituminous coal conversion and pyrrhotite catalysis.

  5. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1984 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the program is to generate scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective process for converting biomass resources into clean fuels. The goal of the program is to develop the data base for biomass thermal conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and by exploring those parameters that are critical to the conversion processes. The research activities can be divided into: (1) gasification technology; (2) liquid fuels technology; (3) direct combustion technology; and (4) program support activities. These activities are described in detail in this report. Outstanding accomplishments during fiscal year 1984 include: (1) successful operation of 3-MW combustor/gas turbine system; (2) successful extended term operation of an indirectly heated, dual bed gasifier for producing medium-Btu gas; (3) determination that oxygen requirements for medium-Btu gasification of biomass in a pressurized, fluidized bed gasifier are low; (4) established interdependence of temperature and residence times on biomass pyrolysis oil yields; and (5) determination of preliminary technical feasibility of thermally gasifying high moisture biomass feedstocks. A bibliography of 1984 publications is included. 26 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomson, Wallace B. (Severna Park, MD)

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  7. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, J.L.; LaPointe, M.A.; Ganguly, A.K. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); LaPointe, M.A. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250{endash}350 kV, 20{endash}30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, J. L.; LaPointe, M. A. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Ganguly, A. K. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1999-05-07

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250-350 kV, 20-30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself.

  9. BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritschard, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Operations, vol. 2 of Biomass Energy (Stanford: StanfordPhotosynthethic Pathway Biomass Energy Production," ~c:_! _LBL-11902 UC-61a BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

  10. Moderate pressure hydrocracking: A profitable conversion alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, M.G. (M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Pappal, D.A. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)); Pesek, C.L. (Akzo Chemicals, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Moderate Pressure Hydrocracking (MPHC) is a once-through hydrocracking process for the conversion of heavy gas oils to low-sulfur distillates and unconverted oil which is highly upgraded relative to the raw feed. Operating at lower pressure significantly reduces capital investment and results in substantially less hydrogen consumption. Furthermore, the process requirements for MPHC are within the range of many existing vacuum gas oil desulfurization units. Mobil Research and Development Corporation and Akzo Chemicals have been actively engaged in Moderate Pressure Hydrocracking research for more than ten years. Mobil's first commercial MPHC installation was successfully started up in 1983. Mobil operates five hydrocrackers, two of which are partial conversion MPHC designs that process heavy vacuum gas oils into middle distillate products. This research and operating experience has led to an advanced capability to apply hydrocracking conversion technology to heavy feedstocks under moderate pressure conditions. Akzo has commercialized a family of hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts which are combined to achieve the optimal balance between activity and selectivity for each specific refining application. The M.W. Kellogg Co. is a leading technology based international Engineering Construction company and has experience in the design, engineering and construction of 22 hydrocrackers. Mobil, Akzo and Kellogg have formed a partnership to offer MAK-MPHC and other full conversion hydrocracking technologies for license to the refining industry. This paper will present pilot plant and commercial results for Akzo catalysts in Moderate Pressure Hydrocracking applications. Specific process design features, typical refinery applications and the economic incentives for selecting MAK-MPHC will also be discussed.

  11. The effect of velocity and porosity profiles on the performance of fixed bed reactors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, Kaushik

    1983-01-01

    (m r) R. H. Loeppert (member) C. D. 1 and (Head of the Dept. ) December 1983 ABSTRACT THE Effect of Velocity and Porosity Profiles on the Performance of Fixed Bed Reactors (December 1983) Kaushik Amin, B. S. , M. S. University of Barcda... and velocity profiles in the modeling of fixed bed reactors. The first attempt accounting for the porosity profile in the reactor mcdel was made by Xondelik et al. (1969). They used a one dimensional parallel channel model to predict overall conversion...

  12. Design Considerations for Economically Competitive Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao

    2009-05-01

    The technological viability of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) has been established by various experimental and prototype (demonstration) reactors such as EBR-II, FFTF, Phénix, JOYO, BN-600 etc. However, the economic competitiveness of SFR has not been proven yet. The perceived high cost premium of SFRs over LWRs has been the primary impediment to the commercial expansion of SFR technologies. In this paper, cost reduction options are discussed for advanced SFR designs. These include a hybrid loop-pool design to optimize the primary system, multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle for the power conversion system and the potential for suppression of intermediate heat transport system. The design options for the fully passive decay heat removal systems are also thoroughly examined. These include direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS), reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) and the newly proposed pool reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) in the context of the hybrid loop-pool design.

  13. West European nuclear power generation research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turinsky, P.J.; Baron, S.; Burch, W.D.; Corradini, M.L.; Lucas, G.E.; Matthews, R.B.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    This report assesses the status of West European research and development (R&D) in support of nuclear power generation. The focus is on light-water reactors (LWRs), as they will likely be the only concept commerically implemented within the next decade. To a laser degree, alternative concepts such as the high-temperature gas cooled reactor and the liquid-metal reactor (LMR) are also assessed. To bound the study, only the fuel cycle stages of fuel fabrication, power generation, and fuel reprocessing are considered. Under the topic of power generation, the subtopics of core reactor physics, materials, instrumentation and control systems, nuclear power safety, and power plant fabrication and construction are addressed. The front-end fuel cycle stages of mining and milling, conversion and enrichment, and the back-end fuel cycle stages of waste conditioning and disposal and not considered. Most assessments for light-water reactor R&D are completed on a country-by-country basis since there is limited cooperation among the West European countries due to the commercial relevance of R&D in this area.

  14. West European nuclear power generation research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turinsky, P.J.; Baron, S.; Burch, W.D.; Corradini, M.L.; Lucas, G.E.; Matthews, R.B.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    This report assesses the status of West European research and development (R D) in support of nuclear power generation. The focus is on light-water reactors (LWRs), as they will likely be the only concept commerically implemented within the next decade. To a laser degree, alternative concepts such as the high-temperature gas cooled reactor and the liquid-metal reactor (LMR) are also assessed. To bound the study, only the fuel cycle stages of fuel fabrication, power generation, and fuel reprocessing are considered. Under the topic of power generation, the subtopics of core reactor physics, materials, instrumentation and control systems, nuclear power safety, and power plant fabrication and construction are addressed. The front-end fuel cycle stages of mining and milling, conversion and enrichment, and the back-end fuel cycle stages of waste conditioning and disposal and not considered. Most assessments for light-water reactor R D are completed on a country-by-country basis since there is limited cooperation among the West European countries due to the commercial relevance of R D in this area.

  15. HELIOPHYSICS II. ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Hugh

    with the term "solar flare" dominate our thinking about energy conversion from magnetic storage to other formsHELIOPHYSICS II. ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES edited by CAROLUS J. SCHRIJVER Lockheed Martin of a solar flare 11 2.3.1 Flare luminosity and mechanical energy 11 2.3.2 The impulsive phase (hard X

  16. DESIGN OF A MICROCHANNEL BASED SOLAR RECEIVER/REACTOR FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Sourabh V.

    DESIGN OF A MICROCHANNEL BASED SOLAR RECEIVER/REACTOR FOR METHANE-STEAM REFORMING Drost, K. J designs that permit increase in the overall solar to chemical conversion efficiency are needed of fuels is needed. Solar re- ceivers based on a volumetric or cavity receiver design are common [8, 9, 10

  17. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    1999-03-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors. The past three months of research have been focused on two major areas of bubble column hydrodynamics: (1) pressure and temperature effects on gas holdup and (2) region transition using a sparger as a gas distributor.

  18. Nuclear Safeguards Considerations For The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip Casey Durst; David Beddingfield; Brian Boyer; Robert Bean; Michael Collins; Michael Ehinger; David Hanks; David L. Moses; Lee Refalo

    2009-10-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been considered since the 1940s, and have been constructed and demonstrated in the United Kingdom (Dragon), United States (Peach Bottom and Fort Saint Vrain), Japan (HTTR), Germany (AVR and THTR-300), and have been the subject of conceptual studies in Russia (VGM). The attraction to these reactors is that they can use a variety of reactor fuels, including abundant thorium, which upon reprocessing of the spent fuel can produce fissile U-233. Hence, they could extend the stocks of available uranium, provided the fuel is reprocessed. Another attractive attribute is that HTRs typically operate at a much higher temperature than conventional light water reactors (LWRs), because of the use of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coated (TRISO) fuel particles embedded in ceramic graphite. Rather than simply discharge most of the unused heat from the working fluid in the power plant to the environment, engineers have been designing reactors for 40 years to recover this heat and make it available for district heating or chemical conversion plants. Demonstrating high-temperature nuclear energy conversion was the purpose behind Fort Saint Vrain in the United States, THTR-300 in Germany, HTTR in Japan, and HTR-10 and HTR-PM, being built in China. This resulted in nuclear reactors at least 30% or more thermodynamically efficient than conventional LWRs, especially if the waste heat can be effectively utilized in chemical processing plants. A modern variant of high temperature reactors is the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Originally developed in the United States and Germany, it is now being redesigned and marketed by the Republic of South Africa and China. The team examined historical high temperature and high temperature gas reactors (HTR and HTGR) and reviewed safeguards considerations for this reactor. The following is a preliminary report on this topic prepared under the ASA-100 Advanced Safeguards Project in support of the NNSA Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI).

  19. High conversion hydrocracking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stine, L.O.; Reno, M.E.; Munro, W.H.; Hamper, S.J.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking a heavy hydrocarbon feed stream having a 10 percent boiling point above about 316{degrees} C. It comprises: passing the feedstream into a catalytic hydrocracking reaction zone in contact with hydrocracking catalyst comprising at least one metal selected from the group consisting of chromium, nickel, cobalt, platinum, palladium, tungsten and molybdenum, at a temperature above about 316{degrees} C. and a total pressure above 1480 kPa, the catalytic hydrocracking reaction zone operating at a feed stream conversion rate above 70 wt. percent with a hydrogen circulation rate in excess at 1777 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}, to produce a reaction zone effluent stream, subjecting the reaction zone effluent stream to cooling and a vapor-liquid separation to yield a recycle hydrogen stream and a liquid phase stream, heating the liquid phase stream recovered from the vapor-liquid separation to vaporize at least 90 volume percent of the liquid phase stream, passing the heated and at least partially vaporized liquid phase stream to a fractionation zone wherein the stream is separated into at least a net bottoms stream, a heavy distillate stream, and at least one light distillate stream which is removed as the distillate product stream, removing all of the net bottoms stream from the process, and recycling substantially all of the heavy distillate stream to the catalytic hydrocracking zone.

  20. UCLA program in reactor studies: The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The ARIES research program is a multi-institutional effort to develop several visions of tokamak reactors with enhanced economic, safety, and environmental features. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Four ARIES visions are currently planned for the ARIES program. The ARIES-1 design is a DT-burning reactor based on modest'' extrapolations from the present tokamak physics database and relies on either existing technology or technology for which trends are already in place, often in programs outside fusion. ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 are DT-burning reactors which will employ potential advances in physics. The ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs employ the same plasma core but have two distinct fusion power core designs; ARIES-2 utilize the lithium as the coolant and breeder and vanadium alloys as the structural material while ARIES-4 utilizes helium is the coolant, solid tritium breeders, and SiC composite as the structural material. Lastly, the ARIES-3 is a conceptual D-{sup 3}He reactor. During the period Dec. 1, 1990 to Nov. 31, 1991, most of the ARIES activity has been directed toward completing the technical work for the ARIES-3 design and documenting the results and findings. We have also completed the documentation for the ARIES-1 design and presented the results in various meetings and conferences. During the last quarter, we have initiated the scoping phase for ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs.

  1. Core design studies for advanced burner test reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. government announced in February 2006 the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) based on a fast spectrum is one of the three major technologies to be demonstrated in GNEP. In FY06, a pre-conceptual design study was performed to develop an advanced burner test reactor (ABTR) that supports development of a prototype full-scale ABR, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR were (1) to demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics (TRU) as part of an advanced fuel cycle, (2) to qualify the TRU-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR, (3) to support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Based on these objectives, core design and fuel cycle studies were performed to develop ABTR core designs, which can accommodate the expected changes of the TRU feed and the conversion ratio. Various option and trade-off studies were performed to determine the appropriate power level and conversion ratio. Both ternary metal alloy (U-TRU-10Zr) and mixed oxide (UO{sub 2}-TRUO{sub 2}) fuel forms have been considered with TRU feeds from weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) and TRU recovered from light water reactor spent fuel (LWR-SF). Reactor performances were evaluated in detail including equilibrium cycle core parameters, mass flow, power distribution, kinetic parameters, reactivity feedback coefficient, reactivity control requirements and shutdown margins, and spent fuel characteristics. Trade-off studies on power level suggested that about 250 MWt is a reasonable compromise to allow a low project cost, at the same time providing a reasonable prototypic irradiation environment for demonstrating TRU-based fuels. Preliminary design studies showed that it is feasible to design the ABTR to accommodate a wide range of conversion ratio (CR) by employing different assembly designs. The TRU enrichments required for various conversion ratios and the irradiation database suggested a phased approach with initial startup using conventional enrichment plutonium-based fuel and gradual transitioning to full core loading of transmutation fuel after its qualification phase (resulting in {approx}0.6 CR). The low CR transmutation fuel tests can be accommodated in the designated test assemblies, and if fully developed, core conversion to low CR fuel can be envisioned. Reference ABTR core designs with a rated power of 250 MWt were developed for ternary metal alloy and mixed oxide fuels based on WG-Pu feed. The reference core contains 54 driver, 6 test fuel, and 3 test material assemblies. For the startup core designs, the calculated TRU conversion ratio is 0.65 for the metal fuel core and 0.64 for the oxide fuel core. Both the metal and oxide cores show good performances. The metal fuel core requires an average TRU enrichment of 18.8% and yields a reactivity swing of 1.2 %{Delta}k over the 4-month cycle. The core average flux level is {approx}2.4 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}s, and test assembly flux level is {approx}2.8 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}s. Compared to the metal fuel core, the lower density oxide fuel core requires an average TRU enrichment of 21.8%, which results in a 780 kg TRU loading (as compared to 732 kg for metal) despite a {approx}9% smaller heavy metal inventory. The lower heavy metal inventory increases the burnup reactivity swing by {approx}10% and reduces the flux levels by {approx}8%. Alternative designs were also studied for a LWR-SF TRU feed and a low conversion ratio, including the recycle of the ABTR spent fuel TRU. The lower fissile contents of the LWR-SF TRU relative to the WG-Pu TRU significantly increase the required TRU enrichment of the startup cores to maintain the same cycle length. The even lower fissile fraction of the ABTR spent fuel TRU furt

  2. Advanced Multiphysics Thermal-Hydraulics Models for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Engineering design studies to determine the feasibility of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from using highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This work is part of an effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Reactor Conversion Program. HFIR is a very high flux pressurized light-water-cooled and moderated flux-trap type research reactor. HFIR s current missions are to support neutron scattering experiments, isotope production, and materials irradiation, including neutron activation analysis. Advanced three-dimensional multiphysics models of HFIR fuel were developed in COMSOL software for safety basis (worst case) operating conditions. Several types of physics including multilayer heat conduction, conjugate heat transfer, turbulent flows (RANS model) and structural mechanics were combined and solved for HFIR s inner and outer fuel elements. Alternate design features of the new LEU fuel were evaluated using these multiphysics models. This work led to a new, preliminary reference LEU design that combines a permanent absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, a burnable absorber in the inner element side plates, and a relocated and reshaped (but still radially contoured) fuel zone. Preliminary results of estimated thermal safety margins are presented. Fuel design studies and model enhancement continue.

  3. Attrition reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxvile, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  4. Attrition reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Davison, B.H.

    1993-09-28

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur. 2 figures.

  5. Evaluation of Alternate Materials for Coated Particle Fuels for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2006 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Karen Wright; Jian Gan; David Petti; Todd Allen; Jake Blanchard

    2006-09-01

    Candidate ceramic materials were studied to determine their suitability as Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor particle fuel coatings. The ceramics examined in this work were: TiC, TiN, ZrC, ZrN, AlN, and SiC. The studies focused on (i) chemical reactivity of the ceramics with fission products palladium and rhodium, (ii) the thermomechanical stresses that develop in the fuel coatings from a variety of causes during burnup, and (iii) the radiation resiliency of the materials. The chemical reactivity of TiC, TiN, ZrC, and ZrN with Pd and Rh were all found to be much lower than that of SiC. A number of important chemical behaviors were observed at the ceramic-metal interfaces, including the formation of specific intermetallic phases and a variation in reaction rates for the different ceramics investigated. Based on the data collected in this work, the nitride ceramics (TiN and ZrN) exhibit chemical behavior that is characterized by lower reaction rates with Pd and Rh than the carbides TiC and ZrC. The thermomechanical stresses in spherical fuel particle ceramic coatings were modeled using finite element analysis, and included contributions from differential thermal expansion, fission gas pressure, fuel kernel swelling, and thermal creep. In general the tangential stresses in the coatings during full reactor operation are tensile, with ZrC showing the lowest values among TiC, ZrC, and SiC (TiN and ZrN were excluded from the comprehensive calculations due to a lack of available materials data). The work has highlighted the fact that thermal creep plays a critical role in the development of the stress state of the coatings by relaxing many of the stresses at high temperatures. To perform ion irradiations of sample materials, an irradiation beamline and high-temperature sample irradiation stage was constructed at the University of Wisconsin’s 1.7MV Tandem Accelerator Facility. This facility is now capable of irradiating of materials to high dose while controlling sample temperature up to 800ºC.

  6. Conversation View Outlook Web App User Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    Conversation View Outlook Web App User Guide Email conversations that include multiple replies and sent messages can be viewed simultaneously using Conversation View. In Exchange 2010 Outlook Web App

  7. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  8. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

  9. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  10. Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners *ReindustrializationEnergyWindNO.RequirementsResearch Research

  11. Tidal Conversion by Supercritical Topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balmforth, Neil J.

    Calculations are presented of the rate of energy conversion of the barotropic tide into internal gravity waves above topography on the ocean floor. The ocean is treated as infinitely deep, and the topography consists of ...

  12. Technical Market Analysis for Biochemical Conversion Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Market Analysis for Biochemical Conversion March 23, 2015 Biochemical Conversion Jim Collett and Mark Butcher PNNL This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

  13. Unit Conversions and Formulas to Know

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rroames

    2007-12-06

    Math 139. Unit Conversions and Formulas to Memorize. Fall 2007. Unit Conversions to know: 1 foot = 12 inches. 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters. 1 yard = 3 feet.

  14. A multi-phase, micro-dispersion reactor for the continuous production of methane gas hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taboada Serrano, Patricia L [ORNL; Ulrich, Shannon M [ORNL; Szymcek, Phillip [ORNL; McCallum, Scott [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-jet hydrate reactor originally developed to generate a CO2 hydrate stream has been modified to continuously produce CH4 hydrate. The reactor has been tested in the Seafloor Process Simulator (SPS), a 72-L pressure vessel available at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. During experiments, the reactor was submerged in water inside the SPS and received water from the surrounding through a submersible pump and CH4 externally through a gas booster pump. Thermodynamic conditions in the hydrate stability regime were employed in the experiments. The reactor produced a continuous stream of CH4 hydrate, and based on pressure values and amount of gas injected, the conversion of gas to hydrate was estimated. A conversion of up to 70% was achieved using this reactor.

  15. Reactor vessel support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Martin P. (Trafford, PA); Holley, John C. (McKeesport, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  16. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  17. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  18. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  19. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: (1) Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2) Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: (1) High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior; (2) High temperature materials qualification; (3) Design methods development and validation; (4) Hydrogen production technologies; and (5) Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented in Section 4. The DOE-funded hydrogen production [DOE 2004] and energy conversion technologies programs are described elsewhere.

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Demonstrate safe and economical nuclearassisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented in Section 4. The DOE-funded hydrogen production [DOE 2004] and energy conversion technologies programs are described elsewhere.

  1. LBB application in the US operating and advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wichman, K.; Tsao, J.; Mayfield, M.

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory application of leak before break (LBB) for operating and advanced reactors in the U.S. is described. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved the application of LBB for six piping systems in operating reactors: reactor coolant system primary loop piping, pressurizer surge, safety injection accumulator, residual heat removal, safety injection, and reactor coolant loop bypass. The LBB concept has also been applied in the design of advanced light water reactors. LBB applications, and regulatory considerations, for pressurized water reactors and advanced light water reactors are summarized in this paper. Technology development for LBB performed by the NRC and the International Piping Integrity Research Group is also briefly summarized.

  2. Simulation of Fischer-Tropsch Fixed-Bed Reactor in Different Reaction Media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bani Nasser, Laial Ahmad

    2013-11-04

    reactor), while simultaneously overcoming their limitations. This work focuses on modeling the behavior in the reactor bed (‘macro-scale’ assessment) and then zooming into the catalyst pellet itself (‘micro-scale’ assessment). The aim of this research...

  3. Energy Conversion and Storage Program: 1992 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  4. Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProtonAboutNuclearPrincipal InvestigatorsResearch

  5. Method of producing gaseous products using a downflow reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D; Rozmiarek, Robert T; Hornemann, Charles C

    2014-09-16

    Reactor systems and methods are provided for the catalytic conversion of liquid feedstocks to synthesis gases and other noncondensable gaseous products. The reactor systems include a heat exchange reactor configured to allow the liquid feedstock and gas product to flow concurrently in a downflow direction. The reactor systems and methods are particularly useful for producing hydrogen and light hydrocarbons from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons using aqueous phase reforming. The generated gases may find used as a fuel source for energy generation via PEM fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells, internal combustion engines, or gas turbine gensets, or used in other chemical processes to produce additional products. The gaseous products may also be collected for later use or distribution.

  6. Innovative approaches to inertial confinement fusion reactors: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourque, R.F.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-11-01

    Three areas of innovative approaches to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor design are given. First, issues pertaining to the Cascade reactor concept are discussed. Then, several innovative concepts are presented which attempt to directly recover the blast energy from a fusion target. Finally, the Turbostar concept for direct recovery of that energy is evaluated. The Cascade issues discussed are combustion of the carbon granules in the event of air ingress, the use of alternate granule materials, and the effect of changes in carbon flow on details of the heat exchanger. Carbon combustion turns out to be a minor problem. Four ICF innovative concepts were considered: a turbine with ablating surfaces, a liquid piston system, a wave generator, and a resonating pump. In the final analysis, none show any real promise. The Turbostar concept of direct recovery is a very interesting idea and appeared technically viable. However, it shows no efficiency gain or any decrease in capital cost compared to reactors with conventional thermal conversion systems. Attempts to improve it by placing a close-in lithium sphere around the target to increase gas generation increased efficiency only slightly. It is concluded that these direct conversion techniques require thermalization of the x-ray and debris energy, and are Carnot limited. They therefore offer no advantage over existing and proposed methods of thermal energy conversion or direct electrical conversion.

  7. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  8. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Thermochemical Conversion Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document details the accomplishments of the Biomass Program Thermochemical Conversion Platform in 2007.

  9. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Biochemical Conversion Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document details accomplishments of the Biomass Program Biochemical Conversion Platform accomplishments in 2007.

  10. Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant capabilities and resources at NREL.

  11. Micro -Thermonuclear AB-Reactors for Aerospace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-08

    The author offers several innovations that he first suggested publicly early in 1983 for the AB multi-reflex engine, space propulsion, getting energy from plasma, etc. (see: A. Bolonkin, Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, London, 2006, Chapters 12, 3A). It is the micro-thermonuclear AB-Reactors. That is new micro-thermonuclear reactor with very small fuel pellet that uses plasma confinement generated by multi-reflection of laser beam or its own magnetic field. The Lawson criterion increases by hundreds of times. The author also suggests a new method of heating the power-making fuel pellet by outer electric current as well as new direct method of transformation of ion kinetic energy into harvestable electricity. These offered innovations dramatically decrease the size, weight and cost of thermonuclear reactor, installation, propulsion system and electric generator. Non-industrial countries can produce these researches and constructions. Currently, the author is researching the efficiency of these innovations for two types of the micro-thermonuclear reactors: multi-reflection reactor (ICF) and self-magnetic reactor (MCF).

  12. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  13. MANHATTAN PROJECT B REACTOR HANFORD WASHINGTON [HANFORD'S HISTORIC B REACTOR (12-PAGE BOOKLET)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GERBER MS

    2009-04-28

    The Hanford Site began as part of the United States Manhattan Project to research, test and build atomic weapons during World War II. The original 670-square mile Hanford Site, then known as the Hanford Engineer Works, was the last of three top-secret sites constructed in order to produce enriched uranium and plutonium for the world's first nuclear weapons. B Reactor, located about 45 miles northwest of Richland, Washington, is the world's first full-scale nuclear reactor. Not only was B Reactor a first-of-a-kind engineering structure, it was built and fully functional in just 11 months. Eventually, the shoreline of the Columbia River in southeastern Washington State held nine nuclear reactors at the height of Hanford's nuclear defense production during the Cold War era. The B Reactor was shut down in 1968. During the 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy began removing B Reactor's support facilities. The reactor building, the river pumphouse and the reactor stack are the only facilities that remain. Today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office offers escorted public access to B Reactor along a designated tour route. The National Park Service (NPS) is studying preservation and interpretation options for sites associated with the Manhattan Project. A draft is expected in summer 2009. A final report will recommend whether the B Reactor, along with other Manhattan Project facilities, should be preserved, and if so, what roles the DOE, the NPS and community partners will play in preservation and public education. In August 2008, the DOE announced plans to open B Reactor for additional public tours. Potential hazards still exist within the building. However, the approved tour route is safe for visitors and workers. DOE may open additional areas once it can assure public safety by mitigating hazards.

  14. Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

    1989-06-01

    The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

  15. Plutonium Discharge Rates and Spent Nuclear Fuel Inventory Estimates for Nuclear Reactors Worldwide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian K. Castle; Shauna A. Hoiland; Richard A. Rankin; James W. Sterbentz

    2012-09-01

    This report presents a preliminary survey and analysis of the five primary types of commercial nuclear power reactors currently in use around the world. Plutonium mass discharge rates from the reactors’ spent fuel at reload are estimated based on a simple methodology that is able to use limited reactor burnup and operational characteristics collected from a variety of public domain sources. Selected commercial reactor operating and nuclear core characteristics are also given for each reactor type. In addition to the worldwide commercial reactors survey, a materials test reactor survey was conducted to identify reactors of this type with a significant core power rating. Over 100 material or research reactors with a core power rating >1 MW fall into this category. Fuel characteristics and spent fuel inventories for these material test reactors are also provided herein.

  16. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.

  17. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Kaufman, A. N. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tracy, E. R. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  18. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  19. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  20. Tokamak reactor first wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creedon, R.L.; Levine, H.E.; Wong, C.; Battaglia, J.

    1984-11-20

    This invention relates to an improved first wall construction for a tokamak fusion reactor vessel, or other vessels subjected to similar pressure and thermal stresses.

  1. Fifteenth DOE solar photochemistry research conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts from the Fifteenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference hosted by the Solar Energy Research Institute which took place June 2--6, 1991. A large variety of topics pertinent to solar energy conversion are covered, including photoinduced electron transfer, photochemical energy conversion, and photosynthetic energy conversion. (GHH)

  2. Space reactor electric systems: system integration studies, Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.; Harty, R.B.; Katz, B.; Keshishian, V.; Lillie, A.F.; Thomson, W.B.

    1983-03-29

    This report presents the results of preliminary space reactor electric system integration studies performed by Rockwell International's Energy Systems Group (ESG). The preliminary studies investigated a broad range of reactor electric system concepts for powers of 25 and 100 KWe. The purpose of the studies was to provide timely system information of suitable accuracy to support ongoing mission planning activities. The preliminary system studies were performed by assembling the five different subsystems that are used in a system: the reactor, the shielding, the primary heat transport, the power conversion-processing, and the heat rejection subsystems. The subsystem data in this report were largely based on Rockwell's recently prepared Subsystem Technology Assessment Report. Nine generic types of reactor subsystems were used in these system studies. Several levels of technology were used for each type of reactor subsystem. Seven generic types of power conversion-processing subsystems were used, and several levels of technology were again used for each type. In addition, various types and levels of technology were used for the shielding, primary heat transport, and heat rejection subsystems. A total of 60 systems were studied.

  3. Ethanol Dehydration to Ethylene in a Stratified Autothermal Millisecond Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, MJ; Michor, EL; Fan, W; Tsapatsis, M; Bhan, A; Schmidt, LD

    2011-08-10

    The concurrent decomposition and deoxygenation of ethanol was accomplished in a stratified reactor with 50-80 ms contact times. The stratified reactor comprised an upstream oxidation zone that contained Pt-coated Al(2)O(3) beads and a downstream dehydration zone consisting of H-ZSM-5 zeolite films deposited on Al(2)O(3) monoliths. Ethanol conversion, product selectivity, and reactor temperature profiles were measured for a range of fuel:oxygen ratios for two autothermal reactor configurations using two different sacrificial fuel mixtures: a parallel hydrogen-ethanol feed system and a series methane-ethanol feed system. Increasing the amount of oxygen relative to the fuel resulted in a monotonic increase in ethanol conversion in both reaction zones. The majority of the converted carbon was in the form of ethylene, where the ethanol carbon-carbon bonds stayed intact while the oxygen was removed. Over 90% yield of ethylene was achieved by using methane as a sacrificial fuel. These results demonstrate that noble metals can be successfully paired with zeolites to create a stratified autothermal reactor capable of removing oxygen from biomass model compounds in a compact, continuous flow system that can be configured to have multiple feed inputs, depending on process restrictions.

  4. Recovery of hydrogen from impurities using a palladium membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willms, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Okuno, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-01

    One of the important steps in processing the exhaust from a fusion reactor is recovering tritium which is incorporated into molecules such as water and methane. One device which may prove to be very effective for this purpose is a palladium membrane reactor. This is a reactor which incorporates a Pd/Ag membrane in the reactor geometry. Reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking can be carried out over the reactor catalyst, and the product hydrogen can be simultaneously removed from the reacting mixture. Because product is removed, greater than usual conversions can be obtained. In addition ultrapure hydrogen is produced, eliminating the need for an additional processing step. A palladium membrane reactor has been built and tested with three different catalysts. Initial results with a Ni-based catalyst show that it is very effective at promoting all three reactions listed above. Under the proper conditions, hydrogen recoveries approaching 100% have been observed. This study serves to experimentally validate the palladium membrane reactor as potentially important tool for fusion fuel processing.

  5. Fuel Development For Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. K. Meyer

    2006-06-01

    The Generation IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) concept is proposed to combine the advantages of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (such as efficient direct conversion with a gas turbine and the potential for application of high-temperature process heat), with the sustainability advantages that are possible with a fast-spectrum reactor. The latter include the ability to fission all transuranics and the potential for breeding. The GFR is part of a consistent set of gas-cooled reactors that includes a medium-term Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)-like concept, or concepts based on the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), and specialized concepts such as the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), as well as actinide burning concepts [ ]. To achieve the necessary high power density and the ability to retain fission gas at high temperature, the primary fuel concept proposed for testing in the United States is a dispersion coated fuel particles in a ceramic matrix. Alternative fuel concepts considered in the U.S. and internationally include coated particle beds, ceramic clad fuel pins, and novel ceramic ‘honeycomb’ structures. Both mixed carbide and mixed nitride-based solid solutions are considered as fuel phases.

  6. Classical and quantum dynamics of optical frequency conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Andrew G.

    to the quantitative and qualitative agreement between experiment and theory, and the experimental reliabilityClassical and quantum dynamics of optical frequency conversion By Andrew G. White A THESIS encouraged me to find out about dinosaurs #12;#12;Declaration This thesis is an account of research

  7. Energy Conversion and Storage Program. 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  8. Space-reactor electric systems: subsystem technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.

    1983-03-29

    This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified.

  9. Design and performance of a high-pressure Fischer-Tropsch fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, A.W.; Quarderer, G.J.; Cochran, G.A.; Conway, M.M. )

    1988-01-01

    A 900 kg/day, CO/H/sub 2/, high-pressure, fluidized bed, pilot reactor was designed from first principles to achieve high reactant conversions and heat removal rates for the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG's). Suppressed bubble growth at high pressure allowed high reactant conversions which nearly matched those obtained at identical conditions in a lab scale fixed bed reactor. For GHSV approximately 1400 hr/sup -1/ and T = 658 {Kappa} at P approximately 7000 {kappa}Pa, reactant conversion exceeded 75%. The reactor heat removal capability exceeded twice design performance with the fluidized bed easily operating under thermally stable conditions. The fluidized catalyst was a potassium promoted, molybdenum on carbon (Mo/{Kappa}/C) catalyst which did not produce any detrimental waxy products. Long catalyst lifetimes of 1000 hrs on steam between regenerations allowed the fluidized bed to be operated in a batch mode.

  10. DECAY HEAT CONDITIONS OF CURRENT AND NEXT GENERATION REACTORS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choe, JongSoo 1985-

    2012-05-04

    the accident in Japan last year. Thus, decay heat must be considered in reactor design for safety. The research focused on decay heat conditions of current and next generation reactors. US-APWR, ABWR, VHTR, and ABR were modeled and simulated using the program...

  11. Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Propane in Hydrogen Permselective Membrane Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Propane in Hydrogen Permselective Membrane Reactors John P. Collins and Production, Amoco Research Center, 150 West Warrenville Road, Naperville, Illinois 60566-7011 Propane operated at liquid hourly space velocities (LHSVs) similar to those used in commercial reactors for propane

  12. MUTUAL CONVERSION SOLAR AND SIDEREAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roegel, Denis

    TABLES FOR THE MUTUAL CONVERSION OF SOLAR AND SIDEREAL TIME BY EDWARD SANG, F.R.S.E. EDINBURGH in the third example. Sang converts 3.27 seconds of solar time into 3.26 seconds of sidereal time. But sidereal time elapses faster than solar time, and the correct value is 3.28 sec- onds. In the fourth example

  13. Evaluation and Optimization of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Conversion Cycle for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

    2011-05-01

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550°C and 750°C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550°C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton Cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550°C versus 850°C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of the supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression Cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt reactor power source, which provides heat to the power cycle at a maximum temperature of between 550°C and 750°C. The UniSim model used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete power conversion system. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating range for the cycle was adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing conditions near the critical point. The UniSim model was then optimized to maximize the power cycle thermal efficiency at the different maximum power cycle operating temperatures. The results of the analyses showed that power cycle thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved.

  14. Rationality and Conversation: A Thesis on Grice’s Theory of Conversation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoolfield, Matthew D

    2007-11-27

    H. P. Grice first presented his theory of conversational implicature in “Logic and Conversation.” This theory is comprised of conversational maxims that are based on the Cooperative Principle. Since then, it has become ...

  15. Basic Engineering Research for D and D of R Reactor Storage Pond Sludge: Electrokinetics, Carbon Dioxide Extraction, and Supercritical Water Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Matthews; David A. Bruce,; Thomas A. Davis; Mark C. Thies; John W. Weidner; Ralph E. White

    2002-04-01

    Large quantities of mixed low level waste (MLLW) that fall under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) exist and will continue to be generated during D and D operations at DOE sites across the country. The standard process for destruction of MLLW is incineration, which has an uncertain future. The extraction and destruction of PCBs from MLLW was the subject of this research Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide with 5% ethanol as cosolvent and Supercritical Waster Oxidation (SCWO) were the processes studied in depth. The solid matrix for experimental extraction studies was Toxi-dry, a commonly used absorbent made from plant material. PCB surrogates were 1.2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and 2-chlorobiphenyl (2CBP). Extraction pressures of 2,000 and 4,000 psi and temperatures of 40 and 80 C were studied. Higher extraction efficiencies were observed with cosolvent and at high temperature, but pressure little effect. SCWO treatment of the treatment of the PCB surrogates resulted in their destruction below detection limits.

  16. The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Moving on from the MSBR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Mathieu; D. Heuer; R. Brissot; C. Le Brun; E. Liatard; J. M. Loiseaux; O. Méplan; E. Merle-Lucotte; A. Nuttin; J. Wilson; C. Garzenne; D. Lecarpentier; E. Walle; the GEDEPEON Collaboration

    2005-06-02

    A re-evaluation of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor concept has revealed problems related to its safety and to the complexity of the reprocessing considered. A reflection is carried out anew in view of finding innovative solutions leading to the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor concept. Several main constraints are established and serve as guides to parametric evaluations. These then give an understanding of the influence of important core parameters on the reactor's operation. The aim of this paper is to discuss this vast research domain and to single out the Molten Salt Reactor configurations that deserve further evaluation.

  17. Ion implanted silicon solar cells with 18% conversion efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitzer, M.B.; Keavney, C.J.; Milstein, J.B.; Tobin, S.P.

    1984-05-01

    The results of research on the basic understanding of high efficiency in silicon solar cells are presented. It is shown that through the use of low resistivity silicon, texture-etching, ion implantation, surface passivation, and Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ antireflection coatings, very high performance can be obtained. Cells with 18% AMI conversion efficiency (100 mW/cm/sup 2/, 28/sup 0/C) are reported, and research to increase the performance to much higher levels is described.

  18. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.; Buksa, J.J.; Creedson, R.L.; Erlandson, O.D.; Levine, H.E.; Roelant, D.F.; Sanchez, H.W.; Schrader, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li/sub 2/O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li/sub 2/O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li/sub 2/O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive.

  19. Structured catalyst bed and method for conversion of feed materials to chemical products and liquid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yong (Richland, WA), Liu; Wei (Richland, WA)

    2012-01-24

    The present invention is a structured monolith reactor and method that provides for controlled Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The invention controls mass transport limitations leading to higher CO conversion and lower methane selectivity. Over 95 wt % of the total product liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the monolithic catalyst are in the carbon range of C.sub.5-C.sub.18. The reactor controls readsorption of olefins leading to desired products with a preselected chain length distribution and enhanced overall reaction rate. And, liquid product analysis shows readsorption of olefins is reduced, achieving a narrower FT product distribution.

  20. Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2014-02-18

    Wet macroalgal slurries can be converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable oil product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 ?C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics. As a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  1. Nuclear Reactor Safeguards and Monitoring with Antineutrino Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam Bernstein; Yifang Wang; Giorgio Gratta; Todd West

    2001-08-01

    Cubic-meter-sized antineutrino detectors can be used to non-intrusively, robustly and automatically monitor and safeguard a wide variety of nuclear reactor types, including power reactors, research reactors, and plutonium production reactors. Since the antineutrino spectra and relative yields of fissioning isotopes depend on the isotopic composition of the core, changes in composition can be observed without ever directly accessing the core itself. Information from a modest-sized antineutrino detector, coupled with the well-understood principles that govern the core's evolution in time, can be used to determine whether the reactor is being operated in an illegitimate way. A group at Sandia is currently constructing a one cubic meter antineutrino detector at the San Onofre reactor site in California to demonstrate these principles.

  2. Conversion and enrichment in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-04-01

    In the Soviet Union, just as in the West, the civilian nuclear industry emerged from research work undertaken for nuclear weapons development. At first, researchers tried various techniques for physical separation of uranium isotopes: electromagnetic and molecular-kinetic thermo-diffusion methods; gaseous diffusion; and centrifuge methods. All of those methods, which are based primarily on differences in the atomic mass of uranium isotopes, called for extensive research and the development of new, technically unprecedented equipment. Gradually gaseous diffusion and gas centrifuge technology became recognized as most feasible for industrial use, so research on other methods was terminated. Industrial-scale uranium enrichment in the Soviet Union began in 1949 using the gaseous diffusion method; by the early 1960s, centrifuge technology was in use on an industrial scale. All Soviet production of highly-enriched, weapons-grade uranium was halted in 1987. The Soviet Union now has four enrichment plants in operation (at classified locations), solely for civilian nuclear power needs. All four enrichment plants have centrifuge modules, and enrichment provided by gaseous diffusion accounts for less than 5% of their total output. Two of the four enrichment plants also incorporate facilities for conversion to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}).

  3. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to design, fabricate, evaluate, and optimize a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor/heat exchanger system with thin-film or particulate catalysts for hydrogenation of o-nitroanisole and other nitro aromatic compounds, under moderate temperature and pressure.

  4. Reactor Coolant Pump seal issues and their applicability to new reactor designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruger, C.J.; Higgins, J.C.

    1993-11-01

    Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCPs) of various types are used to circulate the primary coolant through the reactor in most reactor designs. RCPs generally contain mechanical seals to limit the leakage of pressurized reactor coolant along the pump drive shaft into the containment. The relatively large number of RCP seal and seal auxiliary system failures experienced at US operating plants during the 1970`s and early 1980`s raised concerns from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) that gross failures may lead to reactor core uncovery and subsequent core damage. Some seal failure events resulted in a loss of primary coolant to the containment at flow rates greater than the normal makeup capacity of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plants. This is an example of RCP seal failures resulting in a small Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This paper discusses observed and potential causes of RCP seal failure and the recommendations for limiting the likelihood of a seal induced small LOCA. Issues arising out of the research supporting these recommendations and subsequent public comments by the utility industry on them, serve as lessons learned, which are applicable to the design of new reactor plants.

  5. Initial Requirements for Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) System Design, Performance, and Safety Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevan D. Weaver; Thomas Y. C. Wei

    2004-08-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) was chosen as one of the Generation IV nuclear reactor systems to be developed based on its excellent potential for sustainability through reduction of the volume and radio toxicity of both its own fuel and other spent nuclear fuel, and for extending/utilizing uranium resources orders of magnitude beyond what the current open fuel cycle can realize. In addition, energy conversion at high thermal efficiency is possible with the current designs being considered, thus increasing the economic benefit of the GFR. However, research and development challenges include the ability to use passive decay heat removal systems during accident conditions, survivability of fuels and in-core materials under extreme temperatures and radiation, and economical and efficient fuel cycle processes. Nevertheless, the GFR was chosen as one of only six Generation IV systems to be pursued based on its ability to meet the Generation IV goals in sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, proliferation resistance and physical protection.

  6. Weather Ready Nation: A Vital Conversation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weather Ready Nation: A Vital Conversation on Tornadoes and Severe Weather A Community Report March;WeatherReady Nation: A Vital Conversation on Tornadoes and Severe Weather Report from the December 2011

  7. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  8. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  9. Transparency in nonlinear frequency conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longhi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Suppression of wave scattering and the realization of transparency effects in engineered optical media and surfaces have attracted great attention in the past recent years. In this work the problem of transparency is considered for optical wave propagation in a nonlinear dielectric medium with second-order $\\chi^{(2)}$ susceptibility. Because of nonlinear interaction, a reference signal wave at carrier frequency $\\omega_1$ can exchange power, thus being amplified or attenuated,when phase matching conditions are satisfied and frequency conversion takes place. Therefore, rather generally the medium is not transparent to the signal wave because of 'scattering' in the frequency domain. Here we show that broadband transparency, corresponding to the full absence of frequency conversion in spite of phase matching, can be observed for the signal wave in the process of sum frequency generation whenever the effective susceptibility $\\chi^{(2)}$ along the nonlinear medium is tailored following a suitable spatial apodiza...

  10. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schenter, R.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  11. Optomechanical conversion by mechanical turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kneževi?, Miloš; Warner, Mark

    2014-10-30

    has mov- ing parts gives it a disadvantage over conventional photo- voltaics, though rubber is highly durable and tough — for instance car tyres survive long use in harsh, abra- sive conditions. Another difficulty, that could perhaps be solved... ’effect du frottement dans l’equilibre,” Mem. Acad. Sci. , pp. 265 (1762). 7[14] L. R. G. Treloar, The Physics of Rubber Elasticity (Ox- ford University Press, Oxford, 2005). [15] M. Knez?evic´ and M. Warner, “Photoferroelectric solar to electrical conversion...

  12. The National Conversion Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    The National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) is a recycling project under way at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Colorado. The recycling aim of the project is threefold: to reuse existing nuclear weapon component production facilities for the production of commercially marketable products, to reuse existing material (uranium, beryllium, and radioactively contaminated scrap metals) for the production of these products, and to reemploy former Rocky Flats workers in this process.

  13. Thermochemical Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report15 MeetingDevelopmentDepartmentof EnergyTheConversion

  14. The HIgh Flux Isotope Reactor: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beierschmitt, Kelly J [ORNL; Farrar, Mike B [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    HFIR construction began in 1965 and completed in 1966. During the first 15 years of operation, the heavy actinide isotope production mission was dominant. HFIR is now positioned as one of the most versataile research reactors in the world.

  15. Computational neutronics analysis of TRIGA reactors during power pulsing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bean, Malcolm (Malcolm K.)

    2011-01-01

    Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA) reactors have the unique capability of generating high neutron flux environments with the removal of a transient control rod, creating conditions observed in fast fission ...

  16. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  17. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Ronald J. (Pensacola, FL); Land, John T. (Pensacola, FL); Misvel, Michael C. (Pensacola, FL)

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled.

  18. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.; Misvel, M.C.

    1994-06-07

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled. 12 figs.

  19. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  20. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Mitrovski, Svetlana M. (Urbana, IL)

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  1. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL)

    1986-01-01

    This invention teaches a nuclear fission reactor having a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200.degree.-1800.degree. C. range, and even higher to 2500.degree. C., limited only by the thermal effectiveness of the structural materials, increasing the efficiency of power generation from the normal 30-35% with 300.degree.-500.degree. C. upper limit temperature to 50-65%. Irradiation of the circulating liquid fuel, as contrasted to only localized irradiation of a solid fuel, provides improved fuel utilization.

  2. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minkov, V.

    1984-06-13

    This invention describes a nuclear fission reactor which has a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200 to 1800/sup 0/C range, and even higher to 2500/sup 0/C.

  3. Safety requirements, facility user needs, and reactor concepts for a new Broad Application Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Liebenthal, J.L.; Denison, A.B.; Fletcher, C.D.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes the EG&G Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR) Project that was conducted in fiscal year 1991. The scope of this project was divided into three phases: a project process definition phase, a requirements development phase, and a preconceptual reactor design and evaluation phase. Multidisciplinary teams of experts conducted each phase. This report presents the need for a new test reactor, the project process definition, a set of current and projected regulatory compliance and safety requirements, a set of facility user needs for a broad range of projected testing missions, and descriptions of reactor concepts capable of meeting these requirements. This information can be applied to strategic planning to provide the Department of Energy with management options.

  4. Safety requirements, facility user needs, and reactor concepts for a new Broad Application Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Liebenthal, J.L.; Denison, A.B.; Fletcher, C.D.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes the EG G Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR) Project that was conducted in fiscal year 1991. The scope of this project was divided into three phases: a project process definition phase, a requirements development phase, and a preconceptual reactor design and evaluation phase. Multidisciplinary teams of experts conducted each phase. This report presents the need for a new test reactor, the project process definition, a set of current and projected regulatory compliance and safety requirements, a set of facility user needs for a broad range of projected testing missions, and descriptions of reactor concepts capable of meeting these requirements. This information can be applied to strategic planning to provide the Department of Energy with management options.

  5. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-03-20

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. PowerEnerCat was unable to raise their cash contribution for the project, and the work was stopped. This report summarizes some of the progress of the project and the concepts that were intended for experimental tests.

  6. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Todd; Levy, Karin

    2002-01-01

    compact, inexpensive, and safe to operate. The current options for Accelerator and Fusion Research Division neutron sources are reactors

  7. Final report-passive safety optimization in liquid sodium-cooled reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahalana, J. E.; Hahn, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    2007-08-13

    This report summarizes the results of a three-year collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to identify and quantify the performance of innovative design features in metallic-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor designs. The objective of the work was to establish the reliability and safety margin enhancements provided by design innovations offering significant potential for construction, maintenance, and operating cost reductions. The project goal was accomplished with a combination of advanced model development (Task 1), analysis of innovative design and safety features (Tasks 2 and 3), and planning of key safety experiments (Task 4). Task 1--Computational Methods for Analysis of Passive Safety Design Features: An advanced three-dimensional subassembly thermal-hydraulic model was developed jointly and implemented in ANL and KAERI computer codes. The objective of the model development effort was to provide a high-accuracy capability to predict fuel, cladding, coolant, and structural temperatures in reactor fuel subassemblies, and thereby reduce the uncertainties associated with lower fidelity models previously used for safety and design analysis. The project included model formulation, implementation, and verification by application to available reactor tests performed at EBR-II. Task 2--Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Innovative Design Features: Integrated safety assessments of innovative liquid metal reactor designs were performed to quantify the performance of inherent safety features. The objective of the analysis effort was to identify the potential safety margin enhancements possible in a sodium-cooled, metal-fueled reactor design by use of passive safety mechanisms to mitigate low-probability accident consequences. The project included baseline analyses using state-of-the-art computational models and advanced analyses using the new model developed in Task 1. Task 3--Safety Implications of Advanced Technology Power Conversion and Design Innovations and Simplifications: Investigations of supercritical CO{sub 2} gas turbine Brayton cycles coupled to the sodium-cooled reactors and innovative concepts for sodium-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers were performed to discover new designs for high efficiency electricity production. The objective of the analyses was to characterize the design and safety performance of equipment needed to implement the new power cycle. The project included considerations of heat transfer and power conversion systems arrangements and evaluations of systems performance. Task 4--Post Accident Heat Removal and In-Vessel Retention: Test plans were developed to evaluate (1) freezing and plugging of molten metallic fuel in subassembly geometry, (2) retention of metallic fuel core melt debris within reactor vessel structures, and (3) consequences of intermixing of high pressure CO{sub 2} and sodium. The objective of the test plan development was to provide planning for measurements of data needed to characterize the consequences of very low probability accident sequences unique to metallic fuel and CO{sub 2} Brayton power cycles. The project produced three test plans ready for execution.

  8. Development and Analysis of Advanced High-Temperature Technology for Nuclear Heat Transport and Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Per F. Peterson

    2010-03-01

    This project by the Thermal Hydraulics Research Laboratory at U.C. Berkeley Studied advanced high-temperature heat transport and power conversion technology, in support of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative and Generation IV.

  9. Comparison of Biological and Thermal (Pyrolysis) Pathways for Conversion of Lignocellulose to Biofuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imam, Tahmina 1983-

    2012-11-30

    Because of the limited supply of imported crude oil and environmental degradation, renewable energy is becoming commercially feasible and environmentally desirable. In this research, biological and thermal (pyrolysis) conversion pathways for biofuel...

  10. Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Hetero-Structures for Photovoltaic Energy Conversion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jongbok

    2010-10-12

    The photovoltaic energy conversion system (PV cells or solar cells) has been researched over the last few decades, and new technologies have been proposed. At the same time, the synthesis of nano-scale materials has been investigated intensively...

  11. Improved Design of Nuclear Reactor Control System | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Improved Design of Nuclear Reactor Control System Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science...

  12. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01

    M.D. (editor). 1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Draft1980 :. i l OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTALDevelopment Plan. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE

  13. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC)field of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.II of the Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)of the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot

  15. Experimental study of the effect of sodium carbonate on the conversion of cellulose to oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Siu-Hung

    1981-01-01

    precipitated very fast, the mixture should be stirred up continuously until the slurry vas fed into the feed tank immediately after the reactor reached the desired preheated temperature. Once the feed vas fed, the feed tank was pressurized with nitrogen...) (Me mbe r) (He ber) (H d of Department- December 1981 ABSTHACT Experimental Study of the Effect of Sodium Carbonate on the Conversion of Cellulose to Oil. (December 19B1) Siu-Hunq Chu, B. A. , National Taiwan University Chairman of Advisory...

  16. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Terwilliger, Steve (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  17. NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

    2004-12-01

    Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

  18. Reactor- Nuclear Science Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    A neutronic evaluation of two reactor benchmark problems was performed. The benchmark problems describe typical PWR uranium and plutonium (mixed oxide) fueled lattices. WIMSd4m, a neutron transport lattice code, was used to evaluate multigroup...

  19. P Reactor Grouting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01

    Filling the P Reactor with grout. This seals the radioactive material and reduces the environmental footprint left from the Cold War. Project sponsored by the Recovery Act at the Savannah River Site.

  20. Hypothetical Reactor Accident Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    POPULATIONS; IODINE 131; MELTDOWN; METEOROLOGY; NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS; P CODES; PWR TYPE REACTORS; RADIATION in a Typical BWR and in a typical PWR. Comparison with WASH-1400 by C F . Højerup 202 APPENDIX 3. Calculation

  1. Molten metal reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  2. F Reactor Inspection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2014-11-24

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  3. F Reactor Inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2014-10-29

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  4. Analysis of Reference Design for Nuclear-Assisted Hydrogen Production at 750°C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. McKellar; Edwin A. Harvego

    2010-05-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This report describes the resulting new INL reference design coupled to two alternative HTGR power conversion systems, a Steam Rankine Cycle and a Combined Cycle (a Helium Brayton Cycle with a Steam Rankine Bottoming Cycle). Results of system analyses performed to optimize the design and to determine required plant performance and operating conditions when coupled to the two different power cycles are also presented. A 600 MWt high temperature gas reactor coupled with a Rankine steam power cycle at a thermal efficiency of 44.4% can produce 1.85 kg/s of hydrogen and 14.6 kg/s of oxygen. The same capacity reactor coupled with a combined cycle at a thermal efficiency of 42.5% can produce 1.78 kg/s of hydrogen and 14.0 kg/s of oxygen.

  5. Specific Mass Estimates for A Vapor Core Reactor With MHD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, Travis; Smith, Blair; Anghaie, Samim [Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute (INSPI), PO Box 116502, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6502 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This study investigated the development of a system concept for space power generation and nuclear electric propulsion based on a vapor core reactor (VCR) with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power conversion system, coupled to a magnetoplasma-dynamic (MPD) thruster. The VCR is a liquid-vapor core reactor concept operating with metallic uranium or uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}) vapor as the fissioning fuel and alkali metals or their fluorides as working fluid in a closed Rankine cycle with MHD energy conversion. Gaseous and liquid-vapor core reactors can potentially provide the highest reactor and cycle temperature among all existing or proposed fission reactor designs. This unique feature makes this reactor concept a very natural and attractive candidate for very high power (10 to 1000 MWe) and low specific mass (0.4 to 5 kg/kWe) nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) applications since the MHD output could be coupled with minimal power conditioning to MPD thrusters or other types of thruster for producing thrust at very high specific impulse (I{sub sp} 1500 to 10,000 s). The exceptional specific mass performance of an optimized VCRMHD- NEP system could lead to a dramatic reduction in the cost and duration of manned or robotic interplanetary as well as interstellar missions. The VCR-MHD-NEP system could enable very efficient Mars cargo transfers or short (<8 month) Mars round trips with less initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO). The system could also enable highly efficient lunar cargo transfer and rapid missions to other destinations throughout the solar system. (authors)

  6. Risk Based Security Management at Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ek, David R.

    2015-09-01

    This presentation provides a background of what led to the international emphasis on nuclear security and describes how nuclear security is effectively implemented so as to preserve the societal benefits of nuclear and radioactive materials.

  7. Ames Laboratory Research Reactor Facility Ames, Iowa

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers Co -VANaval ,, *' ; . Final Radiological

  8. Missouri University Research Reactor Site Fact Sheet

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the Weldon Spring, Missouri,MSEReporty

  9. Decommissioning experience from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henslee, S.P.; Rosenberg, K.E.

    2002-03-28

    Consistent with the intent of this International Atomic Energy Agency technical meeting, decommissioning operating experience and contributions to the preparation for the Coordinated Research Project from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II activities will be discussed. This paper will review aspects of the decommissioning activities of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, make recommendations for future decommissioning activities and reactor system designs and discuss relevant areas of potential research and development. The Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) was designed as a 62.5 MWt, metal fueled, pool reactor with a conventional 19 MWe power plant. The productive life of the EBR-II began with first operations in 1964. Demonstration of the fast reactor fuel cycle, serving as an irradiation facility, demonstration of fast reactor passive safety and lastly, was well on its way to close the fast breeder fuel cycle for the second time when the Integral Fast Reactor program was prematurely ended in October 1994 with the shutdown of the EBR-II. The shutdown of the EBR-II was dictated without an associated planning phase that would have provided a smooth transition to shutdown. Argonne National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy arrived at a logical plan and sequence for closure activities. The decommissioning activities as described herein fall into in three distinct phases.

  10. Pyrolysis of scrap tires and conversion of chars to activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merchant, A.A.; Petrich, M.A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    The primary objective of this work was to demonstrate the conversion of scrap tires to activated carbon. The authors have been successful in this endeavor, producing carbons with surface areas greater than 500 m[sup 2]/g and significant micropore volumes. Tire shreddings were pyrolyzed in batch reactors, and the pyrolysis chars activated by reaction with superheated steam. Solid products of pyrolysis and activation were studied with nitrogen adsorption techniques. They find that the porosity development during steam activation of tire pyrolysis char is similar to that reported for various other chars. A maximum in micropore volume is observed as a function of conversion, but the total surface area increases monotonically with conversion. They suggest that the activation process consists of micropore formation, followed by pore enlargement. The process conditions used in this study are a good starting point from which to optimize a process to convert tires to activated carbon.

  11. Application of Annular Linear Induction Pumps Technology for Waste Heat Rejection and Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, Harold E.

    2005-03-16

    The U.S.-sponsored Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) program will require a light weight, efficient, and reliable power generation system capable of a 20+ year lifespan. This requirement has renewed interest in orbiter technological development. Sub-components of the orbiter system are the primary and secondary power conversion/heat rejection systems for both the proposed nuclear reactors and Brayton cycle heat engines. Brayton-cycle conversion technology has been identified as an excellent candidate for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) power conversion systems. The conversion/rejection systems for these components typically utilize pumped molten metal as the heat transfer medium. Electromagnetic (EM) Annular Linear Induction Pumps (ALIPs) are ideal for this purpose as they can operate at moderate to high efficiency, at elevated temperature, do not involve moving parts (solid-state; long life), and require no bearings or seals. A parametric study was performed to develop a suite of ALIP preliminary designs capable of providing specified pressure and mass flow rate ranges for the proposed NaK(78) Brayton-cycle heat rejection loop. A limited study was also performed for the proposed lithium-cooled nuclear reactor heat transport loops; however, the design of these units is still in its infancy. Both studies were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with the MHD Systems’ ALIP Design Code. The studies focused on designing ALIPs that displayed reasonably high efficiency and low source voltages as well as low mass and smallest geometric envelope.

  12. Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2007-08-07

    Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

  13. Sandia Energy - Energy Conversion Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen GenerationTechnologiesEnergy Conversion Efficiency Home

  14. Biochemical Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETO Quiz -Technologies forBig SavingsConversion

  15. Conversion of forest residues to a methane-rich gas: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, H.G.; Paisley, M.A.; Appelbaum, H.R.

    1986-03-01

    A process is being developed that produces a fuel gas with a heating value of 500 Btu/SCF from diverse forms of biomass, including shredded bark, wood chips, and sawdust. The system uses a high throughput, non-oxygen gasifier that employs sand circulation to supply process heat. Results obtained with a 10-inch I.D. gasifier are presented and compared with those in a 6-inch I.D. reactor. Feed rates up to 12 tons/day (dry) have been achieved corresponding to a specific wood throughput of 2000 lbs/ft/sup 2/-hr. Gas compositions in the two reactors are in excellent agreement and performance in the larger reactor, as measured by carbon conversion, is significantly improved. Cost projections comparing this process with direct combustion are presented that indicate gasification technology should have very significant cost advantages for both generation of plant steam and cogeneration of electricity. 5 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

  17. Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R; Groth, Katrina; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Wheeler, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  18. Control Rod Malfunction at the NRAD Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Maddock

    2010-05-01

    The neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) is a training, research, and isotope (TRIGA) reactor located at the INL. The reactor is normally shut down by the insertion of three control rods that drop into the core when power is removed from electromagnets. During a routine shutdown, indicator lights on the console showed that one of the control rods was not inserted. It was initially thought that the indicator lights were in error because of a limit switch that was out of adjustment. Through further testing, it was determined that the control rod did not drop when the scram switch was initially pressed. The control rod anomaly led to a six month shutdown of the reactor and an in depth investigation of the reactor protective system. The investigation looked into: scram switch operation, console modifications, and control rod drive mechanisms. A number of latent issues were discovered and corrected during the investigation. The cause of the control rod malfunction was found to be a buildup of corrosion in the control rod drive mechanism. The investigation resulted in modifications to equipment, changes to both operation and maintenance procedures, and additional training. No reoccurrences of the problem have been observed since corrective actions were implemented.

  19. Heat pipe cooled reactors for multi-kilowatt space power supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranken, W.A.; Houts, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Three nuclear reactor space power system designs are described that demonstrate how the use of high temperature heat pipes for reactor heat transport, combined with direct conversion of heat to electricity, can result in eliminating pumped heat transport loops for both primary reactor cooling and heat rejection. The result is a significant reduction in system complexity that leads to very low mass systems with high reliability, especially in the power range of 1 to 20 kWe. In addition to removing heat exchangers, electromagnetic pumps, and coolant expansion chambers, the heat pipe/direct conversion combination provides such capabilities as startup from the frozen state, automatic rejection of reactor decay heat in the event of emergency or accidental reactor shutdown, and the elimination of single point failures in the reactor cooling system. The power system designs described include a thermoelectric system that can produce 1 to 2 kWe, a bimodal modification of this system to increase its power level to 5 kWe and incorporate high temperature hydrogen propulsion capability, and a moderated thermionic reactor concept with 5 to 20 kWe power output that is based on beryllium modules that thermally couple cylindrical thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) to radiator heat pipes.

  20. Corium Retention for High Power Reactors by An In-Vessel Core Catcher in Combination with External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joy L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; K. Y. Suh; F. -B. Cheung; S. -B. Kim

    2004-05-01

    If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel lower head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for in-vessel retention (IVR), resulted in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing Light Water Reactors (LWRs). Accordingly, IVR of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors. However, it is not clear that currently-proposed methods to achieve ERVC will provide sufficient heat removal for higher power reactors. A US–Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project has been initiated in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) will determine if IVR is feasible for reactors up to 1500 MWe. This paper summarizes results from the first year of this 3-year project.

  1. Explorations of Novel Energy Conversion and Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffin, Andrew Mark

    2010-01-01

    Energy Conversion and Storage Systems By Andrew Mark DuffinEnergy Conversion and Storage Systems by Andrew Mark Duffin

  2. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Thermochemical Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Conversion 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Thermochemical Conversion "This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an...

  3. Journal of NUCLEAR SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY, Vol. 39, No. 11, p. 11691181 (November 2002) Conceptual Design of a Modular Island Core Fast Breeder Reactor "RAPID-M"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    and accepted September 10, 2002) A metal fueled modular island core sodium cooled fast breeder reactor concept Design of a Modular Island Core Fast Breeder Reactor "RAPID-M" Mitsuru KAMBE Central Research Institute type reactors, performance, sodium cooled reactor, modular island core, inherent safety, in- tegrated

  4. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

  5. A History or Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Energy Conversion 1976-2006 A History or Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Energy...

  6. Isotope separation by selective charge conversion and field deflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickman, Robert G. (Livermore, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A deuterium-tritium separation system wherein a source beam comprised of positively ionized deuterium (D.sup.+) and tritium (T.sup.+) is converted at different charge-exchange cell sections of the system to negatively ionized deuterium (D.sup.-) and tritium (T.sup.-). First, energy is added to the beam to accelerate the D.sup.+ ions to the velocity that is optimum for conversion of the D.sup.+ ions to D.sup.- ions in a charge-exchange cell. The T.sup.+ ions are accelerated at the same time, but not to the optimum velocity since they are heavier than the D.sup.+ ions. The T.sup.+ ions are, therefore, not converted to T.sup.- ions when the D.sup.+ ions are converted to D.sup.- ions. This enables effective separation of the beam by deflection of the isotopes with an electrostatic field, the D.sup.- ions being deflected in one direction and the T.sup.+ ions being deflected in the opposite direction. Next, more energy is added to the deflected beam of T.sup.+ ions to bring the T.sup.+ ions to the optimum velocity for their conversion to T.sup.- ions. In a particular use of the invention, the beams of D.sup.- and T.sup.- ions are separately further accelerated and then converted to energetic neutral particles for injection as fuel into a thermonuclear reactor. The reactor exhaust of D.sup.+ and T.sup.+ and the D.sup.+ and T.sup.+ that was not converted in the respective sections is combined with the source beam and recycled through the system to increase the efficiency of the system.

  7. A Basic LEGO Reactor Design for the Provision of Lunar Surface Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Darrell Bess

    2008-06-01

    A final design has been established for a basic Lunar Evolutionary Growth-Optimized (LEGO) Reactor using current and near-term technologies. The LEGO Reactor is a modular, fast-fission, heatpipe-cooled, clustered-reactor system for lunar-surface power generation. The reactor is divided into subcritical units that can be safely launched with lunar shipments from Earth, and then emplaced directly into holes drilled into the lunar regolith to form a critical reactor assembly. The regolith would not just provide radiation shielding, but serve as neutron-reflector material as well. The reactor subunits are to be manufactured using proven and tested materials for use in radiation environments, such as uranium-dioxide fuel, stainless-steel cladding and structural support, and liquid-sodium heatpipes. The LEGO Reactor system promotes reliability, safety, and ease of manufacture and testing at the cost of an increase in launch mass per overall rated power level and a reduction in neutron economy when compared to a single-reactor system. A single unshielded LEGO Reactor subunit has an estimated mass of approximately 448 kg and provides approximately 5 kWe. The overall envelope for a single subunit with fully extended radiator panels has a height of 8.77 m and a diameter of 0.50 m. Six subunits could provide sufficient power generation throughout the initial stages of establishing a lunar outpost. Portions of the reactor may be neutronically decoupled to allow for reduced power production during unmanned periods of base operations. During later stages of lunar-base development, additional subunits may be emplaced and coupled into the existing LEGO Reactor network, subject to lunar base power demand. Improvements in reactor control methods, fuel form and matrix, shielding, as well as power conversion and heat rejection techniques can help generate an even more competitive LEGO Reactor design. Further modifications in the design could provide power generative opportunities for use on other extraterrestrial surfaces.

  8. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Scarlata, C.; Tan, E. C. D.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Sexton, D.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  9. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  10. Power Burst Facility (PBF) Reactor Reactor Decommissioning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlinesPotentialReactor Decommissioning

  11. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis. Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system

  12. Professional Development Program Summer 2015 Researchers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziegler, Günter M.

    Computing Materials for Solar Energy Conversion MyoGRAD ­ International Research Training Group for Myology your peers from different disciplines. We strongly encourage you to take advantage

  13. Core design and reactor physics of a breed and burn gas-cooled fast reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yarsky, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In order to fulfill the goals set forth by the Generation IV International Forum, the current NERI funded research has focused on the design of a Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) operating in a Breed and Burnm (B&B) fuel cycle ...

  14. Direct conversion technology: Annual summary report CY 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massier, P.F.; Bankston, C.P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L.D.

    1988-12-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown. These tabulations are included herein as figures. 43 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Dynamic bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stormo, Keith E. (Moscow, ID)

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  16. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Lazarus, Jonathan D. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extends from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  17. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, A.; Lazarus, J.D.

    1985-11-21

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extend from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  18. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutter, Ernest (Wilmette, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  19. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  20. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  1. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

  2. SPS energy conversion and power management workshop. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    In 1977 a four year study, the concept Development and Evaluation Program, was initiated by the US Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. As part of this program, a series of peer reviews were carried out within the technical community to allow available information on SPS to be sifted, examined and, if need be, challenged. The SPS Energy Conversion and Power Management Workshop, held in Huntsville, Alabama, February 5 to 7, 1980, was one of these reviews. The results of studies in this particular field were presented to an audience of carefully selected scientists and engineers. This first report summarizes the results of that peer review. It is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of the subject. Rather, it is designed to look at the SPS energy conversion and power management options in breadth, not depth, to try to foresee any troublesome and/or potentially unresolvable problems and to identify the most promising areas for future research and development. Topics include photovoltaic conversion, solar thermal conversion, and electric power distribution processing and power management. (WHK)

  3. Fast quench reactor method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  4. Perspectives on reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  5. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wade, Elman E. (Ruffs Dale, PA)

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  6. Fast quench reactor method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  7. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ)

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  8. Power conversion apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-02-07

    A power conversion apparatus includes an interfacing circuit that enables a current source inverter to operate from a voltage energy storage device (voltage source), such as a battery, ultracapacitor or fuel cell. The interfacing circuit, also referred to as a voltage-to-current converter, transforms the voltage source into a current source that feeds a DC current to a current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also provides means for controlling and maintaining a constant DC bus current that supplies the current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also enables the current source inverter to charge the voltage energy storage device, such as during dynamic braking of a hybrid electric vehicle, without the need of reversing the direction of the DC bus current.

  9. LED Street Lighting Conversion Workshop Presentations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the National League of Cities Mobile Workshop, LED Street Lighting Conversion: Saving Your Community Money, While Improving Public Safety,...

  10. Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to free the sugars for conversion. The program is working to identify the most productive, naturally occurring...

  11. Limits in high efficiency quantum frequency conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolás Quesada; J. E. Sipe

    2015-08-13

    Frequency conversion is an enabling process in many quantum information protocols. In this letter we study fundamental limits to high efficiency frequency conversion imposed by time ordering corrections. Using the Magnus expansion, we argue that these corrections, which are usually considered detrimental, can be used to increase the efficiency of conversion under certain circumstances. The corrections induce a nonlinear behaviour in the probability of upconversion as a function of the pump intensity, significantly modifying the sinusoidal Rabi oscillations that are otherwise expected. Finally, by using a simple scaling argument, we explain why cascaded frequency conversion devices attenuate time ordering corrections, allowing the construction of near ideal quantum pulse gates.

  12. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)...

  13. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 You are accessing a...

  14. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 You are accessing...

  15. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 In this Quarter, the...

  16. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report You are accessing a document from the Department of...

  17. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels ? Carbohydrates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for host organism in the presentence of limited six carbon sugars Identify cellular transporters and regulators required for maximum sugar to hydrocarbon conversion ...

  18. Innovative design of uranium startup fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fei, Tingzhou

    2012-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors are one of the three candidates of GEN-IV fast reactors. Fast reactors play an important role in saving uranium resources and reducing nuclear wastes. Conventional fast reactors rely on transuranic ...

  19. F Reactor Area Cleanup Complete

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractors have cleaned up the F Reactor Area, the first reactor area at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state to be fully remediated.

  20. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.