Sample records for research cloud processes

  1. Research Cloud Computing Recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Ning

    Research Cloud Computing Recommendations SRCPAC December 3, 2014 #12;Mandate and Membership SRCPAC convened this committee in Sept 2014 to investigate the role that cloud computing should play in our & Academic Affairs (Social Work) #12;Questions discussed · What cloud resources are available? · Which kinds

  2. Adaptive Rate Stream Processing for Smart Grid Applications on Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasanna, Viktor K.

    Adaptive Rate Stream Processing for Smart Grid Applications on Clouds Yogesh Simmhan University within a smart (power) grid are providing utilities and power systems researchers with unprecedentedEngineering applications in the smart grid domain. One unique aspect of our work is the use of adaptive rate control

  3. A Coordinated Effort to Improve Parameterization of High-Latitude Cloud and Radiation Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. O. Pinto, A.H. Lynch

    2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is the development and evaluation of improved parameterization of arctic cloud and radiation processes and implementation of the parameterizations into a climate model. Our research focuses specifically on the following issues: (1) continued development and evaluation of cloud microphysical parameterizations, focusing on issues of particular relevance for mixed phase clouds; and (2) evaluation of the mesoscale simulation of arctic cloud system life cycles.

  4. Argonne's Magellan Cloud Computing Research Project

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Beckman, Pete

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF), discusses the Department of Energy's new $32-million Magellan project, which designed to test how cloud computing can be used for scientific research. More information: http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/news091014a.html

  5. How Mobility Increases Mobile Cloud Computing Processing Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    How Mobility Increases Mobile Cloud Computing Processing Capacity Anh-Dung Nguyen, Patrick S--In this paper, we address a important and still unanswered question in mobile cloud computing "how mobility the resilience of mobile cloud computing services. Keywords--Mobile cloud computing, mobility, quality of service

  6. Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes & Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Jui-Yuan Christine [University of Reading] [University of Reading

    2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general three-dimensional cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. The proposal has two main parts. Part one exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also take advantage of the SWS’ high sampling resolution to study the “twilight zone” around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part two involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM’s 2-channel narrow vield-of-view radiometer and sunphotometer instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the ARM Mobile Facility deployments, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM’s operational data processing.

  7. Process-based Management of Cloud Computing Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krause, Rolf

    Process-based Management of Cloud Computing Infrastructure Background Cloud Computing with minimal management effort. Examples of modern cloud computing solutions include (but are not limited to is an emerging computing capability that provides an abstraction between the computing resource and its

  8. Cloud Storage Standards Overview and Research Ideas Brainstorm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud Storage Standards Overview and Research Ideas Brainstorm Mark Carlson, SNIA TC and Sun Chair, SNIA Cloud Storage TWG CMU SDI Lecture ­ 12th November 2009 #12;Insert tutorial title in footer © 2009 Storage Networking Industry Association.All Rights Reserved. Abstract ! Cloud Storage is a new business

  9. Use of the ARM Measurement of Spectral Zenith Radiance For Better Understanding Of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Jui-Yuan Chiu

    2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Our proposal focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general 3D cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. We also focus on zenith radiance measurements, both active and passive. The proposal has three main parts. Part One exploits the �¢����solar-background�¢��� mode of ARM lidars to allow them to retrieve cloud optical depth not just for thin clouds but for all clouds. This also enables the study of aerosol cloud interactions with a single instrument. Part Two exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by ARM�¢����s zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), especially during CLASIC, to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also propose to take advantage of the SWS�¢���� 1 Hz sampling to study the �¢����twilight zone�¢��� around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part Three involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM�¢����s 2NFOV instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the AMF-COPS/CLOWD deployment, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM�¢����s operational data processing.

  10. The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.; Young, S.A. [Division of Atmospheric Research, Victoria (Australia)] [Division of Atmospheric Research, Victoria (Australia); Carswell, A.I.; Pal, S.R. [York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada)] [York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada); McCormick, M.P.; Winker, D.M. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)] [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); DelGuasta, M.; Stefanutti, L. [Institute Ricerca Onde Elettromagnetiche, Florence (Italy)] [Institute Ricerca Onde Elettromagnetiche, Florence (Italy); Eberhard, W.L.; Hardesty, M. [NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)] [and others] [NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); and others

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) was initiated to obtain statistics on cloud-base height, extinction, optical depth, cloud brokenness, and surface fluxes. Two observational phases have taken place, in October-December 1989 and April-July 1991, with intensive 30-day periods selected within the two time intervals. Data are being archived at NASA Langley Research Center, and, once there, are readily available to the international scientific community. 43 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Business Process Configuration in The Cloud: How to Support and Analyze Multi-Tenant Processes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Aalst, Wil

    Business Process Configuration in The Cloud: How to Support and Analyze Multi-Tenant Processes? W on performance related problems. However, cloud computing will also change the way in which business processes are man- aged and supported, e.g., more and more organizations will be sharing common processes

  12. Representing Cloud Processing of Aerosol in Numerical Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mechem, D.B.; Kogan, Y.L.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The satellite imagery in Figure 1 provides dramatic examples of how aerosol influences the cloud field. Aerosol from ship exhaust can serve as nucleation centers in otherwise cloud-free regions, forming ship tracks (top image), or can enhance the reflectance/albedo in already cloudy regions. This image is a demonstration of the first indirect effect, in which changes in aerosol modulate cloud droplet radius and concentration, which influences albedo. It is thought that, through the effects it has on precipitation (drizzle), aerosol can also affect the structure and persistence of planetary boundary layer (PBL) clouds. Regions of cellular convection, or open pockets of cloudiness (bottom image) are thought to be remnants of strongly drizzling PBL clouds. Pockets of Open Cloudiness (POCs) (Stevens et al. 2005) or Albrecht's ''rifts'' are low cloud fraction regions characterized by anomalously low aerosol concentrations, implying they result from precipitation. These features may in fact be a demonstration of the second indirect effect. To accurately represent these clouds in numerical models, we have to treat the coupled cloud-aerosol system. We present the following series of mesoscale and large eddy simulation (LES) experiments to evaluate the important aspects of treating the coupled cloud-aerosol problem. 1. Drizzling and nondrizzling simulations demonstrate the effect of drizzle on a mesoscale forecast off the California coast. 2. LES experiments with explicit (bin) microphysics gauge the relative importance of the shape of the aerosol spectrum on the 3D dynamics and cloud structure. 3. Idealized mesoscale model simulations evaluate the relative roles of various processes, sources, and sinks.

  13. Cloud Occurrence Frequency at the Barrow, Alaska, ARM Climate Research Facility for 2008 Third Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Jensen; K Johnson; JH Mather

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Clouds represent a critical component of the Earth’s atmospheric energy balance as a result of their interactions with solar and terrestrial radiation and a redistribution of heat through convective processes and latent heating. Despite their importance, clouds and the processes that control their development, evolution and lifecycle remain poorly understood. Consequently, the simulation of clouds and their associated feedbacks is a primary source of inter-model differences in equilibrium climate sensitivity. An important step in improving the representation of cloud process simulations is an improved high-resolution observational data set of the cloud systems including their time evolution. The first order quantity needed to understand the important role of clouds is the height of cloud occurrence and how it changes as a function of time. To this end, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities (ACRF) suite of instrumentation has been developed to make the observations required to improve the representation of cloud systems in atmospheric models.

  14. The CESR Test Accelerator Electron Cloud Research Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , W. Whitney12 , T. Wilksen12 , H.A. Williams12 , Y. Yariv12 , M.C. Ross13 , C.Y. Tan13 , R. Zwaska13The CESR Test Accelerator Electron Cloud Research Program Phase I Report Editors: M. A. Palmer, M. G. Billing, G. F. Dugan, M. A. Furman and D. L. Rubin January 11, 2013 CLNS-12-2084 LBNL-6054E CBP

  15. CLOUD GAMING ONWARD: RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES AND OUTLOOK Kuan-Ta Chen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    CLOUD GAMING ONWARD: RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES AND OUTLOOK Kuan-Ta Chen1 , Chun-Ying Huang2 ABSTRACT Cloud gaming has become increasingly more popular in the academia and the industry, evident by the large numbers of related research papers and startup companies. Some pub- lic cloud gaming services have

  16. This briefing paper is aimed at researchers who are considering how cloud computing might help their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillam, Lee

    This briefing paper is aimed at researchers who are considering how cloud computing might help) which are already well- established. Cloud Computing variously combines considerations of hardware, regulatory and ethical governance. Vari- ous definitions and characteristics of Cloud Comput- ing have been

  17. Global climate processes: Role of cirrus clouds for present and future PI: Ulrike Lohmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    26 P 2.2 CCC Global climate processes: Role of cirrus clouds for present and future climate PI nuclei affect cirrus clouds in the present and future climate? Does mineral dust lead to cirrus clouds the longwave radiation and could lead to a net cooling. Thus, it is important to better understand the role

  18. Process-model Simulations of Cloud Albedo Enhancement by Aerosols in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, H.; Solomon, Amy

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A cloud-resolving model is used to simulate the effectiveness of Arctic marine cloud brightening via injection of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). An updated cloud microphysical scheme is employed, with prognostic CCN and cloud particle numbers in both liquid and mixed-phase marine low clouds. Injection of CCN into the marine boundary layer can delay the collapse of the boundary layer and increase low-cloud albedo. Because nearly all of the albedo effects are in the liquid phase due to the removal of ice water by snowfall when ice processes are involved, albedo increases are stronger for pure liquid clouds than mixed-phase clouds. Liquid precipitation can be suppressed by CCN injection, whereas ice precipitation (snow) is affected less; thus the effectiveness of brightening mixed-phase clouds is lower than for liquid-only clouds. CCN injection into a clean regime results in a greater albedo increase than injection into a polluted regime, consistent with current knowledge about aerosol-cloud interactions. Unlike previous studies investigating warm clouds, dynamical changes in circulation due to precipitation changes are small.

  19. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH:USING ARM OBSERVATIONS & ADVANCED STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES TO EVALUATE CAM3 CLOUDS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF STOCHASTIC CLOUD-RADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerville, Richard

    2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-range goal of several past and current projects in our DOE-supported research has been the development of new and improved parameterizations of cloud-radiation effects and related processes, using ARM data, and the implementation and testing of these parameterizations in global models. The main objective of the present project being reported on here has been to develop and apply advanced statistical techniques, including Bayesian posterior estimates, to diagnose and evaluate features of both observed and simulated clouds. The research carried out under this project has been novel in two important ways. The first is that it is a key step in the development of practical stochastic cloud-radiation parameterizations, a new category of parameterizations that offers great promise for overcoming many shortcomings of conventional schemes. The second is that this work has brought powerful new tools to bear on the problem, because it has been a collaboration between a meteorologist with long experience in ARM research (Somerville) and a mathematician who is an expert on a class of advanced statistical techniques that are well-suited for diagnosing model cloud simulations using ARM observations (Shen).

  20. NYS PROCESSING VEGETABLE RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    NY Snap Beans ­ 13500 acres overall - ave. yields Didn't quite make pack Water Issues Virus #12 Overview of 2013 Processing Variety Trials 1. English Pea (2009) 2. Snap Bean (1988) 3. Sweet Corn (1986) Questions at any time #12;#12;#12;Seneca Foods Art Wolcott (1949) #12;Seneca Foods Snap Beans, Beets

  1. Collaborative Research: The Influence of Cloud Microphysics and Radiation on the Response of Water Vapor and Clouds to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Kerry Emanuel; Michael J. Iacono

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainties in representing the atmospheric water cycle are major obstacles to an accurate prediction of future climate. This project focused on addressing some of these uncertainties by implementing new physics for convection and radiation into the NCAR climate model. To better understand and eventually better represent these processes, we modified CAM3.5 to use the convection and cloud schemes developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RRTMG rapid radiation code for global models developed by Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER). The impact of the new physics on the CAM3.5 simulation of convection on diurnal and intra-seasonal scales, intra-seasonal oscillations and the distribution of water vapor has been investigated. The effect of the MIT and AER physics also has been tested in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional forecast model. It has been found that the application of the AER radiation and MIT convection produces significant improvements in the modeled diurnal cycle of convection, especially over land, in the NCAR climate model. However, both the standard CAM3.5 (hereinafter STD) and the modified CAM3.5 with the new physics (hereinafter MOD) are still unable to capture the proper spectrum and propagating characteristics of the intra-seasonal oscillations (ISOs). The new physics methods modify, but do not substantially improve, the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor relative to satellite measurements.

  2. Quantifying wet scavenging processes in aircraft observations of nitric acid and cloud condensation nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Quantifying wet scavenging processes in aircraft observations of nitric acid and cloud condensation indicator for quantifying wet scavenging. Specifically, nitric acid (HNO3), produced as a by-product of combustion, is highly soluble and removed efficiently from clouds by rain. Regional carbon monoxide (CO

  3. Cloud Computing for Service Intelligence | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Computing for Service Intelligence Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to...

  4. Lecture Ch. 8 Cloud Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    clouds Middle clouds Grayish, block the sun, sometimes patchy Sharp outlines, rising, bright white1 Lecture Ch. 8 · Cloud Classification ­ Descriptive approach to clouds · Drop Growth and Precipitation Processes ­ Microphysical characterization of clouds · Complex (i.e. Real) Clouds ­ Examples

  5. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars Part II: Data Quality Control and Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Ieng; Borque, Paloma; Tatarevic, Aleksandra; Lamer, Katia; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Johnson, Karen; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the Hemispherical Sky – Range Height Indicator SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  6. Leakage-Resilient Client-side Deduplication of Encrypted Data in Cloud Storage Institute for Infocomm Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    will have only one copy in the cloud (Single Instance Storage). SNIA white paper [39] reportedLeakage-Resilient Client-side Deduplication of Encrypted Data in Cloud Storage Jia Xu Institute@comp.nus.edu.sg Jianying Zhou Institute for Infocomm Research jyzhou@i2r.a-star.edu.sg Abstract--Cloud storage service

  7. Study of Multi-Scale Cloud Processes Over the Tropical Western Pacific Using Cloud-Resolving Models Constrained by Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudhia, Jimy

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Clouds in the tropical western Pacific are an integral part of the large scale environment. An improved understanding of the multi-scale structure of clouds and their interactions with the environment is critical to the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) program for developing and evaluating cloud parameterizations, understanding the consequences of model biases, and providing a context for interpreting the observational data collected over the ARM Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. Three-dimensional cloud resolving models (CRMs) are powerful tools for developing and evaluating cloud parameterizations. However, a significant challenge in using CRMs in the TWP is that the region lacks conventional data, so large uncertainty exists in defining the large-scale environment for clouds. This project links several aspects of the ARM program, from measurements to providing improved analyses, and from cloud-resolving modeling to climate-scale modeling and parameterization development, with the overall objective to improve the representations of clouds in climate models and to simulate and quantify resolved cloud effects on the large-scale environment. Our objectives will be achieved through a series of tasks focusing on the use of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and ARM data. Our approach includes: -- Perform assimilation of COSMIC GPS radio occultation and other satellites products using the WRF Ensemble Kalman Filter assimilation system to represent the tropical large-scale environment at 36 km grid resolution. This high-resolution analysis can be used by the community to derive forcing products for single-column models or cloud-resolving models. -- Perform cloud-resolving simulations using WRF and its nesting capabilities, driven by the improved regional analysis and evaluate the simulations against ARM datasets such as from TWP-ICE to optimize the microphysics parameters for this region. A cirrus study (Mace and co-authors) already exists for TWP-ICE using satellite and ground-based observations. -- Perform numerical experiments using WRF to investigate how convection over tropical islands in the Maritime Continent interacts with large-scale circulation and affects convection in nearby regions. -- Evaluate and apply WRF as a testbed for GCM cloud parameterizations, utilizing the ability of WRF to run on multiple scales (from cloud resolving to global) to isolate resolution and physics issues from dynamical and model framework issues. Key products will be disseminated to the ARM and larger community through distribution of data archives, including model outputs from the data assimilation products and cloud resolving simulations, and publications.

  8. An Evaluation of Alternative Architectures for Transaction Processing in the Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraska, Tim

    processes. It promises cost reductions in several ways. First, it promises to turn capital costs- ployment of data-intensive applications. One important promise is reduced cost with a pay have adopted a different architecture for their cloud services. As a result, the cost and performance

  9. Proceedings of Student-Faculty Research Day, CSIS, Pace University, May 2nd Cloud Computing and Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tappert, Charles

    Proceedings of Student-Faculty Research Day, CSIS, Pace University, May 2nd , 2014 Cloud Computing and Security David B. Brogan Seidenberg School of CSIS, Pace University, White Plains, New York Abstract -- Cloud computing is a technology utilizing web-based computing resources, rather than having local

  10. Automated catalyst processing for cloud electrode fabrication for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goller, Glen J. (West Springfield, MA); Breault, Richard D. (Coventry, CT)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making dry carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene floc material, particularly useful in the manufacture of fuel cell electrodes, comprises of the steps of floccing a co-suspension of carbon particles and polytetrafluoroethylene particles, filtering excess liquids from the co-suspension, molding pellet shapes from the remaining wet floc solids without using significant pressure during the molding, drying the wet floc pellet shapes within the mold at temperatures no greater than about 150.degree. F., and removing the dry pellets from the mold.

  11. Cloud Services Cloud Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud Services Cloud Services In 2012 UCD IT Services launched an exciting new set of cloud solutions called CloudEdu, which includes cloud servers, cloud storage, cloud hosting and cloud network. The CloudEdu package includes a consultancy service in design, deployment, management and utilisation

  12. Understanding biases in shortwave cloud radiative forcing in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guang Jun

    in response to El Nin~o warming. The vast cloud cover in the region leads to much stronger cloud greenhouse effect in longwave radiation (longwave cloud radiative forcing) and cloud shielding effect in shortwaveUnderstanding biases in shortwave cloud radiative forcing in the National Center for Atmospheric

  13. STUDY OF CLOUD LIFETIME EFFECTS USING THE SGP HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTED RADAR NETWORK: PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    stages of cloud development. Here, we express cloud life cycle in terms of the temporal evolution-dimensional morphology and life cycle of clouds. Detailing key cloud processes as they transit from the formation stage National Laboratory For presentation at The Second Science Team Meeting of the Atmospheric System Research

  14. University of Florida | Journal of Undergraduate Research | Survey of Security Issues in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Yuguang "Michael"

    applications as the cloud service provider (CSP). Lastly, I refer to the individuals and/or organizations using infrastructure using tools, runtimes, and services supported by the CSP [1]. Infrastructure as a Service (SaaS) ­ The cloud provider provides the cloud consumer with essentially a virtual machine. The cloud consumer has

  15. Cloud Controlling Factors --Low Clouds BJORN STEVENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Bjorn

    Cloud Controlling Factors -- Low Clouds BJORN STEVENS, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic) clouds is reviewed, with an emphasis on factors that may be expected to change in a changing climate of low-cloud control- ling processes are offered: these include renewing our focus on theory, model

  16. Cloud Controlling Factors --Low Clouds BJORN STEVENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Bjorn

    Cloud Controlling Factors -- Low Clouds BJORN STEVENS, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic conspire to determine the statistics and cli- matology of layers of shallow (boundary layer) clouds of low-cloud control- ling processes are offered: these include renewing our focus on theory, model

  17. Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet. COMPARISON OF TIME SCALES FOR PREMIXED-GAS COMBUSTION To determine the conditions where gravity can affectUnderstanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research Paul D. Ronney Department

  18. Edinburgh Research Explorer Probabilistic Programming Process Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Probabilistic Programming Process Algebra Citation for published Algebra' Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Quantit, Florence, Italy, 8/09/14 - 10 Algebra Anastasis Georgoulas1 , Jane Hillston1 , Dimitrios Milios1 , and Guido Sanguinetti1,2 1 School

  19. DRAFT, last update 5 January 2012 Aerosol cloud-mediated radiative forcing: highly uncertain and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    phase and ice processes. Respectively, the parameterization of these processes for GCMs is further away and aerosol parameterizations, but intense research efforts aimed at improving the realism of cloud lower than for the shallow clouds, as the deep clouds are much more complicated, because mixed phase

  20. Wind Program Manufacturing Research Advances Processes and Reduces...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Wind Program Manufacturing Research Advances Processes and Reduces Costs Wind Program Manufacturing Research Advances Processes and Reduces Costs March 31, 2014 - 11:22am Addthis...

  1. Real-time rendering of physically-based cloud simulations for university undergraduate research fellows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walkington, Kevin Michael

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    of cloud formation and existence on current commercially-available computers. One of the challenges associated with this simulation is its display onto a computer screen, often referred to as rendering. We will present a brief overview of existing cloud...

  2. Cloud Business Models and Sustainability: Impacts for businesses and e-Research Accepted by "Software Sustainability" Workshops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by Mathematica. This leads to development of Cloud Sustainability Framework (CSF), which measures cloud business

  3. A developer's survey on different cloud platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doan, Dzung

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Introduction Cloud computing is a computing paradigm inFor this reason, cloud computing has also been describedparallel processing. Cloud computing can be contrasted with

  4. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ``channeling`` which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates.

  5. RISK ASSESSMENT CLOUD COMPUTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    SECURITY RESEARCH PRIVACY RISK ASSESSMENT AMC DATA FISMA CLOUD COMPUTING MOBILE DEVICES OPERATIONS application hosted in the cloud · Alaska DHHS fined $1.7M ­ Portable device stolen from vehicle · Mass Eye

  6. Cloud Based Applications and Platforms (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation to the Cloud Computing East 2014 Conference, where we are highlighting our cloud computing strategy, describing the platforms on the cloud (including Smartgrid.gov), and defining our process for implementing cloud based applications.

  7. NREL: Biomass Research - Projects in Biomass Process and Sustainabilit...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects in Biomass Process and Sustainability Analyses Researchers at NREL use biomass process and sustainability analyses to understand the economic, technical, and global...

  8. CHEMICAL PROCESS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass Liquefaction Process Engineering Unit (PEU) S.from Coal Conversion Process Condensate Waters," Lawrenceand C. J. King, J. Separ. Process Technol. , ! • 36 (1979);

  9. Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arrison, Thomas Samuel

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report for DE-SC0005916 Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process.

  10. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhien

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The ultimate goal is to improve our cloud classification algorithm into a VAP.

  11. Minerals Processing Research Institute Louisiana State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    Biomass Feedstocks into Chemical Production Complexes using New and Existing Processes by Ralph W. Pike

  12. CHEMICAL PROCESS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    material obtained by water extraction) were determined forproduct obtained by extraction with water. About 67% of theExtraction of Phenols from Coal Conversion Process Condensate Waters,"

  13. Research on Business Process Dr. Erhan Mengolu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdem, Erkut

    ; ­ Complex event processing, ­ Decision management ­ Domain specific languages for BPM. #12;BPM · BPM-to-people; (ii) systems-to- systems and (iii) systems-to-people ­ all from a process-centric perspective. #12;BPM tailor-made applications #12;BPM adoption helps with · Innovation · Flexibility · Integration

  14. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Why are mixed-phase altocumulus clouds poorly predicted by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    ., 2012] means they are a significant contributor to the cloud radiative effect. The liquid layer at cloud et al., 2003] and is effective at reflecting solar radiation in- cident on the cloud. Correctly of radiative transfer. The liquid-over-ice vertical structure of mixed-phase clouds [Hobbs and Rangno, 1985

  15. Surface OceanLower Atmosphere Processes Geophysical Research Series 187

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohfeld, Karen

    , British Columbia, Canada Andy Ridgwell Bristol Research Initiative for the Dynamic Global Environment251 Surface Ocean­Lower Atmosphere Processes Geophysical Research Series 187 Copyright 2009, and processes have been identified that have improved our understanding of the modern and future carbon cycle

  16. Research Article How the Brain Processes Causal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of text processing, such as the construction-integration framework, pose fundamental ques- tions about- presentation of the text. The construction-integration (CI) model of text comprehension (Kintsch, 1988 2: Joey's crazy mother became furiously angry with him. distantly related: Joey went to a neighbor

  17. Hospital Sterile Processing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) HarmonicbetandEnergy 2010 A File StorageResearches Use

  18. Researcher breaks new ground in understanding chemical reaction process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaser, Rainer

    Researcher breaks new ground in understanding chemical reaction process Study of diazonium rewrites about a common, basic chemical process using diazonium ions as the example. These ions are used in nature. Now, a professor of chemistry has found that this chemical process has been incorrectly described

  19. CloudSat Overview CloudSat will provide, from space, the first global survey of cloud profiles and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the radiative and water budgets of clouds are broadly referred to as indirect aerosol effects. The aerosol processes and their accumulated effects on the global scale. 2. Mission Description CloudSat is plannedCloudSat Overview CloudSat will provide, from space, the first global survey of cloud profiles

  20. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marks, Tobin Jay [Northwestern University

    2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  1. advanced process research: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    process research First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Abstract--Genomic Signal Processing is...

  2. A Survey of Changes in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types over Land from Surface Observations, 197196

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    of their effects on solar radiation, terrestrial radiation, and precipitation. These effects depend on cloud height, and the season of the year and time of day. The effect of clouds on the earth's radiation budget, the "cloud to be a useful classification in studies of cloud processes (Houze 1993). The climatic effects of clouds further

  3. Convective cloud and rainfall processes over the Maritime Continent : simulation and analysis of the diurnal cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gianotti, Rebecca L. (Rebecca Louise)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Maritime Continent experiences strong moist convection, which produces significant rainfall and drives large fluxes of heat and moisture to the upper troposphere. Despite the importance of these processes to global ...

  4. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  5. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  6. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 13, PAGES 2609-2612, JULY 1, 2001 The death of an altocumulus cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    relatively few reports of in-situ altocumulus measurements (exceptions in- clude Hobbs and Rangno [1985 of a mid-level cloud that was measured during the Complex Layered Cloud Experiments (CLEX). The budget reasons. First, altocumuli impede pilots' visibility and thereby hamper military operations (Fleishauer et

  7. Research Article Automatic Road Pavement Assessment with Image Processing: Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Research Article Automatic Road Pavement Assessment with Image Processing: Review and Comparison describe the proposed method to detect fine defects in pavement surface. This approach is based on a multi for evaluating this difficult task ­ the road pavement crack detection ­ is introduced. Finally, the proposed

  8. Global Mainframe As A Cloud Machine Market Size, Share, Growth and Research

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG Contracting Jump to:Echo,GEF Jump to: navigation,GW by 2019 |Report Up

  9. Testing cloud microphysics parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu X.; Lin W.; Xie, S.; Boyle, J.; Klein, S. A.; Shi, X.; Wang, Z.; Ghan, S. J.; Earle, M.; Liu, P. S. K.; Zelenyuk, A.

    2011-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Arctic clouds simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) are evaluated with observations from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), which were conducted at its North Slope of Alaska site in April 2008 and October 2004, respectively. Model forecasts for the Arctic spring and fall seasons performed under the Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed framework generally reproduce the spatial distributions of cloud fraction for single-layer boundary-layer mixed-phase stratocumulus and multilayer or deep frontal clouds. However, for low-level stratocumulus, the model significantly underestimates the observed cloud liquid water content in both seasons. As a result, CAM5 significantly underestimates the surface downward longwave radiative fluxes by 20-40 W m{sup -2}. Introducing a new ice nucleation parameterization slightly improves the model performance for low-level mixed-phase clouds by increasing cloud liquid water content through the reduction of the conversion rate from cloud liquid to ice by the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process. The CAM5 single-column model testing shows that changing the instantaneous freezing temperature of rain to form snow from -5 C to -40 C causes a large increase in modeled cloud liquid water content through the slowing down of cloud liquid and rain-related processes (e.g., autoconversion of cloud liquid to rain). The underestimation of aerosol concentrations in CAM5 in the Arctic also plays an important role in the low bias of cloud liquid water in the single-layer mixed-phase clouds. In addition, numerical issues related to the coupling of model physics and time stepping in CAM5 are responsible for the model biases and will be explored in future studies.

  10. Simulations of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds in Forecasts with CAM3 and AM2 for M-PACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, James; Klein, Stephen A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.

    2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations of mixed-phase clouds in short-range forecasts with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) climate model (AM2) for the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) are performed under the DOE CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT), which initializes the climate models with analysis data produced from numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers. It is shown that CAM3 significantly underestimates the observed boundary layer mixed-phase clouds and cannot realistically simulate the variations with temperature and cloud height of liquid water fraction in the total cloud condensate based an oversimplified cloud microphysical scheme. In contrast, AM2 reasonably reproduces the observed boundary layer clouds while its clouds contain much less cloud condensate than CAM3 and the observations. Both models underestimate the observed cloud top and base for the boundary layer clouds. The simulation of the boundary layer mixed-phase clouds and their microphysical properties is considerably improved in CAM3 when a new physically based cloud microphysical scheme is used. The new scheme also leads to an improved simulation of the surface and top of the atmosphere longwave radiative fluxes in CAM3. It is shown that the Bergeron-Findeisen process, i.e., the ice crystal growth by vapor deposition at the expense of coexisting liquid water, is important for the models to correctly simulate the characteristics of the observed microphysical properties in mixed-phase clouds. Sensitivity tests show that these results are not sensitive to the analysis data used for model initializations. Increasing model horizontal resolution helps capture the subgrid-scale features in Arctic frontal clouds but does not help improve the simulation of the single-layer boundary layer clouds. Ice crystal number density has large impact on the model simulated mixed-phase clouds and their microphysical properties and needs to be accurately represented in climate models.

  11. Cloud Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pete Beckman and Ian Foster

    2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Chicago Matters: Beyond Burnham (WTTW). Chicago has become a world center of "cloud computing." Argonne experts Pete Beckman and Ian Foster explain what "cloud computing" is and how you probably already use it on a daily basis.

  12. Constructing a Merged Cloud-Precipitation Radar Dataset for Tropical Convective Clouds during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment at Addu Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Ellis, Scott; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Bharadwaj, Nitin

    2014-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve understanding of the convective processes key to the Madden-Julian-Oscillation (MJO) initiation, the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) collected four months of observations from three radars, the S-band Polarization Radar (S-Pol), the C-band Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research & Teaching Radar (SMART-R), and Ka-band Zenith Radar (KAZR) on Addu Atoll in the tropical Indian Ocean. This study compares the measurements from the S-Pol and SMART-R to those from the more sensitive KAZR in order to characterize the hydrometeor detection capabilities of the two scanning precipitation radars. Frequency comparisons for precipitating convective clouds and non-precipitating high clouds agree much better than non-precipitating low clouds for both scanning radars due to issues in ground clutter. On average, SMART-R underestimates convective and high cloud tops by 0.3 to 1.1 km, while S-Pol underestimates cloud tops by less than 0.4 km for these cloud types. S-Pol shows excellent dynamic range in detecting various types of clouds and therefore its data are well suited for characterizing the evolution of the 3D cloud structures, complementing the profiling KAZR measurements. For detecting non-precipitating low clouds and thin cirrus clouds, KAZR remains the most reliable instrument. However, KAZR is attenuated in heavy precipitation and underestimates cloud top height due to rainfall attenuation 4.3% of the time during DYNAMO/AMIE. An empirical method to correct the KAZR cloud top heights is described, and a merged radar dataset is produced to provide improved cloud boundary estimates, microphysics and radiative heating retrievals.

  13. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Processes Research Inc - OH 44

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling Corp - CTOregonPetroliteProcesses Research Inc -

  14. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  15. External research and energy efficiency in the process industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaarsberg, T.M.; Foust, T.D.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process industries in the US are under enormous pressure. These industries, even more than US industry on average, face skyrocketing environmental costs, a rapidly changing electricity market, potential climate change policies, aging infrastructure and strong international competition. To be profitable they must reduce their costs and environmental impacts while increasing their product quality, turnaround time, productivity and output. Most of these industries have already cut costs and labor as much as possible. Therefore, to survive, these industries must innovate. History shows that industries that are the most innovative are the most successful. These industries are vital to the US economy. For example, the metals, pulp and paper, chemicals and the petroleum refining industries account for more than $800 billion in products shipped and employ more than three million workers. Although the US has shifted dramatically toward services with 77% of workers and 74% of GDP now in the service sector, what many have missed is that the process industries are important customers for many of these new services. ServOnly the last two years of NSF industrial R and D data provide any breakout of non-manufacturing R and D. This paper discusses the past, current and possible future role of eternal research and development (R and D)--much of which is now in the service sector--in fostering innovation and thus energy efficiency in these industries. The authors suggest that these industries are more innovative than previously thought because of external research.

  16. Thermochemical Process Development Unit: Researching Fuels from Biomass, Bioenergy Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a unique facility dedicated to researching thermochemical processes to produce fuels from biomass.

  17. TGRS-2010-00092.R1 1 Abstract--Cloud properties were retrieved by applying the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    cover (~59%) is divided equally between liquid and ice clouds. Global mean cloud effective heights , respectively, for liquid clouds and 8.3 km, 12.7, 52.2 µm, and 230 gm-2 for ice clouds. Cloud droplet effective radiation processes requires determination of cloud property distributions and the radiation budget

  18. Cloud Security: Issues and Concerns Pierangela Samarati*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samarati, Pierangela

    1 Cloud Security: Issues and Concerns Authors Pierangela Samarati* Universitŕ degli Studi di Milano, Italy sabrina.decapitani@unimi.it Keywords cloud security confidentiality integrity availability secure data storage and processing Summary The cloud has emerged as a successful computing paradigm

  19. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the extraction products indicated that they had the requisite properties of viable carbon-product precursors.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF CLOUD PROCESSES ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHEMICAL SPECIES FOR THE 10 JULY 1996 STERAO/DEEP CONVECTION STORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Amy L.

    - tenuation of solar radiation. The cloud hydromete- ors may serve as locations for aqueous and ice-phase be captured by the precipitating ice particles. Photolysis rates are altered by the scattering and at vapor, cloud water, rain, cloud ice, snow, grau- pel or hail, and scalars. A second order Runge

  1. Improvements in Representations of Cloud Microphysics for BBHRP and Models using Data Collected during M-PACE and TWP-ICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg M. McFarquhar

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In our research we proposed to use data collected during the 2004 Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) and the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) to improve retrievals of ice and mixed-phase clouds, to improve our understanding of how cloud and radiative processes affect cloud life cycles, and to develop and test methods for using ARM data more effectively in model. In particular, we proposed to: 1) use MPACE in-situ data to determine how liquid water fraction and cloud ice and liquid effective radius (r{sub ei} and r{sub ew}) vary with temperature, normalized cloud altitude and other variables for Arctic mixed-phase clouds, and to use these data to evaluate the performance of model parameterization schemes and remote sensing retrieval algorithms; 2) calculate rei and size/shape distributions using TWP-ICE in-situ data, investigate their dependence on cirrus type (oceanic or continental anvils or cirrus not directly traced to convection), and develop and test representations for MICROBASE; 3) conduct fundamental research enhancing our understanding of cloud/radiative interactions, concentrating on effects of small crystals and particle shapes and sizes on radiation; and 4) improve representations of microphysical processes for models (fall-out, effective density, mean scattering properties, rei and rew) and provide them to ARM PIs. In the course of our research, we made substantial progress on all four goals.

  2. A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

  3. area process research: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    research environmental January 2012 The Issue Comprehensive and reliable energy statistics are essential for good policy analysis and for future projections of energy...

  4. SU-D-BRD-02: A Web-Based Image Processing and Plan Evaluation Platform (WIPPEP) for Future Cloud-Based Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, X; Liu, L; Xing, L [Stanford UniversitySchool of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Visualization and processing of medical images and radiation treatment plan evaluation have traditionally been constrained to local workstations with limited computation power and ability of data sharing and software update. We present a web-based image processing and planning evaluation platform (WIPPEP) for radiotherapy applications with high efficiency, ubiquitous web access, and real-time data sharing. Methods: This software platform consists of three parts: web server, image server and computation server. Each independent server communicates with each other through HTTP requests. The web server is the key component that provides visualizations and user interface through front-end web browsers and relay information to the backend to process user requests. The image server serves as a PACS system. The computation server performs the actual image processing and dose calculation. The web server backend is developed using Java Servlets and the frontend is developed using HTML5, Javascript, and jQuery. The image server is based on open source DCME4CHEE PACS system. The computation server can be written in any programming language as long as it can send/receive HTTP requests. Our computation server was implemented in Delphi, Python and PHP, which can process data directly or via a C++ program DLL. Results: This software platform is running on a 32-core CPU server virtually hosting the web server, image server, and computation servers separately. Users can visit our internal website with Chrome browser, select a specific patient, visualize image and RT structures belonging to this patient and perform image segmentation running Delphi computation server and Monte Carlo dose calculation on Python or PHP computation server. Conclusion: We have developed a webbased image processing and plan evaluation platform prototype for radiotherapy. This system has clearly demonstrated the feasibility of performing image processing and plan evaluation platform through a web browser and exhibited potential for future cloud based radiotherapy.

  5. "Big Picture" Process Modeling Tools |GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    downstream advantages as costs are reduced thanks to lower power requirements for distillation and even reduced liquid waste generation. In the second case, process modeling...

  6. Cloud Computing Adam Barker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    St Andrews, University of

    Cloud Computing 1 Adam Barker #12;Overview · Introduction to Cloud computing · Enabling technologies · Di erent types of cloud: IaaS, PaaS and SaaS · Cloud terminology · Interacting with a cloud: management consoles · Launching an instance · Connecting to an instance · Running your application · Clouds

  7. Embracing the Cloud for Better Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shue, Craig A [ORNL; Lagesse, Brent J [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The future of cyber security is inextricably tied to the future of computing. Organizational needs and economic factors will drive computing outcomes. Cyber security researchers and practitioners must recognize the path of computing evolution and position themselves to influence the process to incorporate security as an inherent property. The best way to predict future computing trends is to look at recent developments and their motivations. Organizations are moving towards outsourcing their data storage, computation, and even user desktop environments. This trend toward cloud computing has a direct impact on cyber security: rather than securing user machines, preventing malware access, and managing removable media, a cloud-based security scheme must focus on enabling secure communication with remote systems. This change in approach will have profound implications for cyber security research efforts. In this work, we highlight existing and emerging technologies and the limitations of cloud computing systems. We then discuss the cyber security efforts that would support these applications. Finally, we discuss the implications of these computing architecture changes, in particular with respect to malware and social engineering.

  8. VALIDATION OF CLOUD LIQUID WATER PATH RETRIEVALS FROM SEVIRI ON METEOSAT-8 USING CLOUDNET OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    on global cloud statistics and radiation budget #12;(Feijt et al., 2003). With the launch of Meteosat Second effective radius and Cloud Liquid Water Path (CLWP) over Europe. The CloudNET research project, supported forecast models. The radiative behavior of clouds depends predominantly on cloud properties

  9. Examining How Radiative Fluxes Are Affected by Cloud and Particle...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    How Radiative Fluxes Are Affected by Cloud and Particle Characteristics Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights...

  10. Evaluating cloud retrieval algorithms with the ARM BBHRP framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mlawer,E.; Dunn,M.; Mlawer, E.; Shippert, T.; Troyan, D.; Johnson, K. L.; Miller, M. A.; Delamere, J.; Turner, D. D.; Jensen, M. P.; Flynn, C.; Shupe, M.; Comstock, J.; Long, C. N.; Clough, S. T.; Sivaraman, C.; Khaiyer, M.; Xie, S.; Rutan, D.; Minnis, P.

    2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate and weather prediction models require accurate calculations of vertical profiles of radiative heating. Although heating rate calculations cannot be directly validated due to the lack of corresponding observations, surface and top-of-atmosphere measurements can indirectly establish the quality of computed heating rates through validation of the calculated irradiances at the atmospheric boundaries. The ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) project, a collaboration of all the working groups in the program, was designed with these heating rate validations as a key objective. Given the large dependence of radiative heating rates on cloud properties, a critical component of BBHRP radiative closure analyses has been the evaluation of cloud microphysical retrieval algorithms. This evaluation is an important step in establishing the necessary confidence in the continuous profiles of computed radiative heating rates produced by BBHRP at the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sites that are needed for modeling studies. This poster details the continued effort to evaluate cloud property retrieval algorithms within the BBHRP framework, a key focus of the project this year. A requirement for the computation of accurate heating rate profiles is a robust cloud microphysical product that captures the occurrence, height, and phase of clouds above each ACRF site. Various approaches to retrieve the microphysical properties of liquid, ice, and mixed-phase clouds have been processed in BBHRP for the ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP) and the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. These retrieval methods span a range of assumptions concerning the parameterization of cloud location, particle density, size, shape, and involve different measurement sources. We will present the radiative closure results from several different retrieval approaches for the SGP site, including those from Microbase, the current 'reference' retrieval approach in BBHRP. At the NSA, mixed-phase clouds and cloud with a low optical depth are prevalent; the radiative closure studies using Microbase demonstrated significant residuals. As an alternative to Microbase at NSA, the Shupe-Turner cloud property retrieval algorithm, aimed at improving the partitioning of cloud phase and incorporating more constrained, conditional microphysics retrievals, also has been evaluated using the BBHRP data set.

  11. Research Needs and Priorities for Textile Process Electrification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrix, W. A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the industry, utilities, engineering community, and academic institutions at the EPRI/ATMI Textile Process Application Meeting conducted by Georgia Tech in May, 1982. This meeting provided reviews of the state-of-the-art for each technology along...

  12. Development and Testing of a Life Cycle Model and a Parameterization of Thin Mid-level Stratiform Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krueger, Steven K.

    2008-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We used a cloud-resolving model (a detailed computer model of cloud systems) to evaluate and improve the representation of clouds in global atmospheric models used for numerical weather prediction and climate modeling. We also used observations of the atmospheric state, including clouds, made at DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Climate Research Facility located in the Southern Great Plains (Kansas and Oklahoma) during Intensive Observation Periods to evaluate our detailed computer model as well as a single-column version of a global atmospheric model used for numerical weather prediction (the Global Forecast System of the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction). This so-called Single-Column Modeling approach has proved to be a very effective method for testing the representation of clouds in global atmospheric models. The method relies on detailed observations of the atmospheric state, including clouds, in an atmospheric column comparable in size to a grid column used in a global atmospheric model. The required observations are made by a combination of in situ and remote sensing instruments. One of the greatest problems facing mankind at the present is climate change. Part of the problem is our limited ability to predict the regional patterns of climate change. In order to increase this ability, uncertainties in climate models must be reduced. One of the greatest of these uncertainties is the representation of clouds and cloud processes. This project, and ARM taken as a whole, has helped to improve the representation of clouds in global atmospheric models.

  13. CHASER: An Innovative Satellite Mission Concept to Measure the Effects of Aerosols on Clouds and Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenfeld, Daniel

    The formation of cloud droplets on aerosol particles, technically known as the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), is the fundamental process driving the interactions of aerosols with clouds and precipitation. ...

  14. Final Report - Independent Verification Survey Activities at the Seperations Process Research Unit Sites, Niskayuna, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) complex located on the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) site in Niskayuna, New York, was constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium (Figure A-1). SPRU operated as a laboratory scale research facility between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes. The oxidation and extraction processes were subsequently developed for large scale use by the Hanford and Savannah River sites (aRc 2008a). Decommissioning of the SPRU facilities began in October 1953 and continued through the 1990s.

  15. Study of ice cloud properties using infrared spectral data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Kevin James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this thesis involves the study of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties using both hyperspectral and narrowband infrared spectral data. First, ice cloud models are developed for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding...

  16. Study of ice cloud properties using infrared spectral data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Kevin James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this thesis involves the study of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties using both hyperspectral and narrowband infrared spectral data. First, ice cloud models are developed for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding...

  17. Cloud Tracking in Cloud-Resolving Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plant, Robert

    Cloud Tracking in Cloud-Resolving Models RMetS Conference 4th September 2007 Bob Plant Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK #12;Introduction Obtain life cycle statistics for clouds in CRM simulations What is the distribution of cloud lifetimes? What factors determine the lifetime of an individual

  18. The effect of smoke, dust, and pollution aerosol on shallow cloud development over the Atlantic Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    radiation by aerosols, however, can reduce the cloud cover. The net aerosol effect on clouds is currently- induced cloud changes, and 1 3 is due to aerosol direct radiative effect. cloud cover cloud height understand the processes. The radiative effect at the top of the atmosphere incurred by the aerosol effect

  19. Signal and Image Processing Research at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, R S; Poyneer, L A; Kegelmeyer, L M; Carrano, C J; Chambers, D H; Candy, J V

    2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a large, multidisciplinary institution that conducts fundamental and applied research in the physical sciences. Research programs at the Laboratory run the gamut from theoretical investigations, to modeling and simulation, to validation through experiment. Over the years, the Laboratory has developed a substantial research component in the areas of signal and image processing to support these activities. This paper surveys some of the current research in signal and image processing at the Laboratory. Of necessity, the paper does not delve deeply into any one research area, but an extensive citation list is provided for further study of the topics presented.

  20. Cloud Security by Max Garvey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolmach, Andrew

    Cloud Security Survey by Max Garvey #12;Cloudy Cloud is Cloudy What is the cloud? On Demand Service Network access Resource pooling Elasticity of Resources Measured Service #12;Cloud Types/Variants Iaa Cloud Public Cloud Hybrid Cloud combination. Private cloud with overflow going to public cloud. #12

  1. Subseasonal Variability of the Southeast Pacific Stratus Cloud Deck* International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    on longwave radiation is rather small. As a result, Sc clouds have a net cooling effect on both the ocean adjustment that leads to cloud fluctuations and possible orographic effects of the Andes are also discussed reducing the down- ward solar radiation at the surface. Because of their low altitude, their effect

  2. Global cloud liquid water path simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemus, L. [Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)] [Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Rikus, L. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)] [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Martin, C.; Platt, R. [CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria (Australia)] [CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria (Australia)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new parameterization of cloud liquid water and ice content has been included in the Bureau of Meteorology Global Assimilation and Prediction System. The cloud liquid water content is derived from the mean cloud temperatures in the model using an empirical relationship based on observations. The results from perpetual January and July simulations are presented and show that the total cloud water path steadily decreases toward high latitudes, with two relative maxima at midlatitudes and a peak at low latitudes. To validate the scheme, the simulated fields need to be processed to produce liquid water paths that can be directly compared with the corresponding field derived from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. This requires the identification of cloud ice water content within the parameterization and a prescription to account for the treatment of strongly precipitating subgrid-scale cloud. The resultant cloud liquid water paths agree qualitatively with the SSM/I data but show some systematic errors that are attributed to corresponding errors in the model`s simulation of cloud amounts. Given that a more quantitative validation requires substantial improvement in the model`s diagnostic cloud scheme, the comparison with the SSM/I data indicates that the cloud water path, derived from the cloud liquid water content parameterization introduced in this paper, is consistent with the observations and can be usefully incorporated in the prediction system. 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Cloud Computing og availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Henrik Bćrbak

    Cloud Computing og availability Projekt i pĺlidelighed Henrik Lavdal - 20010210 Sřren Bardino Kaa - 20011654 Gruppe 8 19-03-2010 #12;Cloud Computing og availability Side 2 af 28 Indholdsfortegnelse as a Service (SaaS) ...................................................................9 Availability i cloud

  4. Ad hoc cloud computing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGilvary, Gary Andrew

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial and private cloud providers offer virtualized resources via a set of co-located and dedicated hosts that are exclusively reserved for the purpose of offering a cloud service. While both cloud models appeal to ...

  5. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  6. CBM processes are applicable to maintenance activities on complex systems. Southwest Research Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Clark R.

    performance costs, and preventive/ scheduled maintenance replaces parts before the end of their useful life optimizes costs between preventive and corrective maintenance. Preventive Condition Number of FailuresCBM processes are applicable to maintenance activities on complex systems. Southwest Research

  7. Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettelman, A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Morrison, H.; Park, Sungsu; Conley, Andrew; Klein, Stephen A.; Boyle, James; Mitchell, David; Li, J-L F.

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process-based treatment of ice supersaturation and ice-nucleation is implemented in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). The new scheme is designed to allow (1) supersaturation with respect to ice, (2) ice nucleation by aerosol particles and (3) ice cloud cover consistent with ice microphysics. The scheme is implemented with a 4-class 2 moment microphysics code and is used to evaluate ice cloud nucleation mechanisms and supersaturation in CAM. The new model is able to reproduce field observations of ice mass and mixed phase cloud occurrence better than previous versions of the model. Simulations indicate heterogeneous freezing and contact nucleation on dust are both potentially important over remote areas of the Arctic. Cloud forcing and hence climate is sensitive to different formulations of the ice microphysics. Arctic radiative fluxes are sensitive to the parameterization of ice clouds. These results indicate that ice clouds are potentially an important part of understanding cloud forcing and potential cloud feedbacks, particularly in the Arctic.

  8. Socially Optimal Pricing of Cloud Computing Resources Ishai Menache

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimkin, Nahum

    Socially Optimal Pricing of Cloud Computing Resources Ishai Menache Microsoft Research New England The cloud computing paradigm offers easily accessible com- puting resources of variable size and capabilities. We con- sider a cloud-computing facility that provides simultaneous service to a heterogeneous

  9. Adaptive Fault Tolerance in Real Time Cloud Computing Sheheryar Malik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adaptive Fault Tolerance in Real Time Cloud Computing Sheheryar Malik Research Team OASIS INRIA.huet@inria.fr Abstract -- With the increasing demand and benefits of cloud computing infrastructure, real time computing can be performed on cloud infrastructure. A real time system can take advantage of intensive computing

  10. Towards a New Execution Model for HPC Clouds Thomas Sterling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lumsdaine, Andrew

    Towards a New Execution Model for HPC Clouds Thomas Sterling Center for Research in Extreme Scale an alternative paradigm for bringing Clouds more closely aligned to Science, Technology, Engineering Execution Model for HPC Clouds Thomas Sterling 1. Introduction Even as HPC is transiting the pan

  11. On Demand Surveillance Service in Vehicular Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weng, Jui-Ting

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toward Vehicular Service Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.2 Open Mobile Cloud Requirement . . . . .3.1 Mobile Cloud

  12. Low virial parameters in molecular clouds: Implications for high-mass star formation and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Goldsmith, Paul F., E-mail: jens.kauffmann@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: tpillai@astro.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Whether or not molecular clouds and embedded cloud fragments are stable against collapse is of utmost importance for the study of the star formation process. Only 'supercritical' cloud fragments are able to collapse and form stars. The virial parameter ? = M {sub vir}/M, which compares the virial mass to the actual mass, provides one way to gauge stability against collapse. Supercritical cloud fragments are characterized by ? ? 2, as indicated by a comprehensive stability analysis considering perturbations in pressure and density gradients. Past research has suggested that virial parameters ? ? 2 prevail in clouds. This would suggest that collapse toward star formation is a gradual and relatively slow process and that magnetic fields are not needed to explain the observed cloud structure. Here, we review a range of very recent observational studies that derive virial parameters <<2 and compile a catalog of 1325 virial parameter estimates. Low values of ? are in particular observed for regions of high-mass star formation (HMSF). These observations may argue for a more rapid and violent evolution during collapse. This would enable 'competitive accretion' in HMSF, constrain some models of 'monolithic collapse', and might explain the absence of high-mass starless cores. Alternatively, the data could point at the presence of significant magnetic fields ?1 mG at high gas densities. We examine to what extent the derived observational properties might be biased by observational or theoretical uncertainties. For a wide range of reasonable parameters, our conclusions appear to be robust with respect to such biases.

  13. Determinating Timing Channels in Statistically Multiplexed Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aviram, Amittai; Ford, Bryan; Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Timing side-channels represent an insidious security challenge for cloud computing, because: (a) they enable one customer to steal information from another without leaving a trail or raising alarms; (b) only the cloud provider can feasibly detect and report such attacks, but the provider's incentives are not to; and (c) known general-purpose timing channel control methods undermine statistical resource sharing efficiency, and, with it, the cloud computing business model. We propose a new cloud architecture that uses provider-enforced deterministic execution to eliminate all timing channels internal to a shared cloud domain, without limiting internal resource sharing. A prototype determinism-enforcing hypervisor demonstrates that utilizing such a cloud might be both convenient and efficient. The hypervisor enables parallel guest processes and threads to interact via familiar shared memory and file system abstractions, and runs moderately coarse-grained parallel tasks as efficiently and scalably as current nond...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING OF CLOUDS AND RADIATION USING ARM DATA, FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minnis, Patrick [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period, March 1997 – February 2006, the Principal Investigator and his research team co-authored 47 peer-reviewed papers and presented, at least, 138 papers at conferences, meetings, and workshops that were supported either in whole or in part by this agreement. We developed a state-of-the-art satellite cloud processing system that generates cloud properties over the Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) surface sites and surrounding domains in near-real time and outputs the results on the world wide web in image and digital formats. When the products are quality controlled, they are sent to the ARM archive for further dissemination. These products and raw satellite images can be accessed at http://cloudsgate2.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/site/showdoc?docid=4&cmd=field-experiment-homepage&exp=ARM and are used by many in the ARM science community. The algorithms used in this system to generate cloud properties were validated and improved by the research conducted under this agreement. The team supported, at least, 11 ARM-related or supported field experiments by providing near-real time satellite imagery, cloud products, model results, and interactive analyses for mission planning, execution, and post-experiment scientific analyses. Comparisons of cloud properties derived from satellite, aircraft, and surface measurements were used to evaluate uncertainties in the cloud properties. Multiple-angle satellite retrievals were used to determine the influence of cloud structural and microphysical properties on the exiting radiation field.

  15. Sampling, preservation, and analytical methods research plan - liquid redox sulfur recovery technologies: Stretford process. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trofe, T.W.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRI has developed a sampling, preservation, and analytical (SPandA) methods research plan for developing and validating analytical methodologies for liquid redox sulfur recovery processes (e.g., Stretford process). The document describes the technical approach which will be used to direct research activities to develop SPandA methodologies to analyze gaseous, aqueous, and solid process streams from the Stretford sulfur recovery process. The primary emphasis is on developing and validating methodologies for analyzing vanadium (IV) and vanadium (V), anthraquinone disulphonic acids (ADA), polysulfide-sulfur, sulfide-sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfate, thiocyanate, total soluble sulfur, alkalinity, pH, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, and dissolved oxygen in aqueous process streams. The document includes descriptions of the process streams and chemical species, selection of candidate analytical methods, and technical approach for methods development and validation.

  16. Summertime Arctic Clouds observed during SHEBA Paquita Zuidema

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    understanding the underlying cloud processes (that impact the cloud optical depth). With the goal in mind consistently southerly and warm.The ice melt rate was directly measured to be 2.3-2.5 cm/day from gauges). The responsive surface melting during July suggests not only a high Sun angle,but also low cloud optical depths

  17. Cloud Computing For Bioinformatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Cloud Computing For Bioinformatics EC2 and AMIs #12;Quick-starting an EC2 instance (let's get our feet wet!) Cloud Computing #12;Cloud Computing: EC2 instance Quick Start · On EC2 console, we can click on Launch Instance · This will let us get up and going quickly #12;Cloud Computing: EC2 instance

  18. Can Cloud Computing Address the Scientific Computing Requirements...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for meeting the ever-increasing computational needs of scientists, Department of Energy researchers have issued a report stating that the cloud computing model is useful, but...

  19. A survey on vehicular cloud computing Md Whaiduzzaman a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melbourne, University of

    A survey on vehicular cloud computing Md Whaiduzzaman a,n , Mehdi Sookhak a , Abdullah Gani a , Rajkumar Buyya b a Mobile Cloud Computing Research Lab, Faculty of Computer Science & Information control Intelligent transportation systems Cloud computing Vehicular cloud computing a b s t r a c

  20. Collaborative Research: ARM observations for the development and evaluation of models and parameterizations of cloudy boundary layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, Bruce,

    2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a collaborative project with Dr. Ping Zhu at Florida International University. It was designed to address key issues regarding the treatment of boundary layer cloud processes in climate models with UM’s research focusing on the analyses of ARM cloud radar observations from MMCR and WACR and FIU’s research focusing on numerical simulations of boundary layer clouds. This project capitalized on recent advancements in the ARM Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) processing and the development of the WACR (at the SGP) to provide high temporal and spatial resolution Doppler cloud radar measurements for characterizing in-cloud turbulence, large-eddy circulations, and high resolution cloud structures of direct relevance to high resolution numerical modeling studies. The principal focus of the observational component of this collaborative study during this funding period was on stratocumulus clouds over the SGP site and fair-weather cumuli over the Nauru site. The statistical descriptions of the vertical velocity structures in continental stratocumulus clouds and in the Nauru shallow cumuli that are part of this study represents the most comprehensive observations of the vertical velocities in boundary layer clouds to date and were done in collaboration with Drs. Virendra Ghate and Pavlos Kollias.

  1. X-1 ROEBELING ET AL.: SEVIRI & AVHRR CLOUD PROPERTY RETRIEVALS Cloud property retrievals for climate monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Generation (METEOSAT-8) and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the National Oceanic a consistent and high quality dataset of SEVIRI and AVHRR retrieved cloud properties for climate research studies. Clouds strongly modulate the energy balance of the Earth and its atmosphere through

  2. Aircraft Observations of Sub-cloud Aerosol and Convective Cloud Physical Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axisa, Duncan

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focuses on aircraft observational studies of aerosol-cloud interactions in cumulus clouds. The data were collected in the summer of 2004, the spring of 2007 and the mid-winter and spring of 2008 in Texas, central Saudi Arabia...

  3. Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Yi

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE-GTRC-05596 11/24/2104 Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate PI: Dr. Yi Deng (PI) School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology 404-385-1821, yi.deng@eas.gatech.edu El Nińo-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Annular Modes (AMs) represent respectively the most important modes of low frequency variability in the tropical and extratropical circulations. The projection of future changes in the ENSO and AM variability, however, remains highly uncertain with the state-of-the-science climate models. This project conducted a process-resolving, quantitative evaluations of the ENSO and AM variability in the modern reanalysis observations and in climate model simulations. The goal is to identify and understand the sources of uncertainty and biases in models’ representation of ENSO and AM variability. Using a feedback analysis method originally formulated by one of the collaborative PIs, we partitioned the 3D atmospheric temperature anomalies and surface temperature anomalies associated with ENSO and AM variability into components linked to 1) radiation-related thermodynamic processes such as cloud and water vapor feedbacks, 2) local dynamical processes including convection and turbulent/diffusive energy transfer and 3) non-local dynamical processes such as the horizontal energy transport in the oceans and atmosphere. In the past 4 years, the research conducted at Georgia Tech under the support of this project has led to 15 peer-reviewed publications and 9 conference/workshop presentations. Two graduate students and one postdoctoral fellow also received research training through participating the project activities. This final technical report summarizes key scientific discoveries we made and provides also a list of all publications and conference presentations resulted from research activities at Georgia Tech. The main findings include: 1) the distinctly different roles played by atmospheric dynamical processes in establishing surface temperature response to ENSO at tropics and extratropics (i.e., atmospheric dynamics disperses energy out of tropics during ENSO warm events and modulate surface temperature at mid-, high-latitudes through controlling downward longwave radiation); 2) the representations of ENSO-related temperature response in climate models fail to converge at the process-level particularly over extratropics (i.e., models produce the right temperature responses to ENSO but with wrong reasons); 3) water vapor feedback contributes substantially to the temperature anomalies found over U.S. during different phases of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), which adds new insight to the traditional picture that cold/warm advective processes are the main drivers of local temperature responses to the NAM; 4) the overall land surface temperature biases in the latest NCAR model (CESM1) are caused by biases in surface albedo while the surface temperature biases over ocean are related to multiple factors including biases in model albedo, cloud and oceanic dynamics, and the temperature biases over different ocean basins are also induced by different process biases. These results provide a detailed guidance for process-level model turning and improvement, and thus contribute directly to the overall goal of reducing model uncertainty in projecting future changes in the Earth’s climate system, especially in the ENSO and AM variability.

  4. Development of advanced cloud parameterizations to examine air quality, cloud properties, and cloud-radiation feedback in mesoscale models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, In Young

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of atmospheric pollutants is governed by dynamic processes that create the general conditions for transport and mixing, by microphysical processes that control the evolution of aerosol and cloud particles, and by chemical processes that transform chemical species and form aerosols. Pollutants emitted into the air can undergo homogeneous gas reactions to create a suitable environment for the production by heterogeneous nucleation of embryos composed of a few molecules. The physicochemical properties of preexisting aerosols interact with newly produced embryos to evolve by heteromolecular diffusion and coagulation. Hygroscopic particles wig serve as effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), while hydrophobic particles will serve as effective ice-forming nuclei. Clouds form initially by condensation of water vapor on CCN and evolve in a vapor-liquid-solid system by deposition, sublimation, freezing, melting, coagulation, and breakup. Gases and aerosols that enter the clouds undergo aqueous chemical processes and may acidity hydrometer particles. Calculations for solar and longwave radiation fluxes depend on how the respective spectra are modified by absorbers such as H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, chlorofruorocarbons, and aerosols. However, the flux calculations are more complicated for cloudy skies, because the cloud optical properties are not well defined. In this paper, key processes such as tropospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics parameterizations, and radiation schemes are reviewed in terms of physicochemical processes occurring, and recommendations are made for the development of advanced modules applicable to mesoscale models.

  5. Global Mainframe As A Cloud Machine Market Size, Share, Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and plan, Mainframe As A Cloud Machine product specification, manufacturing process, cost structure etc. Then we deeply analyzed the world's main region market conditions that...

  6. Est. 6/09, Revised 6/13 Page 1 Processing Research Participant Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Est. 6/09, Revised 6/13 Page 1 Processing Research Participant Costs Support, Patient Care. Participant Support Participant support costs are payments provided to a study participant or to a workshop. These costs are expressed as non-salary expenses and carry no facilities and administrative costs on the grant

  7. Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2001-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report

  8. Edinburgh Research Explorer Quantifying the implicit process flow abstraction in SBGN-PD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Quantifying the implicit process flow abstraction in SBGN-PD diagrams with Bio-PEPA Citation for published version: Loewe, L, Moodie, S & Hillston, J 2009, 'Quantifying & Hillston This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License. Quantifying the implicit

  9. Research Report Effects of attention on the neural processing of harmonic syntax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Report Effects of attention on the neural processing of harmonic syntax in Western music) were recorded. The five-chord progressions included 61% harmonically expected cadences (I­I6 ­IV­V­I), 26% harmonically unexpected cadences (I­I6 ­IV­V­N6 ), and 13% with one of the five chords having

  10. Overview of Fiscal Year 2002 Research and Development for Savannah River Site's Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. D. Harmon, R. Leugemors, PNNL; S. Fink, M. Thompson, D. Walker, WSRC; P. Suggs, W. D. Clark, Jr

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste program is responsible for storage, treatment, and immobilization of high-level waste for disposal. The Salt Processing Program (SPP) is the salt (soluble) waste treatment portion of the SRS high-level waste effort. The overall SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction and operation of treatment technologies to prepare the salt waste feed material for the site's grout facility (Saltstone) and vitrification facility (Defense Waste Processing Facility). Major constituents that must be removed from the salt waste and sent as feed to Defense Waste Processing Facility include actinides, strontium, cesium, and entrained sludge. In fiscal year 2002 (FY02), research and development (R&D) on the actinide and strontium removal and Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) processes transitioned from technology development for baseline process selection to providing input for conceptual design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The SPP R&D focused on advancing the technical maturity, risk reduction, engineering development, and design support for DOE's engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractors for the Salt Waste Processing Facility. Thus, R&D in FY02 addressed the areas of actual waste performance, process chemistry, engineering tests of equipment, and chemical and physical properties relevant to safety. All of the testing, studies, and reports were summarized and provided to the DOE to support the Salt Waste Processing Facility, which began conceptual design in September 2002.

  11. XSEDE Cloud Survey Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    XSEDE Cloud Survey Report David Lifka, Cornell Center for Advanced Computing Ian Foster, ANL, ANL and The University of Chicago A National Science Foundation-sponsored cloud user survey was conducted from September 2012 to April 2013 by the XSEDE Cloud Integration Investigation Team to better

  12. Automated solar cell assembly teamed process research. Semiannual subcontract report, December 6, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowlan, M. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the second Semiannual Technical Progress Report for the program titled `Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research` funded under National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontract No. ZAG-3-11219-01. This report describes the work done on Phase II of the program in the period from December 6, 1993 to June 30, 1994. Spire`s objective in this program is to develop high throughput (5 MW/yr) automated processes for interconnecting thin (200 {mu}m) silicon solar cells. High yield will be achieved with these fragile cells through the development of low mechanical stress and low thermal stress processes. For example, a machine vision system is being developed for cell alignment without mechanically contacting the cell edges, while a new soldering process is being developed to solder metal interconnect ribbons simultaneously to a cells` front and back contacts, eliminating one of the two heating steps normally used for soldering each cell.

  13. 1EMC CONFIDENTIAL--INTERNAL USE ONLY Cloud based Personal Information Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1EMC CONFIDENTIAL--INTERNAL USE ONLY Cloud based Personal Information Management ­ Introduction to EMC Cloud Computing Jidong Chen Sr. Research Scientist Information Management Group EMC Research China Dec., 2008 #12;2EMC CONFIDENTIAL--INTERNAL USE ONLY Agenda Introduction to Personal Information Cloud

  14. The DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials: Research briefs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication is designed to inform present and potential customers and partners of the DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials about significant advances resulting from Center-coordinated research. The format is an easy-to-read, not highly technical, concise presentation of the accomplishments. Selected accomplishments from each of the Center`s seven initial focused projects are presented. The seven projects are: (1) conventional and superplastic forming; (2) materials joining; (3) nanoscale materials for energy applications; (4) microstructural engineering with polymers; (5) tailored microstructures in hard magnets; (6) processing for surface hardness; and (7) mechanically reliable surface oxides for high-temperature corrosion resistance.

  15. Databases and coordinated research projects at the IAEA on atomic processes in plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung [Nuclear Data Section, NAPC Division, International Atomic Energy Agency P. O. Box 100, Vienna International Centre, AT-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit at the IAEA works with a network of national data centres to encourage and coordinate production and dissemination of fundamental data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M/PMI) processes that are relevant to the realization of fusion energy. The Unit maintains numerical and bibliographical databases and has started a Wiki-style knowledge base. The Unit also contributes to A+M database interface standards and provides a search engine that offers a common interface to multiple numerical A+M/PMI databases. Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) bring together fusion energy researchers and atomic, molecular and surface physicists for joint work towards the development of new data and new methods. The databases and current CRPs on A+M/PMI processes are briefly described here.

  16. On the Microphysical Properties of Ice Clouds as Inferred from the Polarization of Electromagnetic Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Benjamin

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainties associated with the microphysical and radiative properties of ice clouds remain an active research area because of the importance these clouds have in atmospheric radiative transfer problems and the energy balance of the Earth...

  17. On the Microphysical Properties of Ice Clouds as Inferred from the Polarization of Electromagnetic Waves 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Benjamin

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainties associated with the microphysical and radiative properties of ice clouds remain an active research area because of the importance these clouds have in atmospheric radiative transfer problems and the energy balance of the Earth...

  18. Retrieval of optical and microphysical properties of ice clouds using Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinney, Jacqueline Anne

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented here retrieves the cloud optical thickness and particle effective size of cirrus clouds using surface radiation measurements obtained during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) field campaign. The algorithm used...

  19. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  20. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  1. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth’s energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and subsequent impacts on the hydrologic cycle. Global observation and accurate representation of these processes in numerical models is vital to improving our current understanding and future simulations of Earth’s climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales that are associated with convective and stratiform precipitation processes; therefore, they must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, the physical basis for these parameterization schemes needs to be evaluated for general application under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Analogously, space-based remote sensing algorithms designed to retrieve related cloud and precipitation information for use in hydrological, climate, and numerical weather prediction applications often rely on physical “parameterizations” that reliably translate indirectly related instrument measurements to the physical quantity of interest (e.g., precipitation rate). Importantly, both spaceborne retrieval algorithms and model convective parameterization schemes traditionally rely on field campaign data sets as a basis for evaluating and improving the physics of their respective approaches. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the April–May 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, NASA GPM ground validation remote sensors, and new ARM instrumentation purchased with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding. The overarching goal is to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation, and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land that have never before been available. Several different components of convective cloud and precipitation processes tangible to both the convective parameterization and precipitation retrieval algorithm problem are targeted, such as preconvective environment and convective initiation, updraft/downdraft dynamics, condensate transport and detrainment, precipitation and cloud microphysics, spatial and temporal variability of precipitation, influence on the environment and radiation, and a detailed description of the large-scale forcing.

  2. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal Liquefaction Concept - Task 2: Evaluation of Process Steps.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel direct coal liquefaction technology is being investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates under DOE Contract DE-AC22-95PC95050. The novel concept consists of a new approach to coal liquefaction chemistry which avoids some of the inherent limitations of current high-temperature thermal liquefaction processes. The chemistry employed is based on hydride ion donation to solubilize coal at temperatures (350-400{degrees}C) significantly lower than those typically used in conventional coal liquefaction. The process concept being explored consists of two reaction stages. In the first stage, the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second, the products are catalytically upgraded to acceptable refinery feedstocks. The program explores not only the initial solubilization step, but integration of the subsequent processing steps, including an interstage solids-separation step, to produce distillate products. A unique feature of the process concept is that many of the individual reaction steps can be decoupled, because little recycle around the liquefaction system is expected. This allows for considerable latitude in the process design. Furthermore, this has allowed for each key element in the process to be explored independently in laboratory work conducted under Task 2 of the program.

  3. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  4. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  5. Working inside the Cloud: Developing a Cloud Computing Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krause, Rolf

    UROP 2012 Working inside the Cloud: Developing a Cloud Computing Infrastructure Cloud computing and live-migration of running VM. USI participates to the development of the first European Cloud computing for a motivated student that will have a chance to improve his/her knowledge on Cloud computing, Java and/or Ruby

  6. Dynamic Cloud Resource Reservation via Cloud Brokerage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto Department of Electrical@eecg.toronto.edu, liang@utoronto.ca Abstract--Infrastructure-as-a-Service clouds offer diverse pric- ing options

  7. VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES IN FS SURVEY UNITS 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 & 14 AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.G. JADICK

    2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    FINAL INTERIM REPORT VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES IN FINAL STATUS SURVEY UNITS 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 AND 14 AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT, Niskayuna, New York 0496-SR-03-0. The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) facilities were constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium. SPRU operated between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction/oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes that were subsequently used by the Hanford and the Savannah River sites.

  8. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  9. Final Report on the Development of an Improved Cloud Microphysical Product for Model and Remote Sensing Evaluation using RACORO Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, Greg

    2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We proposed to analyze data collected during the Routine Aerial Facilities (AAF) Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) in order to develop an integrated product of cloud microphysical properties (number concentration of drops in different size bins, total liquid drop concentration integrated over all bin sizes, liquid water content LWC, extinction of liquid clouds bw, effective radius of water drops re, and radar reflectivity factor) that could be used to evaluate large-eddy simulations (LES), general circulation models (GCMs) and ground-based remote sensing retrievals, and to develop cloud parameterizations with the end goal of improving the modeling of cloud processes and properties and their impact on atmospheric radiation. We have completed the development of this microphysical database and have submitted it to ARM for consideration of its inclusion on the ARM database as a PI product. This report describes the development of this database, and also describes research that has been conducted on cloud-aerosol interactions using the data obtained during RACORO. A list of conference proceedings and publications is also included.

  10. Final Technical Report for "Radiative Heating Associated with Tropical Convective Cloud Systems: Its Importance at Meso and Global Scales"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, Courtney

    2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating associated with tropical cloud systems drive the global circulation. The overall research objectives of this project were to i) further quantify and understand the importance of heating in tropical convective cloud systems with innovative observational techniques, and ii) use global models to determine the large-scale circulation response to variability in tropical heating profiles, including anvil and cirrus cloud radiative forcing. The innovative observational techniques used a diversity of radar systems to create a climatology of vertical velocities associated with the full tropical convective cloud spectrum along with a dissection of the of the total heating profile of tropical cloud systems into separate components (i.e., the latent, radiative, and eddy sensible heating). These properties were used to validate storm-scale and global climate models (GCMs) and were further used to force two different types of GCMs (one with and one without interactive physics). While radiative heating was shown to account for about 20% of the total heating and did not have a strong direct response on the global circulation, the indirect response was important via its impact on convection, esp. in how radiative heating impacts the tilt of heating associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), a phenomenon that accounts for most tropical intraseasonal variability. This work shows strong promise in determining the sensitivity of climate models and climate processes to heating variations associated with cloud systems.

  11. An Autonomous Reliabilit Cloud Comput

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    An Autonomous Reliabilit Ami Cloud Comput Department of Computing and Informa Abstract--Cloud computing paradigm allo based access to computing and storages s Internet. Since with advances of Cloud. Keywords- Cloud computing; SLA negotiat I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing has transferred the services

  12. Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation for Biomass Processing: Research Strategies and Goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachos, Dion G.; Chen, Jingguang; Gorte, R. J.; Huber, George W.; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of energy and chemicals from biomass is of critical importance in meeting some of the challenges associated with decreasing availability of fossil fuels and addressing global climate change. In the current article, we outline a perspective on key challenges of biomass processing. We also introduce the Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation (CCEI), one of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers established by the Department of Energy in the spring of 2009, and CCEI’s overall research strategies and goals along with its cross-cutting research thrusts that can enable potential technological breakthroughs in the utilization of biomass and its derivatives. The center focuses on developing innovative heterogeneous catalysts and processing schemes that can lead to viable biorefineries for the conversion of biomass to chemicals, fuels, and electricity. In order to achieve this goal, a group of over twenty faculty members from nine institutions has been assembled to bring together complementary expertise covering novel materials synthesis, advanced characterization, multiscale modeling, surface science, catalytic kinetics, and microreactors.

  13. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress made in five areas of research is described briefly. The subtask in oil shale research is on oil shale process studies. For tar sand the subtask reported is on process development. Coal research includes the following subtasks: Coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes the following: Advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sup 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process;NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  14. Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, A H; Knight, R A; Anderson, G L; Feldkirchner, H L; Babu, S P

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gasification of coal followed by CO/sub 2/ removal from the hot product gas by a solid MgO-containing sorbent. The sorbent is regenerated by either a thermal- or a pressure-swing step and the CO/sub 2/ released is recycled back to the gasifier. The product is a medium-Btu gas. The second process concept involves the use of novel ''semivolatile'' materials as internal recirculating catalysts for coal gasification. These materials remain in the gasifier because their vapor pressure-temperature behavior is such that they will be in the vapor state at the hotter, char exit part of the reactor and will condense in the colder, coal-inlet part of the reactor. 21 refs., 43 figs., 43 tabs.

  15. Isolating signatures of major cloud-cloud collisions using position-velocity diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haworth, T J; Fukui, Y; Torii, K; Dale, J E; Shima, K; Takahira, K; Habe, A; Hasegawa, K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collisions between giant molecular clouds are a potential mechanism for triggering the formation of massive stars, or even super star clusters. The trouble is identifying this process observationally and distinguishing it from other mechanisms. We produce synthetic position-velocity diagrams from models of: cloud-cloud collisions, non-interacting clouds along the line of sight, clouds with internal radiative feedback and a more complex cloud evolving in a galactic disc, to try and identify unique signatures of collision. We find that a broad bridge feature connecting two intensity peaks, spatially correlated but separated in velocity, is a signature of a high velocity cloud-cloud collision. We show that the broad bridge feature is resilient to the effects of radiative feedback, at least to around 2.5Myr after the formation of the first massive (ionising) star. However for a head on 10km/s collision we find that this will only be observable from 20-30 per cent of viewing angles. Such broad-bridge features have...

  16. Research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O'Neil, D.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Research Inst.)

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.

  17. PhD scholarship on "Particle transport and clustering in stratified turbulent flows" funded by the Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandenburg, Axel

    and raindrop formation in clouds and planet formation in the solar nebula. The research project comprises two is for a new PhD student and is funded by The Research Council of Norway. The PhD grant offered amounts Andersson Dr Nils Erland Haugen Dept. Energy and Process Engineering SINTEF Energy Research NTNU PO Box 4761

  18. Parameterization and Analysis of 3-D Solar Radiative Transfer in Clouds: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Y. Harrington

    2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports on the research that we have done over the course of our two-year project. The report also covers the research done on this project during a 1 year no-cost extension of the grant. Our work has had two main, inter-related thrusts: The first thrust was to characterize the response of stratocumulus cloud structure and dynamics to systematic changes in cloud infrared radiative cooling and solar heating using one-dimensional radiative transfer models. The second was to couple a three-dimensional (3-D) solar radiative transfer model to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model that we use to simulate stratocumulus. The purpose of the studies with 3-D radiative transfer was to examine the possible influences of 3-D photon transport on the structure, evolution, and radiative properties of stratocumulus. While 3-D radiative transport has been examined in static cloud environments, few studies have attempted to examine whether the 3-D nature of radiative absorption and emission influence the structure and evolution of stratocumulus. We undertook this dual approach because only a small number of LES simulations with the 3-D radiative transfer model are possible due to the high computational costs. Consequently, LES simulations with a 1-D radiative transfer solver were used in order to examine the portions of stratocumulus parameter space that may be most sensitive to perturbations in the radiative fields. The goal was then to explore these sensitive regions with LES using full 3-D radiative transfer. Our overall goal was to discover whether 3-D radiative processes alter cloud structure and evolution, and whether this may have any indirect implications for cloud radiative properties. In addition, we collaborated with Dr. Tamas Varni, providing model output fields for his attempt at parameterizing 3-D radiative effects for cloud models.

  19. Clouds up close | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interactions that affect clouds and thus improve climate projections. Contact Heng Xiao Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 902 Battelle Blvd., PO Box 999 MSIN: K9-30...

  20. Finance Idol Word Cloud

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This word cloud represents the topics discussed during the Big and Small Ideas: How to Lower Solar Financing Costs breakout session at the SunShot Grand Challenge.

  1. SURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE VARIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that have been used to quantify the effect of clouds on radiation budget in both modeling and observationalSURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE/Atmospheric Sciences Division Brookhaven National Laboratory P.O. Box, Upton, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Cloud-radiation

  2. Development of an ultrasonic process for detoxifying groundwater and soil: Laboratory research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting laboratory research to study the effectiveness of a new technique in which ultrasonic energy is used to convert chlorinated organic compounds into nonhazardous end products. Destruction efficiencies of greater than 99% were achieved for the organic compounds in aqueous solution. Key process parameters, such as solution pH values, steady-state temperatures under operating conditions, ultrasonic-power intensities, and oxidant concentrations, were investigated. In addition, a detailed chemical-kinetic mechanism for the destruction of the organic compounds under an ultrasonic filed was developed and incorporated into a computational model. The agreement between the model and experimental results is generally good.

  3. 2010 MULTIPHOTON PROCESSES GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 6-11, 2010, TILTON, NH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mette Gaarde

    2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gordon Research Conference on Multiphoton Processes will be held for the 15th time in 2010. The meeting continues to evolve as it embraces both the rapid technological and intellectual growth in the field as well as the multi-disciplinary expertise of the participants. This time the sessions will focus on: (1) Ultrafast coherent control; (2) Free-electron laser experiments and theory; (3) Generation of harmonics and attosecond pulses; (4) Ultrafast imaging; (5) Applications of very high intensity laser fields; (6) Strong-field processes in molecules and solids; (7) Attosecond science; and (8) Controlling light. The scientific program will blur traditional disciplinary boundaries as the presenters and discussion leaders involve chemists, physicists, and optical engineers, representing both experiment and theory. The broad range of expertise and different perspectives of attendees should provide a stimulating and unique environment for solving problems and developing new ideas in this rapidly evolving field.

  4. Sandia Energy - Cloud Computing Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Computing Services Home Stationary Power Safety, Security & Resilience of Energy Infrastructure Grid Modernization Cyber Security for Electric Infrastructure Cloud Computing...

  5. Profiling clouds' inner life | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    life Released: May 29, 2014 Subgrid modeling pinpoints cloud transformation to uncover true reflective power An accurate understanding of clouds over the ocean is important for...

  6. CONTRIBUTED Green Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Rod

    to manage energy consumption across the entire information and communications technology (ICT) sector. While considers both public and private clouds, and includes energy consumption in switching and transmission to energy consumption and cloud computing seems to be an alternative to office-based computing. By Jayant

  7. Toward Securing Sensor Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · 32 GB microSDHC storage 2 Image from http://hothardware.com/News/Leaked-Motorola-DROID-X-2-Daytona Computer Mini Computer External Storage External Storage Router Router Router Router Cloud Computing Cloud: micro surveys, amber alerts 4 #12;Router Router Router Router Mini Computer Mini Computer Mini Computer

  8. Accelerating and democratizing science through cloud-based services.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, I. (CLS-CI); ( MCS)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many businesses today save time and money, and increase their agility, by outsourcing mundane IT tasks to cloud providers. The author argues that similar methods can be used to overcome the complexities inherent in increasingly data-intensive, computational, and collaborative scientific research. He describes Globus Online, a system that he and his colleagues are developing to realize this vision. he scientific community today has unprecedented opportunities to effect transformational change in how individuals and teams engage in discovery. The driving force is a set of interrelated new capabilities that, when harnessed, can enable dramatic acceleration in the discovery process: greater availability of massive data, exponentially faster computers, ultra-high-speed networks, and deep interdisciplinary collaboration. The opportunity - and challenge - is to make these capabilities accessible not just to a few 'big science' projects but to every researcher at every level. Here, I argue that the key to seizing this opportunity is embracing software delivery methods that haven't been widely adopted in research, notably software as a service (SaaS) - a technology that forms an important part of what people refer to as the cloud. I also describe projects in the Computation Institute at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory that aim to realize this vision, focusing initially on data movement and management.

  9. A new scenario framework for climate change research: background, process, and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebi, Kristie L.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Arnell, Nigel; Carter, Tim; Edmonds, James A.; Kriegler, Elmar; Mathur, Ritu; O'Neill, Brian; Riahi, Keywan; Winkler, Harald; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Zwickel, Timm

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes could pose to human and natural systems; how these could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce those risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. This paper provides the background to, and process of, developing the conceptual framework for these scenarios, described in three other papers in this Special Issue (van Vuuren et al.; O'Neill et al.; Kriegler et al.). The paper also discusses research needs to further develop and apply this framework. The goal is to encourage climate change researchers from a broad range of perspectives and disciplines to work together to develop policy-relevant scenarios and explore the implications of different possible futures for the challenges and opportunities human and natural systems could face with increasing climate change.

  10. Cloud optical and microphysical properties derived from ground-based and satellite sensors over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Cloud optical and microphysical properties derived from ground-based and satellite sensors over of cloud optical and microphysical properties were made at Taihu, a highly polluted site in the central Yangtze Delta region, during a research campaign from May 2008 to December 2009. Cloud optical depth (COD

  11. Water vapor, cloud liquid water paths, and rain rates over northern high latitude open seas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    longwave radiation caused by differences in cloud cover can produce an JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL-level stratus con- tribute the most to the total Arctic cloud cover of any cloud type according to surface presence during summertime but otherwise the Wentz internal sea-ice screening appears effective

  12. Intercomparison of the Cloud Water Phase among Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komurcu, Muge; Storelvmo, Trude; Tan, Ivy; Lohmann, U.; Yun, Yuxing; Penner, Joyce E.; Wang, Yong; Liu, Xiaohong; Takemura, T.

    2014-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed-phase clouds (clouds that consist of both cloud droplets and ice crystals) are frequently present in the Earth’s atmosphere and influence the Earth’s energy budget through their radiative properties, which are highly dependent on the cloud water phase. In this study, the phase partitioning of cloud water is compared among six global climate models (GCMs) and with Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization retrievals. It is found that the GCMs predict vastly different distributions of cloud phase for a given temperature, and none of them are capable of reproducing the spatial distribution or magnitude of the observed phase partitioning. While some GCMs produced liquid water paths comparable to satellite observations, they all failed to preserve sufficient liquid water at mixed-phase cloud temperatures. Our results suggest that validating GCMs using only the vertically integrated water contents could lead to amplified differences in cloud radiative feedback. The sensitivity of the simulated cloud phase in GCMs to the choice of heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization is also investigated. The response to a change in ice nucleation is quite different for each GCM, and the implementation of the same ice nucleation parameterization in all models does not reduce the spread in simulated phase among GCMs. The results suggest that processes subsequent to ice nucleation are at least as important in determining phase and should be the focus of future studies aimed at understanding and reducing differences among the models.

  13. Accretion onto a black hole in a string cloud background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apratim Ganguly; Sushant G. Ghosh; Sunil D. Maharaj

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the accretion process onto the black hole with a string cloud background, where the horizon of the black hole has an enlarged radius $r_H=2 M/(1-\\alpha)$, due to the string cloud parameter $\\alpha\\; (0 \\leq \\alpha cloud parameter $\\alpha$. We also find the gas compression ratios and temperature profiles below the accretion radius and at the event horizon. It is shown that the mass accretion rate, for both the relativistic and the non-relativistic fluid by a black hole in the string cloud model, increases with increase in $\\alpha$.

  14. July 2012July 2012 Cloud Computing and Virtualization:Cloud Computing and Virtualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jiangchuan (JC)

    July 2012July 2012 Cloud Computing and Virtualization:Cloud Computing and Virtualization/26/2633 Recent: CloudRecent: Cloud The fast growth of cloud computing Cloud file storage/synchronization services Google entries about cloud computing: 184,000,000 #12;July 2012July 2012 44/26/2644 Our CloudOur Cloud 7

  15. Transforming the representation of the boundary layer and low clouds for high-resolution regional climate modeling: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hsin-Yuan; Hall, Alex

    2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds in subtropical oceanic regions (e.g., Southeast Pacific) cover thousands of square kilometers and play a key role in regulating global climate (e.g., Klein and Hartmann, 1993). Numerical modeling is an essential tool to study these clouds in regional and global systems, but the current generation of climate and weather models has difficulties in representing them in a realistic way (e.g., Siebesma et al., 2004; Stevens et al., 2007; Teixeira et al., 2011). While numerical models resolve the large-scale flow, subgrid-scale parameterizations are needed to estimate small-scale properties (e.g. boundary layer turbulence and convection, clouds, radiation), which have significant influence on the resolved scale due to the complex nonlinear nature of the atmosphere. To represent the contribution of these fine-scale processes to the resolved scale, climate models use various parameterizations, which are the main pieces in the model that contribute to the low clouds dynamics and therefore are the major sources of errors or approximations in their representation. In this project, we aim to 1) improve our understanding of the physical processes in thermal circulation and cloud formation, 2) examine the performance and sensitivity of various parameterizations in the regional weather model (Weather Research and Forecasting model; WRF), and 3) develop, implement, and evaluate the advanced boundary layer parameterization in the regional model to better represent stratocumulus, shallow cumulus, and their transition. Thus, this project includes three major corresponding studies. We find that the mean diurnal cycle is sensitive to model domain in ways that reveal the existence of different contributions originating from the Southeast Pacific land-masses. The experiments suggest that diurnal variations in circulations and thermal structures over this region are influenced by convection over the Peruvian sector of the Andes cordillera, while the mostly dry mountain-breeze circulations force an additional component that results in semi-diurnal variations near the coast. A series of numerical tests, however, reveal sensitivity of the simulations to the choice of vertical grid, limiting the possibility of solid quantitative statements on the amplitudes and phases of the diurnal and semidiurnal components across the domain. According to our experiments, the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) boundary layer scheme and the WSM6 microphysics scheme is the combination of schemes that performs best. For that combination, mean cloud cover, liquid water path, and cloud depth are fairly wellsimulated, while mean cloud top height remains too low in comparison to observations. Both microphysics and boundary layer schemes contribute to the spread in liquid water path and cloud depth, although the microphysics contribution is slightly more prominent. Boundary layer schemes are the primary contributors to cloud top height, degree of adiabaticity, and cloud cover. Cloud top height is closely related to surface fluxes and boundary layer structure. Thus, our study infers that an appropriate tuning of cloud top height would likely improve the low-cloud representation in the model. Finally, we show that entrainment governs the degree of adiabaticity, while boundary layer decoupling is a control on cloud cover. In the intercomparison study using WRF single-column model experiments, most parameterizations show a poor agreement of the vertical boundary layer structure when compared with large-eddy simulation models. We also implement a new Total-Energy/Mass- Flux boundary layer scheme into the WRF model and evaluate its ability to simulate both stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds. Result comparisons against large-eddy simulation show that this advanced parameterization based on the new Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-Flux approach provides a better performance than other boundary layer parameterizations.

  16. Atmospheric cloud water contains a diverse bacterial community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kourtev, P. S.; Hill, Kimberly A.; Shepson, Paul B.; Konopka, Allan

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric cloud water contains an active microbial community which can impact climate, human health and ecosystem processes in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Most studies on the composition of microbial communities in clouds have been performed with orographic clouds that are typically in direct contact with the ground. We collected water samples from cumulus clouds above the upper U.S. Midwest. The cloud water was analyzed for the diversity of bacterial phylotypes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. DGGE analyses of bacterial communities detected 17e21 bands per sample. Sequencing confirmed the presence of a diverse bacterial community; sequences from seven bacterial phyla were retrieved. Cloud water bacterial communities appeared to be dominated by members of the cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, actinobacteria and firmicutes.

  17. A General Systems Theory for Rain Formation in Warm Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A cumulus cloud model which can explain the observed characteristics of warm rain formation in monsoon clouds is presented. The model is based on classical statistical physical concepts and satisfies the principle of maximum entropy production. Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations that are ubiquitous to all dynamical systems in nature, such as physical, chemical, social, etc and are characterized by inverse power law form for power (eddy energy) spectrum signifying long-range space-time correlations. A general systems theory model for atmospheric flows developed by the author is based on the concept that the large eddy energy is the integrated mean of enclosed turbulent (small scale) eddies. This model gives scale-free universal governing equations for cloud growth processes. The model predicted cloud parameters are in agreement with reported observations, in particular, the cloud dropsize distribution. Rain formation can occur in warm clouds within 30minutes lifetime under favourable conditions of moisture supply in the environment.

  18. Indian Summer Monsoon Drought 2009: Role of Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, Anupam; Taraphdar, Sourav; Halder, Madhuparna; Pokhrel, S.; Chaudhari, H. S.; Salunke, K.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Rao, S. A.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud dynamics played a fundamental role in defining Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall during drought in 2009. The anomalously negative precipitation was consistent with cloud properties. Although, aerosols inhibited the growth of cloud effective radius in the background of sparse water vapor, their role is secondary. The primary role, however, is played by the interactive feedback between cloud microphysics and dynamics owing to reduced efficient cloud droplet growth, lesser latent heating release and shortage of water content. Cloud microphysical processes were instrumental for the occurrence of ISM drought 2009.

  19. Sharing-based Privacy and Availability of Cloud Data Warehouses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    model in the cloud. 1 Introduction Business intelligence (BI) and data analytics have been an ever earlier been too costly to process in time, money or human resources can be analyzed efficiently.harbi@univ-lyon2.fr jerome.darmont@univ-lyon2.fr Abstract. Cloud computing can help reduce costs, increase business

  20. Making Time-stepped Applications Tick in the Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    Making Time-stepped Applications Tick in the Cloud Tao Zou, Guozhang Wang, Marcos Vaz Salles*, David Bindel, Alan Demers, Johannes Gehrke, Walker White 1 Cornell University *University of Copenhagen · Iterative Graph Processing · Matrix Computation #12;Why Run Scientific Applications in the Cloud

  1. Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  2. When Clouds become Green: the Green Open Cloud Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of a new original energy-efficient Cloud infrastructure called Green Open Cloud. Keywords. Energy with the support of energy-efficient frameworks dedicated to Cloud architectures. Virtualization is a key feature of the energy-aware Cloud infras- tructure that we propose. The conclusion and future works are reviewed

  3. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Genio, Anthony Del; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth's energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and their link to the hydrological cycle. Accurate representation of convective processes in numerical models is vital towards improving current and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales important to convective processes and therefore must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, parameterization schemes in cloud-resolving models need to be evaluated for their generality and application to a variety of atmospheric conditions. Data from field campaigns with appropriate forcing descriptors have been traditionally used by modelers for evaluating and improving parameterization schemes.

  4. An Optimal Control Policy in a Mobile Cloud Computing System Based on Stochastic Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    An Optimal Control Policy in a Mobile Cloud Computing System Based on Stochastic Data Xue Lin Angeles, CA, USA {xuelin, yanzhiwa, pedram}@usc.edu Abstract--The emerging mobile cloud computing (MCC sum. Keywords--mobile cloud computing; remote processing; dynamic voltage and frequency scaling I

  5. Proof of Concept: Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    North Dakota project. The solid circle is the mean value, the horizontal line is the 50th percentile Price High Price #12;Research Applications · One commercially available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter. · Available since 2002 · Sold over 100 Units, Mostly Labs · Price is Approximately $70

  6. Attribution Analysis of Cloud Feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chen

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    -term global warming. If the EIS-low cloud fraction relationship holds under global warming, it is likely that the tropical low cloud fraction change is non-negative. Climate models without significant negative low cloud fraction change suggest that the cloud...

  7. Convective Cloud Lifecycles Lunchtime seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plant, Robert

    Convective Cloud Lifecycles Lunchtime seminar 19th May 2009 Bob Plant Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK #12;Introduction Obtain life cycle statistics for clouds in CRM simulations Why Conclusions Convective Cloud Lifecycles ­ p.1/3 #12;Why bother? Convective Cloud Lifecycles ­ p.2/3 #12;Some

  8. A Literature Review on Value Stream Mapping with a Case Study of Applying Value Stream Mapping on Research Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaoqi

    2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    this research study and the value stream mapping of my thesis writing process. The value stream mapping process helps visualize the work and target waste, which enables future improvement toward a better state. As a result, the improved value stream maps can...

  9. climate research and seismology department Biennial Scientific Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    climate research and seismology department Biennial Scientific Report 2001­2002 #12;2 #12;3 Contents Preface Foreword Recent highlights On the role of cirrus clouds in climate 11 Pathways in the ocean 19 Monitoring of tropical processes relevant to climate change 29 Current projects Climate

  10. Application workload prediction and placement in cloud computing systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaCurts, Katrina L. (Katrina Leigh)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud computing has become popular in recent years. Companies such as Amazon and Microsoft host large datacenters of networked machines available for users to rent. These users are varied: from individual researchers to ...

  11. Chemical Composition and Cloud Nucleation Ability of Marine Aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Chunhua

    2013-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is focused on the chemical composition and cloud nucleation ability of marine aerosol based on two cruise researches over Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean respectively. Implications of CLAW hypothesis and the factors influencing its...

  12. Impact of aerosols on convective clouds and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the Science and Policy of Global Change combines cutting-edge scientific research with independent policy are a critical factor in the atmospheric hydro- logical cycle and radiation budget. As a major agent for clouds

  13. Aerosol measurements at a high-elevation site: composition, size, and cloud condensation nuclei activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, B.

    Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, single particle composition and size distributions at a high-elevation research site from March 2011 are presented.

  14. Thin Film Materials and Processing Techniques for a Next Generation Photovoltaic Device: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-470

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Hest, M.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research extends thin film materials and processes relevant to the development and production of a next generation photovoltaic device.

  15. Interannual Variations of Arctic Cloud Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    Sciences #12;Changes in Arctic Climate What is the role of cloud cover in Arctic climate change? What is the Cloud Radiative Effect (CRE) in the Arctic? #12;CRE depends on season, cloud type CRE ­ whether clouds specifically chosen to include nighttime obs Total cloud cover and nine cloud types: - High cloud (cirriform

  16. Interannual Variations of Arctic Cloud Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    Declining September sea-ice extent #12;Clouds & Changes in Arctic Climate What is the role of cloud cover in Arctic climate change? What is the Cloud Radiative Effect (CRE) in the Arctic? #12;CRE Defined CRE nighttime obs Total cloud cover and nine cloud types: - High cloud (cirriform) - Middle Clouds: Altocumulus

  17. Towards Run-time Flexibility for Process Families: Open Issues and Research Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    process models, e.g., ITIL in IT service management, reference processes in SAP's ERP system, or medical

  18. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud fieldmore »and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.« less

  19. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borque, Paloma [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Giangrande, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kollias, Pavlos [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  20. The Magellan Final Report on Cloud Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,; Coghlan, Susan; Yelick, Katherine

    2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of Magellan, a project funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), was to investigate the potential role of cloud computing in addressing the computing needs for the DOE Office of Science (SC), particularly related to serving the needs of mid- range computing and future data-intensive computing workloads. A set of research questions was formed to probe various aspects of cloud computing from performance, usability, and cost. To address these questions, a distributed testbed infrastructure was deployed at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The testbed was designed to be flexible and capable enough to explore a variety of computing models and hardware design points in order to understand the impact for various scientific applications. During the project, the testbed also served as a valuable resource to application scientists. Applications from a diverse set of projects such as MG-RAST (a metagenomics analysis server), the Joint Genome Institute, the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), were used by the Magellan project for benchmarking within the cloud, but the project teams were also able to accomplish important production science utilizing the Magellan cloud resources.

  1. Migrating enterprise storage applications to the cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vrable, Michael Daniel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.1 Cloud Providers . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1.1 Cloud Storage . . . . . . . . .2.1.2 Cloud Computation . . . . . . 2.2 Enterprise Storage

  2. Environmental research program: FY 1987, annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This multidisciplinary research program includes fundamental and applied research in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology, as well as research on the development of advanced methods of measurement and analysis. The Program's Annual Report contains summaries of research performed during FY 1987 in the areas of atmospheric aerosols, flue gas chemistry, combustion, membrane bioenergetics, and analytical chemistry. The main research interests of the Atmospheric Aerosol Research group concern the chemical and physical processes that occur in haze, clouds, and fogs. For their studies, the group is developing novel analytical and research methods for characterizing aerosol species. Aerosol research is performed in the laboratory and in the field. Studies of smoke emissions from fires and their possible effects on climatic change, especially as related to nuclear winter, are an example of the collaboration between the Atmospheric Aerosol Research and Combustion Research Groups.

  3. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, J.

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Like a rock that slowly wears away beneath the pressure of a waterfall, planet earth?s climate is almost imperceptibly changing. Glaciers are getting smaller, droughts are lasting longer, and extreme weather events like fires, floods, and tornadoes are occurring with greater frequency. Why? Part of the answer is clouds and the amount of solar radiation they reflect or absorb. These two factors clouds and radiative transfer represent the greatest source of error and uncertainty in the current generation of general circulation models used for climate research and simulation. The U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 established an interagency program within the Executive Office of the President to coordinate U.S. agency-sponsored scientific research designed to monitor, understand, and predict changes in the global environment. To address the need for new research on clouds and radiation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. As part of the DOE?s overall Climate Change Science Program, a primary objective of the ARM Program is improved scientific understanding of the fundamental physics related to interactions between clouds and radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere.

  4. AEROSOL, CLOUDS, AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHWARTZ, S.E.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence on climate directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by modifying the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their radiative effects and hydrology. The forcing of climate change by these indirect effects is thought to be quite substantial relative to forcing by incremental concentrations of greenhouse gases, but highly uncertain. Quantification of aerosol indirect forcing by satellite- or ground-based remote sensing has proved quite difficult in view of inherent large variation in the pertinent observables such as cloud optical depth, which is controlled mainly by liquid water path and only secondarily by aerosols. Limited work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous forcing upwards of 50 W m{sup 66}-2. Ultimately it will be necessary to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models to accurately identify the anthropogenic forcing at present and over secular time and to assess the influence of this forcing in the context of other forcings of climate change. While the elements of aerosol processes that must be represented in models describing the evolution and properties of aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation particles are known, many important components of these processes remain to be understood and to be represented in models, and the models evaluated against observation, before such model-based representations can confidently be used to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models.

  5. Aerosols and clouds in chemical transport models and climate models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann,U.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2008-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Clouds exert major influences on both shortwave and longwave radiation as well as on the hydrological cycle. Accurate representation of clouds in climate models is a major unsolved problem because of high sensitivity of radiation and hydrology to cloud properties and processes, incomplete understanding of these processes, and the wide range of length scales over which these processes occur. Small changes in the amount, altitude, physical thickness, and/or microphysical properties of clouds due to human influences can exert changes in Earth's radiation budget that are comparable to the radiative forcing by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, thus either partly offsetting or enhancing the warming due to these gases. Because clouds form on aerosol particles, changes in the amount and/or composition of aerosols affect clouds in a variety of ways. The forcing of the radiation balance due to aerosol-cloud interactions (indirect aerosol effect) has large uncertainties because a variety of important processes are not well understood precluding their accurate representation in models.

  6. Thin Cloud Length Scales Using CALIPSO and CloudSat Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solbrig, Jeremy E.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin clouds are the most difficult cloud type to observe. The recent availability of joint cloud products from the active remote sensing instruments aboard CloudSat and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite (CALIPSO) facilitates...

  7. Cloud fraction, liquid and ice water contents derived from long-term radar, lidar, and microwave radiometer data are systematically compared to models to quantify and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    Cloud fraction, liquid and ice water contents derived from long-term radar, lidar, and microwave a systematic evaluation of clouds in forecast models. Clouds and their associated microphysical processes for end users of weather forecasts, who may be interested not only in cloud cover, but in other variables

  8. GPU-accelerated micromagnetic simulations using cloud computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jermain, C L; Buhrman, R A; Ralph, D C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly-parallel graphics processing units (GPUs) can improve the speed of micromagnetic simulations significantly as compared to conventional computing using central processing units (CPUs). We present a strategy for performing GPU-accelerated micromagnetic simulations by utilizing cost-effective GPU access offered by cloud computing services with an open-source Python-based program for running the MuMax3 micromagnetics code remotely. We analyze the scaling and cost benefits of using cloud computing for micromagnetics.

  9. pCloud: A Cloud-based Power Market Simulation Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudkevich, Aleksandr; Goldis, Evgeniy

    2012-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This research conducted by the Newton Energy Group, LLC (NEG) is dedicated to the development of pCloud: a Cloud-based Power Market Simulation Environment. pCloud is offering power industry stakeholders the capability to model electricity markets and is organized around the Software as a Service (SaaS) concept -- a software application delivery model in which software is centrally hosted and provided to many users via the internet. During the Phase I of this project NEG developed a prototype design for pCloud as a SaaS-based commercial service offering, system architecture supporting that design, ensured feasibility of key architecture's elements, formed technological partnerships and negotiated commercial agreements with partners, conducted market research and other related activities and secured funding for continue development of pCloud between the end of Phase I and beginning of Phase II, if awarded. Based on the results of Phase I activities, NEG has established that the development of a cloud-based power market simulation environment within the Windows Azure platform is technologically feasible, can be accomplished within the budget and timeframe available through the Phase II SBIR award with additional external funding. NEG believes that pCloud has the potential to become a game-changing technology for the modeling and analysis of electricity markets. This potential is due to the following critical advantages of pCloud over its competition: - Standardized access to advanced and proven power market simulators offered by third parties. - Automated parallelization of simulations and dynamic provisioning of computing resources on the cloud. This combination of automation and scalability dramatically reduces turn-around time while offering the capability to increase the number of analyzed scenarios by a factor of 10, 100 or even 1000. - Access to ready-to-use data and to cloud-based resources leading to a reduction in software, hardware, and IT costs. - Competitive pricing structure, which will make high-volume usage of simulation services affordable. - Availability and affordability of high quality power simulators, which presently only large corporate clients can afford, will level the playing field in developing regional energy policies, determining prudent cost recovery mechanisms and assuring just and reasonable rates to consumers. - Users that presently do not have the resources to internally maintain modeling capabilities will now be able to run simulations. This will invite more players into the industry, ultimately leading to more transparent and liquid power markets.

  10. Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds Released: October 04, 2011 In a heated battle, ice crystals win the competition for cloud water vapor The mighty cloud ice...

  11. In Situ Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Avallone, L.; Bansemer, A.; Borrmann, S.; Brown, P.; Bundke, U.; Chuang, P. Y.; Cziczo, D.; Field, P.; et al

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that can address these problems, introduce emerging technology that may overcome current measurement issues and recommend future courses of action that can improve our understanding of ice cloud microphysical processes and their impact on the environment. The meeting proceedings and outcome has been described in detail in a manuscript submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) on March 24, 2011. This paper is currently undermore »review. The remainder of this summary, in the following pages, is the text of the BAMS article. A technical note that will be published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is currently underway and is expected to be published before the end of the year.« less

  12. In Situ Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baumgardner, Darrel [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera; Kok, Greg [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera; Avallone, L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bansemer, A. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Borrmann, S. [Univ. of Maine (Germany); Brown, P. [Met Office, Exeter (United Kingdom); Bundke, U. [Univ. of Frankfurt (Germany); Chuang, P. Y. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Cziczo, D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Field, P. [Met Office, Exeter (United Kingdom); Gallagher, M. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Gayet, J. -F. [CNRS/Univ. Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Physique; Heymsfield, A. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Korolev, A. [Environment Canada (Canada). Cloud Physics and Severe Weather Research Section; Kraemer, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung Stratosphaere; McFarquhar, G. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Mertes, S. [Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig (Germany); Moehler, O. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Lance, S. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences, Climate Diagnostics Center; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); Lawson, P. [SPEC, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States); Petters, M. D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Pratt, K. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Roberts, G. [Scripps Oceanographic Inst., La Jolla, CA (United States); Rogers, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Stetzer, O. [ETH, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Atmospheric and Climate Science; Stith, J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Strapp, W. [Environment Canada (Canada). Cloud Physics and Severe Weather Research Section; Twohy, C. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Wendisch, M. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). LIM

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that can address these problems, introduce emerging technology that may overcome current measurement issues and recommend future courses of action that can improve our understanding of ice cloud microphysical processes and their impact on the environment. The meeting proceedings and outcome has been described in detail in a manuscript submitted to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) on March 24, 2011. This paper is currently under review. The remainder of this summary, in the following pages, is the text of the BAMS article. A technical note that will be published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is currently underway and is expected to be published before the end of the year.

  13. Process research on Semix Silicon Material (PROSSM). Quarterly report No. 5, December 1, 1981-February 28, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J H; Warfield, D B

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emphasis was shifted from the development of a cost-effective process sequence to research designed to understand the mechanisms of photovoltaic conversion in semicrystalline silicon. With this change has gone a change of title from Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU) to Process Research of Semix Silicon Material (PROSSM). Efforts are now underway to prepare a revised program plan with emphasis on determining the mechanisms limiting voltage and current collection in the semicrystalline silicon. The efforts reported concern work done before the change in emphasis and so the continued development of the cost-effective process sequence is reported. A cost-effective process sequence was identified, equipment was designed to implement a 6.6 MW per year automated production line, and a cost analysis projected a $0.56 per watt cell add-on cost for this line. Four process steps were developed for this program: glass bead back clean-up; hot spray antireflective coating; wave-soldering of fronts; ion milling for edging. While spray dopants were advertised as an off the shelf developed product, they proved to be unreliable with shorter than advertised shelf life. Equipment for handling and processing solar cells is available for all of the cell processing steps identified in this program. During this quarter efforts included work on spray dopant, edging, AR coating, wave soldering and fluxing, ion milling and cost analysis.

  14. Attribution Analysis of Cloud Feedback 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chen

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainty on cloud feedback is the primary contributor to the large spread of equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) in climate models. In this study, we compare the short-term cloud feedback in climate models with observations, and evaluate...

  15. Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benedetto, E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead toelectron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead tocloud phenomena in positrons storage rings the effect of syn- chrotron radiation

  16. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and/or injected fluids is critical to predict important chemical behaviors affecting fluid flow, such as mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions. We successfully achieved the project goal and objectives by demonstrating the ability of our modeling technology to correctly predict the complex pH dependent solution chemistry of the Al3+ cation and its hydrolysis species: Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)30, and Al(OH)4- as well as the solubility of common aluminum hydroxide and aluminosilicate minerals in aqueous brines containing components (Na, K, Cl) commonly dominating hydrothermal fluids. In the sodium chloride system, where experimental data for model parameterization are most plentiful, the model extends to 300°C. Determining the stability fields of aluminum species that control the solubility of aluminum-containing minerals as a function of temperature and composition has been a major objective of research in hydrothermal chemistry.

  17. Secure Cloud Computing With Brokered Trusted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) ·Audio ·QualComm 7201 528MHZ ·64MB Ram ·MicroSD Slow Storage ·Currently NO SIM CHIPS Monday, March 29 External Storage External Storage Router Router Router Router Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Cloud Storage External Storage Router Router Router Router Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Tower

  18. Opaque cloud detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

  19. Cloud Resource Orchestration: A Data-Centric Approach Changbin Liu Yun Mao Jacobus Van der Merwe Mary Fernndez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    Cloud Resource Orchestration: A Data-Centric Approach Changbin Liu Yun Mao Jacobus Van der Merwe Mary Fernández AT&T Labs - Research University of Pennsylvania ABSTRACT Cloud computing provides users virtualization of the underlying physical infrastructure. However, the scale and highly dynamic nature of cloud

  20. ANTARCTIC SEA ICE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES, INTERACTIONS, AND VARIABILITY ANTARCTIC RESEARCH SERIES, VOLUME 73, PAGES 45-83

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moline, Mark

    conducted in pack ice communities that flowed into the vicin- ity of Palmer Station, Antarctica, between August and November, 1993. Pack ice provided incomplete protection to frazil ice algae from the damaging--../ ANTARCTIC SEA ICE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES, INTERACTIONS, AND VARIABILITY ANTARCTIC RESEARCH

  1. The Dissertation Process: Survivor Manual The doctoral dissertation is a piece of original, independent research in an area of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galles, David

    The Dissertation Process: Survivor Manual The doctoral dissertation is a piece of original. The dissertation in the form of an organized and competently written study should represent a contribution is devoted to the development of a dissertation proposal and to the research and writing of a dissertation

  2. Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Zigang

    Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis (Siemens) We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas recovery and compare the difference between conventional and unconventional gas reservoir and recovery technologies. Then we did theoretical analysis on the shale gas production. According

  3. Command Line Tools Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Command Line Tools Cloud Computing #12;Everybody (or nearly everybody) loves GUI. AWS Command Line of advanced features. After surviving the cloud computing class till now, Your are almost a command line guru! You need AWS command line tools, ec2-api-tools, to maximize the power of AWS cloud computing. Plugging

  4. 8, 96979729, 2008 FRESCO+ cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 9697­9729, 2008 FRESCO+ cloud retrieval algorithm P. Wang et al. Title Page Abstract Chemistry and Physics Discussions FRESCO+: an improved O2 A-band cloud retrieval algorithm for tropospheric on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 9697 #12;ACPD 8, 9697­9729, 2008 FRESCO+ cloud retrieval

  5. 3, 33013333, 2003 Cirrus cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 3, 3301­3333, 2003 Cirrus cloud occurrence as function of ambient relative humidity J. Str and Physics Discussions Cirrus cloud occurrence as function of ambient relative humidity: A comparison¨om (johan@itm.su.se) 3301 #12;ACPD 3, 3301­3333, 2003 Cirrus cloud occurrence as function of ambient

  6. Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estalella, Robert

    Chapter 4 Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction We now begin to trace the journey towards a star. How long does this take? The answer is surprisingly short: a good many clouds already contain new stars and these stars tend to be young. The typical cloud cannot spend long, if any time at all

  7. 5, 60136039, 2005 FRESCO cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 6013­6039, 2005 FRESCO cloud algorithm N. Fournier et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction cloud information over deserts from SCIAMACHY O2 A-band N. Fournier 1 , P. Stammes 1 , M. de Graaf 1 , R, 6013­6039, 2005 FRESCO cloud algorithm N. Fournier et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  8. NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perkins, Richard A.

    NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards Publication 500-292 #12;i NIST Special Publication 500-292 NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture, John Messina, Lee Badger and Dawn Leaf Information Techonology Laboratory Cloud Computing Program

  9. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  10. Microphysical Properties of Clouds with Low Liquid Water Paths: An Update from Clouds with Low Optical (Water) Depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D.D.; Flynn, C.; Long, C.; McFarlane, S.; Vogelmann, A.; Johnson, K.; Miller, M.; Chiu, C.; Marshak, A.; Wiscombe, W.; Clough, S.A.; Heck, P.; Minnis, P.; Liljegren, J.; Min, Q.; O'Hirok, W.; Wang, Z.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Clouds play a critical role in the modulation of the radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and how clouds interact with radiation is one of the primary uncertainties in global climate models (GCMs). To reduce this uncertainty, the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program collects an immense amount of data from its Climate Research Facilities (CRFs); these data include observations of radiative fluxes, cloud properties from active and passive remote sensors, upper atmospheric soundings, and other observations. The program's goal is to use these coincident, longterm observations to improve the parameterization of radiative transfer in clear and cloudy atmospheres in GCMs.

  11. Stratocumulus Clouds ROBERT WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    by latent heating in updrafts and cooling in downdrafts. Turbulent eddies and evaporative cooling drives, stratification of the STBL, and in some cases cloud breakup. Feedbacks between radiative cooling, precipitation- way interactions may be a key driver of aerosol concentrations over the remote oceans. Aerosol

  12. Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks Using Cloud Property Histograms. Part I: Cloud Radiative Kernels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Dennis

    radiative forcing. The global and annual mean model-simulated cloud feedback is dominated by contributions to a hypothetical cloudless but other- wise identical planet, the global and annual mean effect of clouds at the top is how cloud radiative effects will change as the planet warms because of long-lived greenhouse gases

  13. 396 Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan Vol. 60, No. 1 Cloud Clusters and Large-Scale Vertical Motions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    an important absorber and emitter of radiation. Radiative transfer models applied to tropical cloud shields, its net effect on the large-scale heat budget changes. As the cloud shield develops, the meso- scale, it is concluded that the mesoscale stratiform and radiative processes associated with the cloud shields

  14. A High Resolution Hydrometer Phase Classifier Based on Analysis of Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luke,E.; Kollias, P.

    2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The lifecycle and radiative properties of clouds are highly sensitive to the phase of their hydrometeors (i.e., liquid or ice). Knowledge of cloud phase is essential for specifying the optical properties of clouds, or else, large errors can be introduced in the calculation of the cloud radiative fluxes. Current parameterizations of cloud water partition in liquid and ice based on temperature are characterized by large uncertainty (Curry et al., 1996; Hobbs and Rangno, 1998; Intriery et al., 2002). This is particularly important in high geographical latitudes and temperature ranges where both liquid droplets and ice crystal phases can exist (mixed-phase cloud). The mixture of phases has a large effect on cloud radiative properties, and the parameterization of mixed-phase clouds has a large impact on climate simulations (e.g., Gregory and Morris, 1996). Furthermore, the presence of both ice and liquid affects the macroscopic properties of clouds, including their propensity to precipitate. Despite their importance, mixed-phase clouds are severely understudied compared to the arguably simpler single-phase clouds. In-situ measurements in mixed-phase clouds are hindered due to aircraft icing, difficulties distinguishing hydrometeor phase, and discrepancies in methods for deriving physical quantities (Wendisch et al. 1996, Lawson et al. 2001). Satellite-based retrievals of cloud phase in high latitudes are often hindered by the highly reflecting ice-covered ground and persistent temperature inversions. From the ground, the retrieval of mixed-phase cloud properties has been the subject of extensive research over the past 20 years using polarization lidars (e.g., Sassen et al. 1990), dual radar wavelengths (e.g., Gosset and Sauvageot 1992; Sekelsky and McIntosh, 1996), and recently radar Doppler spectra (Shupe et al. 2004). Millimeter-wavelength radars have substantially improved our ability to observe non-precipitating clouds (Kollias et al., 2007) due to their excellent sensitivity that enables the detection of thin cloud layers and their ability to penetrate several non-precipitating cloud layers. However, in mixed-phase clouds conditions, the observed Doppler moments are dominated by the highly reflecting ice crystals and thus can not be used to identify the cloud phase. This limits our ability to identify the spatial distribution of cloud phase and our ability to identify the conditions under which mixed-phase clouds form.

  15. Engineering aesthetics and aesthetic ergonomics: Theoretical foundations and a dual-process research methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yili

    Engineering aesthetics and aesthetic ergonomics: Theoretical foundations and a dual, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2117, USA Keywords: Engineering aesthetics; Aesthetic ergonomics; Aesthetic human judgments and `educated guesses'. Whilst ergonomics and human factors researchers have made great

  16. Research Challenges in Process Systems Engineering Ignacio E. Grossmann and Arthur W. Westerberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of the PSE area. Process Systems Engineering is concerned with the improvement of decision making processes, this definition directly ties to industrial needs from R&D to product distribution. The major goal is to improve Department of Chemical Engineering Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Introduction Companies

  17. EA-1852: Cloud County Community College Wind Energy Project,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2: Cloud County Community College Wind Energy Project, Cloud County, Kansas EA-1852: Cloud County Community College Wind Energy Project, Cloud County, Kansas Summary This EA...

  18. Latency based Dynamic Grouping aware Cloud Sheheryar Malik,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - Sophia Antipolis Sophia Antipolis, France sheheryar.malik@inria.fr Fabrice Huet Research Team OASIS INRIA - Sophia Antipolis Sophia Antipolis, France fabrice.huet@inria.fr Denis Caromel Research Team OASIS INRIA - Sophia Antipolis Sophia Antipolis, France denis.caromel@inria.fr Abstract--In a multi-cloud environment

  19. Rapid Scan Humidified Growth Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory L. Kok; Athanasios Nenes

    2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focused on enhancements to the streamwise thermal gradient cloud condensation nuclei counter to support the rapid scan mode and to enhance the capability for aerosol humidified growth measurements. The research identified the needs for flow system modifications and range of capability for operating the conventional instrument in the rapid scan and humidified growth modes.

  20. CloudAnalyst: A CloudSim-based Visual Modeller for Analysing Cloud Computing Environments and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calheiros, Rodrigo N.

    CloudAnalyst: A CloudSim-based Visual Modeller for Analysing Cloud Computing Environments and Applications Bhathiya Wickremasinghe1 , Rodrigo N. Calheiros2 , and Rajkumar Buyya1 1 The Cloud Computing and Distributed Systems (CLOUDS) Laboratory Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering The University

  1. Testing Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, James; Klein, Stephen A.; Shi, Xiangjun; Wang, Zhien; Lin, Wuyin; Ghan, Steven J.; Earle, Michael; Liu, Peter; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Arctic clouds simulated by the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) are evaluated with observations from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), which were conducted at its North Slope of Alaska site in April 2008 and October 2004, respectively. Model forecasts for the Arctic Spring and Fall seasons performed under the Cloud- Associated Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT) framework generally reproduce the spatial distributions of cloud fraction for single-layer boundary layer mixed-phase stratocumulus, and multilayer or deep frontal clouds. However, for low-level clouds, the model significantly underestimates the observed cloud liquid water content in both seasons and cloud fraction in the Spring season. As a result, CAM5 significantly underestimates the surface downward longwave (LW) radiative fluxes by 20-40 W m-2. The model with a new ice nucleation parameterization moderately improves the model simulations by increasing cloud liquid water content in mixed-phase clouds through the reduction of the conversion rate from cloud liquid to ice by the Wegener-Bergeron- Findeisen (WBF) process. The CAM5 single column model testing shows that change in the homogeneous freezing temperature of rain to form snow from -5 C to -40 C has a substantial impact on the modeled liquid water content through the slowing-down of liquid and rain-related processes. In contrast, collections of cloud ice by snow and cloud liquid by rain are of minor importance for single-layer boundary layer mixed-phase clouds in the Arctic.

  2. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRAL SEPARATOR FOR A CENTRIFUGAL GAS PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LANCE HAYS

    2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A COMPACT GAS PROCESSING DEVICE WAS INVESTIGATED TO INCREASE GAS PRODUCTION FROM REMOTE, PREVIOUSLY UN-ECONOMIC RESOURCES. THE UNIT WAS TESTED ON AIR AND WATER AND WITH NATURAL GAS AND LIQUID. RESULTS ARE REPORTED WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK.

  3. A Catalog of HI Clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Kim; E. Rosolowsky; Y. Lee; Y. Kim; Y. C. Jung; M. A. Dopita; B. G. Elmegreen; K. C. Freeman; R. J. Sault; M. J. Kesteven; D. McConnell; Y. -H. Chu

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A 21 cm neutral hydrogen interferometric survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) combined with the Parkes multi-beam HI single-dish survey clearly shows that the HI gas is distributed in the form of clumps or clouds. The HI clouds and clumps have been identified using a thresholding method with three separate brightness temperature thresholds ($T_b$). Each catalog of HI cloud candidates shows a power law relationship between the sizes and the velocity dispersions of the clouds roughly following the Larson Law scaling $\\sigma_v \\propto R^{0.5}$, with steeper indices associated with dynamically hot regions. The clouds in each catalog have roughly constant virial parameters as a function mass suggesting that that the clouds are all in roughly the same dynamical state, but the values of the virial parameter are significantly larger than unity showing that turbulent motions dominate gravity in these clouds. The mass distribution of the clouds is a power law with differential indices between -1.6 and -2.0 for the three catalogs. In contrast, the distribution of mean surface densities is a log-normal distribution.

  4. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo [NASA/GSFC] [NASA/GSFC

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    1. OVERVIEW Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds [NRC, 2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path [Twomey, 1977] and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage [e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000]. Enhanced aerosol concentrations can also suppress warm rain processes by producing a narrow droplet spectrum that inhibits collision and coalescence processes [e.g., Squires and Twomey, 1961; Warner and Twomey, 1967; Warner, 1968; Rosenfeld, 1999]. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect [Albrecht, 1989], is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. Table 1 summarizes the key observational studies identifying the microphysical properties, cloud characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics associated with cloud systems from high-aerosol continental environments. For example, atmospheric aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, warm-rain process, cold-rain process, cloud-top height, the depth of the mixed phase region, and occurrence of lightning. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing an enhanced source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hypotheses have been developed to explain the effect of urban regions on convection and precipitation [van den Heever and Cotton, 2007 and Shepherd, 2005]. Recently, a detailed spectral-bin microphysical scheme was implemented into the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions. A spectral-bin microphysical model is very expensive from a computational point of view and has only been implemented into the 2D version of the GCE at the present time. The model is tested by studying the evolution of deep tropical clouds in the west Pacific warm pool region and summertime convection over a mid-latitude continent with different concentrations of CCN: a low "clean" concentration and a high "dirty" concentration. The impact of atmospheric aerosol concentration on cloud and precipitation will be investigated. 2. MODEL DESCRIPTION AND CASE STUDIES 2.1 GCE MODEL The model used in this study is the 2D version of the GCE model. Modeled flow is anelastic. Second- or higher-order advection schemes can produce negative values in the solution. Thus, a Multi-dimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) has been implemented into the model. All scalar variables (potential temperature, water vapor, turbulent coefficient and all five hydrometeor classes) use forward time differencing and the MPDATA for advection. Dynamic variables, u, v and w, use a second-order accurate advection scheme and a leapfrog time integration (kinetic energy semi-conserving method). Short-wave (solar) and long-wave radiation as well as a subgrid-scale TKE turbulence scheme are also included in the model. Details of the model can be found in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003). 2.2 Microphysics (Bin Model) The formulation of the explicit spectral-bin microphysical processes is based on solving stochastic kinetic equations for the size distribution functions of water droplets (cloud droplets and raindrops), and six types of ice particles: pristine ice crystals (columnar and plate-like), snow (dendrites and aggregates), graupel and frozen drops/hail. Each type is described by a special size distribution function containing 33 categories (bin

  5. The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds over the Central North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio [Michigan Technological University; Kumar, Sumit [Michigan Technological University; Wright, Kendra [Michigan Technological University; Kramer, Louisa [Michigan Technological University; Mazzoleni, Lynn [Michigan Technological University; Owen, Robert [Michigan Technological University; Helmig, Detlev [University of Colorado at Boulder

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The scientific scope of the project was to exploit the unique location of the Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO) located in the summit caldera of the Pico Volcano in Pico Island in the Azores, for atmospheric studies. The observatory, located at 2225m a.s.l., typically samples free tropospheric aerosols laying above the marine low-level clouds and long-range transported from North America. The broad purpose of this research was to provide the scientific community with a better understanding of fundamental physical processes governing the effects of aerosols on radiative forcing and climate; with the ultimate goal of improving our abilities to understand past climate and to predict future changes through numerical models. The project was 'exploratory' in nature, with the plan to demonstrate the feasibility of deploying for the first time, an extensive aerosol research package at PMO. One of the primary activities was to test the deployment of these instruments at the site, to collect data during the 2012 summer season, and to further develop the infrastructure and the knowledge for performing novel research at PMO in follow-up longer-term aerosol-cloud studies. In the future, PMO could provide an elevated research outpost to support the renewed DOE effort in the Azores that was intensified in 2013 with the opening of the new sea-level ARM-DOE Eastern North Atlantic permanent facility at Graciosa Island. During the project period, extensive new data sets were collected for the planned 2012 season. Thanks to other synergistic activities and opportunities, data collection was then successfully extended to 2013 and 2014. Highlights of the scientific findings during this project include: a) biomass burning contribute significantly to the aerosol loading in the North Atlantic free troposphere; however, long-range transported black carbon concentrations decreased substantially in the last decade. b) Single black carbon particles – analyzed off-line at the electron microscope – were often very compacted, suggesting cloud processing and exhibiting different optical properties from fresh emissions. In addition, black carbon was found to be sometimes mixed with mineral dust, affecting its optical properties and potential forcing. c) Some aerosols collected at PMO acted as ice nuclei, potentially contributing to cirrus cloud formation during their transport in the upper free troposphere. Identified good ice nuclei were often mineral dust particles. d) The free tropospheric aerosols studied at PMO have relevance to low level marine clouds due, for example, to synoptic subsidence entraining free tropospheric aerosols into the marine boundary layer. This has potentially large consequences on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations and compositions in the marine boundary layer; therefore, having an effect on the marine stratus clouds, with potentially important repercussions on the radiative forcing. The scientific products of this project currently include contributions to two papers published in the Nature Publishing group (Nature Communications and Scientific Reports), one paper under revision for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, one in review in Geophysical Research Letters and one recently submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion. In addition, four manuscripts are in advanced state of preparation. Finally, twenty-eight presentations were given at international conferences, workshops and seminars.

  6. DOE Research and Development Accomplishments Tag Cloud

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management Fermi SitePART I SECTIONPlasmaDatabase Help The

  7. Improvements in Near-Terminator and Nocturnal Cloud Masks using Satellite Imager Data over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trepte, Q.Z.; Minnis, P.; Heck, P.W.; Palikonda, R.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud detection using satellite measurements presents a big challenge near the terminator where the visible (VIS; 0.65 {micro}m) channel becomes less reliable and the reflected solar component of the solar infrared 3.9-{micro}m channel reaches very low signal-to-noise ratio levels. As a result, clouds are underestimated near the terminator and at night over land and ocean in previous Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program cloud retrievals using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager data. Cloud detection near the terminator has always been a challenge. For example, comparisons between the CLAVR-x (Clouds from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer [AVHRR]) cloud coverage and Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) measurements north of 60{sup o}N indicate significant amounts of missing clouds from AVHRR because this part of the world was near the day/night terminator viewed by AVHRR. Comparisons between MODIS cloud products and GLAS at the same regions also shows the same difficulty in the MODIS cloud retrieval (Pavolonis and Heidinger 2005). Consistent detection of clouds at all times of day is needed to provide reliable cloud and radiation products for ARM and other research efforts involving the modeling of clouds and their interaction with the radiation budget. To minimize inconsistencies between daytime and nighttime retrievals, this paper develops an improved twilight and nighttime cloud mask using GOES-9, 10, and 12 imager data over the ARM sites and the continental United States (CONUS).

  8. Design-Build Process for the Research Support Facility (RSF) (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in-depth look at how the U.S. DOE and NREL used a performance-based design-build contract to build the Research Support Facility (RSF); one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world.

  9. Bob: A Free Signal Processing and Machine Learning Toolbox for Researchers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parc, rue Marconi 19, PO Box 592 CH-1920, Martigny, Switzerland {andre.anjos experimental protocols for several databases. Finally, a strong emphasis is placed on code clarity. Finally, for research, the code needs to be clear and self-explanatory, with minimal dependence on other

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Comparison of two data collection processes in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , as well as clinical research associates and data managers working in Paris hospitals, soliciting management, Work satisfaction Background Collection of individual patient data on Case Report Forms (CRFs Debré, Unité d'Épidémiologie clinique, Groupe Hospitalier Robert Debré, 48, Bld Sérurier, F-75019 Paris

  11. Welcome to the new digital College of Medicine research incentive award nomination process! The digital system has been initiated in order to ensure accuracy of documentation and to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Welcome to the new digital College of Medicine research incentive award nomination process the committee review process. The following checklist can be used to track your application progress. Once you for the grants funded during the 5 year review period College of Medicine Research Incentive Awards 2013 ­ 2014

  12. I2S2 Idealised Scientific Research Activity Lifecycle Model The model represents the processes and phases of a typical physical science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    I2S2 Idealised Scientific Research Activity Lifecycle Model The model represents the processes include: development of the research proposal; its peer-review; carrying out of the experiment; equipment configuration and calibration data; processing software and associated control parameters; wikis

  13. Broken and inhomogeneous cloud impact on satellite cloud particle effective radius and cloudphase retrievals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    on the particle size distribution, height, and thermo- dynamic phase of clouds. Water and ice clouds have parameterizations is the global dis- tribution of cloud thermodynamic phase, i.e., whether a cloud is composed on satellitederived cloud particle effective radius (re) and cloud phase (CPH) for broken and overcast inhomogeneous

  14. REVISED FINAL REPORT – INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT SITES, NISKAYUNA, NEW YORK – DCN 0496-SR-06-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) complex located on the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) site in Niskayuna, New York, was constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium (Figure A-1). SPRU operated as a laboratory scale research facility between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes. The oxidation and extraction processes were subsequently developed for large scale use by the Hanford and Savannah River sites (aRc 2008a). Decommissioning of the SPRU facilities began in October 1953 and continued through the 1990s.

  15. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This 3-year project has studied how aerosol pollution influences glaciated clouds. The tool applied has been an 'aerosol-cloud model'. It is a type of Cloud-System Resolving Model (CSRM) modified to include 2-moment bulk microphysics and 7 aerosol species, as described by Phillips et al. (2009, 2013). The study has been done by, first, improving the model and then performing sensitivity studies with validated simulations of a couple of observed cases from ARM. These are namely the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) over the tropical west Pacific and the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over Oklahoma. During the project, sensitivity tests with the model showed that in continental clouds, extra liquid aerosols (soluble aerosol material) from pollution inhibited warm rain processes for precipitation production. This promoted homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and aerosols. Mass and number concentrations of cloud-ice particles were boosted. The mean sizes of cloud-ice particles were reduced by the pollution. Hence, the lifetime of glaciated clouds, especially ice-only clouds, was augmented due to inhibition of sedimentation and ice-ice aggregation. Latent heat released from extra homogeneous freezing invigorated convective updrafts, and raised their maximum cloud-tops, when aerosol pollution was included. In the particular cases simulated in the project, the aerosol indirect effect of glaciated clouds was twice than of (warm) water clouds. This was because glaciated clouds are higher in the troposphere than water clouds and have the first interaction with incoming solar radiation. Ice-only clouds caused solar cooling by becoming more extensive as a result of aerosol pollution. This 'lifetime indirect effect' of ice-only clouds was due to higher numbers of homogeneously nucleated ice crystals causing a reduction in their mean size, slowing the ice-crystal process of snow production and slowing sedimentation. In addition to the known indirect effects (glaciation, riming and thermodynamic), new indirect effects were discovered and quantified due to responses of sedimentation, aggregation and coalescence in glaciated clouds to changing aerosol conditions. In summary, the change in horizontal extent of the glaciated clouds ('lifetime indirect effects'), especially of ice-only clouds, was seen to be of higher importance in regulating aerosol indirect effects than changes in cloud properties ('cloud albedo indirect effects').

  16. arctic research station: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Rocky Mountain Research Sta- tion is one of five 19 Z .Atmospheric Research 51 1999 4575 Cloud resolving simulations of Arctic stratus Geosciences Websites Summary: Z...

  17. Cloud Formation and Acceleration in a Radiative Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proga, Daniel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a radiatively heated and cooled medium, the thermal instability is a plausible mechanism for forming clouds, while the radiation force provides a natural acceleration, especially when ions recombine and opacity increases. Here we extend Field's theory to self-consistently account for a radiation force resulting from bound-free and bound-bound transitions in the optically thin limit. We present physical arguments for clouds to be significantly accelerated by a radiation force due to lines during a nonlinear phase of the instability. To qualitatively illustrate our main points, we perform both one and two-dimensional (1-D/2-D) hydrodynamical simulations that allow us to study the nonlinear outcome of the evolution of thermally unstable gas subjected to this radiation force. Our 1-D simulations demonstrate that the thermal instability can produce long-lived clouds that reach a thermal equilibrium between radiative processes and thermal conduction, while the radiation force can indeed accelerate the clouds to ...

  18. RESEARCH Open Access The role of feed-forward and feedback processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijayakumar, Sethu

    to amputees. Artificial feedback systems can exploit the idea of sen- sory substitution: feedback delivered with a closed-loop robotic hand and instructed to grasp and lift objects of different weights as we recorded the cognitive processes underlying grasping and lifting. We have shown quantitatively that tactile feedback can

  19. A Speech Processing Research Platform for Android Based Smart Phones and Tablets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is called Speech Enhancement for Android (SEA) and incorporates past and present speech enhancement- ing staff can use this platform to perform speech enhancement and observe its effects. Index Terms: speech enhancement, speech processing, spec- trogram, Android, smart phone 1. Introduction

  20. A Lab Scale Polymer Micro-Embossing Machine for Process Control Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganesan, Bala

    Micro embossing is the process of fabricating micron-sized features by plastic deformation of a work piece by means of a shaped tool or die. In our work we are concerned with hot embossing of PMMA to produce features in ...

  1. A Survey on Cloud Provider Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Survey on Cloud Provider Security Measures Alex Pucher, Stratos Dimopoulos Abstract Cloud take advantage of this model already, but security and privacy concerns limit the further adoption agencies and start offering security certifications and separate tightly controlled "government" cloud

  2. Cicada: Predictive Guarantees for Cloud Network Bandwidth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaCurts, Katrina

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In cloud-computing systems, network-bandwidth guarantees have been shown to improve predictability of application performance and cost. Most previous work on cloud-bandwidth guarantees has assumed that cloud tenants know ...

  3. Electron-Cloud Build-Up: Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furman, M.A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties In?uencing Electron Cloud Phenomena,” Appl. Surf.Dissipation of the Electron Cloud,” Proc. PAC03 (Portland,is no signi?cant electron-cloud under nominal operating

  4. DIRSIG Cloud Modeling Capabilities; A Parametric Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    1 DIRSIG Cloud Modeling Capabilities; A Parametric Study Kristen Powers powers:................................................................................................................... 13 Calculation of Sensor Reaching Radiance Truth Values for Cloudless & Stratus Cloud Scenes and Atmospheric Database Creation for Stratus Cloud Scene & Calculation of Associated Sensor Reaching Radiance

  5. Magellan: experiences from a Science Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2010. From Clusters To Clouds: xCAT 2 Is Out Of The Bag.Cost of Doing Science on the Cloud: The Montage Example. Incost of doing science on the cloud: the montage example. In

  6. The Cloud Computing and Other Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borjon-Kubota, Martha Estela

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    12. Fragments in Six 13. Cloud Computing 14. Phase 15.Note 48. Devoured vi Cloud Computing and other Variables I.moment. Lasts hours. Cloud Computing Just there Over the

  7. The Magellan Final Report on Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coghlan, Susan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.3.1 Cloud Computing Attractive Features . 4.3.2A berkeley view of cloud computing. Technical Report UCB/matching computations on cloud computing platforms and hpc

  8. Ice Formation in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds: Insights from a 3-D Cloud-Resolving Model with Size-Resolved Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Jiwen; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Comstock, Jennifer M.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Khain, Alexander

    2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The single-layer mixed-phase clouds observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) are simulated with a 3-dimensional cloud-resolving model the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) coupled with an explicit bin microphysics scheme and a radar-lidar simulator. Two possible ice enhancement mechanisms – activation of droplet evaporation residues by condensation-followed-by-freezing and droplet freezing by contact freezing inside-out, are scrutinized by extensive comparisons with aircraft and radar and lidar measurements. The locations of ice initiation associated with each mechanism and the role of ice nuclei (IN) in the evolution of mixed-phase clouds are mainly addressed. Simulations with either mechanism agree well with the in-situ and remote sensing measurements on ice microphysical properties but liquid water content is slightly underpredicted. These two mechanisms give very similar cloud microphysical, macrophysical, dynamical, and radiative properties, although the ice nucleation properties (rate, frequency and location) are completely different. Ice nucleation from activation of evaporation nuclei is most efficient near cloud top areas concentrated on the edges of updrafts, while ice initiation from the drop freezing process has no significant location preference (occurs anywhere that droplet evaporation is significant). Both enhanced nucleation mechanisms contribute dramatically to ice formation with ice particle concentration of 10-15 times higher relative to the simulation without either of them. The contribution of ice nuclei (IN) recycling from ice particle evaporation to IN and ice particle concentration is found to be very significant in this case. Cloud can be very sensitive to IN initially and form a nonquilibrium transition condition, but become much less sensitive as cloud evolves to a steady mixed-phase condition. The parameterization of Meyers et al. [1992] with the observed MPACE IN concentration is able to predict the observed mixed-phase clouds reasonably well. This validation may facilitate the application of this parameterization in the cloud and climate models to simulate Arctic clouds.

  9. Secure and Scalable Cloud-based Architecture for e-Health Wireless sensor networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Secure and Scalable Cloud-based Architecture for e-Health Wireless sensor networks Ahmed Lounis--There has been a host of research works on wireless sensor networks for medical applications. However to achieve high flexibility and performance. Keywords: wireless sensor networks, healthcare, cloud com

  10. FINAL REPORT: An Investigation of the Microphysical, Radiative, and Dynamical Properties of Mixed-Phase Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shupe, Matthew D

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report summarizes the major accomplishments and products resulting from a three-year grant funded by the DOE, Office of Science, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program titled: An Investigation of the Microphysical, Radiative, and Dynamical Properties of Mixed-Phase Clouds. Accomplishments are listed under the following subcategories: Mixed-phase cloud retrieval method development; Mixed-phase cloud characterization; ARM mixed-phase cloud retrieval review; and New ARM MICROBASE product. In addition, lists are provided of service to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, data products provided to the broader research community, and publications resulting from this grant.

  11. "Big Picture" Process Modeling Tools |GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomass andTriangleNameAND THE

  12. Sunlight Changes Aerosols in Clouds | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sunlight Changes Aerosols in Clouds Sunlight Changes Aerosols in Clouds Released: October 20, 2011 Scientists show how sunlight alters optical, chemical properties of atmospheric...

  13. Organization by Gordon Research Conferences of the 2012 Plasma Processing Science Conference 22-27 July 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane Chang

    2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science will feature a comprehensive program that will highlight the most cutting edge scientific advances in plasma science and technology as well as explore the applications of this nonequilibrium medium in possible approaches relative to many grand societal challenges. Fundamental science sessions will focus on plasma kinetics and chemistry, plasma surface interactions, and recent trends in plasma generation and multi-phase plasmas. Application sessions will explore the impact of plasma technology in renewable energy, the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks and carbon dioxide neutral solar fuels (from carbon dioxide and water), and plasma-enabled medicine and sterilization.

  14. Development of an ultrasonic process for detoxifying groundwater and soil: Laboratory research. Annual report for fiscal year 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting laboratory research to study the effectiveness of a new technique in which ultrasonic energy is used to convert chlorinated organic compounds into nonhazardous end products. Destruction efficiencies of greater than 99% were achieved for the organic compounds in aqueous solution. Key process parameters, such as solution pH values, steady-state temperatures under operating conditions, ultrasonic-power intensities, and oxidant concentrations, were investigated. In addition, a detailed chemical-kinetic mechanism for the destruction of the organic compounds under an ultrasonic filed was developed and incorporated into a computational model. The agreement between the model and experimental results is generally good.

  15. 3, 44614488, 2003 Cloud particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    effects. On one hand, clouds reflect the incoming solar radiation and thus cool the Earth significant effect on the radiation balance (Wielicki et al, 1996; Mitchell, 1989) due to two competing-Atmosphere system. On the other hand, clouds absorb longwave thermal radiation coming from the surface and then re

  16. Building a scalable global data processing pipeline for large astronomical photometric datasets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, Paul

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Astronomical photometry is the science of measuring the flux of a celestial object. Since its introduction, the CCD has been the principle method of measuring flux to calculate the apparent magnitude of an object. Each CCD image taken must go through a process of cleaning and calibration prior to its use. As the number of research telescopes increases the overall computing resources required for image processing also increases. Existing processing techniques are primarily sequential in nature, requiring increasingly powerful servers, faster disks and faster networks to process data. Existing High Performance Computing solutions involving high capacity data centres are complex in design and expensive to maintain, while providing resources primarily to high profile science projects. This research describes three distributed pipeline architectures, a virtualised cloud based IRAF, the Astronomical Compute Node (ACN), a private cloud based pipeline, and NIMBUS, a globally distributed system. The ACN pipeline proce...

  17. Huang and Nicol Journal of Cloud Computing: Advances, Systems and Applications 2013, 2:9 http://www.journalofcloudcomputing.com/content/2/1/9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ing-Ray

    Huang and Nicol Journal of Cloud Computing: Advances, Systems and Applications 2013, 2:9 http://www.journalofcloudcomputing.com/content/2/1/9 RESEARCH Open Access Trust mechanisms for cloud computing Jingwei Huang* and David M Nicol Abstract Trust is a critical factor in cloud computing; in present practice it depends largely

  18. Next generation aerosol-cloud microphysics for advanced high-resolution climate predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennartz, Ralf; Hamilton, Kevin P; Phillips, Vaughan T.J.; Wang, Yuqing; Brenguier, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The three top-level project goals are: -We proposed to develop, test, and run a new, physically based, scale-independent microphysical scheme for those cloud processes that most strongly affect greenhouse gas scenarios, i.e. warm cloud microphysics. In particular, we propsed to address cloud droplet activation, autoconversion, and accretion. -The new, unified scheme was proposed to be derived and tested using the University of Hawaii's IPRC Regional Atmospheric Model (iRAM). -The impact of the new parameterizations on climate change scenarios will be studied. In particular, the sensitivity of cloud response to climate forcing from increased greenhouse gas concentrations will be assessed.

  19. Analysis of In situ Observations of Cloud Microphysics from M-PACE Final Report, DOE Grant Agreement No. DE-FG02-06ER64168

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Poellot

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the findings and accomplishments of work performed under DOE Grant Agreement No. DE-FG02-06ER64168. The focus of the work was the analysis of in situ observations collected by the University of North Dakota Citation research aircraft during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE). This project was conducted in 2004 along the North Slope of Alaska. The objectives of the research were: to characterize certain microphysical properties of clouds sampled during M-PACE, including spatial variability, precipitation formation, ice multiplication; to examine instrument performance and certain data processing algorithms; and to collaborate with other M-PACE investigators on case study analyses. A summary of the findings of the first two objectives is given here in parts 1 and 2; full results are contained in reports listed in part 3 of this report. The collaborative efforts are described in the publications listed in part 3.

  20. Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently ApprovedReliabilityPrincipal Investigators PostdoctoralResearch

  1. Photolytic processing of secondary organic aerosols dissolved...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    processing of secondary organic aerosols dissolved in cloud droplets. Abstract: The effect of UV irradiation on the molecular composition of aqueous extracts of secondary...

  2. METR 3223: Physical Meteorology II: Cloud Physics, Atmospheric Electricity and Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    METR 3223: Physical Meteorology II: Cloud Physics, Atmospheric Electricity and Optics CLASS: Monday of the physical states and processes of clouds and precipitation as well as atmospheric electricity and optics Thunderstorm charging Lightening Atmospheric optics: Reflection and refraction Optical phenomena GRADES

  3. CO isotopologues in the Perseus Molecular Cloud Complex: the X-factor and regional variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,

    CO isotopologues in the Perseus Molecular Cloud Complex: the X-factor and regional variations Jaime clouds, and in this paper we use those data to find new calibrations of the "X-factor" and the 13CO from re-processed IRAS data; and 3) make use of the 12CO and 13CO (1-0) transition maps gathered

  4. Cirrus cloud simulations using WRF with improved radiation parameterization and increased vertical resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    and aerosolcloudradiation interactions. With the newly implemented radiation scheme, the simulations of cloud cover:10.1029/2010JD014574. 1. Introduction [2] Cirrus clouds cover about 20% of the Earth's surface and showed that the effects of radiative processes and vertical transports are both significant in cirrus

  5. Elementary processes in combustion and sooting of coal-derived fuels. University coal research. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McVey, J.K.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this final report, a review of the major results and accomplishments are presented. This research program examined the role of several key radical-radical, radical-molecule and ionic decomposition reactions important in the formation of soot. In light of the then predicted increased use of fossile-based synfuels, a better understanding of the combustion of aromatic-rich fuels seemed imperative as these materials are particularly prone of form soot. Objectives of this work included developing techniques for the efficient generation of gas-phase radicals and ions, probes of their reaction dynamics, and finding new procedures for stabilization of reaction intermediates in combustion. Five specific issues examined in this study are discussed and summarized in this report: (1) the reactivity of phenyl radicals, (2) chemistry of diradicals generated from laser induced decomposition of cyclic ketones, (3) reactions of butadiene radicals, (4) reactions of gas-phase methylene, and (5) selective generation and induced decomposition of phenyl-based cations. New techniques for examining the kinetics of fast, combustion-related systems were developed using free jet expansion cooling of reaction intermediates and in using ultraviolet multiphoton ionization techniques for initiation of chemical sequences.

  6. Environmental research on a modified in situ oil shale task process. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress of the US Department of Energy's Oil Shale Task Force in its research program at the Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. facility at Logan Wash, Colorado. More specifically, the Task Force obtained samples from Retort 3E and Retort 6 and submitted these samples to a variety of analyses. The samples collected included: crude oil (Retort 6); light oil (Retort 6); product water (Retort 6); boiler blowdown (Retort 6); makeup water (Retort 6); mine sump water; groundwater; water from Retorts 1 through 5; retort gas (Retort 6); mine air; mine dust; and spent shale core (Retort 3E). The locations of the sampling points and methods used for collection and storage are discussed in Chapter 2 (Characterization). These samples were then distributed to the various laboratories and universities participating in the Task Force. For convenience in organizing the data, it is useful to group the work into three categories: Characterization, Leaching, and Health Effects. While many samples still have not been analyzed and much of the data remains to be interpreted, there are some preliminary conclusions the Task Force feels will be helpful in defining future needs and establishing priorities. It is important to note that drilling agents other than water were used in the recovery of the core from Retort 3E. These agents have been analyzed (see Table 12 in Chapter 2) for several constituents of interest. As a result some of the analyses of this core sample and leachates must be considered tentative.

  7. Application of electrolytic in-process dressing for high-efficiency grinding of ceramic parts. Research activities 1995--96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of Electrolytic In-Process Dressing (ELID) for highly efficient and stable grinding of ceramic parts is discussed. This research was performed at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Tokyo, Japan, June 1995 through August 1995. Experiments were conducted using a vertical machining center. The silicon nitride work material, of Japanese manufacture and supplied in the form of a rectangular block, was clamped to a vice which was firmly fixed on the base of a strain gage dynamometer. The dynamometer was clamped on the machining center table. Reciprocating grinding was performed with a flat-faced diamond grinding wheel. The output from the dynamometer was recorded with a data acquisition system and the normal component of the force was monitored. Experiments were carried out under various cutting conditions, different ELID conditions, and various grinding wheel bonds types. Rough grinding wheels of grit sizes {number_sign}170 and {number_sign}140 were used in the experiments. Compared to conventional grinding, there was a significant reduction in grinding force with ELID grinding. Therefore, ELID grinding can be recommended for high material removal rate grinding, low rigidity machines, and low rigidity workpieces. Compared to normal grinding, a reduction in grinding ratio was observed when ELID grinding was performed. A negative aspect of the process, this reduced G-ratio derives from bond erosion and can be improved somewhat by adjustments in the ELID current. The results of this investigation are discussed in detail in this report.

  8. Stratus cloud structure from MM-radar transects and satellite images: scaling properties and artifact detection with semi-discrete wavelet analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Petrov, N. P. (Nikola P.); Clothiaux, E. E. (Eugene E.); Marshak, A. (Alexander)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatial and/or temporal variabilities of clouds is of paramount importance for at least two in tensely researched sub-problems in global and regional climate modeling: (1) cloud-radiation interaction where correlations can trigger 3D radiative transfer effects; and (2) dynamical cloud modeling where the goal is to realistically reproduce the said correlations. We propose wavelets as a simple yet powerful way of quantifying cloud variability. More precisely, we use 'semi-discrete' wavelet transforms which, at least in the present statistical applications, have advantages over both its continuous and discrete counterparts found in the bulk of the wavelet literature. With the particular choice of normalization we adopt, the scale-dependence of the variance of the wavelet coefficients (i.e,, the wavelet energy spectrum) is always a better discriminator of transition from 'stationary' to 'nonstationary' behavior than conventional methods based on auto-correlation analysis, second-order structure function (a.k.a. the semi-variogram), or Fourier analysis. Indeed, the classic statistics go at best from monotonically scale- or wavenumber-dependent to flat at such a transition; by contrast, the wavelet spectrum changes the sign of its derivative with respect to scale. We apply 1D and 2D semi-discrete wavelet transforms to remote sensing data on cloud structure from two sources: (1) an upward-looking milli-meter cloud radar (MMCR) at DOE's climate observation site in Oklahoma deployed as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Progrm; and (2) DOE's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI), a high-resolution space-borne instrument in sunsynchronous orbit that is described in sufficient detail for our present purposes by Weber et al. (1999). For each type of data, we have at least one theoretical prediction - with empirical validation already in existence - for a power-law relation for wavelet statistics with respect to scale. This is what is expected in physical (i.e., finite scaling range) fractal phenomena. In particular, we find long-range correlations in cloud structure coming from the important nonstationary regime. More surprisingly, we also uncover artifacts the data that are traceable either to instrumental noise (in the satellite data) or to smoothing assumptions (in the MMCR data processing). Finally, we discuss the potentially damaging ramifications the smoothing artifact can have on both cloud-radiation and cloud-modeling studies using MMCR data.

  9. A complex network approach to cloud computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Travieso, Gonzalo; Bruno, Odemir Martinez; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud computing has become an important means to speed up computing. One problem influencing heavily the performance of such systems is the choice of nodes as servers responsible for executing the users' tasks. In this article we report how complex networks can be used to model such a problem. More specifically, we investigate the performance of the processing respectively to cloud systems underlain by Erdos-Renyi and Barabasi-Albert topology containing two servers. Cloud networks involving two communities not necessarily of the same size are also considered in our analysis. The performance of each configuration is quantified in terms of two indices: the cost of communication between the user and the nearest server, and the balance of the distribution of tasks between the two servers. Regarding the latter index, the ER topology provides better performance than the BA case for smaller average degrees and opposite behavior for larger average degrees. With respect to the cost, smaller values are found in the BA ...

  10. Outflow Driven Turbulence in Molecular Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathan J. Carroll; Adam Frank; Eric G. Blackman; Andrew J. Cunningham; Alice C. Quillen

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we explore the relationship between protostellar outflows and turbulence in molecular clouds. Using 3-D numerical simulations we focus on the hydrodynamics of multiple outflows interacting within a parsec scale volume. We explore the extent to which transient outflows injecting directed energy and momentum into a sub-volume of a molecular cloud can be converted into random turbulent motions. We show that turbulence can readily be sustained by these interactions and show that it is possible to broadly characterize an effective driving scale of the outflows. We compare the velocity spectrum obtained in our studies to that of isotropically forced hydrodynamic turbulence finding that in outflow driven turbulence a power law is indeed achieved. However we find a steeper spectrum (beta ~ 3) is obtained in outflow driven turbulence models than in isotropically forced simulations (beta ~ 2). We discuss possible physical mechanisms responsible for these results as well and their implications for turbulence in molecular clouds where outflows will act in concert with other processes such as gravitational collapse.

  11. Cloud Feedbacks on Climate: A Challenging Scientific Problem

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Norris, Joe [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California, USA

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One reason it has been difficult to develop suitable social and economic policies to address global climate change is that projected global warming during the coming century has a large uncertainty range. The primary physical cause of this large uncertainty range is lack of understanding of the magnitude and even sign of cloud feedbacks on the climate system. If Earth's cloudiness responded to global warming by reflecting more solar radiation back to space or allowing more terrestrial radiation to be emitted to space, this would mitigate the warming produced by increased anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Contrastingly, a cloud response that reduced solar reflection or terrestrial emission would exacerbate anthropogenic greenhouse warming. It is likely that a mixture of responses will occur depending on cloud type and meteorological regime, and at present, we do not know what the net effect will be. This presentation will explain why cloud feedbacks have been a challenging scientific problem from the perspective of theory, modeling, and observations. Recent research results on observed multidecadal cloud-atmosphere-ocean variability over the Pacific Ocean will also be shown, along with suggestions for future research.

  12. Cloud Feedbacks on Climate: A Challenging Scientific Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Joel (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego) [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego

    2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    One reason it has been difficult to develop suitable social and economic policies to address global climate change is that projected global warming during the coming century has a large uncertainty range. The primary physical cause of this large uncertainty range is lack of understanding of the magnitude and even sign of cloud feedbacks on the climate system. If Earth's cloudiness responded to global warming by reflecting more solar radiation back to space or allowing more terrestrial radiation to be emitted to space, this would mitigate the warming produced by increased anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Contrastingly, a cloud response that reduced solar reflection or terrestrial emission would exacerbate anthropogenic greenhouse warming. It is likely that a mixture of responses will occur depending on cloud type and meteorological regime, and at present, we do not know what the net effect will be. This presentation will explain why cloud feedbacks have been a challenging scientific problem from the perspective of theory, modeling, and observations. Recent research results on observed multidecadal cloud-atmosphere-ocean variability over the Pacific Ocean will also be shown, along with suggestions for future research.

  13. Research universities for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)] [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The `public outcomes` from research universities are educated students and research that extends the frontiers of knowledge. Measures of these `public outcomes` are inadequate to permit either research or education consumers to select research universities based on quantitative performance data. Research universities annually spend over $20 billion on research; 60% of these funds are provided by Federal sources. Federal funding for university research has recently grown at an annual rate near 6% during a time period when other performers of Federal research have experienced real funding cuts. Ten universities receive about 25% of the Federal funds spent on university research. Numerous studies of US research universities are reporting storm clouds. Concerns include balancing research and teaching, the narrow focus of engineering education, college costs, continuing education, and public funding of foreign student education. The absence of research on the `public outcomes` from university research results in opinion, politics, and mythology forming the basis of too many decisions. Therefore, the authors recommend studies of other nations` research universities, studies of various economic models of university research, analysis of the peer review process and how well it identifies the most capable research practitioners and at what cost, and studies of research university ownership of intellectual property that can lead to increased `public outcomes` from publicly-funded research performed by research universities. They advocate two practices that could increase the `public outcomes` from university research. These are the development of science roadmaps that link science research to `public outcomes` and `public outcome` metrics. Changes in the university research culture and expanded use of the Internet could also lead to increased `public outcomes`. They recommend the use of tax incentives to encourage companies to develop research partnerships with research universities.

  14. Reexamination of the State of the Art Cloud Modeling Shows Real Improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muehlbauer, Andreas D.; Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Malinowski, S. P.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Bryan, George; Lebo, Zachary; Milbrandt, Jason; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Tessendorf, Sarah; Theriault, Julie M.; Thompson, Gregory

    2013-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Following up on an almost thirty year long history of International Cloud Modeling Workshops, that started out with a meeting in Irsee, Germany in 1985, the 8th International Cloud Modeling Workshop was held in July 2012 in Warsaw, Poland. The workshop, hosted by the Institute of Geophysics at the University of Warsaw, was organized by Szymon Malinowski and his local team of students and co-chaired by Wojciech Grabowski (NCAR/MMM) and Andreas Muhlbauer (University of Washington). International Cloud Modeling Workshops have been held traditionally every four years typically during the week before the International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation (ICCP) . Rooted in the World Meteorological Organization’s (WMO) weather modification program, the core objectives of the Cloud Modeling Workshop have been centered at the numerical modeling of clouds, cloud microphysics, and the interactions between cloud microphysics and cloud dynamics. In particular, the goal of the workshop is to provide insight into the pertinent problems of today’s state-of-the-art of cloud modeling and to identify key deficiencies in the microphysical representation of clouds in numerical models and cloud parameterizations. In recent years, the workshop has increasingly shifted the focus toward modeling the interactions between aerosols and clouds and provided case studies to investigate both the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation as well as the impact of cloud and precipitation processes on aerosols. This time, about 60 (?) scientists from about 10 (?) different countries participated in the workshop and contributed with discussions, oral and poster presentations to the workshop’s plenary and breakout sessions. Several case leaders contributed to the workshop by setting up five observationally-based case studies covering a wide range of cloud types, namely, marine stratocumulus, mid-latitude squall lines, mid-latitude cirrus clouds, Arctic stratus and winter-time orographic clouds and precipitation. Interested readers are encouraged to visit the workshop website at http://www.atmos.washington.edu/~andreasm/workshop2012/ and browse through the list of case studies. The web page also provides a detailed list of participants and the workshop agenda. Aside from contributed oral and poster presentations during the workshop’s plenary sessions, parallel breakout sessions focused on presentations and discussions of the individual cases. A short summary and science highlights from each of the cases is presented below.

  15. Process Research of Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM). Quarterly report No. 1, November 8-December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culik, J.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent reported results of hydrogen-passivated polycrystalline silicon solar cells are summarized. Most of the studies have been performed on very small grain or short minority-carrier diffusion length silicon. Hydrogenated solar cells fabricated from this material appear to have effective minority-carrier diffusion lengths that are still not very long, as shown by the open-circuit voltages of passivated cells that are still significantly less than those of single-crystal solar cells. The short-circuit current of solar cells fabricated from large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon is nearly equivalent to that of single-crystal cells, which indicates long bulk minority-carrier diffusion length. However, the open-circuit voltage, which is sensitive to grain boundary recombination, is 20 to 40 mV less. The goal of this program is to minimize the variations in open-circuit voltage and fill-factor that are caused by structural defects by passivating these defects using a hydrogenation process.

  16. Polluting of Winter Convective Clouds upon Transition from Ocean Inland Over Central California: Contrasting Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; Prather, Kimberly; Suski, Kaitlyn; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ aircraft measurements of aerosol chemical and cloud microphysical properties were conducted during the CalWater campaign in February and March 2011 over the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the coastal waters of central California. The main objective was to elucidate the impacts of aerosol properties on clouds and precipitation forming processes. In order to accomplish this, we compared contrasting cases of clouds that ingested aerosols from different sources. The results showed that clouds containing pristine oceanic air had low cloud drop concentrations and started to develop rain 500 m above their base. This occurred both over the ocean and over the Sierra Nevada, mainly in the early morning when the radiatively cooled stable continental boundary layer was decoupled from the cloud base. Supercooled rain dominated the precipitation that formed in growing convective clouds in the pristine air, up to the -21°C isotherm level. A contrasting situation was documented in the afternoon over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, when the clouds ingested high pollution aerosol concentrations produced in the Central Valley. This led to slow growth of the cloud drop effective radius with height and suppressed and even prevented the initiation of warm rain while contributing to the development of ice hydrometeors in the form of graupel. Our results show that cloud condensation and ice nuclei were the limiting factors that controlled warm rain and ice processes, respectively, while the unpolluted clouds in the same air mass produced precipitation quite efficiently. These findings provide the motivation for deeper investigations into the nature of the aerosols seeding clouds.

  17. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Study of Aerosol Sources and Processing at the GVAX Pantnagar Supersite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsnop, Douglas R. [Principal Investigator

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This project funded the participation of scientists from seven research groups, running more than thirty instruments, in the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 km southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo Winter IOP were, 1) what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area, and, 2) what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM? An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption. The following four key accomplishments have been identified so far: 1) Chemical, physical and optical characterization of PM from local and regional sources (Figures 2, 4, 5 and 6). 2) Measurement of urban increment in particulate matter and gases in London (Figure 3). 3) Measurement of optical properties and chemical composition of coatings on black carbon containing particles indicates absorption enhancement. 4) First deployment of chemical ionization instrument (MOVI-CI-TOFMS) to measure both particle-phase and gas-phase organic acids. (See final report from Joel Thornton, University of Washington, for details.) Analysis of the large dataset acquired in Detling is ongoing and will yield further key accomplishments. These measurements of urban and rural aerosol properties will contribute to improved modeling of regional aerosol emissions, and of atmospheric aging and removal. The measurement of absorption enhancement by coatings on black carbon will contribute to improved modeling of the direct radiative properties of PM.

  18. Information visualization for in-car communication processes Michael Sedlmair, BMW Group Research and Technology, Germany, Michael.Sedlmair@bmw.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information visualization for in-car communication processes Michael Sedlmair, BMW Group Research and Technology, Germany, Michael.Sedlmair@bmw.de Supervisor: Andreas Butz, University of Munich, Germany, Andreas

  19. Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selection Process Selection Process Fellowships will be awarded based on academic excellence, relevance of candidate's research to the laboratory mission in fundamental nuclear...

  20. Proposal Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposal Process Network R&D Overview Experimental Network Testbeds 100G SDN Testbed Testbed Description Testbed Results Current Testbed Research Proposal Process Terms and...

  1. Platform for Hybrid Cloud Technical White Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Platform for Hybrid Cloud Technical White Paper Published: September 2013 (updated) Applies to: SQL Server and Windows Azure Summary: Cloud computing brings a new paradigm shift in computing in the cloud with greater scale and flexibility. Microsoft SQL Server runs very well in the cloud environment

  2. Cloud Computing An enterprise perspective Raghavan Subramanian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    Cloud Computing ­ An enterprise perspective Raghavan Subramanian Infosys Technologies Limited #12;2Infosys Confidential Overview of cloud computing? Cloud computing* Computing in which dynamically scalable of cloud computing 1. On-demand self-service 2. Ubiquitous network access 3. Location independent resource

  3. IBM Software Solution Brief Safeguarding the cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IBM Software Solution Brief Safeguarding the cloud with IBM Security solutions Maintain visibility and control with proven security solutions for public, private and hybrid clouds Highlights Address cloud internal and external users, data, applications and workloads as they move to and from the cloud Regain

  4. 7, 1711717146, 2007 Dependence of cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 17117­17146, 2007 Dependence of cloud fraction and cloud height on temperature T. Wagner et a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Dependence of cloud fraction and cloud top height on surface temperature derived from spectrally resolved UV/vis satellite observations T

  5. Draft NISTIR 80061 NIST Cloud Computing2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draft NISTIR 80061 NIST Cloud Computing2 Forensic Science Challenges NIST Cloud Computing Forensic Computing11 Forensic Science Challenges 12 NIST Cloud Computing Forensic Science Working Group13 Information challenges77 faced by experts when responding to incidents that have occurred in a cloud-computing ecosystem

  6. Cloud Data Management (CDM) Yunpeng Chai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /W performance / Parallelism No/ Simple SQL operations 12 /26 Survey of CDM Cloud Storage: Architecture: Master#12;Cloud Data Management (CDM) Yunpeng Chai 2 /26 Outline Motivation of CDM Survey of CDM IBM SUR Cloud China Mobile National Health Care #12;9 /26 Outline Motivation of CDM Survey of CDM IBM SUR Cloud

  7. 6, 43414373, 2006 Cloud-borne aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Discussions Impact of cloud-borne aerosol representation on aerosol direct and indirect effects S. J. Ghan of aerosols employ a variety of rep- resentations of such cloud-borne particles. Here we use a global aerosol- ulated aerosol, cloud and radiation fields to various approximations to the representa- tion of cloud

  8. Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 2. Observations and microphysical modeling of drizzle evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 2. Observations and microphysical I, the influence of cloud microphysics and dynamics on the shape of cloud radar Doppler spectra in warm stratiform clouds was discussed. The traditional analysis of radar Doppler moments was extended

  9. Vision: Cloud-Powered Sight for All Showing the Cloud What You See

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    Vision: Cloud-Powered Sight for All Showing the Cloud What You See Paramvir Bahl Matthai Philipose argue that for computers to do more for us, we need to show the cloud what we see and embrace cloud General Terms Algorithms, Design, Human Factors, Languages, Performance, Security Keywords Camera, cloud

  10. CLOUD, DRIZZLE, AND TURBULENCE OBSERVATIONS IN MARINE STRATOCUMULUS CLOUDS IN THE AZORES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLOUD, DRIZZLE, AND TURBULENCE OBSERVATIONS IN MARINE STRATOCUMULUS CLOUDS IN THE AZORES Jasmine at the Azores provided a unique, long-term record (May 2009 to December 2010) of cloud observations in a regime dominated by low-level stratiform clouds. First, a comprehensive cloud classification scheme that utilizes

  11. Cloud Futures Workshop 2010 Cloud Computing Support for Massively Social Gaming Alexandru Iosup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iosup, Alexandru

    1 Cloud Futures Workshop 2010 ­ Cloud Computing Support for Massively Social Gaming Alexandru Iosup Pierre (Vrije U.). Cloud Computing Support for Massively Social Gaming (Rain for the Thirsty) #12;Cloud Futures Workshop 2010 ­ Cloud Computing Support for Massively Social Gaming 2 Intermezzo: Tips on how

  12. Changes in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types Over the Ocean from Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    Total cloud cover 54 68 Clear sky (frequency) 22 3 #12;Low Clouds & Solar Radiation Low clouds scatterChanges in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types Over the Ocean from Surface Observations, 1954-2008 Ryan This produces a weak net warming effect in the atmosphere, since more radiation comes in, and less goes out

  13. Decomposing aerosol cloud radiative effects into cloud cover, liquid water path and Twomey components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Decomposing aerosol cloud radiative effects into cloud cover, liquid water path and Twomey interactions radiative effects, i.e., the cloud cover, liquid water path (LWP) and cloud drop radius (Twomey negative radiative forcing on the global scale, mainly due to the cloud cover effect. © 2013 Elsevier B

  14. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Calderon

    2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The commercialization path of the Calderon technology for making a feedstock for steelmaking with assistance from DOE initially focused on making coke and work was done which proved that the Calderon technology is capable of making good coke for hard driving blast furnaces. U.S. Steel which participated in such demonstration felt that the Calderon technology would be more meaningful in lowering the costs of making steel by adapting it to the making of iron--thus obviating the need for coke. U.S. Steel and Calderon teamed up to jointly work together to demonstrate that the Calderon technology will produce in a closed system iron units from iron concentrate (ore) and coal competitively by eliminating pelletizing, sintering, coking and blast furnace operation. If such process steps could be eliminated, a huge reduction in polluting emissions and greenhouse gases (including CO{sub 2}) relating to steelmaking would ensue. Such reduction will restructure the steel industry away from the very energy-intensive steelmaking steps currently practiced and drastically reduce costs of making steel. The development of a technology to lower U.S. steelmaking costs and become globally competitive is a priority of major importance. Therefore, the development work which Calderon is conducting presently under this Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy becomes more crucial than ever. During the 3rd quarter of 2005 which the present report covers, virtually all the effort to advance the Calderon technology to make iron units was concentrated towards forming a team with a steelmaker who needs both iron units in the form of hot metal and a substitute for natural gas (SNG), both being major contributors to higher costs in steelmaking. Calderon felt that a very good candidate would be Steel Dynamics (SDI) by virtue that it operates a rotary hearth facility in Butler, Indiana that uses large amounts of natural gas to reduce briquettes made from ore and coal that they subsequently melt in a submerged arc furnace that is a large consumer of electric power. This facility is operated as a division of SDI under the name of Iron Dynamics (IDI). It is no secret that IDI has had and still has a great number of operational problems, including high cost for natural gas.

  15. Mixed phase clouds, cloud electrification and remote sensing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P. (Petr); Borel, C. C. (Christoph C.); Klett, James

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of hypothesis trying to explain charge separation in thunderstorm clouds require presence of ice and supercooled water. Thus the existence of ice or at least mixed phase regions near cloud tops should be a necessary (but not a sufficient) condition for development of lightning. We show that multispectral satellite based instruments, like the DOE MTI (Multispectral Thermal Imager) or NASA MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), using the near infrared and visible spectral bands are able to distinguish between water, ice and mixed phase cloud regions. An analysis of the MTI images of mixed phase clouds - with spatial resolution of about 20 m - shows regions of pure water, pure ice as well as regions of water/ice mixtures. We suggest that multispectral satellite instruments may be useful for a short time forecast of lightning probabilities.

  16. Structural Patterns for the Transformation of Business Process Models This research has partly been funded by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Education, Science, and Culture,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Structural Patterns for the Transformation of Business Process Models This research has partly@wit.tuwien.ac.at Abstract Due to company mergers and business to business interoperability, there is a need for model transformations in the area of business process modeling to facilitate scenarios like model integration and model

  17. Cloud Remote Sensing with Sideways-Looks : Theory and First Results Using Multispectral Thermal Imager Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In operational remote sensing, the implicit model for cloud geometry is a homogeneous plane-parallel slab of infinite horizontal extent. Each pixel is indeed processed as if it exchanged no radiant energy whatsoever with its neighbors. The shortcomings of this conceptual model have been well documented in the specialized literature but rarely mitigated. The worst-case scenario is probably high-resolution imagery where dense isolated clouds are visible, often both bright (reflective) and dark (transmissive) sides being apparent from the same satellite viewing angle: the low transmitted radiance could conceivably be interpreted in plane-parallel theory as no cloud at all. An alternative to the plane-parallel cloud model is introduced here that has the same appeal of being analytically tractable, at least in the diffusion limit: the spherical cloud. This new geometrical paradigm is applied to radiances from cumulus clouds captured by DOE's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI). Estimates of isolated cloud opacities are a necessary first step in correcting radiances from surface targets that are visible in the midst of a broken-cloud field. This type of advanced atmospheric correction is badly needed in remote sensing applications such as nonproliferation detection were waiting for a cloud-free look in the indefinite future is not a viable option.

  18. Liquid Metal Processing and Casting Experiences at the U.S. Department of Energy's Albany Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we will discuss some of the early pioneering work as well as some of our more recent research. The Albany Research Center (ARC) has been involved with the melting and processing of metals since it was established in 1942. In the early days, hardly anything was known about melting refractory or reactive metals and as such, virtually everything had to be developed in-house. Besides the more common induction heated air-melt furnaces, ARC has built and/or utilized a wide variety of furnaces including vacuum arc remelt ingot and casting furnaces, cold wall induction furnaces, electric arc furnaces, cupola furnaces and reverberatory furnaces. The melt size of these furnaces range from several grams to a ton or more. We have used these furnaces to formulate custom alloys for wrought applications as well as for such casting techniques as spin casting, investment casting and lost foam casting among many. Two early spin-off industrializations were Wah Chang (wrought zirconium alloys for military and commercial nuclear applications) and Oremet (both wrought and cast Ti). Both of these companies are now part of the ATI Allegheny Ludlum Corporation.

  19. How do A-train Sensors Intercompare in the Retrieval of Above-Cloud Aerosol Optical Depth? A Case Study-based Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jethva, H. T.; Torres, O.; Waquet, F.; Chand, Duli; Hu, Yong X.

    2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We inter-compare the above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) of biomass burning plumes retrieved from different A-train sensors, i.e., MODIS, CALIOP, POLDER, and OMI. These sensors have shown independent capabilities to detect and retrieve aerosol loading above marine boundary layer clouds--a kind of situation often found over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean during dry burning season. A systematic one-to-one comparison reveals that, in general, all passive sensors and CALIOP-based research methods derive comparable ACAOD with differences mostly within 0.2 over homogeneous cloud fields. The 532-nm ACAOD retrieved by CALIOP operational algorithm is largely underestimated; however, it’s 1064-nm AOD when converted to 500 nm shows closer agreement to the passive sensors. Given the different types of sensor measurements processed with different algorithms, the close agreement between them is encouraging. Due to lack of adequate direct measurements above cloud, the validation of satellite-based ACAOD retrievals remains an open challenge. The inter-satellite comparison, however, can be useful for the relative evaluation and consistency check.

  20. Cloud Computing and Validation of Expandable In Silico Livers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ropella, Glen EP; Hunt, C Anthony

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    benefit analysis of cloud computing versus desktop grids.as: Ropella and Hunt: Cloud computing and validation ofCloud computing and validation of expandable in silico

  1. Title: Networking the Cloud: Enabling Enterprise Computing and Storage Cloud computing has been changing how enterprises run and manage their IT systems. Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Networking the Cloud: Enabling Enterprise Computing and Storage Abstract: Cloud computing has been changing how enterprises run and manage their IT systems. Cloud computing platforms provide introduction on Cloud Computing. We propose a Virtual Cloud Pool abstraction to logically unify cloud

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - ad hoc cloud Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    any ad hoc combination of physical processes... . 21. Adding 10% in mass of 10 y m water ice particles to the cloud of Fig 2 ( Y y m, ) reduces... Warming Early Mars with...

  3. A systems thinking approach to business intelligence solutions based on cloud computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyes, Eumir P. (Eumir Paulo Reyes Morales)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Business intelligence is the set of tools, processes, practices and people that are used to take advantage of information to support decision making in the organizations. Cloud computing is a new paradigm for offering ...

  4. Cluster analysis of cloud properties : a method for diagnosing cloud-climate feedbacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Neil D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    represent cloud effects on gridbox mean visible radiationclouds and the resulting effect on the balance of radiationrepresent cloud effects on grid-box-mean visible radiation

  5. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Ryan P.; The ATLAS collaboration; Love, Peter; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Paterson, Michael; Gable, Ian; Sobie, Randall; Field, Laurence

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ATLAS experiment has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This work will describe the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the VM management systems used for harnessing IAAS resources will be discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for managing VM images across multiple clouds, ...

  6. Currently, there is a substantial research and development effort directed toward optical signal processing and electronic signal processing for fiber-optic communications. Much of the work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    signal processing and electronic signal processing for fiber-optic communications. Much of the work fiber-optic transmitters and receivers, and has lead to a renewed interest in coherent optical detection and Electronic Signal Processing for Fiber-Optic Communications IEEE Photonics Societ y Distinguished Lecture B y

  7. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently ApprovedReliabilityPrincipalResearch Finds VitaminResearchClouds,

  8. Dust takes detour on ice-cloud journey | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dust takes detour on ice-cloud journey Dust takes detour on ice-cloud journey Pollution-coated particles bypass ice formation, but influence clouds Cirrus clouds are composed of...

  9. Title: Cirrus clouds observation in Santa Maria, Rio Grade do Sul during the experiment Chuva Sul. Authors: Boris Barja(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Henrique

    in the research of the atmosphere due their behavior and the effect on the earth radiation budget. They can affect radiation. Also, this cloud type is involved in the dehydration of the upper troposphere and lowerTitle: Cirrus clouds observation in Santa Maria, Rio Grade do Sul during the experiment Chuva ­ Sul

  10. GUIDELINES FOR DRAFTING THE RESEARCH PLAN In order to assist in the drafting of an appropriate Research Plan and to facilitate its processing and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    be consistent with the numbering below. These guidelines are an incorporated part of this CRADA. 1. GOAL OF THIS CRADA: Identify (three to four sentences) the research goal(s) of this CRADA, including the respective is to permit careful monitoring of CRADA research projects by scientific and division directors of our

  11. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF MANAGEMENT OF STORMWATER AND WASTEWATER AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT (SPRU) DISPOSITION PROJECT, NEW YORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abitz, R.; Jackson, D.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

    2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating the water management procedures at the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU). The facility has three issues related to water management that require technical assistance: (1) due to a excessive rainfall event in October, 2010, contaminated water collected in basements of G2 and H2 buildings. As a result of this event, the contractor has had to collect and dispose of water offsite; (2) The failure of a sump pump at a KAPL outfall resulted in a Notice of Violation issued by the New York State Department of Environment and Conservation (NYSDEC) and subsequent Consent Order. On-site water now requires treatment and off-site disposition; and (3) stormwater infiltration has resulted in Strontium-90 levels discharged to the storm drains that exceed NR standards. The contractor has indicated that water management at SPRU requires major staff resources (at least 50 persons). The purpose of this review is to determine if the contractor's technical approach warrants the large number of staff resources and to ensure that the technical approach is compliant and in accordance with federal, state and NR requirements.

  12. Socially Optimal Pricing of Cloud Computing Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menache, Ishai

    The cloud computing paradigm offers easily accessible computing resources of variable size and capabilities. We consider a cloud-computing facility that provides simultaneous service to a heterogeneous, time-varying ...

  13. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Ryan P; The ATLAS collaboration; Brasolin, Franco; Cordeiro, Cristovao; Desmarais, Ron; Field, Laurence; Gable, Ian; Giordano, Domenico; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Hover, John; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; Love, Peter; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Zaytsev, Alexandr

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ATLAS experiment has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This paper describes the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the virtual machine (VM) management systems used for harnessing infrastructure as a service (IaaS) resources are discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for ma...

  14. Disruptive technology business models in cloud computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krikos, Alexis Christopher

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud computing, a term whose origins have been in existence for more than a decade, has come into fruition due to technological capabilities and marketplace demands. Cloud computing can be defined as a scalable and flexible ...

  15. SCANNING CLOUD RADAR OBSERVATIONS AT AZORES: PRELIMINARY 3D CLOUD PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCANNING CLOUD RADAR OBSERVATIONS AT AZORES: PRELIMINARY 3D CLOUD PRODUCTS P. Kollias, I. Jo, A, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT The deployment of the Scanning W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) during the AMF campaign at Azores signals the first deployment of an ARM Facility-owned scanning cloud radar and offers

  16. Cloud-Top Temperatures for Precipitating Winter Clouds JAY W. HANNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, David

    1 Cloud-Top Temperatures for Precipitating Winter Clouds JAY W. HANNA NOAA/NESDIS Satellite of satellite-derived cloud-top brightness temperatures from GOES longwave infrared (channel 4) satellite data, rain, freezing rain, and sleet. The distributions of cloud-top brightness temperatures were constructed

  17. Cloud networking and communications Cloud computing is having an important impact on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    Editorial Cloud networking and communications Cloud computing is having an important impact attention has been devoted to system aspects of Cloud computing. More recently, however, the focus is shifting towards Cloud net- working and communications with evolutionary and revo- lutionary propositions

  18. Cloud seeding as a technique for studying aerosol-cloud interactions in marine stratocumulus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Cloud seeding as a technique for studying aerosol-cloud interactions in marine stratocumulus hygroscopic aerosols were introduced into a solid marine stratocumulus cloud (200 m thick) by burning hygroscopic flares mounted on an aircraft. The cloud microphysical response in two parallel seeding plumes

  19. Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing broadening and drizzle growth in shallow liquid clouds remain not well understood. Detailed, cloudscale. Profiling, millimeterwavelength (cloud) radars can provide such observations. In particular, the first three

  20. The Cloud Adoption Toolkit: Supporting Cloud Adoption Decisions in the Enterprise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommerville, Ian

    1 The Cloud Adoption Toolkit: Supporting Cloud Adoption Decisions in the Enterprise Ali Khajeh-Hosseini, David Greenwood, James W. Smith, Ian Sommerville Cloud Computing Co-laboratory, School of Computer Science University of St Andrews, UK {akh, dsg22, jws7, ifs}@cs.st-andrews.ac.uk Abstract Cloud computing

  1. CLOUD COMPUTING AND INFORMATION POLICY 1 Cloud Computing and Information Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jimmy

    CLOUD COMPUTING AND INFORMATION POLICY 1 Cloud Computing and Information Policy: Computing in a Policy Cloud? Forthcoming in the Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 5(3). Paul T. Jaeger University of Maryland Jimmy Lin University of Maryland Justin M. Grimes University of Maryland #12;CLOUD

  2. HPI Cloud Symposium ,Operating The Cloud` 25.09.2013, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Auditorium Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weske, Mathias

    Agenda HPI Cloud Symposium ,Operating The Cloud` 25.09.2013, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Auditorium Building 09:30h Registration 10:00h Opening Prof. Dr. Christoph Meinel, HPI Potsdam 10:30h Cloud-RAID: Eine Methode zur Bereitstellung zuverlässiger Speicherressourcen in Öffentlichen Clouds Maxim Schnajkin, HPI

  3. Cloud Verifier: Verifiable Auditing Service for IaaS Clouds Joshua Schiffman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaeger, Trent

    Cloud Verifier: Verifiable Auditing Service for IaaS Clouds Joshua Schiffman Security Architecture University Park, PA, USA yus138,hvijay,tjaeger@cse.psu.edu Abstract--Cloud computing has commoditized compute paradigm, its adoption has been stymied by cloud platform's lack of trans- parency, which leaves customers

  4. Cloud Tracking in Cloud-Resolving Models R. S. Plant1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plant, Robert

    Cloud Tracking in Cloud-Resolving Models R. S. Plant1 1 Department of Meteorology, University. INTRODUCTION In recent years Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs) have become an increasingly important tool for CRM data, which allows one to investigate statistical prop- erties of the lifecycles of the "clouds

  5. From mini-clouds to Cloud Computing Boris Mejias, Peter Van Roy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonaventure, Olivier

    From mini-clouds to Cloud Computing Boris Mej´ias, Peter Van Roy Universit´e catholique de Louvain ­ Belgium {boris.mejias|peter.vanroy}@uclouvain.be Abstract Cloud computing has many definitions with different views within industry and academia, but everybody agrees on that cloud computing is the way

  6. AnonymousCloud: A Data Ownership Privacy Provider Framework in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamlen, Kevin W.

    AnonymousCloud: A Data Ownership Privacy Provider Framework in Cloud Computing Safwan Mahmud Khan their computation results are ultimately delivered. To provide this data ownership privacy, the cloud's distributed-anonymity; authentication; cloud computing; in- formation security; privacy; Tor I. INTRODUCTION Revolutionary advances

  7. Leveraging Platform Basic Services in Cloud Application Platforms for the Development of Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Anthony J. H.

    Leveraging Platform Basic Services in Cloud Application Platforms for the Development of Cloud.Simons@dcs.shef.ac.uk Abstract-- Cloud application platforms gain popularity and have the potential to alter the way service based cloud applications are developed involving utilisation of platform basic services. A platform

  8. aerosol characteristic researching: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as they have significant impacts both on localregional air pollution and global climate. Recent for Aerosol and Cloud Chemistry, Aerodyne Research, Incorporated, Billerica,...

  9. Carbon Chemistry in interstellar clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryvonne Gerin; David Fosse; Evelyne Roueff

    2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss new developments of interstellar chemistry, with particular emphasis on the carbon chemistry. We confirm that carbon chains and cycles are ubiquitous in the ISM and closely chemically related to ea ch other, and to carbon. Investigation of the carbon budget in shielded and UV illuminated gas shows that the inventory of interstellar molecules is not complete and more complex molecules with 4 or more carbon atoms must be present. Finally we discuss the consequences for the evolution of clouds and conclude that the ubiquitous presence of carbon chains and cycles is not a necessary consequence of a very young age for interstellar clouds.

  10. Changes in high cloud conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himebrook, Richard Frank

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ). When the effect of unknowns is added to the data (Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), p, 21), the period with most high-cloud cover seems to alter- nate back and forth almost monthly, The average, global, solar radiation (Fig. 3(c), p. 21) depicts a decrease from... radiation, per cent possible sunshine, and average sky cover. The increases in high-cloud cover occurred in areas with the following characteristics: strong upper-air flow; frequent jet ' aircraft traffic; coverage of less than half the sky; late...

  11. Interactive physically-based cloud simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overby, Derek Robert

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of digital artistic media. Previous methods for modeling the growth of clouds do not account for the fluid interactions that are responsible for cloud formation in the physical atmosphere. We propose a model for simulating cloud formation based on a basic...

  12. Dynamics of Clouds Fall Semester 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATS712 Dynamics of Clouds Fall Semester 2012 Meeting Times: T/Th: 9-10:15am Room: ATS 101-2pm Course Description: This class focuses on the general dynamics of cloud systems. Models of fog and other Tools / Skills Cotton, W.R., G.H. Bryan, and S.C. van den Heever, 2010: Storm and Cloud Dynamics

  13. Microsoft Private Cloud Title of document

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Microsoft Private Cloud Title of document 1 1 Microsoft Private Cloud A Comparative Look at Functionality, Benefits, and Economics November2012 #12;Microsoft Private Cloud Title of document 2 2 Copyright Information © 2012 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This document is provided "as-is." Information

  14. Performance Engineering for Cloud Computing John Murphy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, John

    Performance Engineering for Cloud Computing John Murphy Lero ­ The Irish Software Engineering.Murphy@ucd.ie Abstract. Cloud computing potentially solves some of the major challenges in the engineering of large efficient operation. This paper argues that cloud computing is an area where performance engineering must

  15. Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, James S.

    Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud by HO, Hon Pong A Thesis Submitted;Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud by HO, Hon Pong This is to certify that I have implementations on unstructured point cloud 15 3.1 Level set initialization

  16. 6, 93519388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS satellite data and global 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al. Title

  17. Cloud Computing: Centralization and Data Sovereignty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Cloud Computing: Centralization and Data Sovereignty Primavera De Filippi, Smari McCarthy Abstract: Cloud computing can be defined as the provision of computing resources on-demand over and elasticity of costs, problems arise concerning the collection of personal information in the Cloud

  18. Optimizing Offloading Strategies in Mobile Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyytiä, Esa

    Optimizing Offloading Strategies in Mobile Cloud Computing Esa Hyyti¨a Department of Communications Abstract--We consider a dynamic offloading problem arising in the context of mobile cloud computing (MCC consider the task assignment problem arising in the context of the mobile cloud computing (MCC). In MCC

  19. CONTROLLING DATA IN THE CLOUD: OUTSOURCING COMPUTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Cliff C.

    #12;CONTROLLING DATA IN THE CLOUD: OUTSOURCING COMPUTATION WITHOUT OUTSOURCING CONTROL Paper By Laboratories Of America 2009 ACM WORKSHOP ON CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY (CCSW 2009) Presented By Talal Basaif CAP that will arise later · New directions to solve some issues #12;INTRODUCTION · Cloud computing is one of desirable

  20. Towards a Ubiquitous Cloud Computing Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Merwe, Kobus

    Towards a Ubiquitous Cloud Computing Infrastructure Jacobus Van der Merwe, K.K. Ramakrishnan of a number of cloud computing use cases. We specifically consider cloudbursting and follow-the-sun and focus that are also network service providers. I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing is rapidly gaining acceptance

  1. Cloud Computing: Legal Issues in Centralized Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cloud Computing: Legal Issues in Centralized Architectures Primavera DE FILIPPI1 , Smari McCARTHY2, Reykjavik, 101, Iceland - Email: smari@gmail.com Abstract: Cloud computing can be defined as the provision they can access their data and the extent to which parties can exploit it. Keywords: Cloud Computing

  2. The Temperature of Interstellar Clouds from Turbulent Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liubin Pan; Paolo Padoan

    2008-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    To evaluate the effect of turbulent heating in the thermal balance of interstellar clouds, we develop an extension of the log-Poisson intermittency model to supersonic turbulence. The model depends on a parameter, d, interpreted as the dimension of the most dissipative structures. By comparing the model with the probability distribution of the turbulent dissipation rate in a simulation of supersonic and super-Alfvenic turbulence, we find a best-fit value of d=1.64. We apply this intermittency model to the computation of the mass-weighted probability distribution of the gas temperature of molecular clouds, high-mass star-forming cores, and cold diffuse HI clouds. Our main results are: i) The mean gas temperature in molecular clouds can be explained as the effect of turbulent heating alone, while cosmic ray heating may dominate only in regions where the turbulent heating is low; ii) The mean gas temperature in high-mass star-forming cores with typical FWHM of ~6 km/s (corresponding to a 1D rms velocity of 2.5 km/s) may be completely controlled by turbulent heating, which predicts a mean value of approximately 36 K, two to three times larger than the mean gas temperature in the absence of turbulent heating; iii) The intermittency of the turbulent heating can generate enough hot regions in cold diffuse HI clouds to explain the observed CH+ abundance, if the rms velocity on a scale of 1 pc is at least 3 km/s, in agreement with previous results based on incompressible turbulence. Because of its importance in the thermal balance of molecular clouds and high-mass star-forming cores, the process of turbulent heating may be central in setting the characteristic stellar mass and in regulating molecular chemical reactions.

  3. Evaluating the Performance of Planetary Boundary Layer and Cloud Microphysical Parameterization Schemes in Convection-Permitting Ensemble Forecasts using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    uncertainty in how to include various processes (e.g., drop breakup and ice-phase categories 1 Evaluating the Performance of Planetary Boundary Layer and Cloud Microphysical Parameterization In this study, the ability of several cloud microphysical and planetary boundary layer parameterization schemes

  4. Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: Sensitivity to ice initiationmechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sednev, I.; Menon, S.; McFarquhar, G.

    2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM) scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP) on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during October 9th-10th, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-hour simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity) against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process of ice phase initiation due to freezing of supercooled water in both saturated and subsaturated (w.r.t. water) environments is as important as primary ice crystal origination from water vapor. We also find that the BFP is a process mainly responsible for the rates of glaciation of simulated clouds. These glaciation rates cannot be adequately represented by a water-ice saturation adjustment scheme that only depends on temperature and liquid and solid hydrometeors contents as is widely used in bulk microphysics schemes and are better represented by processes that also account for supersaturation changes as the hydrometeors grow.

  5. Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sednev, Igor; Sednev, I.; Menon, S.; McFarquhar, G.

    2008-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM) scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP) on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during 9th-10th October, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-h simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity) against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process of ice phase initiation due to freezing of supercooled water in both saturated and undersaturated (w.r.t. water) environments is as important as primary ice crystal origination from water vapor. We also find that the BFP is a process mainly responsible for the rates of glaciation of simulated clouds. These glaciation rates cannot be adequately represented by a water-ice saturation adjustment scheme that only depends on temperature and liquid and solid hydrometeors contents as is widely used in bulk microphysics schemes and are better represented by processes that also account for supersaturation changes as the hydrometeors grow.

  6. A New WRF-Chem Treatment for Studying Regional Scale Impacts of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in Parameterized Cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new treatment of cloud-aerosol interactions within parameterized shallow and deep convection has been implemented in WRF-Chem that can be used to better understand the aerosol lifecycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model to represent cloud-aerosol interactions include treatment of the cloud dropletnumber mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. Thesechanges have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain-Fritsch cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Preliminary testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) as well as a high-resolution simulation that does not include parameterized convection. The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on the regional scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column integrated BC can be as large as -50% when cloud-aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +35% for sulfate in non-precipitating conditions due to the sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem version 3.2.1 are found to account for changes in the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud-drop residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to WRF-Chem version 3.5, and it is anticipated that they will be included in a future public release of WRF-Chem.

  7. Model analysis of the anthropogenic aerosol effect on clouds over East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

    2012-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry) was used to conduct a pair of simulations with present-day (PD) and preindustrial (PI) emissions over East Asia to examine the aerosol indirect effect on clouds. As a result of an increase in aerosols in January, the cloud droplet number increased by 650 cm{sup -3} over the ocean and East China, 400 cm{sup -3} over Central and Southwest China, and less than 200 cm{sup -3} over North China. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) increased by 40-60 g m{sup -2} over the ocean and Southeast China and 30 g m{sup -2} over Central China; the LWP increased less than 5 g m{sup -2} or decreased by 5 g m{sup -2} over North China. The effective radius (Re) decreased by more than 4 {mu}m over Southwest, Central, and Southeast China and 2 {mu}m over North China. In July, variations in cloud properties were more uniform; the cloud droplet number increased by approximately 250-400 cm{sup -3}, the LWP increased by approximately 30-50 g m{sup -2}, and Re decreased by approximately 3 {mu}m over most regions of China. In response to cloud property changes from PI to PD, shortwave (SW) cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 30 W m{sup -2} over the ocean and 10 W m{sup -2} over Southeast China, and it weakened slightly by approximately 2-10 W m{sup -2} over Central and Southwest China in January. In July, SW cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 15 W m{sup -2} over Southeast and North China and weakened by 10 W m{sup -2} over Central China. The different responses of SW cloud radiative forcing in different regions was related to cloud feedbacks and natural variability.

  8. A Prototyping Environment for Research on Human-Machine Interfaces in Process Control: Use of Microsoft WPF for Microworld and Distributed Control System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Thomas A. Ulrich

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operators of critical processes, such as nuclear power production, must contend with highly complex systems, procedures, and regulations. Developing human-machine interfaces (HMIs) that better support operators is a high priority for ensuring the safe and reliable operation of critical processes. Human factors engineering (HFE) provides a rich and mature set of tools for evaluating the performance of HMIs, but the set of tools for developing and designing HMIs is still in its infancy. Here we propose that Microsoft Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is well suited for many roles in the research and development of HMIs for process control.

  9. Cloud Seeding By: Julie Walter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    , smoke, that then are cooled because of the high altitudes. As the water or condensation nuclei cool more pushed up enough the warm air that is filled with moisture should reach an optimum cooling point-based Western Weather Consultants, whose company supplied Vail Resorts with the cloud seeding generators

  10. Cloud and Autonomic Computing Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    boundary layers and wind turbine aerodynamics Siva Parameswarn, Ph.D. Professor in the Department vehicles » Wake development behind wind turbines PHYSICS Ismael Regis de Farias Jr., Ph.D. Associate in cloud environments » Intelligent data management & understanding » Automated web service composition

  11. A computational investigation of nucleation processes in organic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckham, Gregg Tyler

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nucleation processes are ubiquitous in nature and technology. For instance, cloud formation in the atmosphere, the casting of metals, protein crystallization, biomineralization, the production of porous materials, and ...

  12. Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions over a tropical station, Gadanki from lidar and satellite observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S, Motty G, E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Satyanarayana, M., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Krishnakumar, V., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com; Dhaman, Reji k., E-mail: mottygs@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum-695 581, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the earth's atmospheric system and are important to characterize their vertical structure and optical properties. LIDAR measurements are obtained from the tropical station Gadanki (13.5{sup 0} N, 79.2{sup 0} E), India, and meteorological indicators derived from Radiosonde data. Most of the cirrus clouds are observed near to the tropopause, which substantiates the strength of the tropical convective processes. The height and temperature dependencies of cloud height, optical depth, and depolarization ratio were investigated. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO satellite are compared with lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology.

  13. Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone. Phase two: analysis of research advances. Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial objective of this work was to develop a methodology for analyzing the impact of technological advances as a tool to help establish priorities for R and D options in the field of biocatalysis. As an example of a biocatalyzed process, butanol/acetone fermentation (ABE process) was selected as the specific topic of study. A base case model characterizing the technology and economics associated with the ABE process was developed in the previous first phase of study. The project objectives were broadened in this second phase of work to provide parametric estimates of the economic and energy impacts of a variety of research advances in the hydrolysis, fermentation and purification sections of the process. The research advances analyzed in this study were based on a comprehensive literature review. The six process options analyzed were: continuous ABE fermentaton; vacuum ABE fermentation; Baelene solvent extraction; HRI's Lignol process; improved prehydrolysis/dual enzyme hydrolysis; and improved microorganism tolerance to butanol toxicity. Of the six options analyzed, only improved microorganism tolerance to butanol toxicity had a significant positive effect on energy efficiency and economics. This particular process option reduced the base case production cost (including 10% DCF return) by 20% and energy consumption by 16%. Figures and tables.

  14. Lidar Investigation of Tropical Nocturnal Boundary Layer Aerosols and Cloud Macrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj, M. G.; Devara, PC S.; Taraphdar, Sourav

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observational evidence of two-way association between nocturnal boundary layer aerosols and cloud macrophysical properties under different meteorological conditions is reported in this paper. The study has been conducted during 2008-09 employing a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro-pulse lidar over a tropical urban station in India. Firstly, the study highlights the crucial role of boundary layer aerosols and background meteorology on the formation and structure of low-level stratiform clouds in the backdrop of different atmospheric stability conditions. Turbulent mixing induced by the wind shear at the station, which is associated with a complex terrain, is found to play a pivotal role in the formation and structural evolution of nocturnal boundary layer clouds. Secondly, it is shown that the trapping of energy in the form of outgoing terrestrial radiation by the overlying low-level clouds can enhance the aerosol mixing height associated with the nocturnal boundary layer. To substantiate this, the long-wave heating associated with cloud capping has been quantitatively estimated in an indirect way by employing an Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model version 2.2 developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Colorado, USA, and supplementary data sets; and differentiated against other heating mechanisms. The present investigation as well establishes the potential of lidar remote-sensing technique in exploring some of the intriguing aspects of the cloud-environment relationship.

  15. While much of the effort to combat climate change impacts addresses the roles of the cryosphere, forests and Earth's oceans, less is known about the role of clouds. Prof Dr Pier Siebesma of the Royal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    climate models to represent cloud processes and their effect on the radiative energy balance. The premise Watching the skies Could you explain the workings of cloud feedback and the effect climate change has had that clouds reflect up to 70 per cent of the incoming solar radiation whereas the sea's surface only reflects

  16. Understanding and Improving CRM and GCM Simulations of Cloud Systems with ARM Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xiaoqing

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The works supported by this ASR project lay the solid foundation for improving the parameterization of convection and clouds in the NCAR CCSM and the climate simulations. We have made a significant use of CRM simulations and ARM observations to produce thermodynamically and dynamically consistent multi-year cloud and radiative properties; improve the GCM simulations of convection, clouds and radiative heating rate and fluxes using the ARM observations and CRM simulations; and understand the seasonal and annual variation of cloud systems and their impacts on climate mean state and variability. We conducted multi-year simulations over the ARM SGP site using the CRM with multi-year ARM forcing data. The statistics of cloud and radiative properties from the long-term CRM simulations were compared and validated with the ARM measurements and value added products (VAP). We evaluated the multi-year climate simulations produced by the GCM with the modified convection scheme. We used multi-year ARM observations and CRM simulations to validate and further improve the trigger condition and revised closure assumption in NCAR GCM simulations that demonstrate the improvement of climate mean state and variability. We combined the improved convection scheme with the mosaic treatment of subgrid cloud distributions in the radiation scheme of the GCM. The mosaic treatment of cloud distributions has been implemented in the GCM with the original convection scheme and enables the use of more realistic cloud amounts as well as cloud water contents in producing net radiative fluxes closer to observations. A physics-based latent heat (LH) retrieval algorithm was developed by parameterizing the physical linkages of observed hydrometeor profiles of cloud and precipitation to the major processes related to the phase change of atmospheric water.

  17. 2 www.trnmag.com Technology Research News February 23/March 2, 2005 Process yields semiconductor foam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruina, Andy L.

    Wayne State University have made crystalline aerogels -- new semiconductor materials that are very porous, giving them very high surface areas. Unlike conventional aerogels, the researchers' materials

  18. Integrating soil macroinvertebrate diversity, litter decomposition and secondary succession in a tropical montane cloud forest in Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negrete-Yankelevich, Simoneta

    This research considers human impacts on three components of biodiversity (composition, spatial structure and function). Given the relict character and unusual biogeochemical balance of tropical montane cloud forests in Mexico, logging poses a...

  19. Observations of Stratocumulus Clouds and Their Effect on the Eastern Pacific Surface Heat Budget along 20°S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Szoeke, Simon P.; Yuter, Sandra E.; Mechem, David B.; Fairall, Chris W.; Burleyson, Casey D.; Zuidema, Paquita

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Widespread stratocumulus clouds were observed on nine transects from seven research cruises to the southeastern tropical Pacific Ocean along 20°S, 75°–85°W in October–November of 2001–08. The nine transects sample a unique ...

  20. TRACKING THE LITTLE BLACK "RAIN" CLOUDS: AN ENVIRO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON PEDIATRIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    TRACKING THE LITTLE BLACK "RAIN" CLOUDS: AN ENVIRO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION Pollution and Respiratory Health Branch were wonderful research hosts and helpful model critics. Thank you

  1. Why do Particle Clouds Generate Electric Charges?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Pähtz; H. J. Herrmann; T. Shinbrot

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, because it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. Here, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains in the presence of an electric field, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete-element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.

  2. Electron Cloud with Inverted Beam Screens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maury Cuna, H

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of computer simulations studying the effect of wrongly oriented LHC beam screens on the local electron-cloud heat load and density. At 3.5 or 7-TeV energy and for maximum secondary emission-yield values below 1.5, with the inverted sawtooth orientation about ten times higher heat load is expected than for the standard orientation, and the wrongly oriented sawtooth chambers could lead to a local heat-load bottleneck during the process of surface conditioning at 25-ns bunch spacing. The available cooling margin can be significantly increased by correcting the sawtooth orientations at least for two dipole magnets in LHC arc cells 26 and 32 R3, in order that there be no half-cell cooling loop containing more than one inverted screen.

  3. Research Documentation Guidelines Capturing knowledge, improving research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommerville, Ian

    researchers. The RAISER development process is an SDLC specific to Software Engineering by Computer Science

  4. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kleissl, J. , 2013. Deriving cloud velocity from an array ofCloud Speed Impact on Solar Variability Scaling -this work, we determine from cloud speeds. Cloud simulator

  5. Environmental survey - tar sands in situ processing research program (Vernal, Uintah County, Utah). [Reverse-forward combustion; steam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Q.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research will be done on the reverse-forward combustion and steam injection for the in-situ recovery of oil from tar sands. This environmental survey will serve as a guideline for the consideration of environmental consequences of such research. It covers the construction phase, operational phase, description of the environment, potential impacts and mitigations, coordination, and alternatives. (DLC)

  6. Dust properties inside molecular clouds from coreshine modeling and observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lefčvre, Charlčne; Juvela, Mika; Paladini, Roberta; Lallement, Rosine; Marshall, D J; Andersen, Morten; Bacmann, Aurore; Mcgee, Peregrine M; Montier, Ludovic; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Pelkonen, V -M; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Steinacker, Jürgen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Context. Using observations to deduce dust properties, grain size distribution, and physical conditions in molecular clouds is a highly degenerate problem. Aims. The coreshine phenomenon, a scattering process at 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m that dominates absorption, has revealed its ability to explore the densest parts of clouds. We want to use this effect to constrain the dust parameters. The goal is to investigate to what extent grain growth (at constant dust mass) inside molecular clouds is able to explain the coreshine observations. We aim to find dust models that can explain a sample of Spitzer coreshine data. We also look at the consistency with near-infrared data we obtained for a few clouds. Methods. We selected four regions with a very high occurrence of coreshine cases: Taurus-Perseus, Cepheus, Chameleon and L183/L134. We built a grid of dust models and investigated the key parameters to reproduce the general trend of surface bright- nesses and intensity ratios of both coreshine and near-infrared observation...

  7. Cold Water Vapor in the Barnard 5 Molecular Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirström, E S; Persson, C M; Buckle, J V; Cordiner, M A; Takakuwa, S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After more than 30 years of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds, however, there is only one region where cold (~10 K) water vapor has been detected - L1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at work -- likely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H2O (J = 1_10 - 1_01) at 556.9360 GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  8. Photolytic Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Photolytic processes use the energy in sunlight to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen. These processes are in the very early stages of research but offer long-term potential for sustainable...

  9. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s o Freiberge s 3 % A PB 2 7 7ResearchIntegratedCloud

  10. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s o Freiberge s 3 % A PB 2 7 7ResearchIntegratedCloudARM

  11. Cloud-Driven Changes in Aerosol Optical Properties - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  12. Feasibility of Ceramic Membranes in Lignocellulosic Processing: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-06-00198

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schell, D. J.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL will conduct field trials in their biomass process pilot plant using CeraMem developmental membranes and system supplied by CeraMem.

  13. Development and testing of an aerosol/stratus cloud parameterization scheme for middle and high latitudes. Final technical progress report, November 1, 1994--October 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreidenweis, S.M.; Cotton, W.R.

    1999-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    At the present time, general circulation models (GCMs) poorly represent clouds, to the extent that they cannot be relied upon to simulate the climatic effects of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, or of anthropogenic perturbations to concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN). The long-term objective of this research was the development of an aerosol/cloud microphysics parameterization of mixed-phase stratus and boundary-layer clouds which responds to variations in CCN and IN. The work plan was to perform simulations of these cloud systems to gain understanding of their dynamics and microphysics, especially how aerosols affect cloud development and properties, that cold then be used to guide parameterizations. Several versions of the CSU RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System), modified to treat Arctic clouds, have been used during the course of this work. The authors also developed a new modeling system, the Trajectory Ensemble Model, to perform detailed chemical and microphysical simulations off-line from the host LES model. The increased understanding of the cloud systems investigated in this research can be applied to a single-column cloud model, designed as an adaptive grid model which can interface into a GCM vertical grid through distinct layers of the troposphere where the presence of layer clouds is expected.

  14. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cloud has the correct effect on surface fluxes of radiation.radiation is 200 W m –2 in clear-sky STREAMER calculations, the longwave cloud radiative effect

  15. Reducing Plug and Process Loads for a Large Scale, Low Energy Office Building: NREL's Research Support Facility; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobato, C.; Pless, S.; Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents the design and operational plug and process load energy efficiency measures needed to allow a large scale office building to reach ultra high efficiency building goals. The appendices of this document contain a wealth of documentation pertaining to plug and process load design in the RSF, including a list of equipment was selected for use.

  16. The Microbase Value-Added Product: A Baseline Retrieval of Cloud Microphysical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, M; Johnson, K; Jensen, M

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility baseline cloud microphysical properties (MICROBASE) value-added product (VAP). MICROBASE uses a combination of millimeter-wavelength cloud radar, microwave radiometer, and radiosonde observations to estimate the vertical profiles of the primary microphysical parameters of clouds including the liquid/ice water content and liquid/ice cloud particle effective radius. MICROBASE is a baseline algorithm designed to apply to most conditions and locations using a single set of parameterizations and a simple determination of water phase based on temperature. This document provides the user of this product with guidelines to assist in determining the accuracy of the product under certain conditions. Quality control flags are designed to identify outliers and indicate instances where the retrieval assumptions may not be met. The overall methodology is described in this report through a detailed description of the input variables, algorithms, and output products.

  17. The Influence of Cloud Microphysics and Radiation on the Response of Water Vapor and Clouds to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emanuel, Kerry; Iacono, Michael J.

    2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainties in representing the atmospheric water cycle are major obstacles to the accurate prediction of future climate. This project focused on addressing some of these uncertainties by implementing new physics for convection and radiation into the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). To better understand and eventually better represent these processes in this major national climate model, we modified CAM3.5 to use the convection and cloud schemes developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RRTMG rapid radiation code for global climate models developed by Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER). The impact of the new physics on the CAM3.5 simulation of convection on diurnal and intra-seasonal scales, on intra-seasonal oscillations and on the distribution of water vapor has been investigated. In addition, the MIT and AER physics packages have been incorporated and tested in combination within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional forecast model for the purpose of evaluating and improving convective and radiative processes on time scales appropriate to weather simulations. It has been found that the application of the AER radiation and MIT convection produces significant improvements in the modeled diurnal cycle of convection, especially over land, in the NCAR climate model. However, both the standard CAM3.5 and the modified CAM3.5 with the new physics are unable to capture the proper spectrum and propagating characteristics of dynamical intra-seasonal oscillations such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation. In addition, it has been shown that the new physics methods modify, but do not substantially improve, the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor in CAM as established through the comparison of modeled and observed satellite radiances. This suggests that continuing regional discrepancies in water vapor amounts in the climate model may not be solely related to convective or radiative processes. The major results of this project have been described in more detail in a journal article titled â??The Impacts of AER Radiation and MIT Convection on the Water Cycle Simulated by CAM3.5â?ť that will be submitted for publication during Fall 2010.

  18. Custom data support for the FAst -physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toto, T.; Jensen, M.; Vogelmann, A.; Wagener, R.; Liu, Y.; Lin, W.

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The multi-institution FAst -physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER) project, funded by the DOE Earth System Modeling program, aims to evaluate and improve the parameterizations of fast processes (those involving clouds, precipitation and aerosols) in global climate models, using a combination of numerical prediction models, single column models, cloud resolving models, large-eddy simulations, full global climate model output and ARM active and passive remote sensing and in-situ data. This poster presents the Custom Data Support effort for the FASTER project. The effort will provide tailored datasets, statistics, best estimates and quality control data, as needed and defined by FASTER participants, for use in evaluating and improving parameterizations of fast processes in GCMs. The data support will include custom gridding and averaging, for the model of interest, using high time resolution and pixel level data from continuous ARM observations and complementary datasets. In addition to the FASTER team, these datasets will be made available to the ARM Science Team. Initial efforts with respect to data product development, priorities, availability and distribution are summarized here with an emphasis on cloud, atmospheric state and aerosol properties as observed during the Spring 2000 Cloud IOP and the Spring 2003 Aerosol IOP at the ARM Southern Great Plains site.

  19. THE SMITH CLOUD: HIGH-VELOCITY ACCRETION AND DARK MATTER CONFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J., E-mail: m.nichols@physics.usyd.edu.a [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2009-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Smith Cloud is a massive system of metal-poor neutral and ionized gas (M{sub gas} approx> 2 x 10{sup 6} M{sub sun}) that is presently moving at high velocity (V{sub GSR}approx 300 km s{sup -1}) with respect to the Galaxy at a distance of 12 kpc from the Sun. The kinematics of the cloud's cometary tail indicates that the gas is in the process of accretion onto the Galaxy, as first discussed by Lockman et al. Here, we re-investigate the cloud's orbit by considering the possibility that the cloud is confined by a dark matter halo. This is required for the cloud to survive its passage through the Galactic corona. We consider three possible models for the dark matter halo (Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW), Einasto, and Burkert) including the effects of tidal disruption and ram pressure stripping during the cloud's infall onto and passage through the Galactic disk. For the NFW and Einasto dark matter models, we are able to determine reasonable initial conditions for the Smith Cloud, although this is only marginally possible with the Burkert model. For all three models, the progenitor had an initial (gas+dark matter) mass that was an order-of-magnitude higher than inferred today. In agreement with Lockman et al., the cloud appears to have punched through the disk approx70 Myr ago. For our most successful models, the baryon-to-dark matter ratio is fairly constant during an orbital period but drops by a factor of 2-5 after transiting the disk. The cloud appears to have only marginally survived its transit and is unlikely to retain its integrity during the next transit approx 30 Myr from now.

  20. Analysis of cloud layer structure in Shouxian, China using RS92 radiosonde aided by 95 GHz cloud radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Analysis of cloud layer structure in Shouxian, China using RS92 radiosonde aided by 95 GHz cloud to analyze cloud vertical structure over this area by taking advantage of the first direct measurements of cloud vertical layers from the 95 GHz radar. Singlelayer, twolayer, and threelayer clouds account for 28

  1. In Proceedings of APSEC 2010 Cloud Workshop, Sydney, Australia, 30th An Analysis of The Cloud Computing Security Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grundy, John

    of The Cloud Computing Security Problem Mohamed Al Morsy, John Grundy and Ingo Müller Computer Science to adopt IT without upfront investment. Despite the potential gains achieved from the cloud computing solution. Keywords: cloud computing; cloud computing security; cloud computing security management. I

  2. April 12, 2014: The Era of Cloud Computing is coming Headline: The Era of Cloud Computing is coming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    April 12, 2014: The Era of Cloud Computing is coming #12;Headline: The Era of Cloud Computing of Cloud Computing at a seminar in MANIT and RGPV on Saturday. Inset headline: This is the right time to build a career in Cloud Computing Article: Prof. Rajkumar Buyya gave guidance to students about Cloud

  3. After the definition of Cloud Computing ... What has NIST done in the Cloud space lately? What's next?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    After the definition of Cloud Computing ... What has NIST done in the Cloud space lately? What Publication SP 500-292: Cloud Computing Reference Architecture. This document takes the NIST definition of Cloud Computing a step further by expanding the definition into a logical representation of the cloud

  4. Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks using Cloud1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Dennis

    by adjusting the change in cloud radiative forcing for non-cloud22 related effects as in Soden et al. (2008 planet, the global and annual mean effect40 of clouds at the top of atmosphere (TOA) is to increase Feedbacks using Cloud1 Property Histograms.2 Part I: Cloud Radiative Kernels3 Mark D. Zelinka Department

  5. Influence of Cloud-Top Height and Geometric Thickness on a MODIS Infrared-Based Ice Cloud Retrieval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    of the net cloud radiative forc- ing of these clouds requires a global, diurnal climatology, which can most and temporal scales. In this study, the sensitivity of an infrared-based ice cloud retrieval to effective cloud temperature is investigated, with a focus on the effects of cloud-top height and geometric thickness

  6. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the April–May 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, NASA GPM ground validation remote sensors, and new ARM instrumentation purchased with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding. The overarching goal is to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation, and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land that have never before been available.

  7. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

  8. CCFE is the fusion research arm of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority TENDL-2011 processing and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the fission channel !! #12;Processing steps are not unique !! Competition (3 51) opens at 77 eV, in the RRtargets · dec-2012, 3873 isotopes · hazards, clearance and transport indices libraries #12;TENDL-2011

  9. Automated solar cell assembly teamed process research. Semiannual subcontract report, 7 January 1993--30 June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowlan, M.J.; Hogan, S.J.; Darkazalli, G.; Breen, W.F.; Murach, J.M.; Sutherland, S.F. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work done under Phase 3A of the PVMaT project to address problems that are generic to the photovoltaics (PV) industry. Crystalline silicon solar cells were used in the majority of all terrestrial power modules shipped in 1992. Spire`s analysis in Phase 1 of the PVMaT project indicated that the use of thin ({le}200-{mu}m) silicon cells can substantially reduce module manufacturing costs, provided that processing yields remain as high as they are now for processing standard thickness cells. Because present solar cell tabbing and interconnecting processes have unacceptably high yield losses with such thin cells, the objective of this Phase 3A subcontract is to use Spire`s light soldering technology and experience in designing and fabricating solar cell tabbing and interconnecting equipment to develop high yield throughput, fully automated processes for tabbing and interconnecting thin cells.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Rodriguez, Sebastien [Laboratoire AIM, Universite Paris 7/CNRS/CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp (France); Le Mouelic, Stephane [Laboratoire de Planetologie et Geodynamique, CNRS, UMR-6112, Universite de Nantes, 44000 Nantes (France); Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Clark, Roger [U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Nicholson, Phil [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Jaumann, Ralf [Institute of Planetary Exploration, Deutsche Zentrum, fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany)

    2009-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  11. Interstellar Turbulence, Cloud Formation and Pressure Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enrique Vazquez-Semadeni

    1998-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss HD and MHD compressible turbulence as a cloud-forming and cloud-structuring mechanism in the ISM. Results from a numerical model of the turbulent ISM at large scales suggest that the phase-like appearance of the medium, the typical values of the densities and magnetic field strengths in the intercloud medium, as well as Larson's velocity dispersion-size scaling relation in clouds may be understood as consequences of the interstellar turbulence. However, the density-size relation appears to only hold for the densest simulated clouds, there existing a large population of small, low-density clouds, which, on the other hand, are hardest to observe. We then discuss several tests and implications of a fully dynamical picture of interstellar clouds. The results imply that clouds are transient, constantly being formed, distorted and disrupted by the turbulent velocity field, with a fraction of these fluctuations undergoing gravitational collapse. Simulated line profiles and estimated cloud lifetimes are consistent with observational data. In this scenario, we suggest it is quite unlikely that quasi-hydrostatic structures on any scale can form, and that the near pressure balance between clouds and the intercloud medium is an incidental consequence of the density field driven by the turbulence and in the presence of appropriate cooling, rather than a driving or confining mechanism.

  12. Intercomparison of cloud model simulations of Arctic mixed-phase boundary layer clouds observed during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    /crystal concentration also suggests the need for improved understanding of ice nucleation and its parameterizationIntercomparison of cloud model simulations of Arctic mixed-phase boundary layer clouds observed is presented. This case study is based on observations of a persistent mixed-phase boundary layer cloud

  13. Dark Clouds on the Horizon: Using Cloud Storage as Attack Vector and Online Slack Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dark Clouds on the Horizon: Using Cloud Storage as Attack Vector and Online Slack Space Martin this as online slack space. We conclude by discussing security improvements for mod- ern online storage services protocol. With the advent of cloud computing and the shared usage of resources, these centralized storage

  14. To Cloud or Not to Cloud: A Mobile Device Perspective on Energy Consumption of Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namboodiri, Vinod

    To Cloud or Not to Cloud: A Mobile Device Perspective on Energy Consumption of Applications Vinod important criteria might be the energy consumed by the applications they run. The goal of this work is to characterize under what scenarios cloud-based applications would be relatively more energy-efficient for users

  15. Aircraft Microphysical Documentation from Cloud Base to Anvils of Hailstorm Feeder Clouds in Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    in Argentina DANIEL ROSENFELD The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel WILLIAM L. WOODLEY Woodley, Argentina, with a cloud-physics jet aircraft penetrating the major feeder clouds from cloud base to the 45°C. Introduction The province of Mendoza in western Argentina (32°S, 68°W), which is known worldwide for its wine

  16. Investigating the Radiative Impact Clouds Using Retrieved Properties to Classify Cloud Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    of Reading, RG6 6AL, UK Abstract. Active remote sensing allows cloud properties such as ice and liquid water remote sensing, Cloud categorization, Cloud properties, Radiative impact. PACS: 92.60. Vb. INTRODUCTION in a radiation scheme which can simulate the radiation budget and heating rates throughout the atmospheric

  17. The Design of a Community Science Cloud: The Open Science Data Cloud Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Robert

    The Design of a Community Science Cloud: The Open Science Data Cloud Perspective Robert L. Grossman, Matthew Greenway, Allison P. Heath, Ray Powell, Rafael D. Suarez, Walt Wells, and Kevin White University Abstract--In this paper we describe the design, and implemen- tation of the Open Science Data Cloud

  18. From Grid to private Clouds, to interClouds. Project Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vialle, Stéphane

    24/10/2011 1 From Grid to private Clouds, to interClouds. AlGorille Project Team An overviewGorille INRIA Project Team October 21, 2011 I Premise of Grid ComputingI Premise of Grid Computing... From Grid to private Clouds, to inter

  19. LETTER The incidence and implications of clouds for cloud forest plant water relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Greg

    , the montane forest experienced higher precipi- tation, cloud cover and leaf wetting events of longer duration for an improved understanding of clouds and their effects on cloud forest plant functioning. As summarised below (VPD) and photosynthetically active radiation. In turn, this decreases plant water demand. The suppres

  20. Variations in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types over the Ocean from Surface Observations, 19542008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    ). MSC therefore have a cooling ef- fect on climate [negative cloud radiative effect (CRE)]. Randall et in climate, affecting both radiation fluxes and latent heat fluxes, but the various cloud types affect marine. By contrast, high (cirriform) clouds are thinner and colder, so their longwave effect dominates, giving them

  1. A 3D STOCHASTIC CLOUD MODEL FOR INVESTIGATING THE RADIATIVE PROPERTIES OF INHOMOGENEOUS CIRRUS CLOUDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    A 3D STOCHASTIC CLOUD MODEL FOR INVESTIGATING THE RADIATIVE PROPERTIES OF INHOMOGENEOUS CIRRUS, Berkshire, United Kingdom 1 INTRODUCTION The importance of ice clouds on the earth's radiation budget for quantifying this effect, and several such models exist for boundary layer clouds, such as those of Cahalan et

  2. Assessing Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational Management »EnergyHubs | DepartmentCloud Spatial

  3. MARINE STRATUS CLOUD LIFECYCLE MODULATED BY LATENT HEAT FLUX IN A COASTAL OCEAN UPWELLING REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MARINE STRATUS CLOUD LIFECYCLE MODULATED BY LATENT HEAT FLUX IN A COASTAL OCEAN UPWELLING REGION, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark

  4. Shoring up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Hybrid Cloud Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Shoring up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Hybrid Cloud Storage #12;2StorSimple White Pages: Shoring Up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Hybrid Cloud Storage Table of Contents The Hybrid Cloud Context for IT Managers ............................................................. 3 The Bottleneck of Managing Storage

  5. Satellite Remote Sensing of Mid-level Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Hongchun 1980-

    2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    algorithm is evaluated using the CALIPSO cloud phase products for single-layer, heterogeneous, and multi-layer scenes. The AIRS phase algorithm has excellent performance (>90%) in detecting ice clouds compared to the CALIPSO ice clouds. It is capable...

  6. A cloud-assisted design for autonomous driving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh Kumar, Swarun

    This paper presents Carcel, a cloud-assisted system for autonomous driving. Carcel enables the cloud to have access to sensor data from autonomous vehicles as well as the roadside infrastructure. The cloud assists autonomous ...

  7. Aneka Cloud Application Platform and Its Integration with Windows Azure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melbourne, University of

    scheduling, and energy efficient resource utilization. The Aneka Cloud Application platform, together. Ltd., Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 2 Cloud Computing and Distributed Systems (CLOUDS) Laboratory, Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Australia Abstract

  8. Fair-weather clouds hold dirty secret | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fair-weather clouds hold dirty secret Fair-weather clouds hold dirty secret Released: May 05, 2013 New study reveals particles that seed small-scale clouds over Oklahoma Air...

  9. E-Cloud Build-up in Grooved Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Marco

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and F. Zimmermann, ”LC e-Cloud Activities at CERN”, talkal. , Simulations of the Electron Cloud for Vari- ous Con?E-CLOUD BUILD-UP IN GROOVED CHAMBERS ? M. Venturini † LBNL,

  10. Building Dynamic Computing Infrastructures over Distributed Clouds Pierre Riteau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Building Dynamic Computing Infrastructures over Distributed Clouds Pierre Riteau University--The emergence of cloud computing infrastructures brings new ways to build and manage computing systems objectives. First, leveraging virtualization and cloud computing infrastruc- tures to build distributed large

  11. Modelling Cloud Computing Infrastructure Marianne Hickey and Maher Rahmouni,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling Cloud Computing Infrastructure Marianne Hickey and Maher Rahmouni, HP Labs, Long Down, and shared vocabularies. Keywords: Modelling, Cloud Computing, RDF, Ontology, Rules, Validation 1 Introduction There is currently a shift towards cloud computing, which changes the model of provision

  12. Consistent cloud computing storage as the basis for distributed applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, James William

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Messaging in Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . .7 1.4Eucalyptus Open—Source Cloud—Computing System. In C'C&#http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Cloud-Computing/Amazons—Head—Start—

  13. CESR Conversion Damping Ring Studies of Electron Cloud Instabilities (CESR-TA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, David L.; Palmer, Mark A.

    2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In the International Linear Collider, two linear accelerators will accelerate bunches of positrons and electrons to over a hundred billion electron volts and collide them in a central detector. In order to obtain useful collision rates, the bunches, each containing twenty billion particles, must be compressed to a cross section of a few nanometers by a few hundred nanometers. In order to prepare these ultra high density bunches, damping rings (DRs) are employed before the linear accelerators. The DRs take the high emittance bunches that are provided by the electron and positron sources and, through the process of radiation damping, squeeze them into ultra low emittance beams that are ready for the main linear accelerators. In the damping rings, a number of effects can prevent the successful preparation of the beams. In the electron ring, an effect known as the fast ion instability can lead to beam growth and, in the positron ring, the build-up of an electron cloud (EC), which interacts with the circulating bunches, can produce the same effect. EC build-up and the subsequent interaction of the cloud with the positron beam in the DR have been identified as major risks for the successful construction of a linear collider. The CESRTA research program at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) was developed in order to study the build-up of the EC, the details of its impact on ultra low emittance beams, as well as methods to mitigate the impact of the cloud. In the DR, the EC forms when synchrotron photons radiated from the circulating beam strike the walls of the vacuum chamber, resulting in the emission of photoelectrons. These low energy electrons can be accelerated across the vacuum chamber by the electric field of the beam, and strike the walls, causing the emission of secondary electrons. The secondary electrons are subsequently accelerated into the walls yet again via the same mechanism. The result is that the EC can rapidly begin to fill the vacuum chamber. In an electron DR, the EC build-up is limited by the Coulomb repulsion. But in a positron ring, the electrons are pulled into the potential well of the beam. The resulting interaction of the circulating bunches of positrons with the EC that ultimately limits DR performance. Typically we store long trains of closely space bunches in the damping ring. The interaction of stored beam and the EC that is generated by the long train is manifested by different mechanisms: (1) The cloud focuses the beam, which causes a tune shift that increases along the bunch train as the cloud density increases. (2) The cloud electrons couple the motion of bunches along a train. Transverse motion of a leading bunch is transferred to the cloud, and subsequently to a trailing bunch which can result in a multi-bunch instability. (3) The cloud couples the positrons in the head of the bunch to those in the tail of the same bunch, which can excite a 'head-tail' instability. (4) The nonlinear fields of the EC can lead to emittance growth before the onset of instabilities. The CESRTA collaboration, which includes researchers from Cornell University's Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics as well as more than 50 senior staff members from over a dozen accelerator laboratories and universities around the world, has operated CESR as a damping ring for the past three years to study these EC effects. A range of specialized instrumentation has been deployed to study the local build-up of the cloud in the vacuum chambers as well as the complicated dynamics exhibited when the beam and the EC interact. The program has significantly advanced our understanding of these issues and has helped identify the most promising methods to mitigate the impact of the EC on the DR beams. It has pointed the way towards a DR design that can meet the stringent specifications of the ILC.

  14. The Formation and Fragmentation of Primordial Molecular Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, T; Norman, M L; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg L.; Norman, Michael L.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many questions in physical cosmology regarding the thermal history of the intergalactic medium, chemical enrichment, reionization, etc. are thought to be intimately related to the nature and evolution of pregalactic structure. In particular the efficiency of primordial star formation and the primordial IMF are of special interest. We present results from high resolution three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations that follow the collapse of primordial molecular clouds and their subsequent fragmentation within a cosmologically representative volume. Comoving scales from 128 kpc down to 0.5 pc are followed accurately. Dark matter dynamics, hydrodynamics and all relevant chemical and radiative processes (cooling) are followed self-consistently for a cluster normalized CDM structure formation model. Primordial molecular clouds with ~100,000 solar masses are assembled by mergers of multiple objects that have formed hydrogen molecules in the gas phase with a fractional abundance of 11eV is very small.

  15. The Formation and Fragmentation of Primordial Molecular Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, T; Norman, M L; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg L.; Norman, Michael L.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many questions in physical cosmology regarding the thermal history of theintergalactic medium, chemical enrichment, reionization, etc. are thought to beintimately related to the nature and evolution of pregalactic structure. Inparticular the efficiency of primordial star formation and the primordial IMFare of special interest. We present results from high resolutionthree--dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations that follow thecollapse of primordial molecular clouds and their subsequent fragmentationwithin a cosmologically representative volume. Comoving scales from 128 kpcdown to 1 pc are followed accurately. Dark matter dynamics, hydrodynamics andall relevant chemical and radiative processes (cooling) are followedself-consistently for a cluster normalized CDM structure formation model.Primordial molecular clouds with ~10^5 solar masses are assembled by mergers ofmultiple objects that have formed hydrogen molecules in the gas phase with afractional abundance of ~10^-4. As the subclumps merge cooling ...

  16. Benchmarking Electron-Cloud Build-Up and Heat-Load Simulations against Large-Hadron-Collider Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, O; Maury, H; Rumolo, G; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After reviewing the basic features of electron clouds in particle accelerators, the pertinent vacuum-chamber surface properties, and the electron-cloud simulation tools in use at CERN, we report recent observations of electron-cloud phenomena at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and ongoing attempts to benchmark the measured LHC vacuum pressure increases and heat loads against electron-cloud build-up simulations aimed at determining the actual surface parameters and at monitoring the so-called scrubbing process. Finally, some other electron-cloud studies related to the LHC are mentioned, and future study plans are described. Presented at MulCoPim2011, Valencia, Spain, 21-23 September 2011.

  17. The Diurnal Cycle of Clouds and Precipitation along the Sierra Madre Occidental Observed during NAME-2004: Implications for Warm Season Precipitation Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    . Ground-based precipitation retrievals from the NAME Event Rain Gauge Network (NERN) and Colorado State University­National Center for Atmospheric Research (CSU­NCAR) version 2 radar composites over the southern due to changes in the depth and vigor of shallow clouds and mixed-phase cloud depths

  18. Research & Development of Materials/Processing Methods for Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) Phase 2 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szweda, A.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) Initiative that begun in 1992 has led the way for Industry, Academia, and Government to carry out a 10 year R&D plan to develop CFCCs for these industrial applications. In Phase II of this program, Dow Corning has led a team of OEM's, composite fabricators, and Government Laboratories to develop polymer derived CFCC materials and processes for selected industrial applications. During this phase, Dow Corning carried extensive process development and representative component demonstration activities on gas turbine components, chemical pump components and heat treatment furnace components.

  19. The Giant Molecular Cloud Environments of Infrared Dark Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Audra K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the GMC environments surrounding 10 IRDCs, based on 13CO molecular line emission from the Galactic Ring Survey. Using a range of physical scales, we measure the physical properties of the IRDCs and their surrounding molecular material extending out to radii, R, of 30pc. By comparing different methods for defining cloud boundaries and for deriving mass surface densities, Sigma, and velocity dispersions, sigma, we settled on a preferred "CE,tau,G" method of "Connected Extraction" in position-velocity space along with Gaussian fitting to opacity-corrected line profiles for velocity dispersion and mass estimation. We examine how cloud definition affects measurements of the magnitude and direction of line of sight velocity gradients and velocity dispersions, including the associated dependencies on size scale. CE,tau,G-defined IRDCs and GMCs show velocity gradient versus size relations that scale approximately as dv_0/ds~s^(-1/2) and velocity dispersion versus size relations sigma~s^(1/2), which are consi...

  20. Electron Cloud Effects in Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, M.A.

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract We present a brief summary of various aspects of the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in accelerators. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire ?ECLOUD? series [1?22]. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences [23] contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series [24] contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC [25].

  1. ARM - Lesson Plans: Making Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, Alaska OutreachMaking Clouds Outreach Home

  2. Sandia Energy - Cloud Computing Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatings Initiated at PNNL's Sequim BayCaptureCloud Computing Services

  3. Development and testing of parameterizations for continental and tropical ice cloud microphysical and radiative properties in GCM and mesoscale models. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heymsfield, A.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this research was to exploit measurements in clouds sampled during several field programs, especially from experiments in tropical regions, in a four-component study to develop and validate cloud parameterizations for general circulation models, emphasizing ice clouds. The components were: (1) parameterization of basic properties of mid- and upper-tropospheric clouds, such as condensed water content, primarily with respect to cirrus from tropical areas; (2) the second component was to develop parameterizations which express cloud radiative properties in terms of basic cloud microphysical properties, dealing primarily with tropical oceanic cirrus clouds and continental thunderstorm anvils, but also including altocumulus clouds; (3) the third component was to validate the parameterizations through use of ground-based measurements calibrated using existing and planned in-situ measurements of cloud microphysical properties and bulk radiative properties, as well as time-resolved data collected over extended periods of time; (4) the fourth component was to implement the parameterizations in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) community climate model (CCM) II or in the NOAA-GFDL model (by L. Donner GFDL) and to perform sensitivity studies.

  4. Fine-scale Horizontal Structure of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rambukkange,M.; Verlinde, J.; Elorante, E.; Luke, E.; Kollias, P.; Shupe, M.

    2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent in situ observations in stratiform clouds suggest that mixed phase regimes, here defined as limited cloud volumes containing both liquid and solid water, are constrained to narrow layers (order 100 m) separating all-liquid and fully glaciated volumes (Hallett and Viddaurre, 2005). The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (DOE-ARM, Ackerman and Stokes, 2003) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) recently started collecting routine measurement of radar Doppler velocity power spectra from the Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR). Shupe et al. (2004) showed that Doppler spectra has potential to separate the contributions to the total reflectivity of the liquid and solid water in the radar volume, and thus to investigate further Hallett and Viddaurre's findings. The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) was conducted along the NSA to investigate the properties of Arctic mixed phase clouds (Verlinde et al., 2006). We present surface based remote sensing data from MPACE to discuss the fine-scale structure of the mixed-phase clouds observed during this experiment.

  5. Refinement, Validation and Application of Cloud-Radiation Parameterization in a GCM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Graeme L. Stephens

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The research performed under this award was conducted along 3 related fronts: (1) Refinement and assessment of parameterizations of sub-grid scale radiative transport in GCMs. (2) Diagnostic studies that use ARM observations of clouds and convection in an effort to understand the effects of moist convection on its environment, including how convection influences clouds and radiation. This aspect focuses on developing and testing methodologies designed to use ARM data more effectively for use in atmospheric models, both at the cloud resolving model scale and the global climate model scale. (3) Use (1) and (2) in combination with both models and observations of varying complexity to study key radiation feedback Our work toward these objectives thus involved three corresponding efforts. First, novel diagnostic techniques were developed and applied to ARM observations to understand and characterize the effects of moist convection on the dynamical and thermodynamical environment in which it occurs. Second, an in house GCM radiative transfer algorithm (BUGSrad) was employed along with an optimal estimation cloud retrieval algorithm to evaluate the ability to reproduce cloudy-sky radiative flux observations. Assessments using a range of GCMs with various moist convective parameterizations to evaluate the fidelity with which the parameterizations reproduce key observable features of the environment were also started in the final year of this award. The third study area involved the study of cloud radiation feedbacks and we examined these in both cloud resolving and global climate models.

  6. Cloud a particle beam facility to investigate the influence of cosmic rays on clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Palaeoclimatic data provide extensive evidence for solar forcing of the climate during the Holocene and the last ice age, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. However recent observations suggest that cosmic rays may play a key role. Satellite data have revealed a surprising correlation between cosmic ray intensity and the fraction of the Earth covered by low clouds \\cite{svensmark97,marsh}. Since the cosmic ray intensity is modulated by the solar wind, this may be an important clue to the long-sought mechanism for solar-climate variability. In order to test whether cosmic rays and clouds are causally linked and, if so, to understand the microphysical mechanisms, a novel experiment known as CLOUD\\footnotemark\\ has been proposed \\cite{cloud_proposal}--\\cite{cloud_addendum_2}. CLOUD proposes to investigate ion-aerosol-cloud microphysics under controlled laboratory conditions using a beam from a particle accelerator, which provides a precisely adjustable and measurable artificial source of cosmic rays....

  7. CloneCloud: Boosting Mobile Device Applications Through Cloud Clone Execution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun, Byung-Gon; Maniatis, Petros; Naik, Mayur

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobile applications are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and provide ever richer functionality on mobile devices. At the same time, such devices often enjoy strong connectivity with more powerful machines ranging from laptops and desktops to commercial clouds. This paper presents the design and implementation of CloneCloud, a system that automatically transforms mobile applications to benefit from the cloud. The system is a flexible application partitioner and execution runtime that enables unmodified mobile applications running in an application-level virtual machine to seamlessly off-load part of their execution from mobile devices onto device clones operating in a computational cloud. CloneCloud uses a combination of static analysis and dynamic profiling to optimally and automatically partition an application so that it migrates, executes in the cloud, and re-integrates computation in a fine-grained manner that makes efficient use of resources. Our evaluation shows that CloneCloud can achieve up to 21.2x s...

  8. Public Cloud B CarbonEmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    Sensors, Demand Prediction Power Capping, Green Software Services such as energy-efficient scientific) Request a Cloud service 4) Allocate service 5) Request service allocation 3) Request energy efficiency information Green Offer Directory 2) Request any `Green Offer' Routers Internet Green Broker #12;Cloud

  9. The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Stefan

    Nets Network Virtualization Architecture Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de 05. Februar, 2014 Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture #12;..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture #12

  10. 7, 80878111, 2007 Influence of cloud top

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 8087­8111, 2007 Influence of cloud top variability on radiative transfer Richter, Barfus top variability from radar measurements on 3-D radiative transfer F. Richter 1 , K. Barfus 1 , F. H.richter@awi.de) 8087 #12;ACPD 7, 8087­8111, 2007 Influence of cloud top variability on radiative transfer Richter

  11. Verifiable Resource Accounting for Cloud Computing Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maniatis, Petros

    Verifiable Resource Accounting for Cloud Computing Services Vyas Sekar Intel Labs Petros Maniatis Intel Labs ABSTRACT Cloud computing offers users the potential to reduce operating and capital expenses cause providers to incorrectly attribute resource consumption to customers or im- plicitly bear

  12. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. B. Andresen; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; C. C. Bray; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; M. C. Fujiwara; R. Funakoshi; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; R. Hydomako; M. J. Jenkins; L. V. Jorgensen; L. Kurchaninov; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; S. Seif El Nasr; D. M. Silveira; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  13. CLOUD COMPUTING INFRASTRUCTURE AND OPERATIONS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Marcus

    theory and best practices, Cloud operations analytics, globally-responsive architecture, functional of Cloud infrastructures Best practices for building Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), with an emphasis-distributed, responsive web application capable of massive scale with operational performance metrics. DePaul University

  14. Privacy in the Cloud Computing Era

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Privacy in the Cloud Computing Era A Microsoft Perspective November 2009 #12;The information information presented after the date of publication. This white paper is for informational purposes only. Microsoft Corp. · One Microsoft Way · Redmond, WA 98052-6399 · USA #12;Contents Cloud Computing and Privacy

  15. Fault Tolerance and Scaling in e-Science Cloud Applications: Observations from the Continuing Development of MODISAzure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jie; Humphrey, Marty; Cheah, You-Wei; Ryu, Youngryel; Agarwal, Deb; Jackson, Keith; Ingen, Catharine van

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It can be natural to believe that many of the traditional issues of scale have been eliminated or at least greatly reduced via cloud computing. That is, if one can create a seemingly wellfunctioning cloud application that operates correctly on small or moderate-sized problems, then the very nature of cloud programming abstractions means that the same application will run as well on potentially significantly larger problems. In this paper, we present our experiences taking MODISAzure, our satellite data processing system built on the Windows Azure cloud computing platform, from the proof-of-concept stage to a point of being able to run on significantly larger problem sizes (e.g., from national-scale data sizes to global-scale data sizes). To our knowledge, this is the longest-running eScience application on the nascent Windows Azure platform. We found that while many infrastructure-level issues were thankfully masked from us by the cloud infrastructure, it was valuable to design additional redundancy and fault-tolerance capabilities such as transparent idempotent task retry and logging to support debugging of user code encountering unanticipated data issues. Further, we found that using a commercial cloud means anticipating inconsistent performance and black-box behavior of virtualized compute instances, as well as leveraging changing platform capabilities over time. We believe that the experiences presented in this paper can help future eScience cloud application developers on Windows Azure and other commercial cloud providers.

  16. 105G.R. Asrar and J.W. Hurrell (eds.), Climate Science for Serving Society: Research, Modeling and Prediction Priorities, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-6692-1_5,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, Steven

    Abstract Aerosol cloud-mediated radiative forcing, commonly known as the aerosol indirect effect (AIE more cloud water, and increasing the cloud cover. Aerosols affect these components sometimes in harmony and uneven AIE. Process Aerosol Cloud-Mediated Radiative Forcing: Highly Uncertain and Opposite Effects from

  17. Cloud-integrated Storage What & Why 2StoreSimple White Pages: Shoring Up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Cloud Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Cloud-integrated Storage ­ What & Why #12;2StoreSimple White Pages: Shoring Up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Cloud Storage Overview..........................................................................................................3 Enterprise-class storage platform

  18. Examples of the use of PSA in the design process and to support modifications at two research reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.H.; Bley, D.C.; Lin, J.C. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Ramsey, C.T.; Linn, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many, if not most, of the world`s commercial nuclear power plants have been the subject of plant-specific probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). A growing number of other nuclear facilities as well as other types of industrial installations have been the focus of plant-specific PSAs. Such studies have provided valuable information concerning the nature of the risk of the individual facility and have been used to identify opportunities to manage that risk. This paper explores the risk management activities associated with two research reactors in the United States as a demonstration of the versatility of the use of PSA to support risk-related decision making.

  19. Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t zManufacturing:DOE NationalCommitteeof3

  20. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  1. Project Overview: Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS): Proposed Summer 2007 ASP Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Berg, Larry K.; Ogren, J. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard

    2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This white paper presents the scientific motivation and preliminary logistical plans for a proposed ASP field campaign to be carried out in the summer of 2007. The primary objective of this campaign is to use the DOE Gulfstream-1 aircraft to make measurements characterizing the chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols below, within and above large fields of fair weather cumulus and to use the NASA Langley Research Center’s High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make independent measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles in the vicinity of these fields. Separate from the science questions to be addressed by these observations will be information to add in the development of a parameterized cumulus scheme capable of including multiple cloud fields within a regional or global scale model. We will also be able to compare and contrast the cloud and aerosol properties within and outside the Oklahoma City plume to study aerosol processes within individual clouds. Preliminary discussions with the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) science team have identified overlap between the science questions posed for the CLASIC Intensive Operation Period (IOP) and the proposed ASP campaign, suggesting collaboration would benefit both teams.

  2. The Design-Build Process for the Research Support Facility (RSF), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGESafetyTed5,Audit Report TheDesign-Build Process

  3. Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Chunsong; Liu, Yangang; Niu, Shengjie; Endo, Satoshi

    2014-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This work empirically examines the dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms on the averaging scale in cumulus clouds using in situ aircraft observations during the Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Aerial Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. A new measure of homogeneous mixing degree is defined that can encompass all types of mixing mechanisms. Analysis of the dependence of the homogenous mixing degree on the averaging scale shows that, on average, the homogenous mixing degree decreases with increasing averaging scales, suggesting that apparent mixing mechanisms gradually approach from homogeneous mixing to extreme inhomogeneous mixing with increasingmore »scales. The scale dependence can be well quantified by an exponential function, providing first attempt at developing a scale-dependent parameterization for the entrainment-mixing mechanism. The influences of three factors on the scale dependence are further examined: droplet-free filament properties (size and fraction), microphysical properties (mean volume radius and liquid water content of cloud droplet size distributions adjacent to droplet-free filaments), and relative humidity of entrained dry air. It is found that the decreasing rate of homogeneous mixing degree with increasing averaging scales becomes larger with larger droplet-free filament size and fraction, larger mean volume radius and liquid water content, or higher relative humidity. The results underscore the necessity and possibility of considering averaging scale in representation of entrainment-mixing processes in atmospheric models.« less

  4. Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Chunsong [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters; Chinese Acadamy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.; Liu, Yangang [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.; Niu, Shengjie [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters; Endo, Satoshi [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.

    2014-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This work empirically examines the dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms on the averaging scale in cumulus clouds using in situ aircraft observations during the Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Aerial Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. A new measure of homogeneous mixing degree is defined that can encompass all types of mixing mechanisms. Analysis of the dependence of the homogenous mixing degree on the averaging scale shows that, on average, the homogenous mixing degree decreases with increasing averaging scales, suggesting that apparent mixing mechanisms gradually approach from homogeneous mixing to extreme inhomogeneous mixing with increasing scales. The scale dependence can be well quantified by an exponential function, providing first attempt at developing a scale-dependent parameterization for the entrainment-mixing mechanism. The influences of three factors on the scale dependence are further examined: droplet-free filament properties (size and fraction), microphysical properties (mean volume radius and liquid water content of cloud droplet size distributions adjacent to droplet-free filaments), and relative humidity of entrained dry air. It is found that the decreasing rate of homogeneous mixing degree with increasing averaging scales becomes larger with larger droplet-free filament size and fraction, larger mean volume radius and liquid water content, or higher relative humidity. The results underscore the necessity and possibility of considering averaging scale in representation of entrainment-mixing processes in atmospheric models.

  5. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds (comstock-hvps)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike; Comstock, Jennifer; Genio, Anthony Del; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth's energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and their link to the hydrological cycle. Accurate representation of convective processes in numerical models is vital towards improving current and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales important to convective processes and therefore must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, parameterization schemes in cloud-resolving models need to be evaluated for their generality and application to a variety of atmospheric conditions. Data from field campaigns with appropriate forcing descriptors have been traditionally used by modelers for evaluating and improving parameterization schemes.

  6. Radiation Parameterization for Three-Dimensional Inhomogeneous Cirrus Clouds Applied to ARM Data and Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo-Nan Liou

    2003-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK-B135 (a) We developed a 3D radiative transfer model to simulate the transfer of solar and thermal infrared radiation in inhomogeneous cirrus clouds. The model utilized a diffusion approximation approach (four-term expansion in the intensity) employing Cartesian coordinates. The required single-scattering parameters, including the extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor, for input to the model, were parameterized in terms of the ice water content and mean effective ice crystal size. The incorporation of gaseous absorption in multiple scattering atmospheres was accomplished by means of the correlated k-distribution approach. In addition, the strong forward diffraction nature in the phase function was accounted for in each predivided spatial grid based on a delta-function adjustment. The radiation parameterization developed herein is applied to potential cloud configurations generated from GCMs to investigate broken clouds and cloud-overlapping effects on the domain-averaged heating rate. Cloud inhomogeneity plays an important role in the determination of flux and heating rate distributions. Clouds with maximum overlap tend to produce less heating than those with random overlap. Broken clouds show more solar heating as well as more IR cooling as compared to a continuous cloud field (Gu and Liou, 2001). (b) We incorporated a contemporary radiation parameterization scheme in the UCLA atmospheric GCM in collaboration with the UCLA GCM group. In conjunction with the cloud/radiation process studies, we developed a physically-based cloud cover formation scheme in association with radiation calculations. The model clouds were first vertically grouped in terms of low, middle, and high types. Maximum overlap was then used for each cloud type, followed by random overlap among the three cloud types. Fu and Liou's 1D radiation code with modification was subsequently employed for pixel-by-pixel radiation calculations in the UCLA GCM. We showed that the simulated cloud cover and OLR fields without special tuning are comparable to those of ISCCP dataset and the results derived from radiation budget experiments. Use of the new radiation and cloud schemes enhances the radiative warming in the middle to upper tropical troposphere and alleviates the cold bias in the UCLA atmospheric GCM. We also illustrated that ice crystal size and cloud inhomogeneous are significant factors affecting the radiation budgets at the top of the atmosphere and the surface (Gu et al. 2003). (c) An innovative approach has been developed to construct a 3D field of inhomogeneous clouds in general and cirrus in particular in terms of liquid/ice water content and particle size on the basis of a unification of satellite and ground-based cloud radar data. Satellite remote sensing employing the current narrow-band spectro-radiometers has limitation and only the vertically integrated cloud parameters (optical depth and mean particle size) can be determined. However, by combining the horizontal cloud mapping inferred from satellites with the vertical structure derived from the profiling Doppler cloud radar, a 3D cloud field can be constructed. This represents a new conceptual approach to 3D remote sensing and imaging and offers a new perspective in observing the cloud structure. We applied this novel technique to AVHRR/NOAA satellite and mm-wave cloud radar data obtained from the ARM achieve and assessed the 3D cirrus cloud field with the ice crystal size distributions independently derived from optical probe measurements aboard the University of North Dakota Citation. The retrieved 3D ice water content and mean effective ice crystal size involving an impressive cirrus cloud occurring on April 18, 1997, are shown to be comparable to those derived from the analysis of collocated and coincident in situ aircraft measurements (Liou et al. 2002). (d) Detection of thin cirrus with optical depths less than 0.5, particularly those occurring i n the tropics remains a fundamental problem in remote sensing. We developed a new detection scheme for the

  7. Magnetic Fields in Molecular Cloud Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shantanu Basu

    2004-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations of magnetic field strengths imply that molecular cloud fragments are individually close to being in a magnetically critical state, even though both magnetic field and column density measurements range over two orders of magnitude. The turbulent pressure also approximately balances the self-gravitational pressure. These results together mean that the one-dimensional velocity dispersion $\\sigv$ is proportional to the mean \\Alf speed of a cloud $\\va$. Global models of MHD turbulence in a molecular cloud show that this correlation is naturally satisfied for a range of different driving strengths of the turbulence. For example, an increase of turbulent driving causes a cloud expansion which also increases $\\va$. Clouds are in a time averaged balance but exhibit large oscillatory motions, particularly in their outer rarefied regions. We also discuss models of gravitational fragmentation in a sheet-like region in which turbulence has already dissipated, including the effects of magnetic fields and ion-neutral friction. Clouds with near-critical mass-to-flux ratios lead to subsonic infall within cores, consistent with some recent observations of motions in starless cores. Conversely, significantly supercritical clouds are expected to produce extended supersonic infall.

  8. Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the role which clouds could play in resolving the Faint Young Sun Paradox (FYSP). Lower solar luminosity in the past means that less energy was absorbed on Earth (a forcing of -50 Wm-2 during the late Archean), but geological evidence points to the Earth being at least as warm as it is today, with only very occasional glaciations. We perform radiative calculations on a single global mean atmospheric column. We select a nominal set of three layered, randomly overlapping clouds, which are both consistent with observed cloud climatologies and reproduce the observed global mean energy budget of Earth. By varying the fraction, thickness, height and particle size of these clouds we conduct a wide exploration of how changed clouds could affect climate, thus constraining how clouds could contribute to resolving the FYSP. Low clouds reflect sunlight but have little greenhouse effect. Removing them entirely gives a~forcing of +25 Wm-2 whilst more modest reduction in their efficacy gives a forcing of +10 ...

  9. Basic Electropolishing Process Research and Development in Support of Improved Reliable Performance SRF Cavities for the Future Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Tian, C.E. Reece,M.J. Kelley

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future accelerators require unprecedented cavity performance, which is strongly influenced by interior surface nanosmoothness. Electropolishing is the technique of choice to be developed for high-field superconducting radiofrequency cavities. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and related techniques point to the electropolishing mechanism of Nb in a sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid electrolyte of controlled by a compact surface salt film under F- diffusion-limited mass transport control. These and other findings are currently guiding a systematic characterization to form the basis for cavity process optimization, such as flowrate, electrolyte composition and temperature. This integrated analysis is expected to provide optimum EP parameter sets for a controlled, reproducible and uniform surface leveling for Nb SRF cavities.

  10. Retrieval of optical and microphysical properties of ice clouds using Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinney, Jacqueline Anne

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is based on a method proposed by Yang et al. (2005). The research examines single-layer ice clouds in the midlatitude and polar regions. The retrieved information in the midlatitudes is then verified using retrievals from the Moderate-resolution Imaging...

  11. Segmentation of building models from dense 3D point-clouds Joachim Bauer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindler, Konrad

    , Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology {bauer,karner,klausSegmentation of building models from dense 3D point-clouds Joachim Bauer , Konrad Karner , Konrad Schindler , Andreas Klaus , Christopher Zach VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization

  12. 2013 Faculty Publications A Cloud-Based Framework for Automating MODFLOW Simulations for Aquifer Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    2013 Faculty Publications A Cloud-Based Framework for Automating MODFLOW Simulations for Aquifer Performance-Based Liquefaction Triggering Models for the SPT. Seismological Society of America 2013 Annual. A Simplified Uniform Hazard Liquefaction Analysis Procedure for Bridges. Transportation Research Record. Kevin

  13. A Taxonomy and Survey of Energy-Efficient Data Centers and Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    A Taxonomy and Survey of Energy-Efficient Data Centers and Cloud Computing Systems Anton Beloglazov and classify the research on power and energy-efficient design conducted to date. In this work we discuss causes and problems of high power / energy consumption, and present a taxonomy of energy-efficient design

  14. PSCloud: A Durable Context-Aware Personal Storage Cloud Sobir Bazarbayev, Matti Hiltunen, Kaustubh Joshi,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    &T Labs Research Abstract Personal content from mobile devices is often irre- placeable, yet current's mo- bile devices, home servers, and cloud storage accounts to create a single unified personal of the user's devices. This represents a signifi- cant challenge given the increasing volume of a person

  15. Modeling aerosol growth by aqueous chemistry in nonprecipitating stratiform cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Easter, Richard C.

    2010-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new microphysics module based on a two-dimensional (2D) joint size distribution function representing both interstitial and cloud particles is developed and applied to studying aerosol processing in non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds. The module is implemented in a three-dimensional dynamical framework of a large-eddy simulation (LES) model and in a trajectory ensemble model (TEM). Both models are used to study the modification of sulfate aerosol by the activation - aqueous chemistry - resuspension cycle in shallow marine stratocumulus clouds. The effect of particle mixing and different size-distribution representations on modeled aerosol processing are studied in a comparison of the LES and TEM simulations with the identical microphysics treatment exposes and a comparison of TEM simulations with a 2D fixed and moving bin microphysics. Particle mixing which is represented in LES and neglected in the TEM leads to the mean relative per particle dry mass change in the TEM simulations being about 30% lower than in analogous subsample of LES domain. Particles in the final LES spectrum are mixed in from different “parcels”, some of which have experienced longer in-cloud residence times than the TEM parcels, all of which originated in the subcloud layer, have. The mean relative per particle dry mass change differs by 14% between TEM simulations with fixed and moving bin microphysics. Finally, the TEM model with the moving bin microphysics is used to evaluate assumptions about liquid water mass partitioning among activated cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of different dry sizes. These assumptions are used in large-scale models to map the bulk aqueous chemistry sulfate production, which is largely proportional to the liquid water mass, to the changes in aerosol size distribution. It is shown that the commonly used assumptions that the droplet mass is independent of CCN size or that the droplet mass is proportional to the CCN size to the third power do not perform well in the considered case. The explicitly predicted water partitioning indicates that the mean mass of droplets participating in the models aqueous chemistry calculations is proportional to the dry CCN size.

  16. Securely Managing Cryptographic Keys used within a Cloud Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Co-tenancy, Distributed Management Cryptography essential to secure cloud operations Use of sound;Page 3 Cloud Service Provider (CSP) - Models Cloud Service Models Software as a Service (Saa CSP know who I am? How is my connection to cloud components protected? Administration Who

  17. Proximity Graphs for Defining Surfaces over Point Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, Sven

    over Point Clouds Gabriel Zachmann University of Bonn Germany Jan Klein University of Paderborn Germany

  18. The aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds is quantified using measured reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol polluted cloud scenes and modeled reflectance spectra of unpolluted cloud scenes. The cloud reflectance spectra are read from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    distribution of clouds and aerosols along the white CALIPSO track in Fig.1b is shown in Fig. 2. The distanceThe aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds is quantified using measured reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol polluted cloud scenes and modeled reflectance spectra of unpolluted cloud

  19. CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration of warm convective clouds Ilan Koren,1 * Guy Dagan,1 Orit Altaratz1 Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a warm base

  20. Fault-Tolerant and Reliable Computation in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Jing

    Fault-Tolerant and Reliable Computation in Cloud Computing Jing Deng Scott C.-H. Huang Yunghsiang S, Taipei, 106 Taiwan. § Intelligent Automation, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA. Abstract-- Cloud computing of scientific computation in cloud computing. We investigate a cloud selection strategy to decompose the matrix

  1. IBM Tivoli Cloud Computing: Technical Enablement for IBM Business Partners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IBM Tivoli Cloud Computing: Technical Enablement for IBM Business Partners Cloud computing is a key part of driving greater alignment between business and IT. IBM Service Management and Cloud Computing to the IBM technical community. IBM Cloud Computing Business Partner Technical Enablement Offering

  2. Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Rachel L. Atlas1' gas-phase emissions and the aerosols they form (figure 6), including a cloud condensation nuclei Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are particles which water vapor condenses onto to form cloud droplets

  3. OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY (OSU) TRAINING RESEARCH ISOTOPE GENERAL ATOMICS (TRIGA) OVERPACK CLOSURE WELDING PROCESS PARAMETER DEVELOPMENT & QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2006-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the Oregon State University (OSU) TRIGA{reg_sign} Reactor is currently being stored in thirteen 55-gallon drums at the Hanford Site's low-level burial grounds. This fuel is soon to be retrieved from buried storage and packaged into new containers (overpacks) for interim storage at the Hanford Interim Storage Area (ISA). One of the key activities associated with this effort is final closure of the overpack by welding. The OSU fuel is placed into an overpack, a head inserted into the overpack top, and welded closed. Weld quality, for typical welded fabrication, is established through post-weld testing and nondestructive examination (NDE); however, in this case, once the SNF is placed into the overpack, routine testing and NDE are not feasible. An alternate approach is to develop and qualify the welding process/parameters, demonstrate beforehand that they produce the desired weld quality, and then verify parameter compliance during production welding. Fluor engineers have developed a Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) technique and parameters, demonstrating that weld quality requirements for closure of packaged SNF overpacks are met, using this alternate approach. The following reviews the activities performed for this development and qualification effort.

  4. NIST Cloud Computing Strategy working paper, April 2011 1 of 25 NIST Strategy to build a USG Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NIST Cloud Computing Strategy working paper, April 2011 1 of 25 NIST Strategy to build a USG Cloud of United States Government (USG) secure and effective adoption of the Cloud Computing2 model to reduce costs and improve services. The working document describes the NIST Cloud Computing program efforts

  5. Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks using Cloud1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Dennis

    Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks using Cloud1 Property Histograms.2 Part II: Attribution to the Nature of Cloud Changes3 Mark D-103 Livermore, CA 94551 E-mail: zelinka1@llnl.gov 1 #12;ABSTRACT7 Cloud radiative kernels

  6. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CLOUD COMPUTING, VOL. XX, NO. X, XXXX 1 Cloud Federations in the Sky: Formation Game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosu, Daniel

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CLOUD COMPUTING, VOL. XX, NO. X, XXXX 1 Cloud Federations in the Sky federation, virtual machine, game theory. 1 INTRODUCTION CLOUDS are large-scale distributed computing sys (VM) instances. Cloud computing systems' ability to provide on de- mand access to always-on computing

  7. Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based Shortwave Radiation Measurements: A Comparison of 16 Year Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Yu; Liu, Yangang; Long, Charles N.; Min, Qilong

    2014-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-based radiation measurements have been widely conducted to gain information on clouds and the surface radiation budget; here several different techniques for retrieving cloud fraction (Long2006, Min2008 and XL2013) and cloud albedo (Min2008, Liu2011 and XL2013) from ground-based shortwave broadband and spectral radiation measurements are examined, and sixteen years of retrievals collected at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are compared. The comparison shows overall good agreement between the retrievals of both cloud fraction and cloud albedo, with noted differences however. The Long2006 and Min2008 cloud fractions are greater on average than the XL2013 values. Compared to Min2008 and Liu2011, the XL2013 retrieval of cloud albedo tends to be greater for thin clouds but smaller for thick clouds, with the differences decreasing with increasing cloud fraction. Further analysis reveals that the approaches that retrieve cloud fraction and cloud albedo separately may suffer from mutual contamination of errors in retrieved cloud fraction and cloud albedo. Potential influences of cloud absorption, land-surface albedo, cloud structure, and measurement instruments are explored.

  8. Evaluation of Mixed-Phase Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations with the NCAR Single Column Climate Model (SCAM) and ARM Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X; Ghan, SJ; Xie, S

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed-phase stratus clouds are ubiquitous in the Arctic and play an important role in climate in this region. However, climate models have generally proven unsuccessful at simulating the partitioning of condensed water into liquid droplets and ice crystals in these Arctic clouds, which affect modeled cloud phase, cloud lifetime and radiative properties. An ice nucleation parameterization and a vapor deposition scheme were developed that together provide a physically-consistent treatment of mixed-phase clouds in global climate models. These schemes have been implemented in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 (CAM3). This report documents the performance of these schemes against ARM Mixed-phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) observations using the CAM single column model version (SCAM). SCAM with our new schemes has a more realistic simulation of the cloud phase structure and the partitioning of condensed water into liquid droplets against observations during the M-PACE than the standard CAM simulations.

  9. Pre-Cloud Aerosol, Cloud Droplet Concentration, and Cloud Condensation Nuclei from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study (VOCALS) Field Campaign First Quarter 2010 ASR Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman, LI; Springston, SR; Daum, PH; Lee, Y-N; Sedlacek, AJ; Senum, G; Wang, J

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this, the first of a series of Program Metric Reports, we (1) describe archived data from the DOE G-1 aircraft, (2) illustrate several relations between sub-cloud aerosol, CCN, and cloud droplets pertinent to determining the effects of pollutant sources on cloud properties, and (3) post to the data archive an Excel spreadsheet that contains cloud and corresponding sub-cloud data.

  10. Development and testing of an aerosol/stratus cloud parameterization scheme for middle and high latitudes. Year 3 technical progress report, November 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreidenweis, S.M.; Cotton, W.R.

    1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    At the present time, general circulation models (GCMs) poorly represent clouds, to the extent that they cannot be relied upon to simulate the climatic effects of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, or of anthropogenic perturbations to concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN). The net radiative forcing of clouds varies strongly with latitude. Poleward of 30 degrees in both hemispheres, low-level clouds create a net cooling effect corresponding to radiative divergences of {minus}50 to {minus}100 W/m{sup 2}. It is likely that a combination of fogs, boundary-layer stratocumulus, and stratus clouds are the main contributors to this forcing. Models of the response of the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds to changes in aerosol abundance, for a variety of large-scale meteorological forcings, are important additions to GCMs used for the study of the role of Arctic systems in global climate. The overall objective of this research is the development of an aerosol/cloud microphysics parameterization of mixed-phase stratus and boundary-layer clouds which responds to variations in CCN and IN. The parameterization is to be designed for ultimate use in GCM simulations as a tool in understanding the role of CCN, IN, and Arctic clouds in radiation budgets. Several versions of the CSU RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) will be used during the course of this work. The parameterizations developed in this research are intended for application in a single-column cloud model, designed as an adaptive grid model which can interface into a GCM vertical grid through distinct layers of the troposphere where the presence of layer clouds is expected.

  11. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  12. EVENT CLOUDS : lighter than air architectural structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peydro Duclos, Ignacio

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EVENT CLOUD is a versatile covering system that allows events to happen independently to weather conditions. It consists of a lighter than air pneumatic structure, filled either with helium or hot air, that covers spaces ...

  13. Uranus at equinox: Cloud morphology and dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sromovsky, Lawrence; Hammel, Heidi; Ahue, William; de Pater, Imke; Rages, Kathy; Showalter, Mark; van Dam, Marcos

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the 7 December 2007 equinox of Uranus approached, ring and atmosphere observers produced a substantial collection of observations using the 10-m Keck telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope. Those spanning the period from 7 June 2007 through 9 September 2007 we used to identify and track cloud features, determine atmospheric motions, characterize cloud morphology and dynamics, and define changes in atmospheric band structure. We confirmed the existence of the suspected northern hemisphere prograde jet, locating its peak near 58 N, and extended wind speed measurements to 73 N. For 28 cloud features we obtained extremely high wind-speed accuracy through extended tracking times. The new results confirm a small N-S asymmetry in the zonal wind profile, and the lack of any change in the southern hemisphere between 1986 (near solstice) and 2007 (near equinox) suggests that the asymmetry may be permanent rather than seasonally reversing. In the 2007 images we found two prominent groups of discrete cloud features ...

  14. Enabling Scalable Cloud Computing | Argonne Leadership Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Scalable Cloud Computing Event Sponsor: Mathematics and Computer Science Division Start Date: Apr 9 2015 - 11:00am BuildingRoom: Building 240Room 4301 Location: Argonne...

  15. Factors shaping the future of Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francis, Steven (Steven Douglas)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many different forces are currently shaping the future of the Cloud Computing Market. End user demand and end user investment in existing technology are important drivers. Vendor innovation and competitive strategy are ...

  16. QER- Comment of Cloud Peak Energy Inc

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear Ms Pickett Please find attached comments from Cloud Peak Energy as input to the Department of Energy’s Quadrennial Energy Review. If possible I would appreciate a confirmation that this email has been received Thank you.

  17. HPC CLOUD APPLIED TO LATTICE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Changchun; Nishimura, Hiroshi; James, Susan; Song, Kai; Muriki, Krishna; Qin, Yong

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    As Cloud services gain in popularity for enterprise use, vendors are now turning their focus towards providing cloud services suitable for scientific computing. Recently, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) introduced the new Cluster Compute Instances (CCI), a new instance type specifically designed for High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. At Berkeley Lab, the physicists at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) have been running Lattice Optimization on a local cluster, but the queue wait time and the flexibility to request compute resources when needed are not ideal for rapid development work. To explore alternatives, for the first time we investigate running the Lattice Optimization application on Amazon's new CCI to demonstrate the feasibility and trade-offs of using public cloud services for science.

  18. Exploiting weather forecast data for cloud detection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackie, Shona

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate, fast detection of clouds in satellite imagery has many applications, for example Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and climate studies of both the atmosphere and of the Earth’s surface temperature. Most ...

  19. Aircraft induced cirrus cloud First year report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    and coagulation. A resulting size distribution of ice crystals is deemed indicative of contrail cirrus cloud model operates, simulating the life cycle of aerosol and ice particles: nucleation, condensation

  20. SAGE Application Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application Process SAGE Application Process A National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates program Contacts Institute Director Harald Dogliani-Los Alamos...