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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Anode Baking/Anode Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 17, 2010... introducing a new state-of-the-art firing system, replacing the waste gas ... In this test, an anode core sample is exposed to CO2 at 960°C for 7 ...

2

Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed reactor system at Building 9212. Draft environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is Iocated within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The current AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems were designed and constructed more than 40 years ago. Because of their deteriorating condition, the corrosive nature of the materials processed, and the antiquated design philosophy upon which they are based, their long-term reliability cannot be assured. The current AHF supply system cannot mitigate an accidental release of AHF and vents fugitive AHF directly to the atmosphere during operations. the proposed action would reduce the risk of exposing the Y-12 Plant work force, the public, and the environment to an accidental release of AHF and would ensure the continuing ability of the Y-12 Plant to manufacture highly enriched uranium metal and process uranium from retired weapons for storage.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Anode Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 6   Properties of polymeric mesh anodes used for construction applications...(a) Average current output

4

Microsoft PowerPoint - NanoAnode for Li-ion Batteries SRNL-L9100...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries at a glance patent pending increase energy density longer cyclic life replaces graphite anodes simple and lower cost...

5

Anodic films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Surface layers are formed on many metals by anodic reaction. Such layers include the products of charge and discharge in many storage batteries, dielectric films used in electronic and optical circuits and display devices, layers responsible for passivity and corrosion protection, and films generated in metal shaping and finishing operations such as anodization, coloring, electropolishing, electrochemical machining and deburring. Anodic films are formed by solid-solid transformations or by dissolution-precipitation processes. Film properties and mechanisms of formation can be determined in situ by a number of optical techniques which have recently become available.

Muller, R.H.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Anodizing Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Typical products for which anodizing is used in final finishing...ft by 7 by 4 6063-T6 (d) Sulfuric acid (e) Seal, lacquer (f) Urban atmosphere Name plates Various sizes Various sizes 3003â??1114 (g) Sulfuric acid Dye, seal Atmospheric exposure Percolator shell 125 mm diam by 150 5 in. diam by 6 â?¦ Buff, chemical brighten Sulfuric acid Seal Coffee Seaplane-hull skin 2850...

7

Understanding Anode Overpotential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial carbon anodes are produced from coke blends, but the effect of coke type on anodic overpotential has not been well studied. In this work, lab-scale ...

8

An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no measurable anode weight loss during this time period. Quantitative chemical analysis of the anode surface showed that the lead content after testing remained at its initial level. No lead dissolution or transfer from the anode to the product occurred.A key benefit of the titanium-lead anode design is that cobalt additions to copper electrolyte should be eliminated. Cobalt is added to the electrolyte to help stabilize the lead oxide surface of conventional lead anodes. The presence of the titanium intimately mixed with the lead should eliminate the need for cobalt stabilization of the lead surface. The anode should last twice as long as the conventional lead anode. Energy savings should be achieved due to minimizing and stabilizing the anode-cathode distance in the electrowinning cells. The anode is easily substitutable into existing tankhouses without a rectifier change.The copper electrowinning test data indicate that the titanium-lead anode is a good candidate for further testing as a possible replacement for a conventional lead anode. A key consideration is the cost. Titanium costs have increased. One of the ways to get the anode cost down is manufacturing the anodes with fewer cylinders. Additional prototypes having different number of cylinders were constructed for a long-term commercial testing in a circuit without cobalt. The objective of the testing is to evaluate the need for cobalt, investigate the effect of decreasing the number of cylinders on the anode performance, and to optimize further the anode design in order to meet the operating requirements, minimize the voltage, maximize the life of the anode, and to balance this against a reasonable cost for the anode. It is anticipated that after testing of the additional prototypes, a whole cell commercial test will be conducted to complete evaluation of the titanium-lead anode costs/benefits.

Ferdman, Alla

2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

9

FLUORINE CELL ANODE ASSEMBLY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved anode assembly is deslgned for use in electrolytlc cells ln the productlon of hydrogen and fluorlne from a moIten electrolyte. The anode assembly comprises a copper post, a copper hanger supported by the post, a plurality of carbon anode members, and bolt means for clamplng half of the anode members to one slde of the hanger and for clamplng the other half of the anode members to the other slde of the hanger. The heads of the clamplng bolts are recessed withln the anode members and carbon plugs are inserted ln the recesses above the bolt heads to protect the boIts agalnst corroslon. A copper washer is provided under the head of each clamplng boIt such that the anode members can be tightly clamped to the hanger with a resultant low anode jolnt resistance. (AEC)

Cable, R.E.; Goode, W.B. Jr.; Henderson, W.K.; Montillon, G.H.

1962-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

10

Anode Baking Furnace Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The course is directed toward plant managers, anode area managers, process engineers, technical managers, and baking furnace ... ENERGY MANAGEMENT.

11

Towards Eliminating Anode Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom · Simulating Traffic in a ...

12

Anode Raw Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Anodes for aluminum production are composed of coal tar pitch (CTP) ... This paper reports a study on the structure and porosity of calcined ...

13

Anode Quality and Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 6, 2013 ... Relationships between Coke Properties and Anode Properties – Round Robin 19: Lorentz Petter Lossius1; Marvin Lubin2; Les Edwards2; ...

14

Definition: Anode | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Anode Anode Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Anode The positive electrode in an electrochemical cell, or battery.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition An anode is an electrode through which electric current flows into a polarized electrical device. The direction of electric current is, by convention, opposite to the direction of electron flow. In other words, the electrons flow from the anode into, for example, an electrical circuit. Mnemonic: ACID (Anode Current into Device). A widespread misconception is that anode polarity is always positive (+). This is often incorrectly inferred from the correct fact that in all electrochemical devices, negatively charged anions move towards the anode (hence their name) and positively charged cations move away from it. In fact anode polarity

15

Low cost MCFC anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper outlines a project, funded under a DOE SBIR grant, which tested a potentially lower cost method of manufacturing MCFC stack anodes and evaluated the feasibility of using the technology in the existing M-C Power Corp. manufacturing facility. The procedure involves adding activator salts to the anode tape casting slurry with the Ni and Cr or Al powders. Two different processes occur during heat treatment in a reducing environment: sintering of the base Ni structure, and alloying or cementation of the Cr or Al powders. To determine whether it was cost-effective to implement the cementation alloying manufacturing process, the M-C Power manufacturing cost model was used to determine the impact of different material costs and processing parameters on total anode cost. Cost analysis included equipment expenditures and facility modifications required by the cementation alloying process.

Erickson, D.S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

Chi, John W. H. (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Sulfur tolerant anode materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Not Available

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Anodes for alkaline electrolysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Corrosion of cermet anodes during low temperature electrolysis of alumina. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Successful development of inert anodes to replace carbon anodes in Hall cells has the potential benefits of lower energy consumption,lower operating costs, and reduced CO{sub 2} and CO emissions. Using inert anodes at reduced current density and reduced operating temperature (800 C) has potential for decreasing the corrosion rate of inert anodes. It may also permit the use of new materials for containment and insulation. This report describes the fabrication characteristics and the corrosion performance of 5324-17% Cu Cermet anodes in 100 hour tests. Although some good results were achieved, the corrosion rate at low temperature (800 C) is varied and not significantly lower than typical results at high temperature ({approximately} 960 C). This report also describes several attempts at 200 hour tests, with one anode achieving 177 hours of continuous operation and another achieving a total of 235 hours but requiring three separate tests of the same anode. The longest run did show a lower wear rate in the last test; but a high resistance layer developed on the anode surface and forced an unacceptably low current density. It is recommended that intermediate temperatures be explored as a more optimal environment for inert anodes. Other electrolyte chemistries and anode compositions (especially high conductivity anodes) should be considered to alleviate problems associated with lower temperature operation.

Kozarek, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.

1997-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

20

Nickel anode electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

Singh, Prabhakar (Bethel, CT); Benedict, Mark (Monroe, CT)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Methanol fuel cell model: Anode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An isothermal, steady-state model of an anode in a direct methanol feed, polymer electrolyte fuel cell is presented. The anode is considered to be a porous electrode consisting of an electronically conducting catalyst structure that is thinly coated with an ion-selective polymer electrolyte. The pores are filled with a feed solution of 2 M methanol in water. Four species are transported in the anode: water, methanol, hydrogen ions, and carbon dioxide. All four species are allowed to transport in the x-direction through the depth of the electrode. Species movement in the pseudo y-direction is taken into account for water, methanol, and carbon dioxide by use of an effective mass-transfer coefficient. Butler-Volmer kinetics are observed for the methanol oxidation reaction. Predictions of the model have been fitted with kinetic parameters from experimental data, and a sensitivity analysis was performed to identify critical parameters affecting the anode`s performance. Kinetic limitations are a dominant factor in the performance of the system. At higher currents, the polymer electrolyte`s conductivity and the anode`s thickness were also found to be important parameters to the prediction of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell anode`s behavior in the methanol oxidation region 0.5--0.6 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode.

Baxter, S.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Battaglia, V.S.; White, R.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Thin film buried anode battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Anodization of process tubes  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the presence of corrosion products upon aluminum process tubes removed from wet portions of F Pile which led to the suspicion that the tubes might be corroding at an accelerated rate because of water entrapped in the channels between the tubes and the graphite blocks. Corrosion was especially noted on those tubes that were tightly stuck within the blocks. Analysis of the corrosion products showed that the major constituent was a hydrated aluminum oxide, containing iron oxide, calcium carbonate, and other substances in lower concentrations. This led to placement of an order for the anodizing of 200 process tubes.

Pitzer, E.C.

1952-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

24

Anode film formation and control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film functions to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film. 3 figs.

Koski, O.; Marschman, S.C.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Anode Effect Supression and Prediction - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apr 1, 2003 ... Anode Effect Supression and Prediction ... the overall effort to reduce the quantity of greenhouse gas emitted by the pots during anode effects.

26

Optimizing Anode Performance in DUBAL Reduction Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reduction in Gross Carbon consumption by 5% over the past 4 years was achieved through optimization of anode quality, modification of anode design and ...

27

Silicon-Graphene Anodes | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anodes Technology available for licensing: Production process for low-cost, long-life, high-energy anodes with five times the specific energy slicon-grapheneelectrodes...

28

ADVANCED NUMERICAL APPROACH TO REDUCE THE ANODIC ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operation of an Open Type Anode Baking Furnace with a Temporary Crossover ... Wireless Communication for Secured Firing and Control Systems of Anode ...

29

High Performance Sealing for Anode Baking Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operation of an Open Type Anode Baking Furnace with a Temporary Crossover ... Wireless Communication for Secured Firing and Control Systems of Anode ...

30

Energy Efficiency Improvement in Anode Baking Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the high energy consumption facilities in a smelter is the Anode Baking ... Hydro Aluminium's Historical Evolution of Closed Type Anode Baking Furnace ...

31

Non-consumable anode and lining for aluminum electrolytic reduction cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxidation resistant, non-consumable anode, for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum, has a composition comprising copper, nickel and iron. The anode is part of an electrolytic reduction cell comprising a vessel having an interior lined with metal which has the same composition as the anode. The electrolyte is preferably composed of a eutectic of AlF.sub.3 and either (a) NaF or (b) primarily NaF with some of the NaF replaced by an equivalent molar amount of KF or KF and LiF.

Beck, Theodore R. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Multi-anode ionization chamber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Smith, Graham (Port Jefferson, NY); Mahler, George J. (Rocky Point, NY); Vanier, Peter E. (Setauket, NY)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

33

Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diagram of CERTS Microgrid Test Bed Figure 3. Tecogen PrimeCERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed. (California EnergyFigure 1. CERTS Microgrid Test Bed at American Electric

ETO, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Title Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Honghe Zheng, A. F. Bello, Xiangyun Song, Shidi Xun, Jin Chong, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Journal of The Electrochemical Society Volume 159 Issue 5 Pagination A520 Date Published 2012 ISSN 00134651 Abstract Battery grade graphite products from major suppliers to the battery industry were evaluated in 2325 coin cells with lithium counter electrodes. First and ongoing cycle efficiency, total and reversible capacity, cycle life and discharge rate performance were measured to compare these anode materials. We then ranked the graphites using a formula which incorporates these performance measures to estimate the cost of the overall system, relative to the cost of a system using MCMB. This analysis indicates that replacing MCMB with CCP-G8 (Conoco Phillips) would add little to no cost, whereas each of the other graphites would lead to a more costly system. Therefore we chose CCP-G8 as the new baseline graphite for the BATT program.

37

Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Silicon is environmentally benign and ubiquitous. Because of its high specific capacity, it is considered one of the most promising candidates to replace the conventional graphite negative electrode used in today's Li ion batteries. Silicon has a theoretical specific capacity of nearly 4200 mAh/g (Li21Si5), which is 10 times larger than the specific capacity of graphite (LiC6, 372 mAh/g). However, the high capacity of silicon is associated with huge volume changes (more than 300 percent) when alloyed with lithium, which can cause severe cracking and pulverization of the electrode and lead to significant capacity loss. Significant scientific research has been conducted to circumvent the deterioration of silicon based anode materials during cycling. Various strategies, such as reduction of particle size, generation of active/inactive composites, fabrication of silicon based thin films, use of alternative binders, and the synthesis of 1-D silicon nanostructures have been implemented by a number of research groups. Fundamental mechanistic research has also been performed to better understand the electrochemical lithiation and delithiation process during cycling in terms of crystal structure, phase transitions, morphological changes, and reaction kinetics. Although efforts to date have not attained a commercially viable Si anode, further development is expected to produce anodes with three to five times the capacity of graphite. In this chapter, an overview of research on silicon based anodes used for lithium-ion battery applications will be presented. The overview covers electrochemical alloying of the silicon with lithium, mechanisms responsible for capacity fade, and methodologies adapted to overcome capacity degradation observed during cycling. The recent development of silicon nanowires and nanoparticles with significantly improved electrochemical performance will also be discussed relative to the mechanistic understanding. Finally, future directions on the development of silicon based anodes will be considered.

Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu; Liu, Jun

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

CARBON TECHNOLOGY: III: Anode Production/Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ANODE PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT DURING HEAT TREATMENT: Mona Jacobsen, Department of Thermal Energy and Hydro Power, the Norwegian Institute ...

39

Hydriodic acid-anode-depolarized hydrogen generator  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is recovered from aqueous hydriodic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, in an electrolysis cell having an anode and cathode compartment separated by a hydrogen ion permeable membrane, by electrochemically liberating iodine in the anode compartment by anodization of iodide anions, and electrochemically generating hydrogen in the cathode compartment from hydrogen cations that migrate across the membrane.

Maskalick, N.J.

1984-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

40

Ellipsometry of anodic film growth  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An automated computer interpretation of ellisometer measurements of anodic film growth was developed. Continuous mass and charge balances were used to utilize more fully the time dependence of the ellipsometer data and the current and potential measurements. A multiple-film model was used to characterize the growth of films which proceeds via a dissolution--precipitation mechanism; the model also applies to film growth by adsorption and nucleation mechanisms. The characteristic parameters for film growth describe homogeneous and heterogeneous crystallization rates, film porosities and degree of hydration, and the supersaturation of ionic species in the electrolyte. Additional descriptions which may be chosen are patchwise film formation, nonstoichiometry of the anodic film, and statistical variations in the size and orientation of secondary crystals. Theories were developed to describe the optical effects of these processes. An automatic, self-compensating ellipsometer was used to study the growth in alkaline solution of anodic films on silver, cadmium, and zinc. Mass-transport conditions included stagnant electrolyte and forced convection in a flow channel. Multiple films were needed to characterize the optical properties of these films. Anodic films grew from an electrolyte supersatuated in the solution-phase dissolution product. The degree of supersaturation depended on transport conditions and had a major effect on the structure of the film. Anodic reaction rates were limited by the transport of charge carriers through a primary surface layer. The primary layers on silver, zinc, and cadmium all appeared to be nonstoichiometric, containing excess metal. Diffusion coefficients, transference numbers, and the free energy of adsorption of zinc oxide were derived from ellipsometer measurements. 97 figures, 13 tables, 198 references.

Smith, C.G.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Fluidized bed calciner apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

Owen, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Klem, Jr., Michael J. (Richland, WA); Cash, Robert J. (Richland, WA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Bed Surface Patchiness in Gravel-Bed Rivers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this case was a completely armored, immobile bed. Table 2.4that gravel beds are armored because equal mobil- ity

Nelson, Peter August

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diagram of CERTS Microgrid Test Bed Figure 3. Tecogen Prime2009 CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed J. ETO, Lawrenceof the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the

Eto, Joe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Line Diagram of CERTS Microgrid Test Bed Figure 3. TecogenCALGARY 2009 CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed J. ETO,The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to

Eto, Joe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

A Prototype Four-Inch Short Hydride (FISH) Bed as a Replacement Tritium Storage Bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tritium Storage / Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tritium Science and Technology

J. E. Klein; E. G. Estochen; K. L. Shanahan; L. K. Heung

46

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed Title CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2010 Authors Lasseter, Robert H., Joseph H. Eto, Ben...

47

Solid Solution Lithium Alloy Cermet Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid Solution Lithium Alloy Cermet Anodes Thomas J.94720 USA Abstract Lithium-magnesium solid solution alloysHeating mixtures of lithium nitride and magnesium provides a

Richardson, Thomas J.; Chen, Guoying

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Nano Structural Anodes for Radiation Detectors  

Nano Structural Anodes for Radiation Detectors Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this intellectual property may

49

Carbon Technology III: Anode Quality Control - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fully automatic method for image analysis of porosity in baked carbon anodes has been developed. The method is based on optical microscopy, and is ...

50

Hybrid Anode for Semiconductor Radiation Detectors - Energy ...  

The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the ...

51

Thermodynamic and phase relations of intermetallic anode ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The experimental data obtained are necessary for thermodynamic optimizations and direct estimations of the performance of respective anode materials in an ...

52

Anode Raw Materials and Green Carbon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2011 ... Property Profile of Lab- Scale Anodes Produced with 180°C Mettler Coal Tar Pitch: Winfried Boenigk1; Claudia Boltersdorf1; Falk Lindner1; ...

53

Surface modifications for carbon lithium intercalation anodes  

SciTech Connect

A prefabricated carbon anode containing predetermined amounts of passivating film components is assembled into a lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The modified carbon anode enhances the reduction of the irreversible capacity loss during the first discharge of a cathode-loaded cell. The passivating film components, such as Li.sub.2 O and Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, of a predetermined amount effective for optimal passivation of carbon, are incorporated into carbon anode materials to produce dry anodes that are essentially free of battery electrolyte prior to battery assembly.

Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Electron Beam Powder Bed Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced Materials, Processes and Applications for Additive Manufacturing : Electron Beam Powder Bed Processes Program Organizers: Andrzej ...

56

60 TPH Single Line Green Anode Plant Commissionned at Qatalum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The first single line 60 t/h green anode plant ever was ... This green anode plant was designed to fulfil the anode requirements of the 585,000 ...

57

Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode. 3 figs.

Roose, L.D.

1989-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

59

Video face replacement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a method for replacing facial performances in video. Our approach accounts for differences in identity, visual appearance, speech, and timing between source and target videos. Unlike prior work, it does not ...

Dale, Kevin

60

Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium ...  

A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Baked Anode Density Improvement through Optimization of Green ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, At Alba, green anodes were manufactured as per the dry aggregate ... Amelios™, A Performance Analysis Tool for Green Anode Plant.

62

Microsoft PowerPoint - NanoAnode for Li-ion Batteries SRNL-L9100-2009-00153p1.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries at a glance  patent pending  increase energy density  longer cyclic life  replaces graphite anodes  simple and lower cost manufacturing Current carbon-based anodes are fabricated through a series of processes of mixing carbon, binder and conductive additives in organic solution, pasting the slurry on current collector and baking to remove solvent. It involves intensive labor, fire safety and environment emission control resulting in high cost. Background Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), managing contractor of the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy, has developed new anodes for lithium-ion batteries that are reported to increase the energy density four-fold. It is

63

Fluid bed material transfer method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

Pinske, Jr., Edward E. (Akron, OH)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

65

Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

Rehmat, Amirali G. (Westmont, IL); Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

66

Transportation Safeguards & Security Test Bed (TSSTB) | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation Safeguards and Security Test Bed May 30, 2013 The Transportation Safeguards and Security Test Bed consists of a test-bed vehicle and a monitoringlaboratorytraining...

67

Staged fluidized bed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

Mallon, R.G.

1983-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

68

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Line Diagram of CERTS Microgrid Test Bed Figure 3. TecogenRoy, N. Lewis. 2008. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed. (Energy Resources: The MicroGrid Concept. (Lawrence Berkeley

ETO, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Bed expansion crucible tests  

SciTech Connect

The Am/Cm program will vitrify the americium and curium currently stored in F-canyon. A batch flowsheet has been developed (with non-radioactive surrogate feed in place of the F-canyon solution) and tested full-scale in the 5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM) facility at TNX. During a normal process run, a small bed expansion occurs when oxygen released from reduction of cerium (IV) oxide to cerium (III) oxide is trapped in highly viscous glass. The bed expansion is characterized by a foamy layer of glass that slowly expands as the oxygen is trapped and then dissipates when the viscosity of the foam becomes low enough to allow the oxygen to escape. Severe bed expansions were noted in the 5-inch CIM when re-heating after an interlock during the calcination phase of the heat cycle, escaping the confines of the melter vessel. In order to better understand the cause of the larger than normal bed expansion and to develop mitigating techniques, a series of three crucible tests were conducted.

Stone, M.E.

2000-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

70

Mesoporous Titanium Oxide Based Anodes for Batteries  

Presentation_namefor the U.S. Department of Energy Mesoporous TiO 2 Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Mesoporous TiO 2 ... Increased energy density ?Mesoporous TiO. 2 .

71

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source Hollow-Anode Plasma  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

36240 36240 Plasma Sources Science and Technology 4 (1995) 571-575. Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 ABSTRACT The hollow-anode discharge is a special form of glow discharge. It is shown that a drastically reduced anode area is responsible for a positive anode voltage drop of 30-40 V and an increased anode sheath thickness. This leads to an ignition of a relatively dense plasma in front of the anode hole. Langmuir probe measurements inside a specially designed hollow anode plasma source give an electron density and temperature of n e = 10 9 -10 11 cm -3 and T e = 1 - 3 eV, respectively (nitrogen, current 100 mA, flow rate 5-50 scc/min). Driven by a pressure gradient, the "anode" plasma is blown through the anode hole and forms a bright plasma jet streaming with supersonic velocity (Mach number 1.2). The plasma stream can be used, for instance, in plasma-assisted deposition of thin films

72

First SNS Target Replacement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Replacement of the target module was accomplished using only remote handling tooling and procedures (hands operations. Remote Handling Control Room Manipulator Gallery #12;10 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U ­ Interim process fitting leak testing ­ Limitations on remote handling equipment reliability ­ Limitations

McDonald, Kirk

73

Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview William Hallett Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Université d'Ottawa - University of Ottawa #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Introduction air fuel feedproducts xbed grate Packed Bed Combustion: fairly large particles of solid fuel on a grate, air supplied

Hallett, William L.H.

74

National SCADA Test Bed | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services Cybersecurity Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity National SCADA Test Bed National SCADA Test Bed Electricity Advisory Committee Transmission Planning...

75

ARRANGEMENT FOR REPLACING FILTERS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved filtered air exhaust system which may be continually operated during the replacement of the filters without the escape of unfiltered air is described. This is accomplished by hermetically sealing the box like filter containers in a rectangular tunnel with neoprene covered sponge rubber sealing rings coated with a silicone impregnated pneumatic grease. The tunnel through which the filters are pushed is normal to the exhaust air duct. A number of unused filters are in line behind the filters in use, and are moved by a hydraulic ram so that a fresh filter is positioned in the air duct. The used filter is pushed into a waiting receptacle and is suitably disposed. This device permits a rapid and safe replacement of a radiation contaminated filter without interruption to the normal flow of exhaust air.

Blomgren, R.A.; Bohlin, N.J.C.

1957-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

76

Staged fluidized bed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Steam generator replacement overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since nuclear power began to be widely used for commercial purposes in the 1960s, unit operators have experienced a variety of problems with major components. Although many of the problems have diminished considerably, those associated with pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators persist. Steam generator problems rank second, behind refueling outages, as the most significant contributor to lost electricity generation. As of December 31, 1995, 38 steam generators had been replaced in 13 of the 72 operating PWRs, and three units had been shut down prematurely, due primarily (or partially) to degradation of their steam generators: Portland General Electric`s Trojan unit, located in Prescott, OR, in 1992; Southern California Edison`s San Onofre 1, located in San Clemente, CA, in 1992; and Sacramento Municipal Utility District`s Rancho Seco unit in 1989. In the coming years, operators of PWRs in the US with degraded steam generators will have to decide whether to make annual repairs (with eventual derating likely), replace the generators or shut the plants down prematurely. To understand the issues and decisions utility managers face, this article examines problems encountered at steam generators over the past few decades and identifies some of the remedies that utility operators and the nuclear community have employed, including operational changes, maintenance, repairs and steam generator replacement.

Chernoff, H. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Wade, K.C. [USDOE Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.  

SciTech Connect

A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

79

Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

Comparato, Joseph R. (Bloomfield, CT); Jacobs, Martin (Hartford, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Fast fluidized bed steam generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

Bryers, Richard W. (Flemington, NJ); Taylor, Thomas E. (Bergenfield, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Coal Bed Methane Primer  

SciTech Connect

During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

82

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

Scott, C.D.

1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

83

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Fluidized bed boiler feed system  

SciTech Connect

A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_NETL_ liquid metal anode.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

coal solid oxide fuel cells with liquid tin anodes coal solid oxide fuel cells with liquid tin anodes U.S. Dept of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507 Harry Abernathy, Kirk Gerdes, Randy Gemmen Phone: (304)285-4342, Kirk.Gerdes@NETL.DOE.GOV Fuel cells are one of the most efficient methods for converting the chemical energy in coal directly to electrical energy, minimizing the amount of carbon dioxide and other pollutants produced per kilowatt of electricity even before scrubbing and carbon sequestration. To use coal as a fuel source, even the most tolerant solid ceramic fuel cell systems require prior gasification of the coal into syngas, which significantly adds to total system cost. By replacing the ceramic fuel electrode of a traditional high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a liquid metal

88

Lithium intercalation in porous carbon anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon foams derived from the phase separation of polyacrylonitrile/solvent mixtures were investigated as lithium intercalation anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The carbon foams have a bulk density of 0.35--0.5 g/cm{sup 3}, low surface area (< 50 m{sup 2}/g), and an average cell size of 5--10 {mu}m. Polyacrylonitrile-based carbon foams doped with phosphoric acid had capacity as high as 450 mAh/g. Carbon capacity increased with increasing phosphoric acid concentration in the doping solution. The doped porous carbon anodes exhibited good cyclability and excellent coulombic efficiency.

Tran, T.D.; Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.; Mayer, S.T. [Polystor Corp., Livermore, CA (United States)

1994-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

89

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed R. H. Lasseter, Fellow,play functionality. The tests demonstrated stable behaviorin an autonomous manner. All tests performed as expected and

Lasseter, R. H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Mange-infested Dog Bedding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NEWTON About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Mange-infested Dog Bedding Name: Joan Status: other Grade: 12+ Location: NY Country: USA Date: Summer 2010...

91

Solution for a modular die-level anodic bonder  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anodic bonding is a common way to package silicon with Pyrex. The anodic bonding process requires high temperature, voltage, and moderate pressure to occur. Often, there are also expectations of alignment of features for ...

Khan, Christopher Joseph, 1982-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Fuel cell system shutdown with anode pressure control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A venting methodology and pressure sensing and vent valving arrangement for monitoring anode bypass valve operating during the normal shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in vehicle propulsion systems. During a normal shutdown routine, the pressure differential between the anode inlet and anode outlet is monitored in real time in a period corresponding to the normal closing speed of the anode bypass valve and the pressure differential at the end of the closing cycle of the anode bypass valve is compared to the pressure differential at the beginning of the closing cycle. If the difference in pressure differential at the beginning and end of the anode bypass closing cycle indicates that the anode bypass valve has not properly closed, a system controller switches from a normal shutdown mode to a rapid shutdown mode in which the anode inlet is instantaneously vented by rapid vents.

Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Doan, Tien M. (Columbia, MD); Keskula, Donald H. (Webster, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Pressurized fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Pressurized fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

Isaksson, J.

1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

95

Novel Design of Nanostructured Si Anode on Nanohair Array ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Nanostructured Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries and for Supercapacitors. Presentation Title, Novel Design of Nanostructured Si Anode on  ...

96

Improving Baked Anode Density and Air Permeability Through ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Improving Baked Anode Density and Air Permeability Through Process Optimization and Coke Blending. Author(s), Bienvenu Ndjom, ...

97

Virus-Enabled Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Virus-Enabled Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries Xilin Chen, Konstantinos Gerasopoulos emerged as one of the most promising next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to its with remarkable cycling stability. KEYWORDS: silicon anode · lithium-ion battery · Tobacco mosaic virus · physical

Ghodssi, Reza

98

Sohar Aluminium's Anode Baking Furnace Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas consumption of less 1.9 GJ/t for a baking level (Lc) of greater than 33 angstrom has ... Historical and Future Challenges with the Vibrated Bulk Density Test Methods for ... Prebaked Anode from Coal Extract (2) - Effects of the Properties of ...

99

Anode depolarizers in electrolytic hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory manages an extensive program in the areas of hydrogen and energy storage potentials. As part of an ongoing portfolio analysis of projects, the prospects for applications for anode depolarizers are presented. The system requirements are outlined, and economic criteria are developed. It is concluded that moderate incentives exist for successful development. Research and Development priorities are formulated.

Beller, M.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Granular Dynamics in Pebble Bed Reactor Cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a pebble-bed nuclear reactor,” Phys. Rev. E, vol. 74, no.cycles of the pebble bed reactor,” Nuclear Engineering andoptimization of pebble-bed reactors,” Annals of Nuclear

Laufer, Michael Robert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

National SCADA Test Bed | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home National SCADA Test Bed National SCADA Test Bed Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems...

102

Distribution plate for recirculating fluidized bed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A distribution plate for a recirculating fluidized bed has a centrally disposed opening and a plurality of apertures adjacent the periphery to eliminate dead spots within the bed.

Yang, Wen-ching (Export, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keairns, Dale L. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Guidelines for Intelligent Asset Replacement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI8217s asset management research focuses on developing a rational basis for selecting repair or replacement options for specific classes of equipment by balancing the risks of equipment failure against the costs of continued maintenance or capital replacement. This report, the fourth report on guidelines for asset replacement, discusses methods for making decisions about wood poles. It significantly enhances a prior report on this subject by explicitly modeling pole degradation, inspection and test ef...

2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

104

HALON REPLACEMENT RESEARCH - A HISTORICAL ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Tapscott, RE, “Progress Report on Alternatives and Replacements for Halons,” E&P Forum Halon Phase-Out Workshop, London, United Kingdom ...

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

105

Energy efficiency and appliance replacement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1004 ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND APPLIANCE REPLACEMENT Jeffrey T.adopt energy efficient appliances, even though the financialmix of energy–using appliances predicts that under plausible

LaFrance, Jeffrey T.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Replace Kilogram Standard? NIST Weighs Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Replace Kilogram Standard? ... For some time, scientists have considered replacing the kilogram mass standard with a natural constant. ...

107

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1. CERTS Microgrid Test Bed at American Electric Power PhotoCredit: American Electric Power Figure 2. One-Line DiagramVOLKOMMER, American Electric Power, USA E. LINTON AND HECTOR

Eto, Joe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Test Bed at American Electric Power Figure 2. One-LineH. VOLKOMMER, American Electric Power, USA E. LINTON AND H.and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully

ETO, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Power Delivery CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed R. H.and J. Roy Abstract--. CERTS Microgrid concept captures theas a subsystem or a “microgrid”. The sources can operate in

Lasseter, R. H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Alternatives for metal hydride storage bed heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reaction of hydrogen isotopes with the storage bed hydride material is exothermic during absorption and endothermic during desorption. Therefore, storage bed operation requires a cooling system to remove heat during absorption, and a heating system to add the heat needed for desorption. Three storage bed designs and their associated methods of heating and cooling and accountability are presented within. The first design is the current RTF (Replacement Tritium Facility) nitrogen heating and cooling system. The second design uses natural convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. This design is referred to as the Naturally Cooled/Electrically Heated (NCEH) design. The third design uses forced convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. The design is referred to as the Forced Convection Cooled/Electrically Heated (FCCEH) design. In this report the operation, storage bed design, and equipment required for heating, cooling, and accountability of each design are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are listed and discussed. Based on the information presented within, it is recommended that the NCEH design be selected for further development.

Fisher, I.A.; Ramirez, F.B.; Koonce, J.E.; Ward, D.E.; Heung, L.K.; Weimer, M.; Berkebile, W.; French, S.T.

1991-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

111

Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

None

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

112

Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

Osborn, Liman D. (Alexandria, VA)

1976-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

113

Use of under Calcined Coke to Produce Baked Anodes for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies on Impact of Calcined Petroleum from Different Sources on Anode Quality · Study on Graphitization of Cathode Carbon Blocks for Aluminum Electrolysis.

114

ARTS - Anode & Rod Tracking System – A New Tool for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, ARTS is a combination of an anode and rod identification and tracking system, together with a customized database and analytical software.

115

Anodic oxidation of methanol using a new base electrocatalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anodic oxidation of methanol, the reaction employed on the anode of the direct methanol fuel cell, is conventionally carried out using noble electrocatalysts. The best of these has been found to be a codeposited mixture of platinum and ruthenium. The use of base materials as anode catalysts requires, in addition to electrocatalytic activity, a low corrosion rate in the cell electrolyte. The authors present here some preliminary results of measurements of the anodic oxidation of methanol using a newly synthesized base electrocatalyst: this catalyst is passivated by the highly aggressive electrolyte.

Burstein, G.T.; Barnett, C.J.; Kucernak, A.R.J.; Williams, K.R. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Ultrasound Removing Oxygen Gas Bubbles on Anode and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cell voltage varies as the bubbles formed on the anodes surface. ... A Study on Heat Transfer Coefficient Distribution in High Pressure Hydrogen Quenching.

117

Composite Silicon Carbon Nano-fiber Anode for High Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Composite Silicon Carbon Nano-fiber Anode for High .... of Super P Carbon Black and Silicon Carbide in Si-based Lithium Ion Batteries.

118

Investigation on Formation Mechanism of Non-Anode Effect Related ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NAE-PFC will emit when there is not enough alumina under some or other anode's ... PFC and CO2 Emissions from an Australian Aluminium Smelter Using  ...

119

Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Characterization of Anode Sealing ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and prepared in such a way that is representative of the industrial sealing process. ... Investigation on Air Reactivity and Electrolysis Consumption of Anode

120

High Performance Anode Material - Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

... low temperature, catalyst-free scalable process. The anode material consists of a vertically-aligned metal- core-shell nano-wire array.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Anode Dusting from a Potroom Perspective at Nordural And ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom · Simulating Traffic in a ...

122

Bubble Transport by Electro-Magnetophoretic Foces at Anode ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom · Simulating Traffic in a ...

123

Large Gas Bubbles under the Anodes of Aluminum Electrolysis Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom · Simulating Traffic in a ...

124

The Initiation, Propagation and Termination of Anode Effects in Hall ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom · Simulating Traffic in a ...

125

Method to Reduce Camber in Anode-Supported SOFCs - Energy ...  

A) Typical camber developed in 7 cm x 7 cm anode-supported SOFC. B) Details on matched TEC backing layer opposite electrolyte surface for camber ...

126

Cathode/Anode Selection and Full Cell Performance for Stationary ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Cathode/Anode Selection and Full Cell Performance for Stationary Li-ion Battery System. Author(s), Daiwon Choi, Donghai Wang, Vilayanur ...

127

Hydro Aluminium's Historical Evolution of Closed Type Anode ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increasing demand for higher production and larger anodes during the last ... rebuilding of the furnaces are described, including maximum utilisation of the ...

128

Degradation of SOFC anodes and SOFC performance in coal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Materials in Clean Power Systems V: Clean Coal-, Hydrogen ... of SOFC anodes and SOFC performance in coal syngas containing phosphine.

129

NANOTUBE COMPOSITE ANODE MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR LITHIUM ION ...  

The present invention provides a composite material suitable for use in an anode for a lithium ion battery, the composite material comprising a layer of a lithium ...

130

Passivation Behaviour of Copper Anodes with Various Chemical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... Anode passivation is one of the existing problems faced by copper refineries with the increase of current density and impurities content of the ...

131

Influence of Raw Materials on the Properties of Anodes & Their ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Then the course will outline different process steps and describe the influence of raw materials, such as petroleum coke, coal tar pitch, and anode butts on the ...

132

Anodization of Aluminum-Titanium Alloys for Solar Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Anodization of Aluminum-Titanium Alloys for Solar Cell ... Migration of Nanotechnology from Laboratory to Market Place: Arci Experience.

133

Reliability Model for Different Configurations of Planar-SOFC Anode ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature field and contaminant concentration on planar-SOFC anode are interpreted from DREAM-SOFC, a multi-physics solver. Due to larger active ...

134

A Green Anode Plant Performance Analysis Tool Fully Embedded In ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, A Green Anode Plant Performance Analysis Tool Fully Embedded In The Plant Control System. Author(s), Xavier Genin, Pasquale Calo,

135

Oxide-based SOFC Anode Materials - Available Technologies ...  

Researchers at PNNL have developed a new class of nickel-free anode materials, consisting of a composite of doped cerium oxide and doped strontium ...

136

Ultrathin Alumina Coated Carbon Nanotubes as Anodes for High ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Ultrathin Alumina Coated Carbon Nanotubes as Anodes for High Capacity Li-Ion Battery. Author(s), Indranil Lahiri, Wonbong Choi. On-Site ...

137

Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy ...  

New Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Increase Energy Density Four-Fold Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), managing contractor of the Savannah River Site (SRS ...

138

A Model for Predicting the Electrical Resistivity of Baked Anodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the desired properties of the anodes is low electrical resistivity. A proper understanding of the effect of different parameters on electrical resistivity can ...

139

Carbon Anode Modeling for Electric Energy Savings in  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Carbon Anode Modeling for Electric Energy Savings in the Aluminium Reduction Cell. Author(s), Dag Herman Andersen, Z. L. Zhang. On- Site ...

140

Evolution of Anode Grade Calcined Coke - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The term "anode grade coke" has been used as a broad definition to describe delayed coke with a sponge structure containing relatively low levels of trace ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Anode Paste Plants: Innovative Solution for Optimum Emission ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low PAH concentration streams from the anode former area are treated using a coke dry-scrubber whereas the higher concentration streams from the paste ...

142

Determination of Coke Calcination Level and Anode Baking Level  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Determination of Coke Calcination Level and Anode Baking Level – Application and Reproducibility of Lc Based Methods. Author(s), Stein ...

143

Traceability of Raw Materials in Silos in an Anode Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different coke and pitch mixtures are commonly used in anode manufacturing to meet various regulations and/or due to economics and availability. This makes it

144

Characterization of Dry Aggregates in Carbon Anodes by Image ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anodes are mainly composed of dry aggregates such as calcined petroleum coke and recycled materials with pitch as the binder. Granulometry of the dry ...

145

Wafer Replacement Cluster Tool (Presentation);  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation on wafer replacement cluster tool discusses: (1) Platform for advanced R and D toward SAI 2015 cost goal--crystal silicon PV at area costs closer to amorphous Si PV, it's 15% efficiency, inexpensive substrate, and moderate temperature processing (<800 C); (2) Why silicon?--industrial and knowledge base, abundant and environmentally benign, market acceptance, and good efficiency; and (3) Why replace wafers?--expensive, high embedded energy content, and uses 50-100 times more silicon than needed.

Branz, H. M.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

SPOUTED BED ELECTRODES (SBE) FOR DIRECT UTILIZATION OF CARBON IN FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Phase I project was focused on an investigation of spouted bed particulate electrodes for the direct utilization of solid carbon in fuel cells. This approach involves the use of a circulating carbon particle/molten carbonate slurry in the cell that provides a few critical functions: it (1) fuels the cell continuously with entrained carbon particles; (2) brings particles to the anode surfaces hydrodynamically; (3) removes ash from the anode surfaces and the cell hydrodynamically; (4) provides a facile means of cell temperature control due to its large thermal capacitance; (5) provides for electrolyte maintenance and control in the electrode separator(s); and (6) can (potentially) improve carbon conversion rates by ''pre-activating'' carbon particle surfaces via formation of intermediate oxygen surface complexes in the bulk molten carbonate. The approach of this scoping project was twofold: (1) adaptation and application of a CFD code, originally developed to simulate particle circulation in spouted bed electrolytic reactors, to carbon particle circulation in DCFC systems; and (2) experimental investigation of the hydrodynamics of carbon slurry circulation in DCFC systems using simulated slurry mixtures. The CFD model results demonstrated that slurry recirculation can be used to hydrodynamically feed carbon particles to anode surfaces. Variations of internal configurations were investigated in order to explore effects on contacting. It was shown that good contacting with inclined surfaces could be achieved even when the particles are of the same density as the molten carbonate. The use of CO{sub 2} product gas from the fuel cell as a ''lift-gas'' to circulate the slurry was also investigated with the model. The results showed that this is an effective method of slurry circulation; it entrains carbon particles more effectively in the draft duct and produces a somewhat slower recirculation rate, and thus higher residence times on anode surfaces, and can be controlled completely via pressure balance. Experimental investigations in a rectangular spouted vessel hydrodynamics apparatus (SVHA) showed that hydrodynamics can be used to control the circulation, residence time, and distribution of carbon within the spouted bed, as well as provide good particle contact with anode surfaces. This was shown to be a function of viscosity, carbon loading, and particle size, as well as relative densities. Higher viscosities and smaller particle sizes favor more efficient particle entrainment in the draft duct, and particle recirculation. Both the computational and experimental results are consistent with each another and exhibit the same general qualitative behavior. Based upon this work, a design of a prototype SBE/DCFC cell was developed and is presented.

J.M. Calo

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Particle Bed Reactor scaling relationships  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Scaling relationships for Particle Bed Reactors (PBRs) are discussed. The particular applications are short duration systems, i.e., for propulsion or burst power. Particle Bed Reactors can use a wide selection of different moderators and reflectors and be designed for such a wide range of power and bed power densities. Additional design considerations include the effect of varying the number of fuel elements, outlet Mach number in hot gas channel, etc. All of these variables and options result in a wide range of reactor weights and performance. Extremely light weight reactors (approximately 1 kg/MW) are possible with the appropriate choice of moderator/reflector and power density. Such systems are very attractive for propulsion systems where parasitic weight has to be minimized.

Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F.L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

Rehmat, Amirali G. (Westmont, IL); Patel, Jitendra G. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

Not Available

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Fluidised Bed Technology for Gold Ore and Gold Concentrate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Fluidised Bed Technology for Gold Ore and Gold Concentrate. Author(s) ... such as the circulating fluidised bed and the bubbling fluidized bed.

151

Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

Cannon, Joseph N. (4103 Farragut St., Hyattsville, MD 20781); De Lucia, David E. (58 Beacon St., Apt. No. 2, Boston, MA 02108); Jackson, William M. (5300 McArthur Blvd., NW., Washington, DC 20016); Porter, James H. (P.O. Box 1131, Daggett Ave., Vineyard Haven, MA 02568)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Novel Anode Materials For Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Dissertation committee  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and fabrication of alternative anodes for direct methane oxidation in SOFC". Publisher: Twente University Press, P cells (SOFC). The principles and materials employed for SOFC are described. Emphasis is on the anode (PAFC), · the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), · the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Each type of fuel

Verweij, Henk

153

Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); DiMilia, Robert A. (Baton Rouge, LA); Dynys, Joseph M. (New Kensington, PA); Phelps, Frankie E. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Better Anode Design to Improve A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds

156

Char binder for fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect

An arrangement that utilizes agglomerating coal as a binder to bond coal fines and recycled char into an agglomerate mass that will have suitable retention time when introduced into a fluidized bed 14 for combustion. The simultaneous use of coal for a primary fuel and as a binder effects significant savings in the elimination of non-essential materials and processing steps.

Borio, Richard W. (Somers, CT); Accortt, Joseph I. (Simsbury, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

If pressurised fluidised-bed combustion is to be used in combined cycle electricity generation, gas turbines must be made reliable and flue gas emission standards must be met. This report examines the issues of particulate cleaning before the turbine and stack, as well as recent work on the development of advanced gas filters.

Yeager, K.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Attrition Resistant Catalyst Materials for Fluid Bed ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Attrition Resistant Catalyst Materials for Fluid Bed Applications National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Contact NREL About This ...

159

Accelerated Weathering of Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 16, 2007 ... Accelerated Weathering of Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation Material Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions by E.M. Pierce ...

160

Inert anodes and advanced smelting of aluminum  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issued associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint. It discusses the outlook for the direct retrofit of advanced reduction technologies to existing aluminum smelters, and compares retrofits to ''brown field'' usage and ''green field'' adoption of the technologies. A number of observations and recommendations are offered for consideration concerning further research and development efforts that may be directed toward these advanced technologies. The opportunities are discussed in the context of incremental progress that is being made in conventional Hall-Heroult cell systems.

ASME Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Carbonaceous materials as lithium intercalation anodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Commercial and polymer-derived carbonaceous materials were examined as lithium intercalation anodes in propylene carbonate (pyrolysis graphites) electrolytes. The reversible capacity (180--355 mAh/g) and the irreversible capacity loss (15--200 % based on reversible capacity) depend on the type of binder, carbon type, morphology, and phosphorus doping concentration. A carbon-based binder was chosen for electrode fabrication, producing mechanically and chemically stable electrodes and reproducible results. Several types of graphites had capacity approaching LiC{sub 6}. Petroleum fuel green cokes doped with phosphorous gave more than a 20 % increase in capacity compared to undoped samples. Electrochemical characteristics are related to SEM, TEM, XRD and BET measurements.

Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mayer, S.T. [Polystor, Livermore, CA (United States); Song, X.; Kinoshita, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Carbonaceous materials as lithium intercalation anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Commercial and polymer-derived carbonaceous materials were examined as lithium intercalation anodes in propylene carbonate (pyrolysis < 1350C, carbons) and ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (graphites) electrolytes. The reversible capacity (180--355 mAh/g) and the irreversible capacity loss (15--200 % based on reversible capacity) depend on the type of binder, carbon type, morphology, and phosphorus doping concentration. A carbon-based binder was chosen for electrode fabrication, producing mechanically and chemically stable electrodes and reproducible results. Several types of graphites had capacity approaching LiC{sub 6}. Petroleum fuel green cokes doped with phosphorous gave more than a 20 % increase in capacity compared to undoped samples. Electrochemical characteristics are related to SEM, TEM, XRD and BET measurements.

Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mayer, S.T. [Polystor, Livermore, CA (United States); Song, X.; Kinoshita, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Testing of Replacement Bag Material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties.

Laurinat, J.E.

1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

164

Sampling streaming data with replacement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simple random sampling is a widely accepted basis for estimation from a population. When data come as a stream, the total population size continuously grows and only one pass through the data is possible. Reservoir sampling is a method of maintaining ... Keywords: Data stream mining, Random sampling with replacement, Reservoir sampling

Byung-Hoon Park; George Ostrouchov; Nagiza F. Samatova

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Inert Anode Life in Low Temperature Reduction Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production of aluminum metal by low temperature electrolysis utilizing metal non-consumable anodes and ceramic cathodes was extensively investigated. Tests were performed with traditional sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride composition electrolytes, potassium fluoride-- aluminum fluoride electrolytes, and potassium fluoride--sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride electrolytes. All of the Essential First-Tier Requirements of the joint DOE-Aluminum Industry Inert Anode Road Map were achieved and those items yet to be resolved for commercialization of this technology were identified. Methods for the fabrication and welding of metal alloy anodes were developed and tested. The potential savings of energy and energy costs were determined and potential environmental benefits verified.

Bradford, Donald R.

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

166

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed Title CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-3553E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Lasseter, Robert H., Joseph H. Eto, Ben Schenkman, John Stevens, Harry T. Volkommer, David Klapp, Ed Linton, Hector Hurtado, and Joyashree Roy Journal IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery Volume 26 Start Page 325 Issue 1 Date Published 01/2011 Keywords distributed energy resources (der) Abstract CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a "microgrid". The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resynchronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults. Keywords: CHP, UPS, distributed generation, intentional islanding, inverters, microgrid, CERTS, power vs. frequency droop, voltage droop.

167

Dynometer test bed (fact sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Dynamometer Test Bed is one of a kind. It offers wind industry engineers a unique opportunity to conduct lifetime endurance tests on a wide range of wind turbine drivetrains and gearboxes at various speeds, using low or high torque. By testing full-scale wind turbines, engineers from NREL and industry hope to understand the impact of various wind conditions with the goal of improving hardware design.

O' Dell, K.

2000-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

168

Replacement element for automobile thermostat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a thermostat replacement element for use in a cooling system in which a continuous stream of coolant normally flows from a radiator through a thermostat to an engine. The thermostat is mounted within a mounting cavity and permits maximum flow of coolant through the cooling system when in an open position. The replacement element comprises a disc-shaped member having a diameter substantially corresponding to the diameter of the mounting cavity. The member is provided with apertures of a predetermined size to permit flow of coolant therethrough at a rate generally corresponding to the rate of flow of coolant through the thermostat when the thermostat is in an open position.

Ferrari, W.

1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

169

Graphene/Si multilayer structure anodes for advanced half and ...  

paper composite as anodes for rechargeable LIBs with high ... Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract no. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

170

Inconel Inert Anode Current Collector for Solid Oxide Membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, An innovative inert anode current collector is successfully developed and ... During electrolysis at 1423 K, magnesium cations in the flux are reduced at a ... Inclusions from Molten Steel Using a High Frequency Magnetic Field.

171

Viscoplastic Modeling of the Green Anode Forming Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... viscoplastic constitutive law using the concept of natural configuration has been developed. ... Improving Fuel Gas Injection in Anode Baking Furnace ... USE OF COAL TAR PITCH COKE FOR PRODUCING PREBAKED ELECTRODES.

172

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shift" (8). HydroQuebec's SNG-12 anode graphite was chosenElectrode laminates with SNG-12 graphite as the activePrevious experiments with SNG-12 graphite in coin cells with

Ridgway, Paul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Porous anodic aluminum oxide scaffolds; formation mechanisms and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) can be created with pores that self-assemble into ordered configurations. Nanostructured metal oxides have proven to be very useful as scaffolds for growth of nanowires and nanotubes ...

Oh, Jihun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

BSA 08-14: A Multi-Anode Ionization Chamber  

BSA 08-14: A Multi-Anode Ionization Chamber. BNL Reference Number: BSA 08-14. Patent Status: U.S. Patent Number 7,858,949 was issued on December 28, 2010

175

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy....

176

Anode for a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell includes an anode containing lithium, an electrolyte containing lithium ions and a cathode containing a chalcogen material such as sulfur or a metallic sulfide. The anode includes a porous substrate formed of, for instance, a compacted mass of entangled metallic fibers providing interstitial crevices for receiving molten lithium metal. The surfaces of the interstitial crevices are provided with a coating of cobalt metal to enhance the retention of the molten lithium metal within the substrate.

Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Tani, Benjamin S. (Chicago, IL)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

179

Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Zboray, James A. (Irvine, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Battery using a metal particle bed electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A zinc-air battery in a case is described including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit. 7 figures.

Evans, J.V.; Savaskan, G.

1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Battery using a metal particle bed electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A zinc-air battery in a case including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit.

Evans, James V. (Piedmont, CA); Savaskan, Gultekin (Albany, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Coal bed methane reservoir simulation studies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study is to perform simulation studies for a specific coal bed methane reservoir. First, the theory and reservoir engineering aspects of… (more)

Karimi, Kaveh

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Combined fluidized bed retort and combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.

Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Zeng, Li-Wen (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Status of granular bed filter development program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to design and develop moving bed granular filters and ceramic candle filters for particulate control from combined cycle systems. Results are described.

Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Prudhomme, J.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Liquid flow through a reactive packed bed.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The flow phenomena of liquid iron and slag in the lower zone of an iron making blast furnace influences the permeability of the coke bed,… (more)

George, Hazem Labib

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

Howden, G.F.

1996-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

187

Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US DOE pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) research and development program is designed to develop the technology and data base required for the successful commercialization of the PFBC concept. A cooperative program with the US, West Germany, and the UK has resulted in the construction of the 25 MWe IEA-Grimethorpe combined-cycle pilot plant in England which will be tested in 1981. A 13 MWe coal-fired gas turbine (air cycle) at Curtis-Wright has been designed and construction scheduled. Start-up is planned to begin in early 1983. A 75 MWe pilot plant is planned for completion in 1986. Each of these PFBC combined-cycle programs is discussed. The current status of PFB technology may be summarized as follows: turbine erosion tolerance/hot gas cleanup issues have emerged as the barrier technology issues; promising turbine corrosion-resistant materials have been identified, but long-term exposure data is lacking; first-generation PFB combustor technology development is maturing at the PDU level; however, scale-up to larger size has not been demonstrated; and in-bed heat exchanger materials have been identified, but long-term exposure data is lacking. The DOE-PFB development plan is directed at the resolution of these key technical issues. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Abstract The hollow-anode discharge is a special form of glow discharge. It is shown that a drastically reduced anode area is responsible for a positive anode voltage drop of 30-40 V and an increased anode sheath thickness. This leads to an ignition of a relatively dense plasma in front of the anode hole. Langmuir probe measurements inside a specially designed hollow anode plasma source give an electron density and temperature of n e = 10 9 - 10 11 cm -3 and T e = 1 - 3 eV, respectively (nitrogen, current 100 mA, flow rate 5-50 scc/min). Driven by a pressure gradient, the "anode" plasma is blown through

189

Plant-scale anodic dissolution of unirradiated IFR fuel pins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses anodic dissolution which is a major operation in the pyrometallurgical process for recycling spent metal fuels from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), an advanced reactor design developed at Argonne National Laboratory. This process involves electrorefining the heavy metals (uranium and plutonium) from chopped, steel-clad fuel segments. The heavy metals are electrotransported from anodic dissolution baskets to solid and liquid cathodes in a molten salt electrolyte (LiCl-KCI) at 500{degrees}C. Uranium is recovered on a solid cathode mandrel, while a uranium-plutonium mixture is recovered in a liquid cadmium cathode. The anode configuration consists of four baskets mounted on an anode shaft. These baskets provide parallel circuits in the electrolyte and salt flow through the chopped fuelbed as the baskets are rotated. The baskets for the engineering-scale tests were sized to contain up to 2.5 kg of heavy metal. Anodic dissolution of 10 kg batches of chopped, steel-clad simulated tuel (U-10% Zr and U-Zr-Fs alloy) was demonstrated.

Gay, E.C.; Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2) an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources. These techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations,and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults. The results from these tests are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field demonstrations involving microgrids that involve one or more of the CERTS Microgrid concepts. Future planned microgrid work involves unattended continuous operation of the microgrid for 30 to 60 days to determine how utility faults impact the operation of the microgrid and to gage the power quality and reliability improvements offered by microgrids.

Eto, Joe; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Stevens, John; Klapp, Dave; Volkommer, Harry; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean

2009-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

191

Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

192

Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

DOD ESTCP Energy Test Bed Project | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOD ESTCP Energy Test Bed Project DOD ESTCP Energy Test Bed Project Presentation covers the DOD ESTCP Energy Test Bed Project, given at the May, 23 2012 Federal Technology...

195

Geomechanical risks in coal bed carbon dioxide sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

its geomechanical impact. A coal bed methane production/CO 2should be applicable to coal bed methane CO 2 projects. Ifcompletion for a coal bed methane project involves

Myer, Larry R.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

An in-bed tube bank for a fluidized-bed combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fluidized-bed combustors have long been used to facilitate the combustion of low-quality fuels and more recently as a means for the clean burning of coal. In a fluidized-bed combustor fuel is fed into a bed of reactive or inert particulate material while air is injected into the bed and passed up through the bed, causing the bed material to act like a turbulent fluid. Where the combustor is utilized for steam generating one or more boiler tubes are positioned so as to span the bed while submerged in the bed, and as fuel is burned within the bed water is injected into the boiler tubes and heated, thereby generating steam. An in-bed tube bank is described for a fluidized bed combustor. The tube bank of the present invention comprises one or more fluid communicating boiler tubes which define a plurality of selectively spaced boiler tube sections. The tube sections are substantially parallel to one another and aligned in a common plane. The tube bank further comprises support members for joining adjacent tube sections, the support members engaging and extending along a selected length of the tube sections and spanning the preselected space there between 4 figs.

Hemenway, L.F. Jr.

1989-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

197

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery Abstract--. CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a "microgrid". The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations,

198

Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

Niksa, Marilyn J. (Painesville, OH); Pohto, Gerald R. (Mentor, OH); Lakatos, Leslie K. (Mentor, OH); Wheeler, Douglas J. (Cleveland Heights, OH); Niksa, Andrew J. (Painesville, OH); Schue, Thomas J. (Huntsburg, OH)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

Niksa, Marilyn J. (Painesville, OH); Pohto, Gerald R. (Mentor, OH); Lakatos, Leslie K. (Mentor, OH); Wheeler, Douglas J. (Cleveland Heights, OH); Niksa, Andrew J. (Painesville, OH); Schue, Thomas J. (Huntsburg, OH); Turk, Thomas R. (Mentor, OH)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

The dependence of natural graphite anode performance on electrode density  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of electrode density for lithium intercalation and irreversible capacity loss on the natural graphite anode in lithium ion batteries was studied by electrochemical methods. Both the first-cycle reversible and irreversible capacities of the natural graphite anode decreased with an increase in the anode density though compression. The reduction in reversible capacity was attributed to a reduction in the chemical diffusion coefficient for lithium though partially agglomerated particles with a larger stress. For the natural graphite in this study the potentials for Li (de)insertion shifted between the first and second formation cycles and the extent of this shift was dependent on electrode density. The relation between this peak shift and the irreversible capacity loss are probably both due to the decrease in graphite surface area with compression.

Shim, Joongpyo; Striebel, Kathryn A.

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Pulsed neutron generator using shunt between anode and cathode  

SciTech Connect

A pulsed neutron generator for well logging is provided having a resistor connected between the anode and cathode. The resistor provides a direct current path whereby corona current can flow between the cathode and a corona point without the necessity for the ion source to conduct. In an alternative embodiment, the secondary coil of a pulsing transformer is connected in series with a resistor between the anode and cathode. In an alternative embodiment, a corona regulator in series with the collector-emitter of a transistor is connected between the cathode and anode of the neutron source and the base drive to the transistor is provided by a light-responsive solar cell activatable by an external lamp. Circuitry is provided for utilizing the various neutron sources.

Culver, R.B.

1976-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

202

Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

O. A. Marina; L. R. Pederson; R. Gemmen; K. Gerdes; H. Finklea; I. B. Celik

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic process is described comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO[sub 2] and/or Cu[sub 2]O. 2 figs.

Tarcy, G.P.; Gavasto, T.M.; Ray, S.P.

1986-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

204

Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic process comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO.sub.2 and/or Cu.sub.2 O.

Tarcy, Gary P. (Plum Borough, PA); Gavasto, Thomas M. (New Kensington, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Plum Borough, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

Geomechanical risks in coal bed carbon dioxide sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SAF. 1958. The strength of coal in triaxial compression.Geomechanical Risks in Coal Bed Carbon Dioxide Sequestrationof leakage of CO 2 from coal bed sequestration projects. The

Myer, Larry R.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Changes related to "Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Special page Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Changes related to "Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana)" Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana)...

209

Pages that link to "Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Pages that link to "Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana)" Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana)...

210

Gas Turbines for Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

APFBC uses a circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) with a fluid bed heat exchanger to develop hot vitiated air for the gas turbine' s topping combustor and...

211

National SCADA Test Bed Consequence Modeling Tool | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National SCADA Test Bed Consequence Modeling Tool National SCADA Test Bed Consequence Modeling Tool This document presents a consequence modeling tool that provides, for asset...

212

National SCADA Test Bed Enhancing control systems security in...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SCADA Test Bed Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector National SCADA Test Bed Enhancing control systems security in the energy sector Improving the security of...

213

Controlling Activity and Stability of Ni-YSZ Catalysts for On-Anode Reforming  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purposes of the project are to develop an effective Ni-YSZ-based anode for on-anode reforming of methane and natural gas and develop methods to control endothermic steam reforming activity.

King, D.L.; Wang, Y.; Chin, Y-H.; Lin, Y.; Roh, H-S.; Rozmiarek, B.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

214

Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode  

SciTech Connect

An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

Hobson, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method  

SciTech Connect

A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Pure Oxygen Anodes™ for Low- or Zero-carbon Energy Efficient ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solid electrolyte, e.g. zirconia, between the salt and anode removes the molten salt stability constraint, and can act as a container for a liquid metal anode.

217

Effect of Sulfur and Hydrocarbon Fuels on Titanate/Ceria SOFC Anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the project is to develop low-cost, high-performance anodes that offer low polarization resistance as well as improved tolerance for nonidealities in anode environment such as redox cycles, sulfur and other poisons, and hydrocarbons.

Marina, O.A.; Pedersen, L.R.; Stevenson, J.W.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

218

New Green Anode Plant at EMAL – Start-Up and Operation in the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... EMAL Aluminium Smelter project located in the Khalifa Port & Industrial Zone at Al Taweelah, halfway ... Energy Saving Technologies for Anode Manufacturing ... New Method for Representative Measurement of Anode Electrical Resistance.

219

Replacing Fluorescent Lightbulbs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Replacing Fluorescent Lightbulbs Replacing Fluorescent Lightbulbs Replacing Fluorescent Lightbulbs July 29, 2012 - 6:37pm Addthis Although fluorescent lightbulbs are generally energy efficient, you can replace them with new, even more efficient bulbs that use better electrodes and coatings than older ones. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/JoLin. Although fluorescent lightbulbs are generally energy efficient, you can replace them with new, even more efficient bulbs that use better electrodes and coatings than older ones. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/JoLin. What does this mean for me? Today's fluorescent light fixtures and bulbs are far more efficient than older ones. You can replace fluorescent bulbs and ballasts with more efficient ones to save money and energy. All fluorescent bulbs contain a very small amount of mercury:

220

State of Fluidized Bed Combustion Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new combustion technology has been developed in the last decade that permits the burning of low quality coal, lignite and other fuels, while maintaining stack emissions within State and Federal EPA limits. Low quality fuels can be burned directly in fluidized beds while taking advantage of low furnace temperatures and chemical activity within the bed to limit SO2 and NOx emissions, thereby eliminating the need for stack gas scrubbing equipment. The excellent heat transfer characteristics of the fluidized beds also result in a reduction of total heat transfer surface requirements, thus reducing the size and cost of steam generators. Tests on beds operating at pressures of one to ten atmospheres, at temperatures as high as 1600oF, and with gas velocities in the vicinity of four to twelve feet per second, have proven the concept. Early history of this technology is traced, and the progress that has been made in the development of fluidized bed combustion boilers, as well as work currently underway, in the United States and overseas, is reviewed. Details on the fluidized bed boiler installations at Alexandria, Virginia (5,000 lbs/hr), Georgetown University (100,000 lbs/hr), and Rivesville, West Virginia (300,000 Ibs/hr) are presented, and test results are discussed. Potential application of fluidized bed boilers in industrial plants using lignite and lignite refuse is examined. The impact of proposed new DOE and EPA regulations on solid fuels burning is also examined.

Pope, M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

222

Silicon Anode Materials for All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Microbatteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Nanostructured Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries and for Supercapacitors. Presentation Title, Silicon Anode Materials for All-Solid-State ...

223

Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement - Nuclear Facility...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement - Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF SEIS) | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

224

Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

FEM analysis of voltage drop in the anode connector induced by steel stub diameter reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Primary aluminium production is a high-energy consumption process, and improving the energy efficiency of smelters could be economically viable. An issue in the Hall-Heroult prebake anode technology is the voltage drop in the anode connector caused by ... Keywords: Aluminium reduction cell, Carbon anode, Energy efficiency, Finite element method, Stub hole, Thermo-electro-mechanical modelling

Hugues Fortin; Nedeltcho Kandev; Mario Fafard

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

227

Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc.

Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Sylwester, Alan P. (Washington, DC); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Layer-by-Layer Characterization of a Model Biofuel Cell Anode by (in Situ) Vibrational Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Layer-by-Layer Characterization of a Model Biofuel Cell Anode by (in Situ) Vibrational Spectroscopy during the construction of a model biofuel cell anode. The model anode was a layered structure formedDH to the CB layer confirmed successful enzyme immobilization. 1. Introduction Biofuel cells use microorganisms

Brolo, Alexandre G.

229

Reduced temperature aluminum production in an electrolytic cell having an inert anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aluminum is produced by electrolytic reduction of alumina in a cell having a cathode, an inert anode and a molten salt bath containing metal fluorides and alumina. The inert anode preferably contains copper, silver and oxides of iron and nickel. Reducing the molten salt bath temperature to about 900-950.degree. C. lowers corrosion on the inert anode constituents.

Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA); Kozarek, Robert L. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Microstructure Change of SOFC Anode Caused by Electrochemical Redox Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Systems. All Rights Reserved. 2 Contents Manufacturing development dependencies SOFC elements Reserved. 6 SOFC Elements: Independent of Construction Need to create and join the electrochemical Rights Reserved. 7 SOFC Stack Elements Fuel cell ­ Electrolyte, cathode, anode Interconnects ­ Deliver

Tokyo, University of

231

Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research is on materials for anodes and cathodes in electrochemical cells. The work is a mix of electrochemical measurements and analysis of the materials by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry. At present, our experimental work involves only materials for Li storage, but we have been writing papers from our previous work on hydrogen-storage materials.

Fultz, B.

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

232

Novel carbonaceous materials used as anodes in lithium ion cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to synthesize disordered carbons used as anodes in lithium ion batteries, where the porosity and surface area are controlled. Both parameters are critical since the irreversible capacity obtained in the first cycle seems to be associated with the surface area (an exfoliation mechanism occurs in which the exposed surface area continues to increase).

Sandi, G.; Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds The anode achievement described in this highlight provides a rare scientific showcase, combining advanced tools of synthesis, characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to materials development. Gao Liu's original research team, part of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD), got the ball rolling by designing the original series of polyfluorene-based conducting polymers. Then, Wanli Yang of the ALS suggested soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine their key electronic properties. To better understand these results, and their relevance to the conductivity of the polymer, the growing team sought a theoretical explanation from Lin-Wang Wang of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD). By conducting calculations on the promising polymers at Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), the team gained insight into what was really happening in the PF with the carbonyl functional group, singling it out for further development.

234

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds The anode achievement described in this highlight provides a rare scientific showcase, combining advanced tools of synthesis, characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to materials development. Gao Liu's original research team, part of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD), got the ball rolling by designing the original series of polyfluorene-based conducting polymers. Then, Wanli Yang of the ALS suggested soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine their key electronic properties. To better understand these results, and their relevance to the conductivity of the polymer, the growing team sought a theoretical explanation from Lin-Wang Wang of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD). By conducting calculations on the promising polymers at Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), the team gained insight into what was really happening in the PF with the carbonyl functional group, singling it out for further development.

235

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds The anode achievement described in this highlight provides a rare scientific showcase, combining advanced tools of synthesis, characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to materials development. Gao Liu's original research team, part of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD), got the ball rolling by designing the original series of polyfluorene-based conducting polymers. Then, Wanli Yang of the ALS suggested soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine their key electronic properties. To better understand these results, and their relevance to the conductivity of the polymer, the growing team sought a theoretical explanation from Lin-Wang Wang of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD). By conducting calculations on the promising polymers at Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), the team gained insight into what was really happening in the PF with the carbonyl functional group, singling it out for further development.

236

Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Technologies » Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview Fluidized beds suspend solid fuels on upward-blowing jets of air during the combustion process. The result is a turbulent mixing of gas and solids. The tumbling action, much like a bubbling fluid, provides more effective chemical reactions and heat transfer. Fluidized-bed combustion evolved from efforts to find a combustion process able to control pollutant emissions without external emission controls (such as scrubbers). The technology burns fuel at temperatures of 1,400 to 1,700 degrees F, well below the threshold where nitrogen oxides form (at approximately 2,500 degrees F, the nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the

237

Granular Dynamics in Pebble Bed Reactor Cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flow in a pebble-bed nuclear reactor,” Phys. Rev. E, vol.from the current fleet of nuclear reactors far outweigh thethrough the core of a nuclear reactor. This regime includes

Laufer, Michael Robert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Distribution of bed material in a Horizontal Circulating Fluidised Bed boiler.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A conventional circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler has a limitation due to the height of the furnace, when implemented in smaller industrial facilities. The design… (more)

Ekvall, Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Fluid-bed-augmented CAES systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems are potentially attractive for future electric utility load leveling applications. A potential long-term weakness of the conventional CAES concept is its reliance on clean petroleum fuels during the power generation period. This consumption of petroleum could be completely eliminated by the use of coal-fired fluid bed combustors in second generation CAES plants. A large number of CAES power system configurations are possible using atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC) and pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC). The fuel consumption rates for these systems are generally comparable to those for oil-fired CAES systems. The future prognosis for using PFBC in CAES systems looks good. Recent corrosion and erosion experiments in fluid bed systems suggest that gas turbines with acceptable lifetimes in fluid bed systems suggest that gas turbines with acceptable lifetimes are a distinct possibility. The commercial status of these systems depends on the outcome of extensive corrosion/erosion testing in static and rotating test rigs. CAES systems using AFBC may be an attractive alternative to using PFBC, although the materials problem would then be transferred from the turbine to the high temperature heat exchanger surface. A reasonable expectation for the date of commercialization of fluid bed augmented CAES system ranges from 10 to 15 years.

Giramonti, A. J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of Ni-YSZ anodes were carried out.

Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

Coal fired fluid bed module for a single elevation style fluid bed power plant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed for the burning of pulverized fuel having a specific waterwall arrangement that comprises a structurally reinforced framework of wall tubes. The wall tubes are reversely bent from opposite sides and then bonded together to form tie rods that extend across the bed to support the lateral walls thereof.

Waryasz, Richard E. (Chicopee, MA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Rotunda, John R. (Fairmont, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

Molnar, Linda K. (Philadelphia, PA); Hatton, T. Alan (Sudbury, MA); Buchwald, Stephen L. (Newton, MA)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

"Plasma Thruster with Magnetically Insulated Anode: Inventor Yevgeny  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plasma Thruster with Magnetically Insulated Anode: Inventor Yevgeny Plasma Thruster with Magnetically Insulated Anode: Inventor Yevgeny Raitses This invention relates to a new plasma thruster for space applications. The key innovations of this thruster allow it to effectively ionize different propellants, including gases, liquids and solids, at different flow rates, and to operate with wallout losses. Due to these characteristics and the design simplicity, this thruster can be miniaturized to operate at low power levels, including, but not limited to a few watts input power, and regimes relevant to Cubesat applications. The new thruster uses plasma with magnetized electrons and non-magnetized ions and consists of at least two stages, ionization and acceleration, which are physically separated by the geometry, magnetic field topology and

247

Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Kowal, Andrzej (Cracow, PL)

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

248

A study of the failure mechanism of chlorine anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin coating RuO{sub 2}{minus}TiO{sub 2} electrodes, which mimic the DSA anodes, have been prepared and tested for their activity toward the chlorine evolution reaction and subjected to life time testing. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry has been used concurrently with electrochemical measurements to analyze changes in the ruthenium content of the coating. The decrease in electrode activity is found to be closely related to a decrease in Ru content, and the measured profiles indicate that the loss takes place across the thin coating. Failure is observed for electrodes with a Ru content below a critical concentration, but there is no evidence for the build up of a pure TiO{sub 2} layer. AFM imaging of an anode after failure sustained the hypothesis of loss of material.

Vallet, C.E.; Zuhr, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tilak, B.V.; Chen, C.P. [Occidental Chemical Corp., Grand Island, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

Alternative anodic reactions in water splitting. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An anodic depolarization path to hydrogen production through water electrolysis has been examined, using lignite, grass and household wastes. Iron was removed from lignite by extensive washing. The degree of dissolution of lignite in 5 M H/sub 2/So/sub 4/ at 100/sup 0/C is ca. 0.1 wt %. Washed lignite dissolves less than unwashed material. Cyclic voltammograms showed peaks arising from dissolved organics. Increase of temperature produced more peaks. In alkaline solution, peaks disappeared. Oxidation currents were three times greater if the lignite particles were in contact with the electrode compared with their absence from solution. Platinum anodes oxidized lignite better than PbO/sub 2/. Redox systems, added to the electrolyte, helped compound formation. Grass and household wastes gave similar results but lower oxidation currents. Compounds present in solution prior to electrolysis dissolve off the internal surfaces of lignite particles. Increased oxidation currents, caused when lignite particles came in contact with the anode, arose, not because of enhanced electrochemical reactions, but from enhanced lignite dissolution following erosion. The organic compounds eventually form CO/sub 2/; the presence of heavy oils lasts for 10 hr. Current densities up to 750 mA cm/sup -2/ at ca. 1 V should be obtainable. The hydrocarbons are formed via a Kolbe mechanism from carboxylic acids. Speculative economic considerations show that the final cost of hydrogen produced, using lignite as an anode depolarizer, is considerably cheaper than that from natural gas: $0.40 per GJ, or less, compared to $5 per GJ.

Murphy, O.J.; Bockris, J. O'M.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

State of Industrial Fluidized Bed Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new combustion technique has been developed in the last decade that permits the burning of low quality coal, lignite and other fuels, while maintaining stack emissions within State and Federal limits. Low quality fuels can be burned directly in fluidized beds while taking advantage of low furnace temperatures am chemical activity within the bed to limit S02 am NOx emissions, thereby eliminating the need for stack gas scrubbing equipment. The excellent heat transfer characteristics of the fluidized beds also result in a reduction of total heat transfer surface requirements, thus reducing the size and cost of steam generators. Recent tests on commercial units have proven the concept. This paper reviews the progress that has been trade in the development of fluidized bed combustion boilers, as well as work currently under way in the United States and overseas. Details on the installation at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., am at other locations are presented, am operational results are discussed. Potential application of fluidized bed boilers in industrial plants using lignite and lignite refuse is also examined.

Mesko, J. E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Moving Granular Bed Filter Development Program  

SciTech Connect

The granular bed filter was developed through low pressure, high temperature (1600{degrees}F) testing in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s`. Collection efficiencies over 99% were obtained. In 1988, high pressure, high temperature testing was completed at New York University, Westbury, N.Y., utilizing a coal-fired pressurized, fluidized bed combustor. High particulate removal efficiencies were confirmed as it was shown that both New Source Performance Standards and turbine tolerance limits could be met. The early scale-up work of the granular bed filter indicated potential limitations due to size, cost, and mechanical complexity. These limitations were addressed in the present program by utilizing the information gained from the filter development up through the NYU test program to reassess the commercial approach. Two studies were chosen for developing conceptual designs and cost estimates of the commercial sized filters. One is the economic study of the 250 MWe, second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant defined by Foster Wheeler. This plant originally included cross-flow filters for hot gas cleanup. The other plant under study is a 100 MWe, airblown KRW gasifier. A cross-flow inter was utilized for gas stream cleanup in this study also. Granular bed and ceramic candle filters were substituted for the cross-flow filters in both these plants, and the resulting cost of electricity (COE) is compared.

Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Moving Granular Bed Filter Development Program  

SciTech Connect

The granular bed filter was developed through low pressure, high temperature (1600[degrees]F) testing in the late 1970's and early 1980's'. Collection efficiencies over 99% were obtained. In 1988, high pressure, high temperature testing was completed at New York University, Westbury, N.Y., utilizing a coal-fired pressurized, fluidized bed combustor. High particulate removal efficiencies were confirmed as it was shown that both New Source Performance Standards and turbine tolerance limits could be met. The early scale-up work of the granular bed filter indicated potential limitations due to size, cost, and mechanical complexity. These limitations were addressed in the present program by utilizing the information gained from the filter development up through the NYU test program to reassess the commercial approach. Two studies were chosen for developing conceptual designs and cost estimates of the commercial sized filters. One is the economic study of the 250 MWe, second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant defined by Foster Wheeler. This plant originally included cross-flow filters for hot gas cleanup. The other plant under study is a 100 MWe, airblown KRW gasifier. A cross-flow inter was utilized for gas stream cleanup in this study also. Granular bed and ceramic candle filters were substituted for the cross-flow filters in both these plants, and the resulting cost of electricity (COE) is compared.

Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Information Resources: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

incandescent lamps (e.g., A-lamps), and provided an update on ENERGY STAR criteria for LED integral replacement lamps - currently in its second draft. Robert Lingard of Pacific...

254

Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The County of Marin has created a rebate program to encourage homeowners to remove or replace non-EPA certified wood-burning heaters (wood stoves and fireplace inserts) with cleaner burning stoves...

255

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Title Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Honghe Zheng, Xiangyun Song, Gao Liu, Philip N. Ross, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Electrochemical Society Volume 19 Start Page 51 Issue 25 Pagination 51-57 Abstract Vinylene Carbonate (VC) was added to the electrolyte in graphite-lithium half-cells. We report its effect on the coulombic efficiency (as capacity shift) of graphite electrodes under various formation cycling conditions. Cyclic voltammetry on glassy carbon showed that VC passivates the electrode against electrolyte reduction. The dQ/dV plots of the first lithiation of the graphite suggest that VC alters the SEI layer, and that by varying the cell formation rate, the initial ratio of ethylene carbonate to VC in the SEI layer can be controlled. VC was found to decrease first cycle efficiency and reversible capacity (in ongoing cycling) when used to excess. However, experiments with VC additive used with various formation rates did not show any decrease in capacity shift.

256

Crystalline structure transformation of carbon anodes during gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The crystalline structure transformation of five carbon anodes during gasification in air and carbon dioxide was studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD analysis and HRTEM observations confirmed that anodes have a highly ordered graphitic structure. The examination of partially gasified samples indicated that crystalline structure transformation occurred in two stages during gasification. The first stage involved the consumption of disorganized carbon matter in the initial 15% conversion. Oxygen was found to be more reactive toward disorganized carbon at this stage of the gasification process compared to carbon dioxide. Following this stage, as more carbon was consumed, especially with the removal of smaller crystallites, it was found that the crystalline structure became more ordered with increasing conversion levels. This is due to the merging of neighboring crystallites, required to maintain the minimum energy configuration. In addition, the interaction between the pitch and the coke components was found to be strongly linked to the initial coke structure. 'Stress graphitization' occurred at the pitch-coke interface, which helps to enhance the structural development of the anodes. 26 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Kien N. Tran; Adam J. Berkovich; Alan Tomsett; Suresh K. Bhatia [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Chemical Engineering

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

PSNH's Northern Wood power project repowers coal-fired plant with new fluidized-bed combustor  

SciTech Connect

The Northern Wood Power project permanently replaced a 50-MW coal-burning boiler (Unit 5) at Public Service of New Hampshire's Schiller station with a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed wood-burning boiler of the same capacity. The project, completed in December 2006, reduced emissions and expanded the local market for low-grade wood. For planning and executing the multiyear, $75 million project at no cost to its ratepayers, PSNH wins Power's 2007 Marmaduke Award for excellence in O & M. The award is named for Marmaduke Surfaceblow, the fictional marine engineer/plant troubleshoot par excellence. 7 figs., 1 tab.

Peltier, R.

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Position-sensitive proportional counter with low-resistance metal-wire anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit is provided which allows the use of a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) proportional counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode of the counter. A pair of specially designed active-capacitance preamplifiers are used to terminate the anode ends wherein the anode is treated as an RC line. The preamplifiers act as stabilized active capacitance loads and each is composed of a series-feedback, low-noise amplifier, a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at the anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction and handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates (>10.sup.6 counts/sec).

Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

National SCADA Test Bed | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cybersecurity » Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity Cybersecurity » Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity » National SCADA Test Bed National SCADA Test Bed Created in 2003, the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) is a one-of-a-kind national resource that draws on the integrated expertise and capabilities of the Argonne, Idaho, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories to address the cybersecurity challenges of energy delivery systems. Core and Frontier Research The NSTB core capabilities combine a network of the national labs' state-of-the-art operational system testing facilities with expert research, development, analysis, and training to discover and address critical security vulnerabilities and threats the energy sector faces. NSTB offers testing and research facilities, encompassing field-scale control

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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261

Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

Riaz, M.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyses the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step. 9 figs.

Shang, J.Y.; Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal  

SciTech Connect

The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA); Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Particle withdrawal from fluidized bed systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for removing ash formed within, and accumulated at the lower portion of, a fluidized bed coal gasification reactor vessel. A supplemental fluidizing gas, at a temperature substantially less than the average fluidized bed combustion operating temperature, is injected into the vessel and upwardly through the ash so as to form a discrete thermal interface region between the fluidized bed and the ash. The elevation of the interface region, which rises with ash accumulation, is monitored by a thermocouple and interrelated with a motor controlled outlet valve. When the interface rises above the temperature indicator, the valve opens to allow removal of some of the ash, and the valve is closed, or positioned at a minimum setting, when the interface drops to an elevation below that of the thermocouple.

Salvador, Louis A. (Greensburg, PA); Andermann, Ronald E. (Arlington Heights, IL); Rath, Lawrence K. (Mt. Pleasant, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Novel Simulated moving bed technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly Industries Inc., Indianapolis, IN), which has been used for organic acid separations, and (3) an activated carbon adsorbent. The adsorption isotherms and mass transfer parameters of the two polymeric adsorbents were estimated using single-component pulse tests and frontal tests. The parameters were then validated using batch elution chromatography test of a corn-stover hydrolyzate, which was provided gratis by NREL. The sugars recovered in batch chromatography were then fermented using yeast developed at Dr. Ho's LORRE laboratory. A standard mixture of pure sugars and an overlimed corn-stover hydrolyzate were fermented using the same procedure simultaneously. The fermentability of the overlimed hydrolyzate was the worst, and that of the sugars recovered using the PVP column was similar to that of the pure sugar mixture. The sugars recovered using the Dowex99 column had an intermediate fermentability. Since the sugars were the ''center cut'' in the Dowex99 column, a tandem SMB (two SMB's in series) design was needed to obtain sugars of high purity. By contrast, sugars were the fast-moving components in the PVP column, and only a single SMB was needed to recover sugars from the hydrolyzate. The impurities, such as sulfuric acid, acetic acid, HMF, and furfural, had higher affinities for PVP. Caustic regeneration was needed to efficiently remove these impurities from PVP. Therefore, a five-zone SMB, which includes a regeneration zone and a reequilibration zone, was developed. The isotherms and mass transfer parameters estimated from batch chromatography experiments were used in the design of SMB processes. A Standing Wave Design method was developed for the five-zone SMB and the tandem SMB. Cost analysis was carried out based on the resulting operating conditions. The analysis showed that the PVP five-zone SMB process was more economical than the Dowex99 tandem SMB process. The cost analysis also showed that elution and equipment costs are dominant for the Dowex99 SMB and the regeneration cost is dominant (60%) for the PVPSMB. Both the cost analysis and the fermentatio

Purdue University

2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

266

Novel motor design for rotating anode x-ray tubes operating in the fringe field of a magnetic resonance imaging system  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Using hybrid x-ray/MR (XMR) systems for image guidance during interventional procedures could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic, oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. The authors propose a close proximity hybrid system design in which a C-arm fluoroscopy unit is placed immediately adjacent to the solenoid magnet of a MR system with a minimum distance of 1.2 m between the x-ray and MR imaging fields of view. Existing rotating anode x-ray tube designs fail within MR fringe field environments because the magnetic fields alter the electron trajectories in the x-ray tube and act as a brake on the induction motor, reducing the rotation speed of the anode. In this study the authors propose a novel motor design that avoids the anode rotation speed reduction. Methods: The proposed design replaces the permanent magnet stator found in brushed dc motors with the radial component of the MR fringe field. The x-ray tube is oriented such that the radial component of the MR fringe field is orthogonal to the cathode-anode axis. Using a feedback position sensor and the support bearings as electrical slip rings, the authors use electrical commutation to eliminate the need for mechanical brushes and commutators. A vacuum compatible prototype of the proposed motor design was assembled, and its performance was evaluated at various operating conditions. The prototype consisted of a 3.1 in. diameter anode rated at 300 kHU with a ceramic rotor that was 5.6 in. in length and had a 2.9 in. diameter. The material chosen for all ceramic components was MACOR, a machineable glass ceramic developed by Corning Inc. The approximate weight of the entire assembly was 1750 g. The maximum rotation speed, angular acceleration, and acceleration time of the motor design were investigated, as well as the dependence of these parameters on rotor angular offset, magnetic field strength, and field orientation. The resonance properties of the authors' assembly were also evaluated to determine its stability during acceleration, and a pulse width modulation algorithm was implemented to control the rotation speed of the motor. Results: At a magnetic flux density of 41 mT orthogonal to the axis of rotation (on the lower end of the expected flux density in the MR suite) the maximum speed of the motor was found to be 5150 revolutions per minute (rpm). The acceleration time necessary to reach 3000 rpm was found to be approximately 10 s at 59 mT. The resonance frequency of the assembly with the anode attached was 1310 rpm (21.8 Hz) which is far below the desired operating speeds. Pulse width modulation provides an effective method to control the speed of the motor with a resolution of 100 rpm. Conclusions: The proposed design can serve as a direct replacement to the conventional induction motor used in rotating anode x-ray tubes. It does not suffer from a reduced rotation speed when operating in a MR environment. The presence of chromic steel bearings in the prototype prevented testing at the higher field strengths, and future iterations of the design could eliminate this shortcoming. The prototype assembly demonstrates proof of concept of the authors' design and overcomes one of the major obstacles for a MR compatible rotating anode x-ray tube.

Lillaney, Prasheel; Pelc, Norbert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Shin Mihye [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bennett, N. Robert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Qualcomm MEMS Technologies, San Jose, California 95134 (United States)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

CX-005369: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Replacement of Big Hill Deep Anode Ground Bed Site for Cavern 103CX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 02/22/2011Location(s): TexasOffice(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office

268

Solid fuel feed system for a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

A fluidized bed for the combustion of coal, with limestone, is replenished with crushed coal from a system discharging the coal laterally from a station below the surface level of the bed. A compartment, or feed box, is mounted at one side of the bed and its interior separated from the bed by a weir plate beneath which the coal flows laterally into the bed while bed material is received into the compartment above the plate to maintain a predetermined minimum level of material in the compartment.

Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Fluidized bed heat exchanger utilizing angularly extending heat exchange tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.

Talmud, Fred M. (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Garcia-Mallol, Juan-Antonio (Morristown, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Internal dust recirculation system for a fluidized bed heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided in a heat exchange relation to the bed and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the bed and a tube bank extending between the steam drum and a water drum. The tube bank is located in the path of the effluent gases exiting from the bed and a baffle system is provided to separate the solid particulate matter from the effluent gases. The particulate matter is collected and injected back into the fluidized bed.

Gamble, Robert L. (Wayne, NJ); Garcia-Mallol, Juan A. (Morristown, NJ)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

3-D capacitance density imaging of fluidized bed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved.

Fasching, George E. (653 Vista Pl., Morgantown, WV 26505)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Real-Time Building Energy Simulation Using EnergyPlus and the Building Controls Test Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed. Proceedings of 12 thand the Building Controls Test Bed Xiufeng Pang, PrajeshBUILDING CONTROLS VIRTUAL TEST BED Xiufeng Pang 1 , Prajesh

Pang, Xiufeng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Bed inventory overturn in a circulating fluid bed riser with pant-leg structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The special phenomenon, nominated as bed inventory overturn, in circulating fluid bed (CFB) riser with pant-leg structure was studied with model calculation and experimental work. A compounded pressure drop mathematic model was developed and validated with the experimental data in a cold experimental test rig. The model calculation results agree well with the measured data. In addition, the intensity of bed inventory overturn is directly proportional to the fluidizing velocity and is inversely proportional to the branch point height. The results in the present study provide significant information for the design and operation of a CFB boiler with pant-leg structure. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Jinjing Li; Wei Wang; Hairui Yang; Junfu Lv; Guangxi Yue [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis A new natural gas-fired steam plant will replace...

275

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell - CellTech Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell-CellTech Power Background Direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a theoretical efficiency advantage over traditional SOFCs operating on gasified carbon (syngas). CellTech Power LLC (CellTech) has been developing a liquid tin anode (LTA) SOFC that can directly convert carbonaceous fuels including coal into electricity without gasification. One of the most significant impediments

276

Process and apparatus for recovery of fissionable materials from spent reactor fuel by anodic dissolution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical process and apparatus for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent metal clad fuel pins is disclosed. The process uses secondary reactions between U.sup.+4 cations and elemental uranium at the anode to increase reaction rates and improve anodic efficiency compared to prior art processes. In another embodiment of the process, secondary reactions between Cd.sup.+2 cations and elemental uranium to form uranium cations and elemental cadmium also assists in oxidizing the uranium at the anode.

Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Orland Park, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Wolson, Raymond D. (Lockport, IL); Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Arrayed microfluidic actuation for active sorting of fluid bed particulates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluidic actuation offers a facile method to move large quantities of small solids, often referred to as fluid-bed movement. Applications for fluid bed processing are integral to many fields including petrochemical, petroleum, ...

Gerhardt, Antimony L

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane Dariusz Strapo´c,1, Maria Mastalerz,2 Katherine, biodegradation Abstract Microbial methane accumulations have been discovered in multiple coal- bearing basins low-maturity coals with predominantly microbial methane gas or uplifted coals containing older

Macalady, Jenn

279

Fluidized bed retorting of eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of eastern New Albany oil shale. This is the fourth design study conducted by Foster Wheeler; previous design cases employed the following technologies: Fluidized bed rotating/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. An FCC concept of fluidized bed retorting/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. Directly heated moving vertical-bed process using Colorado Mahogany zone shale. The conceptual design encompasses a grassroots facility which processes run-of-mine oil shale into a syncrude oil product and dispose of the spent shale solids. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per day of syncrude product, produced from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 15 gallons per ton. Design of the processing units was based on non-confidential published information and supplemental data from process licensors. Maximum use of process and cost information developed in the previous Foster Wheeler studies was employed. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is detailed by plant section and estimates of the annual operating requirements and costs are provided. In addition, process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed. 12 refs., 17 figs., 52 tabs.

Gaire, R.J.; Mazzella, G.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Wilson, John S. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Modularity Approach Modular Pebble Bed Reactor (MPBR)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· On--line Refueling #12;4/23/03 MIT NED MPBR Reference Plant Modular Pebble Bed Reactor Thermal Power ­ Reduces Location Requirements #12;4/23/03 MIT NED MPBR · Plant "Farm": ~10 MPBR Systems per "Power Plant modularity principles to the design, construction and operation of advanced nuclear energy plants · To employ

282

138 Chemical Engineering Education FLUIDIZED BED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gasification · Thermal cracking of naphtha petroleum fractions to produce ethylene and propylene · Fluid coking filled manometer. · Estimate the thickness of a polymer coating from know- ing the surface area and fluidized bed using a liquid filled manometer. Students also do some problem solving by estimating

Hesketh, Robert

283

Pebble Flow Experiments For Pebble Bed Reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pebble Flow Experiments For Pebble Bed Reactors Andrew C. Kadak1 Department of Nuclear Engineering of Technology 2nd International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology Institute of Nuclear in such a reactor would conform to granular flow theory which suggested rapid mixing as opposed to linear flow lines

Bazant, Martin Z.

284

Si-Graphene Anodes (ANL-10-018 and ANL-11-034)  

AV AILABLE FOR LICENSING Production process for low-cost, long-life, high-energy anodes with five times the specific energy. The Invention An advanced ...

285

Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Under Various Cycling Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CA 94720 Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphitesevaluated (in coin cells with lithium counter electrodes) asanode materials for lithium-ion cells intended for use in

Ridgway, Paul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Fullerene Film as a Coating Material for Silicon Thick Film Anodes ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Fullerene Film as a Coating Material for Silicon Thick Film Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries. Author(s), Arenst Andreas Arie. On-Site Speaker

287

BSA 99-05: Anodes to Oxidize Alcohol in Fuel Cells  

BSA 99-05: Anodes to Oxidize Alcohol in Fuel Cells. BNL Reference Number: BSA 99-05. Summary. ... Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in ...

288

Reduction of Anode Effect Duration in 400kA Prebake Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom · Simulating Traffic in a ...

289

High Energy Density Anode Materials Based on SiO-SnCo/FeC for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, High energy density anode material SiO-SnCoC is synthesized by mechanical alloying method and tested for lithium battery applications.

290

Cyclability Study of Si/TiN/C Composite Anode with High Rate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Cyclability Study of Si/TiN/C Composite Anode with High Rate Capability for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Author(s), Jiguo Tu, Shuqiang Jiao, ...

291

Study of the Behaviour of LSCM Anode Composites in a Segmented ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Conversion/Fuel Cells. Presentation Title, Study of the Behaviour of LSCM Anode Composites in a Segmented Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell.

292

Aligned TiO2 Nanotubes as Long Durability Anodes for Lithium-Ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aligned TiO2 Nanotubes as Long Durability Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries · Aniline Coated Carbon Cryogel with Improved Cyclic Stability for Supercapacitor  ...

293

A MORE EFFICIENT ANODE MICROSTRUCTURE FOR SOFCs BASED ON PROTON CONDUCTORS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While the desired microstructure of the state-of-the-art Ni-YSZ anode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based on YSZ is well known, the anode microstructure for a SOFC based on a proton conductor is yet to be optimized. In this study, we examined the effect of anode porosity on the performance of a SOFC based on BaZr{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.7}Y{sub 0.1}Yb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3??} (BZCYYb), a mixed ion (proton and oxygen anion) conductor with high ionic conductivity at intermediate temperatures. Three cells with Ni-BZCYYb cermet anodes of different porosities (37%, 42%, and 50%) and identical electrolytes and cathode components were fabricated and tested. Under typical fuel cell operating conditions, the cell with anode of the lowest porosity (37%), prepared without pore former, achieved the highest performance, demonstrating a peak power density of 1.2 W/cm{sup 2} at 750 °C. This is radically different from the results of Ni-YSZ anodes for YSZ based cells, where high anode porosity (?55%) is necessary to achieve high performance. The observed increase in performance (or electrocatalytic activity for anode reactions) is attributed primarily to the unique microstructure of the anode fabricated without the use of pore forming precursors.

Rainwater, Ben H; Liu, Mingfei; Liu, Meilin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Adsorption of Propane on the Magnesium Oxide (100) Surface and Synthesis of Anodized Aluminum Oxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work is divided into two parts: the adsorption of propane on the magnesium oxide (100) surface and the synthesis of anodized aluminum oxide. The… (more)

Felty, Michael John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Titanium Oxides Thin Film Anodes for All-Solid-State Lithium Ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metallic lithium is not a suitable anode material for all-solid-state thin film batteries ... Application of Biomass Waste Materials in the Nano Mineral Synthesis.

296

Pitch Production Using Solvent Extraction of Coal: Suitability as Carbon Anode Precursor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Albertan coal has been used to produce extracts as precursor for production of anode coke. Coal extractability was studied using digestion with Tetralin in a… (more)

Mohammad Ali Pour, Mehdi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Réactivité de l'anode et désulfuration : effet du niveau de calcination du coke.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Les propriétés du coke et la performance des anodes sont affectées par le niveau de calcination du coke. Une densité de coke (VBD) élevée implique… (more)

Bergeron-Lagacé, Charles-Luc

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Replacement of charcoal sorbent in the VOST  

SciTech Connect

EPA Method 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), for sampling volatile organics from stationary sources, specifies the use of petroleum-base charcoal in the second sorbent tube. Charcoal has proven to be a marginal performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. In addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has been variable. Lack of data on comparability and variability of charcoals for VOST application has created uncertainty when other charcoals are substituted. Five potential sorbent replacements for charcoal in Method 0030 were evaluated along with a reference charcoal. Two of the sorbents tested, Ambersorb XE-340 and Tenax GR, did not perform well enough to qualify as replacements. Three candidates, Anasorb 747, Carbosieve S-III and Kureha Beaded Activated Charcoal, performed adequately, and produced statistically equivalent results. Anasorb 747 appears to be an acceptable replacement for petroleum charcoal, based on a combination of performance, availability, and cost.

Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G.; Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Replacement Grants  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle Replacement Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Replacement Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Replacement Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Replacement Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Replacement Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Replacement Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Replacement Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Vehicle Replacement Grants

300

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed boilers is in progress. Preliminary results indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. In these instances it was observed that large particles were forming within the bed which were larger that the feed. Four operators could confirm that the larger bed particles had formed due to bed particles sticking together or agglomerating. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with these deposits being found most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Examples of these agglomerates and deposits have been received from five of the surveyed facilities. Also during this quarter, a bulk sample of Illinois No. 6 coal was obtained from the Fossil Energy Program at Ames Laboratory here at Iowa State University and prepared for combustion tests. This sample was first ground to a top-size of 3/8`` using a jaw crusher then a size fraction of 3/8`` {times} 8 (US mesh) was then obtained by sieving using a Gilson Test-Master. This size fraction was selected for the preliminary laboratory-scale experiments designed to simulate the dense bed conditions that exist in the bottom of CFB combustors. To ensure uniformity of fuel composition among combustion runs, the sized coal was riffled using, a cone and long row method and stored in bags for each experiment. During this quarter additional modifications were made to achieve better control of fluidization regimes and to aid in monitoring the hydrodynamic and chemical conditions within the reactor.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.D.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of the support.

Lawton, Carl W. (West Hartford, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

PEMFC reconfigured anodes for enhancing CO tolerance with air bleed.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Practical PEM fuel cells based on perfluorinated ionomer membranes (eg Nafion), most probably will use reformed fuel as primary source for the anode feed. The reformate, besides hydrogen, may contain trace amounts of carbon monoxide (CO. from a few to hundreds ppm), whose presence is detrimental to the cell performance. Energy conversion at fuel cells depends on highly dispersed carbon-supported Pt, where the hydrogen electro-oxidatisn takes place. However, CO strongly adsorbs on the Pt surface leading to a decreasing of the Pt active Surface area and consequently to losses in electrical current that are unacceptable for a practical device.

Uribe, F. J. (Francisco J.); Zawodzinski, T. A. (Thomas A.), Jr.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

FREE STANDING NANOSTRUCTURED ANODES FOR LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The free standing nanorodes of aluminum and cobalt oxides were grown on electrode and tested as the anodes directly in the half-cell. The average diameter and length of the nanorods are 80 nm and 200 nm respectively. The aligned nanorods demonstrated high initial capacity from 1200-1400 mAh/g at rate of 0.5C. The gradually decrease of initial capacity was observed. The preliminary characterization shows that the changes of the crystalline structure and morphology during cycling may be responsible for the capacity decay.

Au, M.

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

305

Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the annual progress report for the Grant DE-FG03-00ER15035. This research is on materials for anodes and cathodes in electrochemical cells. The work is a mix of electrochemical measurements and analysis of the materials by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry. Our materials studies on electrode materials divide into electronic studies of the valence at and around Li atoms, and the crystal structures of these materials. We are addressing the basic questions of how these change with Li concentration, and what long-term changes take place during charge/discharge cycling of the materials.

B. Fultz

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

306

Ni/YSZ Anode Interactions with Impurities in Coal Gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Performance of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with nickel/zirconia anodes on synthetic coal gas in the presence of low levels of phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, hydrogen chloride, and antimony impurities were evaluated. The presence of phosphorus and arsenic led to the slow and irreversible SOFC degradation due to the formation of secondary phases with nickel, particularly close to the gas inlet. Phosphorus and antimony surface adsorption layers were identified as well. Hydrogen chloride and sulfur interactions with the nickel were limited to the surface adsorption only, whereas selenium exposure also led to the formation of nickel selenide for highly polarized cells.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coffey, Greg W.

2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

307

Carbons for battery anodes prepared using inorganic templates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Unique carbons with demonstrated utility as anodes for lithium secondary batteries have been prepared by heating hydrocarbons within an inorganic template. Disordered carbons with novel and desirable molecular porosity were synthesized by the pyrolysis of pyrene at 700 C within a pillared clay. The clay was removed by treatment with acid, leaving behind carbons with 15 to 50 {angstrom} holes. These holey carbons, when converted into electrodes, allow rapid diffusion of the lithium into and out of a carbon. Favorable results have been obtained in several tests, for example, a reversible capacity of 825 mAh/g has been achieved, about four times greater than commercial batteries using convention pyrolytic carbon.

Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.; Sandi, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion system. Final technical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research is presented on erosion and corrosion of fluidized bed combustor component materials. The characteristics of erosion of in-bed tubes was investigated. Anti-corrosion measures were also evaluated.

Lee, Seong W.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF THE PEBBLE BED REACTOR EXPERIMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Pebble-Bed Reactor Experiment (PBRE) was designed to advance the pebble-bed concept by providing a test of characteristic features and make contriliutions to the general development of all-ceramic gas-cooled reactors. The following objectives were established for the reactor experiment: to investigate key features of the pebble-bed concept, including on-stream fuel handling, movement of fuel through bed, and performance of core; to obtain operation and maintenance experience with a system contaminated with fission- product activity; and to investigate the behavior of graphite fuel elements. A fourth objective, study of the behavior of core materials at conditions occurring with exit gas temperatures in the range 2000 to 2500 deg F, was tentatively included. The preliminary design oE a 5-Mw(t) reactor for achieving these objectives was prepared. The core of the PBRE is a 2 1/2-ft-diam, 4-ft-tall cylinder containing approximately 12,000 spherical graphite fuel elements 1 1/2 in. in diameter. Fuel spheres are added to and removed from the core by gravity flow, and these operations are performed while the reactor is at power by using pairs of valves for passage of elements into and out of the high-pressure system. Exposed fuel can be recycled to the top of the core. Helium coolant at 500 psia enters the bottom of the core at 550 deg F and emerges from the top at 1250 deg F. Concentric ducting connects the reactor to a single heat exchanger, which is located sufficiently high above the core that natural circulation will suffice to remove afterheat in the event the blower ceases to function. The coolant flow path is such that the entire pressure envelope is swept with helium at the temperature at which it emerges from the heat exchanger. Provision for semi- remote maintenance of contaminated components is emphasized in the layout, and most of the equipment in the primary and auxiliary systems is accessible from above by the removal of modular shielding units. Thc design permits replacement of the entire core graphite structure, The reactor can be adapted for testing core materials at high temperature by attemperation of the hot helium emerging from the core wwiih cool gas in a plenum in the upper graphite structure. Location of the PBRE at the site of the HRE-2 facility is proposed to take advantage of available buildings and services, but the reactor and auxiliary equipment will be contained in a completely new vessel located adjacent to the existing building. The design and direct construction cost of the reactor plant is estimated to be 958,000, allowance for contingencies, overhead, and escalation brings the total to ,260,000. High-temperature operation can be achieved when desired for an additional expenditure of less than 0,000. (auth)

1962-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

310

Evaluation of fluid bed heat exchanger optimization parameters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Uncertainty in the relationship of specific bed material properties to gas-side heat transfer in fluidized beds has inhibited the search for optimum bed materials and has led to over-conservative assumptions in the design of fluid bed heat exchangers. An experimental program was carried out to isolate the effects of particle density, thermal conductivity, and heat capacitance upon fluid bed heat transfer. A total of 31 tests were run with 18 different bed material loads on 12 material types; particle size variations were tested on several material types. The conceptual design of a fluidized bed evaporator unit was completed for a diesel exhaust heat recovery system. The evaporator heat transfer surface area was substantially reduced while the physical dimensions of the unit increased. Despite the overall increase in unit size, the overall cost was reduced. A study of relative economics associated with bed material selection was conducted. For the fluidized bed evaporator, it was found that zircon sand was the best choice among materials tested in this program, and that the selection of bed material substantially influences the overall system costs. The optimized fluid bed heat exchanger has an estimated cost 19% below a fin augmented tubular heat exchanger; 31% below a commercial design fluid bed heat exchanger; and 50% below a conventional plain tube heat exchanger. The comparisons being made for a 9.6 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h waste heat boiler. The fluidized bed approach potentially has other advantages such as resistance to fouling. It is recommended that a study be conducted to develop a systematic selection of bed materials for fluidized bed heat exchanger applications, based upon findings of the study reported herein.

Not Available

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement  

SciTech Connect

This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

Baker, P.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Energy Efficient Buffer Cache Replacement Jianhui Yue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

back to the active state. The transition from a lower power state to a higher one re- quires some significantly increases the en- ergy saving opportunities through DAM overlapping and power state transition replacement algorithms only aim to optimize cache hit rates and do not consider the power status of memory

Zhu, Yifeng

313

Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing  

SciTech Connect

A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this concentration. Opportunities for improvement with the fluidized bed include improving reproducibility among replicates, increasing mass recovery, improving the lid gasket seal.

Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O'Brien

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Method for in situ gasification of a subterranean coal bed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of the present invention relates to providing controlled directional bores in subterranean earth formations, especially coal beds for facilitating in situ gasification operations. Boreholes penetrating the coal beds are interconnected by laser-drilled bores disposed in various arrays at selected angles to the major permeability direction in the coal bed. These laser-drilled bores are enlarged by fracturing prior to the gasification of the coal bed to facilitate the establishing of combustion zones of selected configurations in the coal bed for maximizing the efficiency of the gasification operation.

Shuck, Lowell Z. (Morgantown, WV)

1977-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

315

Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for forming a reinforced rigid anode monolith and fuel and product of such method. The method includes providing a solution of organic aerogel or xerogel precursors including at least one of a phenolic resin, phenol (hydroxybenzene), resorcinol(1,3-dihydroxybenzene), or catechol(1,2-dihydroxybenzene); at least one aldehyde compound selected from the group consisting of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and furfuraldehyde; and an alkali carbonate or phosphoric acid catalyst; adding internal reinforcement materials comprising carbon to said precursor solution to form a precursor mixture; gelling said precursor mixture to form a composite gel; drying said composite gel; and pyrolyzing said composite gel to form a wettable aerogel/carbon composite or a wettable xerogel/carbon composite, wherein said composites comprise chars and said internal reinforcement materials, and wherein said composite is suitable for use as an anode with the chars being fuel capable of being combusted in a molten salt electrochemical fuel cell in the range from 500 C to 800 C to produce electrical energy. Additional methods and systems/compositions are also provided.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

316

Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efficiencies greater than 50 percent (higher heating value) have been projected for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems fueled with gasified coal, even with carbon sequestration. Multiple minor and trace components are present in coal that could affect fuel cell performance, however, which vary widely depending on coal origin and type. Minor and trace components have been classified into three groups: elements with low volatility that are likely to remain in the ash, elements that will partition between solid and gas phases, and highly volatile elements that are unlikely to condense. Those in the second group are of most concern. In the following, an overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic coal gas. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

317

Modeling and Performance of Anode-Supported SOFC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A "one-dimensional", steady-state model of an SOFC stack was needed to support the design of balance-of-plant components for a 5 kW mobile SOFC system. This "stack module" was required to predict appropriate stack voltage responses to changes in fuel composition, fuel flow rate, stack temperature and current demand, with response characteristics that were adjustable to changes in stack component materials and dimensions as well as to electrode porosity. The spreadsheet-based stack module was derived from the work by Kim, Virkar et al (see J. Electrochem. Soc. 146(1) 69-78 (1999)), with modifications suggested by Riess and Schoonman, p291 in CRC Handbook of Electrochemistry (1997) CRC Press. The usual overpotential terms account for ohmic resistance of the cell components, losses due to charge transfer at the electrodes, and losses due to diffusion of reactants into and products out of the porous electrodes. Response of the module is compared to published cell and stack data. After fitting adjustable parameters to match particular cell performance characteristics, the module responds reasonably well to changes in temperature and fuel concentration. The module is used to analyze the performance of anode-supported cells that were fabricated at PNNL (see abstract submitted by Stevenson, Meinhardt, Simner, Habeger and Canfield, "Fabrication and Testing of Anode-Supported SOFC").

Chick, Lawrence A.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Simner, Steven P.; Jaffe, John E.; Williford, Rick E.

2001-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

318

Comparison of experimental and computed solids motion and bed dynamics for fluidized beds containing obstacles  

SciTech Connect

The ensemble- and time-averaged solids velocity field and bed dynamics in the form of pressure oscillations taken in the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's (UIUC) atmospheric thin (3.81 by 40 cm) bubbling fluidized bed which contained a simulated triangular pitch tube array consisting of five round 5.08 cm diameter cylinders are analyzed in this paper using Argonne National Laboratory's hydrodynamic model FLUFIX implemented on its CRAY-XMP supercomputer. The bed material consisted of soda lime glass beads having a narrow size range averaging 460 {mu}m in diameter. The fluidizing air was introduced at 39 cm/s. Generally correct solids motion is predicted by the FLUFIX computer program. The uncertainties in the UIUC solids motion data vary greatly from location to location; hence, a sensitivity analysis was performed varying the inlet fluidizing gas velocity distribution. A convergence study was performed by varying (1) the size of the mesh used to approximate the obstacles, and (2) the accuracy of the numerical solution. The authors demonstrate essential grid independence for time-averaged axial solids velocities and porosities for the tubes modeled as 2 {times} 2 and 4 {times} 4 squares and a very tight convergence. Good agreement is obtained for the power spectra of the absolute pressure fluctuations using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. The computed and experimental major frequencies lie in a relatively narrow range of 2-3 Hz. Computer animations of the computer simulations qualitatively visualize features of the bed dynamics including bubble formation from the tubes, bed expansion and collapse and side-to-side sloshing. Solids motion and the associated bed dynamics are the key to understanding the erosion processes in fluidized-bed combustors. 7 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Lyczkowski, R.W.; Gamwo, I.K.; Dobran, F. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Ai, Y.H.; Chao, B.T.; Chen, M.M. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A staged fluidized-bed comubstion and filter system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system for substantially reducing the quantity of waste through the complete combustion into ash-type solids and gaseous products. The device has two fluidized- bed portions, the first primarily as a combustor/pyrolyzer bed, and the second as a combustor/filter bed. The two portions each have internal baffles to define stages so that material moving therein as fluidized beds travel in an extended route through those stages. Fluidization and movement is achieved by the introduction of gasses into each stage through a directional nozzle. Gases produced in the combustor/pyrolyzer bed are permitted to travel into corresponding stages of the combustor/filter bed through screen filters that permit gas flow but inhibit solids flow. Any catalyst used in the combustor/filter bed is recycled. The two beds share a common wall to minimize total volume of the system. A slightly modified embodiment can be used for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Either side-by-side rectangular beds or concentric beds can be used. The system is particularly suited to the processing of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste.

Mei, J.S.; Halow, J.S.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Institutional Fuel Distributor Program Info State Montana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation The Coal Bed Methane Protection Act establishes a long-term coal bed methane protection account and a coal bed methane protection program for the purpose of compensating private landowners and water right holders for damage to land and to water quality and availability that is attributable to the development of coal bed methane wells. The Act aims to provide for

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Coal Bed Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE R. Stanton (rstanton@usgs.gov; 703-648-6462) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 R. Flores (rflores@usgs.gov; 303-236-7774) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 P.D. Warwick (pwarwick@usgs.gov; 703-648-6469) H. Gluskoter (halg@usgs.gov; 703-648-6429) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 G.D. Stricker (303-236-7763) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 Introduction Geologic sequestration of CO 2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO

322

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

1984-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

324

Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

Waryasz, Richard E. (Longmeadow, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cracking (reaction VII) CH4 + H2O CO + 3H2 steam reforming (reaction VIII) CH4 + CO2 2CO + 2H2 dry.05.118 #12;Abstract Single chamber anode-supported fuel cells are investigated under several methane analyses of anode reduction are performed at 700°C. Carbon deposition is observed under diluted methane

326

Electrochemical Evaluation of Thin-Film Li-Si Anodes Prepared by Plasma Spraying  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin-film electrodes of a plasma-sprayed Li-Si alloy were evaluated for use as anodes in high-temperature thermally activated (thermal) batteries. These anodes were prepared using 44% Li/56% Si (w/w) material as feed material in a special plasma-spray apparatus under helium or hydrogen, to protect this air- and moisture-sensitive material during deposition. Anodes were tested in single cells using conventional pressed-powder separators and lithiated pyrite cathodes at temperatures of 400 to 550 C at several different current densities. A limited number of 5-cell battery tests were also conducted. The data for the plasma-sprayed anodes was compared to that for conventional pressed-powder anodes. The performance of the plasma-sprayed anodes was inferior to that of conventional pressed-powder anodes, in that the cell emfs were lower (due to the lack of formation of the desired alloy phases) and the small porosity of these materials severely limited their rate capability. Consequently, plasma-sprayed Li-Si anodes would not be practical for use in thermal batteries.

GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; SCHARRER,GREGORY L.

1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

327

Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures. 2 figs.

Hobson, D.O.

1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

328

The effect of compression on natural graphite anode performance and matrix conductivity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Anodes for lithium-ion cells were constructed from three types of natural graphite, two coated spherical and one flaky. Anode samples were compressed from 0 to 300 kg/cm2 and studied in half-cells to study the relations between anode density, SEI formation and anode cyclability. The C/25 formation of the SEI layer was found to depend on the nature of the graphite and the anode density. Compression of the uncoated graphite lead to an increased conductivity, but only slight improvements in the efficiency of the formation process. Compression of the anodes made from the amorphous-carbon-coated graphites greatly improved both the reversible capacity and first-cycle efficiency. In addition, the fraction of the irreversible charge associated with the surface of the graphite increased with compression, from both an increase in the electrolyte contact as well as compression of the amorphous layer. The cyclability of all of the anodes tended to improve with compression. This suggests that it is the improvement in the conductivity of the anode plays more of a role in the improvement in the cyclability than the formation process.

Striebel, K.A.; Sierra, A.; Shim, J.; Wang, C.-W.; Sastry, A.M.

2004-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

329

Diagnostic Setup for Characterization of Near-Anode Processes in Hall Thrusters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A diagnostic setup for characterization of the near-anode processes in Hall thrusters was designed and assembled. Experimental results with a single floating probe show that radial probe insertion does not cause perturbations to the discharge and therefore can be used for near-anode measurements.

L. Dorf; Y. Raitses; N. J. Fisch

2003-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

330

Assembly of Colloidal Nanoparticles into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates by Dip-Coating Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the assembly behavior of colloidal nanoparticles into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates is investigated. Approximately 20-nm-diameter iron oxide (Fe2O3) particles stabilized by oleic acid and 5-nm-diameter CdSe ... Keywords: Anodic aluminum oxide, colloid nanoparticle, dip coating, self-assembly

Il Seo; Chang-Woo Kwon; Hyun Ho Lee; Yong-Sang Kim; Ki-Bum Kim; Tae-Sik Yoon

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Carbon Supported Polyaniline as Anode Catalyst: Pathway to Platinum-Free Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effectiveness of carbon supported polyaniline as anode catalyst in a fuel cell (FC) with direct formic acid electrooxidation is experimentally demonstrated. A prototype FC with such a platinum-free composite anode exhibited a maximum room-temperature specific power of about 5 mW/cm2

Zabrodskii, A G; Malyshkin, V G; Sapurina, I Y

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

HVAC equipment replacement for best size and efficiency  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to explore the potential benefits of HVAC equipment replacement for buildings owned by the City of Phoenix. The specific research objectives were as follows: Establishment an understanding of the magnitude and sources of saving available through equipment replacement; Establish an economic model for understanding equipment replacement and deciding when equipment should be replaced; Establish technical methods for calculating savings from replacement of various types of equipment; Demonstrate the replacement of a major item of HVAC equipment and document the savings through actual experimentation and measurement; and Provide guidance material for other jurisdictions wishing to investigate equipment replacement. 11 figs., 9 tabs.

Teji, D.S.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Cluster Dynamics in a Circulating Fluidized Bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A common hydrodynamic feature in industrial scale circulating fluidized beds is the presence of clusters. The continuous formation and destruction of clusters strongly influences particle hold-up, pressure drop, heat transfer at the wall, and mixing. In this paper fiber optic data is analyzed using discrete wavelet analysis to characterize the dynamic behavior of clusters. Five radial positions at three different axial locations under five different operating were analyzed using discrete wavelets. Results are summarized with respect to cluster size and frequency.

Guenther, C.P.; Breault, R.W.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this DOE Cooperative Agreement is to conduct a cost-shared clean coal technology project to demonstrate the feasibility of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology and to evaluate economic, environmental, and operational benefits of CFB steam generators on a utility scale. At the conclusion of the Phase 2 program, testing related to satisfying these objectives was completed. Data analysis and reporting are scheduled for completion by October 1991. (VC)

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

Lin, Yung-Yi (Katy, TX); Sadhukhan, Pasupati (Katy, TX); Fraley, Lowell D. (Sugarland, TX); Hsiao, Keh-Hsien (Houston, TX)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

337

Pebble Bed Reactor Dust Production Model  

SciTech Connect

The operation of pebble bed reactors, including fuel circulation, can generate graphite dust, which in turn could be a concern for internal components; and to the near field in the remote event of a break in the coolant circuits. The design of the reactor system must, therefore, take the dust into account and the operation must include contingencies for dust removal and for mitigation of potential releases. Such planning requires a proper assessment of the dust inventory. This paper presents a predictive model of dust generation in an operating pebble bed with recirculating fuel. In this preliminary work the production model is based on the use of the assumption of proportionality between the dust production and the normal force and distance traveled. The model developed in this work uses the slip distances and the inter-pebble forces computed by the authors’ PEBBLES. The code, based on the discrete element method, simulates the relevant static and kinetic friction interactions between the pebbles as well as the recirculation of the pebbles through the reactor vessel. The interaction between pebbles and walls of the reactor vat is treated using the same approach. The amount of dust produced is proportional to the wear coefficient for adhesive wear (taken from literature) and to the slip volume, the product of the contact area and the slip distance. The paper will compare the predicted volume with the measured production rates. The simulation tallies the dust production based on the location of creation. Two peak production zones from intra pebble forces are predicted within the bed. The first zone is located near the pebble inlet chute due to the speed of the dropping pebbles. The second peak zone occurs lower in the reactor with increased pebble contact force due to the weight of supported pebbles. This paper presents the first use of a Discrete Element Method simulation of pebble bed dust production.

Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Joshua J. Cogliati

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Moisture transport in silica gel particle beds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A theoretical and experimental study of the performance of silica gel packed particle beds is described. A bench-scale test rig was used to obtain data for parameter values pertinent to solar air-conditioning applications. Both adsorption and desorption experiments were performed for Regular Density (RD) silica gel for a wide range of particle size. Adsorption data were also obtained for Intermediate Density (ID) gel. A model of heat and mass transfer in the bed was developed with special attention paid to the modeling of solid side resistance. For this latter purpose an extensive review of the available literature on moisture adsorption and moisture transport in silica gel was made. Both Knudsen and surface diffusion are found to be important mechanisms of moisture transport in Intermediate Density gels while surface diffusion is dominant in Regular Density gels. A general equation for moisture transport in a spherical silica gel particle was developed and was incorporated into the model equations governing heat and mass transfer between the gel particles and air flowing through a packed particle bed. A computer code DESICCANT was written to solve the coupled set of partial differential equations using a finite difference numerical method. The agreement between theory and experiment for adsorption on RD gel is satisfactory, and is somewhat better for the outlet water vapor concentration than for the outlet air temperature. The agreement for desorption from RD gel and adsorption to ID gel is satisfactory, but not as good as for adsorption on RD gel.

Pesaran, A.A.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Reference repository design concept for bedded salt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

1980-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

340

Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Fluid mixing during deposition of bedded-replacement (BR) deposits in the Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district  

SciTech Connect

The Illinois-Kentucky(IK) district is unusual by comparison to other Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) districts in the central US in that it contains fluorspar mineralization primarily, with subordinate quantities of base metals. This mineralization occurs as vein, BR, and breccia-hosted deposits. A clearly discernible paragenetic sequence of color banded fluorite sulfides, carbonates, and sulfates is present in BR deposits in three sub-districts: Cave-in-Rock, Harris Creek, and Carrsville. Homogenization temperatures (T[sub b]) and salinities of fluids in fluorite show that BR deposits formed from at least three fluids, a lower temperature-higher salinity connate fluid (F1) and a higher temperature-lower salinity connate fluid (F2) that mixed at the site of deposition. These fluids were followed by a lower temperature-lower salinity meteoric dominated fluid (F3). The involvement of two distinct regional fluids: a lower temperature, more-saline fluid, and a warmer, less-saline fluid, during mineralization of MVT deposits has previously been recognized for Pb-Zn deposits in southeast Missouri (Shelton et al., 1992), and east Tennessee (Zimmerman and Kesler, 1981; Taylor et al. 1983).

Spry, P.G.; Fuhrmann, G.D. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Geological Atmospheric Sciences)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL- AND PETROLEUM-DERIVED BINDER PITCHES AND THE INTERACTION OF PITCH/COKE MIXTURES IN PRE-BAKED CARBON ANODES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder.… (more)

Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

OXIDATION OF DRY HYDROCARBONS AT HIGH-POWER DENSITY ANODES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work builds upon discoveries by the University of Pennsylvania and others pertaining to the oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The work reported here was restricted primarily to dry methane and confirms that YSZ-based cells, having ceria in the anode as a catalyst and copper in the anode as a current collector, can operate on dry methane for extended periods. Thirty-three lab-scale cells of various designs were fabricated and operated under a variety of conditions. The longest-lived cell gave stable performance on dry methane at 800 C for over 305 hours. Only slight carbon deposition was noted at the completion of the test. A corresponding nickel/YSZ-based anode would have lasted for less than an hour under these test conditions (which included open circuit potential measurements) before carbon fouling essentially destroyed the cell. The best performing cell achieved 112 mW/cm{sub 2} on dry methane at 800 C. Several problems were encountered with carbon fouling and declining open circuit voltages in many of the test cells after switching from operation on hydrogen to dry methane. Although not rigorously confirmed by experimentation, the results suggested that air infiltration through less than perfect perimeter seals or pinholes in the electrolytes, or both gave rise to conditions that caused the carbon fouling and OCV decline. Small amounts of air reacting with methane in a partial oxidation reaction could produce carbon monoxide that, in turn, would deposit the carbon. If this mechanism is confirmed, it implies that near perfect hardware is required for extended operation. Some evidence was also found for the formation of electrical shorts, probably from carbon deposits bridging the electrolyte. Work with odorized methane and with methane containing 100-ppm hydrogen sulfide confirmed that copper is stable at 800 C in dry hydrocarbon fuels in the presence of sulfur. In a number of cases, but not exclusively, the performance life on dry methane with sulfur compounds was much longer than with dry methane alone. The effect of sulfur compounds in these cases appeared to correlate with inhibition of carbon deposition. Mixed results were obtained for the effect of the sulfur compounds on power density. Progress also was made in understanding the mechanisms involved in direct utilization of dry natural gas. Evidence was developed for three possible mechanisms for dry methane utilization in addition to the usually cited mechanism--direct oxidation of methane by oxygen anions. Further work is required at a fundamental level before the knowledge gained here can be translated into higher levels of performance.

K.Krist; O. Spaldon-Stewart; R. Remick

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Baseline vs. Replacement High Bay Lighting Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy efficient lighting has been a means to significant energy savings for many facilities around the world. New developments in fluorescent, induction, LED (light-emitting diode), and plasma lighting technologies have spurred various building managers to replace or retrofit existing lighting fixtures. These advances in lighting sources often allow conservation of electricity, better quality of light, and more flexibility in the control of light. However, these new lighting sources still have ...

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

345

Anodic dissolution characteristics and electrochemical migration lifetimes of Sn solder in NaCl and Na2SO4 solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ water drop tests and anodic polarization tests of pure Sn solder were carried out in deaerated 0.001% NaCl and Na"2SO"4 solutions to determine the correlation between anodic dissolution characteristics and the electrochemical migration lifetime. ... Keywords: Anodic dissolution, Electrochemical migration, Life time, Na2SO4, NaCl, Sn solder

Ja-Young Jung; Shin-Bok Lee; Young-Chang Joo; Ho-Young Lee; Young-Bae Park

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Tritium measurement technique using in-bed'' calorimetry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the new technologies that has been introduced to the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the production scale use of metal hydride technology to store, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. For tritium stored in metal hydride storage beds, a unique relationship does not exist between the amount of tritium in the bed and the pressure-volume-temperature properties of the hydride material. Determining the amount of tritium in a hydride bed after desorbing the contents of the bed to a tank and performing pressure, volume, temperature, and composition (PVTC) measurements is not practical due to long desorption/absorption times and the inability to remove tritium heels'' from the metal hydride materials under normal processing conditions. To eliminate the need to remove tritium from hydride storage beds for measurement purposes, and in-bed'' tritium calorimetric measurement technique has been developed. The steady-state temperature rise of a gas stream flowing through a jacketed metal hydride storage bed is measured and correlated with power input to electric heaters used to simulate the radiolytic power generated by the decay of tritium to {sup 3}He. Temperature rise results for prototype metal hydride storage beds and the effects of using different gases in the bed are shown. Linear regression results shows that for 95% confidence intervals, temperature rise measurements can be obtained in 14 hours and have an accuracy of {plus minus}1.6% of a tritium filled hydride storage bed.

Klein, J.E.; Mallory, M.K.; Nobile, A. Jr.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Tritium measurement technique using ``in-bed`` calorimetry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the new technologies that has been introduced to the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the production scale use of metal hydride technology to store, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. For tritium stored in metal hydride storage beds, a unique relationship does not exist between the amount of tritium in the bed and the pressure-volume-temperature properties of the hydride material. Determining the amount of tritium in a hydride bed after desorbing the contents of the bed to a tank and performing pressure, volume, temperature, and composition (PVTC) measurements is not practical due to long desorption/absorption times and the inability to remove tritium ``heels`` from the metal hydride materials under normal processing conditions. To eliminate the need to remove tritium from hydride storage beds for measurement purposes, and ``in-bed`` tritium calorimetric measurement technique has been developed. The steady-state temperature rise of a gas stream flowing through a jacketed metal hydride storage bed is measured and correlated with power input to electric heaters used to simulate the radiolytic power generated by the decay of tritium to {sup 3}He. Temperature rise results for prototype metal hydride storage beds and the effects of using different gases in the bed are shown. Linear regression results shows that for 95% confidence intervals, temperature rise measurements can be obtained in 14 hours and have an accuracy of {plus_minus}1.6% of a tritium filled hydride storage bed.

Klein, J.E.; Mallory, M.K.; Nobile, A. Jr.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

Kevin Whitty

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dinh (PI) Dinh (PI) Thomas Gennett National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 1, 2009 Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives Develop cost-effective, reliable, durable fuel cells for portable power applications (e.g., cell phones, computers, etc.) that meet all DOE targets. Note that the energy density (Wh/L), volumetric (W/L), and specific power (W/kg) all depend on knowing the weight and volume of the entire DMFC system as well as the volume and concentration of fuel, which are system specific (power application and manufacturer dependent). In our model study the surface power density levels on HOPG will allow for indirect evaluation of our system to DOE's energy density

350

Anode reactive bleed and injector shift control strategy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for correcting a large fuel cell voltage spread for a split sub-stack fuel cell system. The system includes a hydrogen source that provides hydrogen to each split sub-stack and bleed valves for bleeding the anode side of the sub-stacks. The system also includes a voltage measuring device for measuring the voltage of each cell in the split sub-stacks. The system provides two levels for correcting a large stack voltage spread problem. The first level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack well before a normal reactive bleed would occur, and the second level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack and opening the bleed valve of the other sub-stack when the cell voltage spread is close to stack failure.

Cai, Jun [Rochester, NY; Chowdhury, Akbar [Pittsford, NY; Lerner, Seth E [Honeoye Falls, NY; Marley, William S [Rush, NY; Savage, David R [Rochester, NY; Leary, James K [Rochester, NY

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

351

Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

352

Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

Kevin Whitty

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

353

In-bed tube bank for a fluidized-bed combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An in-bed tube bank (10) for a fluidized bed combustor. The tube bank (10) of the present invention comprises one or more fluid communicating boiler tubes (30) which define a plurality of selectively spaced boiler tube sections (32). The tube sections (32) are substantially parallel to one another and aligned in a common plane. The tube bank (10) further comprises support members (34) for joining adjacent tube sections (32), the support members (34) engaging and extending along a selected length of the tube sections (32) and spanning the preselected space therebetween.

Hemenway, Jr., Lloyd F. (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Reduction of iron ore fines by coal fines in a packed bed and fluidized bed apparatus: A comparative study  

SciTech Connect

Reduction of iron ore fines by coal fines in packed and fluidized beds has been studied. The investigation includes study of the kinetic aspects of reduction, carbon and sulfur content of the direct reduced iron (DRI) produced, and metallography of the products. For both processes, the kinetic data fit the first-order reaction model. Reduction in a fluidized bed is much faster than in a packed bed system. In both cases, DRI contains a substantial amount of free carbon at the kinetic data fit the first-order reaction model. Reduction in a fluidized bed is much faster than in a packed bed system. In both cases, DRI contains a substantial amount of free carbon at the initial stages of reduction. At the later stages of reduction, the carbon present in the DRI is mainly in the combined state. For identical temperatures and particle sizes, reaction in fluidized bed is much faster compared to that in a packed bed. At any particular degree of reduction, sulfur content in DRI samples produced by fluidized bed reduction is always more than that of DRI samples produced by packed bed reduction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs reveal that metallic whiskers formed during reduction in packed beds only. These whiskers become more prominent at higher temperatures and longer times.

Haque, R. (Bangladesh Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Metallurgical Engineering Department); Ray, H.S. (Regional Research Lab., Orissa (India)); Mukherjee, A. (Indian Inst. of Tech., (India).Metallurgical Engineering Department)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITY ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF Ni-YSZ ANODE OF SOFCs  

SciTech Connect

Electricity production through the integration of coal gasification with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) may potentially be an efficient technique for clean energy generation. However, multiple minor and trace components are naturally present in coals. These impurities in coal gas not only degrade the electrochemical performance of Ni-YSZ anode used in SOFCs, but also severely endanger the structural integrity of the Ni-YSZ anode. In this paper, effect of the trace impurity of the coal syngases on the mechanical degradation of Ni-YSZ anode was studied by using an integrated experimental/modeling approach. Phosphorus is taken as an example of impurity. Anode-support button cell was used to experimentally explore the migration of phosphorous impurity in the Ni-YSZ anode of SOFCs. X-ray mapping was used to show elemental distributions and new phase formation. The subsequent finite element stress analyses were conducted using the actual microstructure of the anode to illustrate the degradation mechanism. It was found that volume expansion induced by the Ni phase change produces high stress level such that local failure of the Ni-YSZ anode is possible under the operating conditions

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

EIS-0289: JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

289: JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project 289: JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project EIS-0289: JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project SUMMARY This EIS assesses environmental issues associated with constructing and demonstrating a project that would be cost-shared by DOE and JEA (formerly the Jacksonville Electric Authority) under the Clean Coal Technology Program. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD December 7, 2000 EIS-0289: Record of Decision JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project, Jacksonville, Duval County, FL June 1, 2000 EIS-0289: Final Environmental Impact Statement JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project August 1, 1999 EIS-0289: Draft Environmental Impact Statement JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor

357

Modular hydride beds for mobile applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Design, construction, initial testing and simple thermal modeling of modular, metal hydride beds have been completed. Originally designed for supplying hydrogen to a fuel cell on a mobile vehicle, the complete bed design consists of 8 modules and is intended for use on the Palm Desert Vehicle (PDV) under development at the Schatz Energy Center, Humbolt State University. Each module contains approximately 2 kg of a commercially available, low temperature, hydride-forming metal alloy. Waste heat from the fuel cell in the form of heated water is used to desorb hydrogen from the alloy for supplying feed hydrogen to the fuel cell. In order to help determine the performance of such a modular bed system, six modules were constructed and tested. The design and construction of the modules is described in detail. Initial testing of the modules both individually and as a group showed that each module can store {approximately} 30 g of hydrogen (at 165 PSIA fill pressure, 17 C), could be filled with hydrogen in 6 minutes at a nominal, 75 standard liters/min (slm) fueling rate, and could supply hydrogen during desorption at rates of 25 slm, the maximum anticipated hydrogen fuel cell input requirement. Tests made of 5 modules as a group indicated that the behavior of the group run in parallel both in fueling and gas delivery could be directly predicted from the corresponding, single module characteristics by using an appropriate scaling factor. Simple thermal modeling of a module as an array of cylindrical, hydride-filled tubes was performed. The predictions of the model are in good agreement with experimental data.

Malinowski, M.E.; Stewart, K.D.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

Anil V. Virkar

2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

359

Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Storage opportunities in Arizona bedded evaporites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Arizona is endowed with incredibly diverse natural beauty, and has also been blessed with at least seven discrete deposits of bedded salt. These deposits are dispersed around the state and cover some 2, 500 square miles; they currently contain 14 LPG storage caverns, with preliminary plans for more in the future. The areal extent and thickness of the deposits creates the opportunity for greatly expanded storage of LPG, natural gas, and compressed air energy storage (CAES). The location of salt deposits near Tucson and Phoenix may make CAES an attractive prospect in the future. The diversity of both locations and evaporate characteristics allows for much tailoring of individual operations to meet specific requirements.

Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rauzi, S.L. [Arizona Geological Survey, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the fourth quarter of 1990, steady-state performance testing at the Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) resumed under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. Co-sponsorship of the Demonstration Test Program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was completed on June 15, 1990. From October through December, 1990, Colorado-Ute Electric Association (CUEA) completed a total of 23 steady-state performance tests, 4 dynamic tests, and set operating records during November and December as the result of improved unit operating reliability. Highlight events and achievements during this period of operation are presented.

Not Available

1991-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

363

Pyrolysis reactor and fluidized bed combustion chamber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed in a descending flow pyrolysis reactor in the presence of a particulate source of heat to yield a particulate carbon containing solid residue. The particulate source of heat is obtained by educting with a gaseous source of oxygen the particulate carbon containing solid residue from a fluidized bed into a first combustion zone coupled to a second combustion zone. A source of oxygen is introduced into the second combustion zone to oxidize carbon monoxide formed in the first combustion zone to heat the solid residue to the temperature of the particulate source of heat.

Green, Norman W. (Upland, CA)

1981-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

364

CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas-to-solids heat transfer. A stress test rig was built and tested to provide validation data for a stress model needed to support high temperature finned surface design. Additional cold flow model tests and MTF tests were conducted to address mechanical and process design issues. This information was then used to design and cost a commercial CMB design concept. Finally, the MBHE was reconfigured into a slice arrangement and tested for an extended duration at a commercial CFB plant.

Jukkola, Glen

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

365

NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Annual Report on Colorado-Ute Electric Association's NUCLA Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Demonstration Program covers the period from February 1987 through December 1988. The outline for presentation in this report includes a summary of unit operations along with individual sections covering progress in study plan areas that commenced during this reporting period. These include cold-mode shakedown and calibration, plant commercial performance statistics, unit start-up (cold), coal and limestone preparation and handling, ash handling system performance and operating experience, tubular air heater, baghouse operation and performance, materials monitoring, and reliability monitoring. During this reporting period, the coal-mode shakedown and calibration plan was completed. (VC)

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

Sadler, III, Leon Y. (Tuscaloosa, AL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Compact nuclear power systems based on particle bed reactors  

SciTech Connect

Compact, low cost nuclear power systems with an extremely low radioactive inventory are described. These systems use the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), in which HTGR particle fuel is contained in packed beds that are changed daily. The small diameter particle fuel (500 ..mu..m) is directly cooled utilizing the large heat transfer area available (7.8 m/sup 2//liter), thus allowing high bed power densities (MW/liter).

Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.; Takahashi, H.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion for Power Production from Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) technologyincluding smaller bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) as well as circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor unitsprovides robust combustion with high thermal inertia. This means that AFBC units can successfully respond to variations in ash content, calorific value, and moisture content commonly encountered in burning biomass fuels. This report describes AFBC technology and its deployment for generating steam for power plants using a wide variety of biomass fu...

2010-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

369

Fluidized-bed calciner with combustion nozzle and shroud  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nozzle employed as a burner within a fluidized bed is coaxially enclosed within a tubular shroud that extends beyond the nozzle length into the fluidized bed. The open-ended shroud portion beyond the nozzle end provides an antechamber for mixture and combustion of atomized fuel with an oxygen-containing gas. The arrangement provides improved combustion efficiency and excludes bed particles from the high-velocity, high-temperature portions of the flame to reduce particle attrition.

Wielang, Joseph A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Palmer, William B. (Shelley, ID); Kerr, William B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Bed-inventory Overturn Mechanism for Pant-leg Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A numerical model was established to investigate the lateral mass transfer as well as the mechanism of bed-inventory overturn inside a pant-leg circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which are of great importance to maintain safe and efficient operation of the CFB. Results show that the special flow structure in which the solid particle volume fraction along the central line of the pant-leg CFB is relative high enlarges the lateral mass transfer rate and make it more possible for bed inventory overturn. Although the lateral pressure difference generated from lateral mass transfer inhibits continuing lateral mass transfer, providing the pant-leg CFB with self-balancing ability to some extent, the primary flow rate change due to the outlet pressure change often disable the self-balancing ability by continually enhancing the flow rate difference. As the flow rate of the primary air fan is more sensitive to its outlet pressure, it is easier to lead to bed inventory overturn. While when the solid particle is easier to c...

Wang, Zhe; Yang, Zhiwei; West, Logan; Li, Zheng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Observation of isolated nanopores formed by patterned anodic oxidation of aluminum thin films  

SciTech Connect

We report the formation of confined nanometer-scale regions of porous anodic alumina from thin aluminum films. Confinement is achieved by masking a thin Al film with a sputtered SiO{sub 2} layer, patterned by nanoimprint lithography of a polystyrene transfer layer. Anodization in 0.3 molar oxalic acid creates vertically aligned pores that were imaged with a combination of focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy. Triplets, pairs, and single pores were observed following the anodization of isolated mask features approximately 100 nm in diameter.

Huang Qiyu; Lye, W.-K.; Reed, Michael L. [School of Microelectronics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

372

Process and apparatus for recovery of fissionable materials from spent reactor fuel by anodic dissolution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical process and apparatus for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent metal clad fuel pins is disclosed. The process uses secondary reactions between U{sup +4} cations and elemental uranium at the anode to increase reaction rates and improve anodic efficiency compared to prior art processes. In another embodiment of the process, secondary reactions between Cd{sup +2} cations and elemental uranium to form uranium cations and elemental cadmium also assists in oxidizing the uranium at the anode. 5 figs.

Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.; Wolson, R.D.; Gay, E.C.

1989-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

373

Inert anode containing base metal and noble metal useful for the electrolytic production of aluminum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a base metal selected from Cu and Ag, and at least one noble metal selected from Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and Os. The inert anode may optionally be formed of sintered particles having interior portions containing more base metal than noble metal and exterior portions containing more noble metal than base metal. In a preferred embodiment, the base metal comprises Cu, and the noble metal comprises Ag, Pd or a combination thereof.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Community-Based Energy Development (C-BED) Tariff (Minnesota...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Community-Based Energy Development (C-BED) Tariff (Minnesota) Production Incentive This is the approved...

375

Modelling gas-liquid flow in tricle-bed reactors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The performance of a trickle-bed reactor is affected, not only by reaction kinetics, pressure, and temperature, but also by reactor hydrodynamics, which are commonly described… (more)

Lappalainen, Katja

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laboratory Test Bed. California Energy Commission, PublicCERTS Microgrid”, California Energy Commission R&D Forum, 4CERTS Microgrid”, California Energy Commission R&D Forum, 4

Eto, Joseph H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Compost Bedded Pack Barns: Management Practices and Economic Implications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Compost bedded pack (CBP) barn design and pack maintenance procedures vary considerably, making advising and problem-solving challenging. One objective of this research was to characterize… (more)

Black, Randi Alyson

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Hybrid Molten Bed Gasifier for High Hydrogen Syngas Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hybrid Molten Bed Gasifier for High Hydrogen (H2) Syngas Production Gas Technology Institute (GTI) Project Number: FE0012122 Project Description The research team will evaluate and...

379

Evaluation of Fluid Transport Properties of Coal Bed Methane Reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Determination of petro-physical properties of coal bed methane (CBM) reservoirs is essential in evaluating a potential prospect for commercial exploitation. In particular, permeability is the… (more)

Alexis, Dennis Arun

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Resource Recovery of Coal Bed Methane Formation Water.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??During the excavation of natural gas, petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted brine water, termed production water, is drawn from the coal bed methane formations (CBMF) along with the… (more)

Bishop, Catherine Elizabeth

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Circulating Moving Bed Combustion Proof-of-concept  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combustor, the solids are fluidized and transferred through standpipes to a moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE). There, an energy cycle working fluid, such as steam or compressed...

382

Heat transfer characteristics of a fluidized bed : stirling engine system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system was designed to provide heat energy to the head of a Stirling cycle engine. Preliminary testing with a simulated… (more)

Anzalone, Thomas M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Improvement of Product Quality in Circulating Fluidized Bed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Until the introduction of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Calciners by Outotec (formerly Lurgi) in 1961 rotary kilns were the standard technology ...

384

Microsoft Word - B-8.Replacement-3.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

United States Department of Energy Southeastern Power Administration Wholesale Rate Schedule Replacement-3 Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies and cooperatives ( any one of whom is hereinafter called the Customer) in Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Kentucky and southern Illinois to whom power is provided pursuant to contracts between the Government and the customer from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, Cordell Hull, and Laurel Projects (all of such projects being hereinafter called collectively the "Cumberland Projects") . Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to the sale of wholesale energy purchased to

385

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Vehicle Replacement Vouchers  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Vehicle Vehicle Replacement Vouchers to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Vehicle Replacement Vouchers on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Vehicle Replacement Vouchers on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Vehicle Replacement Vouchers on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Vehicle Replacement Vouchers on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Vehicle Replacement Vouchers on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Vehicle Replacement Vouchers on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Clean Vehicle Replacement Vouchers The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality administers the AirCheckTexas

386

Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacements...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacements for Linear...

387

Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast on Facebook Tweet about...

388

Amorphous Hierarchical Porous GeOx as High-Capacity Anodes for LiIon Batteries with Very Long Cycling Life  

SciTech Connect

Many researchers have focused in recent years on resolving the crucial problem of capacity fading in Li ion batteries when carbon anodes are replaced by other group-IV elements (Si, Ge, Sn) with much higher capacities. Some progress was achieved by using different nanostructures (mainly carbon coatings), with which the cycle numbers reached 100-200. However, obtaining longer stability via a simple process remains challenging. Here we demonstrate that a nanostructure of amorphous hierarchical porous GeO{sub x} whose primary particles are {approx}3.7 nm diameter has a very stable capacity of {approx}1250 mA h g{sup -1} for 600 cycles. Furthermore, we show that a full cell coupled with a Li(NiCoMn){sub 1/3}O{sub 2} cathode exhibits high performance.

Wang, X.L.; Han, W.-Q.; Chen, H.; Bai, J.; Tyson, T.A.; Yu, X.-Q.; Wang, X.-J.; Yang, X.-Q.

2011-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

389

Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis - Energy ...  

The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods. Inventors: Molnar; Linda K. (Philadelphia, PA), ...

390

ANODE, CATHODE AND THIN FILM STUDIES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOFC'S  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this research the microstructure {leftrightarrow} property relations in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) are being studied to better understand the mechanisms involved in cell performance. The overall aim is to fabricate SOFC's with controlled, stable, high performance microstructure. Most cathode studies were completed in the last DOE contract; studies during this year focused more on the influence of nonstoichiometry on the electrical performance. Studies indicate that nonstoichiometric La{sub x}Sr{sub 0.20}MnO{sub 3}(x = 0.70, 0.75, and 0.79) cathode compositions exhibit the best properties. A series of studies using these compositions fired on at temperatures of 1100, 1200, 1300 and 1400 C were performed. In all instances, 1200 C was the optimum, with the x = 0.70 composition being the best. It has an overpotential of only 0.04V at 1 A/cm{sup 2}. SEM analyses indicated no second phases or interdiffusion is detectable. Studies on optimization of anode compositions yielded the optimum volume fraction of Ni (45vol%), the best sintering temperature/time (1400 C/2 h), and the best starting materials (glycine-nitrate derived NiO and normal YSZ). In essence these results simply reflect the optimum microstructure. As such, they are being used to guide the development of optimized anodes for lower temperature operation based on Cu/CeO{sub 2} cermets. Marked success has been achieved on the placement of thin YSZ electrolytes on porous Ni/YSZ electrodes. The process being used is a transfer technique in which dense YSZ films are initially fabricated on NaCl or polymeric substrates, followed by partial dissolution of the substrate and placement of the film on the porous substrate. This technique has allowed us to produce structures with film thicknesses ranging from 70 to 3000 nm, and grain sizes ranging from 2 to 300 nm. Cells based on electrolytes this thick should operate in the 400--700 C range.

Dr. Wayne Huebner; Dr. Harlan U. Anderson

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Argonne CNM News: Batteries Get a Quick Charge with New Anode Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Batteries Get a Quick Charge with New Anode Technology Batteries Get a Quick Charge with New Anode Technology Tijana Rajh Argonne nanoscientist Tijana Rajh holds a strip of material created from titanium dioxide nanotubes. A team of researchers led by Tijana Rajh (Group Leader, Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials NanoBio Interfaces Group), and Christopher Johnson (Argonne's Chemical Sciences & Engineering Division), working under a CNM user science project, discovered that nanotubes composed of titanium dioxide can switch their phase as a battery is cycled, gradually boosting their operational capacity. New batteries produced with this material can be recharged up to half of their original capacity in less than 30 seconds. By switching out conventional graphite anodes with titanium nanotube anodes, a surprising phenomenon occurs. As the battery cycles through

392

Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium** Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA Lithium cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate

Cui, Yi

393

Method for Plutonium-Gallium Separation by Anodic Dissolution of a Solid Plutonium-Gallium Alloy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Purified plutonium and gallium are efficiently recovered from a solid plutonium-gallium (Pu-Ga) alloy by using an electrorefining process. The solid Pu-Ga alloy is the cell anode, preferably placed in a moving basket within the electrolyte. As the surface of the Pu-Ga anode is depleted in plutonium by the electrotransport of the plutonium to a cathode, the temperature of the electrolyte is sufficient to liquify the surface, preferably at about 500 C, resulting in a liquid anode layer substantially comprised of gallium. The gallium drips from the liquified surface and is collected below the anode within the electrochemical cell. The transported plutonium is collected on the cathode surface and is recovered.

Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

394

Amorphous Metallic Glass as New High Power and Energy Density Anodes For Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated the use of aluminum based amorphous metallic glass as the anode in lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Amorphous metallic glasses have no long-range ordered microstructure; the atoms are less closely ...

Meng, Shirley Y.

395

Investigation on Aluminum-Based Amorphous Metallic Glass as New Anode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aluminum based amorphous metallic glass powders were produced and tested as the anode materials for the lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Ground Al??Ni₁?La₁? was found to have a ...

Meng, Shirley Y.

396

Catalytic activity of ZrO2 nanotube arrays prepared by anodization method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ZrO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization method in aqueous electrolyte containing (NH4)2SO4 and NH4F. The morphology and structure of nanotube arrays were characterized through scanning ...

Xixin Wang; Jianling Zhao; Xiaorui Hou; Qi He; Chengchun Tang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Flow-Assisted Zinc Anode Batteries for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6&91&>09-+&@C:40(:&O7B0& %.PQRR340(+;"""GS8P(+:S:75& FLOW-ASSISTED ZINC ANODE BATTERIES FOR GRID-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE Prof. Sanjoy Banerjee, banerjee@che.ccny.cuny.e...

398

Reactions of the Carbon Anode in Alternative Battery and Fuel Cell Configurations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model is formulated by combining carbonate dissociation with pre-existing anode mechanisms involving heterogeneous reaction kinetics. The proposed model accounts for both the observed preponderance of CO{sub 2} evolution and dependence of rate on carbon anode microstructure. Implications of the model for the design of carbon batteries and fuel cells are discussed, and the laboratory cells used in earlier research are described. High coulombic efficiencies for the net reaction C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2} require severely limiting the thickness of paste anodes in powder-fed fuel cells while the unreacting surfaces of solid prismatic anodes must be isolated from the CO{sub 2} product atmosphere to prevent Boudouard corrosion, according to C + CO{sub 2} = 2CO.

Cooper, J F; Krueger, R

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Full Control of Pitch Burn during Baking: It's Impact on Anode Quality ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... costs, negatively impact on operational safety and a higher fuel consumption. ... Historical and Future Challenges with the Vibrated Bulk Density Test Methods for ... Prebaked Anode from Coal Extract (2) - Effects of the Properties of ...

400

Stability of Iridium Anode in Molten Oxide Electrolysis for Ironmaking: Influence of Slag Basicity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is a carbon-neutral, electrochemical technique to decompose metal oxide directly into liquid metal and oxygen gas upon use of an inert anode. What sets MOE apart from other technologies is ...

Kim, Hojong

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Design and construction of rigs for studying surface condensation and creating anodized metal oxide surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis details the design and construction of a rig for studying surface condensation and a rig for creating anodized metal oxides (AMOs). The condensation rig characterizes condensation for different surfaces; this ...

Sun, Wei-Yang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Geek-Up[08.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Other Agencies You are here Home Geek-Up08.20.10 -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and Researching the Gut Microbiome Geek-Up08.20.10 -- Turning Trash Bags...

403

Molten Salt Multi-anode Reactive Alloy Coating(MARC) of Ta-W ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, Ta-W coated samples (Ta-7.31W, Ta-4.12W and Ta-1.92W) were prepared by multi-anode reactive alloy coating (MARC) process in molten salt ...

404

Surface-Modified Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery Anode  

A team of Berkeley Lab researchers led by Gao Liu has developed an innovative approach to improve the adhesion of anode laminate to copper current collectors in lithium ion batteries. This nanotechnology directly addresses delamination of graphite ...

405

A study of certain trace metals in sea water using anodic stripping voltammetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anodic stripping voltammetry utilizing a thin film mercury composite graphite electrode has been evaluated and applied for the direct analysis of the metals, Zn,J Cu, Pb, and Cd in sea water. The electrode was observed to ...

Fitzgerald, William Francis, 1926-

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel iron and cobalt useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO: 0.15 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.85 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.45 CoO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

For cermet inert anode containing oxide and metal phases useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cermet inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a ceramic phase including an oxide of Ni, Fe and M, where M is at least one metal selected from Zn, Co, Al, Li, Cu, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Hf and rare earths, preferably Zn and/or Co. Preferred ceramic compositions comprise Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO and ZnO or CoO. The cermet inert anode also comprises a metal phase such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. A preferred metal phase comprises Cu and Ag. The cermet inert anodes may be used in electrolytic reduction cells for the production of commercial purity aluminum as well as other metals.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Modeling of the anode side of a direct methanol fuel cell with analytical solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, analytical solutions were derived (for any methanol oxidation reaction order) for the profiles of methanol concentration and proton current density by assuming diffusion mass transport mechanism, Tafel kinetics, and fast proton transport in the anodic catalyst layer of a direct methanol fuel cell. An expression for the Thiele modulus that allows to express the anodic overpotential as a function of the cell current, and kinetic and mass transfer parameters was obtained. For high cell current densities, it was found that the Thiele modulus ($\\phi^2$) varies quadratically with cell current density; yielding a simple correlation between anodic overpotential and cell current density. Analytical solutions were derived for the profiles of both local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer and local anodic current density in the catalyst layer. Under the assumptions of the model presented here, in general, the local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer cannot be expressed as an explicit fun...

Mosquera, Martín A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Cathode Contact Materials for Anode-Supported Cell Development - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cathode Contact Materials for Anode- Cathode Contact Materials for Anode- Supported Cell Development- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is to advance energy options to fuel our economy, strengthen our security, and improve our environment. With the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), NETL is leading the research, development, and demonstration of solid oxide

411

P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indium-tin oxide anodes capped with certain oxides of metals enhance while other oxides degrade the hole-injection and quantum efficiencies of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The oxides of tin, zinc, praseodymium, yttrium, gallium, terbium and titanium have been investigated. The power efficiency of an OLED with a 1nm thick praseodymium oxide cap is improved by 2.5 times over that of a conventional OLED without an oxide capped anode.

For Organic Light-Emitting; Chengfeng Qiu; Haiying Chen; Zhilang Xie; Man Wong; Hoi Sing Kwok

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Designer carbons as potential anodes for lithium secondary batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbons are the material of choice for lithium secondary battery anodes. Our objective is to use designed synthesis to produce a carbon with a predictable structure. The approach is to pyrolyze aromatic hydrocarbons within a pillared clay. Results from laser desorption mass spectrometry, scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small angle neutron scattering suggest that we have prepared disordered, porous sheets of carbon, free of heteroatoms. One of the first demonstrations of template-directed carbon formation was reported by Tomita and co-workers, where polyacrylonitrile was carbonized at 700{degrees}C yielding thin films with relatively low surface areas. More recently, Schwarz has prepared composites using polyfurfuryl alcohol and pillared clays. In the study reported here, aromatic hydrocarbons and polymers which do not contain heteroatoms are being investigated. The alumina pillars in the clay should act as acid sites to promote condensation similar to the Scholl reaction. In addition, these precursors should readily undergo thermal polymerization, such as is observed in the carbonization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.; Thiyagarajan, P. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

An Experimental Test Bed for Small Unmanned Helicopters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces a custom experimental test bed for the evaluation of autonomous flight controllers for unmanned helicopters. The development of controllers for unmanned helicopters is a difficult procedure which involves testing through simulation ... Keywords: Aerial robotics, Experimental test bed, Flight control, Fuzzy control, Unmanned helicopters

Nikos I. Vitzilaios; Nikos C. Tsourveloudis

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Coal Devolatilization in a Moving-Bed Gasifier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During moving-bed coal gasification, coal volatile matter entering the product gas phase affects gas yields and composition. The coal devolatilization database and empirical model developed here can be used to predict the yield and composition of the major coal devolatilization products in moving-bed gasifiers at atmospheric and elevated pressure.

1990-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Wind Waves and Moveable-Bed Bottom Friction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effects of moveable-bed bottom friction for wave observations and wave modeling are investigated using a state-of-the-art bottom friction model. This model combines the hydrodynamic friction model of Madsen et al. with a moveable-bed roughness ...

Hendrik L. Tolman

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m{sup 2} SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon-Jae [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Man-Jin [Research Institute of Nano Manufacturing System, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Won [Nanobio Fusion Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

WEDGE-AND-STRIP ANODES FOR CENTROID-FINDING POSITION-SENSITIVE PHOTOM AND PARTICLE DETECTORS  

SciTech Connect

We discuss new anode geometries, employing position-dependent charge partitioning, which can be used with microchannel plates, planar proportional counters, and mesh dynode electron multipliers to obtain a two-dimensional position signal from each detected photon or particle. Only three or four anode electrodes and signal paths are required, yet images comprised of a number of detected events have little geometric distortion and the resolution is not limited by thermal noise inherent in resistive sheet anodes. We present an analysis of the geometrical image nonlinearity in the relationship between event centroid location and the charge partition ratios. Fabrication and testing of two wedge-and-strip anode systems are discussed. Images obtained with EUV radiation and microchannel plates that verify the predicted performance of this readout system are shown. We emphasize that the spatial resolution of the wedge-and-strip anode is in no way limited by the coarseness of the anode conductor pattern. The resolution is of the order of 0.4% of the image field size, and could be further improved by adopting low noise signal circuitry. Tradeoffs encountered in the design of practical x-ray, EUV, and charge particle image systems are discussed.

Martin, C.; Jelinsky, P.; Lampto, M.; Malina, R.F.; Anger, H.O.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface Ni/Sb and Ni/Sb alloys were found to efficiently minimize the negative effects of sulfur on the performance of Ni/zirconia anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Prior to operating on fuel gas containing low concentrations of H2S, the nickel/zirconia anodes were briefly exposed to antimony or tin vapor, which only slightly affected the SOFC performance. During the subsequent exposures to 1 and 5 ppm H2S, increases in anodic polarization losses were minimal compared to those observed for the standard nickel/zirconia anodes. Post-test XPS analyses showed that Sb and Sn tended to segregate to the surface of Ni particles, and further confirmed a significant reduction of adsorbed sulfur on the Ni surface in Ni/Sn and Ni/Sb samples compared to the Ni. The effect may be the result of weaker sulfur adsorption on bimetallic surfaces, adsorption site competition between sulfur and Sb or Sn on Ni, or other factors. The use of dilute binary alloys of Ni-Sb or Ni-Sn in the place of Ni, or brief exposure to Sb or Sn vapor, may be effective means to counteract the effects of sulfur poisoning in SOFC anodes and Ni catalysts. Other advantages, including suppression of coking or tailoring the anode composition for the internal reforming, are also expected.

Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Pederson, Larry R.

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

419

Replaces EIA-459E OMB Control No.  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 5 (04-94) Replaces EIA-459E OMB Control No. 1910-0400 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FEDERAL ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT SUMMARY REPORT Page of Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 3.38 hours per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, search- ing existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Office of Information Resources Management Policy, Plans, and Oversight, Records Management Division, HR-422 - GTN, Paperwork Reduction Project (1910-0400), U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20585; and to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Paperwork Reduction Project

420

Replaces DOE F 5120.2  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

700.2 700.2 (09-93) Replaces DOE F 5120.2 (02-90) edition may be used 1. INITIATOR: NAME & SIGNATURE ORGANIZATION CODE TELEPHONE NO. 2. PROJECT TITLE: 3. RESPONSIBLE ASSISTANT SECRETARY: 4. RESPONSIBLE OPERATIONS OFFICE: 5. M&O CONTRACTOR NAME: 6. WORK AUTHORIZATION NO.: FUNDS HEREBY AUTHORIZED 7. REVISION: B&R No. $000 13. WORK AUTHORIZED: (Brief description, schedule, results or products and reporting requirements, and any shifting of funds permitted within the work authorization): U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Management & Operating (M&O) Contract Work Authorization WORK AUTHORIZATION 14. WORK AUTHORIZATION OFFICIAL: 15. OPERATIONS OFFICE OFFICIAL: 16. M&O CONTRACTOR OFFICIAL: NAME & SIGNATURE DATE 9. PERFORMANCE PERIOD COVERED BY

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer System. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) More Documents & Publications Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) SRS Tank 48H Waste Treatment Project Technology Readiness Assessment

422

Hydrogen storage-bed design for tritium systems test assembly  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Los Alamos National Laboratory has completed the design of a hydrogen storage bed for the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). Our objective is to store hydrogen isotopes as uranium hydrides and recover them by dehydriding. The specific use of the storage bed is to store DT gas as U(D,T)/sub 3/ when it is required for the TSTA. The hydrogen storage bed consists of a primary container in which uranium powder is stored and a secondary container for a second level of safety in gas confinement. The primary container, inlet and outlet gas lines, cartridge heaters, and instrumentation are assembled in the secondary container. The design of the hydrogen storage bed is presented, along with the modeling and analysis of the bed behavior during hydriding-dehydriding cycles.

Cullingford, H.S.; Wheeler, M.G.; McMullen, J.W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts July 29, 2012 - 5:16pm Addthis Many incandescent lightbulbs can be replaced with more energy efficient options. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/ClarkandCompany. Many incandescent lightbulbs can be replaced with more energy efficient options. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/ClarkandCompany. What does this mean for me? For the greatest energy efficiency, use new fixtures with new lightbulbs. Replace A-type lightbulbs with more energy-efficient options such as CFLs, LEDs, and energy-saving (halogen) incandescents. Matching replacement lightbulbs to existing fixtures and ballasts can be tricky, especially with older fixtures. Using new fixtures made for new

424

Do You Have Windows That Need Replacing? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Do You Have Windows That Need Replacing? Do You Have Windows That Need Replacing? Do You Have Windows That Need Replacing? August 3, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis This week, Andrea shared the first part of her two-part story about how she replaced her more than 20-year-old windows with new, energy-efficient ones. Replacing old windows can be a great way to reduce the amount of warm and cool air (depending on the season) is leaking right out of your home. This week, we're wondering: Do you have windows that need replacing, too? Do you have any plans to replace them with newer, more efficient windows? You have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles

425

Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute's decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The project to build a PYROFLOW circulating fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boiler at the BFGoodrich Chemical Plant at Henry, Illinois, is described. This project is being partially funded by Illinois to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing high-sulfur Illinois coal. Design production is 125,000 pounds per hour of 400 psig saturated steam. An Illinois EPA construction permit has been received, engineering design is under way, major equipment is on order, ground breaking occurred in January 1984 and planned commissioning date is late 1985. This paper describes the planned installation and the factors and analyses used to evaluate the technology and justify the project. Design of the project is summarized, including the boiler performance requirements, the PYROFLOW boiler, the coal, limestone and residue handling systems and the pollutant emission limitations.

Farbstein, S. B.; Moreland, T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.

Boyle, Michael J. (Aston, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Multiscale Analysis of Pebble Bed Reactors  

SciTech Connect

– The PEBBED code was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for design and analysis of pebble-bed high temperature reactors. The diffusion-depletion-pebble-mixing algorithm of the original PEBBED code was enhanced through coupling with the THERMIX-KONVEK code for thermal fluid analysis and by the COMBINE code for online cross section generation. The COMBINE code solves the B-1 or B-3 approximations to the transport equation for neutron slowing down and resonance interactions in a homogeneous medium with simple corrections for shadowing and thermal self-shielding. The number densities of materials within specified regions of the core are averaged and transferred to COMBINE from PEBBED for updating during the burnup iteration. The simple treatment of self-shielding in previous versions of COMBINE led to inaccurate results for cross sections and unsatisfactory core performance calculations. A new version of COMBINE has been developed that treats all levels of heterogeneity using the 1D transport code ANISN. In a 3-stage calculation, slowing down is performed in 167 groups for each homogeneous subregion (kernel, particle layers, graphite shell, control rod absorber annulus, etc.) Particles in a local average pebble are homogenized using ANISN then passed to the next (pebble) stage. A 1D transport solution is again performed over the pebble geometry and the homogenized pebble cross sections are passed to a 1-d radial model of a wedge of the pebble bed core. This wedge may also include homogeneous reflector regions and a control rod region composed of annuli of different absorbing regions. Radial leakage effects are therefore captured with discrete ordinates transport while axial and azimuthal effects are captured with a transverse buckling term. In this paper, results of various PBR models will be compared with comparable models from literature. Performance of the code will be assessed.

Hans Gougar; Woo Yoon; Abderrafi Ougouag

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Coal-Fired Fluidized Bed Combustion Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The availability of an environmentally acceptable multifuel technology, such as fluidized bed combustion, has encouraged many steam producers/ users to investigate switching from oil or gas to coal. Changes in federal regulations encouraging cogeneration have further enhanced the economic incentives for primary fuel switching. However, this addition of cogeneration to the fuel conversion analysis considerably complicates the investigation. A system design for cogeneration of steam and electricity at a nominal 40,000 pound per hour capacity utilizing fluidized bed combustion is described. The basic system incorporates silo storage of coal, ash, and limestone with dense phase conveying. The system generates power utilizing either a backpressure turbine or a condensing turbine with steam extraction. Three case studies performed for specific end users are presented. The interaction among plant steam requirements, rate purchase structure, and electrical energy buy back rate is discussed. How these factors interact determine the final design and the choice of fuels is illustrated. Because the decision to switch fuel, as well as to cogenerate, is usually economically motivated, an in-depth understanding of the steam/electrical needs and interactions is critical. How these considerations are integrated in the system and the effect they have on the monetary returns are discussed. Electric rate agreements vary significantly from one state to another. Therefore, the examples selected are intended to provide, insight into this variability. For example, one rate structure encourages solid fuel cogeneration. The second is a block structure with low sell back rates making cogeneration difficult to justify. How these rate schedules affected the recommended design illustrates that the system selection is very important.

Thunem, C.; Smith, N.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

A mechanistic model for river incision into bedrock by saltating bed load  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the flux of impact kinetic energy normal to the bed and on the fraction of the bed that is not armored

Dietrich, William

431

Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (both radioactive and hazardous according tohe Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Depending on regulatory requirements, the mercury in the off-gas must be controlled with sometimes very high efficiencies. Compliance to the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Several test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include: (a) The depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests, (b) MERSORB® carbon can sorb Hg up to 19 wt% of the carbon mass, and (c) the spent carbon retained almost all (98 – 99.99%) of the Hg; but when even a small fraction of the total Hg dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high Hg concentrations. Localized areas in a carbon bed that become heated through heat of adsorption, to temperatures where oxidation occurs, are referred to as “bed hot spots.” Carbon bed hot spots must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Key to carbon bed hot spot mitigation are (a) designing for sufficient gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) monitoring and control of inlet gas flowrate, temperature, and composition, (c) monitoring and control of in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (d) most important, monitoring of bed outlet CO concentrations. An increase of CO levels in the off-gas downstream of the carbon bed to levels about 50-100 ppm higher than the inlet CO concentration indicate CO formation in the bed, caused by carbon bed hot spots. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from. Multiple high and high-high alarm levels should be used, with appropriate corrective actions for each level.

Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions  

SciTech Connect

The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

Wels, B.R.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

434

Variation of anode grid surface morphology and its effect on operation of a triode virtual cathode oscillator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After repeatedly operation of a triode virtual cathode oscillator, the surface morphology of anode grid is studied by a scanning electron microscope. It is found that there are many quasi-periodic sawteeth formed on the anode grid, which are about 300-500 {mu}m in height, {approx}200 {mu}m in width, and 150-200 {mu}m in period. The formation of this sawteeth implies that there is possible Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability on the anode grid during the irradiation by high-current relativistic electron beam. These sawteeth enhance the electric field on anode grid, leading to more feasible of anode plasma generation, and more rapidly expansion of that plasma. As a result, the electron transmissivity of anode grid is decreased, the output microwave power of the virtual cathode oscillator is lowered and its operational performance is degraded.

Xu Qifu; Cai Dan; Zhang Qiang; Zhao Xuelong; Zhao Qi; Cheng Guoxin; Liu Lie [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Moving granular-bed filter development program. Topical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced, coal-based, power plants, such as IGCC and Advanced-PFBC, are currently nearing commercial demonstration. These power plant technologies require hot gas filtration as part of their gas cleaning trains. Ceramic barrier filters are the major filter candidates being developed for these hot gas cleaning applications. While ceramic barrier filters achieve high levels of particle removal, concerns exist for their reliability and operability in these applications. An alternative hot gas filtration technology is the moving granular bed filter. An advanced, moving granular bed filter has been conceived, and early development activities performed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science and Technology Center. This document reports on the Base Contract tasks performed to resolve the barrier technical issues for this technology. The concept, the Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter (SMGBF) has a concurrent downward, gas and bed media flow configuration that results in simplified features and improved scaleup feasibility compared to alternative designs. Two modes of bed media operation were assessed in the program: once-through using pelletized power plant waste as bed media, and recycle of bed media via standleg and pneumatic transport techniques. Cold Model testing; high-temperature, high-pressure testing; and pelletization testing using advanced power plant wastes, have been conducted in the program. A commercial, economic assessment of the SMGBF technology was performed for IGCC and Advanced-PFBC applications. The evaluation shows that the barrier technical issues can be resolved, and that the technology is potentially competitive with ceramic barrier filters.

Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Control console replacement at the WPI Reactor  

SciTech Connect

With partial funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) University Reactor Instrumentation Upgrade Program (DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-90ER12982), the original control console at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Reactor has been replaced with a modern system. The new console maintains the original design bases and functionality while utilizing current technology. An advanced remote monitoring system has been added to augment the educational capabilities of the reactor. Designed and built by General Electric in 1959, the open pool nuclear training reactor at WPI was one of the first such facilities in the nation located on a university campus. Devoted to undergraduate use, the reactor and its related facilities have been since used to train two generations of nuclear engineers and scientists for the nuclear industry. The reactor power level was upgraded from 1 to 10 kill in 1969, and its operating license was renewed for 20 years in 1983. In 1988, the reactor was converted to low enriched uranium. The low power output of the reactor and ergonomic facility design make it an ideal tool for undergraduate nuclear engineering education and other training.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Polymers replace glass in Nova fuel capsules  

SciTech Connect

The glass fuel-capsule designs used in previous laser-fusion research are not adaptable to the implosion-physics requirements of Nova and other more powerful laser facilities that may be available in the future. As one tries to learn more about the physics of high-density compression, it becomes increasingly important to replace the glass with lower-Z material. Accordingly, the authors have shut down the high-temperature drop-tower furnaces they used to make glass capsules, and they are focusing all their efforts on developing new techniques for making polymer capsules. These capsules are ten times larger in diameter than the glass capsules used in the early days of laser-fusion research, but they are still only one-tenth as large as a high-gain capsule must be. The polymer capsules will be used in classified indirect-drive targets. This article describes how the decisions were made on which polymers to use in the NOVA fuel capsules, the techniques explored, and the properties of the prototype capsules.

Burnham, A.K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Alternatives to proposed replacement production reactors  

SciTech Connect

To insure adequate supplies of plutonium and tritium for defense purposes, an independent evaluation was made by Los Alamos National Laboratory of the numerous alternatives to the proposed replacement production reactors (RPR). This effort concentrated on the defense fuel cycle operation and its technical implications in identifying the principal alternatives for the 1990s. The primary options were identified as (1) existing commercial reactors, (2) existing and planned government-owned facilities (not now used for defense materials production), and (3) other RPRs (not yet proposed) such as CANDU or CANDU-type heavy-water reactors (HWR) for both plutonium and tritium production. The evaluation considered features and differences of various options that could influence choice of RPR alternatives. Barring a change in the US approach to civilian and defense fuel cycles and precluding existing commercial reactors at government-owned sites, the most significant alternatives were identified as a CANDU-type HWR at Savannah River Plant (SRP) site or the Three Mile Island commercial reactor with reprocessing capability at Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant and at SRP.

Cullingford, H.S.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Replacement-1 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Replacement-1 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Replacement-1 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Replacement-1 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Replacement Energy System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies and cooperatives (any one of whom is hereinafter called the Customer) in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, South Carolina, or North Carolina to whom power is provided pursuant to contracts between the Government and the Customer. This rate schedule shall be applicable to the sale at wholesale energy purchased to meet contract minimum energy and sold under appropriate contracts between the Government and the Customer. Document Available for Download Replacement-1 Rate Schedule More Documents & Publications Replacement-3 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule

440

Liquid-fluidized-bed heat exchanger design parameters  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-fluidized-bed heat exchangers prevent scale accumulation on heat transfer surfaces and reduce the required heat transfer surface when scaling fluids, such as geothermal water, are used as the primary or working fluid. Liquid-fluidized-bed heat exchangers, principles of operation, and design parameters are described. Horizontal and vertical assemblies are discussed, including problems encountered with both designs. Bed-side heat transfer coefficients are given for limited cases, and a correlation is provided for calculating heat transfer coefficients for horizontal assemblies. A design example for a 60 kW/sub (e)/ (60 kW/sub (electric)/ preheater is included.

Allen, C.A.; Grimmett, E.S.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The entropy changes (?S) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). LiCoO2 has a much larger entropy change than electrodes based on LiNixCoyMnzO2 and LiFePO4, while lithium titanate based anode has lower entropy change compared to graphite anodes. Reversible heat generation rate was found to be a significant portion of the total heat generation rate. The appropriate combinations of cathode and anode were investigated to minimize reversible heat.

Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Xu, Wu; Towne, Silas A.; Williford, Ralph E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Energy Production from Coal Syngas Containing H2S via Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Utilizing Lanthanum Strontium Vanadate Anodes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lanthanum strontium vanadate (LSV), a perovskite ceramic electrocatalyst suitable for use as a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode, has shown significant activity toward the… (more)

Cooper, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells  

SciTech Connect

During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be done. The anode composition needs further improvements to attain commercial purity targets. At the present corrosion rate, the vertical plate anodes will wear too rapidly leading to a rapidly increasing anode-cathode gap and thermal instabilities in the cell. Cathode wetting as a function of both cathode plate composition and bath composition needs to be better understood to ensure that complete drainage of the molten aluminum off the plates occurs. Metal buildup appears to lead to back reaction and low current efficiencies.

R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

2001-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

444

Bio-based ethylene able to replace petroleum as a ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Bio-based ethylene able to replace petroleum as a feedstock National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Contact NREL About This ...

445

Replace Kilogram Artifact Now With Definition Based on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Replace Kilogram Artifact Now With Definition Based on Nature, Experts Say. ... “This started out as a study of the effects of redefining the kilogram. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

446

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) as Military APU Replacements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Division Propulsion Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) as Military APU Replacements Cleared For Public For Public Release: 88ABW-2010-0196 2...

447

Determination of the cathode and anode voltage drops in high power low-pressure amalgam lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time, cathode and anode drops of powerful low-pressure amalgam lamps were measured. The lamp discharge current is 3.2 A, discharge current frequency is 43 kHz, linear electric power is 2.4 W/cm. The method of determination of a cathode drop is based on the change of a lamp operating voltage at variation of the electrode filament current at constant discharge current. The total (cathode plus anode) drop of voltage was measured by other, independent ways. The maximum cathode fall is 10.8 V; the anode fall corresponding to the maximal cathode fall is 2.4 V. It is shown that in powerful low pressure amalgam lamps the anode fall makes a considerable contribution (in certain cases, the basic one) to heating of electrodes. Therefore, the anode fall cannot be neglected, at design an electrode and ballast of amalgam lamps with operating discharge current frequency of tens of kHz.

Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, A. I., E-mail: vasiliev@npo.lit.ru; Kostyuchenko, S. V.; Sokolov, D. V.; Startsev, A. Yu. [Joint Stock Company NPO LIT (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, N. N. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Formation of Self-Organized Anode Patterns in Arc Discharge Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pattern formation and self-organization are phenomena commonly observed experimentally in diverse types of plasma systems, including atmospheric-pressure electric arc discharges. However, numerical simulations reproducing anode pattern formation in arc discharges have proven exceedingly elusive. Time-dependent three-dimensional thermodynamic nonequilibrium simulations reveal the spontaneous formation of self-organized patterns of anode attachment spots in the free-burning arc, a canonical thermal plasma flow established by a constant DC current between an axi-symmetric electrodes configuration in the absence of external forcing. The number of spots, their size, and distribution within the pattern depend on the applied total current and on the resolution of the spatial discretization, whereas the main properties of the plasma flow, such as maximum temperatures, velocity, and voltage drop, depend only on the former. The sensibility of the solution to the spatial discretization stresses the computational requirements for comprehensive arc discharge simulations. The obtained anode patterns qualitatively agree with experimental observations and confirm that the spots originate at the fringes of the arc - anode attachment. The results imply that heavy-species - electron energy equilibration, in addition to thermal instability, has a dominant role in the formation of anode spots in arc discharges.

Juan Pablo Trelles

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

449

ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000 F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.'s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 C (700 F) to 538 C (1000 F) and regeneration temperatures up to 760 C (1400 F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent development at General Electric's Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

R.E Ayala; V.S. Venkataramani; Javad Abbasian; Rachid B. Slimane; Brett E. Williams; Minoo K. Zarnegar; James R. Wangerow; Andy H. Hill

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

450

ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM; DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 °C (900-1000 °F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.?s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 °C (650 °F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 °C (650-1000 °F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 °C (700 °F) to 538 °C (1000 °F) and regeneration tempera-tures up to 760 °C (1400 °F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent develop-ment at General Electric?s Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

R.E. AYALA; V.S. VENKATARAMANI

1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

451

Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Details of numerical simulations of two-phase gas-solid turbulent flow in the riser section of Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor (CFBR) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique are reported. Two CFBR riser configurations are considered and modeled. Each of these two riser models consist of inlet, exit, connecting elbows and a main pipe. Both riser configurations are cylindrical and have the same diameter but differ in their inlet lengths and main pipe height to enable investigation of riser geometrical scaling effects. In addition, two types of solid particles are exploited in the solid phase of the two-phase gas-solid riser flow simulations to study the influence of solid loading ratio on flow patterns. The gaseous phase in the two-phase flow is represented by standard atmospheric air. The CFD-based FLUENT software is employed to obtain steady state and transient solutions for flow modulations in the riser. The physical dimensions, types and numbers of computation meshes, and solution methodology utilized in the present work are stated. Flow parameters, such as static and dynamic pressure, species velocity, and volume fractions are monitored and analyzed. The differences in the computational results between the two models, under steady and transient conditions, are compared, contrasted, and discussed.

Ibrahim, Essam A

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

453

Coal bed methane global market potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Worldwide increases in energy prices, as well as the increased potential for project financing derived from emissions credits, have renewed focus on coal bed methane (CBM) and coal mine methane (CMM) projects in coal-producing countries around the world. Globally, CBM utilization projects (in the operational, development, or planning stages) capture and utilize methane from gassy underground coal mines in at least 13 countries. The total methane emission reductions that could be achieved by these projects are approximately 135 billion cubic feet per year (equal to 14.8 million tons of carbon equivalent per year). This global activity level reflects a growing awareness of the technological practicality and the economic attractiveness of coal mine methane recovery and use. This report outlines the potential of the global CBM market. Contents: An overview of CBM; Challenges and issues; Technologies to generate power from CAM; Global CBM/CMM utilization; Country highlights; Ranking of countries with the largest CMM development potential (Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, USA, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Africa); Planning CBM/CMM projects; Pre-feasibility and feasibility studies; Demonstration projects; Development plan and application process; Equity and debt; Carbon financing; Government sponsors; Private sponsors; Project risk reduction support; Examples of integrated project financing; Glossary.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

454

Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed Decades' worth of transuranic waste from Los Alamos is being laid to rest at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico March 25, 2013 Disposing of nuclear waste in a salt bed Depending on the impurities embedded within it, the salt from WIPP can be anything from a reddish, relatively opaque rock to a clear crystal like the one shown here. Ordinary salt effectively seals transuranic waste in a long-term repository Transuranic waste, made of items such as lab coats and equipment that have been contaminated by radioactive elements heavier than uranium, is being shipped from the Los Alamos National Laboratory to a long-term storage

455

ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS by Elliott Paul Barnhart.........................................................................................8 Coal and Metabolite Enrichment Studies ..................................................................................14 Ability of the Consortium to Produce Methane from Coal and Metabolites ................16

Maxwell, Bruce D.

456

Electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT) applied to bubbling fluid beds  

SciTech Connect

These presentation visuals illustrate the apparatus and method for applying Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) to bubbling fluid beds to their solid fraction and bubble properties. Results are compared to estimated values.

Weber, J., Mei, J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Shielded fluid stream injector for particle bed reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A shielded fluid-stream injector assembly is provided for particle bed reactors. The assembly includes a perforated pipe injector disposed across the particle bed region of the reactor and an inverted V-shaped shield placed over the pipe, overlapping it to prevent descending particles from coming into direct contact with the pipe. The pipe and shield are fixedly secured at one end to the reactor wall and slidably secured at the other end to compensate for thermal expansion. An axially extending housing aligned with the pipe and outside the reactor and an inline reamer are provided for removing deposits from the inside of the pipe. The assembly enables fluid streams to be injected and distributed uniformly into the particle bed with minimized clogging of injector ports. The same design may also be used for extraction of fluid streams from particle bed reactors.

Notestein, J.E.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

458

Community-Based Energy Development (C-BED) Tariff  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Under the Community-Based Energy Development (C-BED) Tariff, each public utility in Minnesota is required to file with the state Public Utilities Commission (PUC) to create a 20-year power purchase...

459

Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Data Page Edit with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana) This is the approved revision of this page, as...

460

MCNP4B Modeling of Pebble-Bed Reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The applicability of the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B to the neutronic modeling of pebble-bed reactors was investigated. A modeling methodology was developed based on an analysis of critical experiments carried out at the ...

Lebenhaft, Julian Robert

2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

SUPPORTING CALCULATIONS FOR SUBMERGED BED SCRUBBER CONDENSATE DISPOSAL PRECONCEPTUAL STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Pre conceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

PAJUNEN AL; TEDESCHI AR

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

462

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - New Test Bed Probes the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Test Bed Probes the Origin of Pulses at LCLS By Glenn Roberts Jr. July 23, 2013 It all comes down to one tiny spot on a diamond-cut, highly pure copper plate. That's where...

463

USE OF SORBENT BEDS FOR TRANSFERRING HYDROGEN GASES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of uranium or palladium black beds for transferring hydrogen isotopes has been described. Such beds react quantitatively and rapidly with hydrogen and its isotopes, store large volumes of gas as the solid hydride, and can evolve the gas in a controlled manner to give any reasonable pressure. The uranium bed is somewhat simpler to operate since only heat need be supplied to carry out the pumping cycle, while the palladium must be cooled to approximately - -100 deg C to sorb hydrogen and heated to evolve the gas. The palladium bed is very dependable in operation; it is poisoned only by gases like H/xub 2/S and CO and, if poisoned, can be easily reactivated. Uranium is rather easily poisoned by small amounts of air; cycling in hydrogen will reactivate the uncombined uranium but the portion reacted with air will be permanently combined. (auth)

Ahmann, D.H.; Flint, P.S.; Salmon, O.N.

1954-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

464

Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-Al-Si (NAS) Waste Form Qualification C.M. Jantzen and E.M. Pierce November 18, 2010 2 Participating...

465

Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study  

SciTech Connect

This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

466

Shock-Induced Flows through Packed Beds: Transient Regimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The early stage of the transient regimes in the shock-induced flows within solid-packed beds are investigated in the linear longwave and high-frequency approximation. The transient resistance law is refined as the Duhameltime integral that follows from the general concept of dynamic tortuosity and compressibility of the packed beds. A closed-form solution is expected to describe accurately the early stage of the transient regime flow and is in qualitative agreement with available experimental data.

Yuri M. Shtemler; Isaac R. Shreiber; Alex Britan

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

467

Fluidized bed combustor and coal gun-tube assembly therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal supply gun assembly for a fluidized bed combustor which includes heat exchange elements extending above the bed's distributor plate assembly and in which the gun's nozzles are disposed relative to the heat exchange elements to only discharge granular coal material between adjacent heat exchange elements and in a path which is substantially equidistant from adjacent heat exchange elements.

Hosek, William S. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Garruto, Edward J. (Wayne, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Experimental Research of Sleeping Bed Integrated with PCM Heat Storage and Solar Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper puts forward a new way of using solar energy and Phase Change Material (PCM): the integration of PCM, sleeping bed and solar energy. The cavity of sleeping bed is filled with PCM. The sleeping bed is a heat storage device charged by solar ... Keywords: Solar heating, Sleeping bed, PCM heat storage

Guoqing Yu; Ji Qiang; Huizhong Zhao; Zonghu Lv

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Geek-Up[08.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and Researching  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and 8.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and Researching the Gut Microbiome Geek-Up[08.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and Researching the Gut Microbiome August 20, 2010 - 5:18pm Addthis Elizabeth Meckes Elizabeth Meckes Director of User Experience & Digital Technologies, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? An Argonne Scholar has figured out a way to convert grocery bags into carbon nanotubes that can be used as components for lithium-ion batteries. We have about three pounds of bacteria living in our gut -- most of which is helpful for our immune system development and metabolism. Scientists at Ames Laboratory are making batteries that are "greener" and more cost-efficient by using rare earth elements -- neodymium

470

Method for providing uranium articles with a corrosion resistant anodized coating  

SciTech Connect

Uranium articles are provided with anodized oxide coatings in an aqueous solution of an electrolyte selected from the group consisting of potassium phosphate, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, and a mixture of potassium tetraborate and boric acid. The uranium articles are anodized at a temperature greater than about 75.degree. C. with a current flow of less than about 0.036 A/cm.sup.2 of surface area while the pH of the solution is maintained in a range of about 2 to 11.5. The pH values of the aqueous solution and the low current density utilized during the electrolysis prevent excessive dissolution of the uranium and porosity in the film or watering. The relatively high temperature of the electrolyte bath inhibits hydration and the attendant deleterious pitting so as to enhance corrosion resistance of the anodized coating.

Waldrop, Forrest B. (Powell, TN); Washington, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Effect of operating parameters and anode gas impurities upon polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PEM fuel cells are actively under development for transportation and other applications. Integration of a PEM fuel cell stack with a methanol reformer requires an understanding of single cell performance under a range of operating conditions using anode gas contaminated with impurities. The effect of temperature, pressure, and anode gas impurities on single cell PEM performance was investigated with platinum black electrodes. Single cell performance remained unchanged as temperature was varied between 80 and 100 at 3 atm pressure. High water partial pressures at 120C produced a mass transfer limiting current. While operation at 120C did not reverse CO{sub 2} poisoning, anode air addition proved effective. Air injection also decreased CO poisoning at injected concentrations up to 200 ppm CO. Higher single cell tolerance was observed for CH{sub 3}OH than CO. Up to 1 mole % CH{sub 3}OH in the gas phase reduced the current density by less than 10%.

Weisbrod, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Concentrated ion beam emitted from an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator and mechanism  

SciTech Connect

An enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator with an outlet diameter of 150 mm is experimentally demonstrated to produce a concentrated ion beam, especially at a high discharge voltage, with a high current utilization efficiency of up to {approx}0.9. Numerical investigation based on the three-dimensional particle-in-cell method is performed to study the ion dynamics and elucidate the origin of the ion beam characteristics. The simulation results reveal that the equipotential lines play an important role in the surface near the anode emitting the ions. The ion emitting surface is determined by the magnetic field lines near the anode and the magnetic mirror contributes to the concentrated beam significantly. The high current utilization efficiency results from the appropriate obliquity of the magnetic mirror.

Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

473

Breathing oscillations in enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Breathing oscillations in the discharge of an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator are investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. Different from the traditional breathing mode in a circular Hall plasma accelerator, the bulk plasma oscillation here is trigged by the potential barrier generated by the concentrated ion beam and substantial enough to compete with the anode voltage. The electric field near the anode is suppressed by the potential barrier thereby decreasing the electron density by {approx}36%. The discharge is restored to the normal level after the concentrated beam explodes and then it completes one cycle of electro-driven breathing oscillation. The breathing mode identified by the PIC simulation has a frequency range of {approx}156 kHz-{approx}250 kHz and does not vary monotonically with the discharge voltage.

Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China) [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Fu, R. K. Y. [Plasma Technology Limited, Festival Walk Tower, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)] [Plasma Technology Limited, Festival Walk Tower, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)] [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

474

Formation of Si-based nano-island array on porous anodic alumina  

SciTech Connect

Si-based nano-island arrays were fabricated on porous anodic alumina by two methods. In the first method, a thick silicon film was first deposited onto the surface with highly ordered bowl array prepared by anodizing an Al foil, followed by the formation of a polycrystalline silicon nano-island array on the surface close to the bowl array after dissolving aluminum. In the second method, porous anodization was performed on an Al thin film on Si and a SiO{sub 2} nano-island array was subsequently formed electrochemically. Time-resolved atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence were used to investigate the growth process as well as the mechanism of the growth process. Our proposed mechanism as well as assumptions made to formulate the model were found to be in agreement with the experimental results.

Mei, Y.F. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: yf.mei@plink.cityu.edu.hk; Huang, G.S. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Z.M. [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Siu, G.G. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Fu, Ricky K.Y. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yang, Y.M. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, X.L. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tang, Z.K. [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

475

Development and applications of clean coal fluidized bed technology  

SciTech Connect

Power generation in Europe and elsewhere relies heavily on coal and coal-based fuels as the source of energy. The reliance will increase in the future due to the decreasing stability of price and security of oil supply. In other words, the studies on fluidized bed combustion systems, which is one of the clean coal technologies, will maintain its importance. The main objective of the present study is to introduce the development and the applications of the fluidized bed technology (FBT) and to review the fluidized bed combustion studies conducted in Turkey. The industrial applications of the fluidized bed technology in the country date back to the 1980s. Since then, the number of the fluidized bed boilers has increased. The majority of the installations are in the textile sector. In Turkey, there is also a circulating fluidized bed thermal power plant with a capacity of 2 x 160 MW under construction at Can in Canakkale. It is expected that the FBT has had, or will have, a significant and increasing role in dictating the energy strategies for Turkey.

Eskin, N.; Hepbasli, A. [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

476

Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Tanning bed use, deviance regulation theory, and source factors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tanning bed use, especially among young, white females, has become a serious health problem in the United States. Those who use tanning beds value a tanned appearance; thus, one possible way to get individuals to stop using tanning beds is to persuade them to begin using an alternative method: a sunless tanner. This study sought to use persuasive messages to encourage individuals to both stop using tanning beds and start using a sunless tanner. Deviance Regulation Theory (DRT) was used to design three messages, and source expertise was manipulated (high and low). In addition, attitudes, perceived norms, benefits and threats about tanning were examined. Results indicate that the combination of DRT message design and source expertise produced several message conditions that were effective at decreasing tanning bed use intent. No combined message condition was effective at changing sunless tanner use intent. DRT message design alone did not produce results, nor did source expertise. Tanning attitudes were influenced by reference groups, and perceived norms about tanning predicted individual‘s tanning bed use for several reference groups. In addition, there was an interaction between benefits and threats of tanning.

Head, Katharine J.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

480

Conveyorized Photoresist Stripping Replacement for Flex Circuit Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

A replacement conveyorized photoresist stripping system was characterized to replace the ASI photoresist stripping system. This system uses the qualified ADF-25c chemistry for the fabrication of flex circuits, while the ASI uses the qualified potassium hydroxide chemistry. The stripping process removes photoresist, which is used to protect the copper traces being formed during the etch process.

Megan Donahue

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "replacement anode bed" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion performance guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Performance specifications for conventional coal-fired boilers typically call for tests to be conducted in accordance with the ASME Performance Test Code for Steam Generating Units, PTC 4.1. The Code establishes procedures for conducting performance tests primarily to determine efficiency and capacity. The current edition of the PTC 4.1 is not entirely applicable to atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion boilers, however. AFBC boilers typically are equipped with integral sulfur capture through the addition of a sorbent material along with the fuel feed to the combustor, and this new technology introduces heat losses and credits that are not described in PTC 4.1. These heat losses and credits include combustion heat loss due to the calcination of the sorbent, heat credit due to sulfation, and the effects of calcination and sulfation on the dry flue gas flow, all of which significantly affect boiler efficiency calculations. The limitations of the current issue of the PTC 4.1 is recognized and the Code is now being reviewed to include heat losses and credits common to AFBC boilers. While this work will take some time, there is an immediate need for procedures for performance testing of AFBC boilers. These Guidelines are prepared to meet that need in the interim. The Guidelines detail procedures for boiler efficiency tests. They introduce technical and economic issues that may influence the test level of detail and accuracy. Methods of identifying required measurements, selection of measurement schemes, and assessment of measured versus estimated values are presented. A case study is used to illustrate the procedures and indicate which are the major credits and losses in the efficiency of a typical AFBC boiler. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

Sotelo, E. (Sotelo (Ernest), Berkeley, CA (USA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Under Various Cycling Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphites MCMB-2810 and OMAC-15 (made by Osaka Gas Inc.), and SNG12 (Hydro Quebec, Inc.) were evaluated (in coin cells with lithium counter electrodes) as anode materials for lithium-ion cells intended for use in hybrid electric vehicles. Though the reversible capacity obtained for SNG was slightly higher than that of OMAC or MCMB, its 1st cycle efficiency was lower. Voltage vs capacity plots of cycling data show that the discharge and charge limits shift to higher capacity values due to continuation of anode side reactions. Varying the cycle charge and discharge limits was found to have no significant effect on fractional capacity shift per cycle.

Ridgway, Paul; Zheng, Honghe; Liu, Gao; Song, Xiangun; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Charest, Patrick; Zaghib, Karim; Battaglia, Vincent

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

483

Fabrication of copper-based anodes via atmosphoric plasma spraying techniques  

SciTech Connect

A fuel electrode anode (18) for a solid oxide fuel cell is made by presenting a solid oxide fuel cell having an electrolyte surface (15), mixing copper powder with solid oxide electrolyte in a mixing step (24, 44) to provide a spray feedstock (30,50) which is fed into a plasma jet (32, 52) of a plasma torch to melt the spray feed stock and propel it onto an electrolyte surface (34, 54) where the spray feed stock flattens into lamellae layer upon solidification, where the layer (38, 59) is an anode coating with greater than 35 vol. % based on solids volume.

Lu, Chun (Monroeville, PA)

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

484

Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

485

Sulfur tolerant anode materials. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Not Available

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts Replacing Incandescent Lightbulbs and Ballasts July 29, 2012 - 5:16pm Addthis Many incandescent lightbulbs can be replaced with more energy efficient options. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/ClarkandCompany. Many incandescent lightbulbs can be replaced with more energy efficient options. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/ClarkandCompany. What does this mean for me? For the greatest energy efficiency, use new fixtures with new lightbulbs. Replace A-type lightbulbs with more energy-efficient options such as CFLs, LEDs, and energy-saving (halogen) incandescents. Matching replacement lightbulbs to existing fixtures and ballasts can be tricky, especially with older fixtures. Using new fixtures made for new lightbulbs gives you the greatest energy savings, reliability, and

487

Energy Replacement Generation Tax Exemption | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Replacement Generation Tax Exemption Replacement Generation Tax Exemption Energy Replacement Generation Tax Exemption < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Residential Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Bioenergy Wind Maximum Rebate None Program Info Start Date 01/01/2008 (retroactively effective) State Iowa Program Type Corporate Exemption Rebate Amount 100% exemption for self-generators, landfill gas and wind Reduced rate for large hydro Provider Iowa Department of Revenue Iowa imposes a replacement generation tax of 0.06 cents ($0.0006) per kilowatt-hour (kWh) on various forms of electricity generated within the state. This tax is imposed in lieu of a property tax on generation facilities. Under the Energy Replacement Generation Tax Exemption, the following

488

Electrical Equipment Replacement: Energy Efficiency versus System Compatibility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrical equipment components are replaced every day because of failure, obsolescence, or upgrade. Because of technological gains, replacement components are typically more energy efficient than older equipment. Life cycle cost analyses encourage end users to select the most energy efficient equipment when replacing motors, motor drives, transformers, lamps, ballasts, etc., given costs associated with energy consumption when compared with installation. The selection of replacement parts that are compatible with existing system components and loads is critical. The purpose of this paper is to discuss fundamental electrical design principles often overlooked when replacing existing equipment with energy efficient models. NOTE: The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States of America, the U. S. Department of Justice, or the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

Massey, G. W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Parasitic corrosion resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O.sub.2 cells  

SciTech Connect

A consumable metal anode which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

Joy, Richard W. (Santa Clara, CA); Smith, David F. (Boulder Creek, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Parasitic corrosion-resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O/sub 2/ cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A consumable metal anode is described which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

Joy, R.W.; Smith, D.F.

1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

491

Aluminum bulk micromachining through an anodic oxide mask by electrochemical etching in an acetic acid/perchloric acid solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A well-defined microstructure with microchannels and a microchamber was fabricated on an aluminum plate by four steps of a new aluminum bulk micromachining process: anodizing, laser irradiation, electrochemical etching, and ultrasonication. An aluminum ... Keywords: Aluminum, Anodizing, Bulk micromachining, Electrochemical etching, Laser irradiation

Tatsuya Kikuchi, Yuhta Wachi, Masatoshi Sakairi, Ryosuke O. Suzuki

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

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