National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for replace permanent magnets

  1. Electromagnetic acceleration of permanent magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolya, S N

    2015-01-01

    We consider the acceleration of the permanent magnets, consisting of neodymium iron boron by means of the running magnetic field gradient. It is shown that the specific magnetic moment per nucleon in neodymium iron boron is determined by the remained magnetization of the substance. The maximum accessable gradient of the magnetic field accelerating the permanent magnets is determined by the coercive force thirty kilogauss. For the neodymium iron boron magnets this gradient is equal to twenty kilogauss divided by one centimeter. The finite velocity of the magnets six kilometers per second, the length of acceleration is six hundred thirty-seven meters.

  2. Method of making permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-09-07

    A method for making an isotropic permanent magnet comprises atomizing a melt of a rare earth-transition metal alloy (e.g., an Nd--Fe--B alloy enriched in Nd and B) under conditions to produce protectively coated, rapidly solidified, generally spherical alloy particles. Wherein a majority of the particles are produced/size classified within a given size fraction (e.g., 5 to 40 microns diameter) exhibiting optimum as-atomized magnetic properties and subjecting the particles to concurrent elevated temperature and elevated isotropic pressure for a time effective to yield a densified, magnetically isotropic magnet compact having enhanced magnetic properties and mechanical properties. 13 figures.

  3. Making permanent magnets more powerful and less expensive | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Making permanent magnets more powerful and less expensive Today's high-tech and clean energy capabilities are extremely reliant on powerful permanent magnets. Permanent magnets...

  4. Modular Permanent Magnet Machine Based on Soft Magnetic *** Burgess-Norton Mfg.Co.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipo, Thomas

    . The rotor structure can be designed with surface permanent magnet (SPM) or internal permanent magnet (IPM

  5. Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tatchyn, Roman O. (Mountain View, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis.

  6. Modeling and optimization of permanent magnetic motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinkham, Andrew P

    2008-01-01

    This thesis develops analytic models for the prediction and optimization of radial-flux permanent magnet motor torque and efficiency. It also facilitates the design optimization of electromagnetically-powered rotorcraft ...

  7. Cylindrical Hall Thrusters with Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Merino, Enrique; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-10-18

    The use of permanent magnets instead of electromagnet coils for low power Hall thrusters can offer a significant reduction of both the total electric power consumption and the thruster mass. Two permanent magnet versions of the miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) of different overall dimensions were operated in the power range of 50W-300 W. The discharge and plasma plume measurements revealed that the CHT thrusters with permanent magnets and electromagnet coils operate rather differently. In particular, the angular ion current density distribution from the permanent magnet thrusters has an unusual halo shape, with a majority of high energy ions flowing at large angles with respect to the thruster centerline. Differences in the magnetic field topology outside the thruster channel and in the vicinity of the channel exit are likely responsible for the differences in the plume characteristics measured for the CHTs with electromagnets and permanent magnets. It is shown that the presence of the reversing-direction or cusp-type magnetic field configuration inside the thruster channel without a strong axial magnetic field outside the thruster channel does not lead to the halo plasma plume from the CHT. __________________________________________________

  8. Dovetail spoke internal permanent magnet machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexander, James Pellegrino (Ballston Lake, NY); EL-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi (Niskayuna, NY); Lokhandwalla, Murtuza (Clifton Park, NY); Shah, Manoj Ramprasad (Latham, NY); VanDam, Jeremy Daniel (West Coxsackie, NY)

    2011-08-23

    An internal permanent magnet (IPM) machine is provided. The IPM machine includes a stator assembly and a stator core. The stator core also includes multiple stator teeth. The stator assembly is further configured with stator windings to generate a stator magnetic field when excited with alternating currents and extends along a longitudinal axis with an inner surface defining a cavity. The IPM machine also includes a rotor assembly and a rotor core. The rotor core is disposed inside the cavity and configured to rotate about the longitudinal axis. The rotor assembly further includes a shaft. The shaft further includes multiple protrusions alternately arranged relative to multiple bottom structures provided on the shaft. The rotor assembly also includes multiple stacks of laminations disposed on the protrusions and dovetailed circumferentially around the shaft. The rotor assembly further includes multiple pair of permanent magnets for generating a magnetic field, which magnetic field interacts with the stator magnetic field to produce a torque. The multiple pair of permanent magnets are disposed between the stacks. The rotor assembly also includes multiple middle wedges mounted between each pair of the multiple permanent magnets.

  9. Relativistic Engine Based on a Permanent Magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tuval, Miron

    2015-01-01

    Newton's third law states that any action is countered by a reaction of equal magnitude but opposite direction. The total force in a system not affected by external forces is thus zero. However, according to the principles of relativity a signal can not propagate at speeds exceeding the speed of light. Hence the action cannot be generated at the same time with the reaction due to the relativity of simultaneity, thus the total force cannot be null at a given time. The following is a continuation of a previous paper \\cite{Tuval} in which we analyzed the relativistic effects in a system of two current conducting loops. Here the analysis is repeated but one of the loops is replaced by a permanent magnet. It should be emphasized that although momentum can be created in the {\\bf material} part of the system as described in the following work momentum can not be created in the {\\bf physical} system, hence for any momentum that is acquired by matter an opposite momentum is attributed to the electromagnetic field.

  10. Relativistic Engine Based on a Permanent Magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miron Tuval; Asher Yahalom

    2015-06-30

    Newton's third law states that any action is countered by a reaction of equal magnitude but opposite direction. The total force in a system not affected by external forces is thus zero. However, according to the principles of relativity a signal can not propagate at speeds exceeding the speed of light. Hence the action cannot be generated at the same time with the reaction due to the relativity of simultaneity, thus the total force cannot be null at a given time. The following is a continuation of a previous paper \\cite{Tuval} in which we analyzed the relativistic effects in a system of two current conducting loops. Here the analysis is repeated but one of the loops is replaced by a permanent magnet. It should be emphasized that although momentum can be created in the {\\bf material} part of the system as described in the following work momentum can not be created in the {\\bf physical} system, hence for any momentum that is acquired by matter an opposite momentum is attributed to the electromagnetic field.

  11. Permanent Magnet Ecr Plasma Source With Magnetic Field Optimization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doughty, Frank C. (Plano, TX); Spencer, John E. (Plano, TX)

    2000-12-19

    In a plasma-producing device, an optimized magnet field for electron cyclotron resonance plasma generation is provided by a shaped pole piece. The shaped pole piece adjusts spacing between the magnet and the resonance zone, creates a convex or concave resonance zone, and decreases stray fields between the resonance zone and the workpiece. For a cylindrical permanent magnet, the pole piece includes a disk adjacent the magnet together with an annular cylindrical sidewall structure axially aligned with the magnet and extending from the base around the permanent magnet. The pole piece directs magnetic field lines into the resonance zone, moving the resonance zone further from the face of the magnet. Additional permanent magnets or magnet arrays may be utilized to control field contours on a local scale. Rather than a permeable material, the sidewall structure may be composed of an annular cylindrical magnetic material having a polarity opposite that of the permanent magnet, creating convex regions in the resonance zone. An annular disk-shaped recurve section at the end of the sidewall structure forms magnetic mirrors keeping the plasma off the pole piece. A recurve section composed of magnetic material having a radial polarity forms convex regions and/or magnetic mirrors within the resonance zone.

  12. Batch fabrication of precision miniature permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM); Garino, Terry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Venturini, Eugene L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of processes for fabrication of precision miniature rare earth permanent magnets is disclosed. Such magnets typically have sizes in the range 0.1 to 10 millimeters, and dimensional tolerances as small as one micron. Very large magnetic fields can be produced by such magnets, lending to their potential application in MEMS and related electromechanical applications, and in miniature millimeter-wave vacuum tubes. This abstract contains simplifications, and is supplied only for purposes of searching, not to limit or alter the scope or meaning of any claims herein.

  13. Performance improvement of permanent magnet ac motors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsa, Leila

    2005-08-29

    positively to output torque, a five-phase permanent magnet motor with quasi-rectangular back-EMF waveform is supplied with combined fundamental and third harmonic of currents. For modeling and analysis of the motor a 0 3 3 1 1 q d q d frame of reference...

  14. Permanent magnet design for high-speed superconducting bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.; Abdoud, R.G.

    1996-09-10

    A high temperature superconducting bearing including a permanent magnet rotor levitated by a high temperature superconducting structure is disclosed. The rotor preferably includes one or more concentric permanent magnet rings coupled to permanent magnet ring structures having substantially triangular and quadrangular cross-sections. Both alternating and single direction polarity magnet structures can be used in the bearing. 9 figs.

  15. Permanent-magnet-less synchronous reluctance system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S

    2012-09-11

    A permanent magnet-less synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic revolving field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor is disposed within the magnetic revolving field and spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. The rotor includes a plurality of rotor pole stacks having an inner periphery biased by single polarity of a north-pole field and a south-pole field, respectively. The outer periphery of each of the rotor pole stacks are biased by an alternating polarity.

  16. Nanocomposite Magnets: Transformational Nanostructured Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: GE is using nanomaterials technology to develop advanced magnets that contain fewer rare earth materials than their predecessors. Nanomaterials technology involves manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular scale, which can represent a stumbling block for magnets because it is difficult to create a finely grained magnet at that scale. GE is developing bulk magnets with finely tuned structures using iron-based mixtures that contain 80% less rare earth materials than traditional magnets, which will reduce their overall cost. These magnets will enable further commercialization of HEVs, EVs, and wind turbine generators while enhancing U.S. competitiveness in industries that heavily utilize these alternatives to rare earth minerals.

  17. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2012-02-21

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  18. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2011-06-14

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  19. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  20. Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets - U Machine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnets - U Machine Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets - U Machine 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  1. Effect of Side Permanent Magnets for Reluctance Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, John S; Lee, Seong T; Wiles, Randy H; Coomer, Chester; Lowe, Kirk T

    2007-01-01

    A traditional electric machine uses two dimensional magnetic flux paths in its rotor. This paper presents the development work on the utilization of the third dimension of a rotor. As an example, the air gap flux of a radial gap interior permanent magnet motor can be significantly enhanced by additional permanent magnets (PM) mounted at the sides of the rotor. A prototype motor built with this concept provided higher efficiency and required a shorter stator core length for the same power output as the Toyota/Prius traction drive motor.

  2. Strong permanent magnet-assisted electromagnetic undulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halbach, Klaus (Berkeley, CA)

    1988-01-01

    This invention discloses an improved undulator comprising a plurality of electromagnet poles located along opposite sides of a particle beam axis with alternate north and south poles on each side of the beam to cause the beam to wiggle or undulate as it travels generally along the beam axis and permanent magnets spaced adjacent the electromagnetic poles on each side of the axis of said particle beam in an orientation sufficient to reduce the saturation of the electromagnet poles whereby the field strength of the electromagnet poles can be increased beyond the normal saturation levels of the electromagnetic poles.

  3. Prospects for Non-Rare Earth Permanent Magnets for Traction Motors and Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Matthew; McCallum, Kendall; Anderson, Iver; Constantinides, Steven

    2012-06-29

    With the advent of high-flux density permanent magnets based on rare earth elements such as neodymium (Nd) in the 1980s, permanent magnet-based electric machines had a clear performance and cost advantage over induction machines when weight and size were factors such as in hybrid electric vehicles and wind turbines. However, the advantages of the permanent magnet-based electric machines may be overshadowed by supply constraints and high prices of their key constituents, rare earth elements, which have seen nearly a 10-fold increase in price in the last 5 years and the imposition of export limits by the major producing country, China, since 2010. We outline the challenges, prospects, and pitfalls for several potential alloys that could replace Nd-based permanent magnets with more abundant and less strategically important elements.

  4. Feedback Control of a Permanent Magnet Biased, Homopolar Magnetic Bearing System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadhvani, Vishal Ashok

    2011-08-08

    was to develop a permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing system using high temperature (HT) permanent magnets (PM) developed by EEC. This system was designed for high performance, high temperature (1000F) and high speed applications. The entire system consisted...

  5. Permanent magnet helicon source for ion propulsion Francis F. Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Francis F.

    Permanent magnet helicon source for ion propulsion Francis F. Chen Electrical Engineering that great savings in size and weight can be obtained by using specially designed permanent magnets (PMs by at least two groups for generating ions for space propulsion: the HDLT concept at the Australian National

  6. Magnetic Patterning of Permanent-Magnet Rotors for Microscale Motor/Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnetic Patterning of Permanent-Magnet Rotors for Microscale Motor/Generators I. Zana* , F, USA Abstract We present and characterize a process to pattern magnetic poles on small permanent-magnet, this approach uses a ferromagnetic magnetizing head (MH) and an externally applied magnetic field, and it offers

  7. Calculation Method of Permanent Magnet Pickups for Electric Guitars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the 1930s, when Rickenbacker fitted out a guitar with a magnet and coils, thus designing the first magnetic to look at the types of magnetic circuit for the guitar pickups. We consider in this paper the most usual1 Calculation Method of Permanent Magnet Pickups for Electric Guitars G. Lemarquand and V

  8. Development of a Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Sealed-Tube Neutron Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldmann, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Permanent-Magnet Mi- crowave Ion Source for a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator,Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Sealed-Tube Neutron Generatorgenerator. Microwave ion sources, however, A permanent-magnet

  9. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    1999-06-22

    A permanent magnet assembly for assembly in large permanent magnet motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier that can be slid into a slot in the rotor and then secured in place using a set screw. The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device with guide rails that line up with the teeth of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly can be pushed first into a slot, and then down the slot to its proper location. An auxiliary tool is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly into position in the slot before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies in the rotor are also disclosed. 2 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Adams, Donald J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A permanent magnet assembly (22) for assembly in large permanent magnet (PM) motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier (23, 24) that can be slid into a slot (13) in the rotor (10) and then secured in place using a set screw (37). The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device (50) with guide rails (51) that line up with the teeth (12) of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly (22) can be pushed first into a slot (13), and then down the slot (13) to its proper location. An auxiliary tool (50) is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly (22) into position in the slot (13) before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies (22) in the rotor (10) are also disclosed.

  11. Phase-controlled rectification for permanent-magnet downhole alternators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maher, Patrick L

    2008-01-01

    This thesis develops a method of phase-controlled rectification to be used with permanent-magnet downhole alternators. The design faces unique challenges imposed by the downhole environment. The thesis discusses the design, ...

  12. Permanent magnet with MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu, E-mail: yamamoto@appchem.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Kishio, Kohji [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2?K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3?T at 20?K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB{sub 2} permanent bulk magnet was determined. Because MgB{sub 2} is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB{sub 2} bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  13. Permanent-magnet-less machine having an enclosed air gap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-07

    A permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor disposed within the magnetic rotating field is spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. A stationary excitation core spaced apart from the uncluttered rotor by an axial air gap and a radial air gap substantially encloses the stationary excitation core. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include stator core gaps to reduce axial flux flow. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include an uncluttered rotor coupled to outer laminations. The quadrature-axis inductance may be increased in some synchronous systems. Some synchronous systems convert energy such as mechanical energy into electrical energy (e.g., a generator); other synchronous systems may convert any form of energy into mechanical energy (e.g., a motor).

  14. Permanent-magnet-less machine having an enclosed air gap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.

    2013-03-05

    A permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor disposed within the magnetic rotating field is spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. A stationary excitation core spaced apart from the uncluttered rotor by an axial air gap and a radial air gap substantially encloses the stationary excitation core. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include stator core gaps to reduce axial flux flow. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include an uncluttered rotor coupled to outer laminations. The quadrature-axis inductance may be increased in some synchronous systems. Some synchronous systems convert energy such as mechanical energy into electrical energy (e.g., a generator); other synchronous systems may convert any form of energy into mechanical energy (e.g., a motor).

  15. Determination of Rotor Temperature for an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    of the magnet material monitoring its temperature also helps to increase the accuracy of the estimated torque [1Determination of Rotor Temperature for an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Using@lea.upb.de, boecker@lea.upb.de Abstract--In this paper an enhanced method to de- termine the rotor temperature

  16. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density. 14 figs.

  17. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-08-31

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

  18. Dynamic Jiles-Atherton Model for Determining the Magnetic Power Loss at High Frequency in Permanent Magnet Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Ruoyang; Robertson, Paul

    2014-12-18

    —Finite element methods (FEM), Magnetic hysteresis, Magnetic losses, Magnetization, Permanent magnet machines, Permanent magnet motors, Permanent magnet generators. I. INTRODUCTION HE magnetic power losses in ferromagnetic materials have been continuously... made to the original dynamic Jiles-Atherton model in order to make it work correctly for laminations in high frequency permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs), such as BLDC motors. Since the working frequencies of modern BLDC motors...

  19. System Cost Analysis for an Interior Permanent Magnet Motor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Campbell

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this program is to provide an assessment of the cost structure for an interior permanent magnet ('IPM') motor which is designed to meet the 2010 FreedomCAR specification. The program is to evaluate the range of viable permanent magnet materials for an IPM motor, including sintered and bonded grades of rare earth magnets. The study considers the benefits of key processing steps, alternative magnet shapes and their assembly methods into the rotor (including magnetization), and any mechanical stress or temperature limits. The motor's costs are estimated for an annual production quantity of 200,000 units, and are broken out into such major components as magnetic raw materials, processing and manufacturing. But this is essentially a feasibility study of the motor's electromagnetic design, and is not intended to include mechanical or thermal studies as would be done to work up a selected design for production.

  20. High-Energy Composite Permanent Magnets: High-Energy Permanent Magnets for Hybrid Vehicles and Alternative Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-02-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Delaware is developing permanent magnets that contain less rare earth material and produce twice the energy of the strongest rare earth magnets currently available. The University of Delaware is creating these magnets by mixing existing permanent magnet materials with those that are more abundant, like iron. Both materials are first prepared in the form of nanoparticles via techniques ranging from wet chemistry to ball milling. After that, the nanoparticles must be assembled in a 3-D array and consolidated at low temperatures to form a magnet. With small size particles and good contact between these two materials, the best qualities of each allow for the development of exceptionally strong composite magnets.

  1. Spin echo without an external permanent magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joakim Bergli; Leonid Glazman

    2006-09-19

    The spin echo techniques aim at the elimination of the effect of a random magnetic field on the spin evolution. These techniques conventionally utlize the application of a permanent field which is much stronger than the random one. The strong field, however, may also modify the magnetic response of the medium containing the spins, thus altering their ``natural'' dynamics. We suggest an iterative scheme for generating a sequence of pulses which create an echo without an external permanent field. The approximation to the ideal echo improves with the sequence length.

  2. Hybrid-secondary uncluttered permanent magnet machine and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.

    2005-12-20

    An electric machine (40) has a stator (43), a permanent magnet rotor (38) with permanent magnets (39) and a magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) for inducing a slip energy current in secondary coils (47). A dc flux can be produced in the uncluttered rotor when the secondary coils are fed with dc currents. The magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) has magnetic brushes (A, B, C, D) which couple flux in through the rotor (46) to the secondary coils (47c, 47d) without inducing a current in the rotor (46) and without coupling a stator rotational energy component to the secondary coils (47c, 47d). The machine can be operated as a motor or a generator in multi-phase or single-phase embodiments and is applicable to the hybrid electric vehicle. A method of providing a slip energy controller is also disclosed.

  3. Permanent Magnetic Materials Discovery | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    magnetic materials find wide applications in energy generation. The materials providing best performances (e.g., high energy product), such as NdFeB, contains a large weight...

  4. Real-Time Capable Methods to Determine the Magnet Temperature of Permanent Magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    ) is widely spread in industrial applications. Due to the development of high energy permanent magnet Motors -- A Review Oliver Wallscheid, Tobias Huber, Wilhelm Peters, Joachim B¨ocker Power Electronics}@lea.upb.de Abstract--The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is widely used in highly utilised automotive

  5. Wireless Control of Magnetic Helical Microrobots using a Rotating-Permanent-Magnet Manipulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bamberg, Stacy Morris

    ]. Helical propulsion using magnetic fields is particularly promising for medical microrobots. HelicalWireless Control of Magnetic Helical Microrobots using a Rotating-Permanent-Magnet Manipulator Thomas W. R. Fountain, Prem V. Kailat, and Jake J. Abbott Abstract-- Magnetic helical medical microrobots

  6. Analytical Method of Torque Calculation for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Analytical Method of Torque Calculation for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines Seong (FEA). Also, this method can be applied to any type of synchronous machine. Index Terms-- equivalent circuit, inductance, permanent magnet machine, synchronous motors, torque. I. NOMENCLATURE BFE brushless

  7. A Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldmann, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-A Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-on the development of a microwave ion source that will be

  8. Method for forming permanent magnets with different polarities for use in microelectromechanical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-04-24

    Methods are provided for forming a plurality of permanent magnets with two different north-south magnetic pole alignments for use in microelectromechanical (MEM) devices. These methods are based on initially magnetizing the permanent magnets all in the same direction, and then utilizing a combination of heating and a magnetic field to switch the polarity of a portion of the permanent magnets while not switching the remaining permanent magnets. The permanent magnets, in some instances, can all have the same rare-earth composition (e.g. NdFeB) or can be formed of two different rare-earth materials (e.g. NdFeB and SmCo). The methods can be used to form a plurality of permanent magnets side-by-side on or within a substrate with an alternating polarity, or to form a two-dimensional array of permanent magnets in which the polarity of every other row of the array is alternated.

  9. Optimum Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) in Constant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    Optimum Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) in Constant Torque and Electrical Drives, Paderborn, Germany Abstract--Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) gain-power speed area. A widespread electrical machine used for this purpose is the Interior Permanent Magnet

  10. Direct Torque Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors with Respect to Optimal Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    applications. Highly utilized machines are often designed as interior permanent magnet synchronous motorsDirect Torque Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors with Respect to Optimal@lea.upb.de, boecker@lea.upb.de URL: http://wwwlea.upb.de Keywords «Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor

  11. A Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldmann, Ole

    2011-01-01

    permanent-magnet microwave ion source for the high-yield neutron generator.Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-Yield Neutron GeneratorPermanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator ?

  12. Performance of An Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottschalk, S.C.; DeHart, T.E.; Kangas, K.W.; /STI Optronics, Bellevue; Spencer, C.M.; /SLAC; Volk, J.T.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    An adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole suitable for use in Next Linear Collider has been built and tested. The pole length is 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) is 68.7 Tesla. This paper describes measurements of strength, magnetic CL and field quality made using an air bearing rotating coil system. The magnetic CL stability during -20% strength adjustment proposed for beam based alignment was < 0.2 microns. Strength hysteresis was negligible. Thermal expansion of quadrupole and measurement parts caused a repeatable and easily compensated change in the vertical magnetic CL. Calibration procedures as well as CL measurements made over a wider tuning range of 100% to 20% in strength useful for a wide range of applications will be described. The impact of eddy currents in the steel poles on the magnetic field during strength adjustments will be reported.

  13. Permanent magnet machine with windings having strand transposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Ronghai (Clifton Park, NY); Jansen, Patrick Lee (Scotia, NY)

    2009-04-21

    This document discusses, among other things, a stator with transposition between the windings or coils. The coils are free from transposition to increase the fill factor of the stator slots. The transposition at the end connections between an inner coil and an outer coil provide transposition to reduce circulating current loss. The increased fill factor reduces further current losses. Such a stator is used in a dual rotor, permanent magnet machine, for example, in a compressor pump, wind turbine gearbox, wind turbine rotor.

  14. Permanent Magnet Development for Automotive Traction Motors | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT PDepartmentOrderEnergy Permanent Magnet

  15. A clip-on Zeeman slower using toroidal permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krzyzewski, S. P.; Akin, T. G.; Dahal, Parshuram; Abraham, E. R. I. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    We present the design of a zero-crossing Zeeman slower for {sup 85}Rb using rings of flexible permanent magnets. The design is inexpensive, requires no power or cooling, and can be easily attached and removed for vacuum maintenance. We show theoretically that such a design can reproduce a magnetic field profile of a standard zero-crossing Zeeman slower. Experimental measurements of a prototype and comparisons to theoretical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the design and point toward future improvements. Simulations show an atom flux similar to other Zeeman slowers.

  16. Innovative Sensors for Pipeline Crawlers: Rotating Permanent Magnet Inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bruce Nestleroth; Richard J. Davis; Stephanie Flamberg

    2006-09-30

    Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. Current inspection systems that are propelled through the pipeline by the product flow cannot be used to inspect all pipelines because of the various physical barriers they may encounter. To facilitate inspection of these ''unpiggable'' pipelines, recent inspection development efforts have focused on a new generation of powered inspection platforms that are able to crawl slowly inside a pipeline and can maneuver past the physical barriers that limit internal inspection applicability, such as bore restrictions, low product flow rate, and low pressure. The first step in this research was to review existing inspection technologies for applicability and compatibility with crawler systems. Most existing inspection technologies, including magnetic flux leakage and ultrasonic methods, had significant implementation limitations including mass, physical size, inspection energy coupling requirements and technology maturity. The remote field technique was the most promising but power consumption was high and anomaly signals were low requiring sensitive detectors and electronics. After reviewing each inspection technology, it was decided to investigate the potential for a new inspection method. The new inspection method takes advantage of advances in permanent magnet strength, along with their wide availability and low cost. Called rotating permanent magnet inspection (RPMI), this patent pending technology employs pairs of permanent magnets rotating around the central axis of a cylinder to induce high current densities in the material under inspection. Anomalies and wall thickness variations are detected with an array of sensors that measure local changes in the magnetic field produced by the induced current flowing in the material. This inspection method is an alternative to the common concentric coil remote field technique that induces low-frequency eddy currents in ferromagnetic pipes and tubes. Since this is a new inspection method, both theory and experiment were used to determine fundamental capabilities and limitations. Fundamental finite element modeling analysis and experimental investigations performed during this development have led to the derivation of a first order analytical equation for designing rotating magnetizers to induce current and positioning sensors to record signals from anomalies. Experimental results confirm the analytical equation and the finite element calculations provide a firm basis for the design of RPMI systems. Experimental results have shown that metal loss anomalies and wall thickness variations can be detected with an array of sensors that measure local changes in the magnetic field produced by the induced current flowing in the material. The design exploits the phenomenon that circumferential currents are easily detectable at distances well away from the magnets. Current changes at anomalies were detectable with commercial low cost Hall Effect sensors. Commercial analog to digital converters can be used to measure the sensor output and data analysis can be performed in real time using PC computer systems. The technology was successfully demonstrated during two blind benchmark tests where numerous metal loss defects were detected. For this inspection technology, the detection threshold is a function of wall thickness and corrosion depth. For thinner materials, the detection threshold was experimentally shown to be comparable to magnetic flux leakage. For wall thicknesses greater than three tenths of an inch, the detection threshold increases with wall thickness. The potential for metal loss anomaly sizing was demonstrated in the second benchmarking study, again with accuracy comparable to existing magnetic flux leakage technologies. The rotating permanent magnet system has the potential for inspecting unpiggable pipelines since the magnetizer configurations can be sufficiently small with respect to the bore of the pipe to pass obstructions that limit the application of many i

  17. Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machine with Brushless Field Excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiles, R.H.

    2005-10-07

    In a conventional permanent magnet (PM) machine, the air-gap flux produced by the PM is fixed. It is difficult to enhance the air-gap flux density due to limitations of the PM in a series-magnetic circuit. However, the air-gap flux density can be weakened by using power electronic field weakening to the limit of demagnetization of the PMs. This paper presents the test results of controlling the PM air-gap flux density through the use of a stationary brushless excitation coil in a reluctance interior permanent magnet with brushless field excitation (RIPM-BFE) motor. Through the use of this technology the air-gap flux density can be either enhanced or weakened. There is no concern with demagnetizing the PMs during field weakening. The leakage flux of the excitation coil through the PMs is blocked. The prototype motor built on this principle confirms the concept of flux enhancement and weakening through the use of excitation coils.

  18. High temperature, permanent magnet biased, homopolar magnetic bearing actuator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, Mohammad Ahsan

    2006-10-30

    The EEC (Electron Energy Corporation) in conjunction with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is researching the magnetic bearings for an alternative to conventional journal or ball bearings. The purpose of this research was to design...

  19. A strong permanent magnet-assisted electromagnetic undulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halbach, K.

    1987-01-30

    This invention discloses an improved undulator comprising a plurality of electromagnet poles located along opposite sides of a particle beam axis with alternate north and south poles on each side of the beam to cause the beam to wiggle or undulate as it travels generally along the beam axis and permanent magnets spaced adjacent the electromagnetic poles on each side of the axis of said particle beam in an orientation sufficient to reduce the saturation of the electromagnet poles whereby the field strength of the electromagnet poles can be increased beyond the normal saturation levels of the electromagnetic poles. 4 figs.

  20. Highly Charged Ions in Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Penning Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guise, Nicholas D; Tan, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    A newly constructed apparatus at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is designed for the isolation, manipulation, and study of highly charged ions. Highly charged ions are produced in the NIST electron-beam ion trap (EBIT), extracted through a beamline that selects a single mass/charge species, then captured in a compact Penning trap. The magnetic field of the trap is generated by cylindrical NdFeB permanent magnets integrated into its electrodes. In a room-temperature prototype trap with a single NdFeB magnet, species including Ne10+ and N7+ were confined with storage times of order 1 second, showing the potential of this setup for manipulation and spectroscopy of highly charged ions in a controlled environment. Ion capture has since been demonstrated with similar storage times in a more-elaborate Penning trap that integrates two coaxial NdFeB magnets for improved B-field homogeneity. Ongoing experiments utilize a second-generation apparatus that incorporates this two-magnet Penning tra...

  1. Monitoring Critical Temperatures in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Using Low-Order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    Monitoring Critical Temperatures in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Using Low-Order Thermal motors is crucial for preventing shortened motor life spans due to excessive thermal stress. With regard to interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM), critical temperatures typically occur in the magnets

  2. The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements of wood chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    of a Permanent Magnet for Water Content Measurements of Wooda device that measures the water content of wood chips, pulpsystem. The results of water content measurements in wood

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Permanent Magnet Development for Automotive Traction Motors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Ames Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about permanent magnet development...

  4. A "permanent" high-temperature superconducting magnet operated in thermal communication with a mass of solid nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haid, Benjamin J. (Benjamin John Jerome), 1974-

    2001-01-01

    This thesis explores a new design for a portable "permanent" superconducting magnet system. The design is an alternative to permanent low-temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet systems where the magnet is cooled by a ...

  5. High energy product permanent magnet having improved intrinsic coercivity and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy (Berkeley, CA); Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A high energy rare earth-ferromagnetic metal permanent magnet is disclosed which is characterized by improved intrinsic coercivity and is made by forming a particulate mixture of a permanent magnet alloy comprising one or more rare earth elements and one or more ferromagnetic metals and forming a second particulate mixture of a sintering alloy consisting essentially of 92-98 wt. % of one or more rare earth elements selected from the class consisting of Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and mixtures of two or more of such rare earth elements, and 2-8 wt. % of one or more alloying metals selected from the class consisting of Al, Nb, Zr, V, Ta, Mo, and mixtures of two or more of such metals. The permanent magnet alloy particles and sintering aid alloy are mixed together and magnetically oriented by immersing the mixture in an axially aligned magnetic field while cold pressing the mixture. The compressed mixture is then sintered at a temperature above the melting point of the sintering aid and below the melting point of the permanent magnet alloy to thereby coat the particle surfaces of the permanent magnetic alloy particles with the sintering aid while inhibiting migration of the rare earth element in the sintering aid into the permanent magnet alloy particles to thereby raise the intrinsic coercivity of the permanent magnet alloy without substantially lowering the high energy of the permanent magnet alloy.

  6. Cerium-Based Magnets: Novel High Energy Permanent Magnet Without Critical Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Ames Laboratory will develop a new class of permanent magnets based on the more commonly available element cerium for use in both EVs and renewable power generators. Cerium is 4 times more abundant and significantly less expensive than the rare earth element neodymium, which is frequently used in today’s most powerful magnets. Ames Laboratory will combine other metal elements with cerium to create a new magnet that can remain stable at the high temperatures typically found in electric motors. This new magnetic material will ultimately be demonstrated in a prototype electric motor, representing a cost-effective and efficient alternative to neodymium-based motors.

  7. Design and analysis of a permanent magnet generator for naval applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rucker, Jonathan E. (Jonathan Estill)

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the electrical and magnetic design and analysis of a permanent magnet generation module for naval applications. Numerous design issues are addressed and several issues are raised about the potential ...

  8. Current Controller with Defined Dynamic Behavior for an Interior Permanent Magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    Current Controller with Defined Dynamic Behavior for an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor combustion vehicles already provide. Today's modern HEV and EV mostly include interior permanent magnet]. The required torque, which is the reference variable for these applications, is generated by choosing

  9. Size Reduction of Permanent Magnet Generators for Wind Turbines with Higher Energy Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    . Currently, the U.S has 60GW installed wind capacity; this translates to 3.6% of total electricity generation [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy has proposed that 20% of electricity generation in the U.S. should to DFIGs. II. PERMANENT MAGNET GENERATORS A. Fundamental Principles In PMGs, the permanent magnets provide

  10. Aalborg Universitet Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Weihao

    Aalborg Universitet Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines. Energies, 6(8), 3807-3821. 10.3390/en6083807 General.mdpi.com/journal/energies Article Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind

  11. Method and system for controlling a permanent magnet machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walters, James E.

    2003-05-20

    Method and system for controlling the start of a permanent magnet machine are provided. The method allows to assign a parameter value indicative of an estimated initial rotor position of the machine. The method further allows to energize the machine with a level of current being sufficiently high to start rotor motion in a desired direction in the event the initial rotor position estimate is sufficiently close to the actual rotor position of the machine. A sensing action allows to sense whether any incremental changes in rotor position occur in response to the energizing action. In the event no changes in rotor position are sensed, the method allows to incrementally adjust the estimated rotor position by a first set of angular values until changes in rotor position are sensed. In the event changes in rotor position are sensed, the method allows to provide a rotor alignment signal as rotor motion continues. The alignment signal allows to align the estimated rotor position relative to the actual rotor position. This alignment action allows for operating the machine over a wide speed range.

  12. Radiofrequency hydrogen ion source with permanent magnets providing axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oikawa, Kohei, E-mail: oikawa@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Saito, Yuta; Komizunai, Shota; Takahashi, Kazunori; Ando, Akira [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Uniform axial magnetic field of about 70 G is applied to a radiofrequency (rf) hydrogen ion source by arrays of permanent magnets. The plasma density and electron temperature downstream of the source and near the magnetic filter are compared with those in the previously described ion source, where the axial field has been applied by two solenoids. The source is operated at ?350 kHz and above 10 kW rf power with a field-effect-transistor-based invertor power supply in 1.5 Pa hydrogen. The results show that the plasma density of ?10{sup 19} m{sup ?3} near the source exit and ?10{sup 18} m{sup ?3} near the magnetic filter can be obtained, which are higher than those with the solenoids.

  13. Mechanical alignment of particles for use in fabricating superconducting and permanent magnetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nellis, William J. (Berkeley, CA); Maple, M. Brian (Del Mar, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for mechanically aligning oriented superconducting or permanently magnetic materials for further processing into constructs. This pretreatment optimizes the final crystallographic orientation and, thus, properties in these constructs. Such materials as superconducting fibers, needles and platelets are utilized.

  14. Fabrication and Performance of Silicon-Embedded Permanent-Magnet Microgenerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrault, Florian

    This paper focuses on the design, fabrication, and characterization of silicon-packaged permanent-magnet (PM) microgenerators. The use of silicon packaging favors fine control on shape and dimensions in batch fabrication ...

  15. Experimental verification for the design of a doubly-fed permanent magnetic generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    This is a continuous work on the project of a doubly-fed permanent magnet (DFPM) generator for wind turbines. The construction of a prototype machine was finally finished and experiments were conducted to verify the design ...

  16. ACTIVE SUSPENSION CONTROL WITH DIRECT-DRIVE TUBULAR LINEAR BRUSHLESS PERMANENT-MAGNET MOTOR 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seungho

    2010-01-16

    Recently, active suspension has been applied to many commercial automobiles. To develop the control algorithm for active suspension, a quarter-car test bed was built by using a direct-drive tubular linear brushless permanent-magnet motor (LBPMM...

  17. Structural optimisation of permanent magnet direct drive generators for 5MW wind turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zavvos, Aristeidis

    2013-11-28

    This thesis focuses on permanent magnet "direct drive" electrical generators for wind turbines with large power output. A variety of such generator topologies is reviewed, tested and optimised in an attempt to increase ...

  18. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450{+-}10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000{+-}10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600{+-}10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of magnetic shielding would be required.

  19. Optimal Current Waveforms for Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    14, 2014 Abstract In this paper we give energy-optimal excitation current waveforms for a permanent work by including a general back-EMF waveform, voltage and cur- rent limits, an arbitrary phase winding. Another advantage of on-line optimization is the ability to adapt in real time to changes in the model

  20. Discharge Oscillations in a Permanent Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    circuit leaves very little room for magnetic pole pieces and heat shields. Propulsion Research EngineerDischarge Oscillations in a Permanent Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster IEPC-2009 and complexity as the voltage is increased, and are reduced in severity with increasing flow rate. The `breathing

  1. A Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator O. Waldmanna-yield compact neutron generator for active interrogation applications. The sealed tube generator will be capable with an optimized magnetic field. Keywords: Neutron generator, Microwave ion source, Active interroga- tion PACS: 29

  2. Evaluation of permanent magnets for high temperature operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Hees, Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    as 3H F = x. m. H- &x where x = the magnetic susceptibility, which is the magnetic moment, M, divided by H, the field strength. The partial differential, 3H/ax, is the field gradient of the magnet, and m is the mass of the sample. This equation... is to inves- tigate the relevent magnetic properties of commercially availalbe magnetic materials for prolonged use in a high temperature environment (200'C to 450'C). Such materials can be utilized in geothermal and petroleum well logging. A device...

  3. High speed internal permanent magnet machine and method of manufacturing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexander, James Pellegrino (Ballston Lake, NY); EL-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi (Niskayuna, NY); Lokhandwalla, Murtuza (Clifton Park, NY); Shah, Manoj Ramprasad (Latham, NY); VanDam, Jeremy Daniel (West Coxsackie, NY)

    2011-09-13

    An internal permanent magnet (IPM) machine is provided. The IPM machine includes a stator assembly and a stator core. The stator core also includes multiple stator teeth. The stator assembly is further configured with stator windings to generate a magnetic field when excited with alternating currents and extends along a longitudinal axis with an inner surface defining a cavity. The IPM machine also includes a rotor assembly and a rotor core. The rotor core is disposed inside the cavity and configured to rotate about the longitudinal axis. The rotor assembly further includes a shaft. The shaft further includes multiple protrusions alternately arranged relative to multiple bottom structures provided on the shaft. The rotor assembly also includes multiple stacks of laminations disposed on the protrusions and dovetailed circumferentially around the shaft. The rotor assembly further includes multiple permanent magnets for generating a magnetic field, which interacts with the stator magnetic field to produce torque. The permanent magnets are disposed between the stacks. The rotor assembly also includes multiple bottom wedges disposed on the bottom structures of the shaft and configured to hold the multiple stacks and the multiple permanent magnets.

  4. Study of Various Slanted Air-gap Structures of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Brushless Field Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    magnet machine, synchronous motors, torque. I. NOMENCLATURE BFE brushless field excitation IPMSM interiorStudy of Various Slanted Air-gap Structures of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor of the slanted air-gap structure of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor with brushless field

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 41, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2005 3823 Design of a Superhigh-Speed Cryogenic Permanent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Thomas

    . In this paper, the design and simulation of a cryogenic PMSM with an output shaft power of 2000 W at 200 000 rpm magnet is centrally located inside the hollow shaft. The permanent magnet was inserted into the hollow shaft by heating the titanium shaft to 570 K and cooling the permanent magnet down to 77 K. B. Design

  6. Dual-rotor, radial-flux, toroidally-wound, permanent-magnet machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Ronghai; Lipo, Thomas A.

    2005-08-02

    The present invention provides a novel dual-rotor, radial-flux, toroidally-wound, permanent-magnet machine. The present invention improves electrical machine torque density and efficiency. At least one concentric surface-mounted permanent magnet dual-rotor is located inside and outside of a torus-shaped stator with back-to-back windings, respectively. The machine substantially improves machine efficiency by reducing the end windings and boosts the torque density by at least doubling the air gap and optimizing the machine aspect ratio.

  7. Method for providing slip energy control in permanent magnet electrical machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.

    2006-11-14

    An electric machine (40) has a stator (43), a permanent magnet rotor (38) with permanent magnets (39) and a magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) for inducing a slip energy current in secondary coils (47). A dc flux can be produced in the uncluttered rotor when the secondary coils are fed with dc currents. The magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) has magnetic brushes (A, B, C, D) which couple flux in through the rotor (46) to the secondary coils (47c, 47d) without inducing a current in the rotor (46) and without coupling a stator rotational energy component to the secondary coils (47c, 47d). The machine can be operated as a motor or a generator in multi-phase or single-phase embodiments and is applicable to the hybrid electric vehicle. A method of providing a slip energy controller is also disclosed.

  8. Processing and Protection of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Particulate for Bonded Magnet Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Kelly Sokolowski

    2007-12-01

    Rapid solidification of novel mixed rare earth-iron-boron, MRE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (MRE = Nd, Y, Dy; currently), magnet alloys via high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) have produced similar properties and structures as closely related alloys produced by melt spinning (MS) at low wheel speeds. Recent additions of titanium carbide and zirconium to the permanent magnet (PM) alloy design in HPGA powder (using He atomization gas) have made it possible to achieve highly refined microstructures with magnetic properties approaching melt spun particulate at cooling rates of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}K/s. By producing HPGA powders with the desirable qualities of melt spun ribbon, the need for crushing ribbon was eliminated in bonded magnet fabrication. The spherical geometry of HPGA powders is more ideal for processing of bonded permanent magnets since higher loading fractions can be obtained during compression and injection molding. This increased volume loading of spherical PM powder can be predicted to yield a higher maximum energy product (BH){sub max} for bonded magnets in high performance applications. Passivation of RE-containing powder is warranted for the large-scale manufacturing of bonded magnets in applications with increased temperature and exposure to humidity. Irreversible magnetic losses due to oxidation and corrosion of particulates is a known drawback of RE-Fe-B based alloys during further processing, e.g. injection molding, as well as during use as a bonded magnet. To counteract these effects, a modified gas atomization chamber allowed for a novel approach to in situ passivation of solidified particle surfaces through injection of a reactive gas, nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}). The ability to control surface chemistry during atomization processing of fine spherical RE-Fe-B powders produced advantages over current processing methodologies. In particular, the capability to coat particles while 'in flight' may eliminate the need for post atomization treatment, otherwise a necessary step for oxidation and corrosion resistance. Stability of these thin films was attributed to the reduction of each RE's respective oxide during processing; recognizing that fluoride compounds exhibit a slightly higher (negative) free energy driving force for formation. Formation of RE-type fluorides on the surface was evidenced through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Concurrent research with auger electron spectroscopy has been attempted to accurately quantify the depth of fluoride formation in order to grasp the extent of fluorination reactions with spherical and flake particulate. Gas fusion analysis on coated powders (dia. <45 {micro}m) from an optimized experiment indicated an as-atomized oxygen concentration of 343ppm, where typical, nonpassivated RE atomized alloys exhibit an average of 1800ppm oxygen. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on the same powder revealed a decreased rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures up to 300 C, compared to similar uncoated powder.

  9. Method and apparatus for sensorless operation of brushless permanent magnet motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sriram, T.V.

    1998-04-14

    A sensorless method and apparatus for providing commutation timing signals for a brushless permanent magnet motor extracts the third harmonic back-emf of a three-phase stator winding and independently cyclically integrates the positive and negative half-cycles thereof and compares the results to a reference level associated with a desired commutation angle. 23 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for sensorless operation of brushless permanent magnet motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sriram, Tillasthanam V. (Carmel, IN)

    1998-01-01

    A sensorless method and apparatus for providing commutation timing signals for a brushless permanent magnet motor extracts the third harmonic back-emf of a three-phase stator winding and independently cyclically integrates the positive and negative half-cycles thereof and compares the results to a reference level associated with a desired commutation angle.

  11. Dynamic Motor Parameter Identification for High Speed Flux Weakening Operation of Brushless Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szabados, Barna

    Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines Abstract: An experimental investigation is conducted to determine the behaviour of brushless PM synchronous machine parameters in the high speed flux weakening operating range synchronous machines. Special computer assisted measuring techniques are employed using an experimental vector

  12. Control Realization for an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM) in Automotive Drive Trains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    Control Realization for an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM) in Automotive Drive, the Maximal Torque Per Current (MTPC) method provides appropriate results. The requested torque is generated higher drive efficiency. The requested torque is generated with a minimum of total losses, which

  13. KINEMATIC FAST DYNAMO PROBLEMS Stars and planets possess magnetic elds that permanently change. Earth, for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khesin, Boris A.

    CHAPTER V KINEMATIC FAST DYNAMO PROBLEMS Stars and planets possess magnetic elds that permanently that the time pattern of the switches forms a Cantor-type set on the time scale (see AnS]). The mechanism the subject of dynamo theory. Kinematic dynamo theory studies what kind of uid motion can induce exponential

  14. Permanent Magnet Motors for Energy Savings in Industrial Applications Copyright Material IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    Permanent Magnet Motors for Energy Savings in Industrial Applications Copyright Material IEEE Paper industry. Over the past 30 years, there have been clear trends in motor utilization that demand higher energy efficiency and reduced Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). Induction motors have been able

  15. A Fault-Tolerant Multiphase Permanent Magnet Generator for Marine Current Turbine Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Fault-Tolerant Multiphase Permanent Magnet Generator for Marine Current Turbine Applications on offshore wind turbine systems. Marine current turbines are characterized by a very difficult access feature. This paper deals with the use of a PM multiphase marine current turbine generator. With this kind

  16. Analysis of Slanted Air-gap Structure of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Brushless Field Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    machine, synchronous motors, torque. I. NOMENCLATURE BFE brushless field excitation IPMSM interiorAnalysis of Slanted Air-gap Structure of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Brushless permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) for application in a hybrid electric vehicle. This unique slanted

  17. Power-Factor and Torque Calculation with Consideration of Cross Saturation of the Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    OF IPMSM Below is the well-known electromagnetic torque equation for all synchronous machines: dqqd iip Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Brushless Field Excitation Seong Taek Lee1,2 , Timothy A. Burress1 permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). The conventional two-axis IPMSM model is modified to include

  18. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 43, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2007 3623 Doubly Salient Permanent-Magnet Machine With Skewed Rotor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    to control the motor. We validated the feasibility of these new design concepts by simulations, field SALIENT permanent-magnet machine (DSPM), a new kind of inverter-fed electrical traction motor first, such as high efficiency, high power density, and simple structure. Much progress has been made on the design

  19. Permanent Magnet Skew Quadrupoles for the Low Emittance LER Lattice of PEP-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, F.-J.; Anderson, S.; Kharakh, D.; Sullivan, M.; /SLAC

    2011-07-05

    The vertical emittance of the low energy ring (LER) in the PEP-II B-Factory was reduced by using skew quadrupoles consisting of permanent magnet material. The advantages over electric quadrupoles or rotating existing normal quadrupoles are discussed. To assure a high field quality, a Biot-Savart calculation was used to cancel the natural 12-pole component by using different size poles over a few layers. A magnetic measurement confirmed the high quality of the magnets. After installation and adjusting the original electric 12 skew and 16 normal quadrupoles the emittance contribution from the region close to the interaction point, which was the biggest part in the original design, was considerably reduced. To strengthen the vertical behavior of the LER beam, a low emittance lattice was developed. It lowered the original vertical design emittance from 0.54 nm-rad to 0.034 nm-rad. In order to achieve this, additional skew quadrupoles were required to bring the coupling correction out of the arcs and closer to the detector solenoid in the straight (Fig. 1). It is important, together with low vertical dispersion, that the low vertical emittance is not coupled into the horizontal, which is what we get if the coupling correction continues into the arcs. Further details of the lattice work is described in another paper; here we concentrate on the development of the permanent skew (PSK) quadrupole solution. Besides the permanent magnets there are two other possibilities, using electric magnets or rotating normal quadrupoles. Electric magnets would have required much more additional equipment like magnets stands, power supply, and new vacuum chamber sections. Rotating existing quadrupoles was also not feasible since they are mostly mounted together with a bending magnet on the same support girder.

  20. Carbon-Based Magnets: Discovery & Design of Novel Permanent Magnets using Non-strategic Elements having Secure Supply Chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: VCU is developing a new magnet for use in renewable power generators and EV motors that requires no rare earth minerals. Rare earths are difficult and expensive to process, but they make electric motors and generators smaller, lighter, and more efficient. VCU would replace the rare earth minerals in EV motor magnets with a low-cost and abundant carbon-based compound that resembles a fine black powder. This new magnet could demonstrate the same level of performance as the best commercial magnets available today at a significantly lower cost. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate this new magnet in a prototype electric motor.

  1. 734 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 39, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2003 Modeling of Iron Losses of Permanent-Magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    currents, hysteresis, iron losses, permanent magnets (PMs), permanent-magnet (PM) machines, synchronous Losses of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors Chunting Mi, Member, IEEE, Gordon R. Slemon, Life Fellow and the reduction of stator loss from operation near unity power factor. In PM machines, iron losses form

  2. Analytical modeling of a new disc permanent magnet linear synchronous machine for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.T.; Chen, J.W.; Su, K.S.

    1999-09-01

    This paper develops an analytical approach based on a qd0 reference frame model to analyze dynamic and steady state characteristics of disc permanent magnet linear synchronous machines (DPMLSMs). The established compact mathematical model can be more easily employed to analyze the system behavior and to design the controller. Superiority in operational electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed DPMLSM for electric vehicle (EV) applications is verified by both numerical simulations and experimental investigations.

  3. Optimal current control strategies for surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous machine drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, P.L.; Sudhoff, S.D.; Whitcomb, C.A.

    1999-12-01

    The current waveforms for optimal excitation of surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous machines are set forth. Four different modes are considered, involving varying degrees of minimization of rms current and torque ripple. The optimized waveforms are markedly different than the traditional sinusoidal or rectangular excitation schemes. Inclusion of cogging torque and arbitrary degree of torque ripple minimization generalize this work over that of previous authors. An experimental drive and a detailed computer simulation verify the proposed control schemes.

  4. Minimizing Wheel Slip in Railway Locomotives with Coupled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shayak Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-17

    In this work I consider control strategies of permanent magnet synchronous motors in which the back-emf signal from the motor is used to achieve commutation of the six step driving circuit. I show that if the strategy is modified to connect multiple motors in a cyclic chain, then a collective synchronized state is favoured. The stability of this state can be exploited in the bogies of a railway locomotive to automatically terminate wheel slipping episodes.

  5. Abstract --For high-speed machines applications, eddy-current losses in the interior permanent magnet of synchronous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abstract -- For high-speed machines applications, eddy- current losses in the interior permanent carries out a prediction of eddy current losses in PM where the skin effect is considered. A complete by analytical method. Index Terms-- High speed, Permanent magnet machines, Eddy-currents, power losses, skin

  6. Electro-mechanical energy conversion system having a permanent magnet machine with stator, resonant transfer link and energy converter controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2006-01-10

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load comprising an energy converter device including a permanent magnet induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer to control the flow of power or energy through the permanent magnetic induction machine.

  7. The influence of microstructure on magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe-Pt-Nb-B permanent magnet ribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randrianantoandro, N.; Greneche, J. M.; Crisan, A. D.; Crisan, O.; Marcin, J.; Kovac, J.; Hanko, J.; Skorvanek, I.; Svec, P.; Chrobak, A.

    2010-11-15

    A FePt-based hard-magnetic nanocomposite of exchange spring type was prepared by isothermal annealing of melt-spun Fe{sub 52}Pt{sub 28}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 18} (atomic percent) ribbons. The relationship between microstructure and magnetic properties was investigated by qualitative and quantitative structural analysis based on the x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectrometry on one hand and the superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry on the other hand. The microstructure consists of L1{sub 0}-FePt hard-magnetic grains (15-45 nm in diameter) dispersed in a soft magnetic medium composed by A1 FePt, Fe{sub 2}B, and boron-rich (FeB)PtNb remainder phase. The ribbons annealed at 700 deg. C for 1 h exhibit promising hard-magnetic properties at room temperature: M{sub r}/M{sub s}=0.69; H{sub c}=820 kA/m and (BH){sub max}=70 kJ/m{sup 3}. Strong exchange coupling between hard and soft magnetic phases was demonstrated by a smooth demagnetizing curve and positive {delta}M-peak in the Henkel plot. The magnetic properties measured from 5 to 750 K reveals that the hard characteristics remains rather stable up to 550 K, indicating a good prospect for the use of these permanent magnets in a wide temperature range.

  8. Modeling the value recovery of rare earth permanent magnets at end-of-life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; McIntyre, Timothy; Yih, Yuehwern; Zhao, Fu; Sutherland, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g., ferrite and AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge of collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.

  9. Modeling the value recovery of rare earth permanent magnets at end-of-life

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; McIntyre, Timothy; Yih, Yuehwern; Zhao, Fu; Sutherland, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g., ferrite and AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge ofmore »collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.« less

  10. Modeling the Value Recovery of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets at End-of-Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, Timothy J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g. ferrite or AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge of collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.

  11. Method and system for controlling a permanent magnet machine during fault conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krefta, Ronald John; Walters, James E.; Gunawan, Fani S.

    2004-05-25

    Method and system for controlling a permanent magnet machine driven by an inverter is provided. The method allows for monitoring a signal indicative of a fault condition. The method further allows for generating during the fault condition a respective signal configured to maintain a field weakening current even though electrical power from an energy source is absent during said fault condition. The level of the maintained field-weakening current enables the machine to operate in a safe mode so that the inverter is protected from excess voltage.

  12. Modular axial-flux permanent-magnet motor for ship propulsion drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caricchi, F.; Crescimbini, F.; Honorati, O.

    1999-09-01

    Original features such as compactness and lightness make slotless axial-flux permanent-magnet machines (AFPMs) eligible for application in large power motor drives devoted to the direct drive of ship propellers. This paper discusses characteristics of AFPMs designed for application in marine propulsion, and machine performances such as efficiency, weight and torque density are evaluated for a comparison with those of conventional synchronous machines. A newly-conceived modular arrangement of the machine stator winding is proposed and experimental results taken from a small-size machine prototype are finally shown.

  13. Method and system for controlling start of a permanent magnet machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walters, James E.; Krefta, Ronald John

    2003-10-28

    Method and system for controlling a permanent magnet machine are provided. The method provides a sensor assembly for sensing rotor sector position relative to a plurality of angular sectors. The method further provides a sensor for sensing angular increments in rotor position. The method allows starting the machine in a brushless direct current mode of operation using a calculated initial rotor position based on an initial angular sector position information from the sensor assembly. Upon determining a transition from the initial angular sector to the next angular sector, the method allows switching to a sinusoidal mode of operation using rotor position based on rotor position information from the incremental sensor.

  14. Cluster expansion modeling and Monte Carlo simulation of alnico 5–7 permanent magnets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming

    2015-03-05

    The concerns about the supply and resource of rare earth (RE) metals have generated a lot of interests in searching for high performance RE-free permanent magnets. Alnico alloys are traditional non-RE permanent magnets and have received much attention recently due their good performance at high temperature. In this paper, we develop an accurate and efficient cluster expansion energy model for alnico 5–7. Monte Carlo simulations using the cluster expansion method are performed to investigate the structure of alnico 5–7 at atomistic and nano scales. The alnico 5–7 master alloy is found to decompose into FeCo-rich and NiAl-rich phases at lowmore »temperature. The boundary between these two phases is quite sharp (~2 nm) for a wide range of temperature. The compositions of the main constituents in these two phases become higher when the temperature gets lower. Both FeCo-rich and NiAl-rich phases are in B2 ordering with Fe and Al on ?-site and Ni and Co on ?-site. The degree of order of the NiAl-rich phase is much higher than that of the FeCo-rich phase. In addition, a small magnetic moment is also observed in NiAl-rich phase but the moment reduces as the temperature is lowered, implying that the magnetic properties of alnico 5–7 could be improved by lowering annealing temperature to diminish the magnetism in NiAl-rich phase. Furthermore, the results from our Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with available experimental results.« less

  15. High-Energy Permanent Magnets for Hybrid Vehicles and Alternative Energy Uses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjipanayis, George C. [University of Delaware] [University of Delaware; McCallum, William R. [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory; Sellmyer, David J. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Harris, Vincent [Northeastern University] [Northeastern University; Carpenter, Everett E. [Virginia Commonwealth University] [Virginia Commonwealth University; Liu, Jinfang [Electron Energy Corporation] [Electron Energy Corporation

    2013-12-17

    The report summarizes research undertaken by a multidisciplinary team aimed at the development of the next generation high-energy permanent magnets. The principal approach was relied on bottom-up fabrication of anisotropic nanocomposite magnets. Our efforts resulted in further development of the theoretical concept and fabrication principles for the nanocomposites and in synthesis of a range of rare-earth-based hard magnetic nanoparticles. Even though we did not make a breakthrough in the assembly of these hard magnetic particles with separately prepared Fe(Co) nanoparticles and did not obtain a compact nanocomposite magnet, our performed research will help to direct the future efforts, in particular, towards nano-assembly via coating, when the two phases which made the nanocomposite are first organized in core-shell-structured particles. Two other approaches were to synthesize (discover) new materials for the traditional singe-material magnets and the nanocomposite magnets. Integrated theoretical and experimental efforts lead to a significant advance in nanocluster synthesis technique and yielded novel rare-earth-free nanostructured and nanocomposite materials. Examination of fifteen R-Fe-X alloy systems (R = rare earth), which have not been explored earlier due to various synthesis difficulties reveal several new ferromagnetic compounds. The research has made major progress in bottom-up manufacturing of rare-earth-containing nanocomposite magnets with superior energy density and open new directions in development of higher-energy-density magnets that do not contain rare earths. The advance in the scientific knowledge and technology made in the course of the project has been reported in 50 peer-reviewed journal articles and numerous presentations at scientific meetings.

  16. THE DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A LARGE RECTANGULAR MAGNETIC CUSP PLASMA SOURCE FOR HIGH INTENSITY NEUTRAL BEAM INJECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biagi, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    generator should be replaced with a larger-volume "magnetic bucket" plasma source,-* in which the walls are lined with permanent magnetsgenerator (Fi^. 1). Design and Fabrication Techniq The permanent magnets

  17. Calculation of cogging force in a novel slotted linear tubular brushless permanent magnet motor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Z.Q.; Hor, P.J.; Howe, D. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering; Rees-Jones, J. [Unilever Research Port Sunlight Lab., Bebington (United Kingdom)] [Unilever Research Port Sunlight Lab., Bebington (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    There is an increasing requirement for controlled linear motion over short and long strokes, in the factory automation and packaging industries, for example. Linear brushless PM motors could offer significant advantages over conventional actuation technologies, such as motor driven cams and linkages and pneumatic rams--in terms of efficiency, operating bandwidth, speed and thrust control, stroke and positional accuracy, and indeed over other linear motor technologies, such as induction motors. Here, a finite element/analytical based technique for the prediction of cogging force in a novel topology of slotted linear brushless permanent magnet motor has been developed and validated. The various force components, which influence cogging are pre-calculated by the finite element analysis of some basic magnetic structures, facilitate the analytical synthesis of the resultant cogging force. The technique can be used to aid design for the minimization of cogging.

  18. Investigation of coercivity mechanism in hot deformed Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets by small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yano, M., E-mail: masao-yano-aa@mail.toyota.co.jp; Manabe, A.; Shoji, T.; Kato, A. [Advanced Material Engineering Division, Toyota Motor Corporation, Susono 410-1193 (Japan); Ono, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Harada, M. [Toyota Central R and D Labs, Inc., Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Kohlbrecher, J. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-05-07

    The magnetic reversal behaviors of single domain sized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, with and without isolation between the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains, was clarified using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS patterns obtained arose from changes in the magnetic domains and were analyzed using the Teubner–Stray model, a phenomenological correlation length model, to quantify the periodicity and morphology of the magnetic domains. The results indicated that the magnetic reversal evolved with the magnetic domains that had similar sized grains. The grain isolation enabled us to realize the reversals of single domains.

  19. Manganese-Aluminum-Based Magnets: Nanocrystalline t-MnAI Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Dartmouth is developing specialized alloys with magnetic properties superior to the rare earths used in today’s best magnets. EVs and renewable power generators typically use rare earths to turn the axles in their electric motors due to the magnetic strength of these minerals. However, rare earths are difficult and expensive to refine. Dartmouth will swap rare earths for a manganese-aluminum alloy that could demonstrate better performance and cost significantly less. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop an easily scalable process that enables the widespread use of low-cost and abundant materials for the magnets used in EVs and renewable power generators.

  20. Manganese-Based Magnets: Manganese-Based Permanent Magnet with 40 MGOe at 200°C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: PNNL is working to reduce the cost of wind turbines and EVs by developing a manganese-based nano-composite magnet that could serve as an inexpensive alternative to rare-earth-based magnets. The manganese composite, made from low-cost and abundant materials, could exceed the performance of today’s most powerful commercial magnets at temperature higher than 200°C. Members of PNNL’s research team will leverage comprehensive computer high-performance supercomputer modeling and materials testing to meet this objective. Manganese-based magnets could withstand higher temperatures than their rare earth predecessors and potentially reduce the need for any expensive, bulky engine cooling systems for the motor and generator. This would further contribute to cost savings for both EVs and wind turbines.

  1. Magnetic Nanoparticle Capilary Flow as a Replacement for Lateral Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport) |Administration Savannah RiverMagneticXSD-MM

  2. Adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control for the chaotic permanent magnet synchronous motor using Nussbaum gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Shaohua [School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China and College of Mechanical Engineering, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Hunan 415000 (China)

    2014-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control (DSC) for the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) system with chaotic behavior, disturbance and unknown control gain and parameters. Nussbaum gain is adopted to cope with the situation that the control gain is unknown. And the unknown items can be estimated by fuzzy logic system. The proposed controller guarantees that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded and the system output eventually converges to a small neighborhood of the desired reference signal. Finally, the numerical simulations indicate that the proposed scheme can suppress the chaos of PMSM and show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  3. Design of low-power permanent-magnet synchronous motor for use in high-density heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenicek, David P. (David Pierre)

    2011-01-01

    An analytical model for the functionality of a permanent-magnet synchronous motor is developed. Taking as input a specific geometry, it predicts steady-state losses of a design at an average rate of 0.85 seconds per analysis, ...

  4. Design and Empirical Identification of a Lumped Parameter Thermal Network for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors with Physically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    Synchronous Motors with Physically Motivated Constraints Oliver Wallscheid, Student Member, IEEE, Joachim B¨ocker, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--Monitoring critical temperatures in permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) is essential to prevent device failures or excessive motor life time reduction due to thermal

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 36, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2008 2095 Permanent Magnet Helicon Source for Ion Propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Francis F.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 36, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2008 2095 Permanent Magnet Helicon Source for Ion Propulsion Francis F. Chen, Life Fellow, IEEE Abstract--Helicon sources have been proposed by at least two groups for generating ions for space propulsion: the Helicon Dou- ble Layer Thruster (HDLT

  6. Read/write head having a GMR sensor biased by permanent magnets located between the GMR and the pole shields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Samuel W. (San Carlos, CA); Rottmayer, Robert Earl (Fremont, CA); Carey, Matthew J. (San Jose, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A compact read/write head having a biased giant magnetoresistive sensor. Permanent magnet films are placed adjacent to the giant magnetoresistive sensor operating in the current-perpendicular-to the-plane (Cpp) mode and spaced with respect to the sensor by conducting films. These permanent magnet films provide a magnetic bias. The bias field is substantial and fairly uniform across sensor height. Biasing of the giant magnetoresistive sensor provides distinguishable response to the rising and falling edges of a recorded pulse on an adjacent recording medium, improves the linearity of the response, and helps to reduce noise. This read/write head is much simpler to fabricate and pattern and provides an enhanced uniformity of the bias field throughout the sensor.

  7. 16,000-rpm Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machine with Brushless Field Excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, J.S.; Burress, T.A.; Lee, S.T.; Wiles, R.H.; Coomer, C.L.; McKeever, J.W.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-10-31

    The reluctance interior permanent magnet (RIPM) motor is currently used by many leading auto manufacturers for hybrid vehicles. The power density for this type of motor is high compared with that of induction motors and switched reluctance motors. The primary drawback of the RIPM motor is the permanent magnet (PM) because during high-speed operation, the fixed PM produces a huge back electromotive force (emf) that must be reduced before the current will pass through the stator windings. This reduction in back-emf is accomplished with a significant direct-axis (d-axis) demagnetization current, which opposes the PM's flux to reduce the flux seen by the stator wires. This may lower the power factor and efficiency of the motor and raise the requirement on the alternate current (ac) power supply; consequently, bigger inverter switching components, thicker motor winding conductors, and heavier cables are required. The direct current (dc) link capacitor is also affected when it must accommodate heavier harmonic currents. It is commonly agreed that, for synchronous machines, the power factor can be optimized by varying the field excitation to minimize the current. The field produced by the PM is fixed and cannot be adjusted. What can be adjusted is reactive current to the d-axis of the stator winding, which consumes reactive power but does not always help to improve the power factor. The objective of this project is to avoid the primary drawbacks of the RIPM motor by introducing brushless field excitation (BFE). This offers both high torque per ampere (A) per core length at low speed by using flux, which is enhanced by increasing current to a fixed excitation coil, and flux, which is weakened at high speed by reducing current to the excitation coil. If field weakening is used, the dc/dc boost converter used in a conventional RIPM motor may be eliminated to reduce system costs. However, BFE supports a drive system with a dc/dc boost converter, because it can further extend the constant power speed range of the drive system and adjust the field for power factor and efficiency gains. Lower core losses at low torque regions, especially at high speeds, are attained by reducing the field excitation. Safety and reliability are increased by weakening the field when a winding short-circuit fault occurs, preventing damage to the motor. For a high-speed motor operating at 16,000-revolutions per minute (rpm), mechanical stress is a challenge. Bridges that link the rotor punching segments together must be thickened for mechanical integrity; consequently, increased rotor flux leakage significantly lowers motor performance. This barrier can be overcome by BFE to ensure sufficient rotor flux when needed.

  8. Studies on the effect of the axial magnetic field on the x-ray bremsstrahlung in a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet microwave ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Narender; Rodrigues, G., E-mail: gerosro@gmail.com; Lakshmy, P. S.; Mathur, Y.; Ahuja, R.; Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi (India)] [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi (India); Baskaran, R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)] [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-02-15

    A compact microwave ion source has been designed and developed for operation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The axial magnetic field is based on two permanent magnet rings, operating in the “off-resonance” mode and is tunable by moving the permanent magnets. In order to understand the electron energy distribution function, x-ray bremsstrahlung has been measured in the axial direction. Simulation studies on the x-ray bremsstrahlung have been carried out to compare with the experimental results. The effect of the axial magnetic field with respect to the microwave launching position and the position of the extraction electrode on the x-ray bremsstrahlung have been studied.

  9. Control of Two Permanent Magnet Machines Using a Five-Leg Inverter for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Huang, Xianghui [GE Global Research

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents digital control schemes for control of two permanent magnet (PM) machines in an integrated traction and air-conditioning compressor drive system for automotive applications. The integrated drive system employs a five-leg inverter to power a three-phase traction PM motor and a two-phase compressor PM motor by tying the common terminal of the two-phase motor to the neutral point of the three-phase motor. Compared to a three-phase or a standalone two-phase inverter, it eliminates one phase leg and shares the control electronics between the two drives, thus significantly reducing the component count of the compressor drive. To demonstrate that the speed and torque of the two PM motors can be controlled independently, a control strategy was implemented in a digital signal processor, which includes a rotor flux field orientation based control (RFOC) for the three-phase motor, a similar RFOC and a position sensorless control in the brushless dc (BLDC) mode for the two-phase motor. Control implementation issues unique to a two-phase PM motor are also discussed. Test results with the three-phase motor running in the ac synchronous (ACS) mode while the two-phase motor either in the ACS or the BLDC mode are included to verify the independent speed and torque control capability of the integrated drive.

  10. Periodic permanent magnet development for linear collider X-band klystrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprehn, D.; Caryotakis, G.; Jongewaard, E.; Phillips, R. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

    1999-05-07

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) klystron group is currently designing, fabricating and testing 11.424 GHz klystrons with peak output powers from 50 to 75 MW at 1 to 2 {mu}s rf pulsewidths as part of an effort to realize components necessary for the construction of the Next Linear Collider (NLC). In order to eliminate the projected operational-year energy bill for klystron solenoids, Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM) focusing has been employed on our latest X-band klystron designs. A PPM beam tester has operated at the same repetition rate, voltage and average beam power required for a 75-MW NLC klystron. Prototype 50 and 75-MW PPM klystrons were built and tested during 1996 and 1997 which operate from 50 to 70 MW at efficiencies greater than 55%. Construction and testing of 75-MW research klystrons will continue while the design and reliability is perfected. This paper will discuss the design of these PPM klystrons and the results of testing to date along with future plans for the development of a low-cost Design for Manufacture (DFM) 75-MW klystron and invitation for industry participation.

  11. Periodic permanent magnet development for linear collider X-band klystrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprehn, D.; Caryotakis, G.; Jongewaard, E.; Phillips, R. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) klystron group is currently designing, fabricating and testing 11.424 GHz klystrons with peak output powers from 50 to 75 MW at 1 to 2 {mu}s rf pulsewidths as part of an effort to realize components necessary for the construction of the Next Linear Collider (NLC). In order to eliminate the projected operational-year energy bill for klystron solenoids, Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM) focusing has been employed on our latest X-band klystron designs. A PPM beam tester has operated at the same repetition rate, voltage and average beam power required for a 75-MW NLC klystron. Prototype 50 and 75-MW PPM klystrons were built and tested during 1996 and 1997 which operate from 50 to 70 MW at efficiencies greater than 55{percent}. Construction and testing of 75-MW research klystrons will continue while the design and reliability is perfected. This paper will discuss the design of these PPM klystrons and the results of testing to date along with future plans for the development of a low-cost Design for Manufacture (DFM) 75-MW klystron and invitation for industry participation. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Radial-Gap Permanent Magnet Motor and Drive Research FY 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeever, J.W.

    2005-02-11

    The objective of this task was to study permanent magnet (PM) radial-gap traction drive systems that could meet the U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR Program's 2010 goals to expose weaknesses or identify strengths. Initially, the approach was to compare attributes such as physical deformations during operation, performance (torque, power, efficiency versus speed), material requirements (strength), material costs, manufacturability, weight, power density, specific power, reliability, and drivability for specific motors. Three motors selected were the commercially available 60-kW radial-gap surface-mounted PM motor manufactured by UQM Technologies, Inc.; a hypothetical PM motor with rotor-supported magnets similar to the Honda MCF-21; and Delphi's automotive electric machine drive motor, whose rotor is a ferromagnetic cylinder, held at one end by a shaft that supports the magnets on its inner surface. Potential problems have appeared related to PM motors, such as (1) high no-load spin losses and high operational power losses, probably from eddy current losses in the rotor; (2) the undemonstrated dual mode inverter control (DMIC) for driving a brushless dc motor (BDCM) (UQM and Delphi motors); (3) uncertainty about the potential for reducing current with DMIC; and (4) uncertainty about the relation between material requirements and maximum rotor speed. Therefore, the approach was changed to study in detail three of the comparison attributes: drivability, performance, and material requirements. Drivability and related problems were examined by demonstrating that DMIC may be used to drive an 18-pole 30-kW PM motor to 6000 rpm, where the maximum electrical frequency is 900 Hz. An available axial-gap test motor with 18 poles was used because its control is identical to that of a radial gap PM motor. Performance was analytically examined, which led to a derivation showing that DMIC controls a PM motor so that the motor uses minimum current to produce any power regardless of speed for relative speeds, n = {omega}/{omega}{sub base} {ge} 2. Performance was also examined with efficiency measurements during the 30-kW PM motor test. Material requirements were examined with finite-element analyses (FEA) to determine the speed and location where yield starts and the corresponding deformations and stresses.

  13. Control of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawler, J.S.

    2005-12-21

    It is well known that the ability of the permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) to operate over a wide constant power speed range (CPSR) is dependent upon the machine inductance [1,2,3,4,5]. Early approaches for extending CPSR operation included adding supplementary inductance in series with the motor [1] and the use of anti-parallel thyristor pairs in series with the motor-phase windings [5]. The increased inductance method is compatible with a voltage-source inverter (VSI) controlled by pulse-width modulation (PWM) which is called the conventional phase advance (CPA) method. The thyristor method has been called the dual mode inverter control (DMIC). Neither of these techniques has met with wide acceptance since they both add cost to the drive system and have not been shown to have an attractive cost/benefit ratio. Recently a method has been developed to use fractional-slot concentrated windings to significantly increase the machine inductance [6]. This latest approach has the potential to make the PMSM compatible with CPA without supplemental external inductance. If the performance of such drive is acceptable, then the method may make the PMSM an attractive option for traction applications requiring a wide CPSR. A 30 pole, 6 kW, 6000 maximum revolutions per minute (rpm) prototype of the fractional-slot PMSM design has been developed [7]. This machine has significantly more inductance than is typical of regular PMSMs. The prototype is to be delivered in late 2005 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. In advance of the test/control development effort, ORNL has used the PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to study the steady-state performance of high-inductance PMSM machines with a view towards control issues. The detailed steady-state model developed includes all motor and inverter-loss mechanisms and will be useful in assessing the performance of the dynamic controller to be developed in future work. This report documents the results of this preliminary investigation.

  14. Spectra of In-like Tungsten, $W^{25+}$, from the Shanghai permanent magnet electron beam ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, W; Shi, Z; Fei, Z; R,; Zhao,; Brage, T; Huldt, S; Hutton, R; Zou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Three visible lines of M1 transitions from In-like W were recorded using the Shanghai permanent magnet electron beam ion trap. The experimental wavelengths were measured as 493.84 $\\pm$ 0.15, 226.97 $\\pm$ 0.13 and 587.63 $\\pm$ 0.23 nm (vacuum wavelengths). These results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions obtained using large-scale Relativistic Many-Body Perturbation Theory, in the form of the Flexible Atomic Code, and some explorations with the Muliconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock code GRASP2K.

  15. Study of the Advantages of Internal Permanent Magnet Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otaduy, P.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-11-30

    This report describes research performed on the viability of changing the effectively active number of turns in the stator windings of an internal permanent magnet (IPM) electric motor to strengthen or weaken the magnetic fields in order to optimize the motor's performance at specific operating speeds and loads. Analytical and simulation studies have been complemented with research on switching mechanisms to accomplish the task. The simulation studies conducted examine the power and energy demands on a vehicle following a series of standard driving cycles and the impact on the efficiency and battery size of an electrically propelled vehicle when it uses an IPM motor with turn-switching capabilities. Both full driving cycle electric propulsion and propulsion limited starting from zero to a set speed have been investigated.

  16. Power-Factor Calculation under Consideration of Cross Saturation of the Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Brushless Field Excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seong T [ORNL; Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Hsu, John S [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for calculating the power factor with consideration of the cross saturation between the direct-axis (d-axis) and the quadrature-axis (q-axis) of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). The conventional two-axis IPMSM model is modified to include the cross-saturation effect by adding the cross-coupled inductance terms. This paper also contains the new method of calculating the cross-coupled inductance values as well as self-inductance values in d- and q-axes. The analyzed motor is a high-speed brushless field excitation machine that offers high torque per ampere per core length at low speed and weakened flux at high speed, which was developed for the traction motor of a hybrid electric vehicle.

  17. On-the-fly machine-learning for high-throughput experiments: search for rare-earth-free permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusne, AG; Gao, TR; Mehta, A; Ke, LQ; Nguyen, MC; Ho, KM; Antropov, V; Wang, CZ; Kramer, MJ; Long, C; Takeuchi, I

    2014-09-15

    Advanced materials characterization techniques with ever-growing data acquisition speed and storage capabilities represent a challenge in modern materials science, and new procedures to quickly assess and analyze the data are needed. Machine learning approaches are effective in reducing the complexity of data and rapidly homing in on the underlying trend in multi-dimensional data. Here, we show that by employing an algorithm called the mean shift theory to a large amount of diffraction data in high-throughput experimentation, one can streamline the process of delineating the structural evolution across compositional variations mapped on combinatorial libraries with minimal computational cost. Data collected at a synchrotron beamline are analyzed on the fly, and by integrating experimental data with the inorganic crystal structure database (ICSD), we can substantially enhance the accuracy in classifying the structural phases across ternary phase spaces. We have used this approach to identify a novel magnetic phase with enhanced magnetic anisotropy which is a candidate for rare-earth free permanent magnet.

  18. Electroplated L1{sub 0} CoPt thick-film permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oniku, Ololade D. Qi, Bin; Arnold, David P.

    2014-05-07

    The fabrication and magnetic characterization of 15-?m-thick electroplated L1{sub 0} CoPt hard magnets with good magnetic properties is reported in this paper. Experimental study of the dependence of the magnets' properties on annealing temperature reveals that an intrinsic coercivity H{sub ci}?=??800?kA/m (10 kOe), squareness >0.8, and energy product of >150?kJ/m{sup 3} are obtained for photolithographically patterned structures (250??m?×?2?mm stripes; 15??m thickness) electroplated on silicon substrates and annealed in hydrogen forming gas at 700?°C. Scanning electron microscopy is used to inspect the morphology of both the as-deposited and annealed magnetic layers, and X-ray Diffractometer analysis on the magnets annealed at 700?°C confirm a phase transformation to an ordered L1{sub 0} CoPt structure, with a minor phase of hcp Co. These thick films are intended for microsystems/MEMS applications.

  19. Interaction between an electric charge and a magnetic dipole of any kind (permanent, para- or dia- magnetic or superconducting)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coïsson, R

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between point charge and magnetic dipole is usually considered only for the case of a rigid ferromagnetic dipole (constant-current): here the analysis of force, momentum and energy (including the energy provided by the internal current generator) is generalised to any magnetic dipole behaviour: rigid, paramagnetic, diamagnetic or superconducting (perfectly diamagnetic).

  20. Noise reduction control strategy of a permanent magnet synchronous machine for vehicle applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doolittle, Randy Gene

    2009-05-15

    that was not available: 1. V S (secant voltage) or a phase voltage to give a value to the BackEMF (E) 2. L A , L B , L C (phase inductances), L S (secant inductance), or L D and L Q 3. M D ? (magnet flux linkage) or B G (air gap flux density) The thesis... T EM,rated d-q rated Torque 309Nm V S,rated Secant Voltage I S,rated,rms Secant Rated RMS Current 300A P ,rated Rated Machine Power P ,max Maximum Machine Power 64.5kW ? ,max Top Speed E Back EMF @ Top Speed 400V (assumed could be 600V...

  1. Rare?Earth?Free Permanent Magnets for Electrical Vehicle Motors and Wind Turbine Generators: Hexagonal Symmetry Based Materials Systems Mn?Bi and M?type Hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Yang-Ki; Haskew, Timothy; Myryasov, Oleg; Jin, Sungho; Berkowitz, Ami

    2014-06-05

    The research we conducted focuses on the rare-earth (RE)-free permanent magnet by modeling, simulating, and synthesizing exchange coupled two-phase (hard/soft) RE-free core-shell nano-structured magnet. The RE-free magnets are made of magnetically hard core materials (high anisotropy materials including Mn-Bi-X and M-type hexaferrite) coated by soft shell materials (high magnetization materials including Fe-Co or Co). Therefore, our research helps understand the exchange coupling conditions of the core/shell magnets, interface exchange behavior between core and shell materials, formation mechanism of core/shell structures, stability conditions of core and shell materials, etc.

  2. Contol of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Motors with Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, N.; Lawler, J.S.; McKeever, J.

    2007-07-31

    A 30-pole, 6-kW prototype of a fractional-slot permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) design has been developed to operate at a maximum speed of 6000 rpm [1,2]. This machine has significantly more inductance than regular PMSMs with distributed windings. The prototype was delivered in April 2006 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. To prepare for this test/control development effort, ORNL used PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to preview the control issues that arise when a dynamic controller drives a high inductance PMSM machine during steady state performance evaluations. The detailed steady state model developed includes all motor and inverter loss mechanisms and was useful for assessing the performance of the dynamic controller before it was put into operation. This report documents the results of tests demonstrating the effectiveness of ORNL's simple low-cost control scheme during characterization of the fractional-slot concentrated windings (FSCW) PMSM motor. The control scheme is simple because only the supply voltage magnitude and the phase angle between the back-electromotive force (emf) and the supply voltage is controlled. It is low-cost because it requires no current or phase voltage sensors.

  3. Indirect sensing for rotor flux position of permanent magnet AC motors operating over a wide speed range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreira, J.C.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes an indirect sensing, or sensorless, method for rotor flux position for brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motors operating over a wide speed range, while keeping maximum torque per ampere and/or maximum efficiency capabilities. The method described is particularly applicable to trapezoidal back emf type of BPM motors. The typical trapezoidal waveform of the motor internal voltages (or back emf) contains a fundamental and higher order frequency harmonics. In particular, the third harmonic component is extracted from the stator phase voltages while the fundamental and other polyphase components are eliminated via a simple summation of the three phase voltages. The resulting third harmonic signal keeps a constant phase relationship with the rotor flux for any motor speed and load condition, and is practically free of noise that can be introduced by the inverter switching, making this a robust sensing method. In contrast with indirect sensing methods based on detection of the back-emf signal that require heavy filtering, the third harmonic signal needs only a small amount of filtering to eliminate the switching frequency and its side bands. As a result, the method described here is not sensitive to filtering delays, allowing the motor to achieve a good performance over a wide speed range. Motor starting is also superior with this method since the third harmonic signal can be detected and processed at lower speeds than for the conventional method of back-emf sensing. Moreover, an alternative way to acquire the third harmonic signal without the need to access the stator neutral terminal is discussed. This is particularly interesting with the motor neutral connection is not available or expensive to have access. The third harmonic indirect sensing scheme is implemented in the laboratory and compared to a conventional back-emf sensing method.

  4. Memorandum, Approval of a Permanent Variance Regarding Static Magnetic Fields at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Variance 102 1)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Approval of a Permanenet Variance Regarding Static Magnetic Fields at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Variance 1021)

  5. Experimental Approach of a High Performance Control of Two PermanentMagnet Synchronous Machines in an Integrated Drive for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Lixin; Su, Gui-Jia

    2006-01-01

    The close-loop digital signal processor (DSP) control of an integrated-dual inverter, which is able to drive two permanent magnet (PM) motors independently, is presented and evaluated experimentally. By utilizing the neutral point of the main traction motor, only two inverter poles are needed for the two-phase auxiliary motor. The modified field-oriented control scheme for this integrated inverter was introduced and employed in real-time control. The experimental results show the inverter is able to control two drives independently. An integrated, component count reduced drive is achieved.

  6. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, supplment au n 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979, page C5-273 The physics and the technology of rare earth permanent magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to forecast the type of substitution to employ on the rare earth or transition metals, as a means and the technology of rare earth permanent magnets J. P. Haberer and H. Lemaire Aimants UGIMAG S.A., France Résumé rare earth base alloys have magnetic properties which substantially exceed the values obtained before

  7. Design Features of a Planar Hybrid/Permanent Magnet Strong Focusing Undulator for Free Electron Laser (FEL) And Synchrotron Radiation (SR) Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatchyn, Roman; /SLAC

    2011-09-09

    Insertion devices for Angstrom-wavelength Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifiers driven by multi-GeV electron beams generally require distributed focusing substantially stronger than their own natural focusing fields. Over the last several years a wide variety of focusing schemes and configurations have been proposed for undulators of this class, ranging from conventional current-driven quadrupoles external to the undulator magnets to permanent magnet (PM) lattices inserted into the insertion device gap. In this paper we present design studies of a flexible high-field hybrid/PM undulator with strong superimposed planar PM focusing proposed for a 1.5 Angstrom Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) driven by an electron beam with a 1 mm-mr normalized emittance. Attainable field parameters, tuning modes, and potential applications of the proposed structure are discussed.

  8. Control of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Fractional-Slot Motors with Concentrated Windings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeever, John W; Patil, Niranjan; Lawler, Jack

    2007-07-01

    A 30 pole, 6 kW, and 6000 maximum revolutions per minute (rpm) prototype of the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with fractional-slot concentrated windings (FSCW) has been designed, built, and tested at the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UWM). This machine has significantly more inductance than that of regular PMSMs. The prototype was delivered in April 2006 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a controller that will achieve maximum efficiency. In advance of the test/control development effort, ORNL has used the PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to study how steady state performance of high inductance PMSM machines relates to control issues. This report documents the results of this research. The amount of inductance that enables the motor to achieve infinite constant power speed ratio (CPSR) is given by L{sub {infinity}} = E{sub b}/{Omega}{sub b}I{sub R}, where E{sub b} is the root-mean square (rms) magnitude of the line-to-neutral back-electromotive force (emf) at base speed, {Omega}{sub b} is the base speed in electrical radians per second, and I{sub R} is the rms current rating of the motor windings. The prototype machine that was delivered to ORNL has about 1.5 times as much inductance as a typical PMSM with distributed integral slot windings. The inventors of the FSCW method, who designed the prototype machine, remarked that they were 'too successful' in incorporating inductance into their machine and that steps would be taken to modify the design methodology to reduce the inductance to the optimum value. This study shows a significant advantage of having the higher inductance rather than the optimal value because it enables the motor to develop the required power at lower current thereby reducing motor and inverter losses and improving efficiency. The main problem found with high inductance machines driven by a conventional phase advance (CPA) method is that the motor current at high speed depends solely on machine parameters and is virtually independent of the load level and the direct current (dc) supply voltage. Thus, the motor current is virtually the same at no load as at full load resulting in poor efficiency at less than full load conditions. While an inductance higher than the value cited above is warranted, it still does not ensure that the motor current is proportional to load; consequently, the problem of low efficiency at high speed and partial load is not resolved but is only mitigated. A common definition of 'base speed' is the speed at which the voltage applied to the motor armature is equal to the magnitude of the back-emf. The results in this study indicate that the dc supply voltage should be adequate to drive rated current into the motor winding at the specified base speed. At a minimum this requires sufficient voltage to overcome not only the back-emf but also the voltage drop across the internal impedance of the machine. For a high inductance PMSM, the internal impedance at base speed can be considerable and substantial additional voltage is required to overcome the internal voltage drop. It is further shown that even more voltage than the minimum required for injecting rated current at base speed can be beneficial by allowing the required power to be developed at lower current, which reduces losses in the motor and inverter components. Further, it is shown that the current is minimized at a unique speed; consequently, there may be room for optimization if the drive spends a substantial amount of its operating life at a certain speed (for example 60 mph). In this study, fundamental frequency phasor models are developed for a synchronous PMSM and the control systems that drive them is CPA. The models were compared with detailed simulations to show their validity. The result was used to design a traction drive control system with optimized efficiency to drive the fractional-slot motor with concentrated windings. The goal is to meet or exceed the FreedomCAR inverter cost and performance targets.

  9. High-Performance Control of Two Three-Phase Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines in an Integrated Drive for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The closed-loop control of an integrated dual AC drive system is presented to control two three-phase permanent-magnet motors. A five-leg inverter is employed in the drive system; three of the inverter legs are for a main traction motor, but only two are needed for a three-phase auxiliary motor by utilizing the neutral point of the traction motor. An integrated drive with reduced component count is therefore achieved by eliminating one inverter leg and its gate drivers. A modified current control scheme based on the rotor flux orientation principle is presented. Simulation and experimental results are included to verify the independent control capability of the integrated drive.

  10. Calculation of synchronous reactances of small permanent-magnet alternating-current motors: Comparison of analytical approach and finite element method with measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gieras, J.F.; Wing, M. [Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Santini, E. [Univ. of Rome (Italy). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Rome (Italy). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1998-09-01

    The synchronous reactances of permanent magnet (PM) motors have been determined using: (1) analytical method, i.e., form factors of the stator field (armature reaction factors), (2) finite element method (FEM), and (3) experimental tests on a special machine set. The analytical method is widely used in calculations of synchronous reactances of salient pole synchronous machines with electromagnetic excitation. Rotors of PM synchronous machines have more complicated structures, hence it is more difficult to predict accurately the magnetic field distribution in their airgaps in order to find the form factors of the stator field. Numerical methods of field analysis can easily solve this problem. The FEM can predict both the synchronous and mutual (armature reaction) reactances in the d and q axes. The leakage reactance can then be evaluated as a difference between synchronous and mutual reactances. As an example, a small, three-phase, four-pole motor with SmCo surface mounted PM`s (three parallel magnets per pole), and mild-steel pole shoes has been investigated. Such a complicated rotor structure has been intentionally designed in order to be able to compare the advantages and disadvantages of the analytical method and the FEM. In the FEM, the reactances have been calculated using both the flux linkage and current/energy perturbation method. Synchronous reactances as functions of the stator current and load angle obtained analytically from the FEM modeling and from measurements have been compared.

  11. Proposal for the Purchase, Without a Call for Tenders, of Thyristor Assemblies to be Fitted into the PS Magnet Power Supply as Replacement for the Mercury-Arc Rectifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1977-01-01

    Proposal for the Purchase, Without a Call for Tenders, of Thyristor Assemblies to be Fitted into the PS Magnet Power Supply as Replacement for the Mercury-Arc Rectifiers

  12. Power-Factor and Torque Calculation under Consideration of Cross Saturation of the Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Brushless Field Excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seong T [ORNL; Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for calculating the power factor and output torque by considering the cross saturation between direct-axis (d-axis) and quadrature-axis (q-axis) of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). The conventional two-axis IPMSM model is modified to include the cross saturation effect by adding the cross-coupled inductance terms. This paper also contains the new method of calculating the cross-coupled inductance values as well as self-inductance values in d- and q-axes. The analyzed motor is a high-speed brushless field excitation machine that offers high torque per ampere per core length at low speed and weakened flux at high speed, which was developed for the traction motor of a hybrid electric vehicle. The conventional two-axis IPMSM model was modified to include the cross-saturation effect by adding the cross-coupled inductance terms Ldq and Lqd. By the advantage of the excited structure of the experimental IPMSM, the analyzing works were performed under two conditions, the highest and lowest excited conditions. Therefore, it is possible to investigate the cross-saturation effect when a machine has higher magnetic flux from its rotor. The following is a summary of conclusions that may be drawn from this work: (1) Considering cross saturation of an IPMSM offers more accurate expected values of motor parameters in output torque calculation, especially when negative d-axis current is high; (2) A less saturated synchronous machine could be more affected by the cross-coupled saturation effect; (3) Both cross-coupled inductances, L{sub qd} and L{sub dq}, are mainly governed by d-axis current rather than q-axis current; (4) The modified torque equation, can be used for the dynamic model of an IPMSM for developing a better control model or control strategy; and (5) It is possible that the brushless field excitation structure has a common magnetic flux path on both d- and q-axis, and as a result, the reluctance torque of the machine could be reduced.

  13. CRADA Final Report: Application of Dual-Mode Invertor Control to Commercially Available Radial-Gap Permanent Magnet Motors - Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawler, J.S.; McKeever, J.W.; Downing, M.E.; Stahlhut, R.D; Bremmer, R.; Shoemaker, J.M.; Seksarian, A.K.; Poore, B.; Lutz, J.

    2006-05-01

    John Deere and Company (Deere), their partner, UQM Technologies, Inc. (UQM), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) recently completed work on the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) Number ORNL 04-0691 outlined in this report. CRADA 04-0691 addresses two topical issues of interest to Deere: (1) Improved characterization of hydrogen storage and heat-transfer management; and (2) Potential benefits from advanced electric motor traction-drive technologies. This report presents the findings of the collaborative examination of potential operational and cost benefits from using ORNL/PEEMRC dual-mode inverter control (DMIC) to drive permanent magnet (PM) motors in applications of interest to Deere. DMIC was initially developed and patented by ORNL to enable PM motors to be driven to speeds far above base speed where the back-electromotive force (emf) equals the source voltage where it is increasingly difficult to inject current into the motor. DMIC is a modification of conventional phase advance (CPA). DMIC's dual-speed modes are below base speed, where traditional pulse-width modulation (PWM) achieves maximum torque per ampere (amp), and above base speed, where six-step operation achieves maximum power per amp. The modification that enables DMIC adds two anti-parallel thyristors in each of the three motor phases, which consequently adds the cost of six thyristors. Two features evaluated in this collaboration with potential to justify the additional thyristor cost were a possible reduction in motor cost and savings during operation because of higher efficiency, both permitted because of lower current. The collaborative analysis showed that the reduction of motor cost and base cost of the inverter was small, while the cost of adding six thyristors was greater than anticipated. Modeling the DMIC control displayed inverter efficiency gains due to reduced current, especially under light load and higher speed. This current reduction, which is the salient feature of DMIC, may be significant when operating duty cycles have low loads at high frequencies. Reduced copper losses make operation more efficient thereby reducing operating costs. In the Deere applications selected for this study, the operating benefit was overshadowed by the motor's rotational losses. Rotational losses of Deere 1 and Deere 2 dominate the overall drive efficiency so that their reduction has the greatest potential to improve performance. A good follow-up project would be to explore cost erective ways to reduce the rotational losses buy 66%.

  14. The Lorentz transformations of the vectors E, B, P, M and the external electric fields from a stationary superconducting wire with a steady current and from a stationary permanent magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomislav Ivezic

    2012-11-02

    In the first part of this paper we review the fundamental difference between the usual transformations of the three-dimensional (3D) vectors of the electric field $\\mathbf{E}$, the magnetic field $\\mathbf{B}$, the polarization $\\mathbf{P}$, the magnetization $\\mathbf{M}$ and the Lorentz transformations of the 4D geometric quantities, vectors E, B, P, M, with many additional explanations and several new results. In the second part, we have discussed the existence of the electric field vector E outside a stationary superconducting wire with a steady current and also different experiments for the detection of such electric fields. Furthermore, a fundamental prediction of the existence of the external electric field vector E from a stationary permanent magnet is considered. These electric fields are used for the resolution of the "charge-magnet paradox" with 4D geometric quantities for a qualitative explanation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in terms of fields and not, as usual, in terms of the vector potential and for a qualitative explanation that the particle interference is not a test of a Lorentz-violating model of electrodynamics according to which a magnetic solenoid generates not only a static magnetic field but also a static electric field.

  15. High Temperature, Permanent Magnet Biased Magnetic Bearings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandhi, Varun R.

    2010-07-14

    performance, high speed and high temperature applications like space vehicles, jet engines and deep sea equipment. The bearing system had a target design to carry a load equal to 500 lb-f (2225N). Another objective was to design and build a test rig fixture...

  16. Creating the Permanent Prisoner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolovich, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Facing the Challenges of Prisoner Reentry (Washington, DC:Press, 2005). Creating the Permanent Prisoner | 137C. West, Data Brief: Prisoners at Yearend 2009—Advance

  17. Study of Catcher Bearings for High Temperature Magnetic Bearing Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayanaswamy, Ashwanth

    2011-08-08

    temperature permanent magnet based magnetic bearings. The magnetic bearings are made of high temperature resistant permanent magnets (up to 1000 degrees F). A test rig has been developed to test these magnetic bearings. The test rig mainly consists of two...

  18. Are Permanent Magnets Really Permanent? | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D SFederal8823 Revision 02August 1, LowerMicroclimatesAre

  19. Enhanced production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by exciting selective microwave mode on a large-bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Daiju, E-mail: kimura@nf.eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Imai, Youta; Kumakura, Sho; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)] [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    We are constructing a tandem type ECRIS. The first stage is large-bore with cylindrically comb-shaped magnet. We optimize the ion beam current and ion saturation current by a mobile plate tuner. They change by the position of the plate tuner for 2.45 GHz, 11–13 GHz, and multi-frequencies. The peak positions of them are close to the position where the microwave mode forms standing wave between the plate tuner and the extractor. The absorbed powers are estimated for each mode. We show a new guiding principle, which the number of efficient microwave mode should be selected to fit to that of multipole of the comb-shaped magnets. We obtained the excitation of the selective modes using new mobile plate tuner to enhance ECR efficiency.

  20. U.S. Rare Earth Magnet Patents Table © 6-2-2015 page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of permanent magnetic motors with broader and flexible in material selection space and cost selection space What is claimed is: 1. A composite permanent magnetic material,...

  1. Technology Solutions Case Study: Replacement of Variable-Speed Motors for Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-02-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated the Concept 3™ replacement motors for residential furnaces in eight homes in Syracuse, NY. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost-effectiveness. The results of this study are intended to be useful to home performance contractors, HVAC contractors, and home efficiency program stakeholders. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Average fan power reductions were approximately 126 Watts during heating and 220 Watts during cooling operation. Over the course of entire heating and cooling seasons, these translated into average electric energy savings of 163 kWh, with average cost savings of $20 per year. Homes where the fan was used outside of heating and cooling mode saved an additional $42 per year on average. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost-effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load.

  2. Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The research will develop the gravity and/or low-pressure permanent-mold casting processes with sand or permanent-mold cores for aluminum and magnesium based alloys.

  3. Magnetic properties of bulk, and rapidly solidified nanostructured (Nd1-xCex)2Fe14-yCoyB ribbons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Khan, M.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; McCallum, R. W.; Zhou, L.; Sun, K.; Kramer, M. J.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2015-11-06

    Magnetic properties of Ce and Co co-doped (Nd1-xCex)2Fe14-yCoyB compounds have been investigated both in bulk polycrystalline and rapidly solidified nanostructured ribbon forms. For certain Ce concentrations the materials exhibit spin re-orientation transitions below 140 K. The Curie temperatures, saturation magnetizations, and other magnetic properties relevant for applications as permanent magnets are controlled by Ce and Co substitutions for Nd and Fe, respectively. Most importantly, the results show that Ce, Co co-doped compounds are excellent replacements for several Dy-based high performance permanent magnets (dysprosium is one of the critical elements and is, therefore, in short supply). As a result, the highmore »temperature (>375 K) magnetic properties for Nd–Ce–Fe–Co–B based alloys show promise not only as a replacement for Dy-doped Nd2Fe14B permanent magnets, but the new alloys also require significantly lower amounts of Nd, which too is the critical element that can be replaced by a more abundant Ce.« less

  4. Rare-Earth-Free Nanostructure Magnets: Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnets for Electric Vehicle Motors and Wind Turbine Generators: Hexagonal Symmetry Based Materials Systems Mn-Bi and M-type Hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The University of Alabama is developing new iron- and manganese-based composite materials for use in the electric motors of EVs and renewable power generators that will demonstrate magnetic properties superior to today’s best rare-earth-based magnets. Rare earths are difficult and expensive to refine. EVs and renewable power generators typically use rare earths to make their electric motors smaller and more powerful. The University of Alabama has the potential to improve upon the performance of current state-of-the-art rare-earth-based magnets using low-cost and more abundant materials such as manganese and iron. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate improved performance in a full-size prototype magnet at reduced cost.

  5. Employee Replacement Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Samuel Schenker, “The Costs of Hir- u ing Skilled Workers”,Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andof employee replacement costs, using a panel survey of

  6. Magnetic levitation system for moving objects - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract: Repelling magnetic forces are produced by the interaction of a flux-concentrated magnetic field (produced by permanent magnets or electromagnets) with an...

  7. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 20, NO. 1, MARCH 2005 121 Minimization of Iron Losses of Permanent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    magnet machines, synchronous machines. I. INTRODUCTION ELECTRIC motor-driven equipment utilizes of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines Chunting Chris Mi, Senior Member, IEEE, Gordon R. Slemon, Life Fellow, IEEE, and Richard Bonert, Member, IEEE Abstract--In permanent magnet (PM) synchronous machines, iron

  8. Permanent magnet focused X-band photoinjector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, David U. L. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Rosenzweig, James (Los Angeles, CA)

    2002-09-10

    A compact high energy photoelectron injector integrates the photocathode directly into a multicell linear accelerator with no drift space between the injection and the linac. High electron beam brightness is achieved by accelerating a tightly focused electron beam in an integrated, multi-cell, X-band rf linear accelerator (linac). The photoelectron linac employs a Plane-Wave-Transformer (PWT) design which provides strong cell-to-cell coupling, easing manufacturing tolerances and costs.

  9. Energy Replacement Generation Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Energy Replacement Generation Tax Exemption, the following facilities are exempt from the replacement tax:

  10. Superconducting Magnet Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Ramesh

    Superconducting Magnet Division Permanent Magnet Designs with Large Variations in Field Strength the residual field of the magnetized bricks by concentrating flux lines at the iron pole. Low Field Design Medium Field Design Superconducting Magnet Division Dipole and Quadrupole Magnets for RHIC e

  11. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  12. Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    these structures are highly stable, very strong magnetic fields of around half a tesla (approximately one-third the field of the strongest permanent magnet) were previously...

  13. Adjustable permanent quadrupoles for the next linear collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Volk et al.

    2001-06-22

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 138 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 141 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0 to {minus}20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. Four different prototypes have been built. All magnets have iron poles and use Samarium Cobalt to provide the magnetic fields. Two use rotating permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient, one uses a sliding shunt to vary the gradient and the fourth uses counter rotating magnets. Preliminary data on gradient strength, temperature stability, and magnetic center position stability are presented. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnetic prototype.

  14. Magnetic Damping For Maglev

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, S.; Cai, Y.; Rote, D.M.; Chen, S.S.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic damping is one of the important parameters that control the response and stability of maglev systems. An experimental study to measure magnetic damping directly is presented. A plate attached to a permanent magnet levitated on a rotating drum was tested to investigate the effect of various parameters, such as conductivity, gap, excitation frequency, and oscillation amplitude, on magnetic damping. The experimental technique is capable of measuring all of the magnetic damping coefficients, some of which cannot be measured indirectly.

  15. A STRUCTURAL-MAGNETIC STRAIN MODEL FOR MAGNETOSTRICTIVE TRANSDUCERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    strains and forces is provided by a magnetic bias generated by either the surrounding permanent magnet of a cylindrical Terfenol-D rod, a wound wire solenoid, an enclosing permanent magnet and a prestress mechanismA STRUCTURAL-MAGNETIC STRAIN MODEL FOR MAGNETOSTRICTIVE TRANSDUCERS Marcelo J. Dapino Department

  16. MODELING OF EDDY CURRENT LOSS AND TEMPERATURE OF THE MAGNETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    MODELING OF EDDY CURRENT LOSS AND TEMPERATURE OF THE MAGNETS IN PERMANENT MAGNET MACHINES@umich.edu Received 24 November 2010 Accepted 16 June 2011 The eddy current loss in the magnets of permanent magnet- mium-iron-boron (NdFeB), and slot/tooth harmonics, there is eddy current loss generated inside

  17. Replacing Lightbulbs and Ballasts | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Replacing Lightbulbs and Ballasts Replacing Lightbulbs and Ballasts Replace frequently used bulbs with more energy efficient options to save money and energy. Replace...

  18. Magnetic infrasound sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mueller, Fred M. (Los Alamos, NM); Bronisz, Lawrence (Los Alamos, NM); Grube, Holger (Los Alamos, NM); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM); Mace, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-11-14

    A magnetic infrasound sensor is produced by constraining a permanent magnet inside a magnetic potential well above the surface of superconducting material. The magnetic infrasound sensor measures the position or movement of the permanent magnet within the magnetic potential well, and interprets the measurements. Infrasound sources can be located and characterized by combining the measurements from one or more infrasound sensors. The magnetic infrasound sensor can be tuned to match infrasound source types, resulting in better signal-to-noise ratio. The present invention can operate in frequency modulation mode to improve sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. In an alternate construction, the superconductor can be levitated over a magnet or magnets. The system can also be driven, so that time resolved perturbations are sensed, resulting in a frequency modulation version with improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio.

  19. Remotely addressable magnetic composite micropumps{ Eric Diller, Shuhei Miyashita and Metin Sitti*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sitti, Metin

    the creation of micron-scale permanent magnets for the application of forces and torques via externally-generated in an addressable manner. We propose micro-scale permanent magnet composites that can be remotely and reversibly, which pair switchable permanent magnets with electromagnets. In these devices, electromagnetic coils

  20. 50 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 40, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004 Analytical Method for Predicting the Air-Gap Flux of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    the Air-Gap Flux of Interior-Type Permanent-Magnet Machines Chunting Mi, Senior Member, IEEE, Mariano method to calcu- late the air-gap magnetic flux of interior-type permanent-magnet (IPM) machines taking INTERIOR-TYPE permanent-magnet (IPM) motors are used in a wide range of industrial applications due

  1. Negative magnetophoresis of submicron species in magnetic nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Lino A. (Lino Alberto), 1976-

    2009-01-01

    In this work we studied the focusing and trapping of submicron, nonmagnetic species immersed in a magnetic nanofluid under applied magnetic fields. Focusing was achieved using two pairs of permanent magnets, which forced ...

  2. Magnetic bearing element with adjustable stiffness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F

    2013-11-12

    A compact magnetic bearing element is provided which is made of permanent magnet discs configured to be capable of the adjustment of the bearing stiffness and levitation force over a wide range.

  3. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  4. Effect of an Oscillating Magnetic Field on the Release Properties of Magnetic Collagen Gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spinu, Leonard

    -15 The oscillating magnetic field was generated by a plate demagnetizer or by moving a permanent magnet backEffect of an Oscillating Magnetic Field on the Release Properties of Magnetic Collagen Gels Vania M The paper describes the effect of an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) on the morphology and release

  5. > FOR CONFERENCE-RELATED PAPERS, REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR SESSION NUMBER, E.G., AB-02 (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE) Computation of eddy current losses in Soft Magnetic Composites1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -CLICK HERE) eddy current losses in Soft Magnetic Composites1 2 C. Appino1 , O. Bottauscio1, Italy6 7 We compute the classical eddy current losses in Soft Magnetic Composite (SMC) materials, taking into account the eddy current8 paths appearing at the scale of the sample cross-section because of random

  6. Advanced Penning-type ion source development and passive beam focusing techniques for an associated particle imaging neutron generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sy, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Compact Permanent Magnet Microwave-Driven Neutron Generator.generator. The planned replacement of this electromagnet with a permanent-magnet

  7. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Machine without Permanent Magnets John Hsu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Flux Coupling Machines and Switched Reluctance Motors to Replace Permanent Magnets in Electric Vehicles...

  8. Helicopter aids transmission pole replacement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Helicopter-aids-transmission-pole-replacement Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects...

  9. 30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE In-orbit performances of the magnetic spectrometer of PAMELA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morselli, Aldo

    of the spectrometer of PAMELA is generated by a permanent magnet composed of five identical modules put one on top microstrip sensors, which are placed inside the magnetic cavity of a permanent magnet. The apparatus is used30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE In-orbit performances of the magnetic spectrometer

  10. Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building America Top Innovation Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building America Top Innovation Effec...

  11. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #23 Permanent and Nonpermanent Positions...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 Permanent and Nonpermanent Positions, Appointments, & CHRIS Codes POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 23 Permanent and Nonpermanent Positions, Appointments, & CHRIS Codes DOE Guidance -...

  12. Magnetically attached sputter targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    1994-02-15

    An improved method and assembly for attaching sputtering targets to cathode assemblies of sputtering systems which includes a magnetically permeable material is described. The magnetically permeable material is imbedded in a target base that is brazed, welded, or soldered to the sputter target, or is mechanically retained in the target material. Target attachment to the cathode is achieved by virtue of the permanent magnets and/or the pole pieces in the cathode assembly that create magnetic flux lines adjacent to the backing plate, which strongly attract the magnetically permeable material in the target assembly. 11 figures.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1 A new global optimization algorithm and its application to a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    by the uniformity of the magnetic field generated by this magnet, in that, the more uniform is the magnetic field a low field dedicated magnet is that of using permanent magnets surrounded by an iron yoke to amplifyMagnetic Resonance Imaging 1 A new global optimization algorithm and its application to a Magnetic

  14. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout Session 2A—Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Virent is Replacing Crude Oil Randy Cortright, Founder & Chief Technology Officer, Virent

  15. A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ape020burress2011o...

  16. A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ape020burress2010p...

  17. A doubly-fed permanent magnet generator for wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew J. (Andrew Joseph), 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Optimum extraction of energy from a wind turbine requires that turbine speed vary with wind speed. Existing solutions to produce constant-frequency electrical output under windspeed variations are undesirable due to ...

  18. High Temperature, Buried Permanent Magnet, Brushless DC Motor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhengxin

    2010-10-12

    Outputs, Back EMF and Phase Current in One Electric Cycle ................ 31 Fig. 3-9 Hall Effect Sensor Positions ............................................................................. 33 Fig. 3-10 State One... 1- HIGH LEVEL HALL SENSOR INPUT 0- LOW LEVEL HALL SENSOR INPUT H- HIGH OR SWITCHING MOTOR OUTPUT L- LOW MOTOR OUTPUT X- MOTOR OUTPUT IS OFF (FLOATING) In one electrical cycle, the Hall Effect sensor outputs, Back EMF, Motor Phase inputs have a...

  19. Permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor, design and performance improvement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niazi, Peyman

    2006-04-12

    . current........................................................................75 2- 33 Saturation effect due to the PM of the rotor.........................................................75 2- 34 Line-to-line back-EMF in PMa...-SynRM. .............................................................76 2- 35 Torque-angle curves of the PMa-SynRM and SynRM. .......................................77 2- 36 Stator and rotor laminations of the proposed PMa-SynRM.................................78 2- 37 Actual back-EMF line voltage at 1800...

  20. Direct control of air gap flux in permanent magnet machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for field weakening in PM machines uses field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72) to produce flux in one or more stators (34, 49, 63, 64), including a flux which counters flux normally produced in air gaps between the stator(s) (34, 49, 63, 64) and the rotor (20, 21, 41, 61) which carries the PM poles. Several modes of operation are introduced depending on the magnitude and polarity of current in the field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72). The invention is particularly useful for, but not limited to, the electric vehicle drives and PM generators.

  1. High force density linear permanent magnet motors : "electromagnetic muscle actuators"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruddy, Bryan P. (Bryan Paul), 1983-

    2012-01-01

    Actuator performance represents a key constraint on the capability of many engineered devices. Performance of these devices is often exceeded by their muscle-powered natural counterparts, inspiring the development of new, ...

  2. Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets - U Machine |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and Reduce CarbonEnergyDepartment13 FederalJuly 28,1Department of

  3. Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and Reduce CarbonEnergyDepartment13 FederalJuly 28,1Department

  4. Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and Reduce CarbonEnergyDepartment13 FederalJuly

  5. Permanent Magnet Development for Automotive Traction Motors | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT PDepartmentOrder (2013-SE-14001)Energy 2

  6. Permanent Magnet Development for Automotive Traction Motors | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT PDepartmentOrder (2013-SE-14001)Energy

  7. Permanent Magnet Development for Automotive Traction Motors | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT PDepartmentOrder

  8. A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in: Statement

  9. A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in: StatementDepartment of Energy 0

  10. High Performance Permanent Magnets for Advanced Motors | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡High Performance ComputingEnergy

  11. Jiangxi Jinli Permanent Magnet Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgency (IRENA) Jump to: navigation,Wind Jump to:FAWWende NewJinli

  12. 2007 Nature Publishing Group Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonardo, Degiorgi

    to sense the magnetic force generated between the tip and spins in a sample. Magnetic resonance is used for the present work is the development of magnetic tips that generate magnetic field gradients as high as 1 of the technique on a patterned CaF2 test object. Unlike the permanent magnet tips previously used for

  13. 862 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 26, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2011 Analytical Method for Magnetic Field Calculation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    -pole 60-slot double-rotor axial-flux PM motor was proposed for electric vehicles [4]. In these machines for Magnetic Field Calculation in a Low-Speed Permanent-Magnet Harmonic Machine Linni Jian, Member, IEEE-drive low-speed permanent-magnet machines. The machines derived from the magnetic-gearing ef- fect can

  14. Replacing Fluorescent Lightbulbs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fluorescent Lightbulbs Replacing Fluorescent Lightbulbs July 29, 2012 - 6:37pm Addthis Although fluorescent lightbulbs are generally energy efficient, you can replace them with...

  15. Magnetic multipole redirector of moving plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crow, James T. (Albuquerque, NM); Mowrer, Gary R. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for redirecting moving plasma streams using a multiple array of magnetic field generators (e.g., permanent magnets or current bearing wires). Alternate rows of the array have opposite magnetic field directions. A fine wire mesh may be employed to focus as well as redirect the plasma.

  16. Will peanut hulls replace oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

  17. EA-1895: Lolo Creek Permanent Weir Construction near town of Weippe, Clearwater County, Idaho

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Bonneville Power Administration was preparing this EA to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of replacing an existing seasonal fish weir with a permanent weir, which would have been used to monitor federally-listed Snake River steelhead and collect spring Chinook salmon adults to support ongoing supplementation programs in the watershed. The Bureau of Land Management, a cooperating agency, preliminarily determined Lolo Creek to be suitable for Congressional designation into the Wild and Scenic River System. The EA included a Wild and Scenic River Section 7 analysis. This project was canceled.

  18. When Do Commercial Reactors Permanently Shut Down?

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    For those wishing to obtain current data, the following resources are available: U.S. reactors, go to the Energy Information Administration's nuclear reactor shutdown list. (Note: As of April 30, 2010, the last U.S. reactor to permanently shut down was Big Rock Point in 1997.) Foreign Reactors, go to the Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) on the International Atomic Energy Agency's website.

  19. A High-Precision, Magnetically Levitated Positioning Stage Toward contactless actuation for industrial manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maggiore, Manfredi

    A High-Precision, Magnetically Levitated Positioning Stage Toward contactless actuation to replace mechanical microsteppers by magnetically levitated devices. Magnetically levitated microsteppers magnetic levitation devices utilizing the principle of electromagnetic reluctance to achieve planar

  20. MODELING OF EDDY CURRENT LOSS AND TEMPERATURE OF THE MAGNETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    MODELING OF EDDY CURRENT LOSS AND TEMPERATURE OF THE MAGNETS IN PERMANENT MAGNET MACHINES the performance of the machine. This paper presents the modeling and analysis of eddy current loss in surface- mounted-magnets PM synchronous motors (SPMSM) and interior-magnets PM synchronous motors (IPMSM), operated

  1. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godec, M. [ICF Resources, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1989-05-18

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985.

  2. Near-field-magnetic-tweezer manipulation of single DNA molecules Jie Yan, Dunja Skoko, and John F. Marko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croquette, Vincent

    with 3- m-diameter paramagnetic particles. A small, permanent magnet that can be moved as close as 10 m in other recent "magnetic-tweezer" studies. Our instrument generates these forces in the focal plane also have the disadvantage of being quite expensive. Conventional MT using permanent magnets about 1 mm

  3. Passive magnetic bearing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  4. Trading permanent and temporary carbon emissions credits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, Gregg; Marland, Eric

    2009-08-01

    In this issue of Climatic Change, Van Kooten (2009) addresses an issue that has bedeviled negotiators since the drafting stage of the Kyoto Protocol. If we accept that increasing withdrawals of carbon dioxide from the atmpshere has the same net impact on the climate system as reducing emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, how do we design a system that allows trading of one for the other? As van Kooten expresses the challenge: 'The problem is that emissions reduction and carbon sequestration, while opposite sides of the same coin in some sense, are not directly comparable, thereby inhibiting their trade in carbon markets.' He explains: 'The difficulty centers on the length of time that mitigation strategies without CO{sub 2} from entering the atmosphere - the duration problem.' While reducing emissions of CO{sub 2} represents an essentially permanent benefit for the atmosphere, capturing CO{sub 2} that has been produced (whether capture is from the atmosphere or directly from, for example, the exhaust from power plants) there is the challenge of storing the carbon adn the risk that it will yet escape to the atmosphere. Permanent benefit to the atmosphere is often not assured for carbon sequestration activities. This is especially true if the carbon is taken up and stored in the biosphere - e.g. in forest trees or agricultural soils.

  5. A mesoscopic network model for permanent set in crosslinked elastomers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    model for permanent set in crosslinked elastomers A mesoscopic computational model for polymer networks and composites is developed as a coarse-grained representation of the...

  6. Magnetic machines and power electronics for power MEMS applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Sauparna, 1979-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents the modeling, design, and characterization of microfabricated, surface-wound, permanent-magnet (PM) generators, and their power electronics, for use in Watt-level Power MEMS applications such as a ...

  7. Development of Radically Enhanced alnico Magnets (DREAM) for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electric motor drives, this project will utilize a demonstrated science-based process to design and synthesize a high energy product permanent magnet of the alnico type in bulk...

  8. Low-field classroom nuclear magnetic resonance system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmerman, Clarissa Lynette

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research was to develop a Low-field Classroom NMR system that will enable hands-on learning of NMR and MRI concepts in a Biological-Engineering laboratory course. A permanent magnet system, designed using ...

  9. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moskowitz, Philip E. (Peabody, MA); Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

    1987-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed.

  10. Fluorescent lamp with static magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moskowitz, P.E.; Maya, J.

    1987-09-08

    A fluorescent lamp wherein magnetic field generating means (e.g., permanent magnets) are utilized to generate a static magnetic field across the respective electrode structures of the lamp such that maximum field strength is located at the electrode's filament. An increase in efficacy during operation has been observed. 2 figs.

  11. Grand Coulee Transmission Line Replacement Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Reliability Projects Expand Projects Skip navigation links Line Projects Big Eddy-Knight Central Ferry Lower Monumental Grand Coulee Transmission Line Replacement...

  12. ³Ni² Clusterbank Replacement Project | Argonne Leadership Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ni Clusterbank Replacement Project Event Sponsor: Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Seminar Start Date: Oct 20 2015 - 12:00pm BuildingRoom: Building 241Room D173...

  13. Grand Coulee & Hungry Horse SCADA Replacement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Powerhouse 1 Main Unit Breakers and Station Service Replacement This proposed investment addresses issues with two groups of equipment in Powerhouse 1 at Bonneville: * Main unit...

  14. LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this June 20, 2011 webcast on LED products marketed as replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, Jason Tuenge of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) discussed current Lighting...

  15. USING NEURAL NETWORKS FOR WEB PROXY CACHE REPLACEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ElAarag, Hala

    USING NEURAL NETWORKS FOR WEB PROXY CACHE REPLACEMENT by JAKE COBB Advisor HALA ELAARAG A senior................................................................................................... 10 4. NEURAL NETWORK PROXY CACHE REPLACEMENT .................................. 12 5. SIMULATION replacement is developed. Unlike previous approaches, this research utilizes neural networks for replacement

  16. Investigation of Cooling and Dehumidification Energy Use and Indoor Thermal Conditions in Polk County Schools Permanent Replacement Classroom Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moyer, N. A.; Cummings, J. B.; Chasar, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing enrollment in grades K-12 coupled with the spiraling costs of construction has pushed school boards to develop more cost-effective classrooms, from the perspective of initial cost, longterm energy consumption, ...

  17. Heading off the permanent oil crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKenzie, J.J.

    1996-11-01

    The 1996 spike in gasoline prices was not a signal of any fundamental worldwide shortage of crude oil. But based on a review of many studies of recoverable crude oil that have been published since the 1950s, it looks as though such a shortfall is now within sight. With world demand for oil growing at 2 percent per year, global production is likely to peak between the years 2007 and 2014. As this time approaches, we can expect prices to rise markedly and, most likely, permanently. Policy changes are needed now to ease the transition to high-priced oil. Oil production will continue, though at a declining rate, for many decades after its peak, and there are enormous amounts of coal, oil sands, heavy oil, and oil shales worldwide that could be used to produce liquid or gaseous substitutes for crude oil, albeit at higher prices. But the facilities for making such synthetic fuels are costly to build and environmentally damaging to operate, and their use would substantially increase carbon dioxide emissions (compared to emissions from products made from conventional crude oil). This paper examines ways of heading of the impending oil crisis. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  18. The search for permanent electric dipole moments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirch, Klaus

    2013-02-13

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) of fundamental systems with spin - particles, nuclei, atoms or molecules violate parity and time reversal invariance. Invoking the CPT theorem, time reversal violation implies CP violation. Although CP-violation is implemented in the standard electro-weak theory, EDM generated this way remain undetectably small. However, this CP-violation also appears to fail explaining the observed baryon asymmetry of our universe. Extensions of the standard theory usually include new sources of CP violation and often predict sizeable EDMs. EDM searches in different systems are complementary and various efforts worldwide are underway and no finite value has been established yet. The prototype of an EDM search is the pursuit of the EDM of the neutron. It has the longest history and at the same time is at the forefront of present research. The talk aims at giving an overview of the field with emphasis on our efforts within an international collaboration at PSI, nedm.web.psi.ch.

  19. Analytical Model of Magnet Eddy-Current Volume Losses in Multi-phase PM Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Analytical Model of Magnet Eddy-Current Volume Losses in Multi-phase PM Machines with Concentrated, 94000 Créteil France Abstract--this paper studies magnet eddy-current losses in permanent magnet (PM calculations. Keywords--Traction, Concentrated Winding, Eddy- Current, Volume Magnet Losses, Multiphase Machine

  20. Magnetic cooling at Risoe DTU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, K K; Jensen, J B; Bahl, C R H; Pryds, N; Smith, A; Nordentoft, A; Hattel, J

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic refrigeration at room temperature is of great interest due to a long-term goal of making refrigeration more energy-efficient, less noisy and free of any environmentally hostile materials. A refrigerator utilizing an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is based on the magnetocaloric effect, which manifests itself as a temperature change in magnetic materials when subjected to a varying magnetic field. In this work we present the current state of magnetic refrigeration research at Risoe DTU with emphasis on the numerical modeling of an existing AMR test machine. A 2D numerical heat-transfer and fluid-flow model that represents the experimental setup is presented. Experimental data of both no-heat load and heat load situations are compared to the model. Moreover, results from the numerical modeling of the permanent magnet design used in the system are presented.

  1. Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Molnar, Linda K. (Philadelphia, PA); Hatton, T. Alan (Sudbury, MA); Buchwald, Stephen L. (Newton, MA)

    2001-05-15

    Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

  2. Permanence : aligning architecture, nuclear waste, and the Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maher, John, III (John Edward)

    2014-01-01

    Permanence is intended as a provocation to question the current relationship of time and architecture. Architecture has always had a relationship with time, but historically this relationship has been troubled. In 2013 we ...

  3. Temporary and Permanent Buyout Prices in Online Auctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Shobhit

    Increasingly used in online auctions, buyout prices allow bidders to instantly purchase the item listed. We distinguish two types: a temporary buyout option disappears if a bid above the reserve price is made; a permanent ...

  4. Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Homes in the San Geronimo Valley (Forest Knolls, Lagunitas, San Geronimo, and Woodacre) can receive a rebate of $1,500 for the removal and replacement of non-certified wood burning appliances with...

  5. A small-bore high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H.; Lobb, C.T.; Menzel, M.T. ); Walstrom, P.L. )

    1990-01-01

    A prototype superconducting quadrupole magnet was designed and built for use in superconducting coupled-cavity linacs where the use of permanent magnets is ruled out by consideration of trapped flux losses. The magnet has a clear bore diameter of 1.8 cm and outside diameter of 11 cm and length of 11 cm. The magnet was operated at a temperature of 4.2 K and obtained a peak quadrupole field gradient of 320 T/m.

  6. A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. High performance hybrid magnetic structure for biotechnology applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphries, David E.; Pollard, Martin J.; Elkin, Christopher J.

    2006-12-12

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetic or magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are: a method of assembling the hybrid magnetic plates, a high throughput protocol featuring the hybrid magnetic structure, and other embodiments of the ferromagnetic pole shape, attachment and adapter interfaces for adapting the use of the hybrid magnetic structure for use with liquid handling and other robots for use in high throughput processes.

  8. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-09-30

    A magnetic reed switch assembly is described for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electro-magnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  9. Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 This...

  10. Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovery Replaces Precious Metals Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst Cobalt holds promise as an industrial catalyst with potential applications...

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Portable and integrated Lead: P. Poulichet.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baudoin, Geneviève

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Portable and integrated Lead: P. Poulichet. Permanent members: L. Rousseau, A. Fakri. Associated researchers: C. Delabie, A. Exertier. Portable Nuclear Magnetic Resonance : our work in the field of nuclear magneto resonance is focused on the design and the realization

  12. Molecular CP-violating magnetic moment Andrei Derevianko1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    Molecular CP-violating magnetic moment Andrei Derevianko1 and M. G. Kozlov2 1 Department of Physics Received 26 April 2005; published 6 October 2005 A concept of CP-violating T,P-odd permanent molecular magnetic moments CP is introduced. We relate the moments to the electric dipole moment of electron e

  13. If yes, date your card was issued: Card number Enclose a photocopy of the front and back of your Permanent Resident, Asylee, or Refugee Card

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of your Permanent Resident, Asylee, or Refugee Card Are you a Permanent Resident, Asylee, or Refugee

  14. Nashville Gas treads carefully to replace pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The private gas utility, Nashville Gas, was responsible for replacing damaged or inadequate 2- and 4-inch steel gas lines beneath Music City, USA. The line replacements required either size for size or upsizing. The first choice was directional drilling, which was quickly determined to be unpractical because of rocky soil conditions. The second option was open trenching. Undoubtedly, trenching would mean having to contend with angry residents and tourists, since gas lines ran beneath yards, mature trees, sidewalks, roadways, and railways. In addition to the negative social factors, trenching would require additional funds for substantial landscaping and pavement replacement. It at all possible, a no-dig alternative was desired. Nashville Gas found Grundomat piercing tools which create a bore, then pushes pipe back through it. These same tools can simultaneously pull in pipe. These tools were customized for the Nashville project.

  15. Amendment 80 vessel replacement 1 Implementation and of Amendment 80 Vessel Replacement Provisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amendment 80 vessel replacement 1 Implementation and of Amendment 80 Vessel Replacement Provisions identified and limited the vessels that could be used to fish for certain species of BSAI groundfish in a particular sector of the groundfish fishery. The final rule included this vessel restriction based on NMFS

  16. From permanence to total availability: a quantum conceptual upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi

    2011-06-14

    We consider the classical concept of time of permanence and observe that its quantum equivalent is described by a bona fide self-adjoint operator. Its interpretation, by means of the spectral theorem, reveals that we have to abandon not only the idea that quantum entities would be characterizable in terms of spatial trajectories but, more generally, that they would possess the very attribute of spatiality. Consequently, a permanence time shouldn't be interpreted as a "time" in quantum mechanics, but as a measure of the total availability of a quantum entity in participating to a process of creation of a spatial localization.

  17. High performance hybrid magnetic structure for biotechnology applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphries, David E. (El Cerrito, CA); Pollard, Martin J. (El Cerrito, CA); Elkin, Christopher J. (San Ramon, CA)

    2009-02-03

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetic or magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are further improvements to aspects of the hybrid magnetic structure, including additional elements and for adapting the use of the hybrid magnetic structure for use in biotechnology and high throughput processes.

  18. High performance hybrid magnetic structure for biotechnology applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphries, David E; Pollard, Martin J; Elkin, Christopher J

    2005-10-11

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are: a method of assembling the hybrid magnetic plates, a high throughput protocol featuring the hybrid magnetic structure, and other embodiments of the ferromagnetic pole shape, attachment and adapter interfaces for adapting the use of the hybrid magnetic structure for use with liquid handling and other robots for use in high throughput processes.

  19. Beyond the Replacement Paradigm: Smart Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salama, Khaled

    Hole? · DC device in an AC Powered World · Cool light source with thermal issues · High Efficacy ­ High Spectral Density Information Informationneeded to makethe Light SMART #12;10 Light Flow ­ InformationBeyond the Replacement Paradigm: Smart Lighting Robert F. Karlicek, Jr. Director, Smart Lighting

  20. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  1. Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrag, Daniel

    Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments Kurt Zenz House* , Daniel P. Schrag, Cambridge, MA 02138; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139; and §Earth Engineering Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

  2. Behavior of fullscale concrete segmented pipelines under permanent ground displacements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalowski, Radoslaw L.

    Behavior of fullscale concrete segmented pipelines under permanent ground displacements Junhee, Indiana; d Department of Civil Engineering, Merrimack College, MA ABSTRACT Concrete pipelines are one pipelines and eventually lead to joint failures. In order to understand and model the typical failure

  3. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  4. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C. Robert (Palo Alto, CA); Kozlowski, Mark R. (Pleasanton, CA); Campbell, John H. (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael (Tracy, CA); Rainer, Frank (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  5. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  6. Phoenix: Detecting and Recovering from Permanent Processor Design Bugs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrellas, Josep

    Phoenix: Detecting and Recovering from Permanent Processor Design Bugs with Programmable Hardware://iacoma.cs.uiuc.edu 14 Phoenix Conceptual Design Signature Buffer Bug Detection Unit (BDU) Global Recovery Unit Signal of Phoenix Subsystem SSUBDU Subsystem BDUSSUHUB Neighborhood To Recovery Unit IO Cntrl.L1 CacheFetch Unit

  7. Magnetic actuation and transition shapes of a bistable spherical cap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loukaides, E. G.; Smoukov, S. K.; Seffen, K. A.

    2015-01-22

    6.11, ABAQUS Documentation, Dassault Systèmes, Providence, RI, 2011. [23] M. McCraig and A.G. Clegg, Permanent Magnets in Theory and Practice, 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1987. [24] S. Blinder, Magnetic field of a cylindrical bar magnet... one stable shape. As potential actuator elements, only the transition between states needs to be “powered” continuously and not their rest configurations; thus, there are positive implications for saving energy during operation. Description...

  8. 2.6 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    325 §2.6 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS Introduction In electromagnetic theory the mks system MKS units Replacement symbol GAUSSIAN units # E (Electric field) volt/m # E statvolt/cm # B (Magnetic Magnetic field) ampere/m c # H 4# oersted # J (Current density) ampere/m 2 # J statampere/cm 2 # A (Vector

  9. 2.6 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    325 §2.6 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS Introduction In electromagnetic theory the mks system MKS units Replacement symbol GAUSSIAN units E (Electric field) volt/m E statvolt/cm B (Magnetic field gauss-cm V (Electric potential) volt V statvolt (Dielectric constant) 4 µ (Magnetic permeability) 4µ c2

  10. Perpendicularly magnetized {tau}-MnAl (001) thin films epitaxied on GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, S. H.; Zhu, L. J.; Lu, J.; Pan, D.; Wang, H. L.; Yu, X. Z.; Xiao, J. X.; Zhao, J. H.

    2013-04-15

    Perpendicularly magnetized {tau}-MnAl films have been epitaxied on GaAs (001) by molecular-beam epitaxy. Crystalline quality and magnetic properties of the samples were strongly dependent on growth temperature. The highest coercivity of 10.7 kOe, saturation magnetization of 361.4 emu/cm{sup 3}, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant of 13.65 Merg/cm{sup 3}, and magnetic energy product of 4.44 MGOe were achieved. These tunable magnetic properties make MnAl films valuable as excellent and cost-effective alternative for not only high density perpendicular magnetic recording storage and spintronics devices but also permanent magnets.

  11. Self-nanoscaling of the soft magnetic phase in bulk SmCo/Fe nanocomposite magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J. Ping

    in high power density applications, such as wind power turbines and electric motors in hybrid vehicles that these excellent properties are achieved at a low cost. Sm­Co intermetallic compounds (including SmCo5, Sm2Co17)max, the figure of merit of a permanent magnet. To reduce the materials costs, it is desirable to lower

  12. Replaces EIA-459E OMB Control No.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct.7, 2015 ThermochemEnergyReplacement of3

  13. Retail Replacement Lamps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A Wholesale PowerNaturalEnergyResuming OperationsOperated

  14. Negative ion beam injection apparatus with magnetic shield and electron removal means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Oscar A. (Berkeley, CA); Chan, Chun F. (Hayward, CA); Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A negative ion source is constructed to produce H.sup.- ions without using Cesium. A high percentage of secondary electrons that typically accompany the extracted H.sup.- are trapped and eliminated from the beam by permanent magnets in the initial stage of acceleration. Penetration of the magnetic field from the permanent magnets into the ion source is minimized. This reduces the destructive effect the magnetic field could have on negative ion production and extraction from the source. A beam expansion section in the extractor results in a strongly converged final beam.

  15. An issue of permanence: assessing the effectiveness of temporary carbon storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herzog, Howard J.

    In this paper, we present a method to quantify the effectiveness of carbon mitigation options taking into account the "permanence" of the emissions reduction. While the issue of permanence is most commonly associated with ...

  16. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  17. Permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-08-14

    A permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor achieves balanced operation at more than one operating point by adjusting the voltage supplied to the main and auxiliary windings and adjusting the capacitance in the auxiliary winding circuit. An intermediate voltage tap on an autotransformer supplies voltage to the main winding for low speed operation while a capacitive voltage divider is used to adjust the voltage supplied to the auxiliary winding for low speed operation. 4 figs.

  18. Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving 90 Percent of Annual Costs Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving 90 Percent of Annual Costs...

  19. Electrical Equipment Replacement: Energy Efficiency versus System Compatibility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massey, G. W.

    2005-01-01

    Electrical equipment components are replaced every day because of failure, obsolescence, or upgrade. Because of technological gains, replacement components are typically more energy efficient than older equipment. Life cycle cost analyses encourage...

  20. Surgical navigation in canine total knee replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Kaleigh M.; Hutter, Erin; Siston, Robert A.; Bertran, Judith

    2015-06-16

    of the cutting block provides a surrogate marker for final alignment of the 179 tibial component. A flat, thin-bladed tracking tool (Figure 2E) was placed on the top 180 surface of the tibial cutting block to record its orientation in the frontal and sagittal... ] Baker KM, Foutz TL, Johnson KJ, et al. Effects of tibial plateau angle and spacer 444 thickness applied during in vitro canine total knee replacement on three-dimensional 445 kinematics and collateral ligament strain. Am J Vet Res 2014; 75...

  1. Sampling with unequal probabilities and without replacement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleibrink, Ronald Gus

    1966-01-01

    . 6105 . 5161 . 6210 9 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 ~ 1796 . 5217 . 7073 . 6105 . 5161 . 5889 Specifically the normalized sizes and cumulative normalized. sizes are defined. as (3. 6) pi = n. xi/X so that N (3. 7) Z p = n 1=1 (3. 8) Pi = E p J... to have given the first general theory for sampling with unequal probabilities and without replacement. They used. as an estimate of the population total I for N units, the standard unbiased estimator A n (1 ' 1) I = Z (y / 77 ) i=3 where 77...

  2. Dose calculation for permanent prostate implants incorporating spatially anisotropic linearly time-resolving edema

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monajemi, T. T.; Clements, Charles M.; Sloboda, Ron S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada) and Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were (i) to develop a dose calculation method for permanent prostate implants that incorporates a clinically motivated model for edema and (ii) to illustrate the use of the method by calculating the preimplant dosimetry error for a reference configuration of {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, and {sup 137}Cs seeds subject to edema-induced motions corresponding to a variety of model parameters. Methods: A model for spatially anisotropic edema that resolves linearly with time was developed based on serial magnetic resonance imaging measurements made previously at our center to characterize the edema for a group of n=40 prostate implant patients [R. S. Sloboda et al., ''Time course of prostatic edema post permanent seed implant determined by magnetic resonance imaging,'' Brachytherapy 9, 354-361 (2010)]. Model parameters consisted of edema magnitude, {Delta}, and period, T. The TG-43 dose calculation formalism for a point source was extended to incorporate the edema model, thus enabling calculation via numerical integration of the cumulative dose around an individual seed in the presence of edema. Using an even power piecewise-continuous polynomial representation for the radial dose function, the cumulative dose was also expressed in closed analytical form. Application of the method was illustrated by calculating the preimplant dosimetry error, RE{sub preplan}, in a 5x5x5 cm{sup 3} volume for {sup 125}I (Oncura 6711), {sup 103}Pd (Theragenics 200), and {sup 131}Cs (IsoRay CS-1) seeds arranged in the Radiological Physics Center test case 2 configuration for a range of edema relative magnitudes ({Delta}=[0.1,0.2,0.4,0.6,1.0]) and periods (T=[28,56,84] d). Results were compared to preimplant dosimetry errors calculated using a variation of the isotropic edema model developed by Chen et al. [''Dosimetric effects of edema in permanent prostate seed implants: A rigorous solution,'' Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 47, 1405-1419 (2000)]. Results: As expected, RE{sub preplan} for our edema model indicated underdosage in the calculation volume with a clear dependence on seed and calculation point positions, and increased with increasing values of {Delta} and T. Values of RE{sub preplan} were generally larger near the ends of the virtual prostate in the RPC phantom compared with more central locations. For edema characteristics similar to the population average values previously measured at our center, i.e., {Delta}=0.2 and T=28 d, mean values of RE{sub preplan} in an axial plane located 1.5 cm from the center of the seed distribution were 8.3% for {sup 131}Cs seeds, 7.5% for {sup 103}Pd seeds, and 2.2% for {sup 125}I seeds. Maximum values of RE{sub preplan} in the same plane were about 1.5 times greater. Note that detailed results strictly apply only for loose seed implants where the seeds are fixed in tissue and move in synchrony with that tissue. Conclusions: A dose calculation method for permanent prostate implants incorporating spatially anisotropic linearly time-resolving edema was developed for which cumulative dose can be written in closed form. The method yields values for RE{sub preplan} that differ from those for spatially isotropic edema. The method is suitable for calculating pre- and postimplant dosimetry correction factors for clinical seed configurations when edema characteristics can be measured or estimated.

  3. SOLAR MAGNETIC TRACKING. IV. THE DEATH OF MAGNETIC FEATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, D. A.; Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.; Parnell, C. E.; Welsch, B. T.

    2013-09-10

    The removal of magnetic flux from the quiet-Sun photosphere is important for maintaining the statistical steady state of the magnetic field there, for determining the magnetic flux budget of the Sun, and for estimating the rate of energy injected into the upper solar atmosphere. Magnetic feature death is a measurable proxy for the removal of detectable flux, either by cancellation (submerging or rising loops, or reconnection in the photosphere) or by dispersal of flux. We used the SWAMIS feature tracking code to understand how nearly 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} magnetic features die in an hour-long sequence of Hinode/SOT/NFI magnetograms of a region of the quiet Sun. Of the feature deaths that remove visible magnetic flux from the photosphere, the vast majority do so by a process that merely disperses the previously detected flux so that it is too small and too weak to be detected, rather than completely eliminating it. The behavior of the ensemble average of these dispersals is not consistent with a model of simple planar diffusion, suggesting that the dispersal is constrained by the evolving photospheric velocity field. We introduce the concept of the partial lifetime of magnetic features, and show that the partial lifetime due to Cancellation of magnetic flux, 22 hr, is three times slower than previous measurements of the flux turnover time. This indicates that prior feature-based estimates of the flux replacement time may be too short, in contrast with the tendency for this quantity to decrease as resolution and instrumentation have improved. This suggests that dispersal of flux to smaller scales is more important for the replacement of magnetic fields in the quiet Sun than observed bipolar cancellation. We conclude that processes on spatial scales smaller than those visible to Hinode dominate the processes of flux emergence and cancellation, and therefore also the quantity of magnetic flux that threads the photosphere.

  4. Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps" webcast, held June 20, 2011.

  5. Cosmic magnetism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with the cosmic magnetism in a non-mathematical way. It uses Faraday's very powerful and highly pictorial concept of lines of magnetic force and their associated physical properties to explain the structure and behavior of magnetic fields in extraterrestrial objects. Contents include: forces of nature; magnetic field of earth; solar and interplanetary magnetic fields; magnetic fields in the solar system; stars and pulsars; and magnetic fields of the milky way and other galaxies.

  6. ChangeBehaviors Replace your old toilets and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 FixLeaks ChangeBehaviors Replace your old toilets and showerheads with water-saver models UseToilets Replace your clothes washer with an Energy StarTM washer PurchaseWater SavingWasher Reduce Water Use inLeaks ChangeBehaviors Replace your old toilets and showerheads with water-saver models Use less water, reuse

  7. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  8. Digital lock-in detection of site-specific magnetism in magnetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haskel, Daniel (Naperville, IL); Lang, Jonathan C. (Naperville, IL); Srajer, George (Oak Park, IL)

    2008-07-22

    The polarization and diffraction characteristics of x-rays incident upon a magnetic material are manipulated to provide a desired magnetic sensitivity in the material. The contrast in diffracted intensity of opposite helicities of circularly polarized x-rays is measured to permit separation of magnetic signals by element type and by atomic environment. This allows for the direct probing of magnetic signals from elements of the same species in nonequivalent atomic environments to better understand the behavior and characteristics of permanent magnetic materials. By using known crystallographic information together with manipulation of the polarization of x-rays having energies tuned near element-specific electronic excitations and by detecting and comparing the incident and diffracted photons at the same frequency, more accurate magnetic measurements can be made over shorter observation periods.

  9. Magnetic levitation system for moving objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Repelling magnetic forces are produced by the interaction of a flux-concentrated magnetic field (produced by permanent magnets or electromagnets) with an inductively loaded closed electric circuit. When one such element moves with respect to the other, a current is induced in the circuit. This current then interacts back on the field to produce a repelling force. These repelling magnetic forces are applied to magnetically levitate a moving object such as a train car. The power required to levitate a train of such cars is drawn from the motional energy of the train itself, and typically represents only a percent or two of the several megawatts of power required to overcome aerodynamic drag at high speeds.

  10. Magnetic levitation system for moving objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1998-03-03

    Repelling magnetic forces are produced by the interaction of a flux-concentrated magnetic field (produced by permanent magnets or electromagnets) with an inductively loaded closed electric circuit. When one such element moves with respect to the other, a current is induced in the circuit. This current then interacts back on the field to produce a repelling force. These repelling magnetic forces are applied to magnetically levitate a moving object such as a train car. The power required to levitate a train of such cars is drawn from the motional energy of the train itself, and typically represents only a percent or two of the several megawatts of power required to overcome aerodynamic drag at high speeds. 7 figs.

  11. Computer Based Motor Parameter Determination for High Speed Operation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szabados, Barna

    Synchronous Machines B. Szabados and U. Schaible McMaster University 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, Ontario PM synchronous machine parameters in the high speed operating range. The theory and real interior PM synchronous machine at up to 8000 rpm. Results are presented which show a significant variation

  12. Permanent-Magnet Adjustable-Speed Motors John S . Hsu (Htsui...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    roughness for machine tool drives depends on motor torque quality. For propulsion and vehicle motors, quietness and smoothness are strongly required. The severity of torque...

  13. Novel Manufacturing Technologies for High Power Induction and Permanent Magnet Electric Motors (Agreement ID:23726)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  14. Development of a Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Sealed-Tube Neutron Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldmann, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator, AIP Conf. Proc. 1336 (a Sealed-Tube Neutron Generator O. Waldmann ? B. Ludewigtthrough a 60 · 6 mm 2 tron generator. When operated with a

  15. A Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldmann, Ole

    2011-01-01

    a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator O. Waldmann 1 , B.Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator ? O. Waldmann a and B.yield compact neutron generator for active interrogation

  16. Design and Control of a Floating Wave-Energy Converter Utilizing a Permanent Magnet Linear Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom, Nathan Michael

    2013-01-01

    Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GeneratorGenerator Dry Bench Test . . . . . . . . .4.5.7 Generator Power

  17. Sensorless Speed Control of Permanent Magnet-Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor (PMa-SynRM) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakali, Anil K.

    2011-02-22

    for their help, particularly Robert Vartanian, Jeihoon Baek, Behrooz Nikbakhtan, Nicholas Frank, Suengdeog Choi, Mashid Amirabadi, Mehran Mirjafari, Vivek Sundaram, Anand Balakrishnan, Yateendra Deshpande, Dr. Salman Talebi and Dr. Baris Ozturk. Finally, I...

  18. A fully-integrated multi-watt permanent-magnet turbine generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yen, Bernard Chih-Hsun, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    The energy density available from batteries is increasingly becoming a limiting factor in the capabilities of portable electronics. As a result, there is a growing need for compact, high energy density sources. This thesis ...

  19. Design and Control of a Floating Wave-Energy Converter Utilizing a Permanent Magnet Linear Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom, Nathan Michael

    2013-01-01

    electrical generator technology for wave energy converters,”seen, clean technologies, such as ocean wave energy, presentwave energy point absorber,” Proceedings of the IFAC Conference on Control Methodologies and Technology

  20. Design and Control of a Floating Wave-Energy Converter Utilizing a Permanent Magnet Linear Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom, Nathan Michael

    2013-01-01

    Conference on Electric Machines and Drives (IEMDC-03), JuneConference on Electric Machines & Drives (IEMDC-07), 2,Vernier hybrid machines,” IEEE Proceedings Electric Power

  1. Performance of a permanent-magnet helicon source at 27 and 13 MHz Francis F. Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Francis F.

    plasma for roll-to-roll process- ing. In the present work, one of the helicon sources in the array for other applications such as spacecraft thrusters or optical coatings. It has been shown4 that helicon

  2. Operational behavior of a double-fed permanent magnet generator for wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, Sivananda Kumjula

    2005-01-01

    Greater efficiency in wind turbine systems is achieved by allowing the rotor to change its rate of rotation as the wind speed changes. The wind turbine system is decoupled from the utility grid and a variable speed operation ...

  3. Vibration sensors utilizing fiber fabry-perot interferometers and permanent magnets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conkey, Andrew P.

    2009-05-15

    , the effect of the non-linearity can be removed by signal processing. The fiber optic gap sensor (FOGS) developed has a sensitivity of 250 mV/mil for a 30 mil gap to 50 mV/mil for a 65 mil gap and a dynamic range up to 820 Hz. An advantage of the FOGS over...

  4. Direct torque control of permanent magnet synchronous motors with non-sinusoidal back-EMF 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozturk, Salih Baris

    2009-05-15

    This work presents the direct torque control (DTC) techniques, implemented in four- and six-switch inverter, for brushless dc (BLDC) motors with non-sinusoidal back- EMF using two and three-phase conduction modes. First of all, the classical direct...

  5. A Permanent-Magnet Microwave Ion Source for a Compact High-Yield Neutron Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldmann, Ole

    2011-01-01

    densities, high atomic fractions, and high power e?cienciesa high atomic species fraction at signi?cantly lower power

  6. Design and Control of a Floating Wave-Energy Converter Utilizing a Permanent Magnet Linear Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom, Nathan Michael

    2013-01-01

    electrical generator technology for wave energy converters,”wave energy point absorber,” Proceedings of the IFAC Conference on Control Methodologies and Technologyseen, clean technologies, such as ocean wave energy, present

  7. Design and Control of a Floating Wave-Energy Converter Utilizing a Permanent Magnet Linear Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom, Nathan Michael

    2013-01-01

    control of resonant wave energy devices,” Phil. Trans. R.control of deep water wave energy devices using an activecapture of a wave energy device by inertia adjustment,”

  8. Permanent Magnet Machine And Method With Reluctance Poles For High Strength Undiffused Brushless Operation.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2005-12-06

    A method and apparatus in which a rotor (11) and a stator (17) define a radial air gap (20) for receiving AC flux and at least one, and preferably two, DC excitation assemblies (23, 24) are positioned at opposite ends of the rotor (20) to define secondary air gaps (21, 22). Portions of PM material (14a, 14b) are provided as boundaries separating the rotor pole portions (12a, 12b) of opposite polarity from other portions of the rotor (11) and from each other to define PM poles (12a, 12b) for conveying the DC flux to or from the primary air gap (20) and for inhibiting flux from leaking from the pole portions prior to reaching the primary air gap (20). The portions of PM material (14a, 14b) are spaced from each other so as to include reluctance poles (15) of ferromagnetic material between the PM poles (12a, 12b) to interact with the AC flux in the primary-air gap (20).

  9. Current Drive for Plasma Via Vertically-Structured Permanent Magnet System.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding in ActinideRail betweenProtectionCurrent CO-OP

  10. "Permanent Magnet Generator-like AC Current Drive for Torroidal Fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAboutXuRod Hunt (208) 386-52542Devices" Inventor..--.. Ali

  11. Robust ferromagnetism in the compressed permanent magnet Sm 2 Co 17

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Robust emergent climate phenomena associated

  12. Robust ferromagnetism in the compressed permanent magnet Sm2Co17 (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Robust emergent climate phenomena

  13. Robust ferromagnetism in the compressed permanent magnet Sm2Co17 (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Robust emergent climate phenomenaArticle) |

  14. Flywheel energy storage with superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinberger, Bernard R. (Avon, CT); Lynds, Jr., Lahmer (Glastonbury, CT); Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A flywheel having superconductor bearings has a lower drag to lift ratio that translates to an improvement of a factor of ten in the rotational decay rate. The lower drag results from the lower dissipation of melt-processed YBCO, improved uniformity of the permanent magnet portion of the bearings, operation in a different range of vacuum pressure from that taught by the art, and greater separation distance from the rotating members of conductive materials.

  15. Alternatives to proposed replacement production reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cullingford, H.S.

    1981-06-01

    To insure adequate supplies of plutonium and tritium for defense purposes, an independent evaluation was made by Los Alamos National Laboratory of the numerous alternatives to the proposed replacement production reactors (RPR). This effort concentrated on the defense fuel cycle operation and its technical implications in identifying the principal alternatives for the 1990s. The primary options were identified as (1) existing commercial reactors, (2) existing and planned government-owned facilities (not now used for defense materials production), and (3) other RPRs (not yet proposed) such as CANDU or CANDU-type heavy-water reactors (HWR) for both plutonium and tritium production. The evaluation considered features and differences of various options that could influence choice of RPR alternatives. Barring a change in the US approach to civilian and defense fuel cycles and precluding existing commercial reactors at government-owned sites, the most significant alternatives were identified as a CANDU-type HWR at Savannah River Plant (SRP) site or the Three Mile Island commercial reactor with reprocessing capability at Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant and at SRP.

  16. EA-1994: Malheur Resource Area Jonesboro Diversion Dam Replacement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Burns Paiute Tribe for replacement of an existing diversion dam and installation of a fish passage structure. BPA's proposed action was to fund the project. PUBLIC COMMENT...

  17. Applications of molecular replacement to G protein-coupled receptors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to G protein-coupled receptors The use of molecular replacement in solving the structures of G protein-coupled receptors is discussed, with specific examples being described...

  18. Boron-10 Neutron Detectors for Helium-3 Replacement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Email Boron-10 Neutron Detectors for Helium-3 Replacement Applications: Portal monitoring Nuclear energy safety and monitoring Nuclear non-proliferation Benefits: Drop-in...

  19. Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Roberts, William...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Roberts, William L 09 BIOMASS FUELS biofuels, glycerin, glycerol,...

  20. Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Value of Program Evaluation Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving 90 Percent of Annual Costs A program within the U.S. Environmental...

  1. Plutonium finishing plant safeguards and security systems replacement study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klear, P.F.; Humphrys, K.L.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides the preferred alternatives for the replacement of the Safeguards and Security systems located at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant.

  2. Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    processes Common cobalt may replace pricier, rare metal relatives Potential applications: biofuel production, carbon dioxide reduction, basic necessary chemistry LOS ALAMOS, N.M.,...

  3. Iron-Nitride-Based Magnets: Synthesis and Phase Stabilization of Body Center Tetragonal (BCT) Metastable Fe-N Anisotropic Nanocomposite Magnet- A Path to Fabricate Rare Earth Free Magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The University of Minnesota will develop an early stage prototype of an iron-nitride permanent magnet material for EVs and renewable power generators. This new material, comprised entirely of low-cost and abundant resources, has the potential to demonstrate the highest energy potential of any magnet to date. This project will provide the basis for an entirely new class of rare-earth-free magnets capable of generating power without costly and scarce rare earth materials. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate a prototype with magnetic properties exceeding state-of-the-art commercial magnets.

  4. Magnets & Magnet Condensed Matter Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Sights from around the Magnet Lab in 2010. On the cover MAGNETS & MAGNET MATERIALS Engineering materials in Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 31 YBCO Pancake Wound Test Coil for 32-T Magnet Development 32 Strong Vortex Pinning from Marine Cyanobacteria 37 Heavy Petroleum Composition 2. Progression of the Boduszynski Model

  5. Sensing Super-position: Visual Instrument Sensor Replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maluf, David A.

    1 Sensing Super-position: Visual Instrument Sensor Replacement David A. Maluf 650-604-0611 David human vision through Sensing Super-position using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR instruments into sounds, which become relevant when the visual resolution is insufficient for very difficult

  6. Renne Generator Replacement Addendum 1 Page 1 May 28, 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Renne Generator Replacement Addendum 1 Page 1 May 28, 2015 Montana State University Loras O'Toole Project: 14-0105 Renne Library Generator Replacement MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ADDENDUM ITEMS Bidders of the Phasing Notes have been revised to read: a. Section A: Currently the existing indoor generator does

  7. Adhesive High-Level Replacement Categories and Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habel, Annegret

    Adhesive High-Level Replacement Categories and Systems Hartmut Ehrig1 , Annegret Habel2 , Julia.habel@informatik.uni-oldenburg.de Abstract. Adhesive high-level replacement (HLR) categories and sys- tems are introduced as a new of HLR systems with the new concept of adhesive categories introduced by Lack and Soboci

  8. GUIDELINES AND INFORMATION REGARDING THE TENURE, PERMANENT STATUS AND PROMOTION PROCESS FOR 2010-2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    1 GUIDELINES AND INFORMATION REGARDING THE TENURE, PERMANENT STATUS AND PROMOTION PROCESS FOR 2010. Eligibility for Tenure and Permanent Status III. Procedures IV. Additional Information for Chairs and Directors V. Additional Information for College Committees and Deans VI. Preparing the Packets: Guidelines

  9. Tenure/Permanent Status Timeline (after the March 2013 regulation change)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    year. The tenure/permanent status Third-Year packet is submitted to IFAS Human Resources in the summer of the third academic year. The tenure/permanent status packet is submitted to IFAS Human Resources no later the following July 1. DATE OF HIRE YEAR TO YEAR TO YEAR T/PS SUBMIT SUBMIT GRANTED THIRD-YEAR T/PS PACKET (JULY

  10. Creating Permanent Test Collections of Web Pages for Information Extraction Research*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gatterbauer, Wolfgang

    Creating Permanent Test Collections of Web Pages for Information Extraction Research* Bernhard information extraction, there is a need for permanent and annotated web page collections enabling objective sharable web page collections is not trivial nowadays because of the dynamic and diverse nature of modern

  11. Permanent shadow in simple craters near the lunar poles D. Ben J. Bussey,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spudis, Paul D.

    Permanent shadow in simple craters near the lunar poles D. Ben J. Bussey,1 Paul G. Lucey,1 Donovan, 7500 km2 and 6500 km2 , for the north and south pole respectively. These values were obtained, to investigate the size and latitudinal extent of permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles. Craters

  12. Geometry Dependence of Magnetization Reversal in Nanocomposite Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skomski, Ralph; Manchanda, Priyanka; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Cui, Jun

    2014-06-11

    The geometrical optimization of aligned hard-soft permanent-magnet nanocomposites is investigated by model calculations. Considered criteria are the shapes of the soft and c-axis-aligned hard phases, the packing fraction of the soft phase, and magnetostatic interactions. Taking into account that the energy product is enhanced via the volume fraction of the soft phase, subject to maintaining coercivity, we find that the best structures are soft-magnetic cubes as well as long rods with a square cross section. Comparing embedded soft cubes with embedded soft spheres of the same size, our nucleation-field analysis shows that the volume fraction of the soft phase is enhanced by 91%, with a coercivity reduction of only 25%. Magnetostatic interactions often but not always deteriorate the permanent-magnet performance, as exemplified by the example of MnBi:FeCo bilayers and multilayers.

  13. Superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics on superconducting magnets: D19B and -C: The next steps for a record-setting magnet; D20: The push beyond 10 T: Beyond D20: Speculations on the 16-T regime; other advanced magnets for accelerators; spinoff applications; APC materials development; cable and cabling-machine development; and high-{Tc} superconductor at low temperature.

  14. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons at the DOE gaseous diffusion plants: An assessment of global impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Socolof, M.L.; McCold, L.N.; Saylor, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Three gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) for enriching uranium maintain a large inventory of chlorofluorocarbon-114 (CFC-114) as a coolant. To address the continued use of CFC-114, an ozone-depleting substance, the US Department of Energy (DOE) considered introducing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) by the end of 1995. These PFCs would not contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion but would be larger contributors to global warming than would CFC-114. The paper reports the results of an assessment of the global impacts of four alternatives for modifying GDP coolant system operations over a three-year period beginning in 1996. The overall contribution of GDP coolant releases to impacts on ozone depletion and global warming were quantified by parameters referred to as ozone-depletion impact and global-warming impact. The analysis showed that these parameters could be used as surrogates for predicting global impacts to all resources and could provide a framework for assessing environmental impacts of a permanent coolant replacement, eliminating the need for subsequent resource-specific analyses.

  15. Fluorescent lamp unit with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-08-08

    A fluorescent lamp unit having a magnetic field generating means for improving the performance of the fluorescent lamp is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment the fluorescent lamp comprises four longitudinally extending leg portions disposed in substantially quadrangular columnar array and joined by three generally U-shaped portions disposed in different planes. In another embodiment of the invention the magnetic field generating means comprises a plurality of permanent magnets secured together to form a single columnar structure disposed within a centrally located region defined by the shape of lamp envelope. 4 figs.

  16. Replacing the Rare Earth Intellectual Capital

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl

    2011-04-01

    The rare earth crisis slowly evolved during a 10 to 15 year period beginning in the mid-1980s, when the Chinese began to export mixed rare earth concentrates. In the early 1990s, they started to move up the supply chain and began to export the individual rare earth oxides and metals. By the late 1990s the Chinese exported higher value products, such as magnets, phosphors, polishing compounds, catalysts; and in the 21st century they supplied finished products including electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), TVs and monitors, mobile phones, iPods and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light bulbs. As they moved to higher value products, the Chinese slowly drove the various industrial producers and commercial enterprises in the US, Europe and Japan out of business by manipulating the rare earth commodity prices. Because of this, the technically trained rare earth engineers and scientists who worked in areas from mining to separations, to processing to production, to manufacturing of semifinished and final products, were laid-off and moved to other fields or they retired. However, in the past year the Chinese have changed their philosophy of the 1970s and 1980s of forming a rare earth cartel to control the rare earth markets to one in which they will no longer supply the rest of the world (ROW) with their precious rare earths, but instead will use them internally to meet the growing demand as the Chinese standard of living increases. To this end, they have implemented and occasionally increased export restrictions and added an export tariff on many of the high demand rare earth elements. Now the ROW is quickly trying to start up rare earth mines, e.g. Molycorp Minerals in the US and Lynas Corp. in Australia, to cover this shortfall in the worldwide market, but it will take about five years for the supply to meet the demand, even as other mines in the ROW become productive. Unfortunately, today there is a serious lack of technically trained personnel to bring the entire rare earth industry, from mining to original equipment manufacturers (OEM), up to full speed in the next few years. Accompanying this decline in technical expertise, innovation and new products utilizing rare earth elements has slowed dramatically, and it may take a decade or more to recapture America's leading role in technological advancements of rare earth containing products. Before the disruption of the US rare earth industry, about 25,000 people were employed in all aspects of the industry from mining to OEM. Today, only about 1,500 people are employed in these fields. The ratio of non-technically trained persons to those with college degrees in the sciences or engineering varies from about 8 to 1 to about 4 to 1, depending on the particular area of the industry. Assuming an average of 6 to 1, the number of college degree scientists and engineers has decreased from about 4,000 to 250 employed today. In the magnetic industry the approximate numbers are: 6,000 total with 750 technically trained people in the 1980s to 500 totally employed today of which 75 have degrees. The paucity of scientists and engineers with experience and/or training in the various aspects of production and commercialization of the rare earths is a serious limitation to the ability of the US to satisfy its own needs for materials and technologies (1) to maintain our military strength and posture, (2) to assume leadership in critical energy technologies, and (3) to bring new consumer products to the marketplace. The lack of experts is of even greater national importance than the halting in the 1990s and the recent restart of the mining/benification/separation effort in the US; and thus governmental intervention and support for at least five to 10 years will be required to ameliorate this situation. To respond quickly, training programs should be established in conjunction with a national research center at an educational institution with a long tradition in multiple areas of rare earth and other critical elements research and technology. This center should

  17. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-05-23

    A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

  19. Developing a total replacement cost index for suburban office projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, David John, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the components of replacement costs for office developments, and how these components combine to create total development costs is essential for success in office real estate development. Surprisingly, the ...

  20. Drop-in replacement biofuels : meeting the challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhargava, Alok (Alok Kishore)

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a discussion on the challenges that must be met to fulfill the U.S. Navy's strategic imperatives for its energy vision. It provides an introduction to drop-in replacement biofuels, the options amongst ...

  1. EA-0923: Winnett School District Boiler Replacement Project, Winnett, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to replace the Winnett School District complex's existing oil-fired heating system with a new coal-fired heating system with funds...

  2. Washington State Department of Ecology: Replacement Wells Requiring...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Washington State Department of Ecology: Replacement Wells Requiring a Water Right Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther:...

  3. Replacement-2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Replacement-2-A Wholesale Power

  4. Replacement-3 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Replacement-2-A Wholesale

  5. R&D carries cerium substitute for rare-earth magnets story |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R&D carries cerium substitute for rare-earth magnets story R&D Magazine carried a story about Ames Laboratory research that uses cheaper and readily available cerium to replace...

  6. Magnetic shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, J.A.; Stone, R.R.; Fabyan, J.

    1987-10-06

    A magnetically-conductive filler material bridges the gap between a multi-part magnetic shield structure which substantially encloses a predetermined volume so as to minimize the ingress or egress of magnetic fields with respect to that volume. The filler material includes a heavy concentration of single-magnetic-domain-sized particles of a magnetically conductive material (e.g. soft iron, carbon steel or the like) dispersed throughout a carrier material which is generally a non-magnetic material that is at least sometimes in a plastic or liquid state. The maximum cross-sectional particle dimension is substantially less than the nominal dimension of the gap to be filled. An epoxy base material (i.e. without any hardening additive) low volatility vacuum greases or the like may be used for the carrier material. The structure is preferably exposed to the expected ambient magnetic field while the carrier is in a plastic or liquid state so as to facilitate alignment of the single-magnetic-domain-sized particles with the expected magnetic field lines. 3 figs.

  7. Magnetic shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Roger R. (Walnut Creek, CA); Fabyan, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A magnetically-conductive filler material bridges the gap between a multi-part magnetic shield structure which substantially encloses a predetermined volume so as to minimize the ingress or egress of magnetic fields with respect to that volume. The filler material includes a heavy concentration of single-magnetic-domain-sized particles of a magnetically conductive material (e.g. soft iron, carbon steel or the like) dispersed throughout a carrier material which is generally a non-magnetic material that is at least sometimes in a plastic or liquid state. The maximum cross-sectional particle dimension is substantially less than the nominal dimension of the gap to be filled. An epoxy base material (i.e. without any hardening additive) low volatility vacuum greases or the like may be used for the carrier material. The structure is preferably exposed to the expected ambient magnetic field while the carrier is in a plastic or liquid state so as to facilitate alignment of the single-magnetic-domain-sized particles with the expected magnetic field lines.

  8. DOE-Sponsored Field Test Finds Potential for Permanent Storage of CO2 in Lignite Seams

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A field test sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy has demonstrated that opportunities to permanently store carbon in unmineable seams of lignite may be more widespread than previously documented.

  9. Evaluation of the filler effects on fatique cracking and permanent deformation of asphalt concrete mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izzo, Richard P

    1997-01-01

    The addition of hydrated lime to asphalt has shown to be beneficial with an improvement in the Theological properties of the binder, as well as resistance to permanent deformation (rutting) and fatigue cracking of asphalt concrete mixtures...

  10. Factors affecting the permanence of livestock projects undertaken by Heifer International-Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arispe, Sergio Adrian

    2003-01-01

    in the state of Durango, Mexico. This study identified and analyzed the factors affecting the permanence of hog and dairy cow projects in four communities in the state of Durango, Mexico. The researcher interviewed seven project managers and 35 beneficiaries...

  11. Magnetic response enhancement via electrically induced magnetic moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jungnitsch; J. Evers

    2008-04-22

    The realization of negative refraction in atomic gases requires a strong magnetic response of the atoms. Current proposals for such systems achieve an enhancement of the magnetic response by a suitable laser field configuration, but still rely on high gas densities. Thus further progress is desirable, and this requires an understanding of the precise mechanism for the enhancement. Therefore, here we study the magnetic and electric response to a probe field interacting with three-level atoms in ladder configuration. In our first model, the three transitions are driven by a control field and the electric and magnetic component of the probe field, giving rise to a closed interaction loop. In a reference model, the coherent driving is replaced by an incoherent pump field. A time-dependent analysis of the closed-loop system enables us to identify the different contributions to the medium response. A comparison with the reference system then allows one to identify the physical mechanism that leads to the enhancement. It is found that the enhancement occurs at so-called multiphoton resonance by a scattering of the coupling field and the electric probe field mode into the magnetic probe field mode. Based on these results, conditions for the enhancement are discussed.

  12. Magnetic shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, J.A.; Stone, R.R.; Fabyan, J.

    1985-02-12

    A magnetically-conductive filler material bridges the gap between a multi-part magnetic shield structure which substantially encloses a predetermined volume so as to minimize the ingress or egress of magnetic fields with respect to that volume. The filler material includes a heavy concentration of single-magnetic-domain-sized particles of a magnetically conductive material (e.g. soft iron, carbon steel or the like) dispersed throughout a carrier material which is generally a non-magnetic material that is at least sometimes in a plastic or liquid state. The maximum cross-sectional particle dimension is substantially less than the nominal dimension of the gap to be filled. An epoxy base material (i.e. without any hardening additive) low volatility vacuum greases or the like may be used for the carrier material. The structure is preferably exposed to the expected ambient field while the carrier is in a plastic or liquid state so as to facilitate alignment of the single-magnetic-domain-sized particles with the expected magnetic field lines.

  13. Reduced electron temperature in a magnetized inductively-coupled plasma with internal coil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arancibia Monreal, J.; Chabert, P. [LPP, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UPMC, Paris XI, 91128 Palaiseau (France)] [LPP, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UPMC, Paris XI, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Godyak, V. [RF Plasma Consulting, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States) [RF Plasma Consulting, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States); Michigan Institute for Plasma Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The effect of magnetic filtering on the electron energy distribution function is studied in an inductive discharge with internal coil coupling. The coil is placed inside the plasma and driven by a low-frequency power supply (5.8 MHz) which leads to a very high power transfer efficiency. A permanent dipole magnet may be placed inside the internal coil to produce a static magnetic field around 100 Gauss. The coil and the matching system are designed to minimize the capacitive coupling to the plasma. Capacitive coupling is quantified by measuring the radiofrequency (rf) plasma potential with a capacitive probe. Without the permanent magnet, the rf plasma potential is significantly smaller than the electron temperature. When the magnet is present, the rf plasma potential increases. The electron energy distribution function is measured as a function of space with and without the permanent magnet. When the magnet is present, electrons are cooled down to low temperature in the downstream region. This region of low electron temperature may be useful for plasma processing applications, as well as for efficient negative ion production.

  14. Magnetic nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matsui, Hiroshi (Glen Rock, NJ); Matsunaga, Tadashi (Tokyo, JP)

    2010-11-16

    A magnetic nanotube includes bacterial magnetic nanocrystals contacted onto a nanotube which absorbs the nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are contacted on at least one surface of the nanotube. A method of fabricating a magnetic nanotube includes synthesizing the bacterial magnetic nanocrystals, which have an outer layer of proteins. A nanotube provided is capable of absorbing the nanocrystals and contacting the nanotube with the nanocrystals. The nanotube is preferably a peptide bolaamphiphile. A nanotube solution and a nanocrystal solution including a buffer and a concentration of nanocrystals are mixed. The concentration of nanocrystals is optimized, resulting in a nanocrystal to nanotube ratio for which bacterial magnetic nanocrystals are immobilized on at least one surface of the nanotubes. The ratio controls whether the nanocrystals bind only to the interior or to the exterior surfaces of the nanotubes. Uses include cell manipulation and separation, biological assay, enzyme recovery, and biosensors.

  15. Reduction of Magnetic Noise in Atom Chips by Material Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Dikovsky; Y. Japha; C. Henkel; R. Folman

    2005-06-05

    We discuss the contribution of the material type in metal wires to the electromagnetic fluctuations in magnetic microtraps close to the surface of an atom chip. We show that significant reduction of the magnetic noise can be achieved by replacing the pure noble metal wires with their dilute alloys. The alloy composition provides an additional degree of freedom which enables a controlled reduction of both magnetic noise and resistivity if the atom chip is cooled. In addition, we provide a careful re-analysis of the magnetically induced trap loss observed by Yu-Ju Lin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 050404 (2004)] and find good agreement with an improved theory.

  16. Dynamically stable magnetic suspension/bearing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1996-02-27

    A magnetic bearing system contains magnetic subsystems which act together to support a rotating element in a state of dynamic equilibrium. However, owing to the limitations imposed by Earnshaw`s Theorem, the magnetic bearing systems to be described do not possess a stable equilibrium at zero rotational speed. Therefore, mechanical stabilizers are provided, in each case, to hold the suspended system in equilibrium until its speed has exceeded a low critical speed where dynamic effects take over, permitting the achievement of a stable equilibrium for the rotating object. A state of stable equilibrium is achieved above a critical speed by use of a collection of passive elements using permanent magnets to provide their magnetomotive excitation. The magnetic forces exerted by these elements, when taken together, levitate the rotating object in equilibrium against external forces, such as the force of gravity or forces arising from accelerations. At the same time, this equilibrium is made stable against displacements of the rotating object from its equilibrium position by using combinations of elements that possess force derivatives of such magnitudes and signs that they can satisfy the conditions required for a rotating body to be stably supported by a magnetic bearing system over a finite range of those displacements. 32 figs.

  17. Dynamically stable magnetic suspension/bearing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system contains magnetic subsystems which act together to support a rotating element in a state of dynamic equilibrium. However, owing to the limitations imposed by Earnshaw's Theorem, the magnetic bearing systems to be described do not possess a stable equilibrium at zero rotational speed. Therefore, mechanical stabilizers are provided, in each case, to hold the suspended system in equilibrium until its speed has exceeded a low critical speed where dynamic effects take over, permitting the achievement of a stable equilibrium for the rotating object. A state of stable equilibrium is achieved above a critical speed by use of a collection of passive elements using permanent magnets to provide their magnetomotive excitation. The magnetic forces exerted by these elements, when taken together, levitate the rotating object in equilibrium against external forces, such as the force of gravity or forces arising from accelerations. At the same time, this equilibrium is made stable against displacements of the rotating object from its equilibrium position by using combinations of elements that possess force derivatives of such magnitudes and signs that they can satisfy the conditions required for a rotating body to be stably supported by a magnetic bearing system over a finite range of those displacements.

  18. Temperature measurement of axisymmetric flames under the influence of magnetic field using Talbot interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Shilpi, E-mail: sipi.agarwal@gmail.com, E-mail: manojklakra@gmail.com, E-mail: cshakher@iddc.iitd.ac.in; Kumar, Manoj, E-mail: sipi.agarwal@gmail.com, E-mail: manojklakra@gmail.com, E-mail: cshakher@iddc.iitd.ac.in; Shakher, Chandra, E-mail: sipi.agarwal@gmail.com, E-mail: manojklakra@gmail.com, E-mail: cshakher@iddc.iitd.ac.in [Instrument Design Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, HauzKhas, New Delhi - 110016 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Combustion process control is related with ecological improvement and the problem of energy efficiency; hence it has a wide interest at both economical and scientific levels. Application of a magnetic field is one of the most promising methods of combustion control. The presence of magnetic field induces the changes in flame behavior. The effect of uniform magnetic field developed by permanent magnet is studied by Talbot interferometry using circular gratings. Experimental results show a small decrease in flame temperature and increase in flame dimensions.

  19. Direct measurement of the impulse in a magnetic thrust chamber system for laser fusion rocket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maeno, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Fujioka, Shinsuke; Johzaki, Tomoyuki [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-087 (Japan); Mori, Yoshitaka [Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan); Sunahara, Atsushi [Institute for Laser Technology, Suita, Osaka 565-087 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    An experiment is conducted to measure an impulse for demonstrating a magnetic thrust chamber system for laser fusion rocket. The impulse is produced by the interaction between plasma and magnetic field. In the experiment, the system consists of plasma and neodymium permanent magnets. The plasma is created by a single-beam laser aiming at a polystyrene spherical target. The impulse is 1.5 to 2.2 {mu}Ns by means of a pendulum thrust stand, when the laser energy is 0.7 J. Without magnetic field, the measured impulse is found to be zero. These results indicate that the system for generating impulse is working.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of rare-earth-free magnetic manganese bismuth nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, J; Cui, HZ; Huang, XP; Gong, MG; Qin, W; Kirkeminde, A; Cui, J; Ren, SQ

    2015-01-01

    Earth abundant manganese bismuth (MnBi) has long been of interest due to its largemagnetocrystalline anisotropy and high energy density for advanced permanent magnet applications. However, solution synthesis of MnBi phase is challenging due to the reduction potential mismatch between Mn and Bi elements. In this study, we show a versatile MnBi synthesis method involving the metal co-reduction followed by thermal annealing. The magnetically hard MnBi crystalline phase is then exchange coupled with magnetically soft cobalt coating. Our processing approach offers a promising strategy for manufacturing rare-earth-free magnetic nanocrystals.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Rare-earth-free Magnetic Manganese Bismuth Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Jian Q.; Cui, Huizhong; Huang, Xiaopeng; Gong, Maogang; Qin, Wei; Kirkeminde, Alec; Cui, Jun; Ren, Shenqiang

    2015-01-01

    Earth abundant manganese bismuth (MnBi) has long been of interest due to its large magnetocrystalline anisotropy and high energy density for advanced permanent magnet applications. However, solution synthesis of MnBi phase is challenging due to the reduction potential mismatch between Mn and Bi elements. In this study, we show a versatile MnBi synthesis method involving the metal co-reduction followed by thermal annealing. The magnetically hard MnBi crystalline phase is then exchange coupled with magnetically soft cobalt coating. Our processing approach offers a promising strategy for manufacturing rare-earth-free magnetic nanocrystals.

  2. Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

    2012-04-24

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stress cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail sale—a distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production versions of the Philips L Prize entry.

  3. Magnetic monopoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fryberger, D.

    1984-12-01

    In this talk on magnetic monopoles, first the author briefly reviews some historical background; then, the author describes what several different types of monopoles might look like; and finally the author discusses the experimental situation. 81 references.

  4. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  5. Replacing the whole barrel of oil with plants and microbes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Blake

    2013-05-29

    In this May 13, 2013 talk, Blake Simmons discusses how scientists are exploring how plants and microbes can be used to replace many of the everyday goods we use that are derived from petroleum. To watch the entire entire Science at the Theater event, in which seven of our scientists present BIG ideas in eight minutes each.

  6. Replacing the whole barrel of oil with plants and microbes

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Simmons, Blake

    2014-06-24

    In this May 13, 2013 talk, Blake Simmons discusses how scientists are exploring how plants and microbes can be used to replace many of the everyday goods we use that are derived from petroleum. To watch the entire entire Science at the Theater event, in which seven of our scientists present BIG ideas in eight minutes each.

  7. HVAC & Building Management Control System Energy Efficiency Replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Adriana

    2012-09-21

    The project objective was the replacement of an aging, un-repairable HVAC system which has grown inefficient and a huge energy consumer with low energy and efficient HVAC units, and installation of energy efficient building control technologies at City's YMCA Community Center.

  8. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  9. CALiPER Exploratory Study Retail Replacement Lamps – 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-02

    In 2010, CALiPER conducted a study on LED replacement lamps found in retail stores. The results were less than satisfactory, and many products were classified as being unlikely to meet consumer expectations. In November 2011, CALiPER purchased a new sample of products for a follow-up study, with the intent of characterizing the progress of this essential market segment.

  10. Brief Report Replacement of Adenovirus Type 5 Fiber Shaft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemminki, Akseli

    Brief Report Replacement of Adenovirus Type 5 Fiber Shaft Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan-binding domain of the fiber shaft to GATK results in liver transduction detargeting, but it is not compatible shaft location efficiently enhances the infectivity of adenovirus and improves the tumor

  11. FUNCTIONAL ESTIMATION FOR A MULTICOMPONENT AGE REPLACEMENT MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vázquez-Abad, Felisa J.

    @iro.umontreal.ca SYNOPTIC ABSTRACT We consider a multicomponent system with identical components subject to failures­ generative simulation, maintenance models, age replacement policies. #12; L'ECUYER, MARTIN, AND V ' AZQUEZ­ABAD 1. INTRODUCTION We consider a system with M identical components subject to failures. Each time

  12. Selection and Implementation of a Replacement Cutting Tool Selection Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    A new commercial cutting tool software package replaced an internally created legacy system. This report describes the issues that surfaced during the migration and installation of the commercial package and the solutions employed. The primary issues discussed are restructuring the data between two drastically different database schemas and the creation of individual component graphics.

  13. Replacement of alloy 800H superheated steam line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbier, R.A.; Bullock, J.W. [Sterling Chemicals, Texas City, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Sterling Chemicals utilizes alloy 800HT (UNS N08811) piping for superheated steam service in its styrene dehydrogenation unit. An engineering project to replace these lines was recently completed. Material acquisition, shop fabrication, inspection requirements, and field erection will be highlighted in this paper.

  14. Propellantless propulsion in magnetic fields by partially shielded current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergamin, L; Pinchook, A

    2006-01-01

    A new device for propellantless propulsion in presence of a magnetic field is discussed. The functional principle shares some features with electrodynamic tethers. However, the tether structure is replaced by a closed wire, which is partially shielded from the magnetic field by means of a superconductor. Therefore, it does not depend on the presence of a plasma. We show that even a relatively small device can yield interesting propulsivet forces for drag compensation or for orbital transfers.

  15. Brushless machine having ferromagnetic side plates and side magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S

    2012-10-23

    An apparatus is provided having a cylindrical stator and a rotor that is spaced from a stator to define an annular primary air gap that receives AC flux from the stator. The rotor has a plurality of longitudinal pole portions disposed parallel to the axis of rotation and alternating in polarity around a circumference of the rotor. Each longitudinal pole portion includes portions of permanent magnet (PM) material and at least one of the longitudinal pole portions has a first end and an opposing second end and a side magnet is disposed adjacent the first end and a side pole is disposed adjacent the second end.

  16. The magnetic flywheel flow meter: Theoretical and experimental contributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchenau, D., E-mail: d.buchenau@hzdr.de; Galindo, V.; Eckert, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-06-02

    The development of contactless flow meters is an important issue for monitoring and controlling of processes in different application fields, like metallurgy, liquid metal casting, or cooling systems for nuclear reactors and transmutation machines. Shercliff described in his book “The Theory of Electromagnetic Flow Measurement, Cambridge University Press, 1962” a simple and robust device for contact-less measurements of liquid metal flow rates which is known as magnetic flywheel. The sensor consists of several permanent magnets attached on a rotatable soft iron plate. This arrangement will be placed closely to the liquid metal flow to be measured, so that the field of the permanent magnets penetrates into the fluid volume. The flywheel will be accelerated by a Lorentz force arising from the interaction between the magnetic field and the moving liquid. Steady rotation rates of the flywheel can be taken as a measure for the mean flow rate inside the fluid channel. The present paper provides a detailed theoretical description of the sensor in order to gain a better insight into the functional principle of the magnetic flywheel. Theoretical predictions are confirmed by corresponding laboratory experiments. For that purpose, a laboratory model of such a flow meter was built and tested on a GaInSn-loop under various test conditions.

  17. Top DIUS official moves to the Football Association Ian Watmore, permanent secretary at the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    Top DIUS official moves to the Football Association Ian Watmore, permanent secretary Football Association. At the FA, Watmore will be reunited with David Triesman, the FA's chairman, who

  18. Surface Magnetism: Relativistic Effects at Semiconductor Interfaces and Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    excellently into the energy level scheme of this kind of solar cell and has the potential to replace with high potential for a further devel- opment. The global market for photovoltaics cells is expectedSurface Magnetism: Relativistic Effects at Semiconductor Interfaces and Solar Cells U. Gerstmann, M

  19. FLUXCAP: A flux-coupled ac/dc magnetizing device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopman, Daniel B; Kent, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    We report on an instrument for applying ac and dc magnetic fields by capturing the flux from a rotating permanent magnet and projecting it between two adjustable pole pieces. This can be an alternative to standard electromagnets for experiments with small samples or in probe stations in which an applied magnetic field is needed locally, with advantages that include a compact form-factor, very low power requirements and dissipation as well as fast field sweep rates. This flux capture instrument (FLUXCAP) can produce fields from -400 to +400 mT, with field resolution less than 1 mT. It generates static magnetic fields as well as ramped fields, with ramping rates as high as 10 T/s. We demonstrate the use of this apparatus for studying the magnetotransport properties of spin-valve nanopillars, a nanoscale device that exhibits giant magnetoresistance.

  20. Scaling of Superconducting Switches for Extraction of Magnetic Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballarino, A

    2010-01-01

    In certain cases it is necessary to extract the energy from a superconducting magnet when it quenches, in order to limit the heat generated by the event and thus prevent irreversible damage. This is usually achieved by opening a contact breaker across a resistor in the circuit feeding the magnet. For the heavy currents used to excite large magnets such switches incorporate sophisticated devices to limit arcing during the operation; besides being quite large and expensive, such switches have a limited lifetime. It is therefore interesting to consider the use of superconducting switches to perform this function, the advantage being that such switches would (i) not require maintenance and (ii) would be housed within the cryogenic environment of the magnet, and thus avoid permanent diversion of the current in and out of that environment to the mechanical switch (which operates at room temperature). However, practical switches for such an application are made up of superconductor in a metal matrix, and it is conve...

  1. Magnet Cable Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royet, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    J. Royet, "Magnet Cable Manufacturing", oral presentation atDivision Magnet Cable Manufacturing J. Royet October 1990J I Magnet Cable Manufacturing* John Royet Accelerator &

  2. OSRAM SYLVANIA Develops High-Efficiency LED Troffer Replacement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, OSRAM SYLVANIA is developing a high-efficiency LED 2'x2' troffer replacement that is expected to be commercially available in the spring of 2012 and to be cost-competitive with existing troffers of that size. It is projected to have a light output of up to 4,000 lumens, an efficacy of more than 100 lm/W, and a CCT of 3500K.

  3. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  4. Trenchless rehabilitation: Which choice for gas distribution pipe replacement?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, S.R. [Jason Consultants International, Washington, DC (United States); Gauthier, S.W. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Replacement or rehabilitation of deteriorating gas piping currently relies largely on open-cut excavation or pipe insertion. Open-cut replacement is satisfactory for communities where adverse environmental impact can be tolerated and road closures and traffic delays are kept to a minimum. However, most of the systems in need of replacement/rehabilitation are in urban areas where environmental impact, traffic delays, and site restoration costs are costly. With these parameters in mind, the Gas Research Institute (GRI); and its member organizations designed a research program to test and evaluate promising trenchless technologies for potential use in gas distribution rehabilitation projects. The programs`s goals were to identify product strengths, weaknesses, cost, applications, and recognition of areas which needed modification or further development. During this research a significant amount of data were gathered. All rehabilitation systems maximize pipe capacity while minimizing surface disruptions. Cost savings realized by some of the participating utilities was significant. This is even more impressive when one considers that this was the first gas installation for some of the methods. A summary of advantages, disadvantages, and lessons learned from each process is shown on Tables 2--6. Comments listed are for field trials conducted and may not be accurate or applicable to other projects. A common limitation of all rehabilitation methods is lack of a complete system with appropriate tees, fittings, transition materials, and other connection devices.

  5. Draft 1992 : Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Two years ago, BPA released its first-ever Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement (OM R) 10-Year Plan. That effort broke new ground and was an extensive look at the condition of Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement on BPA's power system. This document -- the 1992 OM R 10-Year Plan -- uses that original plan as its foundation. It takes a look at how well BPA has accomplished the challenging task set out in the 1990 Plan. The 1992 Plan also introduces the Construction Program. Construction's critical role in these programs is explored, and the pressures of construction workload -- such as the seasonal nature of the work and the broad swings in workload between projects and years -- are discussed. The document then looks at how situations may have changed with issues explored initially in the 1990 Plan. Importantly, this Plan also surfaces and explains some new issues that threaten to impact BPA's ability to accomplish its OM R workload. Finally, the document focuses on the revised strategies for Operations, Maintenance, Replacement, Construction, and Environment for the 1992 to 2001 time period, including the financial and human resources needed to accomplish those strategies.

  6. Draft 1992 : Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Two years ago, BPA released its first-ever Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement (OM&R) 10-Year Plan. That effort broke new ground and was an extensive look at the condition of Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement on BPA`s power system. This document -- the 1992 OM&R 10-Year Plan -- uses that original plan as its foundation. It takes a look at how well BPA has accomplished the challenging task set out in the 1990 Plan. The 1992 Plan also introduces the Construction Program. Construction`s critical role in these programs is explored, and the pressures of construction workload -- such as the seasonal nature of the work and the broad swings in workload between projects and years -- are discussed. The document then looks at how situations may have changed with issues explored initially in the 1990 Plan. Importantly, this Plan also surfaces and explains some new issues that threaten to impact BPA`s ability to accomplish its OM&R workload. Finally, the document focuses on the revised strategies for Operations, Maintenance, Replacement, Construction, and Environment for the 1992 to 2001 time period, including the financial and human resources needed to accomplish those strategies.

  7. Magnetic Stereoscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Wiegelmann; Bernd Inhester

    2006-12-21

    The space mission STEREO will provide images from two viewpoints. An important aim of the STEREO mission is to get a 3D view of the solar corona. We develop a program for the stereoscopic reconstruction of 3D coronal loops from images taken with the two STEREO spacecraft. A pure geometric triangulation of coronal features leads to ambiguities because the dilute plasma emissions complicates the association of features in image 1 with features in image 2. As a consequence of these problems the stereoscopic reconstruction is not unique and multiple solutions occur. We demonstrate how these ambiguities can be resolved with the help of different coronal magnetic field models (potential, linear and non-linear force-free fields). The idea is that, due to the high conductivity in the coronal plasma, the emitting plasma outlines the magnetic field lines. Consequently the 3D coronal magnetic field provides a proxy for the stereoscopy which allows to eliminate inconsistent configurations. The combination of stereoscopy and magnetic modelling is more powerful than one of these tools alone. We test our method with the help of a model active region and plan to apply it to the solar case as soon as STEREO data become available.

  8. AN ISSUE OF PERMANENCE: ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEMPORARY CARBON STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN ISSUE OF PERMANENCE: ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEMPORARY CARBON STORAGE HOWARD HERZOG1, KEN of temporary storage?' Valuing temporary storage can be represented as a familiar economic problem a fixed cumulative emissions limit and there is no backstop, then a storage option with even very slow

  9. Optimal drug release schedule for in-situ radiosensitization of image guided permanent prostate implants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    of image guided 125 I prostate brachytherapy. Spacers used in permanent implants may be manufactured from such a constraint, is not known. This work determines the optimal elution schedules for 125 I prostate brachytherapy. The interaction between brachytherapy dose distributions and drug distribution around drug eluting spacers

  10. MONITORING TIANJIN SUBSIDENCE WITH THE PERMANENT SCATTERERS Dr. Daniele Perissin(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perissin, Daniele

    MONITORING TIANJIN SUBSIDENCE WITH THE PERMANENT SCATTERERS TECHNIQUE Dr. Daniele Perissin(1) , Dr 34/5, 20133 Milano, Italy 1. ABSTRACT Many urban areas in China are affected by land subsidence the area around Tianjin city in the Popular Republic of China, where a subsidence at the present time

  11. Fluorescence Microscopy Evidence for Quasi-Permanent Attachment of Antifreeze Proteins to Ice Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wettlaufer, John S.

    Fluorescence Microscopy Evidence for Quasi-Permanent Attachment of Antifreeze Proteins to Ice ABSTRACT Many organisms are protected from freezing by the presence of extracellular antifreeze proteins (AFPs), which bind to ice, modify its morphology, and prevent its further growth. These proteins have

  12. The WIPP is the nation's first geologic facility designed for permanent disposal of transuranic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The WIPP is the nation's first geologic facility designed for permanent disposal of transuranic, New Mexico to dispose of this waste. The TRU waste being disposed at the WIPP is packaged into drums-level waste and spent nuclear fuel. The WIPP has a total capacity of 6.2 million cubic feet of TRU waste

  13. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  14. A nanotubular metal-organic framework with permanent porosity : structure analysis and gas sorption studies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, S.; Simmons, J. M.; Li, J. R.; Yuan, D.; Weng, W.; Liu, D. J.; Zhou, H. C.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Texas A&M Univ.; NIST

    2009-01-01

    A nanotubular metal-organic framework, PCN-19, was constructed based on a micro3-oxo-trinickel basic carboxylate secondary building unit (SBU) and the 9,10-anthracenedicarboxylate ligand; its permanent porosity was confirmed by N2 adsorption isotherms, and its H2 storage performances were evaluated under both low and high pressures at 77 K.

  15. Permanent Field Plot Methodology and Equipment1 Thomas G. Cole2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of what changes occur over time in indigenous agroforestry systems. Permanent plot methodology can be used to conduct several different types of surveys. Two that are appropriate to the Pacific are island-wide and case studies. An island-wide survey is ideal for obtaining baseline information concerning agroforest

  16. Examples of the Generalized Quantum Permanent Compromise Attack to the Blum-Micali Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guedes, Elloá B; Lula, Bernardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents examples of the quantum permanent compromise attack to the Blum-Micali construction. Such attacks illustrate how a previous attack to the Blum-Micali generator can be extended to the whole Blum-Micali construction, including the Blum-Blum-Shub and Kaliski generators.

  17. Phoenix: Detecting and Recovering from Permanent Processor Design Bugs with Programmable Hardware

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrellas, Josep

    Phoenix: Detecting and Recovering from Permanent Processor Design Bugs with Programmable Hardware, and Motorola processors, this paper proposes and evalu- ates Phoenix -- novel field-programmable on-chip hardware that de- tects and recovers from design defects. Phoenix taps key logic signals and, based

  18. Microsymposium 34, MS065, 2001 PERMANENTLY SHADOWED AREAS AT THE LUNAR POLES. V. V. Shevchenko1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Microsymposium 34, MS065, 2001 PERMANENTLY SHADOWED AREAS AT THE LUNAR POLES. V. V. Shevchenko1 , E a maximum of 1,95° above the horizon at the lunar poles. Therefore topographic depressions near the lunar poles may contain water ice deposits. We have used the Morphological catalogue of the craters

  19. ''Heat Transfer at the Mold-Metal Interface in Permanent Mold Casting of Aluminum Alloys'' Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor R. D. Pehlke, Principal Investigator, Dr. John M. Cookson, Dr. Shouwei Hao, Dr. Prasad Krishna, Kevin T. Bilkey

    2001-12-14

    This project on heat transfer coefficients in metal permanent mold casting has been conducted in three areas. They are the theoretical study at the University of Michigan, the experimental investigation of squeeze casting at CMI-Tech Center (Now Hayes-Lemmerz Technical Center) and the experimental investigation of low pressure permanent mold casting at Amcast Automotive.

  20. Interfacial deformation and jetting of a magnetic fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afkhami, Shahriar; Griffiths, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    An attractive technique for forming and collecting aggregates of magnetic material at a liquid--air interface by an applied magnetic field gradient was recently addressed theoretically and experimentally [Soft Matter, (9) 2013, 8600-8608]: when the magnetic field is weak, the deflection of the liquid--air interface has a steady shape, while for sufficiently strong fields, the interface destabilizes and forms a jet that extracts magnetic material. Motivated by this work, we develop a numerical model for the closely related problem of solving two-phase Navier--Stokes equations coupled with the static Maxwell equations. We computationally model the forces generated by a magnetic field gradient produced by a permanent magnet and so determine the interfacial deflection of a magnetic fluid (a pure ferrofluid system) and the transition into a jet. We analyze the shape of the liquid--air interface during the deformation stage and the critical magnet distance for which the static interface transitions into a jet. We d...

  1. Hybrid magnet devices for molecule manipulation and small scale high gradient-field applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphries, David E. (El Cerrito, CA); Hong, Seok-Cheol (Seoul, KR); Cozzarelli, legal representative, Linda A. (Berkeley, CA); Pollard, Martin J. (El Cerrito, CA); Cozzarelli, Nicholas R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2009-01-06

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are hybrid magnetic tweezers able to exert approximately 1 nN of force to 4.5 .mu.m magnetic bead. The maximum force was experimentally measured to be .about.900 pN which is in good agreement with theoretical estimations and other measurements. In addition, a new analysis scheme that permits fast real-time position measurement in typical geometry of magnetic tweezers has been developed and described in detail.

  2. Novel pre-alloyed powder processing of modified alnico 8: Correlation of microstructure and magnetic properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson, I. E.; Kassen, A. G.; White, E. M. H.; Zhou, L.; Tang, W.; Palasyuk, A.; Dennis, K. W.; McCallum, R. W.; Kramer, M. J.

    2015-04-13

    Progress is reviewed on development of an improved near-final bulk magnet fabrication process for alnico 8, as a non-rare earth permanent magnet with promise for sufficient energy density and coercivity for electric drive motors. This study showed that alnico bulk magnets in near-final shape can be made by simple compression molding from spherical high purity gas atomized pre-alloyed powder. Dwell time at peak sintering temperature (1250°C) greatly affected grain size of the resulting magnet alloys. This microstructure transformation was demonstrated to be useful for gaining partially aligned magnetic properties and boosting energy product. While a route to increased coercivity wasmore »not identified by these experiments, manufacturability of bulk alnico magnet alloys in near-final shapes was demonstrated, permitting further processing and alloy modification experiments that can target higher coercivity and better control of grain anisotropy during grain growth.« less

  3. Abstract--This paper presents an analysis by which the dynamic performances of a permanent magnet synchronous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -generation electricity has fallen steadily. Wind turbines in USA produce about 1% of total generation [1]. Also, wind of increasing environmental concern, more and more electricity is generated from renewable energy. The main advantage of electricity generation from renewable sources is the absence of harmful emission

  4. A microprocessor-based control to improve the high speed performance of a permanent magnet brushless motor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becerra, Roger Carlos

    1986-01-01

    -state performance variables, each simulation is allowed to proceed until all of transient modes sufficiently decay. Rotor speed is held constant throughout each simulation. 120 ase e . 7Raase !Weg. Phase 361etL. 90 O 30 200 360 520 680 Speed (rpg) 840... rare earth mag- nets and advanced motor design and manufacturing techniques have stimulated a surge of interest in the development and applications of PM brushless motors. The implementation of a method of converter control to improve the high speed...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Novel Manufacturing Technologies for High Power Induction and Permanent Magnet Electric Motors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about novel...

  6. Permanent magnet machine and method with reluctance poles and non-identical PM poles for high density operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, John S.

    2010-05-18

    A method and apparatus in which a stator (11) and a rotor (12) define a primary air gap (20) for receiving AC flux and at least one source (23, 40), and preferably two sources (23, 24, 40) of DC excitation are positioned for inducing DC flux at opposite ends of the rotor (12). Portions of PM material (17, 17a) are provided as boundaries separating PM rotor pole portions from each other and from reluctance poles. The PM poles (18) and the reluctance poles (19) can be formed with poles of one polarity having enlarged flux paths in relation to flux paths for pole portions of an opposite polarity, the enlarged flux paths communicating with a core of the rotor (12) so as to increase reluctance torque produced by the electric machine. Reluctance torque is increased by providing asymmetrical pole faces. The DC excitation can also use asymmetric poles and asymmetric excitation sources. Several embodiments are disclosed with additional variations.

  7. Design and performance evaluation of an electric go-kart and custom permanent magnet brushless DC motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Eli Marc

    2012-01-01

    This undergraduate thesis documents the design considerations and specifications of building a personal battery-powered go-kart. This includes designing and building a custom brushless DC motor for use in the drivetrain. ...

  8. 0-7803-9280-9/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE. 603 Design of a High-Speed Permanent Magnet Motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and developments have been done in order to achieve industrial systems for both stationary and mobile applications to maintain gas and membrane hydration; - the cooling circuit, to extract the heat produced during of the pumps, compressors... must be provided by the stack and it can represent up to 40 % of the produced

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Novel Manufacturing Technologies for High Power Induction and Permanent Magnet Electric Motors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about novel...

  10. Permanent Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Machine (PMa-SynRM) Design and Performance Analysis for Fan and Pump Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vartanian, Robert

    2014-08-13

    .................................................................................................... 28 IIIB. Design Criteria ................................................................................................ 30 IIIB1. Torque Performance ............................................................................ 30 IIIB2. Back-EMF... ....................................................... 53 IIIG1. Back-EMF Measurement .................................................................... 55 IIIH. Skew Effect on PMa-SynRM NdFeB ............................................................ 59 IIIH1. Effect of Skewing on Cogging Torque...

  11. Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives? | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives? Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives? New pulse-width-modulated (PWM) adjustable speed drives (ASDs) may...

  12. Programmatic mission capabilities - chemistry and metallurgy research replacement (CMRR) project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, L Nguyen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kornreich, Drew E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wong, Amy S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-04

    CMRR will have analysis capabilities that support all the nuclear-material programs and national security needs. CMRR will replace the aging CMR Building and provide a key component responsive infrastructure necessary to sustain all nuclear programs and the nuclear-weapons complex. Material characterization capabilities - evaluate the microstructures and properties of nuclear materials and provide experimental data to validate process and performance models. Analytical chemistry capabilities - provide expertise in chemical and radiochemical analysis of materials where actinide elements make up a significant portion of the sample.

  13. Electronic-type vacuum gauges with replaceable elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1984-09-18

    In electronic devices for measuring pressures in vacuum systems, the metal elements which undergo thermal deterioration are made readily replaceable by making them parts of a simple plug-in unit. Thus, in ionization gauges, the filament and grid or electron collector are mounted on the novel plug-in unit. In thermocouple pressure gauges, the heater and attached thermocouple are mounted on the plug-in unit. Plug-in units have been designed to function, alternatively, as ionization gauge and as thermocouple gauge, thus providing new gauges capable of measuring broader pressure ranges than is possible with either an ionization gauge or a thermocouple gauge. 5 figs.

  14. Electronic-type vacuum gauges with replaceable elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Jr., David (7 Brown's La., Bellport, NY 11713)

    1984-01-01

    In electronic devices for measuring pressures in vacuum systems, the metal elements which undergo thermal deterioration are made readily replaceable by making them parts of a simple plug-in unit. Thus, in ionization gauges, the filament and grid or electron collector are mounted on the novel plug-in unit. In thermocouple pressure gauges, the heater and attached thermocouple are mounted on the plug-in unit. Plug-in units have been designed to function, alternatively, as ionization gauge and as thermocouple gauge, thus providing new gauges capable of measuring broader pressure ranges than is possible with either an ionization gauge or a thermocouple gauge.

  15. Magnetic Reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masaaki Yamada, Russell Kulsrud and Hantao Ji

    2009-09-17

    We review the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in laboratory and space plasmas, by discussing results from theory, numerical simulations, observations from space satellites, and the recent results from laboratory plasma experiments. After a brief review of the well-known early work, we discuss representative recent experimental and theoretical work and attempt to interpret the essence of significant modern findings. In the area of local reconnection physics, many significant findings have been made with regard to two- uid physics and are related to the cause of fast reconnection. Profiles of the neutral sheet, Hall currents, and the effects of guide field, collisions, and micro-turbulence are discussed to understand the fundamental processes in a local reconnection layer both in space and laboratory plasmas. While the understanding of the global reconnection dynamics is less developed, notable findings have been made on this issue through detailed documentation of magnetic self-organization phenomena in fusion plasmas. Application of magnetic reconnection physics to astrophysical plasmas is also brie y discussed.

  16. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Halogen Incandescent MR16 Lamps and LED Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses the halogen MR16 lamp and its commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  17. Patterned Magnetic Nanostructures and Quantized Magnetic Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -increasing demands in data storage and to new applications of magnetic devices in the field of sensors. NewPatterned Magnetic Nanostructures and Quantized Magnetic Disks STEPHEN Y. CHOU Invited Paper, opens up new opportunities for engineering innovative magnetic materials and devices, developing ultra

  18. Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA Submitted to Dr. Bi By Bernard Chan Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas" By Bernard Chan, Brian Chan, and Christopher Young Abstract This report studies the feasibility of replacing natural gas with wood pellets for UBC boilers. A gasification

  19. Experimental study on the cause of insufficiency of a transcutaneous pulmonary valve replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Experimental study on the cause of insufficiency of a transcutaneous pulmonary valve replacement Peter Jülg, Sason von der Heyde Purpose: Within the EU-funded research project LifeValve the German for the replacement of pulmonary heart valves. This technique is a minimally invasive alternative to the replacement

  20. Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions Romain Available online 8 March 2012 Keywords: A1. Mineral replacement rate A1. Serpentinization A1. TG analyses B1. Alkaline medium B2. Chrysotile nanotubes a b s t r a c t Olivine mineral replacement by serpentine is one

  1. Final Independent External Peer Review Report Olmsted Locks and Dam 52 and 53 Replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Final Independent External Peer Review Report Olmsted Locks and Dam 52 and 53 Replacement Project Review Report Olmsted Locks and Dam 52 and 53 Replacement Project Updated Cost Estimate Peer Review and Dam 52 and 53 Replacement Project Updated Cost Estimate Peer Review EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Project

  2. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the proposed CFC replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, W.C.; Dyer, H.R.

    1993-12-01

    The neutron multiplication characteristics of refrigerant-114 (R-114) and proposed replacement coolants perfluorobutane (C{sub 4}F{sub 10}) and cycloperfluorobutane C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) have been compared by evaluating the infinite media multiplication factors of UF{sub 6}/H/coolant systems and by replacement calculations considering a 10-MW freezer/sublimer. The results of these comparisons demonstrate that R-114 is a neutron absorber, due to its chlorine content, and that the alternative fluorocarbon coolants are neutron moderators. Estimates of critical spherical geometries considering mixtures of UF{sub 6}/HF/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} indicate that the flourocarbon-moderated systems are large compared with water-moderated systems. The freezer/sublimer calculations indicate that the alternative coolants are more reactive than R-114, but that the reactivity remains significantly below the condition of water in the tubes, which was a limiting condition. Based on these results, the alternative coolants appear to be acceptable; however, several follow-up tasks have been recommended, and additional evaluation will be required on an individual equipment basis.

  3. Operational Readiness Review: Savannah River Replacement Tritium Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Operational Readiness Review (ORR) is one of several activities to be completed prior to introducing tritium into the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Secretary of Energy will rely in part on the results of this ORR in deciding whether the startup criteria for RTF have been met. The RTF is a new underground facility built to safely service the remaining nuclear weapons stockpile. At RTF, tritium will be unloaded from old components, purified and enriched, and loaded into new or reclaimed reservoirs. The RTF will replace an aging facility at SRS that has processed tritium for more than 35 years. RTF has completed construction and is undergoing facility startup testing. The final stages of this testing will require the introduction of limited amounts of tritium. The US Department of Energy (DOE) ORR was conducted January 19 to February 4, 1993, in accordance with an ORR review plan which was developed considering previous readiness reviews. The plan also considered the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendations 90-4 and 92-6, and the judgements of experienced senior experts. The review covered three major areas: (1) Plant and Equipment Readiness, (2) Personnel Readiness, and (3) Management Systems. The ORR Team was comprised of approximately 30 members consisting of a Team Leader, Senior Safety Experts, and Technical Experts. The ORR objectives and criteria were based on DOE Orders, industry standards, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations guidelines, recommendations of external oversight groups, and experience of the team members.

  4. Can Computer Simulations Replace Real Equipment in Undergraduate Laboratories?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    of their mastery of physics concepts and skills with real equipment. Students who used the simulated equipment electricity, magnetism, optics and modern physics. Students, typically in their 2nd or 3rd year of study. K. Perkins, W. Adams, P. Kohl, and N. Podolefsky Department of Physics University of Colorado

  5. Magnetic phase diagram of Tb{sub 3}Co

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranov, N.V.; Markin, P.E.; Nakotte, H.; Lacerda, A.

    1997-08-01

    The orthorhombic Tb{sub 3}Co compound exhibits both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic behavior below the critical temperature T{sub t} = 72 K as evidenced by metamagnetic transitions along the a- and b-axes and ferromagnetic magnetization process along the c-axis. In the temperature interval between T{sub t} and the Neel temperature T{sub N} = 82 field-induced transitions along all three axes are observed. This behavior results from the complex noncomplanar magnetic structure of Tb{sub 3}Co. The metamagnetic transitions are accompanied by a significant magnetoresistance effect. The Tb{sub 3}Co single crystal has permanent magnet properties along the c-axis with the highest energy up to 140 Mg Oe at T < 4.2 K.

  6. Nematic order of model goethite nanorods in a magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. H. Wensink; G. J. Vroege

    2005-01-18

    We explore the nematic order of model goethite nanorods in an external magnetic field within Onsager-Parsons density functional theory. The goethite rods are represented by monodisperse, charged spherocylinders with a permanent magnetic moment along the rod main axis, forcing the particles to align parallel to the magnetic field at low field strength. The intrinsic diamagnetic susceptibility anisometry of the rods is negative which leads to a preferred perpendicular orientation at higher field strength. It is shown that these counteracting effects may give rise to intricate phase behavior, including a pronounced stability of biaxial nematic order and the presence of reentrant phase transitions and demixing phenomena. The effect of the applied field on the nematic-to-smectic transition will also be addressed.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of living systems by remote detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander; Bouchard, Louis; Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Budker, Dmitry; Lowery, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah

    2013-10-29

    A novel approach to magnetic resonance imaging is disclosed. Blood flowing through a living system is prepolarized, and then encoded. The polarization can be achieved using permanent or superconducting magnets. The polarization may be carried out upstream of the region to be encoded or at the place of encoding. In the case of an MRI of a brain, polarization of flowing blood can be effected by placing a magnet over a section of the body such as the heart upstream of the head. Alternatively, polarization and encoding can be effected at the same location. Detection occurs at a remote location, using a separate detection device such as an optical atomic magnetometer, or an inductive Faraday coil. The detector may be placed on the surface of the skin next to a blood vessel such as a jugular vein carrying blood away from the encoded region.

  8. Superconducting wiggler magnets for beam-emittance damping rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoerling, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-low emittance beams with a high bunch charge are necessary for the luminosity performance of linear electron-positron colliders, such as the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). An effective way to create ultra-low emittance beams with a high bunch charge is to use damping rings, or storage rings equipped with strong damping wiggler magnets. The remanent field of the permanent magnet materials and the ohmic losses in normal conductors limit the economically achievable pole field in accelerator magnets operated at around room temperature to below the magnetic saturation induction, which is 2.15 T for iron. In wiggler magnets, the pole field in the center of the gap is reduced further like the hyperbolic cosine of the ratio of the gap size and the period length multiplied by pi. Moreover, damping wiggler magnets require relatively large gaps because they have to accept the un-damped beam and to generate, at a small period length, a large magnetic flux density amplitude to effectively damp the beam emittance....

  9. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi

    2014-03-31

    Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE HANFORD CONNECTOR GASKET REPLACEMENT TOOLING FOR DWPF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krementz, D.; Coughlin, Jeffrey

    2009-05-05

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop tooling and equipment to remotely replace gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors to reduce personnel radiation exposure as compared to the current hands-on method. It is also expected that radiation levels will continually increase with future waste streams. The equipment is operated in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell (REDC), which is equipped with compressed air, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and an electro-mechanical manipulator (EMM) arm for operation of the remote tools. The REDC does not provide access to electrical power, so the equipment must be manually or pneumatically operated. The MSM's have a load limit at full extension of ten pounds, which limited the weight of the installation tool. In order to remotely replace Hanford connector gaskets several operations must be performed remotely, these include: removal of the spent gasket and retaining ring (retaining ring is also called snap ring), loading the new snap ring and gasket into the installation tool and installation of the new gasket into the Hanford connector. SRNL developed and tested tools that successfully perform all of the necessary tasks. Removal of snap rings from horizontal and vertical connectors is performed by separate air actuated retaining ring removal tools and is manipulated in the cell by the MSM. In order install a new gasket, the snap ring loader is used to load a new snap ring into a groove in the gasket installation tool. A new gasket is placed on the installation tool and retained by custom springs. An MSM lifts the installation tool and presses the mounted gasket against the connector block. Once the installation tool is in position, the gasket and snap ring are installed onto the connector by pneumatic actuation. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired tool and vents the tools as needed. Extensive testing of tooling operation was performed in the DWPF manipulator repair shop. This testing allowed the operators to gain confidence before the equipment was exposed to radioactive contamination. The testing also led to multiple design improvements. On July 17 and 29, 2008 the Remote Gasket Replacement Tooling was successfully demonstrated in the REDC at the DWPF of The Savannah River Site.

  11. Superconducting magnet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satti, John A. (Naperville, IL)

    1980-01-01

    A superconducting magnet designed to produce magnetic flux densities of the order of 4 to 5 Webers per square meter is constructed by first forming a cable of a plurality of matrixed superconductor wires with each wire of the plurality insulated from each other one. The cable is shaped into a rectangular cross-section and is wound with tape in an open spiral to create cooling channels. Coils are wound in a calculated pattern in saddle shapes to produce desired fields, such as dipoles, quadrupoles, and the like. Wedges are inserted between adjacent cables as needed to maintain substantially radial placement of the long dimensions of cross sections of the cables. After winding, individual strands in each of the cables are brought out to terminals and are interconnected to place all of the strands in series and to maximize the propagation of a quench by alternating conduction from an inner layer to an outer layer and from top half to bottom half as often as possible. Individual layers are separated from others by spiraled aluminum spacers to facilitate cooling. The wound coil is wrapped with an epoxy tape that is cured by heat and then machined to an interference fit with an outer aluminum pipe which is then affixed securely to the assembled coil by heating it to make a shrink fit. In an alternate embodiment, one wire of the cable is made of copper or the like to be heated externally to propagate a quench.

  12. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

  13. Nanostructured magnetic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Conference, Atlanta, GA (Nanostructured Magnetic Materials by Keith T. Chan Doctor ofinduced by a Si-based material occurs at a Si/Ni interface

  14. REACT: Alternatives to Critical Materials in Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s REACT Project, short for “Rare Earth Alternatives in Critical Technologies”, are developing cost-effective alternatives to rare earths, the naturally occurring minerals with unique magnetic properties that are used in electric vehicle (EV) motors and wind generators. The REACT projects will identify low-cost and abundant replacement materials for rare earths while encouraging existing technologies to use them more efficiently. These alternatives would facilitate the widespread use of EVs and wind power, drastically reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

  15. Magnets and Power Supplies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Up: APS Storage Ring Parameters Previous: Longitudinal bunch profile and Magnets and Power Supplies Dipole Magnets and Power Supplies Value Dipole Number 80+1 No. of power...

  16. SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassenzahl, W.

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting 30-MJ Energy Storage Coil", Proc. 19 80 ASC,Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Plant", IEEE Trans.SlIperconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Unit", in Advances

  17. Replacing precious metals with carbide catalysts for hydrogenation reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruijun, Hou; Chen, Jingguang G.; Chang, Kuan; Wang, Tiefeng

    2015-03-03

    Molybdenum carbide (Mo?C and Ni/Mo?C) catalysts were compared with Pd/SiO? for the hydrogenation of several diene molecules, 1,3- butadiene, 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD). Compared to Pd/SiO?, Mo?C showed similar hydrogenation rate for 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-CHD and even higher rate for 1,4-CHD, but with significant deactivation rate for 1,3-CHD hydrogenation. However, the hydrogenation activity of Mo?C could be completely regenerated by H? treatment at 723 K for the three molecules. The Ni modified Mo?C catalysts retained similar activity for 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation with significantly enhanced selectivity for 1-butene production. The 1-butene selectivity increased with increasing Ni loading below 15%. Among the Ni modified Mo?C catalysts, 8.6%Ni/Mo?C showed the highest selectivity to 1-butene, which was even higher selectivity than that over Pd/SiO?. Compared to Pd/SiO?, both Mo?C and Ni/Mo?C showed combined advantages in hydrogenation activity and catalyst cost reduction, demonstrating the potential to use less expensive carbide catalysts to replace precious metals for hydrogenation reactions.

  18. Replacing precious metals with carbide catalysts for hydrogenation reactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ruijun, Hou [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Beijing Key Lab. of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology; Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Chen, Jingguang G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chang, Kuan [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Beijing Key Lab. of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology; Wang, Tiefeng [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Beijing Key Lab. of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology

    2015-04-01

    Molybdenum carbide (Mo?C and Ni/Mo?C) catalysts were compared with Pd/SiO? for the hydrogenation of several diene molecules, 1,3- butadiene, 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD). Compared to Pd/SiO?, Mo?C showed similar hydrogenation rate for 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-CHD and even higher rate for 1,4-CHD, but with significant deactivation rate for 1,3-CHD hydrogenation. However, the hydrogenation activity of Mo?C could be completely regenerated by H? treatment at 723 K for the three molecules. The Ni modified Mo?C catalysts retained similar activity for 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation with significantly enhanced selectivity for 1-butene production. The 1-butene selectivity increased with increasing Ni loading below 15%. Among the Ni modified Mo?C catalysts, 8.6%Ni/Mo?C showed the highest selectivity to 1-butene, which was even higher selectivity than that over Pd/SiO?. Compared to Pd/SiO?, both Mo?C and Ni/Mo?C showed combined advantages in hydrogenation activity and catalyst cost reduction, demonstrating the potential to use less expensive carbide catalysts to replace precious metals for hydrogenation reactions.

  19. Replacing precious metals with carbide catalysts for hydrogenation reactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ruijun, Hou; Chen, Jingguang G.; Chang, Kuan; Wang, Tiefeng

    2015-03-03

    Molybdenum carbide (Mo?C and Ni/Mo?C) catalysts were compared with Pd/SiO? for the hydrogenation of several diene molecules, 1,3- butadiene, 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD). Compared to Pd/SiO?, Mo?C showed similar hydrogenation rate for 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-CHD and even higher rate for 1,4-CHD, but with significant deactivation rate for 1,3-CHD hydrogenation. However, the hydrogenation activity of Mo?C could be completely regenerated by H? treatment at 723 K for the three molecules. The Ni modified Mo?C catalysts retained similar activity for 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation with significantly enhanced selectivity for 1-butene production. The 1-butene selectivity increased with increasing Ni loading below 15%. Among the Nimore »modified Mo?C catalysts, 8.6%Ni/Mo?C showed the highest selectivity to 1-butene, which was even higher selectivity than that over Pd/SiO?. Compared to Pd/SiO?, both Mo?C and Ni/Mo?C showed combined advantages in hydrogenation activity and catalyst cost reduction, demonstrating the potential to use less expensive carbide catalysts to replace precious metals for hydrogenation reactions.« less

  20. Polymeric materials replacement issues for the LANL stockpile.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandoval, C. W. (Cynthia W.); Gladysz, G. M. (Gary M.); Stephens, T. S. (Thomas S.); Gleiman, S. S. (Seth S.); Mendoza, D. (Daniel); Baker, G. K. (G. Keith); Schoonover, J. R. (Jon R.); Schneider, Jim; Perry, B. (Brian); Lula, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    A number of materials in the LANL stockpile are no longer available due to lack of availability or environment, safety and health issues. Silastic S-5370 a polysiloxane foam used to manufacture multiple components in LANL systems has been discontinued by Dow Corning. Kerimid 601 is a polyimide resin used as the binder for the syntactic foam used as a support material in the W76. It contains MDA, which has been identified by OSHA as a carcinogen and is no longer used in the nuclear weapons complex. In addition, the Thornel carbon mat used in the syntactic foam formulation is no longer available. These issues have created major challenges in the effort to reestablish aft support production capability for the W76 LEP. Urethane Encapsulant 7200, an adhesive used to bond explosive booster pellets and detonator components, was originally manufactured by Hexcel Corporation and is no longer available. The details of the projects currently underway to provide replacements for these materials will be discussed.

  1. Use of Retrievable Compared to Permanent Inferior Vena Cava Filters: A Single-Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ha, Thuong G. Van [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)], E-mail: tgvanha@uchicago.edu; Chien, Andy S. [Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago (United States); Funaki, Brian S.; Lorenz, Jonathan [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Piano, Giancarlo [University of Chicago, Department of Surgery (United States); Shen, Maxine [Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago (United States); Leef, Jeffrey [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to review the use, safety, and efficacy of retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in their first 5 years of availability at our institution. Comparison was made with permanent filters placed in the same period. A retrospective review of IVC filter implantations was performed from September, 1999, to September, 2004, in our department. These included both retrievable and permanent filters. The Recovery nitinol and Guenther tulip filters were used as retrievable filters. The frequency of retrievable filter used was calculated. Clinical data and technical data related to filter placement were reviewed. Outcomes, including pulmonary embolism, complications associated with placement, retrieval, or indwelling, were calculated. During the study period, 604 IVC filters were placed. Of these, 97 retrievable filters (16%) were placed in 96 patients. There were 53 Recovery filter and 44 Tulip filter insertions. Subjects were 59 women and 37 men; the mean age was 52 years, with a range of from 18 to 97 years. The placement of retrievable filters increased from 2% in year 1 to 32% in year 5 of the study period. The total implantation time for the permanent group was 145,450 days, with an average of 288 days (range, 33-1811 days). For the retrievable group, the total implantation time was 21,671 days, with an average of 226 days (range, 2-1217 days). Of 29 patients who returned for filter retrieval, the filter was successfully removed in 28. There were 14 of 14 successful Tulip filter retrievals and 14 of 15 successful Recovery filter retrievals. In one patient, after an indwelling period of 39 days, a Recovery nitinol filter could not be removed secondary to a large clot burden within the filter. For the filters that were removed, the mean dwell time was 50 days for the Tulip type and 20 days for the Recovery type. Over the follow-up period there was an overall PE incidence of 1.4% for the permanent group and 1% for the retrieval group. In conclusion, there was an increase in the use of retrievable filters over the study period and an overall increase in the total number of filters implanted. The increased use of these filters appeared to be due to expanded indications predicated by their retrievability. Placement and retrieval of these filters have a low risk of complications, and retrievable filters appeared effective, as there was low rate of clinically significant pulmonary embolism associated with these filters during their indwelling time.

  2. Container for reprocessing and permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A single canister process container for reprocessing and permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies comprising zirconium-based cladding and fuel, which process container comprises a collapsible container, having side walls that are made of a high temperature alloy and an array of collapsible support means wherein the container is capable of withstanding temperature necessary to oxidize the zirconium-based cladding and having sufficient ductility to maintain integrity when collapsed under pressure. The support means is also capable of maintaining their integrity at temperature necessary to oxide the zirconium-based cladding. The process container also has means to introduce and remove fluids to and from the container.

  3. Novel motor design for rotating anode x-ray tubes operating in the fringe field of a magnetic resonance imaging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillaney, Prasheel; Pelc, Norbert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Shin Mihye [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bennett, N. Robert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Qualcomm MEMS Technologies, San Jose, California 95134 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Using hybrid x-ray/MR (XMR) systems for image guidance during interventional procedures could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic, oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. The authors propose a close proximity hybrid system design in which a C-arm fluoroscopy unit is placed immediately adjacent to the solenoid magnet of a MR system with a minimum distance of 1.2 m between the x-ray and MR imaging fields of view. Existing rotating anode x-ray tube designs fail within MR fringe field environments because the magnetic fields alter the electron trajectories in the x-ray tube and act as a brake on the induction motor, reducing the rotation speed of the anode. In this study the authors propose a novel motor design that avoids the anode rotation speed reduction. Methods: The proposed design replaces the permanent magnet stator found in brushed dc motors with the radial component of the MR fringe field. The x-ray tube is oriented such that the radial component of the MR fringe field is orthogonal to the cathode-anode axis. Using a feedback position sensor and the support bearings as electrical slip rings, the authors use electrical commutation to eliminate the need for mechanical brushes and commutators. A vacuum compatible prototype of the proposed motor design was assembled, and its performance was evaluated at various operating conditions. The prototype consisted of a 3.1 in. diameter anode rated at 300 kHU with a ceramic rotor that was 5.6 in. in length and had a 2.9 in. diameter. The material chosen for all ceramic components was MACOR, a machineable glass ceramic developed by Corning Inc. The approximate weight of the entire assembly was 1750 g. The maximum rotation speed, angular acceleration, and acceleration time of the motor design were investigated, as well as the dependence of these parameters on rotor angular offset, magnetic field strength, and field orientation. The resonance properties of the authors' assembly were also evaluated to determine its stability during acceleration, and a pulse width modulation algorithm was implemented to control the rotation speed of the motor. Results: At a magnetic flux density of 41 mT orthogonal to the axis of rotation (on the lower end of the expected flux density in the MR suite) the maximum speed of the motor was found to be 5150 revolutions per minute (rpm). The acceleration time necessary to reach 3000 rpm was found to be approximately 10 s at 59 mT. The resonance frequency of the assembly with the anode attached was 1310 rpm (21.8 Hz) which is far below the desired operating speeds. Pulse width modulation provides an effective method to control the speed of the motor with a resolution of 100 rpm. Conclusions: The proposed design can serve as a direct replacement to the conventional induction motor used in rotating anode x-ray tubes. It does not suffer from a reduced rotation speed when operating in a MR environment. The presence of chromic steel bearings in the prototype prevented testing at the higher field strengths, and future iterations of the design could eliminate this shortcoming. The prototype assembly demonstrates proof of concept of the authors' design and overcomes one of the major obstacles for a MR compatible rotating anode x-ray tube.

  4. Percutaneous aortic valve replacement in a re-animated postmortem heart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Jennifer; Sun, Amy; Killien, Lauren; Evangelista, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    implantation of heart valve prosthesis for the treatment ofF. Percutaneous aortic valve replacement: an experimentalA stentless trileaflet valve from a sheet of decellularized

  5. Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives? - Motor Tip Sheet #12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    New pulse-width-modulated (PWM) adjustable speed drives (ASDs) may be cost-effective replacements for aging or maintenance-intensive eddy-current drives.

  6. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Incandescent A Type and Decorative Lamps and LED Replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses common omnidirectional incandescent lamps - A-type and small decorative, candelabra-type lamps - and their commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  7. Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR®

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text-alternative version of the LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® webcast.

  8. Feasibility/alternatives study for the planned replacement of Nuclear Material Safeguards System (NMSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, K.C.; Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-04

    This document is a study which describes the NMSS replacement alternatives and provides recommended solutions. It also describes a NMSS Paradox prototype.

  9. Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (PWM) variable frequency drives (VFD) may be cost- effective replacements for aging or high-maintenance eddy-current drives that are used with variable torque loads, such...

  10. Numerical modelling and comparison of MgB_2 bulks fabricated by HIP and infiltration growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, J.; Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.; Bhagurkar, A. G.; Naito, T.; Hari Babu, N.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Vanderbemden, P.; Yamamoto, A.

    2015-05-26

    MgB_2 in bulk form shows great promise as trapped field magnets (TFMs) as an alternative to bulk (RE)BCO materials to replace permanent magnets in applications such as rotating machines, magnetic bearings and magnetic separation, and the relative...

  11. Model morphing and sequence assignment after molecular replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Read, Randy J. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Bldg 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brunger, Axel T. [Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive West, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Afonine, Pavel V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Bldg 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hung, Li-Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A procedure for model building is described that combines morphing a model to match a density map, trimming the morphed model and aligning the model to a sequence. A procedure termed ‘morphing’ for improving a model after it has been placed in the crystallographic cell by molecular replacement has recently been developed. Morphing consists of applying a smooth deformation to a model to make it match an electron-density map more closely. Morphing does not change the identities of the residues in the chain, only their coordinates. Consequently, if the true structure differs from the working model by containing different residues, these differences cannot be corrected by morphing. Here, a procedure that helps to address this limitation is described. The goal of the procedure is to obtain a relatively complete model that has accurate main-chain atomic positions and residues that are correctly assigned to the sequence. Residues in a morphed model that do not match the electron-density map are removed. Each segment of the resulting trimmed morphed model is then assigned to the sequence of the molecule using information about the connectivity of the chains from the working model and from connections that can be identified from the electron-density map. The procedure was tested by application to a recently determined structure at a resolution of 3.2 Å and was found to increase the number of correctly identified residues in this structure from the 88 obtained using phenix.resolve sequence assignment alone (Terwilliger, 2003 ?) to 247 of a possible 359. Additionally, the procedure was tested by application to a series of templates with sequence identities to a target structure ranging between 7 and 36%. The mean fraction of correctly identified residues in these cases was increased from 33% using phenix.resolve sequence assignment to 47% using the current procedure. The procedure is simple to apply and is available in the Phenix software package.

  12. Longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuo Cao; Jing Tang; Yunan Gao; Yue Sun; Kangsheng Qiu; Yanhui Zhao; Min He; Jin-An Shi; Lin Gu; David A. Williams; Weidong Sheng; Kuijuan Jin; Xiulai Xu

    2015-01-29

    Controlling single-particle wave functions in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle wave functions can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole wave function always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole wave function shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole wave function from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the wave function longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots.

  13. Category theory based solution for the building block replacement problem in materials design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spivak, David

    1 Category theory based solution for the building block replacement problem in materials design blocks, theory, modeling, mathematics, hierarchical materials Submitted to: Advanced Engineering be replaced by other molecular structures, such as weak van der Waals or hydrogen bonds, without compromising

  14. Fundamenta Informaticae 72 (2006) 129 1 Adhesive High-Level Replacement Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habel, Annegret

    2006-01-01

    Fundamenta Informaticae 72 (2006) 1­29 1 IOS Press Adhesive High-Level Replacement Systems: A New. Adhesive high-level replacement (HLR) systems are introduced as a new categorical framework for graph with the new concept of adhesive categories introduced by Lack and Soboci´nski. In this paper we show that most

  15. Final Independent External Peer Review Report Olmsted Locks and Dam 52 and 53 Replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Final Independent External Peer Review Report Olmsted Locks and Dam 52 and 53 Replacement Project Review Report Olmsted Locks and Dam 52 and 53 Replacement Project Post Authorization Change Report--0002 Task Order: 0005 #12;This page is intentionally left blank. #12;Olmsted Locks and Dam PACR IEPR i

  16. Combined passive magnetic bearing element and vibration damper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system contains magnetic subsystems which act together to support a rotating element in a state of dynamic equilibrium and dampen transversely directed vibrations. Mechanical stabilizers are provided to hold the suspended system in equilibrium until its speed has exceeded a low critical speed where dynamic effects take over, permitting the achievement of a stable equilibrium for the rotating object. A state of stable equilibrium is achieved above a critical speed by use of a collection of passive elements using permanent magnets to provide their magnetomotive excitation. In a improvement over U.S. Pat. No. 5,495,221, a magnetic bearing element is combined with a vibration damping element to provide a single upper stationary dual-function element. The magnetic forces exerted by such an element, enhances levitation of the rotating object in equilibrium against external forces, such as the force of gravity or forces arising from accelerations, and suppresses the effects of unbalance or inhibits the onset of whirl-type rotor-dynamic instabilities. Concurrently, this equilibrium is made stable against displacement-dependent drag forces of the rotating object from its equilibrium position.

  17. Magnetic switch coupling to synchronize magnetic modulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Kim W. (Albuquerque, NM); Kiekel, Paul (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus for synchronizing the output pulses from a pair of magnetic switches. An electrically conductive loop is provided between the pair of switches with the loop having windlings about the core of each of the magnetic switches. The magnetic coupling created by the loop removes voltage and timing variations between the outputs of the two magnetic switches caused by any of a variety of factors. The only remaining variation is a very small fixed timing offset caused by the geometry and length of the loop itself.

  18. Magnetic switch coupling to synchronize magnetic modulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, K.W.; Kiekel, P.

    1999-04-27

    Apparatus for synchronizing the output pulses from a pair of magnetic switches is disclosed. An electrically conductive loop is provided between the pair of switches with the loop having windings about the core of each of the magnetic switches. The magnetic coupling created by the loop removes voltage and timing variations between the outputs of the two magnetic switches caused by any of a variety of factors. The only remaining variation is a very small fixed timing offset caused by the geometry and length of the loop itself. 13 figs.

  19. Method for preparing high cure temperature rare earth iron compound magnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yuhong (West Hills, CA); Wei, Qiang (West Hills, CA); Zheng, Haixing (Oak Park, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Insertion of light elements such as H,C, or N in the R.sub.2 Fe.sub.17 (R=rare earth metal) series has been found to modify the magnetic properties of these compounds, which thus become prospective candidates for high performance permanent magnets. The most spectacular changes are increases of the Curie temperature, T.sub.c, of the magnetization, M.sub.s, and of coercivity, H.sub.c, upon interstitial insertion. A preliminary product having a component R--Fe--C,N phase is produced by a chemical route. Rare earth metal and iron amides are synthesized followed by pyrolysis and sintering in an inert or reduced atmosphere, as a result of which, the R--Fe--C,N phases are formed. Fabrication of sintered rare earth iron nitride and carbonitride bulk magnet is impossible via conventional process due to the limitation of nitridation method.

  20. Theory of dissociative recombination of a linear triatomic ion with permanent electric dipole moment: Study of HCO$^{+}$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Douguet; Viatcheslav Kokoouline; Chris H. Greene

    2009-10-27

    We present a theoretical description of dissociative recombination of triatomic molecular ions having large permanent dipole moments. The study has been partly motivated by a discrepancy between experimental and theoretical cross-sections for dissociative recombination of the HCO$^+$ ion. The HCO$^{+}$ ion has a considerable permanent dipole moment ($D\\approx$4 debye), which has not been taken explicitly into account in previous theoretical studies. In the present study, we include explicitly the effect of the permanent electric dipole on the dynamics of the incident electron using the generalized quantum defect theory, and we present the resulting cross section obtained. This is the first application of generalized quantum defect theory to the dissociative recombination of molecular ions.

  1. Controlling Magnetism at the Nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Jared

    2012-01-01

    157 A.2 Magnetism Unit Conversion148 A.1 Magnetism Unit ConversionA·m) Table A.1: Magnetism Unit Conversion Table Quantity A.1

  2. Memorandum Approval of a Permanent Variance Regarding Sprinklers and Fire Boundaries in Selected Areas of 22 1-H Canyon at the Savannah River Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Approval of a Permanent Variance Regarding Sprinklers and Fire Boundaries in Selected Areas of 22 1 -H Canyon at the Savannah River Site

  3. Memorandum, Approval of a Permanent Variance Regarding Sprinklers and Fire Boundaries in Selected Areas of 22 1-H Canyon at the Savannah River Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Approval of a Permanent Variance Regarding Fire Safety in Selected Areas of 221-H Canyon at the Savannah River Site UNDER SECRETARY OF ENERGY

  4. Homometallic and Heterometallic Antiferromagnetic Rings: Magnetic Properties Studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casadei, Cecilia

    2012-05-09

    The aim of the present thesis is to investigate the local magnetic properties of homometallic Cr{sub 8} antiferromagnetic (AFM) ring and the changes occurring by replacing one Cr{sup 3+} ion with diamagnetic Cd{sup 2+} (Cr{sub 7}Cd) and with Ni{sup 2+} (Cr{sub 7}Ni). In the heterometallic ring a redistribution of the local magnetic moment is expected in the low temperature ground state. We have investigated those changes by both {sup 53}Cr-NMR and {sup 19}F-NMR. We have determined the order of magnitude of the transferred hyperfine coupling constant {sup 19}F - M{sup +} where M{sup +} = Cr{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+} in the different rings. This latter result gives useful information about the overlapping of the electronic wavefunctions involved in the coordinative bond.

  5. Container for reprocessing and permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1992-03-24

    A single canister process container is described for reprocessing and permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies comprising zirconium-based cladding and fuel, which process container comprises a collapsible container, having side walls that are made of a high temperature alloy and an array of collapsible support means wherein the container is capable of withstanding temperature necessary to oxidize the zirconium-based cladding and having sufficient ductility to maintain integrity when collapsed under pressure. The support means is also capable of maintaining its integrity at a temperature necessary to oxidize the zirconium-based cladding. The process container also has means to introduce and remove fluids to and from the container. 10 figs.

  6. Testing and monitoring plan for the permanent isolation surface barrier prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, G.W.; Cadwell, L.L.; Freeman, H.D.; Ligotke, M.W.; Link, S.O.; Romine, R.A.; Walters, W.H. Jr.

    1993-06-01

    This document is a testing and monitoring plan for a prototype barrier to be constructed at the Hanford Site in 1993. The prototype barrier is an aboveground structure engineered to demonstrate the basic features of an earthen cover system, designed to permanently isolate waste from the biosphere. These features include multiple layers of soil and rock materials and a low-permeability asphalt sublayer. The surface of the barrier consists of silt loam soil, vegetated with plants. The barrier sides are reinforced with rock or coarse earthen-fill to protect against wind and water erosion. The sublayers inhibit plant and animal intrusion and percolation of water. A series of tests will be conducted on the prototype over the next several years to evaluate barrier performance under extreme climatic conditions.

  7. Summary of key directives governing permanent disposal in a geologic repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, S.C. III

    1993-11-01

    This document was developed in support of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP). It is largely comprised of flow diagrams summarizing the key regulatory requirements which govern permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The key purposes are (1) to provide an easy and effective tool for referencing or cross referencing federal directives (i.e., regulations and orders), (2) to provide a method for examining the requirements in one directive category against the requirements in another, and (3) to list actions that must be taken to ensure directive compliance. The document is categorically broken down into a Transportation section and a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) section to ensure that the interrelationship of the entire disposal system is considered. The Transportation section describes the transportation packaging requirements, testing methods, and safety requirements imposed on fissile material shipments. The MGDS section encompasses technical aspects involved in siting, licensing, waste interaction with the container, container design features, physical characteristics of the surrounding environment, facility design features, barrier systems, safety features, criticality considerations, migration restrictions, implementation guidelines, and so forth. For purposes of illustration, the worst case scenario is outlined. It is important that the approaches and considerations contained in this document be integrated into the efforts of the SF&WMTDP so that every applicable aspect of the regulatory requirements can be evaluated to avoid investing large sums of money into projects that do not take into account all of the aspects of permanent waste disposal. Not until an overall picture and clear understanding of these regulations is established can a basis be developed to govern the direction of future activities of the SF&WMTDP.

  8. Dipolar structures in magnetite ferrofluids studied with small-angle neutron scattering with and without applied magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klokkenburg, M.; Erne, B. H.; Petukhov, A. V.; Philipse, A. P. [Van 't Hoff Laboratory for Physical and Colloid Chemistry, Debye Institute, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Wiedenmann, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Department SF3, Glienickerstrasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Field-induced structure formation in a ferrofluid with well-defined magnetite nanoparticles with a permanent magnetic dipole moment was studied with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) as a function of the magnetic interactions. The interactions were tuned by adjusting the size of the well-defined, single-magnetic-domain magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) particles and by applying an external magnetic field. For decreasing particle dipole moments, the data show a progressive distortion of the hexagonal symmetry, resulting from the formation of magnetic sheets. The SANS data show qualitative agreement with recent cryogenic transmission electron microscopy results obtained in 2D [Klokkenburg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 185702 (2006)] on the same ferrofluids.

  9. Magnetic Graphene Nanohole Superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Decai; Liu, Miao; Liu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of nano-holes (NHs) patterned in graphene using first principles calculations. We show that superlattices consisting of a periodic array of NHs form a new family of 2D crystalline "bulk" magnets whose collective magnetic behavior is governed by inter-NH spin-spin interaction. They exhibit long-range magnetic order well above room temperature. Furthermore, magnetic semiconductors can be made by doping magnetic NHs into semiconducting NH superlattices. Our findings offer a new material system for fundamental studies of spin-spin interaction and magnetic ordering in low dimensions, and open up the exciting opportunities of making engineered magnetic materials for storage media and spintronics applications.

  10. Magnetic assisted statistical assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Diana I

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop a process using magnetic forces to assemble micro-components into recesses on silicon based integrated circuits. Patterned SmCo magnetic thin films at the bottom of recesses are ...

  11. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilal, Sadek K. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ); Sampson, William B. (Bellport, NY); Leonard, Edward F. (Leonia, NJ)

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  12. Magnetic Fields Analogous to electric field, a magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    Magnetic Fields Analogous to electric field, a magnet produces a magnetic field, B Set up a B field two ways: Moving electrically charged particles Current in a wire Intrinsic magnetic field Basic) Opposite magnetic poles attract like magnetic poles repel #12;Like the electric field lines

  13. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor as Valuable Technological Platform for New Generation of Superconducting Magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiuchiolo, A; Cusano, A; Bajko, M; Perez, J C; Bajas, H; Viret, P; Giordano, M; Breglio, G

    2014-01-01

    New generation of superconducting magnets for high energy applications designed, manufactured and tested at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) require the implementation of reliable sensors able to monitor the mechanical stresses affecting the winding from fabrication to operation in magnetic field of 13 T. This work deals with the embedding of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors in a short model Nb3Sn dipole magnet in order to monitor the strain developed in the coil during the cool down to 1.9 K, the powering up to 15.8 kA and the warm up, offering perspectives for the replacement of standard strain gauges.

  14. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  15. Magnetic nanohole superlattices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Feng

    2013-05-14

    A magnetic material is disclosed including a two-dimensional array of carbon atoms and a two-dimensional array of nanoholes patterned in the two-dimensional array of carbon atoms. The magnetic material has long-range magnetic ordering at a temperature below a critical temperature Tc.

  16. Metallic Magnetic Hetrostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Chi Wah

    .2.2 Domains and magnetization processes 1.2.2.1 Domains and domain walls 1.2.2.2 Magnetization reversal and hysteresis 1.2.2.3 Modelling of magnetization process 1.3 Sputter deposition of thin films in this project 1.3.1 Substrate preparation 1.3.2 ‘UFO...

  17. Extreme ultraviolet emission and confinement of tin plasmas in the presence of a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Amitava E-mail: aroy@barc.gov.in; Murtaza Hassan, Syed; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomas

    2014-05-15

    We investigated the role of a guiding magnetic field on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and ion emission from a laser produced Sn plasma for various laser pulse duration and intensity. For producing plasmas, planar slabs of pure Sn were irradiated with 1064?nm, Nd:YAG laser pulses with varying pulse duration (5–15?ns) and intensity. A magnetic trap was fabricated with the use of two neodymium permanent magnets which provided a magnetic field strength ?0.5?T along the plume expansion direction. Our results indicate that the EUV conversion efficiency do not depend significantly on applied axial magnetic field. Faraday Cup ion analysis of Sn plasma show that the ion flux reduces by a factor of ?5 with the application of an axial magnetic field. It was found that the plasma plume expand in the lateral direction with peak velocity measured to be ?1.2?cm/?s and reduced to ?0.75?cm/?s with the application of an axial magnetic field. The plume expansion features recorded using fast photography in the presence and absence of 0.5?T axial magnetic field are simulated using particle-in-cell code. Our simulation results qualitatively predict the plasma behavior.

  18. Global modeling of cancer gene expression signa-Cancer leads to permanent changes in cell's physiological state and various

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    Global modeling of cancer gene expression signa- tures Cancer leads to permanent changes in cell cancer types. Less is known about the underlying biological processes, or relationships between different cancer types with respect to these changes. While each specific cancer type has a set of unique

  19. sedimentation under permanent ice cover in the Arc-tic Ocean. Cont. Shelf Res. 14: 279-293.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    390 Notes sedimentation under permanent ice cover in the Arc- tic Ocean. Cont. Shelf Res. 14: 279-293. HAWLEY, N. 1988. Flow in cylindrical sediment traps. J. Great Lakes Res. 14: 76-88. HOLM-HANSEN, O., C. J. Effectiveness of various treatments in retarding mi- crobial activity in sediment trap material

  20. Research on ambient temperature passive magnetic bearings at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, R.F.; Ryitov, D.D.` Smith, J.R.; Tung, L.S.

    1997-04-01

    Research performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the equilibrium and stability of a new class of ambient-temperature passive bearing systems is described. The basic concepts involved are: (1) Stability of the rotating system is only achieved in the rotating state. That is, disengaging mechanical systems are used to insure stable levitation at rest (when Earnshaw`s theorem applies). (2) Stable levitation by passive magnetic elements can be achieved if the vector sum of the force derivatives of the several elements of the system is net negative (i.e. restoring) for axial, transverse, and tilt-type perturbations from equilibrium. To satisfy the requirements of (2) using only permanent magnet elements we have employed periodic ``Halbach arrays.`` These interact with passive inductive loaded circuits and act as stabilizers, with the primary forces arising from axially symmetric permanent-magnet elements. Stabilizers and other elements needed to create compact passive magnetic bearing systems have been constructed. Novel passive means for stabilizing classes of rotor-dynamic instabilities in such systems have also been investigated.

  1. Library of Science & Medicine Roof Replacement and Related Work Dec. 11, 2000 DSR # 0059-00 BSH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Library of Science & Medicine Roof Replacement and Related Work Dec. 11, 2000 DSR # 0059-00 BSH AFFIDAVIT OF NON-USE OF ASBESTOS Project: Roof Replacement and Related Work at LIBRARY OF SCIENCE & MEDICINE

  2. The chiral magnetic nanomotors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morozov, Konstantin I

    2013-01-01

    Propulsion of the chiral magnetic nanomotors powered by a rotating magnetic field is in the focus of the modern biomedical applications. This technology relies on strong interaction of dynamic and magnetic degrees of freedom of the system. Here we study in detail various experimentally observed regimes of the helical nanomotor orientation and propulsion depending on the actuation frequency, and establish the relation of these two properties with remanent magnetization and geometry of the helical nanomotors. The theoretical predictions for the transition between the regimes and nanomotor orientation and propulsion speed are in excellent agreement with available experimental data. The proposed theory offers a few simple guidelines towards the optimal design of the magnetic nanomotors. In particular, efficient nanomotors should be fabricated of hard magnetics, e.g., cobalt, magnetized transversally and have the geometry of a normal helix with a helical angle of 35-45 degrees.

  3. Percutaneous aortic valve replacement in a re-animated postmortem heart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Jennifer; Sun, Amy; Killien, Lauren; Evangelista, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    aortic valve replacements, para-valvular leakage wasof valves designed to prevent para-valvular leakage. Multi-leakage was minimal or absent, most likely due to the lack of native valve

  4. Emerging Trends in Heart Valve Engineering: Part III. Novel Technologies for Mitral Valve Repair and Replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    and J. D. Puskas. Mitral-valve repair versus replacement forbioprosthetic heart valves. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 71:S417–mechanics of arti?cial heart valves. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol.

  5. Emerging Trends in Heart Valve Engineering: Part II. Novel and Standard Technologies for Aortic Valve Replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    toronto stentless porcine valve. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 78:2076–medical mechanical cardiac valve prosthesis. Ann. Thorac.or surgical aortic-valve replacement. New Engl. J. Med. 366:

  6. Replacing the Whole BarrelTo Reduce U.S. Dependence on Oil |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduce U.S. Dependence on Oil Replacing the Whole BarrelTo Reduce U.S. Dependence on Oil Converting domestic biomass into affordable fuels, products, and power supports our...

  7. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators - Steam Tip Sheet #20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  8. Case Study Walnut Hill United Methodist Church - Dallas, Texas, Chiller Replacement Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.

    1998-01-01

    In March of 1992 Walnut Hill United Methodist Church in Dallas, Tx. decided that their existing thermal storage and electric reciprocating chiller system were both in need of replacement. After analyzing several options, they chose to install 150...

  9. [Minor revisionposted 3/19/15 (replaces 2/7/12 edition)] Operating Policy and Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    OP 10.12 [Minor revision­posted 3/19/15 (replaces 2/7/12 edition)] Operating Policy and Procedure orientation with regard to admission, employment, or use of the programs, facilities, or services of Texas

  10. Replacing cellular with WiFi direct communication for a highly interactive, high bandwidth multiplayer game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Pablo (Pablo Jose)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to explore the benefits of replacing cellular with Wi-Fi Direct communication in mobile applications. Cellular connections consume significant power on mobile devices and are too slow for many ...

  11. Variation in joint fluid composition and its effect on the tribology of replacement joint articulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzucco, Daniel Clarke, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Polyethylene wear is a significant clinical problem limiting the long-term survival of joint replacement prostheses, particularly in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Although the tribology ...

  12. Centrifugal devices can replace traditional separation techniques such as column chromatography, preparative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Centrifugal devices can replace traditional separation techniques such as column chromatography, preparative electrophoresis, alcohol or salt precipitation, dialysis, and gradient centrifugation when. Centrifugal Devices for Ultrafiltration & Microfiltration Nanosep®, MicrosepTM, Macrosep®, and Jumbosep

  13. Getting through to a qubit by magnetic solitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Cuccoli; Davide Nuzzi; Ruggero Vaia; Paola Verrucchi

    2015-05-12

    We propose a method for acting on the spin state of a spin-1/2 localized particle, or `qubit', by means of a magnetic signal effectively generated by the nearby transit of a magnetic soliton, there conveyed through a transmission line. We first introduce the specific magnetic soliton of which we will make use, and briefly review the properties that make it apt to represent a signal. We then show that a Heisenberg spin chain can serve as transmission line, and propose a method for injecting a soliton into the chain by acting just on one of its ends. We finally demonstrate that the resulting magnetic pulse can indeed cause, just passing by the spin-1/2 localized particle embodying the qubit, a permanent change in its spin state, thus realizing the possibility of getting through to a single, localized qubit, and manipulate its state. A thorough analysis of how the overall dynamical system operates depending on the setting of its parameters demonstrates that fine tuning is not necessary as it exists an extended region in the parameters space that corresponds to an effective functioning. Moreover, we show that possible noise on the transmission line does not invalidate the scheme.

  14. Better Buildings Alliance, adidas Case Study: adidas Saves Energy and Costs with Planned RTU Replacement Program (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Case study describing how adidas implemented a best practice of a planned replacement program for its RTUs.

  15. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket contract for the repair, recondioning or replacement of klystrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket contract for the repair, recondioning or replacement of klystrons

  16. Replaces DOE F 3530.1 5. HOW LONG IN PRESENT POSITION GRADE

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Replacement-2-A Wholesale50.2

  17. Replaces EIA-459B U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FEDERAL ASSISTANCE MILESTONE PLAN

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Replacement-2-A

  18. Replacing the Whole BarrelTo Reduce U.S. Dependence on Oil | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Replacement-2-A 4600.4

  19. Title: Optimal Replacement in the Proportional Hazards Model with semi-Markovian Covariate Process and Continuous Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Sarah M.

    Process and Continuous Monitoring Index terms--Optimal replacement, proportional hazards model, semi1 Title: Optimal Replacement in the Proportional Hazards Model with semi-Markovian Covariate replacement problem for general deteriorating systems in the proportional hazards model with a semi

  20. Abstract--Replacing open-heart surgical procedures with beating-heart interventions substantially decreases the trauma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dupont, Pierre

    Abstract-- Replacing open-heart surgical procedures with beating-heart interventions substantially on the beating heart is valve repair. To address this need, this paper proposes a tool for replacing mitral valve replacement and reduction of regurgitation was demonstrated in an ex-vivo heart simulator. I. INTRODUCTION UE