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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

2

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle...

3

Renewable Fuel Standards Resources  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Federal agencies and certain state governments are required to acquire alternative fuel vehicles as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, though they are also entitled to choose a petroleum...

4

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used...

5

Nanostructured Basic Catalysts: Opportunities for Renewable Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research studied and developed novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We focused on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts zeolites. These catalysts were compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, that were being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and would be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we had studied the aldolpyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

Conner, William C; Huber, George; Auerbach, Scott

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

6

High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Breakout Session 1C-Fostering...

7

Property:RenewableFuelStandard/RenewableBiofuel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity Jump to: navigation,WebsiteRenewableBiofuel Jump to: navigation,

8

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources BioEnergy Purdue extension Meeting the ethanol demand to the anticipated market demand signals by planting more corn after corn. Livestock farmers have often had corn #12; Fueling America Through Renewable Crops BioEnergy Meeting the Ethanol Demand: Consequences

Holland, Jeffrey

9

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources BioEnergy Purdue extension is Biodiesel as Attractive this biofuel mar- ket from the current ethanol market, which is dominated by corn in the U.S. and sugar) Source: National Biodiesel Board #12; Fueling America Through Renewable Crops BioEnergy Is Biodiesel

10

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources BioEnergy Purdue extension u.s. ethanol Policy of U.S. ethanol policy, explains the economics of ethanol production in today's market environment. Table 1. History of Ethanol Subsidy Legislation #12; Fueling America Through Renewable Crops BioEnergy U

11

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources BioEnergy Purdue extension The Value of distillers and global marketplaces as the price of corn increases to meet the ethanol demand. An estimated 1.4 to 1 Nutrient Digestibility and Availability #12; Fueling America Through Renewable Crops BioEnergy Variation

12

State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Fuel Standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, renewable fuel standards (RFS) policies are a mechanism for developing a market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. This flexible market-based policy, when properly executed, can correct for market failures and promote growth of the renewable fuels industry better than a more command-oriented approach. The policy attempts to correct market failures such as embedded fossil fuel infrastructure and culture, risk associated with developing renewable fuels, consumer information gaps, and lack of quantification of the non-economic costs and benefits of both renewable and fossil-based fuels. This report focuses on renewable fuel standards policies, which are being analyzed as part of this project.

Mosey, G.; Kreycik, C.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

Not Available

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

Not Available

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? Americanto Implement the Low Carbon Fuel Standard, Volume I Sta?Paper Series Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

EISA 2007: Focus on Renewable Fuels Standard Program  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EISA 2007: Focus on Renewable Fuels Standard Focus on Renewable Fuels Standard Program Paul Argyropoulos Paul Argyropoulos Office of Office of T Tr ransportation ansportation and...

17

Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies Download presentation...

18

Converting Waste into Clean Renewable Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Converting Waste into Clean Renewable Fuel Presented at TechRealization August 27th, 2008 #12;2 Outline · Introduction to InEnTec · InEnTec's Waste-to-Fuels Technology · Richland Project #12;In conversion options · Conversion of waste into clean transportation fuels (i.e. ethanol, methanol, DME, etc

19

Missouri Renewable Fuel Standard Brochure  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeNew YorkLouisiana Laws andDakota1 CleanbuttonbuttonWeb siteJuly

20

Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

Not Available

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (TheEtelligence (SmartHomeFremont,using Renewable Fuels Jump to:

22

Renewable Fuels | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, searchVirginia Blue Ridge AndREII Jump to:RFSL Jump to: navigation,RFL

23

Solid and gaseous fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids covered during the period of October 1984 through Sept 30, 1986. Energy Research Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts were used as the reference sources. In most categories the volume of material available made it necessary to limit the number of publications in the review. This review also surveys publications concerned with methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels and related materials. Articles of significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature that were not available at the time of the last review are also included. Chemical Abstracts and Energy Research Abstracts were used extensively as reference sources. Some selectivity was necessary in order to include the most pertinent publications in preparing this review.

Schultz, H.; Wells, A.W.; Frommell, E.A.; Flenory, P.B.

1987-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Fuel Cells & Renewable Portfolio Standards  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy Frozen TelescopeRenewable 0AgencyLevel Fuel

25

American Renewable Fuels | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWende NewSowitecAWSAgri-EnergyAmbene Jump to:CorpRenewable Fuels

26

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

27

Autothermal Reforming of Renewable Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of biomass into energy and chemicals is a major research and technology challenge of this century, comparable to petroleum processing in the last century. Recently we have successfully transformed both volatile liquids and nonvolatile liquids and solids into syngas with no carbon formation in autothermal catalytic reactors with residence times of ~10 milliseconds. In the proposed research program we explore the mechanisms of these processes and their extensions to other biomass sources and applications by examining different feeds, catalysts, flow conditions, and steam addition to maximize production of either syngas or chemicals. We will systematically study the catalytic partial oxidation in millisecond autothermal reactors of solid biomass and the liquid products formed by pyrolysis of solid biomass. We will examine alcohols, polyols, esters, solid carbohydrates, and lignocellulose to try to maximize formation of either hydrogen and syngas or olefins and oxygenated chemicals. We will explore molecules and mixtures of practical interest as well as surrogate molecules that contain the functional groups of biofuels but are simpler to analyze and interpret. We will examine spatial profiles within the catalyst and transient and periodic operation of these reactors at pressures up to 10 atm to obtain data from which to explore more detailed mechanistic models and optimize performance to produce a specific desired product. New experiments will examine the conversion of syngas into biofuels such as methanol and dimethyl ether to explore the entire process of producing biofuels from biomass in small distributed systems. Experiments and modeling will be integrated to probe and understand detailed reaction kinetics and the processes by which solid biomass particles are transformed into syngas and chemicals by reactive flash volatilization.

Schmidt, Lanny D

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

security, renewable energy, bio- fuel, carbon tax, mandate,and taxpayer cost of bio- fuel excise tax credits dwarf the

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Crops BioEnergy out-of-state markets are poultry and hog operations in the Southeastern United StatesFueling America Through Renewable Resources BioEnergy Purdue extension The effect of ethanol The rapid growth of ethanol production in Indiana is leading to drastic changes in grain marketing

30

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources BioEnergy Purdue extension ethanol and energy Policy OttoDoering DepartmentofAgriculturalEconomics PurdueUniversity ID-340 Until recently, ethanol per gallon to blenders, ethanol was uneconomic. This changed in 2005 because of the combination of low

31

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources BioEnergy Purdue extension economics of ethanol Chris.S. agriculture. Biofuels include both ethanol (corn) and biodiesel (soybean oil), but ethanol is far in the lead of the process to produce ethanol from cellulose (plant material) (Mosier, 2006). Why is there such startling

32

October 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard Waiver  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for four different biofuel categories and their effects on agricultural commodity markets. This report no waiver of the RFS in response to the drought. Analysis reported here estimates the effects of a waiverOctober 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard Waiver Options during the Drought of 2012 FAPRI-MU Report #11

Noble, James S.

33

Final Progress Report, Renewable and Logistics Fuels for Fuel Cells at the Colorado School of Mines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to advance the current state of technology of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to improve performance when operating on renewable and logistics hydrocarbon fuel streams. Outcomes will include: 1.) new SOFC materials and architectures that address the technical challenges associated with carbon-deposit formation and sulfur poisoning; 2.) new integration strategies for combining fuel reformers with SOFCs; 3.) advanced modeling tools that bridge the scales of fundamental charge-transfer chemistry to system operation and control; and 4.) outreach through creation of the Distinguished Lecturer Series to promote nationwide collaboration with fuel-cell researchers and scientists.

Sullivan, Neal P

2012-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

34

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is only one type of fossil fuel and one alternative fuel andGHG emissions and reducing fossil fuel use, and ?nd biofuelin GHG intensity of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels,

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recovery challengeMultiscaleLogos NERSCJeffreyKey Actions forEnergySolid Oxide Fuel

36

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

37

EISA 2007: Focus on Renewable Fuels Standard Program | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EISA 2007: Focus on Renewable Fuels Standard Program At the November 6, 2008 joint Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Paul Argyropoulos (U.S....

38

Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

Nathan Lewis

2010-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

39

Phase-field modeling of three-phase electrode microstructures in solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phase-field modeling of three-phase electrode microstructures in solid oxide fuel cells Qun Li, mechanical deformation, and heterogeneous damage accumulation in solid oxide fuel cell anodes J. Appl. Phys oxide fuel cell/gas turbine cycle J. Renewable Sustainable Energy 4, 043115 (2012) Electric

Chen, Long-Qing

40

California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program Advisory, Statutes of 2007) created the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (hereinafter "Program") to be administered by the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission).1 AB 118 authorizes

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

California Energy Commission Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program Advisory by the Energy Commission. Under the Program, the following shall be eligible for funding: 3 · Alternative, Statutes of 2007) created the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (hereinafter

42

The Renewable Fuel Standard and Ethanol Pricing: A Sensitivity Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of biofuel. The current Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel use by 2022. A large proportion of the mandate is to consist of corn-based ethanol. Most ethanol is consumed in the U.S. as a 10 percent blend of ethanol...

McNair, Robert

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

43

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach: Individual simulation modules for each fuel cell type · Tubular SOFC · Planar SOFC · MCFC · PEM Reformer · Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions · H2 electrochemically oxidized only · CO consumed

Mease, Kenneth D.

44

Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Second Generation Renewable Fuels Blue-Green Seminar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will help to bridge the gap between current energy usage and a more sustainable energy future footprint will require commercialization of industrial processes that transform renewable lignocellulosic. In the meantime, technology for renewable fuels must be made ready to facilitate build-out of a new industry

Eustice, Ryan

46

Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Breakout...

47

Solid and gaseous fuels. [Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review covers methods of sampling, analyzing, and testing coal, coke, and coal-derived solids. Energy Research Abstracts and Chemical Abstracts were used as reference sources. The volume of material available made it necessary to limit the number of publications in the review. This review also surveys publications concerned with methods for the chemical, physical, and instrumental analyses of gaseous fuels and related materials. Articles of significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature that were not available at the time of the last review are also included. Chemical Abstracts and Energy Research Abstracts were used extensively as reference sources. Some selectivity was necessary in order to include the most pertinent publications in preparing this review. 386 references.

Schultz, H.; Wells, A.W.; Mima, M.J.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Use of Alternative Fuels in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department, Ris National Laboratory, Technical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of Alternative Fuels in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Anke Hagen Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry on a variety of environmentally benign energy production technologies. Fuel cells can be a key element in this scenario. One of the fuel cells types ­ the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) ­ has a number of advantages

49

Timing for Startup of the Renewable Fuel Standard  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This paper responds to whether or not moving the start date of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) from its currently proposed January 2004 to October 2004 would improve the chances of a smooth transition.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Alternative Renewable Fuels 'Plus' Research and Development Fund (Ontario, Canada)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

"Exploration of new markets and new uses for bioproducts, alternative renewable fuels and their co-products will contribute to the long term sustainability of Ontario's agri-food, energy and rural...

51

PROGRAM OPPORTUNITY NOTICE Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans PON-13-603 http://www.energy.ca.gov/contracts State of California California Energy Commission August 12, 2013 #12;8-9-13 Page i PON-13-603 Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans TablePROGRAM OPPORTUNITY NOTICE Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program

52

Iowa Renewable Fuels Association IRFA | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429 Throttled (bot load)InternationalRenewableIowa Department ofTexas:

53

Property:RenewableFuelStandard/Total | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity Jump to: navigation,WebsiteRenewableBiofuel Jump to: navigation,Total

54

Property:RenewableFuelStandard/UndifferentiatedAdvancedBiofuel | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity Jump to: navigation,WebsiteRenewableBiofuel Jump to:

55

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

None

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

57

Solid fuel applications to transportation engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Patriot Renewable Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoading map...(UtilityCounty,OrleansPassadumkeag, Maine: Energy Resources

59

Renewable Fuel Standards Resources | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartmentnews-flashes OfficeTexasEnergy

60

EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory South Table Mountain Site, Golden, CO EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Renewable Transportation Fuels | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar PowerstoriesNrelPartnerType Jump to:Co Agency/CompanyReferenceFuels Jump to:

62

Renewable Fuel Standard Schedule | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant of Access(California andEnergy Information|Technologies,Fuel

63

Dairy Biomass as a Renewable Fuel Source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biomass. This publication explains the properties of dairy manure that could make it an excellent source of fuel....

Mukhtar, Saqib; Goodrich, Barry; Engler, Cady; Capareda, Sergio

2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

64

Elastomer Compatibility Testing of Renewable Diesel Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the integrity and performance of six elastomers were tested with ethanol-diesel and biodiesel fuel blends.

Frame, E.; McCormick, R. L.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Fuel Cells and Renewable Portfolio Standards  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy FrozenNovember 10, 2014 2014 organized

66

Calgren Renewable Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarreis a city in ChittendenPartnersCabotCollegeJune 30760Calgren

67

Renewable Fuel Vehicles | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant of Access(California andEnergy

68

Renewable Fuels Consulting | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, searchVirginia Blue Ridge AndREII Jump to:RFSL Jump to: navigation,

69

Renewable Fuels Limited RFL | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, searchVirginia Blue Ridge AndREII Jump to:RFSL Jump to: navigation,RFL Jump

70

U.S. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Imports  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand28 198 18 Q 10Origin

71

Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and water concerns associated with fossil fuel based electric power generation. The NETL Fuel Cell Program maintains a portfolio of RD&D projects that address the technical issues...

73

Renewable Fuel Standards Program Update | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartmentnews-flashes OfficeTexasEnergy DieselRenewablePlants

74

The Quest for Sustainable Energy Renewable fuel is at the heart of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Quest for Sustainable Energy Renewable fuel is at the heart of Government energy policy be cheaper than other fuels The Quest for Sustainable Energy Renewable fuel is at the heart of Government

75

Modeling of solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A comprehensive membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)s is developed to investigate the effect of various design and operating conditions on the cell performance and to examine the underlying ...

Lee, Won Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells FAQs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite CulturalDepartment2) 1/8 5/15/11Solicitingcontinuted)forFAQs

77

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources What Is Biodiesel?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The use of vegetable oil as a fuel source in diesel engines is as old as the diesel engine itself. However, the demand to develop and utilize plant oils and animal fats as biodiesel fuels has been limited until recently. The technical definition of biodiesel is: “The mono alkyl esters of long fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstock such as vegetable oils or animal fats, for use in compression ignition (diesel) engines ” (National Biodiesel Board, 1996). In simple terms, biodiesel is a renewable fuel manufactured from methanol and vegetable oil, animal fats, and recycled cooking fats (U.S. Department of Energy, 2006). The term “biodiesel ” itself is often misrepresented and misused. Biodiesel only refers to 100 % pure fuel (B100) that meets the definition above and specific standards given

Shawn P. Conley; Department Of Agronomy

78

A Biennially Renewable Fuel Resource: Woodchips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and perpetually fueled by a ten thousand acre resource (assuming spontaneously dried woodchips and 700/0 load factor). Utilizing non-prime lands for the production of "hybrid poplars" one acre can generate the woodfuel equivalent of 40 barrels of oil ($8/bbl... and storing a usable 250 million BTU (mBTU) per acre per year on a biennial harvest. During harvest the entire tree is chipped and hauled to a facility employing the use of a wood fired system for "power" or "heat." The green woodchips (approx. 55...

Krantz, B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

List of Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Incentives | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolar (Texas)BiofuelsInsulation

80

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdf Flash2006-53.pdf0.pdf Flash2008-50.pdf5.pdfTechnologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) |

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic. Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing...

82

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas...

83

Model documentation: Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it related to the production of the 1994 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO94) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves two purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources -- wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. Of these six, four are documented in the following chapters: municipal solid waste, wind, solar and biofuels. Geothermal and wood are not currently working components of NEMS. The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological and cost characteristics of renewable energy technologies, and to pass these characteristics to other NEMS modules for the determination of mid-term forecasted renewable energy demand.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides.

Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Revised)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage » SearchEnergyDepartmentScoping Study |4 SolarPVSolar Viewed asatSolid Oxide

88

NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Project Portfolio  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Opticalhttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifAEnergy2014 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Project

89

NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Publications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Opticalhttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifAEnergy2014 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

90

Solid oxide MEMS-based fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

91

Solid polymer MEMS-based fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

92

Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1995 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO95) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources--wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. The RFM also reads in hydroelectric facility capacities and capacity factors from a data file for use by the NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM). The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological, cost and resource size characteristics of renewable energy technologies. These characteristics are used to compute a levelized cost to be competed against other similarly derived costs from other energy sources and technologies. The competition of these energy sources over the NEMS time horizon determines the market penetration of these renewable energy technologies. The characteristics include available energy capacity, capital costs, fixed operating costs, variable operating costs, capacity factor, heat rate, construction lead time, and fuel product price.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

94

Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel Matthew Eisaman and their impact · Technology: Extracting CO2 from seawater · Application: Renewable liquid fuel #12;Outline: Renewable liquid fuel #12;The data on atmospheric CO2 2000 years ago http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2

Homes, Christopher C.

95

Overview of An Analysis Project for Renewable Biogas / Fuel Cell Technologies (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presentation on renewable biogas: as an opportunity for commercialization of fuel cells presented as part of a panel discussion at the 2009 Fuel Cell Seminar, Palm Springs, CA.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

96

Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With ŤRenewable...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Robert Wagner, 062111 Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Brian West Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center Oak Ridge...

97

Renewables  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories » Removing nuclear waste, one shipmentRenewables

98

Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low cost, colloidal deposition methods have been utilized to produce novel solid oxide fuel cell structures on metal alloy support electrodes. YSZ films were deposited on iron-chrome supports on top of a thin Ni/YSZ catalytic layer, and sintered at 1350 degrees C, in a reducing atmosphere. Dense, 20??m YSZ electrolyte films were obtained on highly porous stainless steel substrates.

Villarreal, I.; Jacobson, C.; Leming, A.; Matus, Y.; Visco, S.; De Jonghe, L.

2003-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

99

Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy Frozen TelescopeRenewable and Waste Fuels

100

Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

Bischoff, Brian L. (Knoxville, TN); Sutton, Theodore G. (Kingston, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Generator configuration for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are improvements in a solid oxide fuel cell generator 1 having a multiplicity of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells 2, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen-containing gas is passed over the other side of said cells resulting in the generation of heat and electricity. The improvements comprise arranging the cells in the configuration of a circle, a spiral, or folded rows within a cylindrical generator, and modifying the flow rate, oxygen concentration, and/or temperature of the oxygen-containing gases that flow to those cells that are at the periphery of the generator relative to those cells that are at the center of the generator. In these ways, a more uniform temperature is obtained throughout the generator.

Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable transportation energy capable system. The prime energy for this project comes from an agreement with a wind turbine operator.

Garabedian, Harold T.

2008-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

104

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700.degree. C. and 1100.degree. C.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Plainfield, IL); Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Solid oxide fuel cell process and apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Conveying gas containing sulfur through a sulfur tolerant planar solid oxide fuel cell (PSOFC) stack for sulfur scrubbing, followed by conveying the gas through a non-sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack. The sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack utilizes anode materials, such as LSV, that selectively convert H.sub.2S present in the fuel stream to other non-poisoning sulfur compounds. The remaining balance of gases remaining in the completely or near H.sub.2S-free exhaust fuel stream is then used as the fuel for the conventional PSOFC stack that is downstream of the sulfur-tolerant PSOFC. A broad range of fuels such as gasified coal, natural gas and reformed hydrocarbons are used to produce electricity.

Cooper, Matthew Ellis (Morgantown, WV); Bayless, David J. (Athens, OH); Trembly, Jason P. (Durham, NC)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is...

107

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is an attractive, efficient, clean source of power for transportation, military, and stationary applications. Delphi has pioneered its application as an auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for transportation. Delphi is also interested in marketing this technology for stationary applications. Its key advantages are high efficiency and compatibility with gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel. It's consistent with mechanizations that support the trend to low emissions. Delphi is committed to working with customers and partners to bring this novel technology to market.

J. Weber

2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

109

May 19-21, 2003 Ris International Energy Conference No 1 Solid Oxide Fuel CellsSolid Oxide Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 19-21, 2003 Risř International Energy Conference No 1 Solid Oxide Fuel CellsSolid Oxide Fuel #12;May 19-21, 2003 Risř International Energy Conference No 3 IntroductionIntroduction · "Fuel cells few moving parts" · "Solid oxide technology may prove to be the most reliable of fuel cell power

110

SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

111

Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas. Reversible Poisoning of the NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen...

112

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power System Development at PNNL  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power S t D l t t PNNL S t D l t t PNNL System Development at PNNL System Development at PNNL Larry Chick Energy Materials...

113

SULFUR-TOLERANT CATALYST FOR THE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??JP-8 fuel is easily accessible, transportable, and has hydrogen content essential to solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation. However, this syngas has sulfur content which… (more)

Bozeman, Joe Frank, III

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Perspective of Dynamic Modeling and Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Perspective of Dynamic Modeling and Control Biao Huang Yutong Qi Monjur: This paper presents a review of state-of-the-art solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), from perspective of dynamic. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Control Relevant Model, Model Predictive Control 1. INTRODUCTION Today

Huang, Biao

115

Ris National Laboratory Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risø National Laboratory Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Year 2007 Paper Højgaard Jensen1, Jørgen B. Bilde-Sørensen3, Mogens Mogensen1 1Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry-Sørensen3 , Mogens Mogensen1 1 Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department, Risø National Laboratory

116

Integration and Dynamics of a Renewable Regenerative Hydrogen Fuel Cell System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integration and Dynamics of a Renewable Regenerative Hydrogen Fuel Cell System by Alvin Peter, hydrogen and electricity storage, and fuel cells. A special design feature of this test bed is the ability of the author. #12;ii Supervisory Committee Integration and Dynamics of a Renewable Regenerative Hydrogen Fuel

Victoria, University of

117

Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2}) that simulates the composition of the coal syngas. At 800 C, the stack achieved a power density of 1176 W, which represents the largest power level demonstrated for CO in the literature. Although the FB-DCFC performance results obtained in this project were definitely encouraging and promising for practical applications, DCFC approaches pose significant technical challenges that are specific to the particular DCFC scheme employed. Long term impact of coal contaminants, particularly sulfur, on the stability of cell components and cell performance is a critically important issue. Effective current collection in large area cells is another challenge. Lack of kinetic information on the Boudouard reactivity of wide ranging solid fuels, including various coals and biomass, necessitates empirical determination of such reaction parameters that will slow down development efforts. Scale up issues will also pose challenges during development of practical FB-DCFC prototypes for testing and validation. To overcome some of the more fundamental problems, initiation of federal support for DCFC is critically important for advancing and developing this exciting and promising technology for third generation electricity generation from coal, biomass and other solid fuels including waste.

Turgut Gur

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

118

Mandating green: On the design of renewable fuel policies and cost containment mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mandating green: On the design of renewable fuel policies and cost containment mechanisms Gabriel E Workshop and at the Stanford University Precourt Energy Efficiency Center Sustainable Transportation

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

119

Webinar: Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Video recording and text version of the webinar titled "Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies," originally presented on August 19, 2014.

120

Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Abstract: The operation of solid oxide fuel cells...

122

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Victoria A. Liem and Jeongmin Ahn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Victoria A. Liem and Jeongmin Ahn Introduction to Multiscale Engineering With the continually increasing demand of fuel in modern times and the long-term goal of sustainability, fuel cell technology has become important and vital to further advancement in energy production. Solid oxide fuel cells

Collins, Gary S.

123

Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs. 11 figs.

Riley, B.

1988-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

124

Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich's solution and analysis.

Fuller, T.F.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to test fuel cell components at a scale and under conditions that can be accurately extrapolated to full system performance. This requires specially designed equipment that replicates the pressure (up to 6.5 bara), temperature (about 910 C), anode and cathode gas compositions, flows and power generation density of the full scale design. The SBTS fuel cell anode gas is produced through the reaction of pipeline natural gas with a mixture of steam, CO2, and O2 in a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor. Production of the fuel cell anode gas in this manner provides the capability to test a fuel cell with varying anode gas compositions ranging from traditional reformed natural gas to a coal-syngas surrogate fuel. Stark State College and RRFCS have a history of collaboration. This is based upon SSCAs commitment to provide students with skills for advanced energy industries, and RRFCS need for a workforce that is skilled in high temperature fuel cell development and testing. A key to this approach is the access of students to unique SOFC test and evaluation equipment. This equipment is designed and developed by RRFCS, with the participation of SSC interns. In the near-term, the equipment will be used by RRFCS for technology development. When this stage is completed, and RRFCS has moved to commercial products, SSC will utilize this equipment for workforce training. The RRFCS fuel cell design is based upon a unique ceramic substrate architecture in which a porous, flat substrate (tube) provides the support structure for a network of solid oxide fuel cells that are electrically connected in series. These tubes are grouped into a {approx}350-tube repeat configuration, called a stack/block. Stack/block testing, performed at system conditions, provides data that can be confidently scaled to full scale performance. This is the basis for the specially designed and developed test equipment that is required for advancing and accelerating the RRFCS SOFC power system development program. All contract DE-EE0003229 objectives were achieved and deliverables completed during the peri

Susan Shearer - Stark State College; Gregory Rush - Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Renewable Energy Policy Network and Worldwatch Institute, 2009. National ties Energy and Board, challenges to Canada.

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for...

128

NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable fuel. These fuels will be converted to energy while reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from power generating boilers and mitigating global warming concerns. This report describes the sludge analysis, solid fuel preparation and production, combustion performance, environmental emissions and required equipment.

Hamid Farzan

2001-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

129

Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

N. -O. Field Testing of NExBTL Renewable Diesel in HelsinkiAakko, P. ; Harju, T. NExBTL-Biodiesel Fuel of the SecondAakko, P. ; Harju, T. NExBTL-Biodiesel Fuel of the Second

Hajbabaei, Maryam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each of the blocks includes a square center channel which forms a vertical shaft when the blocks are arranged in a stacked array. Positioned within the channel is a SOFC unit cell such that a plurality of such SOFC units disposed within a vertical shaft form a string of SOFC units coupled in series. A first pair of facing inner walls of each of the blocks each include an interconnecting channel hole cut horizontally and vertically into the block walls to form gas exit channels. A second pair of facing lateral walls of each block further include a pair of inner half circular grooves which form sleeves to accommodate anode fuel and cathode air tubes. The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs.

Riley, Brian (Willimantic, CT)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

Ackerman, J.P.; Young, J.E.

1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

132

Climate policy and the airline industry : emissions trading and renewable jet fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I assess the impact of the current EU Emissions Trading Scheme and a hypothetical renewable jet fuel mandate on US airlines. I find that both the EU Scheme up until 2020 and a renewable jet fuel mandate of ...

McConnachie, D. (Dominic Alistair)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Market Cost of Renewable Jet Fuel Adoption in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

model of the aviation industry. If soybean oil is used as a feedstock, we find that meeting the aviationMarket Cost of Renewable Jet Fuel Adoption in the United States Niven Winchester, Dominic Mc on recycled paper #12;1 Market Cost of Renewable Jet Fuel Adoption in the United States Niven Winchester

134

High power density solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

135

POLYMERIC MICROCOMBUSTORS FOR SOLID-PHASE CONDUCTIVE FUELS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustor for the ignition and reaction of solid conductive fuels. Solid fuels can he made conductive, the hum rate of fuel in the overall combustor can he decoupled from the chemical reaction rate by changing igniter volume density; the combustor housing can be made of a low-temperature, low-cost mate

136

Nikolaos Bonanos Fuel Cells & Solid State Chemistry Dept.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nikolaos Bonanos Fuel Cells & Solid State Chemistry Dept. Risø, Technical University of Denmark, P Oxide Fuel Cells, Genova, Italy, 22-24 October 2007 nikolaos.bonanos@risoe.dk Materials for SPFCs conductors I: Danish-French workshop on solid state materials for low to medium temperature fuel cells

137

Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich`s solution and analysis.

Fuller, T.F.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GHG intensity among fossil fuels. We ?nd that the relativeunder a RFS while world fossil fuel price is the same orwith the more-polluting fossil fuels being consumed abroad

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Optimization of solid oxide fuel cell interconnect design.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is dependent of a set of complex physical and chemical processes occurring simultaneously. Interconnect for SOFC is important… (more)

Pulagam, Krishna C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600 C than conventional manganite or cobaltite cathodes.

S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

142

Open end protection for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell (40) having a closed end (44) and an open end (42) operates in a fuel cell generator (10) where the fuel cell open end (42) of each fuel cell contains a sleeve (60, 64) fitted over the open end (42), where the sleeve (60, 64) extends beyond the open end (42) of the fuel cell (40) to prevent degradation of the interior air electrode of the fuel cell by fuel gas during operation of the generator (10).

Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Tomlins, Gregory W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Toms, James M. (Irwin, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA); Schmidt, Douglas S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Zelienople, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Nanoengineered Thin Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because of their high energy efficiency, flexible fuel selections and clean energy conversion. To avoid cell cracking and formation of non-conducting compounds...

Su, Qing

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

144

Model documentation, Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. For AEO98, the RFM was modified in three principal ways, introducing capital cost elasticities of supply for new renewable energy technologies, modifying biomass supply curves, and revising assumptions for use of landfill gas from municipal solid waste (MSW). In addition, the RFM was modified in general to accommodate projections beyond 2015 through 2020. Two supply elasticities were introduced, the first reflecting short-term (annual) cost increases from manufacturing, siting, and installation bottlenecks incurred under conditions of rapid growth, and the second reflecting longer term natural resource, transmission and distribution upgrade, and market limitations increasing costs as more and more of the overall resource is used. Biomass supply curves were also modified, basing forest products supplies on production rather than on inventory, and expanding energy crop estimates to include states west of the Mississippi River using information developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Finally, for MSW, several assumptions for the use of landfill gas were revised and extended.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Fuel Cell Power PlantsFuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

z ETHANOL z WASTE METHANE z BIOGASz BIOGAS z COAL GAS Diversity of Fuels plus High Efficiency ­ High

146

Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and storage and green manufacturing. Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science BostonUday Pal Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro- chemical for the commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are its high manufacturing and material costs expressed in terms

Lin, Xi

147

Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Market Cost of Renewable Jet Fuel Adoption in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet fuel is consumed by the US aviation industry each year from 2018. We examine the cost to US airlines of meeting this goal ...

Winchester, N.

149

What Has the Federal Renewable Fuels Standard Accomplished - A National Perspective (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of the nation's biofuels industry accomplishments and a perspective on the challenges and implications of reaching goals set in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS).

Schwab, A.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

A techno-economic and environmental assessment of hydroprocessed renewable distillate fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a model to quantify the economic costs and environmental impacts of producing fuels from hydroprocessed renewable oils (HRO) process. Aspen Plus was used to model bio-refinery operations and supporting ...

Pearlson, Matthew Noah

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

152

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageEmerging Fuels Printable Version Share this resource Send a

153

Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet Using Biodiesel Fuel in Your Engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet Using Biodiesel Fuel in Your Engine introduction Biodiesel is an engine fuel that is created by chemically reacting fatty acids and alcohol. Practically sodium hydroxide). Biodiesel is much more suitable for use as an engine fuel than straight vegetable oil

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

154

Webinar: Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Energy Department will present a webinar titled "Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies" on Tuesday, August 19, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT). The webinar will feature representatives from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presenting a unique opportunity for the integration of multiple sectors including transportation, industrial, heating fuel, and electric sectors on hydrogen.

155

Tubular screen electrical connection support for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel assembly is made of fuel cells (16, 16', 18, 24, 24', 26), each having an outer interconnection layer (36) and an outer electrode (28), which are disposed next to each other with rolled, porous, hollow, electrically conducting metal mesh conductors (20, 20') between the fuel cells, connecting the fuel cells at least in series along columns (15, 15') and where there are no metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

Tomlins, Gregory W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Jaszcar, Michael P. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from the GridwiseSite Management GuideReliabilityDepartmentSolicitation-RelatedSolid

157

Proceedings of the Lucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, 3-7 July 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of the Lucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 7th European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, 3-7 July performance. #12;Proceedings of the Lucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 7th European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, 3

Yildiz, Bilge

158

Solid oxide fuel cell operable over wide temperature range  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

relates domestic crude oil consumption q c to the marginalDomestic ROW Total Crude oil consumption (mbpd) Domestic ROWcrude oil fuels while achieving a total level of biofuel consumption.

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Ris National Laboratory Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risø National Laboratory Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Year 2006 Paper 5883 A model describing the performance of a fuel cell based on 10 mole% gadolinia doped ceria, Ce0 of the measurements are compared with predictions of the formulated model. Furthermore, the response of a fuel cell

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Environmental Law and Fossil Fuels: Barriers to Renewable Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article is concerned with renewable energy’s too-slow transition and with how existing legal regimes work to preserve fossil energy dominance. It develops from two related claims: that an implicit support structure for fossil energy is written...

Outka, Uma

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Understanding and Informing the Policy Environment: State-Level Renewable Fuels Standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Renewable fuels standard (RFS) policies are becoming a popular public policy mechanism for developing the market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. During the past decade, U.S. states and several countries began implementing these more market-based (less command and control) policies to support increased biofuels production and use. This paper presents an overview of current and proposed U.S. state-level policies, as well as selected electric sector policies and international fuel standard policies. Current U.S. state-level renewable fuel policies list drivers including an improved economy and environment, as well as fuel self-sufficiency. Best practices and experience from an evaluation of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in the United States and international RFS policies can inform U.S. state-level policy by illustrating the importance of policy flexibility, binding targets, effective cost caps, and tradable permits. Understanding and building on the experiences from these previous policies can improve the policy mechanism and further develop a market for renewable fuels to meet the goals of improved economy, environment, and fuel self-sufficiency.

Brown, E.; Cory, K.; Arent, D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Renewable Fuels Association's National Ethanol Conference | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartmentEnergy DataRemediatedLands ||Technologies

164

DEVELOPMENT OF A RENEWABLE HYDROGEN PRODUCITON AND FUEL CELL EDUCATION  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebratePartners withof Energy NONEXCLUSIVEDEPARTMENT

165

Property:RenewableFuelStandard/AdvancedBiofuel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity Jump to: navigation,Website PropertyRegulationsAdvancedBiofuel Jump

166

Property:RenewableFuelStandard/CellulosicBiofuel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity Jump to: navigation,Website

167

Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

168

City of Tulare Renewable Biogas Fuel Cell Project  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth DayFuels ChemicalChrisCincinnatinear2011 |CityC C i i

169

Fuel Cells & Renewable Portfolio Standards | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdf Flash2006-53.pdf0.pdfCost Savings |Safety, Codes and StandardsFuel

170

Fuel Cells and Renewable Portfolio Standards | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdf Flash2006-53.pdf0.pdfCost Savings |Safety, Codes and StandardsFuelCells

171

Renewable Fuel Vehicle Modeling and Analysis | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartmentnews-flashes OfficeTexasEnergyFuel Vehicle Modeling and

172

FY 2014 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Project Selections  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In FY 2014, nine research projects focused on advancing the reliability, robustness, and endurance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have been selected for funding by Office of Fossil Energy’s...

173

Thermodynamic optimization of a planar solid oxide fuel cell.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high temperature (600C-1000C) composite metallic/ceramic-cermet electrochemical devices. There is a need to effectively manage the heat transfer through the… (more)

Ford, James Christopher

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Nanostructured thin films for solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goals of this work were to synthesize high performance perovskite based thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TF-SOFC) cathodes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), to study the structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of these cathodes...

Yoon, Jongsik

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Stack configurations for tubular solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell unit includes an array of solid oxide fuel cell tubes having porous metallic exterior surfaces, interior fuel cell layers, and interior surfaces, each of the tubes having at least one open end; and, at least one header in operable communication with the array of solid oxide fuel cell tubes for directing a first reactive gas into contact with the porous metallic exterior surfaces and for directing a second reactive gas into contact with the interior surfaces, the header further including at least one busbar disposed in electrical contact with at least one surface selected from the group consisting of the porous metallic exterior surfaces and the interior surfaces.

Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Trammell, Michael P. (Clinton, TN); Marasco, Joseph A. (Kingston, TN)

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

Connections for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A connection for fuel cell assemblies is disclosed. The connection includes compliant members connected to individual fuel cells and a rigid member connected to the compliant members. Adjacent bundles or modules of fuel cells are connected together by mechanically joining their rigid members. The compliant/rigid connection permits construction of generator fuel cell stacks from basic modular groups of cells of any desired size. The connections can be made prior to installation of the fuel cells in a generator, thereby eliminating the need for in-situ completion of the connections. In addition to allowing pre-fabrication, the compliant/rigid connections also simplify removal and replacement of sections of a generator fuel cell stack.

Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Integrating Multiple Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modules* Burak Ozpineci1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

than traditional generators even though they still have an important level of greenhouse gas (CO2 for more than a century. Today, as conventional fossil energy supplies, such as oil, coal and natural gas of Energy's Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program [3] is targeting solid oxide fuel cell

Tolbert, Leon M.

179

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology, U.S. Department ofOxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Institute of Combustion Problems, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan)

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Oxide Fuel Cells PARTICIPANTS Name Organization Robert Ploessl Corning, Inc. Tim Armstrong Oak Ridge National Laboratory Barbara Heydorn SRI International Suresh Baskaran...

182

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomenthe House Committee on Energy andDepartment ofAnShare yourAof EnergyHeliosFE

183

NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating Principles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Opticalhttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifAEnergy

184

List of Renewable Fuel Vehicles Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolarList ofPassive Solar SpaceStations

185

List of Renewable Fuels Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolarList ofPassive Solar SpaceStationsIncentives

186

List of Renewable Transportation Fuels Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolarList ofPassive Solar

187

Baylor University - Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 EastMaine:Barbers Point Housing,Illinois:CountyNew York: EnergyTexas ASHRAEEnergy

188

Template:Set RenewableFuelStandard | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-gTaguspark Jump to: navigation,TelluricTODO: Would be nice

189

Southeast Renewable Fuels LLC SRF | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd JumpGTZHolland, Illinois:5717551° LoadingSoutheastSRF Jump to: navigation,

190

Property:RenewableFuelStandard/Year | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExploration Jump to:FieldProceduresFYID6/OrganizationID8/Website PropertymaterialYear

191

Renewable Fuel Supply Ltd RFSL | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, searchVirginia Blue Ridge AndREII Jump to:RFSL Jump to: navigation, search

192

NREL: State and Local Governments - Renewable Fuel Standards  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andData and Resources NREL resource assessmentFuel Standards A

193

US Navy Tactical Fuels From Renewable Sources Program | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyTheTwo New Energyof Energy8,November

194

Economic and emissions impacts of renewable fuel goals for aviation in the US*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accepted 1 October 2013 Keywords: Aviation Biofuels Climate change Emissions abatement a b s t r a c t The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet fuel that meeting the aviation biofuel goal in 2020 will require an implicit subsidy from airlines to bio- fuel

195

Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News TUESDAY 25 MAY, 2010 | | Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel by Energy Matters Microbiologist Derek Lovley of energy, the solar panels, can also harvest energy 100 times more effectively than plants. Other

Lovley, Derek

196

New materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells to be powered by carbon- and sulfur-containing fuels.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Unlike polymer electrolyte fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have the potential to use a wide variety of fuels, including hydrocarbons and gasified coal or… (more)

Yang, Lei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Apparatus tube configuration and mounting for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A generator apparatus is made containing long, hollow, tubular, fuel cells containing an inner air electrode, an outer fuel electrode, and solid electrolyte there between, placed between a fuel distribution board and a board which separates the combustion chamber from the generating chamber, where each fuel cell has an insertable open end and in insertable, plugged, closed end, the plugged end being inserted into the fuel distribution board and the open end being inserted through the separator board where the plug is completely within the fuel distribution board. 3 figures.

Zymboly, G.E.

1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

198

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

order for the low carbon fuel standard, 2012. URL http://mediated e?ects of low carbon fuel policies. AgBioForum, 15(Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? American

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration Presentation by Acumentrics...

200

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

increase in fuel consumers’ and ethanol producers’ surplusof cane ethanol, higher emissions, lower expenditure on fuelthe sum of fuel consumer, oil producer, and ethanol producer

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

DEVELOPMENT OF A RENEWABLE HYDROGEN PRODUCITON AND FUEL CELL...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Publications GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems at Virginia Tech Education and Outreach Fact Sheet Hydrogen Education Curriculum Path at Michigan Technological University...

202

Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Energy Storage: Experimental analysis and modeling Monterey Gardiner U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office 2 Question and Answer * Please type your...

203

COLLOQUIUM: Renewable Fuels and Chemicals | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6Energy, science,Principles ofPhysics Lab JanuaryPhysics19,

204

Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell Technologies  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartment ofThe full text of what isAnalysis Under NEPAFuel

205

Increasing Renewable Energy with Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cell  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA,Fermi NationalBusiness PlanPosting of| DepartmentIncreasing

206

Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - Renewable Fuels Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOil and Natural8U.S.NA NAOil and Gas

207

California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel | Department of  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergy Cooperation |South42.2 (AprilBiden2 Categorical ExclusionOrderEconomy Higher |

208

Renewable & Alternative Fuels - U.S. Energy Information Administration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORV 15051Soil Vapor ExtractionRenae

209

Mass spectrometry on bio-renewable fuels | The Ames Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the Nanoscale Landscape PrintSurveyMaryspectrometry on

210

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuelsPropane Tank Overfill Safety AdvisoryRefuse

211

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Renewable Electrolysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions and Achievements ofLiz TorresSolectriaProjects Photo of person

212

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Landfills Convert Biogas Into Renewable  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuels in ItsStationHydrogenNatural Gas Landfills

213

Sandia National Laboratories: California Alternative and Renewable Fuel and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0Energy Advanced NuclearBASFBoeingPhysicsResourcesCSPCSPCSTVehicle

214

2011 RENEWABLE ENERGY: SOLAR FUELS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conference will present and discuss current science that underlies solar fuels production, and will focus on direct production pathways for production. Thus, recent advances in design and understanding of molecular systems and materials for light capture and conversion of relevance for solar fuels will be discussed. An important set of topics will be homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological catalysts for the multi-electron processes of water oxidation, hydrogen production and carbon dioxide reduction to useful fuels. Also, progress towards integrated and scalable systems will be presented. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program.

Joseph Hupp

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

215

Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd: ScopeDepartment1, DOE/SC-0095 Breakng theBreaking5: Solid

216

EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergy DOEDealingVehicle1 Closing the2-A Dynegy PowerA62-SA-1:Renewable

217

Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Renewable energy annual 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Utilizing Bioenergy By-products in Beef Production Systems The newly expanded renewable fuels standard requires 36 billion gallons of renewable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilizing Bioenergy By-products in Beef Production Systems The newly expanded renewable fuels studies. Current research focuses on impacts of feeding by-prod- ucts of the bioenergy industry on Animal

220

Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Dieseland Specifications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviewstheir Reduction Approaches. Renewable and Sustainable Energy

Hajbabaei, Maryam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable electricity with economic base-load operation of the reactor.

Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Project Information Form Project Title Designing and Analyzing Policies for Renewable Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or organization) US DOT $38,942 Total Project Cost $38,942 Agency ID or Contract Number DTRT13-G-UTC29 StartProject Information Form Project Title Designing and Analyzing Policies for Renewable Fuels and End Dates September 1, 2014 to August 31, 2015 Brief Description of Research Project Federal and state

California at Davis, University of

224

Project Information Form Project Title Designing and Analyzing Policies for Renewable Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or organization) US DOT $38,925 Total Project Cost $38,925 Agency ID or Contract Number DTRT13-G-UTC29 StartProject Information Form Project Title Designing and Analyzing Policies for Renewable Fuels and End Dates September 1, 2014 to August 31, 2015 Brief Description of Research Project Federal and state

California at Davis, University of

225

Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production: Commercial Facilities · Applicant's Legal Name: Yokayo Biofuels, Inc. · Name of project: A Catalyst for Success · Project Description: Yokayo Biofuels, an industry veteran with over 10 years experience

226

Model documentation Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the objectives, analaytical approach and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1996 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Fuels generated from renewable energy: a possible solution for large scale energy storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(CSP)Concentrating solar power (CSP) Light electricity Photovoltaic conversion (PV) #12;4/22/2012 4 Energy System Gas (or fossil) Plant Sun or Wind Energy Plant Sun Fossil Wind Water Liquid fuels or raw #12;4/22/2012 9 Electricity grid Indirect Towards the Renewable Energy System Gas (or fossil) Plant

Franssen, Michael

228

Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

229

Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Zafred, Paolo R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

PON08010 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Cost Share: Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program Questions and Answers 4/27/09 to 5/1/09 Two questions (How far's solicitation "seek and obtain an award" through a federal ARRA solicitation. 3) May a project producing bio and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program. The Energy Commission recommends that you submit a pre

231

Novel Low Temperature Solid State Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have successfully fabricated (PrBa)Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} and (LaBa)Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+{deleta}} epitaxial thin film on various single crystal substrates. Physical and electrochemical properties characterizations were carried out. Highly conductive oxygen-deficient double perovskite LnBaCo2O5+? thin films were grown on single crystal (001) SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), (001) MgO, (001) LaAlO{sub 3} and (110) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate by pulsed laser deposition. Microstructure studies from synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy. High temperature transport properties was carried in different atmosphere (O{sub 2},Air, N{sub 2}) up to ~900K. Resistance response of (LaBa)Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} epitaxial thin film was characterized in oxygen, nitrogen and 4% hydrogen over a wide range of temperature from 400?C up to 800?C. To determine the electrode performance and oxygen exchange kinetics of PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}}, multi-layered thin film based half cell was deposited on LaAlO{sub 3}(001) substrate. The temperature dependence of the resistance of this half ?cell structure was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) within different temperature and gas environments. Anode supported fuel cells, with GCO:YSZ multilayer thin film as electrolyte and PBCO thin film as electrode, are fabricated on tape casted NiO/YSZ substrate. Full cell performance is characterized up to 800?C.

Chen, Chonglin; Nash, Patrick; Liu, Jian; Collins, Gregory

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array.

Minh, Nguyen Q. (Fountain Valley, CA); Horne, Craig R. (Redondo Beach, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array. 10 figures.

Minh, N.Q.; Horne, C.R.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Unit (APU) for Long Haul Trucks Supports "hotel load" so ICE can be shut down at night. RunsSolid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes Larry Chick/Mike Rinker Energy 810G Method 514.6 Annex C "Truck and Transportation Over US Highways" ·10-800 Hz, 3 Axes ·Simulated

235

Review article Components manufacturing for solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reduction with respect to low-cost materials and simpler processing techniques, and the improvement of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components is given and the fabrication techniques of ceramic components are summarized for the different types of SOFCs. Generally, a tendency towards up-scalable and automatizable

Gleixner, Stacy

236

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

2004-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

237

Five Kilowatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Diesel Reformer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reducing fossil fuel consumption both for energy security and for reduction in global greenhouse emissions has been a major goal of energy research in the US for many years. Fuel cells have been proposed as a technology that can address both these issues--as devices that convert the energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy, they offer low emissions and high efficiencies. These advantages are of particular interest to remote power users, where grid connected power is unavailable, and most electrical power comes from diesel electric generators. Diesel fuel is the fuel of choice because it can be easily transported and stored in quantities large enough to supply energy for small communities for extended periods of time. This projected aimed to demonstrate the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on diesel fuel, and to measure the resulting efficiency. Results from this project have been somewhat encouraging, with a laboratory breadboard integration of a small scale diesel reformer and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell demonstrated in the first 18 months of the project. This initial demonstration was conducted at INEEL in the spring of 2005 using a small scale diesel reformer provided by SOFCo and a fuel cell provided by Acumentrics. However, attempts to integrate and automate the available technology have not proved successful as yet. This is due both to the lack of movement on the fuel processing side as well as the rather poor stack lifetimes exhibited by the fuel cells. Commercial product is still unavailable, and precommercial devices are both extremely expensive and require extensive field support.

Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (?LGFCS?) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

Haberman, Ben; Martinez-Baca, Carlos; Rush, Greg

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

239

ELECTRODE DEVELOPMENT FOR REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reversibility of the electrodes for a solid oxide fuel cell with an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte was examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current interrupt methods. The fuel electrodes were nickel/zirconia cermet and lanthanum-doped strontium titanate/doped ceria composites. The air electrodes were lanthanum strontium ferrite (LSF) and lanthanum strontium copper ferrite (LSCuF). Under the experimental conditions studied all four electrodes were able to operate in both the fuel cell and electrolyzer modes. The titanate/ceria fuel electrode performed substantially better in the electrolyzer mode than state-of-art Ni-YSZ. Moreover, it showed slightly higher activity for water electrolysis as compared to hydrogen oxidation. Air electrodes were less active in the electrolyzer than fuel cell modes. LSF typically provided higher overpotential losses in both modes than copper-substituted LSF. Changes in the defect chemistry of electrode materials under cathodic and anodic polarization are discussed.

Marina, Olga A.; Coffey, Greg W.; Pederson, Larry R.; Rieke, Peter C.; Thomsen, Ed C.; Williams, Mark C.

2004-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

240

Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels contributes far more to global  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels contributes far more to global warming Researchers ScienceDaily (July 30, 2010) -- Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels analyzed the impacts of soot from fossil fuels -- diesel, coal, gasoline, jet fuel -- and from solid

242

High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii CleanHeatinHighMetal Removalcost

243

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

Unknown

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project demonstrated the technical viability of pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters, as well as the input fuel flexibility of the PSOFC. PSOFC operation was demonstrated on natural gas and denatured ethanol. The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project goals were to acquire, site, and demonstrate the technical viability of a pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters. Additional goals included educating local permit approval authorities, and other governmental entities about PSOFC technology, existing fuel cell standards and specific code requirements. The project demonstrated the Bloom Energy (BE) PSOFC technology in grid parallel mode, delivering a minimum 15 kW over 8760 operational hours. The PSOFC system demonstrated greater than 81% electricity availability and 41% electrical efficiency (LHV net AC), providing reliable, stable power to a critical, sensitive 911 communications system that serves geographical boundaries of the entire Santa Clara County. The project also demonstrated input fuel flexibility. BE developed and demonstrated the capability to run its prototype PSOFC system on ethanol. BE designed the hardware necessary to deliver ethanol into its existing PSOFC system. Operational parameters were determined for running the system on ethanol, natural gas (NG), and a combination of both. Required modeling was performed to determine viable operational regimes and regimes where coking could occur.

Fred Mitlitsky; Sara Mulhauser; David Chien; Deepak Shukla; David Weingaertner

2009-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

246

Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

247

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet)  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecordFederal7.pdfFlash_2010_-24.pdf Flash_2010_-24.pdf2009 DOEthe GasAdityaan

248

Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Applications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power...

249

Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Applications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)...

250

Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II. In Phase II (June 2001 to December 2004), the project team demonstrated the GranuFlow technology as part of a process to combine paper sludge and coal to produce a composite fuel with combustion and handling characteristics acceptable to existing boilers and fuel handling systems. Bench-scale studies were performed at DOE-NETL, followed by full-scale commercial demonstrations to produce the composite fuel in a 400-tph coal cleaning plant and combustion tests at a 90-MW power plant boiler to evaluate impacts on fuel handling, boiler operations and performance, and emissions. A circuit was successfully installed to re-pulp and inject paper sludge into the fine coal dewatering circuit of a commercial coal-cleaning plant to produce 5,000 tons of a ''composite'' fuel containing about 5% paper sludge. Subsequent combustion tests showed that boiler efficiency and stability were not compromised when the composite fuel was blended with the boiler's normal coal supply. Firing of the composite fuel blend did not have any significant impact on emissions as compared to the normal coal supply, and it did not cause any excursions beyond Title V regulatory limits; all emissions were well within regulatory limits. SO{sub 2} emissions decreased during the composite fuel blend tests as a result of its higher heat content and slightly lower sulfur content as compared to the normal coal supply. The composite fuel contained an extremely high proportion of fines because the parent coal (feedstock to the coal-cleaning plant) is a ''soft'' coal (HGI > 90) and contained a high proportion of fines. The composite fuel was produced and combustion-tested under record wet conditions for the local area. In spite of these conditions, full load was obtained by the boiler when firing the composite fuel blend, and testing was completed without any handling or combustion problems beyond those typically associated with wet coal. Fuel handling and pulverizer performance (mill capacity and outlet temperatures) could become greater concerns when firing composite fuels which contain higher percent

Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

251

Electrical contact structures for solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved electrical output connection means is provided for a high temperature solid oxide electrolyte type fuel cell generator. The electrical connection of the fuel cell electrodes to the electrical output bus, which is brought through the generator housing to be connected to an electrical load line maintains a highly uniform temperature distribution. The electrical connection means includes an electrode bus which is spaced parallel to the output bus with a plurality of symmetrically spaced transversely extending conductors extending between the electrode bus and the output bus, with thermal insulation means provided about the transverse conductors between the spaced apart buses. Single or plural stages of the insulated transversely extending conductors can be provided within the high temperatures regions of the fuel cell generator to provide highly homogeneous temperature distribution over the contacting surfaces.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microstructural Degradation of Ni- YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Karl Thydén Risř-PhD-32(EN 2008 #12;Author: Karl Thydén Title: Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Department: Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Risř-PhD-32(EN) March 2008 This thesis

253

MicroScale Modeling of an AnodeSupported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Micro­Scale Modeling of an Anode­Supported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell P. Chinda1 , W. Wechsatol A micro ­ scale model of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) involving the mass transfer together the available literatures. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Micro ­ Scale Model, Mass Transfer, Electrochemical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

254

Stability and error analysis of the polarization estimation inverse problem for solid oxide fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

describe the performance of a solid oxide fuel cell requires the solution of an inverse problem. Two at the electrodeelectrolyte interfaces of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is investigated physically using ElectrochemicalStability and error analysis of the polarization estimation inverse problem for solid oxide fuel

Renaut, Rosemary

255

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibilityFieldMinds" | National Hansen 1 ,Flexible Fuelan

256

Electrode Performance in Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of several negative (fuel) and positive (air) electrode compositions for use in reversible solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) that are capable of operating both as a fuel cell and as an electrolyzer was investigated in half-cell and full-cell tests. Negative electrode compositions studied were a nickel/zirconia cermet (Ni/YSZ) and lanthanum-substituted strontium titanate/ceria composite, whereas positive electrode compositions examined included mixed ion and electron-conducting lanthanum strontium ferrite (LSF), lanthanum strontium copper ferrite (LSCuF), lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCoF), and lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM). While titanate/ceria and Ni/YSZ electrodes performed similarly in the fuel cell mode in half-cell tests, losses associated with electrolysis were lower for the titanate/ceria electrode. Positive electrodes all gave higher losses in the electrolysis mode when compared to the fuel cell mode. This behavior was most apparent for mixed-conducting LSF, LSCuF, and LSCoF electrodes, and discernible but smaller for LSM; observations are consistent with expected trends in the interfacial oxygen vacancy concentration under anodic and cathodic polarization. Full-cell tests conducted for cells with a thin electrolyte (7 um YSZ) similarly showed higher polarization losses in the electrolysis than fuel cell direction.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Williams, Mark C.; Coffey, Greg W.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Nguyen, Carolyn D.; Thomsen, Ed C.

2007-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

257

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Powered by a Renewable U.S. Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

Not Available

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

EA-1887: Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (DOE/EA-1573-S1)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to make improvements to the Renewable Fuel Heat Plant including construction and operation of a wood chip storage silo and the associated material handling conveyances and utilization of regional wood sources.

259

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID ELECTROLYTES: FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intent of this project with Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to develop research infrastructure conductive to Fuel Cell research at Southern University and A and M College, Baton Route. A state of the art research laboratory (James Hall No.123 and No.114) for energy conversion and storage devices was developed during this project duration. The Solid State Ionics laboratory is now fully equipped with materials research instruments: Arbin Battery Cycling and testing (8 channel) unit, Electrochemical Analyzer (EG and G PAR Model 273 and Solartron AC impedance analyzer), Fuel Cell test station (Globe Tech), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC-10), Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), UV-VIS-NIR Absorption Spectrometer, Fluorescence Spectrometer, FT-IR Spectrometer, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurement capability at Center for Advanced Microstructure and Devices (CAMD- a multimillion dollar DOE facility), Glove Box, gas hood chamber, high temperature furnaces, hydraulic press and several high performance computers. IN particular, a high temperature furnace (Thermodyne 6000 furnace) and a high temperature oven were acquired through this project funds. The PI Dr. R Bobba has acquired additional funds from federal agencies include NSF-Academic Research Infrastructure program and other DOE sites. They have extensively used the multimillion dollar DOE facility ''Center'' for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) for electrochemical research. The students were heavily involved in the experimental EXAFS measurements and made use of their DCM beamline for EXAFS research. The primary objective was to provide hands on experience to the selected African American undergraduate and graduate students in experimental energy research.The goal was to develop research skills and involve them in the Preparation and Characterization of Solid Electrolytes. Ionically conducting solid electrolytes are successfully used for battery, fuel cell and sensor applications.

Rambabu Bobba; Josef Hormes; T. Wang; Jaymes A. Baker; Donald G. Prier; Tommy Rockwood; Dinesha Hawkins; Saleem Hasan; V. Rayanki

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Electroless deposition of electrodes in solid-oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study demonstrates the use of electroless deposition for depositing anode and cathode electrocatalysts in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Ni, Pd, and Ag films produced by electroless deposition techniques were in intimate contact with the electrolyte yttria-stabilized zirconia, and were found to catalyze SOFC anodic and cathodic reactions. Power densities of such cells were in the range of 0.33 W/cm[sup 2] at 800 C. The operating life is low due to agglomeration of the anode and densification of the cathode. For intermediate temperature/range SOFCs electroless deposition is an alternative technique for electrode preparation, if long-term stability can be attained.

Murphy, M.M.; Van Herle, J.; McEvoy, A.J.; Thampi, K.R. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Chimie Physique)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell with ceramic electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell is described having a central electrolyte comprised of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized and rendered ionically conductive by the addition of Ca, Mg, Y, La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy Er, or Yb. The electrolyte is sandwiched between porous electrodes of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized by the addition of a rare earth and rendered electronically conductive by the addition of In.sub.2 O.sub.3. Alternatively, the anode electrode may be made of a metal such as Co, Ni, Ir Pt, or Pd.

Marchant, David D. (Richland, WA); Bates, J. Lambert (Richland, WA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

Nguyen Minh

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

Development of an External Fuel Processor for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 250 kW External Fuel Processor was developed and tested that will supply the gases needed by a pipeline natural gas fueled, solid oxide fuel cell during all modes of operation. The fuel processor consists of three major subsystems--a desulfurizer to remove fuel sulfur to an acceptable level, a synthesis gas generator to support plant heat-up and low load fuel cell operations, and a start gas generator to supply a non-flammable, reducing gas to the fuel cell during startup and shutdown operations. The desulfurization subsystem uses a selective catalytic sulfur oxidation process that was developed for operation at elevated pressure and removes the fuel sulfur to a total sulfur content of less than 80 ppbv. The synthesis gas generation subsystem uses a waterless, catalytic partial oxidation reactor to produce a hydrogen-rich mixture from the natural gas and air. An operating window was defined that allows carbon-free operation while maintaining catalyst temperatures that will ensure long-life of the reactor. The start gas subsystem generates an oxygen-free, reducing gas from the pipeline natural gas using a low-temperature combustion technique. These physically and thermally integrated subsystems comprise the 250 kW External Fuel Processor. The 250 kW External Fuel Processor was tested at the Rolls-Royce facility in North Canton, Ohio to verify process performance and for comparison with design specifications. A step wise operation of the automatic controls through the startup, normal operation and shutdown sequences allowed the control system to be tuned and verified. A fully automated system was achieved that brings the fuel processor through its startup procedure, and then await commands from the fuel cell generator module for fuel supply and shutdown. The fuel processor performance met all design specifications. The 250 kW External Fuel Processor was shipped to an American Electric Power site where it will be tested with a Rolls-Royce solid oxide fuel cell generator module.

Daniel Birmingham; Crispin Debellis; Mark Perna; Anant Upadhyayula

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

264

Iron aluminide alloy container for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A container for fuel cells is made from an iron aluminide alloy. The container alloy preferably includes from about 13 to about 22 weight percent Al, from about 2 to about 8 weight percent Cr, from about 0.1 to about 4 weight percent M selected from Zr and Hf, from about 0.005 to about 0.5 weight percent B or from about 0.001 to about 1 weight percent C, and the balance Fe and incidental impurities. The iron aluminide container alloy is extremely resistant to corrosion and metal loss when exposed to dual reducing and oxidizing atmospheres at elevated temperatures. The alloy is particularly useful for containment vessels for solid oxide fuel cells, as a replacement for stainless steel alloys which are currently used.

Judkins, Roddie Reagan (Knoxville, TN); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Sikka, Vinod Kumar (Oak Ridge, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

The effect of chromium oxyhydroxide on solid oxide fuel cells.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hexavalent chromium species like the oxyhydroxide, CrO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, or hexoxide, CrO{sub 3}, are electrochemically reduced to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in solid oxide fuel cells and adversely affect the cell operating potentials. Using a narrowly focused beam from the Advanced Photon Source, such chromium oxide deposits were unequivocally identified in the active region of the cathode by X-ray diffraction, suggesting that the triple phase boundaries were partially blocked. Under fuel cell operating conditions, the reaction has an equilibrium potential of about 0.9 V and the rate of chromium oxide deposition is therefore dependent on the operating potential of the cell. It becomes diffusion limited after several hours of steady operation. At low operating potentials, lanthanum manganite cathodes begin to be reduced to MnO, which reacts with the chromium oxide to form the MnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel.

Krumpelt, M.; Cruse, T. A.; Ingram, B. J.; Routbort, J. L.; Wang, S.; Salvador, P. A.; Chen, G.; Carnegie Mellon Univ.; NETL; Ohio Univ.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Planar solid oxide fuel cell with staged indirect-internal air and fuel preheating and reformation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell arrangement and method of use that provides internal preheating of both fuel and air in order to maintain the optimum operating temperature for the production of energy. The internal preheat passes are created by the addition of two plates, one on either side of the bipolar plate, such that these plates create additional passes through the fuel cell. This internal preheat fuel cell configuration and method reduce the requirements for external heat exchanger units and air compressors. Air or fuel may be added to the fuel cell as required to maintain the optimum operating temperature through a cathode control valve or an anode control valve, respectively. A control loop comprises a temperature sensing means within the preheat air and fuel passes, a means to compare the measured temperature to a set point temperature and a determination based on the comparison as to whether the control valves should allow additional air or fuel into the preheat or bypass manifolds of the fuel cell.

2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

267

Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000°C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 şC to ~750 şC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Air electrode composition for solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air electrode composition for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The air electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO.sub.3. The A-site of the air electrode composition comprises a mixed lanthanide in combination with rare earth and alkaline earth dopants. The B-site of the composition comprises Mn in combination with dopants such as Mg, Al, Cr and Ni. The mixed lanthanide comprises La, Ce, Pr and, optionally, Nd. The rare earth A-site dopants preferably comprise La, Nd or a combination thereof, while the alkaline earth A-site dopant preferably comprises Ca. The use of a mixed lanthanide substantially reduces raw material costs in comparison with compositions made from high purity lanthanum starting materials. The amount of the A-site and B-site dopants is controlled in order to provide an air electrode composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion which closely matches that of the other components of the solid oxide fuel cell.

Kuo, Lewis (Monroeville, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Air electrode composition for solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air electrode composition for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The air electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO{sub 3}. The A-site of the air electrode composition comprises a mixed lanthanide in combination with rare earth and alkaline earth dopants. The B-site of the composition comprises Mn in combination with dopants such as Mg, Al, Cr and Ni. The mixed lanthanide comprises La, Ce, Pr and, optionally, Nd. The rare earth A-site dopants preferably comprise La, Nd or a combination thereof, while the alkaline earth A-site dopant preferably comprises Ca. The use of a mixed lanthanide substantially reduces raw material costs in comparison with compositions made from high purity lanthanum starting materials. The amount of the A-site and B-site dopants is controlled in order to provide an air electrode composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion which closely matches that of the other components of the solid oxide fuel cell. 3 figs.

Kuo, L.; Ruka, R.J.; Singhal, S.C.

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

270

Nanostructured Thin Film Electrolyte for Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because they are clean, reliable, and almost entirely pollution-free. SOFCs have flexible fuel selections compared with other fuel cell technologies. The main...

Cho, Sungmee

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

271

Energy recovery from solid waste fuels using advanced gasification technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the mid-1980s, TPS Termiska Processer AB has been working on the development of an atmospheric-pressure gasification process. A major aim at the start of this work was the generation of fuel gas from indigenous fuels to Sweden (i.e. biomass). As the economic climate changed and awareness of the damage to the environment caused by the use of fossil fuels in power generation equipment increased, the aim of the development work at TPS was changed to applying the process to heat and power generation from feedstocks such as biomass and solid wastes. Compared with modern waste incineration with heat recovery, the gasification process will permit an increase in electricity output of up to 50%. The gasification process being developed is based on an atmospheric-pressure circulating fluidized bed gasifier coupled to a tar-cracking vessel. The gas produced from this process is then cooled and cleaned in conventional equipment. The energy-rich gas produced is clean enough to be fired in a gas boiler without requiring extensive flue gas cleaning, as is normally required in conventional waste incineration plants. Producing clean fuel gas in this manner, which facilitates the use of efficient gas-fired boilers, means that overall plant electrical efficiencies of close to 30% can be achieved. TPS has performed a considerable amount of pilot plant testing on waste fuels in their gasification/gas cleaning pilot plant in Sweden. Two gasifiers of TPS design have been in operation in Greve-in-Chianti, italy since 1992. This plant processes 200 tonnes of RDF (refuse-derived fuel) per day.

Morris, M.; Waldheim, L. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)] [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022. Within the mandate, amounts of advanced biofuels, including biomass-based diesel and cellulosic biofuels, are required beginning in 2009. Imported renewable fuels are also eligible for the RFS. Another key U.S. policy is the $1.01 per gal tax credit for producers of cellulosic biofuels enacted as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This credit, along with the DOE's research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs, are assumed to enable the rapid expansion of U.S. and global cellulosic biofuels production needed for the U.S. to approach the 2022 RFS goal. While the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has yet to issue RFS rules to determine which fuels would meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and land use restrictions specified in EISA, we assume that cellulosic ethanol, biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL), sugar-derived ethanol, and fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel would all meet the EISA advanced biofuel requirements. We also assume that enough U.S. corn ethanol would meet EISA's biofuel requirements or otherwise be grandfathered under EISA to reach 15 B gal per year.

Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

A Reversible Planar Solid Oxide Fuel-Fed Electrolysis Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Hydrogen and Electricity Production Operating on Natural Gas/Biomass Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis technique was developed to co-generate hydrogen and electricity directly from a fuel at a reduced cost of electricity. Solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs), which were comprised of 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between thick anode supports and thin cathodes, were constructed and experimentally evaluated at various operation conditions on lab-level button cells with 2 cm2 per-cell active areas as well as on bench-scale stacks with 30 cm2 and 100 cm2 per-cell active areas. To reduce the concentration overpotentials, pore former systems were developed and engineered to optimize the microstructure and morphology of the Ni+8YSZ-based anodes. Chemically stable cathode materials, which possess good electronic and ionic conductivity and exhibit good electrocatalytic properties in both oxidizing and reducing gas atmospheres, were developed and materials properties were investigated. In order to increase the specific hydrogen production rate and thereby reduce the system volume and capital cost for commercial applications, a hybrid system that integrates the technologies of the SOFEC and the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), was developed and successfully demonstrated at a 1kW scale, co-generating hydrogen and electricity directly from chemical fuels.

Tao, Greg, G.

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

274

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Ris N. Christiansen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Risř N. Christiansen1 , J. Hansen2 , H. Holm-Larsen1 , S. Linderoth3 , P. Larsen3 , P. Hendriksen3 , M. Mogensen3 1 Topsře Fuel Cell A Background Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S (TOFC) and Risř National Laboratory (Risř) are jointly carrying out

275

Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

Fraioli, A.V.

1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

276

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Robben, F.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

277

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Serially connected solid oxide fuel cells having monolithic cores  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output. The cell core has an array of cell segments electrically serially connected in the flow direction, each segment consisting of electrolyte walls and interconnect that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageways; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte composite materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick. Between 2 and 50 cell segments may be connected in series.

Herceg, J.E.

1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

279

Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

Hwang, In-Hee, E-mail: hwang@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan); Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Resilient Sealing Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the development of ''invert'' glass compositions designed for hermetic seals in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Upon sealing at temperatures compatible with other SOFC materials (generally {le}900 C), these glasses transform to glass-ceramics with desirable thermo-mechanical properties, including coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) over 11 x 10{sup -6}/C. The long-term (>four months) stability of CTE under SOFC operational conditions (e.g., 800 C in wet forming gas or in air) has been evaluated, as have weight losses under similar conditions. The dependence of sealant properties on glass composition are described in this report, as are experiments to develop glass-matrix composites by adding second phases, including Ni and YSZ. This information provides design-guidance to produce desirable sealing materials.

Signo T. Reis; Richard K. Brow

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

282

Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

283

Heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous cathodes of solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general physics-based model is developed for heterogeneous electrocatalysis in porous electrodes and used to predict and interpret the impedance of solid oxide fuel cells. This model describes the coupled processes of oxygen gas dissociative adsorption and surface diffusion of the oxygen intermediate to the triple phase boundary, where charge transfer occurs. The model accurately captures the Gerischer-like frequency dependence and the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the impedance of symmetric cathode cells. Digital image analysis of the microstructure of the cathode functional layer in four different cells directly confirms the predicted connection between geometrical properties and the impedance response. As in classical catalysis, the electrocatalytic activity is controlled by an effective Thiele modulus, which is the ratio of the surface diffusion length (mean distance from an adsorption site to the triple phase boundary) to the surface boundary layer length (square root of surface diffusivity div...

Fu, Y; Bertei, A; Qi, C; Mohanram, A; Pietras, J D; Bazant, M Z

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Preparation of Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell Binders Based on Fluorinated Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)s  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Preparation of Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell Binders Based on Fluorinated Poly to be used in a Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell (SAFC) needs to (i) be insoluble in both aqueous solutions,10% > 320 °C). When used in a fuel cell as a binder in the membrane-electrodes assembly (MEA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling Penyarat Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are of great interest nowadays. The feature of SOFCs makes them suitable for hybrid plants offer high cycle efficiencies. In this work a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Application of Verified Optimization Techniques to Parameter Identification for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Application of Verified Optimization Techniques to Parameter Identification for Solid Oxide Fuel at the latest, design and development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have been in the focus of research electrochemical reactions in each individual fuel cell. We consider different model dimensions resulting

Appelrath, Hans-JĂĽrgen

288

Oxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights from atomistic simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Current targets of cost and durability necessitate solid oxide fuel cells to operate in the intermediateOxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights oxide fuel cells are of technological interest as they offer high efficiency for energy conversion

Yildiz, Bilge

289

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine fuel cells are usually described as devices able to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

Boyer, Edmond

290

Diesel-fueled solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power units for heavy-duty vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores the potential of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCS) as 3--10 kW auxiliary power units for trucks and military vehicles operating on diesel fuel. It discusses the requirements and specifications for such units, and the advantages, challenges, and development issues for SOFCS used in this application. Based on system design and analysis, such systems should achieve efficiencies approaching 40% (lower heating value), with a relatively simple system configuration. The major components of such a system are the fuel cell stack, a catalytic autothermal reformer, and a spent gas burner/air preheater. Building an SOFC-based auxiliary power unit is not straightforward, however, and the tasks needed to develop a 3--10 kW brassboard demonstration unit are outlined.

Krause, T.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

Singh, P.; George, R.A.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

293

Renewable Diesel  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Renewable Diesel Paraffinic (C 13 -C 18 ) No Oxygen No Double Bonds In Heart of Diesel Fuel (C 10 -C 22 ) High Cetane Feedstock Independent Cold Flow...

294

PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz (Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

MANUFACTURING COST ANALYSIS OF 1 KW AND 5 KW SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL (SOFC) FOR AUXILLIARY POWER APPLICATIONS Prepared by: BATTELLE Battelle Memorial Institute 505 King Avenue...

296

Computational design, fabrication, and characterization of microarchitectured solid oxide fuel cells with improved energy efficiency.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Electrodes in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) must possess both adequate porosity and electronic conductivity to perform their functions in the cell. They must… (more)

Yoon, Chan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Dynamic modeling, model-based control, and optimization of solid oxide fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Solid oxide fuel cells are a promising option for distributed stationary power generation that offers efficiencies ranging from 50% in stand-alone applications to greater than… (more)

Spivey, Benjamin James

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This study, completed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, examines approaches to providing electrical power on board commercial aircraft using solid oxide fuel (SOFC) technology.

299

Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1997 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs. and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Finally, such documentation facilitates continuity in EIA model development by providing information sufficient to perform model enhancements and data updates as part of EIA`s ongoing mission to provide analytical and forecasting information systems.

NONE

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to obtain a stable materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density greater than 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}. The solid electrolyte chosen for this system was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, (LSGM). To select the right electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported SOFCs were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and Nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performance and stability of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600-800 C. The electrical performance of the anode-supported SOFC was simulated assuming an electrode polarization behavior identical to the LSGM-electrolyte-supported SOFC. The simulated electrical performance indicated that the selected material system would provide a stable cell capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density between 0.2 to 1 W/cm{sup 2}.

Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Architectures for individual and stacked micro single chamber solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical conversion devices that convert various fuel sources directly into electrical energy at temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1000°C. These high temperatures could potentially ...

Crumlin, Ethan J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

2007 Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels Gordon Research Conference - January 21-26  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Gordon Research Conference seeks to brings together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The ''grand challenge'' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source.

Daniel G. Nocera

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Extended Durability Testing of an External Fuel Processor for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Durability testing was performed on an external fuel processor (EFP) for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant. The EFP enables the SOFC to reach high system efficiency (electrical efficiency up to 60%) using pipeline natural gas and eliminates the need for large quantities of bottled gases. LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) is developing natural gas-fired SOFC power plants for stationary power applications. These power plants will greatly benefit the public by reducing the cost of electricity while reducing the amount of gaseous emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides compared to conventional power plants. The EFP uses pipeline natural gas and air to provide all the gas streams required by the SOFC power plant; specifically those needed for start-up, normal operation, and shutdown. It includes a natural gas desulfurizer, a synthesis-gas generator and a start-gas generator. The research in this project demonstrated that the EFP could meet its performance and durability targets. The data generated helped assess the impact of long-term operation on system performance and system hardware. The research also showed the negative impact of ambient weather (both hot and cold conditions) on system operation and performance.

Mark Perna; Anant Upadhyayula; Mark Scotto

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

304

New Sealing Concept for Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key element in developing high performance planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks is the hermetic seal between the metal and ceramic components. There are two methods of sealing that are commonly employed: (1) rigid joining or (2) compressive sealing. Each method has its own set of advantages and design constraints. An alternative approach is currently under development that appears to combine some of the advantages of the other two techiques, including hermeticity, mechanical integrity, and minimization of interfacial stresses in either of the joint substrate materials, particulary the ceramic. The new sealing concept relies on a plastically deformable metal seal; one that offers a quasi-dynamic mechanical response in that it is adherent to both sealing surfaces, i.e. non-sliding, but readily yields or deforms under thermally generated stresses, thereby mitigating the development of stresses in the adjacent ceramic and metal components even when a significant difference in thermal expansion exists between the two materials. The pre-experimental design of the seal, initial proof-of-principle results on small test specimens, and finite element analyses aimed at scaling the seal to prototypical sizes and geometries are described herein.

Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Koeppel, Brian J.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Formation of thin walled ceramic solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

To reduce thermal stress and improve bonding in a high temperature monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), intermediate layers are provided between the SOFC's electrodes and electrolyte which are of different compositions. The intermediate layers are comprised of a blend of some of the materials used in the electrode and electrolyte compositions. Particle size is controlled to reduce problems involving differential shrinkage rates of the various layers when the entire structure is fired at a single temperature, while pore formers are provided in the electrolyte layers to be removed during firing for the formation of desired pores in the electrode layers. Each layer includes a binder in the form of a thermosetting acrylic which during initial processing is cured to provide a self-supporting structure with the ceramic components in the green state. A self-supporting corrugated structure is thus formed prior to firing, which the organic components of the binder and plasticizer removed during firing to provide a high strength, high temperature resistant ceramic structure of low weight and density.

Claar, Terry D. (Tisle, IL); Busch, Donald E. (Hinsdale, IL); Picciolo, John J. (Lockport, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Cost Share: Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and other matching funds instead of federal dollars, does this exclude us from the process? Will the Energy and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program. Questions and Answers as of 4/27/09 1 1) Our county is working on a joint proposal for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds with other agencies

307

A solid oxide fuel cell system for buildings Florian Zink a,*, Yixin Lu b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/or hot water for buildings while consuming natural gas. The aim of this study is to give an overall internal fuel ref- ormation, which allows multiple fuel options. Natural gas is one of the fuels that can. With the present development trends in solid oxide fuel cells and the commercial status of absorption heating

308

REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL University Denmark ABSTRACT Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for decentralized power be theoretically improved through integration in power cycles; the low emissions; and the pos- sibility of using

Berning, Torsten

309

Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell is described having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed there between, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material. 9 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Nelson, P.A.; Dees, D.W.

1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

310

COMMISSION GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, certificates, certification, conduit hydroelectric, digester gas, electrolysis, eligibility, fuel cell, renewable energy credits, Renewables Portfolio Standard, repowered, retail sales, small hydroelectric, Self

311

Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed strontium-and-magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte, La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSGM). The objective of the study was to identify the materials system for fabrication and evaluation of intermediate temperature (600-800 C) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The slurry-coated electrode materials had fine porosity to enhance catalytic activity. Cathode materials investigated include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM-doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF-LSGM. The anode materials were Ni-Ce{sub 0.85}Gd{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} (Ni-GDC) and Ni-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (Ni-LDC) composites. Experiments conducted with the anode materials investigated the effect of having a barrier layer of GDC or LDC in between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-composite anode to prevent adverse reaction of the Ni with lanthanum in LSGM. For proper interpretation of the beneficial effects of the barrier layer, similar measurements were performed without the barrier layer. The ohmic and the polarization resistances of the system were obtained over time as a function of temperature (600-800 C), firing temperature, thickness, and the composition of the electrodes. The study revealed important details pertaining to the ohmic and the polarization resistances of the electrode as they relate to stability and the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrode structures.

Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

2005-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

312

Fueling and Feeding America Through Renewable Resources The Wind Energy Ordinance Process for Local Government  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of wind energy has become a viable and substantial strategy for expanding renewable electricity production in the Midwest, and more so recently throughout Indiana. The

Chad Martin; Klein Ileleji; Jimmy Bricker

313

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources The Wind Energy Ordinance Process for Local Government  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of wind energy has become a viable and substantial strategy for expanding renewable electricity production in the Midwest, and more so recently throughout Indiana. The

Chad Martin; Klein Ileleji; Jimmy Bricker

314

P0906-090-Chnani Macroscopic Model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 P0906-090-Chnani Macroscopic Model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack for Integrating in a Generator fuel cell (SOFC) with the aim to perform a simulation of the whole generator. Three sub-models have at the catalytic sites and gas flows at fuel cell input and output. The electrical response is based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells D.05.118 #12;Abstract Single chamber anode-supported fuel cells are investigated under several methane under methane-to-oxygen ratio (Rmix) of 2. Anode-supported fuel cells are investigated regarding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Long-Haul Trucks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Long-Haul Trucks Modeling and Control Mohammad fuel ce · SOFC based truck APU will reduce long haul truck fuel usage and dependence on foreign oil Long-haul trucks require electrical power to operate lights, heating/air conditioning and televisions

317

Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This DOE SECA project focused on both experimental and theoretical understanding of oxygen reduction processes in a porous mixed-conducting cathode in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Elucidation of the detailed oxygen reduction mechanism, especially the rate-limiting step(s), is critical to the development of low-temperature SOFCs (400 C to 700 C) and to cost reduction since much less expensive materials may be used for cell components. However, cell performance at low temperatures is limited primarily by the interfacial polarization resistances, specifically by those associated with oxygen reduction at the cathode, including transport of oxygen gas through the porous cathode, the adsorption of oxygen onto the cathode surface, the reduction and dissociation of the oxygen molecule (O{sub 2}) into the oxygen ion (O{sup 2-}), and the incorporation of the oxygen ion into the electrolyte. In order to most effectively enhance the performance of the cathode at low temperatures, we must understand the mechanism and kinetics of the elementary processes at the interfaces. Under the support of this DOE SECA project, our accomplishments included: (1) Experimental determination of the rate-limiting step in the oxygen reduction mechanism at the cathode using in situ FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, including surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS and TERS). (2) Fabrication and testing of micro-patterned cathodes to compare the relative activity of the TPB to the rest of the cathode surface. (3) Construction of a mathematical model to predict cathode performance based on different geometries and microstructures and analyze the kinetics of oxygen-reduction reactions occurring at charged mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) using two-dimensional finite volume models with ab initio calculations. (4) Fabrication of cathodes that are graded in composition and microstructure to generate large amounts of active surface area near the cathode/electrolyte interface using a novel combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique. (5) Application of advanced quantum chemical calculations to interpret measured spectroscopic information, as well as to guide design of high efficient cathode materials.

YongMan Choi; Meilin Liu

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

318

The use of solid petroleum fuel blocks for cold protection in Texas citrus orchards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) 69 24. Increase in air temperature ( F) produced by 1 to 4 solid petroleum fuel blocks burning 3 feet from the trunk of mature grapefruit trees. (Orchard- heating test) 70 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Heat distribution at the 5-foot level in a... mature grapefruit tree heated by 3 solid petroleum fuel blocks. (Single-tree test). 21 Heat distribution at the 5-foot level in a mature grapefruit tree heated by 3 solid petroleum fuel blocks. (Single-tree test). 22 Heat distribution at the 5-foot...

Bailey, Morris Adrian

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Sealant Material G18 by Microindentation Alexandra Woldman, Cornell University, 2009 SURF Fellow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Sealant Material G18 by Microindentation Alexandra Milhans Introduction Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) require a hermetic seal between the fuel and air side life of the fuel cell. An ideal sealant is chemically compatible with neighboring fuel cell components

Li, Mo

320

Sandia National Laboratories: solid-oxide fuel cell  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-activeNational Solar Thermal Testthermal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 6 (2002) 433455  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 6 (2002) 433­455 www.elsevier.com/locate/rser Solid oxide reserved. PII: S1364-0321(02)00014-X #12;434 A.B. Stambouli, E. Traversa / Renewable and Sustainable Energy fuel cells (SOFCs): a review of an environmentally clean and efficient source of energy A. Boudghene

Gleixner, Stacy

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Solid Polymer Fuel Cell Research Group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g GrantAtlas (PACA Region - France)SolarHub JumpUKSolastaSolibro AB

323

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1:  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't32Department ofMoving AwayAvailability of Feedstock and

324

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes | Department  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage » SearchEnergyDepartmentScoping Study |4 SolarPVSolar Viewed asat the10Solidof

325

Reactive Flash Volatilization of Solid, Nonvolatile Fuel - Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, andEpidermalOxide Fuel Cells - EnergyInnovation

326

Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Paper: www.risoe.dtu.dk/rispubl/art/2008_65.pdf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risř DTU Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Year 2008 Paper: www neutron diffraction F. Brćstrup a, , B. C. Hauback b, K. K. Hansen a a Fuel Cells and Solid State.1016/j.jssc.2008.05.028 #12;Risř DTU Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Year 2008

327

Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 184191 A solid oxide fuel cell system fed with hydrogen sulfide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 184­191 A solid oxide fuel cell system fed with hydrogen for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This paper presents an examination of a simple hydrogen sulfide and natural gas-fed solid oxide fuel cell system. The possibility of utilization of hydrogen sulfide

328

The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deployment of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. LBNL-Can Deployment of Renewable Energy Put Downward Pressure onEfficiency and Renewable Energy Practices and Policies.

Bolinger, Mark A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recent studies of renewable energy policies have estimatedand Renewable Energy Practices and Policies. Report Numberand the policy scenario of increased renewable energy

Bolinger, Mark A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deployment of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. LBNL-Effects of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy PracticesCan Deployment of Renewable Energy Put Downward Pressure on

Bolinger, Mark A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GDP Effect to Support Renewables Deployment. SPRU Workingmitigation provided by renewables – by comparing natural gasthe impact that increased renewables penetration might be

Bolinger, Mark A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

2004-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

333

HeteroFoam | Solid Oxide Fuel Center at USC  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation InExplosion Monitoring:Home| Visitors|Upcoming EventsFriday, May 1, 2015

334

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process - Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 The 2002Optics GroupPlanning Workshopthe Magnetite DataInnovation

335

National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.eps MoreWSRC-STI-2007-00250ThisMarshto Accompany H.R.National Grid

336

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technologies: Improved Electrode-Electrode Structures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite CulturalDepartment2) 1/8 5/15/11Solicitingcontinuted)for

337

Solid woodbased fuels in energy production in Finland.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Political incentives often have a central role in bioenergy production. Influence of these incentives is expected to increase, because conventional fossil fuels are draining and… (more)

Mäkelä, Matti.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Microbial Fuel Cell Coupling: Clean, renewable energy generated from wastewater amongst other potential uses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5] Logan, Bruce. ”Microbial Fuel Cells: Methodology andin a flat plate microbial fuel cell. Environ. Sci. Technol.Korneel, et al. ”Microbial fuel cells: performances and

Reynolds, Mark

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Comparisons from Alternative Fuel Buses and DieselEmissions Comparisons from Alternative Fuel Buses and Dieselof Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for Current and Future

Hajbabaei, Maryam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Renewable Diesel Fuels: Status of Technology and R&D Needs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

global warming gases *Rural economic development Renewable Diesel Options Near-Term Biodiesel: neat or up to 20% blend Ethanol: up to 15% blend (E-diesel) Medium-Term Biomass...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

High Solids Enzymatic Hydrolysis Reactors (Poster), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas in thein the Assembly of Photosystem II, a

342

A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density Zongping Shao1 for portable power generation1,2 . Accordingly, polymer-electrolyte direct- methanol fuel cells design challenges and cannot operate with hydrocarbon fuels of higher energy density. Solid-oxide fuel

Haile, Sossina M.

343

Automated brush plating process for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of depositing a metal coating (28) on the interconnect (26) of a tubular, hollow fuel cell (10) contains the steps of providing the fuel cell (10) having an exposed interconnect surface (26); contacting the inside of the fuel cell (10) with a cathode (45) without use of any liquid materials; passing electrical current through a contacting applicator (46) which contains a metal electrolyte solution; passing the current from the applicator (46) to the cathode (45) and contacting the interconnect (26) with the applicator (46) and coating all of the exposed interconnect surface.

Long, Jeffrey William (Pittsburgh, PA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Tri-County solid waste-to-fuel production project feasibility study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analysis and preliminary findings of refuse-derived fuel and recovered components markets are presented. Other topics covered are: municipal solid waste composition, quantity and constraints; technical assessment and capital cost assessment; economic feasibility of burning process residue to generate steam; review of commercially available equipment for the densification of refuse-derived fuel; final pre-feasibility analysis for the Tri-County Municipal Solid Waste to Fuel Production Project; preliminary economic and sensitivity analysis for the Tri-County Project; risks assessment for the Tri-County Project; and environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic assessment for the Tri-County Project. (MHR)

Not Available

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Methyl Ester Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions.Increase When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory. FuelE. ; Natarajan, M. Effects of Biodiesel Fuels Upon Criteria

Hajbabaei, Maryam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fueled with Diesel or Compressed Natural Gas. EnvironmentalFueled with Diesel or Compressed Natural Gas. EnvironmentalToxic pollutants from Compressed Natural Gas and Low Sulfur

Hajbabaei, Maryam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Combination nickel foam expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 25) of fuel cells (17, 19, 21, 27, 29, 31), each having an outer interconnection (20) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh member (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions and bottom portions, where the top crown portion (40) have a top bonded open cell nickel foam (51) which contacts outer interconnections (20) of the fuel cells, said mesh and nickel foam electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no more metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

Draper, Robert; Prevish, Thomas; Bronson, Angela; George, Raymond A.

2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

351

Silicon Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Chip for Portable Consumer Electronics -- Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LSI’s fuel cell uses efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (“SOFC”) technology, is manufactured using Micro Electrical Mechanical System (“MEMS”) fabrication methods, and runs on high energy fuels, such as butane and ethanol. The company’s Fuel Cell on a Chip™ technology enables a form-factor battery replacement for portable electronic devices that has the potential to provide an order-of-magnitude run-time improvement over current batteries. Further, the technology is clean and environmentally-friendly. This Department of Energy funded project focused on accelerating the commercialization and market introduction of this technology through improvements in fuel cell chip power output, lifetime, and manufacturability.

Alan Ludwiszewski

2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

352

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage » SearchEnergyDepartmentScoping Study |4 SolarPVSolar Viewed asatSolid

353

Wastes as co-fuels: the policy framework for solid recovered fuel (SRF) in Europe, with UK implications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

European Union (EU) member states are adopting the mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) to comply with EU Landfill Directive (LD) targets on landfill diversion. We review the policy framework for MSW-derived solid recovered fuel (SRF), composed of paper, plastic, and textiles, in the energy-intensive industries. A comparatively high calorific value (15-18 MJ/kg) fuel, SRF has the potential to partially replace fossil fuel in energy-intensive industries, alongside MSW in dedicated combustion facilities. Attempts by the European standards organization (CEN) to classify fuel properties consider net calorific value (CV) and chlorine and mercury content. However, the particle size, moisture content, and fuel composition also require attention and future studies must address these parameters. We critically review the implications of using SRF as a co-fuel in thermal processes. A thermodynamic analysis provides insight into the technical and environmental feasibility of co-combusting SRF in coal-fired power plants and cement kilns. Results indicate the use of SRF as co-fuel can reduce global warming and acidification potential significantly. This policy analysis is of value to waste managers, policy specialists, regulators, and the waste management research community. 63 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Anurag Garg; Richard Smith; Daryl Hill; Nigel Simms; Simon Pollard [Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom). Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems that cogenerate electricity and heat using SOFCs have projected efficiencies of up to 75%, far exceeding what is possible in combustion systems. SOFCs are also fuel flexible; they can generate electricity from natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, propane, biofuels, and more. From a technological perspective

355

Project Information Form Project Title Accelerating Commercialization of Alternative and Renewable Fuels and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or organization) CEC $344,546 Total Project Cost $344,546 Agency ID or Contract Number DTRT13-G-UTC29 StartProject Information Form Project Title Accelerating Commercialization of Alternative and Renewable and End Dates June 30, 2014 to June 30, 2016 Brief Description of Research Project Alternative

California at Davis, University of

356

Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

357

Fuel Preprocessor (FPP) for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Auxiliary Power Units (APUs), driven by truck engines, consume over 800 million gallon of diesel fuel while idling. Use of separate SOFC based APUs are an excellent choice to reduce the cost and pollution associated with producing auxiliary power. However, diesel fuel is a challenging fuel to use in fuel cell systems because it has heavy hydrocarbons that can transform into carbon deposits and gums that can block passages and deactivate fuel reformer and fuel cell reactor elements. The work reported herein addresses the challenges associated with the diesel fuel sulfur and carbon producing contaminants in a Fuel Preprocessor (FPP). FPP processes the diesel fuel onboard and ahead of the reformer to reduce its carbon deposition tendency and its sulfur content, thus producing a fuel suitable for SOFC APU systems. The goal of this DOE supported Invention and Innovation program was to design, develop and test a prototype Fuel Preprocessor (FPP) that efficiently and safely converts the diesel fuel into a clean fuel suitable for a SOFC APU system. The goals were achieved. A 5 kWe FPP was designed, developed and tested. It was demonstrated that FPP removes over 80% of the fuel sulfur and over 90% of its carbon residues and it was demonstrated that FPP performance exceeds the original project goals.

M. Namazian, S. Sethuraman and G. Venkataraman

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

Alternative Fuels Used in Transportation: Science Projects in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment ofEnergy Natural Gas:Austin, T X S9-0s) All27,AlternativeFuelsFuels

359

Property:RenewableFuelStandard/BiomassBasedDiesel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity Jump to: navigation,Website PropertyRegulationsAdvancedBiofuel

360

Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable togas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unlike natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation (e.g., from wind, solar, and geothermal power) is largely immune to fuel price risk. If ratepayers are rational and value long-term price stability, then--contrary to common practice--any comparison of the levelized cost of renewable to gas-fired generation should be based on a hedged gas price input, rather than an uncertain gas price forecast. This paper compares natural gas prices that can be locked in through futures, swaps, and physical supply contracts to contemporaneous long-term forecasts of spot gas prices. We find that from 2000-2003, forward gas prices for terms of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most contemporaneous long-term gas price forecasts. This difference is striking, and implies that comparisons between renewable and gas-fired generation based on these forecasts over this period have arguably yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation.

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

2004-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Microstructure, residual stress, and mechanical properties of thin film materials for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The microstructure and residual stress of sputter-deposited films for use in microfabricated solid oxide fuel cells are presented. Much of the work focuses on the characterization of a candidate solid electrolyte: Yttria ...

Quinn, David John, Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Paper: www.risoe.dk/rispubl/art/2007_316.pdf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risř DTU Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department 2007 Paper: www.risoe.dk/rispubl/art/2007_316.pdf Electrochemical Reduction of O2 and NO on Ni, Pt and Au K. Kammer Hansen Fuel Cells Electrochemical Reduction of O2 and NO on Ni, Pt and Au K. Kammer Hansen Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry

363

Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Paper: www.risoe.dk/rispubl/art/2007_343.pdf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Risř DTU Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department 2007 Paper: www, Linda Nřrskov and Kent Kammer Hansen Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department, National of NO and O2 on La2-xSrxCuO4 Based Electrodes Vibe L.E. Simonsen, Linda Nřrskov and Kent Kammer Hansen Fuel

364

Investigation of chemical looping combustion by solid fuels. 1. Process analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is the first in a series of two, where we present the concept of a CLC process of solid fuels using a circulating fluidized bed with three loop seals. The riser of this circulating fluidized bed was used as the oxidizer of the oxygen carrier; one of the loop seals was used as the reducer of the oxygen carrier and the separator for ash and oxygen carrier, and the other two loop seals were used for pressure balance in the solid recycle process. Pressure profiles of recycled solids using this process are presented in detail. For the development of an oxygen carrier, we focused on the establishment of a theoretical frame of oxygen transfer capability, reaction enthalpy, a chemical equilibrium, and kinetics. Analysis results indicated that Cu-, Ni-, and Co-based oxygen carriers may be the optimum oxygen carriers for the CLC of solid fuels. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that CO{sub 2} can be concentrated and purified to at least 99% purity for the gas-solid reaction mode or even higher for the solid-solid reaction mode on the basis of the selected oxygen carriers. A Cu-based oxygen carrier is the choice that has the potential to make the reducer self-sustaining or autothermal because of its exothermic nature during reduction. This would be beneficial for simplifying the operation of the reducer. The tendency of the Cu-based oxygen carriers to agglomerate can be eliminated by decreasing the operating temperature in the CLC system. In the second part of the series, we will evaluate the reduction kinetics of selected Cu-based oxygen carriers by coal and other 'opportunity solid fuels' using a simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric analysis to simulate a microreactor, using an X-ray diffractometer and a scanning electron microscope to characterize the solid residues, and a thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectra to characterize the evolved gas compositions. 46 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Yan Cao; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report, June 2011, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment( Sample of ShipmentSimulation,Emissions from anFUEL CELL

366

Renewable Diesel Fuels: Status of Technology and R&D Needs | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartmentnews-flashes OfficeTexasEnergy Diesel Fuels: Status of

367

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeNew YorkLouisiana Laws andDakota1 Clean Cities90

368

Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With “Renewable Super Premium”  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2–B: End Use and Fuel Certification Brian West, Deputy Director for the Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

369

Staff Draft GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, certification, conduit hydroelectric, digester gas, electrolysis, eligibility, fuel cell, gasification, renewable energy credits, Renewables Portfolio Standard, repowered, retail sales, small hydroelectric, Self

370

Generation and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Carbon Sequestration in Northwest Indiana  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the project is to develop the technology capable of capturing all carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from natural gas fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. In addition, the technology to electrochemically oxidize any remaining carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide will be developed. Success of this R&D program would allow for the generation of electrical power and thermal power from a fossil fuel driven SOFC system without the carbon emissions resulting from any other fossil fueled power generationg system.

Kevin Peavey; Norm Bessette

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

371

Air feed tube support system for a solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell generator (12), containing tubular fuel cells (36) with interior air electrodes (18), where a supporting member (82) containing a plurality of holes (26) supports oxidant feed tubes (51), which pass from an oxidant plenum (52") into the center of the fuel cells, through the holes (26) in the supporting member (82), where a compliant gasket (86) around the top of the oxidant feed tubes and on top (28) of the supporting member (82) helps support the oxidant feed tubes and center them within the fuel cells, and loosen the tolerance for centering the air feed tubes.

Doshi, Vinod B. (Monroeville, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Zelienople, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

natural gas engines are predominately unburned fuel, therefore, the non-methane hydrocarbon fraction of THC exhaust emissions typically trends

Hajbabaei, Maryam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Processing and utilizing high heat value, low ash alternative fuels from urban solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The history of technologies in the US that recover energy from urban solid waste is relatively short. Most of the technology as we know it evolved over the past 25 years. This evolution led to the development of about 100 modern mass burn and RDF type waste-to-energy plants and numerous small modular combustion systems, which collectively are handling about 20%, or about 40 million tons per year, of the nations municipal solid waste. Technologies also evolved during this period to co-fire urban waste materials with other fuels or selectively burn specific waste streams as primary fuels. A growing number of second or third generation urban waste fuels projects are being developed. This presentation discusses new direction in the power generating industry aimed at recovery and utilization of clean, high heat value, low ash alternative fuels from municipal and industrial solid waste. It reviews a spectrum of alternative fuels for feasible recovery and reuse, with new opportunities emerging for urban fuels processors providing fuels in the 6,000--15,000 BTU/LB range for off premises use.

Smith, M.L. [M.L. Smith Environmental and Associates, Tinley Park, IL (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Project Information Form Project Title Assessment of Critical Barriers to Alternative and Renewable Fuel and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel and Vehicle Deployment University UC Davis Principal Investigator Amy Jaffe Andrew Burke PI and clean fuels and ensure that associated infrastructure becomes available at a sufficient pace and scale to meet AB118/AB8 goals. Our research in this area will consider the synergies of incumbent fueling

California at Davis, University of

375

Enhanced Power Stability for Proton Conducting Solid Oxides Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to provide the basis for a rational approach to improving the performance of Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3} electrolytes for proton conducting ceramic fuel cells, we carried out a series of coupled computational and experimental studies to arrive at a consensus view of the characteristics affecting the proton conductivity of these systems. The computational part of the project developed a practical first principles approach to predicting the proton mobility as a function of temperature and doping for polycrystalline systems. This is a significant breakthrough representing the first time that first principles methods have been used to study diffusion across grain boundaries in such systems. The basis for this breakthrough was the development of the ReaxFF reactive force field that accurately describes the structure and energetics of Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3} as the proton hops from site to site. The ReaxFF parameters are all derived from an extensive set of quantum mechanics calculations on various clusters, two dimensionally infinite slabs, and three dimensionally infinite periodic systems for combinations of metals, metal alloys, metal oxides, pure and Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}, including chemical reaction pathways and proton transport pathways, structures. The ReaxFF force field enables molecular dynamics simulations to be carried out quickly for systems with {approx} 10,000 atoms rather than the {approx}100 or so practical for QM. The first 2.5 years were spent on developing and validating the ReaxFF and we have only had an opportunity to apply these methods to only a few test cases. However these simulations lead to transport properties (diffusion coefficients and activation energy) for multi-granular systems in good agreement with current experimental results. Now that we have validated the ReaxFF for diffusion across grain boundaries, we are in the position of being able to use computation to explore strategies to improve the diffusion of protons across grain boundaries, which both theory and experiment agree is the cause of the low conductivity of multi-granular systems. Our plan for a future project is to use the theory to optimize the additives and processing conditions and following this with experiment on the most promising systems. The experimental part of this project focused on improving the synthetic techniques for controlling the grain size and making measurements on the properties of these systems as a function of doping of impurities and of process conditions. A significant attention was paid to screening potential cathode materials (transition metal perovskites) and anode electrocatalysts (metals) for reactivity with Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}, fabrication compatibility, and chemical stability in fuel cell environment. A robust method for fabricating crack-free thin membranes, as well as methods for sealing anode and cathode chambers, have been successfully developed. Our Pt|BYZ|Pt fuel cell, with a 100 {micro}m thick Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3} electrolyte layer, demonstrates the peak power density and short circuit current density of 28 mW/cm{sup 2} and 130mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. These are the highest values of this type of fuel cell. All of these provide the basis for a future project in which theory and computation are combined to develop modified ceramic electrolytes capable of both high proton conductivity and excellent mechanical and chemical stability.

Boris Merinov; William A. Goddard III; Sossina Haile; Adri van Duin; Peter Babilo; Sang Soo Han

2005-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

376

Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

377

Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

378

An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly ({approx}2500 g CO{sub 2} eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and {approx}1500 g CO{sub 2} eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( Pounds 95/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

Garg, A.; Smith, R. [Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Hill, D. [DPH Environment and Energy Ltd., c/o Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T. [Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Simms, N.J. [Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: n.j.simms@cranfield.ac.uk

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartment ofOil's Impact on Our National Security Oil'sFunds for

380

2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment( Sample of ShipmentSimulation, Analysis |Summaryofof9Fourth Annual

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

City of Tulare Renewable Biogas Fuel Cell Project | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top FiveDepartment ofCarrie Noonan AboutDepartmentOfficeDepartmentCity

382

EERE SBIR Case Study: Improving Hybrid Poplars as a Renewable Source of Ethanol Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct,Final9:Department of EnergyQC Workshop

383

RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartment ofOil'sofAppendixEnergyR&DELECTRIC8 RIVACYEnvergent

384

Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d FNEPA/309Department ofDepartment of Energy Production of

385

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL): Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Capabilities Overview  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOETowardExecutive Summary In0| 93-851 8 JAM 1 4Is the

386

Test burning of tire-derived fuel in solid fuel combustors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was commissioned to determine the overall viability of utilizing scrap tire chips, known as tire-derived fuel (TDF), as a supplemental fuel in conventional coal-fired boilers. The study involved actual tests at Monsanto Company`s W.G. Krummrich Plant in Sauget, Illinois, as well as general extrapolations as to the feasibility of using TDF at other sites. This report will show that TDF can be an excellent supplemental fuel supply, providing a cost-effective fuel source while helping to alleviate the dilemma of scrap tire disposal.

Dennis, D.C. [Monsanto Copany, Sauget, IL (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote… (more)

Lin, Jiefeng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15-ppm NOx capability on high Hydrogen fuels. In Stage 4, Solar fabricated a complete set of injectors and a combustor liner to test the system capability in a full-scale atmospheric rig. Extensive high-pressure single injector rig test results show that 15-ppm NOx guarantee is achievable from 50% to 100% Load with fuel blends containing up to 65% Hydrogen. Because of safety limitations in Solar Test Facility, the atmospheric rig tests were limited to methane-based fuel blends. Further work to validate the durability and installed engine capability would require long-term engine field test.

Srinivasan, Ram

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

389

Iron-based perovskite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An A and/or A' site deficient perovskite of general formula of (A1-xA'x)1-yFeO3-.delta. or of general formula A1-x-yA'xFeO3-67, wherein A is La alone or with one or more of the rare earth metals or a rare earth metal other than Ce alone or a combination of rare earth metals and X is in the range of from 0 to about 1; A' is Sr or Ca or mixtures thereof and Y is in the range of from about 0.01 to about 0.3; .delta. represents the amount of compensating oxygen loss. If either A or A' is zero the remaining A or A' is deficient. A fuel cell incorporating the inventive perovskite as a cathode is disclosed as well as an oxygen separation membrane. The inventive perovskite is preferably single phase.

Ralph, James M.; Rossignol, Cecile C.R.; Vaughey, John T.

2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

390

Innovative Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A functioning SOFC requires different type of seals such as metal-metal, metal-ceramic, and ceramic-ceramic. These seals must function at high temperatures between 600--900{sup o}C and in oxidizing and reducing environments of the fuels and air. Among the different type of seals, the metal-metal seals can be readily fabricated using metal joining, soldering, and brazing techniques. However, the metal-ceramic and ceramic-ceramic seals require significant research and development because the brittle nature of ceramics/glasses can lead to fracture and loss of seal integrity and functionality. Consequently, any seals involving ceramics/glasses require a significant attention and technology development for reliable SOFC operation. This final report is prepared to describe the progress made in the program on the needs, approaches, and performance of high temperature seals for SOFC. In particular, a new concept of self-healing glass seals is pursued for making seals between metal-ceramic material combinations, including some with a significant expansion mismatch.

Singh, Raj

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

391

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Biodiesel Chemistry, Carbon Footprint and Regional Fuelof Biodiesel Chemistry, Carbon Footprint and Regional Fuelof Biodiesel Chemistry, Carbon Footprint and Regional Fuel

Hajbabaei, Maryam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Green Racing Series Revs Engines with Renewable Fuel from INEOS Bio |  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG | Department of EnergyGeothermalGoing OffGreen Lease Policies

394

Light-Powered Microbial Fuel Cell Offering Clean, Renewable Hydrogen-Based  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceEfeedstocks andCenterAlternative Energy

395

RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.epsEnergy1.pdfMarket37963American |Purpose01/05/14RPAM

396

Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions. SAE Technical Paper 2008,Energy Laboratory Diesel Emissions Control - Sulfur Effectsbetween NOx, Particulate Emission, and Fuel Consumption of a

Hajbabaei, Maryam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Sweet Smell of Renewable Fuel | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystalline GalliumSuppressionSustainable SuccessSustainableL L 2 0 1Sweet

398

Expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 24) of fuel cells (16, 18, 20, 26, 28, 30), each having an outer interconnection (36) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions (40) and bottom shoulder portions (42), where the top crown portion (40) contacts outer interconnections (36) of the fuel cells (16, 18, 20) in a first row (14), and the bottom shoulder portions (42) contacts outer electrodes (32) of the fuel cells in a second row (24), said mesh electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

Draper, Robert (Pittsburgh, PA); Antol, Ronald F. (North Huntingdon, PA); Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Generator module architecture for a large solid oxide fuel cell power plant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell module contains a plurality of integral bundle assemblies, the module containing a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion receiving air inlet feed and containing a base support, the base supports dense, ceramic exhaust manifolds which are below and connect to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the fuel cells comprise a fuel cell stack bundle all surrounded within an outer module enclosure having top power leads to provide electrical output from the stack bundle, where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all 100% of the weight of the stack, and each bundle assembly has its own control for vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control.

Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Riggle, Matthew W.; Litzinger, Kevin P.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

400

Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

Poshusta, Joseph C.; Booten, Charles W.; Martin, Jerry L.

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Solid State Research CenterDOE Fuel Cell Portable Power Workshop End User Perspective Industrial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Usage :KU 19901980 :KU 2000 :KU 2010 :KU On Body Energy Solid State Research CenterDOE Fuel Cell · Notebook - ~20.0W ·High unit growth of Mobile phones driving energy demand ·Laptop computer power demands) Power(W) Energy & Power of Portable Devices Cellular Phone Laptop Computer Palm III Palm VII 2-way Radio

402

Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

403

Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department August 2008 Ris National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department August 2008 Risø National Laboratory 2008 2 Summary This project aimed at development and optimization of Danish SOFC stack technology and by optimization of the spacer components. Decoupling between end plates and the outermost interconnects has been

404

Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

Poshusta, Joseph C; Booten, Charles W; Martin, Jerry L

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

405

Danish Solid Oxide Fuel Cell project: DK-SOFC 1997-1999  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Danish Solid Oxide Fuel Cell project: DK-SOFC 1997-1999 Contracts no. ENS 1443/97-0003, ENS 1443 report covers the years 1997- 1999, but due to the time constant involved in publishing, several results 14 Complete list of publications 1997-2000 2000 16 1999 19 1998 23 1997 27 2 #12;Dansk resume (C

406

The Renewable Energy Footprint  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the shift toward renewable energy comes the potential for staggering land impacts – many millions of acres may be consumed to meet demand for electricity and fuel over the next 20 years. To conservationists’ dismay, the more renewable energy we...

Outka, Uma

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Ris National Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

catalyst. The range of fuels has further been extended to include ethanol and coal syn-gas by development of a new coke resistant catalyst suitable for future SOFC technology. CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION

408

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

409

Renewable energy annual 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Impacts of Renewable Generation on Fossil Fuel Unit Cycling: Costs and Emissions (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prepared for the Clean Energy Regulatory Forum III, this presentation looks at the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study and reexamines the cost and emissions impacts of fossil fuel unit cycling.

Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Denholm, P.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 28152820 FINGERING INSTABILITY IN SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2815 Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 2815­2820 FINGERING INSTABILITY IN SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION: THE CHARACTERISTIC SCALES OF THE DEVELOPED STATE ORY ZIK, Israel We present new results on the fingering instability in solid fuel combustion. The instability

Moses, Elisha

412

Guidance: Requirements for Installing Renewable Fuel Pumps at Federal Fleet Fueling Centers under EISA Section 246: Federal Fleet Program, Federal Energy Management Program, U.S. Department of Energy, March 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On December 19, 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was signed into law as Public Law 110-140. Section 246(a) of EISA directs Federal agencies to install at least one renewable fuel pump at each Federal fleet fueling center under their jurisdiction by January 1, 2010. Section 246(b) requires the President to submit an annual report to Congress on Federal agency progress in meeting this renewable fuel pump installation mandate. This guidance document provides guidelines to help agencies understand these requirements and how to comply with EISA Section 246.

Not Available

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Manifold, bus support and coupling arrangement for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Individual, tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are assembled into bundles called a module within a housing, with a plurality of modules arranged end-to-end in a linear, stacked configuration called a string. A common set of piping comprised of a suitable high temperature resistant material (1) provides fuel and air to each module housing, (2) serves as electrically conducting buses, and (3) provides structural support for a string of SOFC modules. Ceramic collars are used to connect fuel and air inlet piping to each of the electrodes in an SOFC module and provide (1) electrical insulation for the current carrying bus bars and gas manifolds, (2) damping for the fuel and air inlet piping, and (3) proper spacing between the fuel and air inlet piping to prevent contact between these tubes and possible damage to the SOFC. 11 figs.

Parry, G.W.

1988-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

414

OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of Ni-YSZ anodes were carried out.

Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

415

Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

416

Policy Shocks and Market-Based Regulations: Evidence from the Renewable Fuel Standard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

affected advanced biofuel companies and decreased soybean oil futures prices, while prices in other in biofuel consumption through 2022. To understand RIN market dynamics, we develop a dynamic model mandate, decreased the value of the subsidy (tax) provided by the RFS2 to the biofuel (fossil fuel

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

417

ETHANOL FROM CORN: CLEAN RENEWABLE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE, OR DRAIN ON OUR RESOURCES AND POCKETS?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, surface water, soil and aquifers. The overall energy balance of corn conversion to ethanol demonstrates that 65% of the input energy is lost during the conversion. Carbon dioxide sequestration by corn, energy balance, ethanol, fuel, nitrate, oxygenate, pollution, sequestration. 1. Background Previous

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

418

Production of renewable jet fuel range alkanes and commodity chemicals from integrated catalytic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and techno-economic analysis of a catalytic process for the conversion of whole biomass into drop-in aviation processing of biomass Jesse Q. Bond,a Aniruddha A. Upadhye,b Hakan Olcay,c Geoffrey A. Tompsett,d Jungho Jae fuels with maximal carbon yields. The combined research areas highlighted include biomass pretreatment

California at Riverside, University of

419

DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200016 A Light-Assisted Biomass Fuel Cell for Renewable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wastewater in the US consumes $25 billion annually and a significant fraction of the US energy.[1] Recently from Wastewater Rachel L. Chamousis and Frank E. Osterloh*[a] Introduction Treatment of municipal, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that can degrade biomass in wastewater (glucose, fats, proteins, ammonia

Osterloh, Frank

420

Solid oxide fuel cell with transitioned cross-section for improved anode gas management at the open end  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell (400) is made having a tubular, elongated, hollow, active section (445) which has a cross-section containing an air electrode (452) a fuel electrode (454) and solid oxide electrolyte (456) between them, where the fuel cell transitions into at least one inactive section (460) with a flattened parallel sided cross-section (462, 468) each cross-section having channels (472, 474, 476) in them which smoothly communicate with each other at an interface section (458).

Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Pittsburgh, PA)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

Huang, Kevin (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

422

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Source: US DOE 10/2010 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies ­ Upcoming Workshops & Solicitations Source: US DOE 10/2010 2 #12; Double Renewable Energy Capacity by 2012 Update Dr. Sunita Satyapal Program Manager U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Fuel

423

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy 2009 FUEL CELL MARKET REPORT NOVEMBER 2010 #12;Authors of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program for their support and guidance in the preparation of this report-Jerram of Fuel Cell Today Consulting, Rachel Gelman of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Jennifer Gangi

424

Renewable Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORV 15051Soil VaporRenewable

425

Renewable Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORV 15051Soil VaporRenewable! Activities for II

426

Renewable Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST31 ORV 15051Soil VaporRenewable! Activities for

427

Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO{sub 2} sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NO{sub x} production), and modularity. Naturally occurring coal has many impurities and some of these impurities end in the fuel gas stream either as a vapor or in the form of fine particulate matter. Establishing the tolerance limits of SOFCs for contaminants in the coal-derived gas will allow proper design of the fuel feed system that will not catastrophically damage the SOFC or allow long-term cumulative degradation. The anodes of Ni-cermet-based SOFCs are vulnerable to degradation in the presence of contaminants that are expected to be present in a coal-derived fuel gas stream. Whereas the effects of some contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCl have been studied, the effects of other contaminants such as As, P, and Hg have not been ascertained. The primary objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700 to 900 C. The results were used to assess catastrophic damage risk and long-term cumulative effects of the trace contaminants on the lifetime expectancy of SOFC systems fed with coal-derived gas streams.

Gopala Krishnan; P. Jayaweera; J. Bao; J. Perez; K. H. Lau; M. Hornbostel; A. Sanjurjo; J. R. Albritton; R. P. Gupta

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

428

Testing of a Catalytic Partial Oxidation Diesel Reformer with a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rural Alaska currently uses diesel generator sets to produce much of its power. The high energy content of diesel (i.e. ~140,000 BTU per gallon) makes it the fuel of choice because this reduces the volume of fuel that must be transported, stored, and consumed in generating the power. There is an existing investment in infrastructure for the distribution and use of diesel fuel. Problems do exist, however, in that diesel generators are not very efficient in their use of diesel, maintenance levels can be rather high as systems age, and the environmental issues related to present diesel generators are of concern. The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory at the University of Alaska -- Fairbanks is sponsoring a project to address the issues mentioned above. The project takes two successful systems, a diesel reformer and a tubular solid oxide fuel cell unit, and jointly tests those systems with the objective of producing a for-purpose diesel fueled solid oxide fuel cell system that can be deployed in rural Alaska. The reformer will convert the diesel to a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be used as a fuel by the fuel cell. The high temperature nature of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is capable of using this mixture to generate electricity and provide usable heat with higher efficiency and lower emissions. The high temperature nature of the SOFC is more compatible with the arctic climate than are low temperature technologies such as the proton exchange membrane fuel cells. This paper will look at the interaction of a SOFC system that is designed to internally reform methane and a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) diesel reformer. The diesel reformer produces a reformate that is approximately 140 BTU per scf (after removal of much of the reformate water) as compared to a methane based reformate that is over twice that value in BTU content. The project also considers the effect of altitude since the test location will be at 4800 feet with the consequential drop in oxygen content and necessary increases in flow rates.

Lyman Frost; Bob Carrington; Rodger McKain; Dennis Witmer

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

MEMBERS ONLY | Join | Renew | Shop | About | Contact Us | Home ASME.ORG > News & Public Policy > Press Releases > Research Begun on New Fuel Cell Type  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SEARCH ASME: MEMBERS ONLY | Join | Renew | Shop | About | Contact Us | Home ASME.ORG > News, the magazine reports on a fuel cell that cleans domestic wastewater while producing electrical energy. This new, takes the high concentration of organic matter found in wastewater and coverts it to energy. "Where

430

COMMISSION GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, conduit hydroelectric, digester gas, electrolysis, eligibility, fuel cell, gasification, geothermal, Renewables Portfolio Standard, repowered, retail sales, small hydroelectric, SelfGeneration Incentive

431

Co-generation of electricity and chemicals from propane fuel in solid oxide fuel cells with anode containing nano-bimetallic catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Co-generation of electricity and chemicals from propane fuel in solid oxide fuel cells with anode propane fueled SOFCs. CoeFe bimetallic phase was formed from Pr0.4Sr0.6Co0.2Fe0.7Nb0.1O3Ă?d SOFC anode aromatic hydrocarbons were produced from SOFCs using propane as fuel. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history

Frenkel, Anatoly

432

Renewable energy and telecommunications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Renewable energy and telecommunications Case study: Energy Systems Week When AK Erlang first used fossil fuels and switch to renewable energy sources. But the unlikely convergence of the two fields lay to be able to deal with. "If we integrate renewable energies, such as wind power, in the electricity grid

433

Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy security and increased concern over environmental protection have spurred a dramatic world-wide growth in research and development of fuel cells, which electrochemically convert incoming fuel into electricity with no or low pollution. Fuel cell technology has become increasingly attractive to a number of sectors, including utility, automotive, and defense industries. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperature (typically 650-1,000 C) and have advantages in terms of high conversion efficiency and the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to hydrogen. The high temperature operation, however, can lead to increased mass transport and interactions between the surrounding environment and components that are required to be stable during a lifetime of thousands of hours and up to hundreds of thermal cycles. For stacks with relatively low operating temperatures (<800 C), the interconnects that are used to electrically connect a number of cells in series are typically made from cost-effective metals or alloys. The metallic interconnects must demonstrate excellent stability in a very challenging environment during SOFC operation, as they are simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing environment (hydrogen or a reformed hydrocarbon fuel) on the anode side. Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain impurities, such as sulfides. Since the fuel is usually a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, coal gas, biogas, gasoline, etc., the interconnect is exposed to a wet carbonaceous environment at the anode side. Finally, the interconnect must be stable towards any adjacent components, such as electrodes, seals and electrical contact materials, with which it is in physical contact.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

434

TAPE CALENDERING MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR MULTILAYER THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the Phases I and II under Contract DE-AC26-00NT40705 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Tape Calendering Manufacturing Process For Multilayer Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells''. The main objective of this project was to develop the manufacturing process based on tape calendering for multilayer solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) using the unitized cell design concept and to demonstrate cell performance under specified operating conditions. Summarized in this report is the development and improvements to multilayer SOFC cells and the unitized cell design. Improvements to the multilayer SOFC cell were made in electrochemical performance, in both the anode and cathode, with cells demonstrating power densities of nearly 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} for 650 C operation and other cell configurations showing greater than 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 75% fuel utilization and 800 C. The unitized cell design was matured through design, analysis and development testing to a point that cell operation at greater than 70% fuel utilization was demonstrated at 800 C. The manufacturing process for both the multilayer cell and unitized cell design were assessed and refined, process maps were developed, forming approaches explored, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques examined.

Nguyen Minh; Kurt Montgomery

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Activity and structure of perovskites as diesel reforming catalysts for solid oxide fuel cells.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent progress in developing perovskite materials as more cost-effective catalysts in autothermal reforming (ATR) of diesel fuel to hydrogen-rich reformate for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application is reported. Perovskite-type metal oxides with B sites partially exchanged by ruthenium were prepared and evaluated under ATR reaction conditions. The hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and CO{sub x} selectivity of these catalysts were investigated using diesel surrogate fuel with 50 ppm sulfur. The catalyst performances have approached or exceeded a benchmark, high-cost rhodium-based material. In parallel with the reactivity study, we also investigated the physical properties of B-site doped perovskites and their impact on the reforming performance using various characterization techniques such as BET, X-ray powder diffraction, temperature programmable reduction, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We found that ruthenium is highly dispersed into perovskite lattice and its redox behavior is directly associated with reforming activity.

Liu, D.-J.; Krumpelt, M.; Chemical Engineering

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Cost Study for Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems can be designed to produce electricity from fossil fuels at extremely high net efficiencies, approaching 70%. However, in order to penetrate commercial markets to an extent that significantly impacts world fuel consumption, their cost will need to be competitive with alternative generating systems, such as gas turbines. This report discusses a cost model developed at PNNL to estimate the manufacturing cost of SOFC power systems sized for ground-based distributed generation. The power system design was developed at PNNL in a study on the feasibility of using SOFC power systems on more electric aircraft to replace the main engine-mounted electrical generators [Whyatt and Chick, 2012]. We chose to study that design because the projected efficiency was high (70%) and the generating capacity was suitable for ground-based distributed generation (270 kW).

Weimar, Mark R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Gotthold, David W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

437

Renewable Energy Across the 50 United States and Related Factors.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Renewable energy production replaces diminishing non-renewable energy sources including fossil fuels. Major sources of renewable energy include biofuels, geothermal, hydroelectric, solar thermal and photovoltaic, wind,… (more)

Christenson, Cynthia Brit

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

www.thelancet.com Vol 372 October 25, 2008 1473 Effects of smoking and solid-fuel use on COPD, lung cancer,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

trends in smoking and household solid-fuel use and to construct a range of future scenarios. We obtained and more than 70% of Chinese households use solid fuels, such as wood, crop residues, and coal for heatingArticles www.thelancet.com Vol 372 October 25, 2008 1473 Effects of smoking and solid-fuel use

Cohen, Ted

439

DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

2004-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

440

Manifold, bus support and coupling arrangement for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Individual, tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are assembled into bundles called a module within a housing, with a plurality of modules arranged end-to-end in a linear, stacked configuration called a string. A common set of piping comprised of a suitable high temperture resistant material (1) provides fuel and air to each module housing, (2) serves as electrically conducting buses, and (3) provides structural support for a string of SOFC modules. The piping thus forms a manfold for directing fuel and air to each module in a string and makes electrical contact with the module's anode and cathode to conduct the DC power generated by the SOFC. The piping also provides structureal support for each individual module and maintains each string of modules as a structurally integral unit for ensuring high strength in a large 3-dimensional array of SOFC modules. Ceramic collars are used to connect fuel and air inlet piping to each of the electrodes in an SOFC module and provide (1) electrical insulation for the current carrying bus bars and gas manifolds, (2) damping for the fuel and air inlet piping, and (3) proper spacing between the fuel and air inlet piping to prevent contact between these tubes and possible damage to the SOFC.

Parry, Gareth W. (East Windsor, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Solid-fuel combustion. Final report, 1 August 1985-31 October 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Theoretical analyses were performed on several different types of diffusion flames to study the flame radiation effect. In the first problem, a soot formation and oxidation scheme was incorporated into a turbulent diffusion flame model adjacent to a solid fuel. The computed results for the natural convective fire showed good agreement with experimentally measured solid fuel burning rate. Soot radiation increased its importance with flame height. With flames greater than 1 meter, the radiative heat flux exceeded that by convection. In the second problem, matched asymptotic expansions were employed to study the spherical diffusion flame around a droplet or solid particle with flame radiation. It was found that the importance of radiation increased with droplet radius. The theory predicted that there was a maximum droplet or particle size above which a spherical flame could not be supported due to radiative loss. In the third problem, the thermophoretic motion of small particles (e.g., soot) were studied in a stagnation-point laminar flow next to a heated plate with and without combustion. It was found that both the thermophoretic motion and this Brownian particle diffusion can have a profound effect on the particle concentration distributions.

T'ien, J.S.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Production of Hydrogen for Clean and Renewable Source of Energy for Fuel Cell Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This was a two-year project that had two major components: 1) the demonstration of a PV-electrolysis system that has separate PV system and electrolysis unit and the hydrogen generated is to be used to power a fuel cell based vehicle; 2) the development of technologies for generation of hydrogen through photoelectrochemical process and bio-mass derived resources. Development under this project could lead to the achievement of DOE technical target related to PEC hydrogen production at low cost. The PEC part of the project is focused on the development of photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation devices and systems using thin-film silicon based solar cells. Two approaches are taken for the development of efficient and durable photoelectrochemical cells; 1) An immersion-type photoelectrochemical cells (Task 3) where the photoelectrode is immersed in electrolyte, and 2) A substrate-type photoelectrochemical cell (Task 2) where the photoelectrode is not in direct contact with electrolyte. Four tasks are being carried out: Task 1: Design and analysis of DC voltage regulation system for direct PV-to-electrolyzer power feed Task 2: Development of advanced materials for substrate-type PEC cells Task 3: Development of advanced materials for immersion-type PEC cells Task 4: Hydrogen production through conversion of biomass-derived wastes

Deng, Xunming; Ingler, William B, Jr.; Abraham, Martin; Castellano, Felix; Coleman, Maria; Collins, Robert; Compaan, Alvin; Giolando, Dean; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya. H.; Stuart, Thomas; Vonderembse, Mark

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

443

Use of Solid Hydride Fuel for Improved long-Life LWR Core Designs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of improving the performance of PWR and BWR cores by using solid hydride fuels instead of the commonly used oxide fuel. The primary measure of performance considered is the bus-bar cost of electricity (COE). Additional performance measures considered are safety, fuel bundle design simplicity – in particular for BWR’s, and plutonium incineration capability. It was found that hydride fuel can safely operate in PWR’s and BWR’s without restricting the linear heat generation rate of these reactors relative to that attainable with oxide fuel. A couple of promising applications of hydride fuel in PWR’s and BWR’s were identified: (1) Eliminating dedicated water moderator volumes in BWR cores thus enabling to significantly increase the cooled fuel rods surface area as well as the coolant flow cross section area in a given volume fuel bundle while significantly reducing the heterogeneity of BWR fuel bundles thus achieving flatter pin-by-pin power distribution. The net result is a possibility to significantly increase the core power density – on the order of 30% and, possibly, more, while greatly simplifying the fuel bundle design. Implementation of the above modifications is, though, not straightforward; it requires a design of completely different control system that could probably be implemented only in newly designed plants. It also requires increasing the coolant pressure drop across the core. (2) Recycling plutonium in PWR’s more effectively than is possible with oxide fuel by virtue of a couple of unique features of hydride fuel – reduced inventory of U-238 and increased inventory of hydrogen. As a result, the hydride fuelled core achieves nearly double the average discharge burnup and the fraction of the loaded Pu it incinerates in one pass is double that of the MOX fuel. The fissile fraction of the Pu in the discharged hydride fuel is only ~2/3 that of the MOX fuel and the discharged hydride fuel is more proliferation resistant. Preliminary feasibility assessment indicates that by replacing some of the ZrH1.6 by ThH2 it will be possible to further improve the plutonium incineration capability of PWR’s. Other possibly promising applications of hydride fuel were identified but not evaluated in this work. A number of promising oxide fueled PWR core designs were also found as spin-offs of this study: (1) The optimal oxide fueled PWR core design features smaller fuel rod diameter of D=6.5 mm and a larger pitch-to-diameter ratio of P/D=1.39 than presently practiced by industry – 9.5mm and 1.326. This optimal design can provide a 30% increase in the power density and a 24% reduction in the cost of electricity (COE) provided the PWR could be designed to have the coolant pressure drop across the core increased from the reference 29 psia to 60 psia. (2) Using wire wrapped oxide fuel rods in hexagonal fuel assemblies it is possible to design PWR cores to operate at 54% higher power density than the reference PWR design that uses grid spacers and a square lattice, provided 60 psia coolant pressure drop across the core could be accommodated. Uprating existing PWR’s to use such cores could result in 40% reduction in the COE. The optimal lattice geometry is D = 8.08 mm and P/D = 1.41. The most notable advantages of wire wraps over grid spacers are their significant lower pressure drop, higher critical heat flux and improved vibrations characteristics.

Greenspan, E

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

444

Structural and electrochemical characterization of two proton conducting oxide thin films for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The use of proton conducting oxide materials as an electrolyte offers the potential to reduce the operating temperature of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), leading to improved thermal management and material compatibility. ...

Capozzoli, Peter M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Sc???Ce????Zr????O? ELECTROLYTE MATERIAL FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scandia doped zirconia has been considered a candidate for electrolyte material in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) due to its high ionic conductivity, chemical stability and good electrochemical performance. The aim...

Lim, Wendy

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

446

MN Center for Renewable Energy: Cellulosic Ethanol, Optimization of Bio-fuels in Internal Combustion Engines, & Course Development for Technicians in These Areas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report for Grant #DE-FG02-06ER64241, MN Center for Renewable Energy, will address the shared institutional work done by Minnesota State University, Mankato and Minnesota West Community and Technical College during the time period of July 1, 2006 to December 30, 2008. There was a no-cost extension request approved for the purpose of finalizing some of the work. The grant objectives broadly stated were to 1) develop educational curriculum to train technicians in wind and ethanol renewable energy, 2) determine the value of cattails as a biomass crop for production of cellulosic ethanol, and 3) research in Optimization of Bio-Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines. The funding for the MN Center for Renewable Energy was spent on specific projects related to the work of the Center.

John Frey

2009-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

447

The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For better or worse, natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plants being built across the United States. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), natural gas-fired units account for nearly 90% of the total generating capacity added in the U.S. between 1999 and 2005 (EIA 2006b), bringing the nationwide market share of gas-fired generation to 19%. Looking ahead over the next decade, the EIA expects this trend to continue, increasing the market share of gas-fired generation to 22% by 2015 (EIA 2007a). Though these numbers are specific to the US, natural gas-fired generation is making similar advances in many other countries as well. A large percentage of the total cost of gas-fired generation is attributable to fuel costs--i.e., natural gas prices. For example, at current spot prices of around $7/MMBtu, fuel costs account for more than 75% of the levelized cost of energy from a new combined cycle gas turbine, and more than 90% of its operating costs (EIA 2007a). Furthermore, given that gas-fired plants are often the marginal supply units that set the market-clearing price for all generators in a competitive wholesale market, there is a direct link between natural gas prices and wholesale electricity prices. In this light, the dramatic increase in natural gas prices since the 1990s should be a cause for ratepayer concern. Figure 1 shows the daily price history of the 'first-nearby' (i.e., closest to expiration) NYMEX natural gas futures contract (black line) at Henry Hub, along with the futures strip (i.e., the full series of futures contracts) from August 22, 2007 (red line). First, nearby prices, which closely track spot prices, have recently been trading within a $7-9/MMBtu range in the United States and, as shown by the futures strip, are expected to remain there through 2012. These price levels are $6/MMBtu higher than the $1-3/MMBtu range seen throughout most of the 1990s, demonstrating significant price escalation for natural gas in the United States over a relatively brief period. Perhaps of most concern is that this dramatic price increase was largely unforeseen. Figure 2 compares the EIA's natural gas wellhead price forecast from each year's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) going back to 1985 against the average US wellhead price that actually transpired. As shown, our forecasting abilities have proven rather dismal over time, as over-forecasts made in the late 1980's eventually yielded to under-forecasts that have persisted to this day. This historical experience demonstrates that little weight should be placed on any one forecast of future natural gas prices, and that a broad range of future price conditions ought to be considered in planning and investment decisions. Against this backdrop of high, volatile, and unpredictable natural gas prices, increasing the market penetration of renewable generation such as wind, solar, and geothermal power may provide economic benefits to ratepayers by displacing gas-fired generation. These benefits may manifest themselves in several ways. First, the displacement of natural gas-fired generation by increased renewable generation reduces ratepayer exposure to natural gas price risk--i.e., the risk that future gas prices (and by extension future electricity prices) may end up markedly different than expected. Second, this displacement reduces demand for natural gas among gas-fired generators, which, all else equal, will put downward pressure on natural gas prices. Lower natural gas prices in turn benefit both electric ratepayers and other end-users of natural gas. Using analytic approaches that build upon, yet differ from, the past work of others, including Awerbuch (1993, 1994, 2003), Kahn and Stoft (1993), and Humphreys and McClain (1998), this chapter explores each of these two potential 'hedging' benefits of renewable electricity. Though we do not seek to judge whether these two specific benefits outweigh any incremental cost of renewable energy (relative to conventional fuels), we do seek to quantify the magnitude of these two individual benefit

Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Creep Behavior of Glass/Ceramic Sealant Used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells require that sealant must function at high temperature between 600o and 900oC and in the oxidizing and reducing environments of fuel and air. It should be noted that creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 800oC, which exceeds the glass transition temperature Tg for most glass ceramic materials. The goal of the study is to develop a creep model to capture the creep behavior of glass ceramic materials at high temperature and to investigate the effect of creep of glass ceramic sealant materials on stresses in glass seal and on the various interfaces of glass seal with other layers. The self-consistent creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the stresses in various parts. The stress in glass seals were released due to its creep behavior during the operating environments.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2010-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

449

Operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on biodiesel with a partial oxidation reformer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Office of Research & Development (NETL/ORD) has successfully demonstrated the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using reformed biodiesel. The biodiesel for the project was produced and characterized by West Virginia State University (WVSU). This project had two main aspects: 1) demonstrate a catalyst formulation on monolith for biodiesel fuel reforming; and 2) establish SOFC stack test stand capabilities. Both aspects have been completed successfully. For the first aspect, in–house patented catalyst specifications were developed, fabricated and tested. Parametric reforming studies of biofuels provided data on fuel composition, catalyst degradation, syngas composition, and operating parameters required for successful reforming and integration with the SOFC test stand. For the second aspect, a stack test fixture (STF) for standardized testing, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the Solid Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program, was engineered and constructed at NETL. To facilitate the demonstration of the STF, NETL employed H.C. Starck Ceramics GmbH & Co. (Germany) anode supported solid oxide cells. In addition, anode supported cells, SS441 end plates, and cell frames were transferred from PNNL to NETL. The stack assembly and conditioning procedures, including stack welding and sealing, contact paste application, binder burn-out, seal-setting, hot standby, and other stack assembly and conditioning methods were transferred to NETL. In the future, fuel cell stacks provided by SECA or other developers could be tested at the STF to validate SOFC performance on various fuels. The STF operated on hydrogen for over 1000 hrs before switching over to reformed biodiesel for 100 hrs of operation. Combining these first two aspects led to demonstrating the biodiesel syngas in the STF. A reformer was built and used to convert 0.5 ml/min of biodiesel into mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas.) The syngas was fed to the STF and fuel cell stack. The results presented in this experimental report document one of the first times a SOFC has been operated on syngas from reformed biodiesel.

Siefert, N, Shekhawat, D.; Gemmen, R.; Berry, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Richard Farmer Hydrogen Business Council September 14, 2010 #12; Double Renewable Energy Capacity by 2012 Invest $150 Deputy Program Manager Fuel Cell Technologies Program United States Department of Energy Mountain States

451

Microstructure and properties of barium cerate based electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Barium cerate based ceramics have been widely reported to have high ionic conductivity and hold promise as electrolyte materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC`s). Samples of niobium-doped barium cerate have been produced with a variety of microstructures. Many parameters affecting the final microstructure of the electrolyte materials have been systematically investigated. The conductivity of the electrolyte materials produced have been studied using impedance spectroscopy to understand the effect of microstructure on the desired properties of barium cerate based electrolytes.

Rauch, W.L.; Liu, M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

452

Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

453

Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cellmembranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes were developed in which zirconia-based electrolyte thin films were supported by a composite metal/ceramic electrode, and were subjected to rapid thermal cycling between 200 and 800 C. The effects of this cycling on membrane performance were evaluated. The membranes, not yet optimized for performance, showed a peak power density of 350mW/cm2at 900 C in laboratory-sized SOFCs that was not affected by the thermal cycling. This resistance to cycling degradation is attributed to the close matching of thermal expansion coefficient of the cermet support electrode with that of the zirconia electrolyte.

Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

2004-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

454

2008 Renewable Energy Data Book  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

Not Available

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview Dr. Sunita Satyapal Program Manager U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program DOE/CESA/TTC Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: Addressing Energy Challenges #12;4 Fuel Cells -- Where are we today? Fuel Cells for Transportation

456

Performance of solid oxide fuel cells approaching the two-dimensional limit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We model electrochemical kinetics and physical conduction mechanisms for carrier transport in electrolyte membranes to determine the limits of dimensionality reduction (down to 1?nm) on maximum power output of solid oxide fuel cells with symmetric Pt electrodes. Using Y-doped ZrO{sub 2}, we find a minimum thickness of ?6?nm to realize near ideal chemical potential in such fuel cells, which is limited by electronic breakdown when approaching the dielectric breakdown strength. For larger electrolyte thicknesses, the greatest source of electronic leakage influencing power loss is from Ohmic transport of minority carriers and emission of trapped carriers. For porous metallic electrodes, an ideal microstructure with the particle size comparable to particle spacing dimensions is found to accurately model experimental results. The role of electronic trap states in the electrolyte band gap on power density characteristics is highlighted.

Kerman, K., E-mail: kkerman@fas.harvard.edu; Ramanathan, S. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

457

BI-LAYER p-n JUNCTION INTERCONNECTIONS FOR COAL BASED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, a new approach for lower operating temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) interconnections (IC) consisting of a bi-layer structure is proposed and analyzed. The bi-layer structure consists of a p-type layer exposed to cathodic gas (air/oxygen) and an n-type layer exposed to anodic gas (fuel). It is theoretically shown that the interfacial oxygen partial pressure which is an important design variable, is dependent primarily on the oxygen partial pressure gradient across the IC, the low level oxygen conductivities of the two layers and is largely independent of their electronic conductivities and the total current density through the IC material. Experimental difficulties in fabricating bi-layer structures are presently being addressed.

Srikanth Gopalan

2005-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

458

Many Pathways to Renewable Hydrogen (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presentation on the paths to renewable hydrogen presented by Robert Remick at the 2008 PowerGen: Renewable Energy and Fuels 2008 conference.

Remick, R.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature

Berning, Torsten

460

An intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with electrospun nanofiber cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) nanofibers have been fabricated by the electrospinning method and used as the cathode of an intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte. The three-dimensional nanofiber network cathode has several advantages: (i) high porosity; (ii) high percolation; (iii) continuous pathway for charge transport; (iv) good thermal stability at the operating temperature; and (v) excellent scaffold for infiltration. The fuel cell with the monolithic LSCF nanofiber cathode exhibits a power density of 0.90 W cm{sup ?2} at 1.9 A cm{sup ?2} at 750 °C. The electrochemical performance of the fuel cell has been further improved by infiltration of 20 wt% of gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) into the LSCF nanofiber cathode. The fuel cell with the LSCF–20% GDC composite cathode shows a power density of 1.07 W cm{sup ?2} at 1.9 A cm{sup ?2} at 750 °C. The results obtained show that one-dimensional nanostructures such as nanofibers hold great promise as electrode materials for intermediate-temperature SOFCs.

Zhi, Mingjia; Lee, Shiwoo; Miller, Nicholas; Menzler, Norbert H.; Wu, Nianqiang

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Farshid Zabihian, Alan Fung A Review on Modeling of Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Over the past 2 decades, there has been tremendous progress on numerical and computational tools for fuel cells and energy systems based on them. The purpose of this work is to summarize the current status of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycles and identify areas that require further studies. In this review paper, a comprehensive literature survey on different types of SOFC hybrid systems modeling is presented. The paper has three parts. First, it describes the importance of the fuel cells modeling especially in SOFC hybrid cycles. Key features of the fuel cell models are highlighted and model selection criteria are explained. In the second part, the models in the open literature are categorized and discussed. It includes discussion on a detail example of SOFCgas turbine cycle model, description of early models, models with different objectives such as parametric analysis, comparison of configurations, exergy analysis, optimization, non-stationary power generation applications, transient and off-design analysis, thermoeconomic analysis and so on. Finally, in the last section, key features of selected models are summarized and suggestions for areas that require further studies are presented. In this paper, a hybrid cycle can be any combination of SOFC and gas turbine, steam turbine, coal integrated gasification, and application in combined heat and power cycle.

Farshid Zabihian; Alan Fung

462

Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

Kong, Zueqian

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Solid oxide fuel cell with multi-unit construction and prismatic design  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single cell unit of a solid oxide fuel cell is described that is individually fabricated and sintered prior to being connected to adjacent cells to form a solid oxide fuel cell. The single cell unit is comprised of a shaped anode sheet positioned between a flat anode sheet and an anode-electrolyte-cathode (A/E/C) sheet, and a shaped cathode sheet positioned between the A/E/C sheet and a cathode-interconnect-anode (C/I/A) sheet. An alternate embodiment comprises a shaped cathode sheet positioned between an A/E/C sheet and a C/I/A sheet. The shaped sheets form channels for conducting reactant gases. Each single cell unit is individually sintered to form a finished sub-assembly. The finished sub-assemblies are connected in electrical series by interposing connective material between the end surfaces of adjacent cells, whereby individual cells may be inspected for defects and interchanged with non-defective single cell units. 7 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.; Myles, K.M.

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

464

Solid oxide fuel cell with multi-unit construction and prismatic design  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single cell unit of a solid oxide fuel cell that is individually fabricated and sintered prior to being connected to adjacent cells to form a solid oxide fuel cell. The single cell unit is comprised of a shaped anode sheet positioned between a flat anode sheet and an anode-electrolyte-cathode (A/E/C) sheet, and a shaped cathode sheet positioned between the A/E/C sheet and a cathode-interconnect-anode (C/I/A) sheet. An alternate embodiment comprises a shaped cathode sheet positioned between an A/E/C sheet and a C/I/A sheet. The shaped sheets form channels for conducting reactant gases. Each single cell unit is individually sintered to form a finished sub-assembly. The finished sub-assemblies are connected in electrical series by interposing connective material between the end surfaces of adjacent cells, whereby individual cells may be inspected for defects and interchanged with non-defective single cell units.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Myles, Kevin M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

No Name

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Renewable Fuels Module This  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

or other natural resource factors, as the best sites are utilized, (2) increasing cost of upgrading existing local and network distribution and transmission lines to accommodate...

467

Renewable Fuels Module  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

or other natural resource factors, as the best sites are utilized (2) increasing cost of upgrading existing local and network distribution and transmission lines to accommodate...

468

STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid startup is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of a layer of erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) on the oxidizing side and a layer of SDC or GDC on the reducing side, see Fig. 1. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. In this arrangement, the ceria layer protects the bismuth oxide layer from decomposing by shielding it from very low P{sub O{sub 2}}'s and the ESB layer serves to block electronic flux through the electrolyte. This arrangement has two significant advantages over the YSZ/SDC bilayers investigated by others [1, 2]. The first advantage is that SDC is conductive enough to serve as an intermediate temperature SOFC electrolyte. Moreover, ESB is conductive enough to serve as a low temperature electrolyte. Consequently, at worst an SDC/ESB bilayered SOFC should have the conductivity of SDC but with improved efficiency due to the electronic flux barrier provided by ESB. The second advantage is that small (dopant) concentrations of SDC in ESB or ESB in SDC, have been found to have conductivities comparable to the host lattice [3, 4]. Therefore, if solid solutioning occurs at the SDC-ESB interface, it should not be detrimental to the performance of the bilayer. In contrast, solid solutions of SDC and YSZ have been found to be significantly less conductive than SDC or YSZ. Thus, it bears emphasizing that, at this time, only SDC/ESB electrolytes have potential in low temperature SOFC applications.

Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

469

Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable to gas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Profiles of Renewable and Natural Gas Electricity Contracts:Price Risk: Using Forward Natural Gas Prices Instead of Gas2001). “Which way the natural gas price: an attempt to

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onAlternative Fuel Vehicle & Fueling

471

Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Demand...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Demand for Fossil Fuels Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Demand for Fossil Fuels Response to several FOIA...

472

STAFF DRAFT GUIDEBOOK RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, certificates, certification, common carrier pipeline, conduit hydroelectric, digester gas, electrolysis, eligibility, energy storage, fuel cell, gasification, geothermal, hydroelectric, hydrogen, incremental, renewable energy credits, Renewables Portfolio Standard, repowered, retail sales, small hydroelectric, Self

473

Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost components be developed. Based on the results obtained to date, it appears that sterling silver could be an inexpensive, dependable candidate for use as a contacting material in the cathode chamber of the solid-oxide fuel cell. Although data regarding pure silver samples show a lower rate of thickness reduction, the much lower cost of sterling silver makes it an attractive alternative for use in SOFC operation.

James M. Rakowski

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

474

Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO2 sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NOx production), and modularity. The primary objective of the Phase I study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700? to 900?C. Laboratory-scale tests were performed with 1-inch diameter solid oxide fuel cells procured from InDec B.V., Netherlands. These cells produce 0.15, 0.27, and 0.35 W/cm2 at 700?, 750?, and 800?C, respectively, in a H2 anode feed and are expected to be stable within 10% of the original performance over a period of 2000 h. A simulated coal-derived gas containing 30.0% CO, 30.6% H2 11.8% CO2, 27.6% H2O was used at a rate of ~100 standard cm3/min to determine the effect of contaminants on the electrical performance of the cells. Alumina or zirconia components were used for the gas manifold to prevent loss of contaminants by reaction with the surfaces of the gas manifold Short-term accelerated tests were conducted with several contaminants including As, P, CH3Cl, HCl, Hg, Sb, and Zn vapors. In these tests, AsH3, PH3, Cd vapor and CH3Cl identified as the potential contaminants that can affect the electrical performance of SOFCs. The effect of some of these contaminants varied with the operating temperature. Cell failure due to contact break inside the anode chamber occurred when the cell was exposed to 10 ppm arsenic vapor at 800?C. The electrical performance of SOFC samples suffered less than 1% in when exposed to contaminants such as HCl(g), Hg(g), and Zn(g), and SbO(g) at levels of 8 ppm and above. AsH3 vapor at 0.5 ppm did not affect the electrical performance of an SOFC sample even after 1000 h at 750?C. In Phase II of the program, long-term tests will be performed with multiple contaminants at a temperature range of 750? to 850?C. These tests will be at contaminant levels typical of coal-derived gas streams that have undergone gas cleanup using Selexol technology. The chemical nature of the contaminant species will be identified at the operating temperature of SOFC and compare them with thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The results of the testing will be used to recommend the sensitivity limits for SOFC operation and to assess the reduction in the service life of the SOFC for trace level contaminants.

Gopala N. Krishnan, Palitha Jayaweera, Jordi Perez, M. Hornbostel, John. R. Albritton and Raghubir P. Gupta

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

475

Straight Vegetable Oil as a Vehicle Fuel? (Fact Sheet), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageEmerging FuelsRelated4RoguebuttonsEnergy Office of

476

STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible CO, HC, or NOx and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at lower temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued, not the least of which is reduced cost. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (>0.05 S cm{sup -1} at 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of bismuth oxide on the air side and ceria on the fuel side. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. We have previously demonstrated that this concept works, that a bismuth oxide/ceria bilayer electrolyte provides near theoretical open circuit potential (OCP) and is stable for 1400 h of fuel cell operation under both open circuit and maximum power conditions. More recently, we developed a computer model to determine the defect transport in this bilayer and have found that a bilayer comprised primarily of the more conductive component (bismuth oxide) is stable for 500 C operation. In this first year of the project we are obtaining necessary thermochemical data to complete the computer model as well as initial SOFC results based on thick 1-2 mm single and bilayer ceria/bismuth oxide electrolytes. We will use the computer model to obtain the optimum relative layer thickness as a function of temperature and air/fuel conditions. SOFCs will be fabricated with 1-2 mm single and bilayer electrolytes based on the modeling results, tested for OCP, conductivity, and stability and compared against the predictions. The computer modeling is a continuation of previous work under support from GRI and the student was available at the inception of the contract. However, the experimental effort was delayed until the beginning of the Spring Semester because the contract was started in October, 2 months after the start of our Fall Semester, and after all of the graduate students were committed to other projects. The results from both of these efforts are described in the following two sections: (1) Experimental; and (2) Computer Modeling.

Eric D. Wachsman

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines the potential for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to provide electrical generation on-board commercial aircraft. Unlike a turbine-based auxiliary power unit (APU) a solid oxide fuel cell power unit (SOFCPU) would be more efficient than using the main engine generators to generate electricity and would operate continuously during flight. The focus of this study is on more-electric aircraft which minimize bleed air extraction from the engines and instead use electrical power obtained from generators driven by the main engines to satisfy all major loads. The increased electrical generation increases the potential fuel savings obtainable through more efficient electrical generation using a SOFCPU. However, the weight added to the aircraft by the SOFCPU impacts the main engine fuel consumption which reduces the potential fuel savings. To investigate these relationships the Boeing 787­8 was used as a case study. The potential performance of the SOFCPU was determined by coupling flowsheet modeling using ChemCAD software with a stack performance algorithm. For a given stack operating condition (cell voltage, anode utilization, stack pressure, target cell exit temperature), ChemCAD software was used to determine the cathode air rate to provide stack thermal balance, the heat exchanger duties, the gross power output for a given fuel rate, the parasitic power for the anode recycle blower and net power obtained from (or required by) the compressor/expander. The SOFC is based on the Gen4 Delphi planar SOFC with assumed modifications to tailor it to this application. The size of the stack needed to satisfy the specified condition was assessed using an empirically-based algorithm. The algorithm predicts stack power density based on the pressure, inlet temperature, cell voltage and anode and cathode inlet flows and compositions. The algorithm was developed by enhancing a model for a well-established material set operating at atmospheric pressure to reflect the effect of elevated pressure and to represent the expected enhancement obtained using a promising cell material set which has been tested in button cells but not yet used to produce full-scale stacks. The predictions for the effect of pressure on stack performance were based on literature. As part of this study, additional data were obtained on button cells at elevated pressure to confirm the validity of the predictions. The impact of adding weight to the 787-8 fuel consumption was determined as a function of flight distance using a PianoX model. A conceptual design for a SOFC power system for the Boeing 787 is developed and the weight estimated. The results indicate that the power density of the stacks must increase by at least a factor of 2 to begin saving fuel on the 787 aircraft. However, the conceptual design of the power system may still be useful for other applications which are less weight sensitive.

Whyatt, Greg A.; Chick, Lawrence A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Cassettes for solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and methods of making the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack assembly designs are consistently investigated to develop an assembly that provides optimal performance, and durability, within desired cost parameters. A new design includes a repeat unit having a SOFC cassette and being characterized by a three-component construct. The three components include an oxidation-resistant, metal window frame hermetically joined to an electrolyte layer of a multi-layer, anode-supported ceramic cell and a pre-cassette including a separator plate having a plurality of vias that provide electrical contact between an anode-side collector within the pre-cassette and a cathode-side current collector of an adjacent cell. The third component is a cathode-side seal, which includes a standoff that supports a cathode channel spacing between each of the cassettes in a stack. Cassettes are formed by joining the pre-cassette and the window frame.

Weil, K. Scott; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Sprenkle, Vincent L

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

479

The State-of-the-Art in Sealing Technology for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the keys to developing viable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems is to first develop reliable and inexpensive stack sealing technology. Three general approaches are currently being pursued, including: rigid bonded sealing, compressive sealing, and compliant bonded sealing. This review highlights the advantages and limitations of each option, discusses some of the leading concepts, and outlines the future steps that need to be taken in their development. Given the number of different SOFC stack designs under development, the variety of potential applications/conditions in which these systems can be used, and the complexities of stack manufacture, it is likely that no one sealing technique will be suitable for all uses. Therefore continued progress in each general area, as well as the development of new concepts, is critical to the eventual success of SOFC technology.

Weil, K. Scott

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "renewable fuels solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Nickel based anodes for single chamber solid oxide fuel cells : a catalytic study Geoffroy Gadacz, Sorina Udroiu, Jean-Paul Viricelle, Christophe Pijolat, Michle Pijolat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nickel based anodes for single chamber solid oxide fuel cells : a catalytic study Geoffroy Gadacz Single chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SCFC) are an alternative concept to traditional SOFC-gas-shift equilibrium. Introduction Fifteen years ago, Hibino (1) has shown the feasibility of a fuel cell consisting

Boyer, Edmond

482

Innovative Self-Healing Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is critical to several national initiatives. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) addresses the technology needs through its comprehensive programs on SOFC. A reliable and cost-effective seal that works at high temperatures is essential to the long-term performance of the SOFC for 40,000 hours at 800°C. Consequently, seals remain an area of highest priority for the SECA program and its industry teams. An innovative concept based on self-healing glasses was advanced and successfully demonstrated through seal tests for 3000 hours and 300 thermal cycles to minimize internal stresses under both steady state and thermal transients for making reliable seals for the SECA program. The self-healing concept requires glasses with low viscosity at the SOFC operating temperature of 800°C but this requirement may lead to excessive flow of the glass in areas forming the seal. To address this challenge, a modification to glass properties by addition of particulate fillers is pursued in the project. The underlying idea is that a non-reactive ceramic particulate filler is expected to form glass-ceramic composite and increase the seal viscosity thereby increasing the creep resistance of the glass-composite seals under load. The objectives of the program are to select appropriate filler materials for making glass-composite, fabricate glass-composites, measure thermal expansion behaviors, and determine stability of the glass-composites in air and fuel environments of a SOFC. Self-healing glass-YSZ composites are further developed and tested over a longer time periods under conditions typical of the SOFCs to validate the long-term stability up to 2000 hours. The new concepts of glass-composite seals, developed and nurtured in this program, are expected to be cost-effective as these are based on conventional processing approaches and use of the inexpensive materials.

Raj Singh

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

483

Direct oxidation of hydrocarbons in a solid oxide fuel cell. I. Methane oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of Cu cermets as anodes for the direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} in solid oxide fuel cells was examined. Mixtures of Cu and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YAZ) were found to give similar performance to Ni-YSZ cermets when H{sub 2} was used as the fuel, but did not deactivate in dry CH{sub 4}. While Cu-YSZ was essentially inert to methane, the addition of ceria to the anode gave rise to reasonable power densities and stable operation over a period of at least 3 days. Proof of direct oxidation of CH{sub 4} came from chemical analysis of the products leaving the cell. The major carbon-containing product was CO{sub 2}, with only traces of CO observed, and there was excellent agreement between the actual cell current and that predicted by the methane conversion. These results demonstrate that direct, electrocatalytic oxidation of dry methane is possible, with reasonable performance.

Park, S.; Craciun, R.; Vohs, J.M.; Gorte, R.J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

A novel method for preparing anode cermets for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method for fabrication of metal-cermet anodes in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has been developed. Highly porous, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films were prepared using a mixture of zircon fibers (YSZp, Si-stabilized, and {lt}0.3% Si) and normal YSZ powders (YSZd). The films remained highly porous following calcination up to 1,550 C, after which either Cu or Ni could be incorporated by impregnation with the nitrate salts. For Cu cermets, the performance increased with metal loading to at least 40% Cu. At 800 C using H{sub 2} as the fuel and a 230 {micro}m, YSZ electrolyte, the current-voltage (I-V) curves for either a Cu- or Ni-cermet anode formed using this new method were found to be identical to the I-V curve for a Ni cermet formed using traditional methods. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the anode films remained porous even with addition of Cu, so that additional modification was possible. Tests of this concept through the addition of ceria by impregnation with the Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} led to an additional increase in the cell performance.

Craciun, R.; Park, S.; Gorte, R.J.; Vohs, J.M.; Wang, C.; Worrell, W.L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

The production of a premium solid fuel from Powder River Basin coal. [COMPCOAL Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes our initial evaluation of a process designed to produce premium-quality solid fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The process is based upon our experience gained by producing highly-reactive, high-heating-value char as part of a mild-gasification project. In the process, char containing 20 to 25 wt % volatiles and having a gross heating value of 12,500 to 13,000 Btu/lb is produced. The char is then contacted by coal-derived liquid. The result is a deposit of 6 to 8 wt % pitch on the char particles. The lower boiling component of the coal-derived liquid which is not deposited on the char is burned as fuel. Our economic evaluation shows the process will be economically attractive if the product can be sold for about $20/ton or more. Our preliminary tests show that we can deposit pitch on to the char, and the product is less dusty, less susceptible to readsorption of moisture, and has reduced susceptibility to self heating.

Merriam, N.; Sethi, V.; Thomas, K.; Grimes, R.W.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Thin film preparation and interfacial reaction study of solid oxide fuel cell materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) operate at 1000 C and their components are processed at even higher temperatures. It is generally desirable to reduce the operating and processing temperatures of SOFC's to make them competitive with other types of fuel cells and to avoid the interactions and interdiffusion between cell components. This can be achieved by either developing a technology to produce thin film electrolytes, or by developing new electrolyte and electrode materials with reduced interaction, lower interfacial resistance. The synthesis and characterization of (Ce-O2)0.8(Sm01.5)0.2 thin films from polymeric precursors is discussed. The reaction mechanism of the precursors and important parameters for making dense, crack-free films were investigated. The cathode/electrolyte interactions and their expected impact on SOFC performance are addressed. The cathode characteristics and cathode/electrolyte interaction of various perovskites are studied. The impact of interfacial reactions on cell performance is investigated. The electrode characteristics of dense La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) thin film produced by polymeric precursors are presented. The electrode resistance and characteristics of the electrode (dense)/electrolyte interface are studied. The effect of reactions and interdiffusion on interfacial resistance are discussed. A potential method for making dense ZrO2 films at relatively low temperatures by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is presented. The deposition parameters and characterization of ZrO2 film are reported.

Chen, Chiehcheng.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Optimization and Demonstration of a Solid Oxide Regenerative Fuel Cell System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single cell solid oxide regenerative fuel cells (SORFCs) have been demonstrated for over 1000 hours of operation at degradation rates as low as 0.5% per thousand hours for current densities as high as 300mA/cm{sup 2}. Efficiency levels (fuel cell power out vs. electrolysis power in) have been demonstrated in excess of 80% at 100mA/cm{sup 2}. All testing has been performed with metallic based interconnects and non-noble metal electrodes in order to limit fabrication costs for commercial considerations. The SORFC cell technology will be scaled up to a 1kW sized stack which will be demonstrated in Year 2 of the program. A self contained SORFC system requires efficient thermal management in order to maintain operating temperatures during exothermic and endothermic operational modes. The use of LiF as a phase change material (PCM) was selected as the optimum thermal storage medium by virtue of its superior thermal energy density by volume. Thermal storage experiments were performed using LiF and a simulated SORFC stack. The thermal storage concept was deemed to be technically viable for larger well insulated systems, although it would not enable a high efficiency thermally self-sufficient SORFC system at the 1 kW level.

James F. McElroy; Darren B. Hickey; Fred Mitlitsky

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z