National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for remove sulfur species

  1. Continuous sulfur removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, deceased, Vinod (late of Concord, MA); Ryu, Jae (Cambridge, MA)

    1994-01-01

    A continuous process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream using a membrane comprising a metal oxide deposited on a porous support is disclosed.

  2. Continuous sulfur removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, V.; Ryu, J.

    1994-04-26

    A continuous process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream using a membrane comprising a metal oxide deposited on a porous support is disclosed. 4 figures.

  3. The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Qian

    2012-01-01

    S breakthrough time and sulfur capture capacity increased asspace velocity on H 2 S on sulfur capture capacity for H 2 Sbased on the optimal sulfur capture capacity under CE-CERT

  4. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Jozewicz, Wojciech (Chapel Hill, NC)

    1989-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accorda The government may own certain rights in the present invention pursuant to EPA Cooperative Agreement CR 81-1531.

  5. The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Qian

    2012-01-01

    sulfur was strongly dependent on coal type. Gryglewicz [19]coal) [9] and other factors such as heating rate, time, pressure and velocity of the carrying gas, type

  6. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

    1983-08-11

    A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  7. The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Qian

    2012-01-01

    species, such as carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (the formation of carbonyl sulfide (COS); carbon dioxide (COsmall amounts of gas phase carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon

  8. Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verkade, John G. (Ames, IA); Mohan, Thyagarajan (Ames, IA); Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA)

    1995-01-01

    A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

  9. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  10. More Economical Sulfur Removal for Fuel Processing Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    crude oil it is present in sulfur-containing organic compounds which are converted into hydrocarbons and H 2 S during the removal process (hydrodesulfurization). In both cases,...

  11. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  12. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-07-03

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

  13. Sulfur removal from diesel fuel-contaminated methanol.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. H. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Chemical Engineering

    2002-03-01

    Methanol is considered to be a potential on-board fuel for fuel cell-powered vehicles. In current distribution systems for liquid fuels used in the transportation sector, commodity methanol can occasionally become contaminated with the sulfur in diesel fuel or gasoline. This sulfur would poison the catalytic materials used in fuel reformers for fuel cells. We tested the removal of this sulfur by means of ten activated carbons (AC) that are commercially available. Tests were conducted with methanol doped with 1 vol.% grade D-2 diesel fuel containing 0.29% sulfur, which was present essentially as 33-35 wt.% benzothiophenes (BTs) and 65-67 wt.% dibenzothiophenes (DBT). In general, coconut shell-based carbons activated by high-temperature steam were more effective at sulfur removal than coal-based carbons. Equilibrium sorption data showed linear increase in sulfur capture with the increase of sulfur concentration in methanol. Both types of carbons had similar breakthrough characteristics, with the dynamic sorption capacity of each being about one-third of its equilibrium sorption capacity. Results of this study suggest that a fixed-bed sorber of granular AC can be used, such as in refueling stations, for the removal of sulfur in diesel fuel-contaminated methanol.

  14. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NO{sub x} control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  15. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NOX control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  16. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.

    1991-01-01

    A pre-combustion coal desulfurization process at 120{degree}C using perchloroethylene (PCE) to remove up to 70% of the organic sulfur has been developed by the Midwest Ore Processing Co. (MWOPC). However, this process has not yet proven to be as successful with Illinois coals as it has for Ohio and Indiana coals. The organic sulfur removal has been achieved only with highly oxidized Illinois coals containing high sulfatic sulfur. A logical explanation for this observation is vital to successful process optimization for the use of Illinois coals. In addition, the high levels of organic sulfur removals observed by the MWOPC may be due to certain errors involved in the ASTM data interpretation; this needs verification. For example, elemental sulfur extracted by the PCE may be derived from pyrite oxidation during coal pre-oxidation, but it may be interpreted as organic sulfur removed by the PCE using ASTM analysis. The goals of this research are: (1) to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE desulfurization process reported by the MWOPC, (2) to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for the PCE process evaluation, and (3) to determine the suitability of Illinois coals for use in the PCE desulfurization process. This project involves the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Eastern Illinois University (EIU), the University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign (UI-UC), and the University of Kentucky, Lexington (UK). This is the first year of a two-year project.

  17. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

    1987-10-07

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

  18. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narain, Nand K. (Bethel Park, PA); Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA); Smith, Dennis N. (Herminie, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

  19. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Stegen, Gary E. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  20. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Chang, John C. S. (Cary, NC)

    1991-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

  1. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  2. A solvent system to provide selective removal of sulfur compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, R.L.; Bacon, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Energy costs and SRU inefficiencies resulting from utilization of low strength MEA technology induced a large refinery to convert to MDEA. One of the seven product streams being treated required extremely low carbonyl sulfide in the treated product. This required careful consideration in making the decision to convert. However, the conclusions were that the advantages outweighed the disadvantages. When the initial converted operations verified a need to improve the carbonyl sulfide removal, GAS/SPEC Tech Service produced an innovative solution which allowed for efficient operation at acceptable COS specification, lower energy utilization, reduced solvent losses, and improved sulfur recovery unit operation.

  3. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  4. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  5. Removal of sulfur contaminants in methanol for fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Kumar, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sederquist, R. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherm and breakthrough data were used to assess feasibility of developing a granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorber for use as a sulfur removal subsystem in transportation fuel cell systems. Results suggest that an on-board GAC adsorber may not be attractive due to size and weight constraints. However, it may be feasible to install this GAC adsorber at methanol distribution stations, where space and weight are not a critical concern. Preliminary economic analysis indicated that the GAC adsorber concept will be attractive if the spent AC can be regenerated for reuse. These preliminary analyses were made on basis of very limited breakthrough data obtained from the bench-scale testing. Optimization on dynamic testing parameters and study on regeneration of spent AC are needed.

  6. Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha (Aurora, IL); Meyer, Howard S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA); Leppin, Dennis (Chicago, IL); Wangerow, James R. (Medinah, IL)

    2012-08-14

    A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

  7. SULFUR REMOVAL FROM PIPE LINE NATURAL GAS FUEL: APPLICATION TO FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2003-11-21

    Pipeline natural gas is being considered as the fuel of choice for utilization in fuel cell-based distributed generation systems because of its abundant supply and the existing supply infrastructure (1). For effective utilization in fuel cells, pipeline gas requires efficient removal of sulfur impurities (naturally occurring sulfur compounds or sulfur bearing odorants) to prevent the electrical performance degradation of the fuel cell system. Sulfur odorants such as thiols and sulfides are added to pipeline natural gas and to LPG to ensure safe handling during transportation and utilization. The odorants allow the detection of minute gas line leaks, thereby minimizing the potential for explosions or fires.

  8. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  9. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  10. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M; Lytle, J.M.; Ruch, R.R.; Kruse, C.W.; Chaven, C.; Hackley, K.C.; Hughes, R.E.; Harvey, R.D.; Frost, J.K. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Buchanan, D.H. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States); Stucki, J.W. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Huffman, G.; Huggins, F.E. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-09-01

    A pre-combustion coal desulfurization process at 120{degree}C using perchloroethylene (PCE) to remove up to 70% of the organic sulfur has been developed by the Midwest Ore Processing Co. (MWOPC). However, this process has not yet proven to be as successful with Illinois coals as it has for Ohio and Indiana coals. In addition, the high levels of organic sulfur removals observed by the MWOPC may be due to certain errors involved in the ASTM data interpretation; this needs verification. For example, elemental sulfur extracted by the PCE may be derived from pyrite oxidation during coal preoxidation, but it may be interpreted as organic sulfur removed by the PCE using ASTM analysis. The purposes of this research are to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE desulfurization process reported by the MWOPC and to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for the PCE process evaluation.

  11. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  12. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

  13. Study on removal of organic sulfur compound by modified activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Huiling; Li Chunhu; Guo Hanxian [Taiyuan Univ. of Technology (China). Research Inst. for Chemical Engineering of Coal

    1997-12-31

    With the price of coal increasing in China, more and more small and medium scale chemical plants are turning to high sulfur coal as the raw material in order to cut cost. However, the major drawback is that the lifetime of the ammonia synthesis catalyst is then reduced greatly because of the high concentration of the sulfur compounds in the synthesis gas, especially organic sulfur, usually CS{sub 2} and COS. The effects of water vapor and experimental temperature on removal of organic sulfur compounds by using a modified activated carbon were studied in this paper. It was found that water vapor had a negative effect on removal of carbon disulfide by activated carbon impregnated with organic amine. The use of activated carbon impregnated with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for removal of carbonyl sulfide was also investigated over the temperature range 30--60, the results show a favorable temperature (40) existing for carbonyl sulfide removal. Fixed-bed breakthrough curves for the adsorbent bed were also offered in this paper.

  14. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damon, D.A. [CNG Research Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Siwajek, L.A. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Klint, B.W. [BOVAR Inc., AB (Canada). Western Research

    1993-12-31

    Low quality natural gas processing with the integrated CFZ/CNG Claus process is feasible for low quality natural gas containing 10% or more of CO{sub 2}, and any amount of H{sub 2}S. The CNG Claus process requires a minimum CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas of about 100 psia (15% CO{sub 2} for a 700 psia feed gas) and also can handle any amount of H{sub 2}S. The process is well suited for handling a variety of trace contaminants usually associated with low quality natural gas and Claus sulfur recovery. The integrated process can produce high pressure carbon dioxide at purities required by end use markets, including food grade CO{sub 2}. The ability to economically co-produce high pressure CO{sub 2} as a commodity with significant revenue potential frees process economic viability from total reliance on pipeline gas, and extends the range of process applicability to low quality gases with relatively low methane content. Gases with high acid gas content and high CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S ratios can be economically processed by the CFZ/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes. The large energy requirements for regeneration make chemical solvent processing prohibitive. The cost of Selexol physical solvent processing of the LaBarge gas is significantly greater than the CNG/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes.

  15. Sulfurization of carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal I: Effect of temperature and sulfurization protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    a fixed bed reactor system to determine the effects of sorbent properties, temperature (200­800 °C; Impregnation; Temperature programmed desorption; Surface properties 1. Introduction Hydrogen sulfide, such as the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process [4], and the coal gas cleaning process [5], removal

  16. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Amo; R.W. Baker; V.D. Helm; T. Hofmann; K.A. Lokhandwala; I. Pinnau; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; L. Toy; J.G. Wijmans

    1998-01-29

    A significant fraction of U.S. natural gas reserves are subquality due to the presence of acid gases and nitrogen; 13% of existing reserves (19 trillion cubic feed) may be contaminated with hydrogen sulfide. For natural gas to be useful as fuel and feedstock, this hydrogen sulfide has to be removed to the pipeline specification of 4 ppm. The technology used to achieve these specifications has been amine, or similar chemical or physical solvent, absorption. Although mature and widely used in the gas industry, absorption processes are capital and energy-intensive and require constant supervision for proper operation. This makes these processes unsuitable for treating gas at low throughput, in remote locations, or with a high concentration of acid gases. The U.S. Department of Energy, recognizes that exploitation of smaller, more sub-quality resources will be necessary to meet demand as the large gas fields in the U.S. are depleted. In response to this need, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has developed membranes and a membrane process for removing hydrogen sulfide from natural gas. During this project, high-performance polymeric thin-film composite membranes were brought from the research stage to field testing. The membranes have hydrogen sulfide/methane selectivities in the range 35 to 60, depending on the feed conditions, and have been scaled up to commercial-scale production. A large number of spiral-wound modules were manufactured, tested and optimized during this project, which culminated in a field test at a Shell facility in East Texas. The short field test showed that membrane module performance on an actual natural gas stream was close to that observed in the laboratory tests with cleaner streams. An extensive technical and economic analysis was performed to determine the best applications for the membrane process. Two areas were identified: the low-flow-rate, high-hydrogen-sulfide-content region and the high-flow-rate, high-hydrogen-sulfide-content region. In both regions the MTR membrane process will be combined with another process to provide the necessary hydrogen sulfide removal from the natural gas. In the first region the membrane process will be combined with the SulfaTreat fixed-bed absorption process, and in the second region the membrane process will be combined with a conventional absorption process. Economic analyses indicate that these hybrid processes provide 20-40% cost savings over stand-alone absorption technologies.

  17. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus process also allow for use of the methane/H{sub 2}S separation unit as a Claus tail gas treating unit by recycling the CNG Claus tail gas stream. This allows for virtually 100 percent sulfur recovery efficiency (virtually zero SO{sub 2} emissions) by recycling the sulfur laden tail gas to extinction. The use of the tail gas recycle scheme also deemphasizes the conventional requirement in Claus units to have high unit conversion efficiency and thereby make the operation much less affected by process upsets and feed gas composition changes. The development of these technologies has been ongoing for many years and both the CFZ and the TPC processes have been demonstrated at large pilot plant scales. On the other hand, prior to this project, the CNG Claus process had not been proven at any scale. Therefore, the primary objective of this portion of the program was to design, build and operate a pilot scale CNG Claus unit and demonstrate the required fundamental reaction chemistry and also demonstrate the viability of a reasonably sized working unit.

  18. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Buchanan, D.H. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States)] [and others

    1992-12-31

    The purposes of this Testing and Materials (ASTM) forms of sulfur analysis. The purposes of this research are to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE desulfurization process and to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for the PCE process evaluation. Problem that limits commercial application of the PCE process is the high chlorine content in the PCE-treated coals. Hence, to develop a dechlorination procedure to remove excess PCE from the PCE-treated coal is an additional goal of this investigation. MWOPC`s results have been repeated on fresh IBC-104 coal. Oxidation of coals was found to affect subsequent PCE desulfurization. Elemental sulfur is more amenable to removal by PCE. Ohio 5/6 coal appears to produce elemental sulfur more readily than Illinois coal during oxidation. Data from X-Ray Diffraction spectroscopy indicate that sulfate in the oxidized Illinois IBC-104 coal is mainly in gypsum form, whereas, sulfate in oxidized Ohio 5/6 sample is mainly in szomolnokite form. These data suggest that the oxidation reaction for Ohio 5/6 coal might occur under catalytic conditions which readily convert pyrite to produce FeSO{sub 4} and elemental sulfur. The higher elemental sulfur content in that coal results in higher ASTM organic sulfur removal by PCE extraction. From mass balance calculation, 96% of the total sulfur and greater than 95% of total iron were accounted for during our PCE tests with both long-term ambient-oxidized IBC-104 coal and ambient-oxidized Ohio 516 coal.

  19. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.

    1991-12-31

    A pre-combustion coal desulfurization process at 120{degree}C using perchloroethylene (PCE) to remove up to 70% of the organic sulfur has been developed by the Midwest Ore Processing Co. (MWOPC). However, this process has not yet proven to be as successful with Illinois coals as it has for Ohio and Indiana coals. The organic sulfur removal has been achieved only with highly oxidized Illinois coals containing high sulfatic sulfur. A logical explanation for this observation is vital to successful process optimization for the use of Illinois coals. In addition, the high levels of organic sulfur removals observed by the MWOPC may be due to certain errors involved in the ASTM data interpretation; this needs verification. For example, elemental sulfur extracted by the PCE may be derived from pyrite oxidation during coal pre-oxidation, but it may be interpreted as organic sulfur removed by the PCE using ASTM analysis. The goals of this research are: (1) to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE desulfurization process reported by the MWOPC, (2) to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for the PCE process evaluation, and (3) to determine the suitability of Illinois coals for use in the PCE desulfurization process. This project involves the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Eastern Illinois University (EIU), the University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign (UI-UC), and the University of Kentucky, Lexington (UK). This is the first year of a two-year project.

  20. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Buchanan, D.H. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States); Stucki, J.W. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The purposes of this project are: to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE process developed by the Midwest Ore Processing Co. (MWOPC), to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for evaluation of the PCE process, and to develop a dechlorination procedure to remove excess PCE from the PCE-treated coal. The objectives for the second year are: to verify the possible effects of PCE treatment on coal-derived FeS{sub 2}, FeSO{sub 4}, and Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} on ASTM coal analysis, to investigate the behavior of sulfur during oxidation and PCE desulfurization using the isotopically signatured coal sample, to investigate the effects of conditions and/or reagents on the oxidation of the organic-sulfur-model compounds, to evaluate the extended oxidation condition on the organic sulfur removal by PCE desulfurization, and to study other innovative pretreatment processes for the removal of organic sulfur from coal under mild conditions.

  1. Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1999-03-31

    Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtle

    2001-08-01

    Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}.

  3. Method of removing sulfur emissions from a fluidized-bed combustion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, Gerhard John (Elmhurst, IL); Jonke, Albert A. (Elmhurst, IL); Snyder, Robert B. (Naperville, IL)

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal oxides are impregnated within refractory support material such as alumina and introduced into a fluidized-bed process for the combustion of coal. Sulfur dioxide produced during combustion reacts with the metal oxide to form metal sulfates within the porous support material. The support material is removed from the process and the metal sulfate regenerated to metal oxide by chemical reduction. Suitable pore sizes are originally developed within the support material by heat-treating to accommodate both the sulfation and regeneration while still maintaining good particle strength.

  4. Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2004-06-01

    A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

  5. Manganese and Ceria Sorbents for High Temperature Sulfur Removal from Biomass-Derived Syngas -- The Impact of Steam on Capacity and Sorption Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheah, S.; Parent, Y. O.; Jablonski, W. S.; Vinzant, T.; Olstad, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    Syngas derived from biomass and coal gasification for fuel synthesis or electricity generation contains sulfur species that are detrimental to downstream catalysts or turbine operation. Sulfur removal in high temperature, high steam conditions has been known to be challenging, but experimental reports on methods to tackle the problem are not often reported. We have developed sorbents that can remove hydrogen sulfide from syngas at high temperature (700 C), both in dry and high steam conditions. The syngas composition chosen for our experiments is derived from statistical analysis of the gasification products of wood under a large variety of conditions. The two sorbents, Cu-ceria and manganese-based, were tested in a variety of conditions. In syngas containing steam, the capacity of the sorbents is much lower, and the impact of the sorbent in lowering H{sub 2}S levels is only evident in low space velocities. Spectroscopic characterization and thermodynamic consideration of the experimental results suggest that in syngas containing 45% steam, the removal of H{sub 2}S is primarily via surface chemisorptions. For the Cu-ceria sorbent, analysis of the amount of H{sub 2}S retained by the sorbent in dry syngas suggests both copper and ceria play a role in H{sub 2}S removal. For the manganese-based sorbent, in dry conditions, there is a solid state transformation of the sorbent, primarily into the sulfide form.

  6. H[sub 2]S-removal and sulfur-recovery processes using metal salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, S.; Cairns, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    Scrubbing a sour gas stream with a solution of copper sulfate allows the clean-up temperature to be increased from ambient to the adiabatic saturation temperature of the gas. The copper ion in solution reacts with the H[sub 2]S to produce insoluble CuS. The choice of copper sulfate was set by the very low solubility of CuS and the very rapid kinetics of the Cus formation. Since the copper sulfate solutions used are acidic, CO[sub 2] will not be co-absorbed. In a subsequent step the solid CuS is oxidized by a solution of ferric sulfate. The copper sulfate is regenerated, and elemental sulfur is formed together with ferrous sulfate. The ferrous sulfate is reoxidized to ferric sulfate using air. Since the copper sulfate and ferric solutions are regenerated, the overall reaction in this process is the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen to form sulfur. The use of copper sulfate has the further advantage that the presence of sulfuric acid, even as concentrated as 1 molar, does not inhibit the sorption of H[sub 2]S. Furthermore, the absorption reaction remains quite favorable thermodynamically over the temperature range of interest. Because the reaction goes to completion, only a single theoretical stage is required for complete H[sub 2]S removal and cocurrent gas/liquid contacting may be employed. The formation of solids precludes the use of a packed column for the contacting device. However, a venturi scrubber would be expected to perform satisfactorily. The kinetics of the oxidation of metal sulfides, in particular zinc and copper sulfide, is reported in the literature to be slow at near-ambient temperatures. The proposed process conditions for the oxidation step are different from those reported in the literature, most notably the higher temperature. The kinetics of the reaction must be studied at high temperatures and corresponding pressures. An important goal is to obtain sulfur of high purity, which is a salable product.

  7. H{sub 2}S-removal and sulfur-recovery processes using metal salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, S.; Cairns, E.J.

    1992-11-01

    Scrubbing a sour gas stream with a solution of copper sulfate allows the clean-up temperature to be increased from ambient to the adiabatic saturation temperature of the gas. The copper ion in solution reacts with the H{sub 2}S to produce insoluble CuS. The choice of copper sulfate was set by the very low solubility of CuS and the very rapid kinetics of the Cus formation. Since the copper sulfate solutions used are acidic, CO{sub 2} will not be co-absorbed. In a subsequent step the solid CuS is oxidized by a solution of ferric sulfate. The copper sulfate is regenerated, and elemental sulfur is formed together with ferrous sulfate. The ferrous sulfate is reoxidized to ferric sulfate using air. Since the copper sulfate and ferric solutions are regenerated, the overall reaction in this process is the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen to form sulfur. The use of copper sulfate has the further advantage that the presence of sulfuric acid, even as concentrated as 1 molar, does not inhibit the sorption of H{sub 2}S. Furthermore, the absorption reaction remains quite favorable thermodynamically over the temperature range of interest. Because the reaction goes to completion, only a single theoretical stage is required for complete H{sub 2}S removal and cocurrent gas/liquid contacting may be employed. The formation of solids precludes the use of a packed column for the contacting device. However, a venturi scrubber would be expected to perform satisfactorily. The kinetics of the oxidation of metal sulfides, in particular zinc and copper sulfide, is reported in the literature to be slow at near-ambient temperatures. The proposed process conditions for the oxidation step are different from those reported in the literature, most notably the higher temperature. The kinetics of the reaction must be studied at high temperatures and corresponding pressures. An important goal is to obtain sulfur of high purity, which is a salable product.

  8. Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Mitchell R. (Troy, NY); Gal, Eli (Lititz, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A process and system for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous The government of the United States of America has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC21-88MC 23174 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, M.R.; Gal, E.

    1993-04-13

    A process and system are described for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous mixture.

  10. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbonâ??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

  11. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S.

    1989-04-28

    This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

  12. Synergistic capture mechanisms for alkali and sulfur species from combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.W.; Shadman, F.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Mwabe, P.O.

    1994-02-01

    Experimental work was carried out on a 17 kW, 600 cm long, gas laboratory combustor, to investigate the post flame reactive capture of alkali species by kaolinite. Emphasis was on alkali/sorbent interactions occurring in flue gas at temperatures above the alkali dewpoint and on the formation of water insoluble reaction products. Time-temperature studies were carried out by injecting kaolinite at different axial points along the combustor. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on alkali capture was investigated by doping the flame with SO{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} gases to simulate coal flame environments. Particle time and temperature history was kept as close as possible to that which would ordinarily be found in a practical boiler. Experiments designed to extract apparent initial reaction rates were carried using a narrow range, 1-2 {mu}m modal size sorbent, while, a coarse, multi size sorbent was used to investigate the governing transport mechanisms. The capture reaction has been proposed to be between alkali hydroxide and activated kaolinite, and remains so in the presence of sulfur and chlorine. The presence of sulfur reduces sodium capture by under 10% at 1300{degree}C. Larger reductions at lower temperatures are attributed to the elevated dewpoint of sodium ({approximately}850{degree}C) with subsequent reduction in sorbent residence time in the alkali gas phase domain. Chlorine reduces sodium capture by 30% across the temperature range covered by the present experiments. This result has been linked to thermodynamic equilibria between sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride and water.

  13. Doped carbon-sulfur species nanocomposite cathode for Li--S batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Donghai; Xu, Tianren; Song, Jiangxuan

    2015-12-29

    We report a heteroatom-doped carbon framework that acts both as conductive network and polysulfide immobilizer for lithium-sulfur cathodes. The doped carbon forms chemical bonding with elemental sulfur and/or sulfur compound. This can significantly inhibit the diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte, leading to high capacity retention and high coulombic efficiency.

  14. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01

    removal from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Environ.Speciation in a 100-MW Coal-Fired Boiler with Low-NOxControl Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants, DOE/NETL

  15. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01

    0 removal in the presence of fly ash or powdered activatedash,24mg only (adsorption) Fly ash, 24 mg only (adsorption)Fly ash,24mg;[SCl2],24ppm Fly ash, Flyash,24mg; 24 mg; [SCl

  16. Henry`s law solubilities and Setchenow coefficients for biogenic reduced sulfur species obtained from gas-liquid uptake measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Bruyn, W.J.; Swartz, E.; Hu, J.H. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)] [and others] [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); and others

    1995-04-20

    Biogenically produced reduced sulfur compounds, including dimethylsulfide (DMS, CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}SH), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS), are a major source of sulfur in the marine atmosphere. This source is estimated to contribute 25-40% of global sulfur emissions. These species and their oxidation products, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO{sub 2}), and methane sulfonic acid (MSA), dominate the production of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere. The multiphase chemical processes for these species must be understood in order to study the evolving role of combustion-produced sulfur oxides over the oceans. Using a newly developed bubble column apparatus, a series of aqueous phase uptake studies have been completed for the reduced sulfur species DMS, H{sub 2}S, CS{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}SH, and OCS. Aqueous phase uptake has been studied as a function of temperature (278-298 K), pH (1-14), H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration (0-1 M), NaCl concentration (0-5 M), and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration (0-4 M). The Henry`s law coefficients for CH{sub 3}SH and CS{sub 2} were determined for the first time, as were the Setchenow coefficients for all the species studied. 33 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  18. Electrokinetic removal of charged contaminant species from soil and other media using moderately conductive adsorptive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Mattson, Earl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01

    Method for collecting and concentrating charged species, specifically, contaminant species in a medium, preferably soil. The method utilizes electrokinesis to drive contaminant species into and through a bed adjacent to a drive electrode. The bed comprises a moderately electrically conductive adsorbent material which is porous and is infused with water or other solvent capable of conducting electrical current. The bed material, preferably activated carbon, is easily removed and disposed of. Preferably, where activated carbon is used, after contaminant species are collected and concentrated, the mixture of activated carbon and contaminant species is removed and burned to form a stable and easily disposable waste product.

  19. Sulfur removal in advanced two stage pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasian, J.; Chowdiah, P.; Hill, A.H.; Rue, D.M. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents under operating conditions relevant to first stage (carbonizer) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the first stage generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, removal of sulfur compounds takes place through the reaction between H{sub 2}S and calcium carbonate. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents will be determined by conducting tests in pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter a series of sulfidation tests were conducted in the high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter a series of sulfidation tests were conducted in the high-pressure high-temperature thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA unit) using limestone and dolomite. The results suggest that half-calcined dolomite is much more reactive than uncalcined limestone. Also, temperature in the range of 800 to 950 C did not significantly affect the sulfidation reaction rates for both limestone and dolomite.

  20. Apparatus and method for removing particle species from fusion-plasma-confinement devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1981-10-26

    In a mirror fusion plasma confinement apparatus, method and apparatus are provided for selectively removing (pumping) trapped low energy (thermal) particle species from the end cell region, without removing the still useful high energy particle species, and without requiring large power input to accomplish the pumping. Perturbation magnets are placed in the thermal barrier region of the end cell region at the turning point characteristic of trapped thermal particles, thus deflecting the thermal particles from their closed trajectory, causing them to drift sufficiently to exit the thermal barrier.

  1. Surface acoustic wave sensors/gas chromatography; and Low quality natural gas sulfur removal and recovery CNG Claus sulfur recovery process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klint, B.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-12-01

    This topical report consists of the two titled projects. Surface Acoustic Wave/Gas Chromatography (SAW/GC) provides a cost-effective system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Model 4100 can be used in a field screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds. This capability will allow a project manager to make immediate decisions and to avoid the long delays and high costs associated with analysis by off-site analytical laboratories. The Model 4100 is currently under evaluation by the California Environmental Protection Agency Technology Certification Program. Initial certification focuses upon the following organics: cis-dichloroethylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and o-xylene. In the second study the CNG Claus process is being evaluated for conversion and recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, especially found in low quality natural gas. This report describes the design, construction and operation of a pilot scale plant built to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated CNG Claus process.

  2. Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Semiannual report, Apr 1, 1998--Oct 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ates Akyurtlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

    1998-10-31

    Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823--900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4} air mixtures. The sorbents consisting of cerium oxide and copper oxide impregnated on alumina have been prepared and characterized. Their sulfation performance has been investigated in a TGA setup, studying mainly the effects of temperature and sorbent composition. The results of the sulfation experiments have been evaluated and presented in this report. A study to model the sulfation selectivity of the two constituents of the sorbents is also underway.

  3. Simultaneous Tracking of Sulfur Species in the Oxidation of Thiourea by Hydrogen Qingyu Gao,, Guangping Wang, Yanyan Sun, and Irving R. Epstein*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    Simultaneous Tracking of Sulfur Species in the Oxidation of Thiourea by Hydrogen Peroxide Qingyu Gao,, Guangping Wang, Yanyan Sun, and Irving R. Epstein*, College of Chemical Engineering, China Uni state, is essential. A major obstacle is the difficulty of tracking the different oxidation states

  4. Supercritical thermodynamics of sulfur and nitrogen species. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    Significant opportunity exists for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology to coal processing, both for pretreatment of high sulfur coals, as well as liquefaction and treatment of coal liquids. Supercritical fluids are attractive solvents for a variety of coal processing applications because of their unusual solvating and mass transfer properties. Solubility studies have been carried out for a number of model coal and coal-liquid compounds, primarily in pure supercritical fluids. We have extended this database of model coal compound equilibria using modern techniques that have the advantage of being much more rapid than traditional techniques. Cosolvent effects on solubility have also been investigated over a variety of solvent properties. In addition, specific molecular interactions have been investigated through spectroscopic techniques. The resulting data has been used to develop a physical-chemical equation of state (EOS) model of SCF solutions with meaningful parameters. This equation of state model has been used to predict solubility behavior, which will permit the design and tailoring of SCF cosolvent systems for specific coal processing applications.

  5. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  6. Evaluation of Sulfur in Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-04-01

    This project will define the options and costs at different scales of technology that can be used to remove sulfur from syngas.

  7. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2004-11-02

    The disclosure is directed to sorbent compositions for removing reduced sulfur species (e.g., H.sub.2 S, COS and CS.sub.2) a feed stream. The sorbent is formed from a multi-phase composition including a zinc titanate phase and a zinc oxide-aluminate phase. The sorbent composition is substantially free of unreacted alumina.

  8. Sulfur removal in advanced two stage pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.; Wangerow, J.R. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates and the extent of sulfation reactions involving partially sulfided calcium-based sorbents, and oxygen as well as sulfur dioxide, at operating conditions closely simulating those prevailing in the second stage (combustor) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, calcium sulfate is produced through the reactions between SO{sub 2} and calcium carbonate as well as the reaction between calcium sulfide and oxygen. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction involving SO{sub 2} and oxygen (gaseous reactant); and calcium sulfide and calcium carbonate (solid reactants), will be determined by conducting tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA) unit. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure; and O{sub 2} as well as SO{sub 2} partial pressures on the sulfation reactions rate will be determined. During this quarter, samples of the selected limestone and dolomite were sulfided in the fluidized-bed reactor. These tests were conducted in both calcining and non-calcining operating conditions to produce partially-sulfided sorbents containing calcium oxide and calcium carbonate, respectively. These samples which represent the carbonizer discharge material, will be used as the feed material in the sulfation tests to be conducted in the HPTGA unit during the next quarter.

  9. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2006-06-27

    Reduced sulfur gas species (e.g., H.sub.2S, COS and CS.sub.2) are removed from a gas stream by compositions wherein a zinc titanate ingredient is associated with a metal oxide-aluminate phase material in the same particle species. Nonlimiting examples of metal oxides comprising the compositions include magnesium oxide, zinc oxide, calcium oxide, nickel oxide, etc.

  10. Comparison of lime and iron oxide for high temperature sulfur removal. Final technical report, September 1, 1989--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, K.J.; Hepworth, M.T.; Reindl, W.

    1994-05-01

    Slagging combustors with injected lime or limestone are being considered as replacements for conventional coal burners. They have advantages in that they can be staged to reduce NO{sub X} and SO{sub X} emissions. Lime and limestone are the currently preferred sorbent materials but iron oxide, as an alternative to lime or limestone may be effective not only as a desulfurization agent, but, under the right conditions of oxygen potential, it can act as a flux to produce a glassy slag. This glassy slag should be dense and environmentally inert. This project aimed to compare the sorption characteristic of lime and iron based sorbents in a novel double vortex combustor. The first phase of the project was the design installation and commissioning of the combustor test rig following which sorbent test work could be carried out. Due to a variety of unknown factors in the combustor design/performance characteristics, it was not possible to complete all aspects of the sorbent test work as originally planned. A considerable amount of experience has been gained in the operation of the combustor and in understanding the importance of key design factors. It was found that a narrow conical design for the combustor body gave significant improvement in combustion performance and in solids entrainment compared to a cylindrical form. Tests with a glass combustor were used extensively to obtain visual insights into flame flow patterns, structural stability and general operating characteristics. Due to time pressure and termination of the project no material balance was possible on the final sulfur run. Visual examination of the solids product did however, indicate that surface modification of the taconite particles had occurred and that an Fe-O-S phase had formed. The project has stimulated the interest of the local power utilities and it is planned to move the system to a local power plant for continuing test work.

  11. The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Qian

    2012-01-01

    34(1), 14-22. 5. X. Sha, Coal gasification. Coal, oil shale,low temperature coal pyrolysis and gasification, Fuel, 1989,during RDF and coal co- gasification: a comparison between

  12. The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Qian

    2012-01-01

    sorbents, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 1989,sulfide, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Process DesignIndustrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 1991, 30, 55-

  13. The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Qian

    2012-01-01

    22. 5. X. Sha, Coal gasification. Coal, oil shale, natural7. C. Higman, M. Burgt, Gasification. 2003. Elsevier/Gulfbiomass ( part 3): gasification technologies. Bioresource

  14. The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Qian

    2012-01-01

    and problems in biomass gasification sixth annual meetinghydrogen sulfide from biomass gasification gas. Catalysisa Pyrolysis and Gasification of Biomass and waste, Expert

  15. The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Qian

    2012-01-01

    shale, natural bitumen, heavy oil and peat- Vol.I. 6. T.B.to hydrocracking of heavy oils in current refineries.

  16. The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Qian

    2012-01-01

    High Pressure Oxygen Gasifier, Report SERI/TP-234-1455R,Smith, Pinon pine project gasifier startup. In proceedingsthe type and conditions of the gasifier design. This is of

  17. Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, William E. (Manassas, VA)

    1992-01-01

    A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

  18. Nanopore reactive adsorbents for the high-efficiency removal of waste species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Arthur Jing-Min; Zhang, Yuehua

    2005-01-04

    A nanoporous reactive adsorbent incorporates a relatively small number of relatively larger reactant, e.g., metal, enzyme, etc., particles (10) forming a discontinuous or continuous phase interspersed among and surrounded by a continuous phase of smaller adsorbent particles (12) and connected interstitial pores (14) therebetween. The reactive adsorbent can effectively remove inorganic or organic impurities in a liquid by causing the liquid to flow through the adsorbent. For example, silver ions may be adsorbed by the adsorbent particles (12) and reduced to metallic silver by reducing metal, such as ions, as the reactant particles (10). The column can be regenerated by backwashing with the liquid effluent containing, for example, acetic acid.

  19. Carbonylation as a separation technique for removal of non-radioactive species for tank waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visnapuu, A. [Bureau of Mines, Rolla, MO (United States). Rolla Research Center; Hollenberg, G.W. [Farallones Inst., Berkeley, CA (United States); Creed, R.F. Jr. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Much of the waste generated from five decades of weapons production in the US Department of Energy complex contains highly radioactive constituents. With the high cost of permanent disposal space, it is necessary to separate as many of the nonradioactive species from the radioactive as possible. This paper discusses the transfer of carbonyl processing technology from mineral beneficiation and powder metallurgy operations to the separation of Fe and Ni from radioactively contaminated waste streams. Samples of simulated composite Hanford Tank Waste residue were first processed with a calcine/dissolution technique which resulted in a residue powder consisting of 31.9 pct Fe and 3.3 pct Ni. Because of the specification for waste glass compositions, these two constituents become important in determining the number of waste glass logs produced. Pyrometallurgical reduction of the residue powders, followed by subsequent carbonylation, extracted up to 92.0 pct of the Fe and 95.7 pct of the Ni. The resultant product contained as little as 4.9 pct Fe and 0.3 pct Ni. At this level, Fe would no longer be a limiting constituent in the waste glass.

  20. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Jozewicz, Wojciech (Chapel Hill, NC)

    1990-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to i The government may own certain rights in the present invention pursuant to EPA Cooperative Agreement CR 81-1531. This is a continuation of U.S. Ser. No. 928,337, filed Nov. 7, 1986, now U.S. Pat. No. 4,804,521.

  1. Uses of lunar sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Pettit, D.R.; Heiken, G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical and biochemical properties. Although low in abundance on the Moon (/approximately/0.1% in mare soils), sulfur is surface-correlated and relatively extractable. Co-production of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10% of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Stratospheric sulfur oxidation kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayne, J.T.; Worsnop, D.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Oxidation of SO2 to H2SO4 in the atmosphere is believed to involve the reaction of SO3 with water. It is commonly assumed that this is an important step leading to homogeneous nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol particles. Heterogeneous chemistry on sulfuric acid aerosols regulate much of the ozone photochemistry in the lower stratosphere and are also believed to have significant effect on the climate. Understanding aerosol loading requires a detailed knowledge of the stratospheric sulfur budget, including its oxidation kinetics. Here we present results of a laboratory project studying a key step in the oxidation process, the homogeneous reaction between SO3 and H2O vapor. Kinetic measurements are performed in a high-pressure turbulent fast-flow reactor (fabricated at MIT) which minimizes heterogeneous loss of SO3 on reactorwalls. The rate of decay of SO3 and the appearance of H2SO4 is monitored in the presence of excess water vapor. Gas phase reactants and products are detected via an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer which is coupled to the exit of the flow reactor. Sulfuric acid nucleation studies can also be performed using the turbulent flow reactor. Initial measurements using a particle detector (based on Mie scattering) showed that aerosol formation and particle size distribution are controlled by varying the SO3/H2O gas ratio and the reactor temperature. Results for the reaction SO3J+ H2O show a second order dependence in water vapor density and a strong negative temperature dependence. The results, measured in the range -30C to +95C, imply that an SO3.H2O adduct and/or a water dimer species is likely involved in the reaction mechanism. Results of recent theoretical calculations on the SO3 + H2O system also support the finding that two water molecules are involved. Implications for the gas phase production of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere will be discussed.

  3. Economic feasibility of biochemical processes for the upgrading of crudes and the removal of sulfur, nitrogen, and trace metals from crude oil -- Benchmark cost establishment of biochemical processes on the basis of conventional downstream technologies. Final report FY95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1996-08-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between biodegraded and biotreated oils. The downstream biotechnological crude oil processing research performed thus far is of laboratory scale and has focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of downstream processing with different types of biocatalysts under a variety of processing conditions. Quantitative economic analysis is the topic of the present project which investigates the economic feasibility of the various biochemical downstream processes which hold promise in upgrading of heavy crudes, such as those found in California, e.g., Monterey-type, Midway Sunset, Honda crudes, and others.

  4. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  5. Quantitative and Qualitative Determination of Polysulfide Species in the Electrolyte of a Lithium-Sulfur Battery using HPLC ESI/MS with One-Step Derivatization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-01-29

    The polysulfide species dissolved in aprotic solvents can be separated and analyzed by reverse phase (RP) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in tandem with electrospray-mass spectroscopy. The relative distribution of polysulfide species in the electrolyte recovered from Li-S batteries is quantitatively and reliably determined for the first time.

  6. Quantitative and Qualitative Determination of Polysulfide Species in the Electrolyte of a Lithium-Sulfur Battery using HPLC ESI/MS with One-Step Derivatization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong [Department of Chemistry; University of Massachusetts Boston; Boston MA 02125 USA; Qu, Deyu [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Wuhan (China). Dept. of Chemistry; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lee, Hung-Sui [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-01-01

    The polysulfide species dissolved in aprotic solvents can be separated and analyzed by reverse phase (RP) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in tandem with electrospray-mass spectroscopy. The relative distribution of polysulfide species in the electrolyte recovered from Li-S batteries is quantitatively and reliably determined for the first time.

  7. Fuel-rich sulfur capture in a combustion environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.; Kirchgessner, D.A.; Drehmel, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of a refactory-lined, natural gas furnace to study the fuel-rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel-rich sulfur species hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide were monitored in a nearly continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equiped with a flame photometric detector and an automatic system that sampled every 30 seconds. Below the fuel-rich zone, 25% excess air was added, and the ultimate fuel-lean capture was simultaneously measured using a continuous sulfur dioxide monitor. Under fuel-rich conditions, high levels of sulfur capture were obtained, and calcium utilization increased with sulfur concentration. The ultimate lean capture was found to be weakly dependent on sulfur concentration and independent of the sulfur capture level obtained in the fuel-rich zone.

  8. Integrated Process Configuration for High-Temperature Sulfur Mitigation during Biomass Conversion via Indirect Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta. A.; Cheah, S.; Bain, R.; Feik, C.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Phillips, S.

    2012-06-20

    Sulfur present in biomass often causes catalyst deactivation during downstream operations after gasification. Early removal of sulfur from the syngas stream post-gasification is possible via process rearrangements and can be beneficial for maintaining a low-sulfur environment for all downstream operations. High-temperature sulfur sorbents have superior performance and capacity under drier syngas conditions. The reconfigured process discussed in this paper is comprised of indirect biomass gasification using dry recycled gas from downstream operations, which produces a drier syngas stream and, consequently, more-efficient sulfur removal at high temperatures using regenerable sorbents. A combination of experimental results from NREL's fluidizable Ni-based reforming catalyst, fluidizable Mn-based sulfur sorbent, and process modeling information show that using a coupled process of dry gasification with high-temperature sulfur removal can improve the performance of Ni-based reforming catalysts significantly.

  9. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric; Pan, Huilin; Lv, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Z. D.; Liaw, Bor Y.; Yu, Xiqian; et al

    2015-01-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge processes follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials and the electrochemical characteristics of the cell, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-Smore »cell are driving each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new perspectives to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.« less

  10. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zheng, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pan, Huilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lv, Dongping [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zuo, Pengjian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Honghao [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liaw, Bor Y. [School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, (United States); Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, Ji-Guang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xiao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge processes follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials and the electrochemical characteristics of the cell, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-S cell are driving each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new perspectives to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.

  11. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric D.; Pan, Huilin; Lu, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Zhiqun; Liaw, Bor Yann; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2014-12-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge process follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-S cell are driven each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new insights to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.

  12. Sulfur control in ion-conducting membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Richards, Robin Edward; Brengel, David Douglas; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2003-08-05

    A method for controlling the sulfur dioxide partial pressure in a pressurized, heated, oxygen-containing gas mixture which is contacted with an ion-conducting metallic oxide membrane which permeates oxygen ions. The sulfur dioxide partial pressure in the oxygen-depleted non-permeate gas from the membrane module is maintained below a critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure, p.sub.SO2 *, to protect the membrane material from reacting with sulfur dioxide and reducing the oxygen flux of the membrane. Each ion-conducting metallic oxide material has a characteristic critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure which is useful in determining the required level of sulfur removal from the feed gas and/or from the fuel gas used in a direct-fired feed gas heater.

  13. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN); Hamilton, Choo Y. (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  14. Sulfur recovery process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hise, R.E.; Cook, W.J.

    1991-06-04

    This paper describes a method for recovering sulfur from a process feed stream mixture of gases comprising sulfur-containing compounds including hydrogen sulfide using the Claus reaction to convert sulfur-containing compounds to elemental sulfur and crystallization to separate sulfur-containing compounds from a tail gas of the Claus reaction for further processing as a recycle stream. It comprises: providing a Claus feed stream containing a stoichiometric excess of hydrogen sulfide, the Claus feed stream including the process feed stream and the recycles stream; introducing the Claus feed stream and an oxidizing agent into a sulfur recovery unit for converting sulfur-containing compounds in the Claus feed stream to elemental sulfur; withdrawing the tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit; separating water from the tail gas to producing a dehydrated tail gas; separating sulfur-containing compounds including carbonyl sulfide from the dehydrated tail gas as an excluded material by crystallization and withdrawing an excluded material-enriched output from the crystallization to produce the recycle stream; and combining the recycle stream with the process feed stream to produce the Claus feed stream.

  15. Seed-Mediated Growth of Gold Nanocrystals: Changes to the Crystallinity or Morphology as Induced by the Treatment of Seeds with a Sulfur Species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Yiqun; Luo, Ming; Tao, Jing; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; Wan, Dehui; Zhu, Yimei; Xia, Younan

    2014-12-11

    We report our observation of changes to the crystallinity or morphology during seed-mediated growth of Au nanocrystals. When single-crystal Au seeds with a spherical or rod-like shape were treated with a chemical species such as S?O?²? ions, twin defects were developed during the growth process to generate multiply twinned nanostructures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the S?O?²? ions were chemisorbed on the surfaces of the seeds during the treatment. The chemisorbed S?O?²? ions somehow influenced the crystallization of Au atoms added onto the surface during a growth process, leading to the formation of twin defects. In contrast to themore »spherical and rod-like Au seeds, the single-crystal structure was retained to generate a concave morphology when single-crystal Au seeds with a cubic or octahedral shape were used for a similar treatment and then seed-mediated growth. The different outcomes are likely related to the difference in spatial distribution of S?O?²? ions chemisorbed on the surface of a seed. This approach based on surface modification is potentially extendable to other noble metals for engineering the crystallinity and morphology of nanocrystals formed via seed-mediated growth.« less

  16. Seed-mediated growth of gold nanocrystals: Changes to the crystallinity or morphology as induced by the treatment of seeds with a sulfur species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Yiqun [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tao, Jing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Luo, Ming [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Peng, Hsin -Chieh [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wan, Dehui [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xia, Younan [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-10-06

    We report our observation of changes to the crystallinity or morphology during seed-mediated growth of Au nanocrystals. When single-crystal Au seeds with a spherical or rod-like shape were treated with a chemical species such as S?O?²? ions, twin defects were developed during the growth process to generate multiply twinned nanostructures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the S?O?²? ions were chemisorbed on the surfaces of the seeds during the treatment. The chemisorbed S?O?²? ions somehow influenced the crystallization of Au atoms added onto the surface during a growth process, leading to the formation of twin defects. In contrast to the spherical and rod-like Au seeds, the single-crystal structure was retained to generate a concave morphology when single-crystal Au seeds with a cubic or octahedral shape were used for a similar treatment and then seed-mediated growth. The different outcomes are likely related to the difference in spatial distribution of S?O?²? ions chemisorbed on the surface of a seed. This approach based on surface modification is potentially extendable to other noble metals for engineering the crystallinity and morphology of nanocrystals formed via seed-mediated growth.

  17. Seed-Mediated Growth of Gold Nanocrystals: Changes to the Crystallinity or Morphology as Induced by the Treatment of Seeds with a Sulfur Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Yiqun; Luo, Ming; Tao, Jing; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; Wan, Dehui; Zhu, Yimei; Xia, Younan

    2014-12-11

    We report our observation of changes to the crystallinity or morphology during seed-mediated growth of Au nanocrystals. When single-crystal Au seeds with a spherical or rod-like shape were treated with a chemical species such as S?O?²? ions, twin defects were developed during the growth process to generate multiply twinned nanostructures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the S?O?²? ions were chemisorbed on the surfaces of the seeds during the treatment. The chemisorbed S?O?²? ions somehow influenced the crystallization of Au atoms added onto the surface during a growth process, leading to the formation of twin defects. In contrast to the spherical and rod-like Au seeds, the single-crystal structure was retained to generate a concave morphology when single-crystal Au seeds with a cubic or octahedral shape were used for a similar treatment and then seed-mediated growth. The different outcomes are likely related to the difference in spatial distribution of S?O?²? ions chemisorbed on the surface of a seed. This approach based on surface modification is potentially extendable to other noble metals for engineering the crystallinity and morphology of nanocrystals formed via seed-mediated growth.

  18. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  19. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Hu, Zhicheng (Somerville, MA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  20. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish (Pittsford, NY); Haltiner, Jr., Karl J (Fairport, NY); Weissman, Jeffrey G. (West Henrietta, NY)

    2012-03-06

    A system for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack, having a reformer adapted to reform a hydrocarbon fuel stream containing sulfur contaminants, thereby providing a reformate stream having sulfur; a sulfur trap fluidly coupled downstream of the reformer for removing sulfur from the reformate stream, thereby providing a desulfurized reformate stream; and a metering device in fluid communication with the reformate stream upstream of the sulfur trap and with the desulfurized reformate stream downstream of the sulfur trap. The metering device is adapted to bypass a portion of the reformate stream to mix with the desulfurized reformate stream, thereby producing a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  1. Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury Capture by Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J.

    2007-09-15

    Recent field tests of mercury removal with activated carbon injection (ACI) have revealed that mercury capture is limited in flue gases containing high concentrations of sulfur oxides (SOx). In order to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of SOx on ACI, mercury capture was tested under varying conditions of SO2 and SO3 concentrations using a packed bed reactor and simulated flue gas (SFG). The final mercury content of the activated carbons is independent of the SO2 concentration in the SFG, but the presence of SO3 inhibits mercury capture even at the lowest concentration tested (20 ppm). The mercury removal capacity decreases as the sulfur content of the used activated carbons increases from 1 to 10%. In one extreme case, an activated carbon with 10% sulfur, prepared by H2SO4 impregnation, shows almost no mercury capacity. The results suggest that mercury and sulfur oxides are in competition for the same binding sites on the carbon surface.

  2. Biogenic sulfur source strengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.; Bamesberger, W.L.

    1981-12-01

    Conclusions are presented from a 4-yr field measurement study of biogenic sulfur gas emissions from soils, and some water and vegetated surfaces, at 35 locales in the eastern and southeastern United States. More than one soil order was examined whenever possible to increase the data base obtained from the 11 major soil orders comprising the study area. Data analysis and emission model development were based upon an (80 x 80)-km/sup 2/ grid system. The measured sulfur fluxes, adjusted for the annual mean temperature for each sampling locale, weigted by the percentage of each soil order within each grid, and averaged for each of the east-west grid tiers from 47/sup 0/N to 25/sup 0/N latitude, showed an exponential north-to-south increase in total sulfur gas flux. Our model predits an additional increase of nearly 25-fold in sulfur flux between 25/sup 0/N and the equator.

  3. ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

    2003-04-01

    Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

  4. Effect of Prussian blue on organic sulfur of coal in aqueous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from coal samples with ferric hexacyanoferrate (II), Fe{sub 4} (Fe(CN){sub 6}), as the desulfurization agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the coal samples has been investigated. The temperature and stirring time are the most important parameters for the level of desulfurization of organic sulfur. Removal of organic sulfur content increased continuously with increasing temperature from 298 to 368 K. The organic sulfur removal rate sharply increases from 10 min to 30 min stirring time. After 30 min, it reaches a value of plateau. Particle size between -100 mesh and -200 mesh slightly affects the amount of organic sulfur removal. Gradual increase in the concentration of ferric hexacyanoferrate (II) raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  5. Carbon-Sulfur Bond Cleavage of Methyl-Substituted Thiophenes with Iridium(III)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    polluting sulfur compounds are removed during the hydroprocessing of crude oil. Unrefined petroleum contains of a hydrogen acceptor, the thiophene was desulfurized (eq 2).4 Also, in the heterogeneous CoMo system it has

  6. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  7. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Pag...

  8. Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

    2008-07-31

    Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

  9. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  10. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  11. Improving fractionation lowers butane sulfur level at Saudi gas plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harruff, L.G.; Martinie, G.D.; Rahman, A. [Saudi Arabian Oil Co., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-10-12

    Increasing the debutanizer reflux/feed ratio to improve fractionation at an eastern Saudi Arabian NGL plant reduced high sulfur in the butane product. The sulfur resulted from dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contamination in the feed stream from an offshore crude-oil reservoir in the northern Arabian Gulf. The contamination is limited to two northeastern offshore gas-oil separation plants operated by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) and, therefore, cannot be transported to facilities outside the Eastern Province. Two technically acceptable solutions for removing this contaminant were investigated: 13X molecular-sieve adsorption of the DMS and increased fractionation efficiency. The latter would force DMS into the debutanizer bottoms.

  12. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

  13. Process for removing metal carbonyls from gaseous streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyd, R.L.; Pignet, T.P.

    1988-04-26

    A process for removing metal carbonyl contaminates from a gaseous stream is described containing such contaminates and which is free from sulfur contaminates, which process comprises contacting the gaseous stream with a zinc sulfide absorbent to thereby remove metal carbonyl contaminates from the gaseous stream, and separating the gaseous stream from the zinc sulfide absorbent.

  14. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  15. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 1, [September--November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1994-11-30

    This project is being coordinated with an ongoing project at Western Kentucky University that is being supported by the Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program through the Tennessee Valley Authority. Fluidized bed combustion tests will be performed on municipal solid waste blended with high-sulfur and high-chlorine coals in a laboratory scale combustor. The purpose of the tests is to evaluate combustion performance, the extent of the inorganic acid gases (HCl and SO{sub x}) and chlorinated organic compound formation, the effect of chlorine species on SO{sub 2} removal with a sorbent, and the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organic compounds from MSW for a range of bed temperatures, excess air levels, MSW/coal ratios, and S/Cl ratios. Flue gas samples will be collected and analyzed at three locations: free board, cyclone inlet, and cyclone outlet. Analytical methods used will include ion chromatography, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry. Waste stream ash samples will be collected from the cyclone catch and analyzed for unburned carbon, chlorine, chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated phenols, dioxins, furans, and metal content. Major, minor, and trace elements in the ash will be determined by x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Accomplishments for the first quarter are presented.

  16. More Economical Sulfur Removal for Fuel Processing Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Case study covering TDA Research, Inc and its direct oxidation process, which is economical enough for smaller fuel processing plants to use.

  17. Argonne Electrochemical Technology Program Sulfur removal from reformate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    temperatures - low cost · Challenges - Cu oxides reduce to metallic Cu under fuel processing conditions in the oxide form - non-Cu transition metal oxide is resistant to reduction to metallic form under fuel Krause, and Romesh Kumar Chemical Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory Hydrogen, Fuel Cells

  18. Investigation of Sulfur Removal by Direct Limestone Injection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colaluca, M. A.; Maloney, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    by the injected particles. The models were then used to predict extent of capture at the high-pressure, high-temperature, short residence time condition of interest. The goal was to first investigate capture in a single-pulse reactor (combustion bomb...

  19. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  20. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  1. Sulfur-Free Selective Pulping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimmel, D. R.; Bozell, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    an increase in pulping rate and yields, which translates to less energy required per ton of product. Less sulfur means a simplified process, lower odor emissions, and a decrease requirement for bleaching chemicals, meaning less organics being discharged...

  2. A Damage Model for Degradation in the Electrodes of solid oxide fuel cells: Modeling the effects of sulfur and antimony in the anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Emily M.; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-07-15

    Over their designed lifetime, high temperature electrochemical devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), can experience degradation in their electrochemical performance due to environmental conditions, operating conditions, contaminants, and other factors. Understanding the different degradation mechanisms in SOFCs and other electrochemical devices is essential to reducing performance degradation and increasing the lifetime of these devices. In this paper SOFC degradation mechanisms are discussed and a damage model is presented which describes performance degradation in SOFCs due to damage or degradation in the electrodes of the SOFC. A degradation classification scheme is presented that divides the various SOFC electrode degradation mechanisms into categories based on their physical effects on the SOFC. The application of the damage model and the classification method is applied to sulfur poisoning and antimony poisoning which occur in the anode of SOFCs. For sulfur poisoning the model is able to predict the degradation in SOFC performance based on the operating temperature and voltage of the fuel cell and the concentration of gaseous sulfur species in the anode. For antimony poisoning the effects of nickel removal from the anode matrix is investigated.

  3. Arsenic removal and stabilization by synthesized pyrite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Jin Kun

    2009-05-15

    .23 ?mol/g for As(III) and 113 ?mol/g for As(V). Information obtained on the characteristics of chemical species before and after the reaction with arsenic showed that iron and sulfur were oxidized. Last, how strongly arsenic was bound to pyrite...

  4. Direct sulfur recovery during sorbent regeneration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S.G.; Little, R.C. [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The objective of this research project was to improve the direct elemental sulfur yields that occur during the regeneration of SO{sub 2}-saturated MgO-vermiculite sorbents (MagSorbents) by examining three approaches or strategies. The three approaches were regeneration-gas recycle, high-pressure regeneration, and catalytic reduction of the SO{sub 2} gas using a new catalyst developed by Research Triangle Institute (RTI). Prior to the project, Sorbent Technologies Corporation (Sorbtech) had developed a sorbent-regeneration process that yielded directly a pure elemental sulfur product. In the process, typically about 25 to 35 percent of the liberated S0{sub 2} was converted directly to elemental sulfur. The goal of this project was to achieve a conversion rate of over 90 percent. Good success was attained in the project. About 90 percent or more conversion was achieved with two of the approaches that were examined, regeneration-gas recycle and use of the RTI catalyst. Of these approaches, regeneration-gas recycle gave the best results (essentially 100 percent conversion in some cases). In the regeneration-gas recycle approach, saturated sorbent is simply heated to about 750{degree}C in a reducing gas (methane) atmosphere. During heating, a gas containing elemental sulfur, water vapor, H{sub 2}S, S0{sub 2}, and C0{sub 2} is evolved. The elemental sulfur and water vapor in the gas stream are condensed and removed, and the remaining gas is recycled back through the sorbent bed. After several recycles, the S0{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S completely disappear from the gas stream, and the stream contains only elemental sulfur, water vapor and C0{sub 2}.

  5. Insertion of Elemental Sulfur and SO2 into the Metal-Hydride and Metal-Carbon Bonds of Platinum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    and other alkyl and aryl compounds, followed by insertion of sulfur-bearing species to syn- thesize sulfur-bearing or main- group metals.2,3 A second resonance is seen in the 31P NMR spectrum at 67.02 (JPtP ) 1811 Hz

  6. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method of preparing graphene-sulfur...

  7. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

  8. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  9. Adsorbed sulfur-gas methods for both near-surface exploration and downhole logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Barinaga, C.J.; Dolenc, M.R.; Farwell, G.H.

    1986-08-01

    The use of sulfur-containing gases in petroleum exploration is supported by (1) the idea that sulfur may play a role in petroleum genesis, (2) the corresponding existence of sulfur-containing compounds in petroleum and the potential for vertical migration of the low-molecular-weight sulfur species from these reservoirs, (3) the production of H/sub 2/S by anaerobic microorganism populations that develop in the subsurface areas overlying petroleum reservoirs due to the concomitant supply of hydrocarbon nutrients, (4) the recent discovery of near-surface accumulations of pyrite and marcasite as the source of induction potential anomalies over certain fields, and (5) the strong adsorptive affinities of sulfur gases to solid surfaces, which enhance both the concentration and localization of such sulfur-expressed anomalies. During the past 3 years, numerous near-surface soil samples and well cuttings from the Utah-Wyoming Overthrust belt have been analyzed for adsorbed sulfur-gas content by two novel analytical techniques: thermal desorption/metal foil collection/flash desorption/sulfur-selective detection (TD/MFC/FD/SSD) and thermal desorption/cryogenic preconcentration/high-resolution-gas chromatography/optimized-flame photometry (TD/CP/HRGC/OFP).

  10. High-Capacity Sulfur Dioxide Absorbents for Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2005-01-05

    High capacity sulfur dioxide absorbents based on manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) have been identified. These materials are based on MnO6 octahedra sharing faces and edges to form various tunnel structures (2x2, 2x3, 2x4, 3x3) differentiated by the number of octahedra on a side. The SO2 capacities of these materials, measured at 325 C with a feed containing 250 ppmv SO2 in air, are as high as 70wt% (wt/wt), remarkably higher than conventional metal oxide-based SO2 absorbents. Among the OMS materials the 2x2 member, cryptomelane, exhibits the highest capacity and adsorption rate. Its SO2 absorption behavior has been further characterized as a function of temperature, space velocity, and feed composition. The dominant pathway for SO2 absorption is through the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 by Mn4+ followed by SO3 reaction with Mn2+ to form MnSO4. Absorption can occur in the absence of gas phase oxygen, with a moderate loss in overall capacity. The inclusion of reducible gases NO and CO in the feed does not reduce SO2 capacity. The absorption capacity decreases at high space velocity and lower absorption temperature, indicating the important role of diffusion of sulfate from the surface to the bulk of the material in order to reach full capacity. A color change of cryptomelane from black to yellow-brown after SO2 absorption can be used as an indicator of absorption progress. Cryptomelane can be synthesized using MnSO4 as a reagent. Therefore, after full SO2 absorption the product MnSO4 can be re-used as raw material for a subsequent cryptomelane synthesis. Cryptomelane has a similarly high capacity toward SO3, therefore it can be used for removal of all SOx species generated from a variety of combustion sources. Cryptomelane may find application as a replaceable absorbent for the removal of SOx from diesel truck exhaust, protecting downstream emissions control devices such as particulate filters and NOx traps.

  11. On the Origin of Sulfur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nils Ryde; David L. Lambert

    2005-10-05

    We present our work on the halo evolution of sulfur, based on observations of the S I lines around 9220 A for ten stars for which the S abundance was obtained previously from much weaker S I lines at 8694 A. We cannot confirm the rise and the high [S/Fe] abundances for low [Fe/H], as claimed in the literature from analysis of the 8694 A lines. The reasons for claims of an increase in [S/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H] are probably twofold: uncertainties in the measurements of the weak 8694 A lines, and systematic errors in metallicity determinations from Fe I lines. The near-infrared sulfur triplet at 9212.9, 9228.1, and 9237.5 A are preferred for an abundance analysis of sulfur for metal-poor stars. Our work was presented in full by Ryde & Lambert (2004).

  12. Sulfur Partitioning During Vitrification of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste: Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darab, John G.; Graham, Dennis D.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Russell, Renee L.; Smith, Harry D.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.

    2001-07-31

    The sodium bearing tank waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains high concentrations of sulfur (roughly 5 mass% of SO3 on a nonvolatile oxide basis). The amount of sulfur that can be feed to the melter will ultimately determine the loading of SBW in glass produced by the baseline (low-temperature, joule-heated, liquid-fed, ceramic-lined) melter. The amount of sulfur which can be fed to the melter is determined by several major factors including: the tolerance of the melter for an immiscible salt layer accumulation, the solubility of sulfur in the glass melt, the fraction of sulfur removed to the off-gas, and the incorporation of sulfur into the glass up to it?s solubility limit. This report summarizes the current status of testing aimed at determining the impacts of key chemical and physical parameters on the partitioning of sulfur between the glass, a molten salt, and the off-gas.

  13. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from lignite by an electron transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from lignite samples with ferrocyanide ion as the electron transferring agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the lignite samples has been investigated. The desulfurization process has been found to be continuous and gradually increases with increase of temperature from 298 to 368 K. The particle size has no significant impact on sulfur removal from the lignite samples. Particle size has no profound impact on the amount of sulfur removal. The desulfurization reaction has been found to be dependent on the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide. Gradual increase in the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at a higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  14. Safety considerations for the use of sulfur in sulfur-modified pavement materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Carolyn Yuriko

    1980-01-01

    Liquid Sulfur Page v111 ix 33 33 35 IV Symptoms of Poisoning . First Aid SULFUR IN THE PAVING INDUSTRY General Sand-Asphalt-Sulfur Pavements (SAS) ', , Sulfur-Extended Asphalt Pavements (SEA) Sulfur Concrete EVALUATION OF RISKS AND SAFETY... RECOMMENDATIONS General Stationary Sources Mobile Sources Maintenance 40 41 43 43 44 45 46 Hot-Mix Recycling VI EMISSIONS MONITORING METHODS General Area Monitoring - Continuous Samplina Short Term Sampling (" Grab" Sampling) Personnel Monitoring...

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the previous report (April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002). During the current period, there was no technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed. The project period of performance was extended to allow the conduct of testing of another SO{sub 3} control technology, the sodium bisulfite injection process. However, these additional tests have not yet been conducted.

  16. Process for the removal of acid gases from gaseous streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blytas, G.C.; Diaz, Z.

    1982-11-16

    Hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and carbonyl sulfide are removed from a gas stream in a staged procedure by: absorption of the CO/sub 2/ and COS; conversion of the hydrogen sulfide to produce sulfur in an absorbent mixture; hydrolysis of the carbonyl sulfide to produce a gas stream of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide; and removal of the hydrogen sulfide from the gas stream.

  17. Sulfur oxidation to sulfate coupled with electron transfer to electrodes by Desulfuromonas strain TZ1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, T; Bain, TS; Barlett, MA; Dar, SA; Snoeyenbos-West, OL; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR

    2014-01-02

    Microbial oxidation of elemental sulfur with an electrode serving as the electron acceptor is of interest because this may play an important role in the recovery of electrons from sulfidic wastes and for current production in marine benthic microbial fuel cells. Enrichments initiated with a marine sediment inoculum, with elemental sulfur as the electron donor and a positively poised (+300 mV versus Ag/AgCl) anode as the electron acceptor, yielded an anode biofilm with a diversity of micro-organisms, including Thiobacillus, Sulfurimonas, Pseudomonas, Clostridium and Desulfuromonas species. Further enrichment of the anode biofilm inoculum in medium with elemental sulfur as the electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the electron acceptor, followed by isolation in solidified sulfur/Fe(III) medium yielded a strain of Desulfuromonas, designated strain TZ1. Strain TZ1 effectively oxidized elemental sulfur to sulfate with an anode serving as the sole electron acceptor, at rates faster than Desulfobulbus propionicus, the only other organism in pure culture previously shown to oxidize S with current production. The abundance of Desulfuromonas species enriched on the anodes of marine benthic fuel cells has previously been interpreted as acetate oxidation driving current production, but the results presented here suggest that sulfur-driven current production is a likely alternative.

  18. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. ); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. ); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. )

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on Sulfur Control'' presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT's electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  19. Mitigation of Sulfur Effects on a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst by Sorbate Reapplication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Lean NOx trap catalysis has demonstrated the ability to reduce NOx emissions from lean natural gas reciprocating engines by >90%. The technology operates in a cyclic fashion where NOx is trapped on the catalyst during lean operation and released and reduced to N2 under rich exhaust conditions; the rich cleansing operation of the cycle is referred to as "regeneration" since the catalyst is reactivated for more NOx trapping. Natural gas combusted over partial oxidation catalysts in the exhaust can be used to obtain the rich exhaust conditions necessary for catalyst regeneration. Thus, the lean NOx trap technology is well suited for lean natural gas engine applications. One potential limitation of the lean NOx trap technology is sulfur poisoning. Sulfur compounds directly bond to the NOx trapping sites of the catalyst and render them ineffective; over time, the sulfur poisoning leads to degradation in overall NOx reduction performance. In order to mitigate the effects of sulfur poisoning, a process has been developed to restore catalyst activity after sulfur poisoning has occurred. The process is an aqueous-based wash process that removes the poisoned sorbate component of the catalyst. A new sorbate component is reapplied after removal of the poisoned sorbate. The process is low cost and does not involve reapplication of precious metal components of the catalyst. Experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the washing process on a lean 8.3-liter natural gas engine on a dynamometer platform. The catalyst was rapidly sulfur poisoned with bottled SO2 gas; then, the catalyst sorbate was washed and reapplied and performance was re-evaluated. Results show that the sorbate reapplication process is effective at restoring lost performance due to sulfur poisoning. Specific details relative to the implementation of the process for large stationary natural gas engines will be discussed.

  20. Biogenic sulfur emissions in the SURE region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of biogenic sulfur emissions from the northeastern United States - defined as the EPRI Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) study area. Initial laboratory efforts developed and validated a portable sulfur sampling system and a sensitive, gas chromatographic analytical detection system. Twenty-one separate sites were visited in 1977 to obtain a representative sulfur emission sampling of soil orders, suborders, and wetlands. The procedure determined the quantity of sulfur added to sulfur-free sweep air by the soil flux as the clean air was blown through the dynamic enclosure set over the selected sampling area. This study represents the first systematic sampling for biogenic sulfur over such a wide range of soils and such a large land area. The major impacts upon the measured sulfur flux were found to include soil orders, temperature, sunlight intensity, tidal effects along coastal areas. A mathematical model was developed for biogenic sulfur emissions which related these field variables to the mean seasonal and annual ambient temperatures regimes for each SURE grid and the percentage of each soil order within each grid. This model showed that at least 53,500 metric tons (MT) of biogenic sulfur are emitted from the SURE land surfaces and approximately 10,000 MT are emitted from the oceanic fraction of the SURE grids. This equates to a land sulfur flux of nearly 0.02 gram of sulfur per square meter per yr, or about 0.6% of the reported anthropogenic emissions withn the SURE study area. Based upon these data and the summertime Bermuda high clockwise circulation of maritime air across Florida and the Gulf Coast states northward through the SURE area, the total land biogenic sulfur emission contribution to the SURE area atmospheric sulfur burden might approach 1 to 2.5% of the anthropogenic.

  1. Removal of hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from gas-streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.H.; Lieder, C.A.

    1982-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide are removed from a gas stream in a staged procedure characterized by conversion of the hydrogen sulfide to produce sulfur in aqueous solution, hydrolysis of the carbonyl sulfide remaining in the gas stream to produce hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, and removal of the hydrogen sulfide from the gas stream.

  2. Contribution of isotopologue self-shielding to sulfur mass-independent fractionation during sulfur dioxide photolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, J. R.

    Signatures of sulfur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) are observed for sulfur minerals in Archean rocks, and for modern stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSA) deposited in polar ice. Ultraviolet light photolysis of ...

  3. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  4. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct laboratory experiments to clarify the mechanism of boiler corrosion, which may lead to solving the corrosion problem associated with the utilization of Illinois' high-sulfur and high-chlorine coal. The kinetics of the release of sulfur and chlorine species during coal combustion is being determined in the laboratories using temperature-programmed pyrolysis coupled with quadrupole gas analysis (QGA) and thermogravimetric analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Samples of boiler deposits and ashes from different locations in boilers using Illinois coal will be analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions to understand the relations among deposit compositions, coal compositions, and the gaseous species in combustion gases. The relationship between the level of chlorine in Illinois coal and boiler corrosion will be studied by experiments with simulated combustion gases under combustion conditions. Reduction of sulfur and chloride concentrations in the flue gas using additives will also be evaluated.

  5. Advanced product recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Third quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed form the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its industry and commercialization advisor, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner, Tufts, plans to develop and scale-up an advanced, byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, catalytic process for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, they have planned a structured program including: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and utility review. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning.

  6. An electrochemical Claus process for sulfur recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujare, N.U.; Tsai, K.J.; Sammuells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Aurora, IL (US))

    1989-12-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of H{sub 2}S to give sulfur and water was achieved at 900{degrees}C using fuel cells possessing the general configuration where anode electrocatalysts experimentally investigated for promoting the subject oxidation reaction included WS{sub 2} and the thiospinels CuNi{sub 2}S{sub 4}, CuCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}, CuFe{sub 2}S{sub 4}, and NiFe{sub 2}S{sub 4}. The predominant oxidizable electroactive species present in the fuel cell anode compartment was suggested to be hydrogen originating from the initial thermal dissociation of H{sub 2}S (H{sub 2}S {r reversible} H{sub 2} + 1/2 S{sub 2}) at fuel cell operating temperatures. Rapid anode kinetics were found for the anodic reaction with the empirical trend for exchange currents (i{sub o}) per geometric area being found to be NiFe{sub 2}S{sub 4}{gt}WS{sub 2}{gt}CuCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}{gt}CuFe{sub 2}S{sub 4}{approx equal}NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}{gt}CuNi{sub 2}S{sub 4}.

  7. Understanding Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of Nickel Biomass Conditioning Catalysts using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yung, M. M.; Cheah, S.; Kuhn, J. N.

    2013-01-01

    The production of biofuels can proceed via a biomass gasification to produce syngas, which can then undergo catalytic conditioning and reforming reactions prior to being sent to a fuel synthesis reactor. Catalysts used for biomass conditioning are plagued by short lifetimes which are a result of, among other things, poisoning. Syngas produced from biomass gasification may contain between 30-300 ppm H2S, depending on the feedstock and gasification conditions, and H2S is a key catalyst poison. In order to overcome catalyst poisoning, either an H2S-tolerant catalyst or an efficient regeneration protocol should be employed. In this study, sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) was used to monitor sulfur species on spent catalyst samples and the transformation of these species from sulfides to sulfates during steam and air regeneration on a Ni/Mg/K/Al2O3 catalyst used to condition biomass-derived syngas. Additionally, nickel K-edge EXAFS and XANES are used to examine the state of nickel species on the catalysts. Post-reaction samples showed the presence of sulfides on the H2S-poisoned nickel catalyst and although some gaseous sulfur species were observed to leave the catalyst bed during regeneration, sulfur remained on the catalyst and a transformation from sulfides to sulfates was observed. The subsequent H2 reduction led to a partial reduction of sulfates back to sulfides. A proposed reaction sequence is presented and recommended regeneration strategies are discussed.

  8. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  9. Microbial Architecture of Environmental Sulfur Processes: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    potential impacts on water quality, including acid generation in acid mine drainage (AMD) environments, 2009. Accepted July 9, 2009. Microbial oxidation of sulfur-rich mining waste materials drives acid mine drainage (AMD) and affects the global sulfur biogeochemical cycle. The generation of AMD is a complex

  10. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  11. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

    1995-01-24

    A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

  12. Interfacial reaction dependent performance of hollow carbon nanosphere - sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Ji -Guang; Liu, Jun; et al

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycling stability, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) withmore »highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li2S2/Li2S) which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performance. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.« less

  13. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M.; Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T.; Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  14. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  15. Laser spectroscopy and dynamics of transient species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clouthier, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to study the vibrational and electronic spectra and excited state dynamics of a number of transient sulfur and oxygen species. A variety of supersonic jet techniques, as well as high resolution FT-IR and intracavity dye laser spectroscopy, have been applied to these studies.

  16. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Donnals, G.L.; Cao, J.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Shao, D. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1992-10-01

    Four replicate experiments of pyrolysis with quadrupole gas analyzer and ion selective electrode were conducted to monitor the release of chlorine and sulfur from a high-chlorine Illinois coal IBC-109 (0.42% chlorine on dry basis). The chlorine in coal is released solely as HCl, and the HCl release profile shows a broad peak between 250{degree}C and 600{degree}C with a maximum at 445{degree}C. In contrast, the sulfur release profile shows three peaks; the sulfur released around 370{degree}C may be derived from a labile (possibly aliphatic) component of organic sulfur, the main peak at 475{degree}C corresponds to the release of the main component (thiophenic) of organic sulfur, and the third peak at 600{degree} results from the decomposition of pyrite. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is the major sulfur species under an oxidizing condition in the combustion gas; additional gaseous sulfur species (COS and H{sub 2}S) are observed when the atmosphere is changed to a reducing condition. Sodium and chlorine contents in char residues determined by neutron activation analysis showed that 98% of chlorine in coal was volatilized during pyrolysis to 800{degree}C, and all the sodium is retained in the chars. The thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy experiments were carried out to characterize gaseous species during pyrolysis of four Illinois coals (IBC-103, -105, -106, and -109). Gas evolution profiles of sulfur (H{sub 2}S, S0{sub 2}, and COS), chlorine (HCl), and nitrogen (NH{sub 3} and HCN) species were determined. Similar release profiles of HCl and NH{sub 3} supported an interpretation that chlorine and nitrogen are closely associated in coal. COS may be formed by reaction of CO with H{sub 2}S in the gas phase.

  17. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

    2001-11-06

    The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

  18. Ice Nucleation of Bare and Sulfuric Acid-coated Mineral Dust Particles and Implication for Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Sanders, Cassandra N.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

    2014-08-27

    Ice nucleation properties of different dust species coated with soluble material are not well understood. We determined the ice nucleation ability of bare and sulfuric acid coated mineral dust particles as a function of temperature (-25 to -35 deg C) and relative humidity with respect to water (RHw). Five different mineral dust species: Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, montmorillonite, quartz and kaolinite were dry dispersed and size-selected at 150 nm and exposed to sulfuric acid vapors in the coating apparatus. The condensed sulfuric acid soluble mass fraction per particle was estimated from the cloud condensation nuclei activated fraction measurements. The fraction of dust particles nucleating ice at various temperatures and RHw was determined using a compact ice chamber. In water-subsaturated conditions, compared to bare dust particles, we found that only coated ATD particles showed suppression of ice nucleation ability while other four dust species did not showed the effect of coating on the fraction of particles nucleating ice. The results suggest that interactions between the dust surface and sulfuric acid vapor are important, such that interactions may or may not modify the surface via chemical reactions with sulfuric acid. At water-supersaturated conditions we did not observed the effect of coating, i.e. the bare and coated dust particles had similar ice nucleation behavior.

  19. Observation of neutral sulfuric acid-amine containing clusters in laboratory and ambient measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuang C.; Zhao, J.; Smith, J. N.; Eisele, F. L.; Chen, M.; McMurry, P. H.

    2011-11-02

    Recent ab initio calculations showed that amines can enhance atmospheric sulfuric acid-water nucleation more effectively than ammonia, and this prediction has been substantiated in laboratory measurements. Laboratory studies have also shown that amines can effectively displace ammonia in several types of ammonium clusters. However, the roles of amines in cluster formation and growth at a microscopic molecular scale (from molecular sizes up to 2 nm) have not yet been well understood. Processes that must be understood include the incorporation of amines into sulfuric acid clusters and the formation of organic salts in freshly nucleated particles, which contributes significantly to particle growth rates. We report the first laboratory and ambient measurements of neutral sulfuric acid-amine clusters using the Cluster CIMS, a recently-developed mass spectrometer designed for measuring neutral clusters formed in the atmosphere during nucleation. An experimental technique, which we refer to as Semi-Ambient Signal Amplification (SASA), was employed. Sulfuric acid was added to ambient air, and the concentrations and composition of clusters in this mixture were analyzed by the Cluster CIMS. This experimental approach led to significantly higher cluster concentrations than are normally found in ambient air, thereby increasing signal-to-noise levels and allowing us to study reactions between gas phase species in ambient air and sulfuric acid containing clusters. Mass peaks corresponding to clusters containing four H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} molecules and one amine molecule were clearly observed, with the most abundant sulfuric acid-amine clusters being those containing a C2- or C4-amine (i.e. amines with masses of 45 and 73 amu). Evidence for C3- and C5-amines (i.e. amines with masses of 59 and 87 amu) was also found, but their correlation with sulfuric acid tetramer was not as strong as was observed for the C2- and C4-amines. The formation mechanisms for those sulfuric acid-amine clusters were investigated by varying the residence time in the inlet. It was concluded that the amines react directly with neutral clusters and that ion-induced clustering of sulfuric acid cluster ions with amines was not a dominant process. Results from ambient measurements using the Cluster CIMS without addition of sulfuric acid have shown that the sulfuric acid-amine clusters were reasonably well correlated with sulfuric acid tetramer and consistent with the SASA experiments at the same Boulder sampling site. Also, clusters that contain C2- or C4-amines were more abundant and better correlated with sulfuric acid tetramer than other types of amine containing clusters. However, ambient measurements of sulfuric acid-amine clusters remain difficult and highly uncertain because their concentrations are only slightly above background levels, even during nucleation events.

  20. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, Kurt Edward (Avella, PA); Kolsun, George J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  1. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  2. Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer membrane PEM electrolyzer has been investigated as a viable system for the electrolysis step of the electrolyzer and membranes developed to limit SO2 crossover. © 2009 The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10

  3. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from a subbituminous coal by electron-transfer process with K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dipu Borah [Pragjyotika J College, Titabar (India). Department of Chemistry

    2006-02-01

    The desulfurization reaction involving direct electron transfer from potassium ferrocyanide, K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}), successfully removed organic sulfur from a subbituminous coal. The temperature variation of desulfurization revealed that increase of temperature enhanced the level of sulfur removal. Moreover, the desulfurization reaction was found to be dependent on the concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}). Gradual increase in the concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at higher concentration the variation was not significant. The removal of organic sulfur from unoxidized coal slightly increased with reduced particle size. Desulfurization from oxidized coals (prepared by aerial oxidation) revealed a higher level of sulfur removal in comparison to unoxidized coal. Highest desulfurization of 36.4 wt % was obtained at 90{sup o}C and 0.1 M concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) in the 100-mesh size oxidized coal prepared at 200{sup o}C. Model sulfur compound study revealed that aliphatic types of sulfur compounds are primarily responsible for desulfurization. Because of higher stability, thiophene and condensed thiophene-type of compounds perhaps remained unaffected by the electron-transfer agent. Infrared study revealed the formation of oxidized sulfur compounds (sulfoxide, sulfone, sulfonic acid, etc.) in the oxidized coals. The desulfurization reaction in different systems is well-represented by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Application of the transition state theory indicated that the desulfurization reaction proceeds with the absorption of heat (endothermic reaction) and is nonspontaneous in nature. 53 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. CX-002588: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory Develop an expendable, high capacity sorbent to remove sulfur species from anaerobic digester gas, providing an essentially sulfur-free biogas for Direct FuelCell...

  5. CX-000292: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory Develop an expendable, high capacity sorbent to remove sulfur species from anaerobic digester gas, providing an essentially sulfur-free biogas for Direct FuelCell?...

  6. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY - NETL CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DESIGNATIO...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Systems Develop an expendable, high capacity sorbent to remove sulfur species from anaerobic digester gas, providing an essentially sulfur-free biogas for Direct FuelCell...

  7. CX-000293: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory Develop an expendable, high capacity sorbent to remove sulfur species from anaerobic digester gas, providing an essentially sulfur-free biogas for Direct Fuel Cell?...

  8. CX-000294: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory Develop an expendable, high capacity sorbent to remove sulfur species from anaerobic digester gas, providing an essentially sulfur-free biogas for Direct Fuel Cell?...

  9. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. Technical report, September 1--November 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to conduct laboratory experiments to clarify the mechanism of boiler corrosion, which may lead to solving the corrosion problem associated with the utilization of Illinois` high-sulfur and high-chlorine coal. The kinetics of the release of sulfur and chlorine species during coal combustion is being determined in the laboratories using temperature-programmed pyrolysis coupled with quadrupole gas analysis (QGA) and thermogravimetric analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Samples of boiler deposits and ashes from different locations in boilers using Illinois coal will be analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions to understand the relations among deposit compositions, coal compositions, and the gaseous species in combustion gases. The relationship between the level of chlorine in Illinois coal and boiler corrosion will be studied by experiments with simulated combustion gases under combustion conditions. Reduction of sulfur and chloride concentrations in the flue gas using additives will also be evaluated.

  10. An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, K E

    2008-02-07

    This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

  11. Activated carbon cleanup of the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the details of a recently developed novel process using activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur recovery units. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This effect is especially evident in split flow Claus plants which bypass some of the acid gas feed stream around the initial combustion step because of a low hydrogen sulfide concentration. This new clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}{sup +} hydrocarbons from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated using low pressure steam. A post regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. This technology was extensively pilot tested in Saudi Aramco`s facilities in Saudi Arabia. Full scale commercial units are planned for two plants in the near future with the first coming on-line in 1997. The process described here represents the first application of activated carbon in this service, and a patent has been applied for. The paper will discuss the pilot plant results and the issues involved in scale-up to commercial size.

  12. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

  13. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

  14. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

  15. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  16. Electric Power Research Institute, High-Sulfur Test Center report to the Steering Committee, July 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Operation and testing continued this month at the High Sulfur Test Center on the Pilot Wet Scrubber, Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber and the Spray Dryer Systems. The Pilot continued testing under the High Performance test block program and the Mini-Pilot continued testing under the Formate Forced Oxidation test block. The HSSD testing to investigate the effects that ambient temperature and humidity have on SO{sub 2} removal was completed. Dry alkaline injection testing was started to remove SO{sub 3} and HCl from flue gas which removes visible plumes. Construction upgrades and system shakedown continued on the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system in preparation for start-up. (VC)

  17. Electric Power Research Institute, High-Sulfur Test Center report to the Steering Committee, July 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Operation and testing continued this month at the High Sulfur Test Center on the Pilot Wet Scrubber, Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber and the Spray Dryer Systems. The Pilot continued testing under the High Performance test block program and the Mini-Pilot continued testing under the Formate Forced Oxidation test block. The HSSD testing to investigate the effects that ambient temperature and humidity have on SO{sub 2} removal was completed. Dry alkaline injection testing was started to remove SO{sub 3} and HCl from flue gas which removes visible plumes. Construction upgrades and system shakedown continued on the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system in preparation for start-up. (VC)

  18. Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas Warm Cleanup: Proof-of-Concept Process Demonstration of Multicontaminant Removal for Biomass Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, Christopher J.; Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Rainbolt, James E.; Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2013-06-19

    Systems comprising of multiple sorbent and catalytic beds have been developed for the warm syngas cleanup of coal- and biomass-derived syngas. Tailored specifically for biomass application the process described here consists of six primary unit operations: 1) Na2CO3 bed for HCl removal, 2) two regenerable ZnO beds for bulk H2S removal, 3) ZnO bed for H2S polishing, 4) NiCu/SBA-16 sorbent for trace metal (e.g. AsH3) removal, 5) steam reforming catalyst bed for tars and light hydrocarbons reformation and NH3 decomposition, and a 6) Cu-based LT-WGS catalyst bed. Simulated biomass-derived syngas containing a multitude of inorganic contaminants (H2S, AsH3, HCl, and NH3) and hydrocarbon additives (methane, ethylene, benzene, and naphthalene) was used to demonstrate process effectiveness. The efficiency of the process was demonstrated for a period of 175 hours, during which no signs of deactivation were observed. Post-run analysis revealed small levels of sulfur slipped through the sorbent bed train to the two downstream catalytic beds. Future improvements could be made to the trace metal polishing sorbent to ensure complete inorganic contaminant removal (to low ppb level) prior to the catalytic steps. However, dual, regenerating ZnO beds were effective for continuous removal for the vast majority of the sulfur present in the feed gas. The process was effective for complete AsH3 and HCl removal. The steam reforming catalyst completely reformed all the hydrocarbons present in the feed (methane, ethylene, benzene, and naphthalene) to additional syngas. However, post-run evaluation, under kinetically-controlled conditions, indicates deactivation of the steam reforming catalyst. Spent material characterization suggests this is attributed, in part, to coke formation, likely due to the presence of benzene and/or naphthalene in the feed. Future adaptation of this technology may require dual, regenerable steam reformers. The process and materials described in this report hold promise for a warm cleanup of a variety of contaminant species within warm syngas.

  19. Multiple-sulfur isotope effects during photolysis of carbonyl sulfide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Ying

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine sulfur isotope effects during ultraviolet photolysis of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) to carbon monoxide (CO) and elemental sulfur (S[superscript 0]). The OCS gas at 3.7 to 501 ...

  20. EPA Diesel Rule and the Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-08

    The VT program collaborated with industry stakeholders and the EPA (in an effort initiated in 1998 called Diesel Emission Control – Sulfur Effects study, otherwise known as DECSE) to quantify the effects of fuel sulfur on emission control technologies.

  1. Advanced characterization of forms of chlorine, organic sulfur, and trace elements in available coals from operating Illinois mines. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Demir, I.; Ruch, J.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    A set of 34 as-shipped coal samples from operating Illinois mines is available for this study to determine the forms of chlorine and sulfur and leachability of chlorine during wet grinding and froth flotation. The forms of chlorine may be inorganic, ionic, and organic. The forms of organic sulfur will include organic sulfide and thiophenic sulfur. Chlorine can be leached from coal during wet grinding. The potential for removal of chlorine from the samples during fine ({minus}200 mesh) and ultrafine ({minus}400 mesh) wet-grinding and during froth flotation designed primarily for removal of pyrite and ash will be determined. In addition, the organic/inorganic affinities of trace elements in as-shipped Illinois coals will be assessed so that the current physical coal cleaning results may be better interpreted.

  2. Kinetics of Direct Oxidation of H2S in Coal Gas to Elemental Sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-11-01

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced Vision 21 plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These Vision 21 plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppm and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation Vision 21 plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and 400 square cells/inch{sup 2}, {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-wash-coated monolithic catalyst, and various reactors such as a micro packed-bed reactor, a micro bubble reactor, and a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam.

  3. Mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation during photochemistry of sulfur dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehill, Andrew (Andrew Richard)

    2015-01-01

    Mass-independent sulfur isotope signatures are observed in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic sedimentary sulfate and sulfide minerals, and provide the most robust constraints on early atmospheric oxygen levels. Smaller ...

  4. Policy Analysis Changing Trends in Sulfur Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, New York, and Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto in Asia where the pressing environ- mental problems of urban pollution, acid deposition, and climate change are intimately linked to sulfur (1). Over the last 25 years the primary energy demand in Asia has

  5. On the galactic chemical evolution of sulfur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Ryde; D. L. Lambert

    2003-12-02

    Sulfur abundances have been determined for ten stars to resolve a debate in the literature on the Galactic chemical evolution of sulfur in the halo phase of the Milky Way. Our analysis is based on observations of the S I lines at 9212.9, 9228.1, and 9237.5 A for stars for which the S abundance was obtained previously from much weaker S I lines at 8694.0 and 8694.6 A. In contrast to the previous results showing [S/Fe] to rise steadily with decreasing [Fe/H], our results show that [S/Fe] is approximately constant for metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < -1) at [S/Fe] = +0.3. Thus, sulfur behaves in a similar way to the other alpha elements, with an approximately constant [S/Fe] for metallicities lower than [Fe/H] = -1. We suggest that the reason for the earlier claims of a rise of [S/Fe] is partly due to the use of the weak S I 8694.0 and 8694.6 A lines and partly uncertainties in the determination of the metallicity when using Fe I lines. The S I 9212.9, 9228.1, and 9237.5 A lines are preferred for an abundance analysis of sulfur for metal-poor stars.

  6. Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide with Neutral Vanadium Oxide Clusters in the Gas Phase. II. Experimental Study Employing Single-Photon Ionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    presented in part I (J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 13339). A weak feature at the SO3 mass channel (80 amu to SO3 facilitated by condensed-phase vanadium oxides as catalysts are suggested. I. Introduction for oxidation of SO2 to SO3 (sulfuric acid production, SO2 removal), selective reduction of NOx with NH3

  7. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.059-0.87 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, reaction pressure, and catalyst loading on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 62-78 v% hydrogen, 3,000-7,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,500-3,500 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 50 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the bubble reactor is maintained at 2 for all the reaction experiment runs.

  8. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2004-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 1-6 milliseconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, moisture concentration, reaction pressure on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 70 v% hydrogen, 2,500-7,500-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,250-3,750 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 0-15 vol% moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 100 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia.

  9. Reliable reduction of Fermi-level pinning at atomically matched metal/Ge interfaces by sulfur treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasahara, K.; Yamada, S.; Miyao, M. [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Sakurai, T.; Sawano, K.; Nohira, H. [Advanced Research Laboratories, Tokyo City University, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Tokyo 158-0082 (Japan); Hamaya, K., E-mail: hamaya@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2014-04-28

    This study demonstrates that by using a sulfur (S) treatment on the Ge surface, a reduction in Fermi level pinning can reproducibly be achieved at atomically matched metal/Ge(111) interfaces. The Schottky barrier height for p-type Ge can be controlled by changing the metal work function despite the metal/Ge junctions. The results indicate that the combination of atomic-arrangement matching and S treatment can remove extrinsic factors influencing Fermi level pinning at metal/Ge interfaces.

  10. Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

    2014-04-29

    A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

  11. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  12. Reactor for removing ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luo, Weifang (Livermore, CA); Stewart, Kenneth D. (Valley Springs, CA)

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  13. Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, A.R.; Thornton, D.C.; Driedger, A.R. III [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer is described for determining atmospheric sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide from aircraft and ship platforms. Isotopically labelled variants of each analyte were used as internal standards to achieve high precision. The lower limit of detection for each species for an integration time of 3 min was 1 pptv for sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide and 0.2 pptv for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide. All four species were simultaneously determined with a sample frequency of one sample per 6 min or greater. When only one or two species were determined, a frequency of one sample per 4 min was achieved. Because a calibration is included in each sample, no separate calibration sequence was needed. Instrument warmup was only a few minutes. The instrument was very robust in field deployments, requiring little maintenance.

  14. Simulation of integrated pollutant removal (IPR) water-treatment system using ASPEN Plus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harendra, Sivaram; Oryshcyhn, Danylo [U.S. DOE Ochs, Thomas [U.S. DOE Gerdemann, Stephen; Clark, John

    2013-01-01

    Capturing CO2 from fossil fuel combustion provides an opportunity for tapping a significant water source which can be used as service water for a capture-ready power plant and its peripherals. Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have patented a process—Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR®)—that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO2 stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Water condensed from oxy-combustion flue gas via the IPR system has been analyzed for composition and an approach for its treatment—for in-process reuse and for release—has been outlined. A computer simulation model in ASPEN Plus has been developed to simulate water treatment of flue gas derived wastewater from IPR systems. At the field installation, water condensed in the IPR process contains fly ash particles, sodium (largely from spray-tower buffering) and sulfur species as well as heavy metals, cations, and anions. An IPR wastewater treatment system was modeled using unit operations such as equalization, coagulation and flocculation, reverse osmosis, lime softening, crystallization, and pH correction. According to the model results, 70% (by mass) of the inlet stream can be treated as pure water, the other 20% yields as saleable products such as gypsum (CaSO4) and salt (NaCl) and the remaining portion is the waste. More than 99% of fly ash particles are removed in the coagulation and flocculation unit and these solids can be used as filler materials in various applications with further treatment. Results discussed relate to a slipstream IPR installation and are verified experimentally in the coagulation/flocculation step.

  15. Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-03-01

    Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

  16. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-10

    Tests were conducted on the Tampa Electric Company`s (TECo) Big Bend Station, Unit 4 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to evaluate an option for achieving high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiencies. The option tested was the addition of dibasic acid (DBA) additive. In addition, the effectiveness of other potential options was simulated with the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) after it was calibrated to the system. An economic analysis was conducted to determine the cost effectiveness of each option considered.

  17. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA)

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(OF.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1)n].sub.1-k M.sub.k, [(FO.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1.5).sub.n ].sub.1-k M.sub.k, or [Ln.sub.x Zr.sub.1-x O.sub.2-0.5x ].sub.1-k M.sub.k wherein FO.sub.2 is a fluorite-type oxide; RO represents an alkaline earth oxide; RO.sub.1.5 is a Group IIIB or rare earth oxide; Ln is a rare earth element having an atomic number from 57 to 65 or mixtures thereof; M is a transition metal or a mixture of transition metals; n is a number having a value from 0.0 to 0.35; k is a number having a value from 0.0 to about 0.5; and x is a number having a value from about 0.45 to about 0.55.

  18. Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance in Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Capture Membrane Systems Using High-Throughput Combinatorial Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Amanda; Zhao, Hongbin; Hopkins, Scott

    2014-09-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under the U.S. Department of Energy Project Award No.: DE-FE0001181 titled “Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance in Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Capture Membrane Systems Using High-Throughput Combinatorial Methods.” The project started in October 1, 2009 and was finished September 30, 2014. Pall Corporation worked with Cornell University to sputter and test palladium-based ternary alloys onto silicon wafers to examine many alloys at once. With the specialized equipment at Georgia Institute of Technology that analyzed the wafers for adsorbed carbon and sulfur species six compositions were identified to have resistance to carbon and sulfur species. These compositions were deposited on Pall AccuSep® supports by Colorado School of Mines and then tested in simulated synthetic coal gas at the Pall Corporation. Two of the six alloys were chosen for further investigations based on their performance. Alloy reproducibility and long-term testing of PdAuAg and PdZrAu provided insight to the ability to manufacture these compositions for testing. PdAuAg is the most promising alloy found in this work based on the fabrication reproducibility and resistance to carbon and sulfur. Although PdZrAu had great initial resistance to carbon and sulfur species, the alloy composition has a very narrow range that hindered testing reproducibility.

  19. Arsenic removal from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Anderson, D. Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  20. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01

    Coal-fired power generating plants contribute approximatelynumber of coal-fired generating plants (1-3). The mercury is

  1. Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2007-08-14

    A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

  2. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.

    1994-10-04

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith. 8 figs.

  3. Drum lid removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pella, Bernard M. (Martinez, GA); Smith, Philip D. (North Augusta, SC)

    2010-08-24

    A tool for removing the lid of a metal drum wherein the lid is clamped over the drum rim without protruding edges, the tool having an elongated handle with a blade carried by an angularly positioned holder affixed to the midsection of the handle, the blade being of selected width to slice between lid lip and the drum rim and, when the blade is so positioned, upward motion of the blade handle will cause the blade to pry the lip from the rim and allow the lid to be removed.

  4. Screening of carbon-based sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated combustion flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A fixed-bed reactor system with continuous Hg{sup 0} analysis capabilities was used to evaluate commercial carbon sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas. The objectives of the program were to compare the sorbent effectiveness under identical test conditions and to identify the effects of various flue gas components on elemental mercury sorption. Sorbents tested included steam-activated lignite, chemically activated hardwood, chemically activated bituminous coal, iodated steam-activated coconut shell, and sulfur-impregnated steam-activated bituminous coal. The iodated carbon was the most effective sorbent, showing over 99% mercury removal according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 101A. Data indicate that adding O{sub 2} at 4 vol% reduced the effectiveness of the steam-activated lignite, chemically activated hardwood, and sulfur- impregnated steam-activated bituminous coal. Adding SO{sub 2} at 500 ppm improved the mercury removal of the sulfur-impregnated carbon. Further, the presence of HCl gas (at 50 ppm) produced an order of magnitude increase in mercury removal with the chemically activated and sulfur-impregnated bituminous coal-based carbons.

  5. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  6. Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

  7. Condensate removal device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maddox, James W. (Newport News, VA); Berger, David D. (Alexandria, VA)

    1984-01-01

    A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.

  8. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddalena, Randy

    2012-01-01

    sulfide (H 2 S), carbonyl sulfide (OCS), sulfur dioxide (SOof hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, methyl mercaptan,associated with the carbonyl sulfide that typically had very

  9. The CNG process: Acid gas removal with liquid carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.C.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process has two unique features: the absorption of sulfur-containing compounds and other trace contaminants with liquid carbon dioxide, and the regeneration of pure liquid carbon dioxide by triple-point crystallization. The process is especially suitable for treating gases which contain large amounts of carbon dioxide and much smaller amounts (relative to carbon dioxide) of hydrogen sulfide. Capital and energy costs are lower than conventional solvent processes. Further, products of the CNG process meet stringent purity specifications without undue cost penalties. A process demonstration unit has been constructed and operated to demonstrate the two key steps of the CNG process. Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide removal from gas streams with liquid carbon dioxide absorbent to sub-ppm concentrations has been demonstrated. The production of highly purified liquid carbon dioxide (less than 0.1 ppm total contaminant) by triple-point crystallization also has been demonstrated.

  10. Nonflame, source-induced sulfur fluorescence detector for sulfur-containing compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gage, D.R.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-12-01

    Results of some preliminary investigations of the fluorescence spectra of S/sub 2/ and the non-flame production of S/sub 2/ from sulfur-containing molecules are reported. Passage of the gas to be analyzed through a catalyst-oven containing a plug of NiO/sub 2//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst containing 10 wt% NiO/sub 2/ and heated to 400/sup 0/C resulted in conversion of H/sub 2/S to S/sub 2/ and elemental sulfur. The S/sub 2/ was detected by measurement of its fluorescence bands at 260 and 310nm, and elemental sulfur condensed on the cool parts of the apparatus. However, determination of sulfur-content of gas mixtures with the apparatus described herein were not as repeatable as desired, and the work is being continued on various facets of the non-flame system with work being directed toward the evaluation of different catalysts, catalyst temperature, design of a smaller detector geometry utilizing a pulsed-light excitation source, a windowless cell, and optical filters instead of monochromators to select the S/sub 2/ excitation and emission wavelengths. (BLM)

  11. Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-04-02

    A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

  12. An Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications TraditionalWith PropaneNaturalTestAn Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur An

  13. Hydrogen sulfide selectivity with carbonyl sulfide removal to less than PPM levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, T.R.; Pearce, R.L.; Foster, W.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in market conditions and plant operating economics require examination of traditional processes and operating practices in gas treating applications for upgrading to more stringent standards of efficiency in order to remain competitive while returning a satisfactory operating profit margin to the company. Anticipated reduction in solvent usage, improvements in Claus sulfur recovery unit performance and lower energy costs induced Ashland's Catlettsburg refinery to convert its entire sulfur removal system from monoethanolamine to methyldiethanolamine. One of the seven product streams being treated required extremely low carbonyl sulfide specifications. When the initial converted operations evidenced a need to improve the carbonyl sulfide removal, GAS/SPEC Tech Service produced an innovative solution which allowed for efficient operation which still achieved these objectives.

  14. Using ISC & GIS to predict sulfur deposition from coal-fired power plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to determine if atmospheric sources have the potential of contributing significantly to the sulfur content of grazed forage. Sulfur deposition resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions from coal- fired power...

  15. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, John E. (Newport News, VA)

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  16. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  17. Quick Stain Removal Guide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Pamela J.

    1998-07-29

    and dryer. ? Use the hottest wash temperature recommended on the garment care label. ? Use the right wash and dry cycle for the fabric. ? Avoid using chlorine bleach on silk, wool or spandex or on non-colorfast garments. ? Remove clothes... color-safe bleach or fabric softener. Bleaches are strong cleaning agents. Follow the in- structions on the containers. Use chlorine bleach on colorfast fabrics; it is most effective if added 5 to 6 minutes into the wash cycle. It is best...

  18. Method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, Jorulf (Oak Ridge, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    A method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder involves the direct chemical treatment of TiB.sub.2 powders with a gaseous boron halide, such as BCl.sub.3, at temperatures in the range of 500.degree.-800.degree. C. The BCl.sub.3 reacts with the oxides to form volatile species which are removed by the BCl.sub.3 exit stream.

  19. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Sanner, Robert D. (Livermore, CA); Dias, Victoria L. (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2008-07-01

    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  20. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Sanner, Robert D. (Livermore, CA); Dias, Victoria L. (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2010-09-28

    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  1. Quantifying Individual Potential Contributions of the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Quantifying Individual Potential Contributions of the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer John A. Staser for the hybrid sulfur electrolyzer is controlled mainly by water transport in the cell. Water is required electrolyzer performance and operation. Experimental The experimental setup was the same as that described

  2. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  3. HIGH SO2 REMOVAL EFFICIENCY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; James L. Phillips

    1997-10-15

    This final report describes the results of performance tests at six full-scale wet lime- and limestone-reagent flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The objective of these tests was to evaluate the effectiveness of low capital cost sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal upgrades for existing FGD systems as an option for complying with the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The upgrade options tested at the limestone-reagent systems included the use of organic acid additives (dibasic acid (DBA) and/or sodium formate) as well as increased reagent ratio (higher excess limestone levels in the recirculating slurry solids) and absorber liquid-to-gas ratio. One system also tested operating at higher flue gas velocities to allow the existing FGD system to treat flue gas from an adjacent, unscrubbed unit. Upgrade options for the one lime-based system tested included increased absorber venturi pressure drop and increased sulfite concentration in the recirculating slurry liquor.

  4. Method and apparatus for converting and removing organosulfur and other oxidizable compounds from distillate fuels, and compositions obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Alessandro, Robert N. (Spanish Fort, AL); Tarabocchia, John (Parsippany, NJ); Jones, Jerald Andrew (Frankfurt am Main, DE); Bonde, Steven E. (West Richard, WA); Leininger, Stefan (Langenselbold, DE)

    2010-10-26

    The present disclosure is directed to a multi-stage system and a process utilizing said system with the design of reducing the sulfur-content in a liquid comprising hydrocarbons and organosulfur compounds. The process comprising at least one of the following states: (1) an oxidation stage; (2) an extraction state; (3) a raffinate washing stage; (4) a raffinate polishing stage; (5) a solvent recovery stage; (6) a solvent purification stage; and (7) a hydrocarbon recovery stage. The process for removing sulfur-containing hydrocarbons from gas oil, which comprises oxidizing gas oil comprising hydrocarbons and organosulfur compounds to obtain a product gas oil.

  5. Evaluation of metallic foils for preconcentration of sulfur-containing gases with subsequent flash desorption/flame photometric detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagel, R.A.; Farwell, S.O.

    1986-05-01

    Ag, Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh, and W foils were examined for their collective efficiencies toward seven sulfur-containing gases, i.e., H/sub 2/S, CH/sub 3/SH, CH/sub 3/SCH/sub 3/, CH/sub 3/SSCH/sub 3/, CS/sub 2/, COS, and SO/sub 2/. Low- and sub-part-per-billion (v/v) concentrations of these individual sulfur gases in air were drawn through a fluorocarbon resin cell containing a mounted 30-mm x 7-mm x 0.025-mm metal foil. The preconcentrated species were then thermally desorbed by a controlled pulse of current through the foil. The desorbed sample plug was swept in precleaned zero air from the fluorocarbon resin cell to a flame photometric detector. Sampling flow rate, ambient temperature, sample humidity, and common oxidants were examined for their effects on the collection efficiencies of these sulfur compounds on platinum and palladium foils. Analytical characteristics of this metal foil collection/flash desorption/flame photometric detector (MFC/FD/FPD) technique include a sulfur gas detectability of less than 50 pptr (parts per trillion) (v/v), a response repeatability of at least 95%, and field portable collection cells and instrumentation. The results are discussed both in terms of potential analytical applications of MFC/FD/FPD and in terms of their relationship to characterized models of gas adsorption on solid surfaces. 33 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Electrochemically assisted paint removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, R.; Hydock, D.M.; Burleigh, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    A method to remove paint coatings from metal and other electronically conductive substrates is being studied. In particular, the remediation of objects coated with lead based paints is the focus of research. The approach also works very well with automotive coatings and may be competitive with sandblasting. To achieve debonding of the coating, the deteriorated or artifically damaged surface of the object is cathodically polarized. The object can be immersed in a benign aqueous electrolyte for treatment, or the electrolyte can be retained in an absorbent pad covering the surface to be treated.

  7. Sensitive Species

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species Sensitive Species By avoiding or minimizing the

  8. Performance and cost models for the direct sulfur recovery process. Task 1 Topical report, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, H.C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, R.B. [Carneigie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop performance and cost models of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP is an emerging technology for sulfur recovery from advanced power generation technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. In IGCC systems, sulfur present in the coal is captured by gas cleanup technologies to avoid creating emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulfur that is separated from the coal gas stream must be collected. Leading options for dealing with the sulfur include byproduct recovery as either sulfur or sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a preferred byproduct, because it is easier to handle and therefore does not depend as strongly upon the location of potential customers as is the case for sulfuric acid. This report describes the need for new sulfur recovery technologies.

  9. Focal Fish Species Focal Fish Species Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Focal Fish Species Focal Fish Species Characterization APPENDIX I This chapter describes the fish selected the focal species based on their significance and ability to characterize the health

  10. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Donnals, G.L.; Cao, J.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Shao, D. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The goal of this project is to study the evolution of gaseous sulfur and chlorine species during temperature-controlled pyrolysis and combustion and their effect on boiler corrosion. We have been developing two techniques for determining the gas evolution profiles of sulfur and chlorine during coal pyrolysis and combustion. First, using a pyrolysis-combustion system in combination with a quadrupole gas analyzer, the evolution of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in combustion gas during temperature-programmed coal pyrolysis-combustion was monitored. When the atmosphere of the combustion chamber was changed to a reducing condition, gaseous COS and H{sub 2}S were also detected in the combustion gas. Detection of hydrogen chloride by QGA has been improved by using a larger-diameter (75 {mu}m) capillary tubing. The HC1 evolution profile during the pyrolysis of coal IBC-109 was determined by QGA and by a chloride ion selective electrode for quantitative purposes. Second, the technique of thermogravimetry (TG) in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to characterize gaseous species during coal pyrolysis. Gas evolution profiles of sulfur (SO{sub 2} and COS), chlorine (HC1), and nitrogen (NH{sub 3} and HCN) species were determined for coal IBC-109. Similar release profiles of HCI and NH{sub 3} supported an interpretation that chlorine gnd nitrogen are closely associated in coal. COS may be formed by reaction of CO with H{sub 2}S in the gas phase. A mass balance study of chlorine evolution from coal IBC-109 in a TG-FTIR experiment was completed; the chloride dissolved in solutions was determined by an ion chromatographic technique.

  11. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project (NDP), with cost-shared funding support from DOE, is to design, construct, and operate a commercial-scale flue gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO process. The NDP consists of the NOXSO plant and sulfur recovery unit, designed to remove SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas and produce elemental sulfur by-product, and the liquid SO{sub 2} plant and air separation unit, designed to process the elemental sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The NOXSO plant and sulfur recovery unit will be constructed at ALCOA Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana, and will treat all of the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The elemental sulfur produced will be shipped to the Olin Charleston Plant in Charleston, Tennessee, for conversion into liquid SO{sub 2}.

  12. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to remove both sulfur species in biogas to ppb levels, making its use possible in a fuel cell CHP unit The high concentrations of sulfur species in the biogas (up to 1.5%...

  13. Ultrafine calcium aerosol: Generation and use as a sorbent for sulfur in coal combustion. Volume 1, Experimental work: Final report, August 1, 1988--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, M.K.; Nahar, N.U.; Stewart, G.D.; Prudich, M.E. [comps.] [Ohio Coal Research Center, Athens, OH (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Studies conducted at Ohio University and elsewhere have demonstrated that ultrafine aerosols, which have the highest surface area per unit mass, have enhanced potential to efficiently remove sulfur dioxide form combustion gases. Therefore it is proposed to generate a very fine aerosol calcium-rich sorbent (or similar aerosols) for gas conditioning. The aerosol will be generated by vaporization of the sorbent compound and subsequent homogeneous nucleation. In experimental studies liquids as well as solids will be converted into ultrafine aerosols by using suitable aerosol generator. The aerosol generator could be a simple bubbler or a flame spray jet using powders of calcium ``Compounds. Studies will then be carried out, to determine the dynamics of sulfur dioxide capture by the ultrafine aerosol. The primary objective of this research was to generate fine aerosols and to use them for coal combustion SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} gas removal purposes. From the background study on the dry scrubbing system, it can be concluded that the most important experimental parameters are addition ratio, reactor temperature, residence time, total inlet flow rate and inlet SO{sub 2} concentration. Addition ratio is the inlet molar ratio of calcium to sulfur. Before any experimentation, it was necessary to decide and investigate the values of each of the parameters. Each of these parameters were investigated individually and the effects on SO{sub 2} removal were determined.

  14. Coal-firing sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report {number_sign}7, [April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping, Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-05-31

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the organic compounds tentatively identified as combustion products in the previous report were confirmed by comparing retention times with pure samples. Secondly, a reduced amount of unburned carbon in the fly ash and an oxygen concentration at about 3--6% in the flue gases were achieved by the addition of removable heat exchange tubes in the AFBC system.

  15. Amphiphilic Surface Modification of Hollow Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Cycle Life of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Sulfur Batteries Guangyuan Zheng, Qianfan Zhang, Judy J. Cha, Yuan Yang, Weiyang Li, Zhi Wei Seh, and Yi lithium sulfur batteries, due to their high specific energy and relatively low cost. Despite recent progress in addressing the various problems of sulfur cathodes, lithium sulfur batteries still exhibit

  16. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

    2013-08-13

    A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  17. Investigating the Use of Biosorbents to Remove Arsenic from Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erapalli, Shreyas

    2011-02-22

    , As (III), and arsenate, As (V), from water. Batch reactors were employed to assess the percent removal, reaction kinetics, adsorption capacity, and desorption of each arsenic species onto/from biosorbents under pH buffered and non?buffered conditions...

  18. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    set limits on the sulfur content of allowable fuels (1.0% by weight, dry basis) for combustion, as well as for the heat input of any fuel burning equipment (250,000 Btuhour)....

  19. Physiology of multiple sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Min Sub

    2012-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) utilizes sulfate as an electron acceptor and produces sulfide that is depleted in heavy isotopes of sulfur relative to starting sulfate. The fractionation of S-isotopes is commonly used ...

  20. Carbonyl sulfide: potential agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graedel, T.E.; Kammlott, G.W.; Franey, J.P.

    1981-05-08

    Laboratory exposure experiments demonstrate that carbonyl sulfide in wet air corrodes copper at 22/sup 0/C at a rate that is approximately linear with total exposure (the product of exposure time and carbonyl sulfide concentration). The corrosion rate is similar to that of hydrogen sulfide, a widely recognized corrodant. The much greater average atmospheric abundance of carbonyl sulfide compared with that of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide suggests that carbonyl sulfide may be a major agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion.

  1. Ultra Low Sulfur Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batey, John E.; McDonald, Roger

    2015-09-30

    This Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and has successfully quantified the environmental and economic benefits of switching to ULS (15 PPM sulfur) heating oil. It advances a prior field study of Low Sulfur (500 ppm sulfur) heating oil funded by NYSERDA and laboratory research conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Canadian researchers. The sulfur oxide and particulate matter (PM) emissions are greatly reduced as are boiler cleaning costs through extending cleaning intervals. Both the sulfur oxide and PM emission rates are directly related to the fuel oil sulfur content. The sulfur oxide and PM emission rates approach near-zero levels by switching heating equipment to ULS fuel oil, and these emissions become comparable to heating equipment fired by natural gas. This demonstration project included an in-depth review and analysis of service records for both the ULS and control groups to determine any difference in the service needs for the two groups. The detailed service records for both groups were collected and analyzed and the results were entered into two spreadsheets that enabled a quantitative side-by-side comparison of equipment service for the entire duration of the ULS test project. The service frequency for the ULS and control group were very similar and did indicate increased service frequency for the ULS group. In fact, the service frequency with the ULS group was slightly less (7.5 percent) than the control group. The only exception was that three burner fuel pump required replacement for the ULS group and none were required for the control group.

  2. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  3. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  4. Endangered Species

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES ScienceInformation CompanyEmployeeJonHereEndangered Species

  5. The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

    2004-09-30

    Chloride is a deleterious ionic species in cooling water systems because it is important in promoting corrosion. Chloride can be removed from cooling water by precipitation as calcium chloroaluminate using ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA...

  6. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key parts—a positive and negative electrode and an electrolyte—that exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a battery’s chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

  7. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, G.L.; Davis, D.D.; Beltz, N.; Bandy, A.R.; Ferek, R.J.; Thornton, D.C. [NASA, Langely Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)]|[Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)]|[J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany)]|[Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of `potential` uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

  8. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue-gas-desulfurization sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In field studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by the University of Washington (1978) and the University of Idaho (1979), 13 gas samples from sludge storage sites at coal-burning power plants were analyzed by wall-coated open-tube cryogenic capillary-column gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame-photometric detector. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were identified in varying concentrations and ratios in the emissions from both operating sludge ponds and landfills and from FGD sludge surfaces that had been stored in the open for 3-32 mo or longer. Other sulfur compounds, probably propanethiols, were found in emissions from some sludges. Chemical ''stabilization/fixation'' sulfate-sulfite ratio, sludge water content, and temperature were the most significant variables controlling sulfur gas production. The average sulfur emissions from each of the 13 FGD storage sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 g/sq m/yr sulfur.

  9. Weigh options for meeting future gasoline sulfur specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, T.E.

    1997-03-01

    The most frequently mentioned methods for reducing pool gasoline sulfur to the 50-ppm range are FCC feed hydrotreating and desulfurization of heavy cat naptha (HCN). Of these, cat feed hydrotreating (CFH) is preferred because of the compelling economics of improved FCC gasoline yield. Also, the additional C{sub 3}/C{sub 4} olefin yield opens up the possibility of additional production of sulfur-free alkylate and oxygenate. In addition to the obvious yield benefits, the ability to upgrade lower quality, higher sulfur stocks for inclusion in the FCC charge slate, while lowering flue gas SO{sub x} emissions, is also advantageous to the refiner. However, depending o the level of FCC feed sulfur and the severity of hydrotreating used, it may not be possible to meet 50-ppm sulfur in the gasoline pool. Two possible solutions to this problem are to use: (1) a very severe cat feed hydrotreating operation (i.e., 98%-plus desulfurization), (2) partial conversion hydrocracking.

  10. LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

    2005-06-01

    This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important red

  11. Gas phase reaction of sulfur trioxide with water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, C.E.; Molina, M.J.; Jayne, J.T.; Meads, R.F.; Worsnop, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Sulfur trioxide (SO3) has long been known to react with water to produce sulfuric acid (H2S04). It has been commonly assumed that the gas phase reaction in the Earth`s atmosphere between SO3 and water vapor to produce sulfuric acid vapor is an important step in the production of sulfuric acid aerosol particles. The kinetics of the gas phase reaction of SO3 with water vapor have previously been studied by Castleman and co-workers, Wang et al and Reiner and Arnold. Each of these studies was carried out in a flow reactor, with the first two studies performed at low pressure (1-10 Torr) and the latter from approx. 30 to 260 Torr. Each of these studies measured SO3 decays over a range of H2O vapor levels, obtaining data consistent with interpreting the reaction of gaseous SO3 and H2O as a bimolecular process. It is not clear why previous experimental studies failed to observe a nonlinear dependence of SO3 consumption on water vapor concentration. It is probable that sufficient water dimer exists in much of the Earth`s atmosphere to allow dimer reactions to participate in sulfuric acid vapor formation.

  12. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  13. Pilot-scale testing of a new sorbent for combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S. Jr. [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

    1994-06-01

    A new regenerable sorbent concept for SO{sub 2} and NOx removal was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater generating station at a 1.5 to 2-MW(e) level. A radial panel-bed filter of a new dry, granular sorbent was exposed to flue gas and regenerated in an experimental proof-of-concept program. The project was successful in demonstrating the new sorbent`s ability to achieve 90% SO{sub 2} removal, 30% NOx removal, and over 80% removal of residual particulates with realistic approach temperatures and low pressure drops. Based on the results of this project, the retrofit cost of this technology is expected to be on the order of $400 per ton of SO{sub 2} and $900 per ton of NOx removed. This assumes that gas distribution is even and methane regeneration is used for a 30% average utilization. For a 2.5%-sulfur Ohio coal, this translates to a cost of approximately $17 per ton of coal. Two by-product streams were generated in the process that was tested: a solid, spent-sorbent stream and a highly-concentrated SO{sub 2} or elemental-sulfur stream. While not within the scope of the project, it was found possible to process these streams into useful products. The spent sorbent materials were shown to be excellent substrates for soil amendments; the elemental sulfur produced is innocuous and eminently marketable.

  14. Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents for Diesel Emission Control Using Online Measurement of SO2 and SO3 in the Effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2004-07-21

    Upcoming regulations regarding diesel engine emissions require substantial reduction in particulate matter and nitrogen oxides through aftertreatment methods. Since sulfur oxides in the exhaust greatly reduce the performance of the aftertreatment system, a dedicated trap for removal of sulfur oxides has been considered. Most adsorbents are more effective in removing SO{sub 3} than SO{sub 2}; hence oxidation catalysts have been employed to maximize the concentration of SO{sub 3} in the effluent. Although SO{sub 2} concentrations are easily measured, SO3 is less easily quantified. As a result, the only figure of merit for the SOx trap performance has been total capacity, provided by post-characterization. In this paper we describe a chromatographic method for measurement of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} adsorption in real time, which provides adsorbent performance data on breakthrough capacities and sulfur slip, especially important when operating at high space velocities. We also provide experimental measurements of break through capacities for SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} adsorption for some common metal oxide adsorbents using this analytical system.

  15. The Allee effect, stochastic dynamics and the eradication of alien species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liebhold, Andrew

    REPORT The Allee effect, stochastic dynamics and the eradication of alien species Andrew Liebhold1 biology of eradication have assumed that eradication can only be achieved via 100% removal of the alien of alien species. While most alien species have relatively few effects, many species have caused

  16. Preliminary Investigation of Sulfur Loading in Hanford LAW Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Buchmiller, William C.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2004-04-01

    A preliminary estimate was developed for loading limits for high-sulfur low-activity waste (LAW) feeds that will be vitrified into borosilicate glass at the Hanford Site in the waste-cleanup effort. Previous studies reported in the literature were consulted to provide a basis for the estimate. The examination of previous studies led to questions about sulfur loading in Hanford LAW glass, and scoping tests were performed to help answer these questions. These results of these tests indicated that a formulation approach developed by Vienna and colleagues shows promise for maximizing LAW loading in glass. However, there is a clear need for follow-on work. The potential for significantly lowering the amount of LAW glass produced at Hanford (after the initial phase of processing) because of higher sulfur tolerances may outweigh the cost and effort required to perform the necessary testing.

  17. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

  18. Multipollutant Removal with WOWClean® System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero, M.

    2010-01-01

    from the flue gas of a power plant and demonstrate the technology. The system integrates proven emission reduction techniques into a single, multi-pollutant reduction system and is designed to remove Mercury, SOx, NOx, particulates, heavy metals...

  19. Selection of an acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, J.B.; Jones, G.N.; Denton, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Acid gas contaminants, such as, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and mercaptans, must be removed to a very low level from a feed natural gas before it is liquefied. CO{sub 2} is typically removed to a level of about 100 ppm to prevent freezing during LNG processing. Sulfur compounds are removed to levels required by the eventual consumer of the gas. Acid-gas removal processes can be broadly classified as: solvent-based, adsorption, cryogenic or physical separation. The advantages and disadvantages of these processes will be discussed along with design and operating considerations. This paper will also discuss the important considerations affecting the choice of the best acid-gas removal process for LNG plants. Some of these considerations are: the remoteness of the LNG plant from the resource; the cost of the feed gas and the economics of minimizing capital expenditures; the ultimate disposition of the acid gas; potential for energy integration; and the composition, including LPG and conditions of the feed gas. The example of the selection of the acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant.

  20. Analytical and characterization studies of organic and inorganic species in brown coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Domazetis; M. Raoarun; B.D. James; J. Liesegang; P.; J. Pigram; N. Brack [La Trobe University, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemistry

    2006-08-15

    Detailed studies have been carried out on the distribution of organic functional groups and inorganic species in as-received (ar) and acid-washed (aw) brown coals using elemental analysis, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Surface concentrations of the various carbon groups, organic oxygen, and inorganic hydroxide were obtained using XPS, but oxygen from clay and quartz, if present, interfered with organic oxygen determinations for the coals. A comparison of ar and aw coals using XPS and SEM-EDX is provided in terms of inorganic and organic sulfur groups. Chloride in these coals is present mainly as acid extractable forms, but small amounts of chloride in the organic matrix were indicated by the elemental analysis of ultra low-ash coals. TOF-SIMS fragments from brown coals were indicative of polymers consisting mainly of single aromatic groups linked by hydrocarbons with carboxyl and phenol functional groups. Sulfur fragments were from inorganic sulfur, thiols, organo-sulfates, and S-N-organic species. Numerous fragments containing organically bound chloride were observed. Fragments of the inorganic species Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Ga were also observed. Environmentally undesirable species, particularly from organo-sulfur and organo-chloride groups in brown coal, are likely to emerge from processes that heat coal-water mixture. 54 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-05-18

    A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  2. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  3. VHF EPR quantitation and speciation of organic sulfur in coal. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarkson, R.B.; Belford, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The existence of free electrons in coals` natural state offers a great attraction for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) analysis to aid in the study of the structure and composition of coal. This direct and non-destructive approach to coal analysis has been hindered by the problem of resolution using the conventional 9.5 GHz EPR spectrometers. In the past few years, the authors have developed techniques including W-band Very High Frequency EPR spectroscopy as a means of determining the quantity and structure of organic sulfur in native and desulfurized coals. The state-of-the-art 95 GHz (W-band) EPR spectrometer which they have constructed shows a well resolved spectrum including the interaction between unpaired electrons and the heteroatom like sulfur. The spectra also provide quantitative as well as qualitative information regarding different sulfur species. In this quarter, the authors have been concentrating their efforts on developing a new standard protocol in handling and preparing the coal samples for EPR measurements to provide a quantitative comparison between the EPR spectra of coal in the natural state and desulfurized. Sixteen new coal samples, both native and desulfurized, have been provided to us as well as to the University of Kentucky for analysis by XANES. These samples have been run in both laboratories. The results from these samples, which were kept in an oxygen-free environment, are compared to those of 10 previous samples, which were air-oxidized. Significant differences in the EPR spectra of air-oxidized and oxygen free samples are noted; results from Kentucky are not yet available. Desulfurized samples show a significant decrease in organic sulfur as measured by the VHF-EPR method.

  4. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  5. Process studies for a new method of removing H/sub 2/S from industrial gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neumann, D.W.; Lynn, S.

    1986-07-01

    A process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal-derived gas streams has been developed. The basis for the process is the absorption of H/sub 2/S into a polar organic solvent where it is reacted with dissolved sulfur dioxide to form elemental sulfur. After sulfur is crystallized from solution, the solvent is stripped to remove dissolved gases and water formed by the reaction. The SO/sub 2/ is generated by burning a portion of the sulfur in a furnace where the heat of combustion is used to generate high pressure steam. The SO/sub 2/ is absorbed into part of the lean solvent to form the solution necessary for the first step. The kinetics of the reaction between H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/ dissolved in mixtures of N,N-Dimethylaniline (DMA)/ Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether and DMA/Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether was studied by following the temperature rise in an adiabatic calorimeter. This irreversible reaction was found to be first-order in both H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/, with an approximates heat of reaction of 28 kcal/mole of SO/sub 2/. The sole products of the reaction appear to be elemental sulfur and water. The presence of DMA increases the value of the second-order rate constant by an order of magnitude over that obtained in the glycol ethers alone. Addition of other tertiary aromatic amines enhances the observed kinetics; heterocyclic amines (e.g., pyridine derivatives) have been found to be 10 to 100 times more effective as catalysts when compared to DMA.

  6. Method for removal of metal atoms from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Torres, deceased, Agapito P. (late of Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Kaleen, AU)

    1992-01-01

    The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells were also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

  7. Method for removal of explosives from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Torres, deceased, Agapito P. (late of Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Giralang, AU)

    1994-01-01

    The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells was also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

  8. Structural insight into the assembly of iron-sulfur clusters and their function in radical generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vey, Jessica L. (Jessica Lynn)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis addresses two emerging areas in the study of iron-sulfur cluster biochemistry: bioassembly of iron-sulfur clusters, and their involvement in initiation of radical chemistry. The structure of a cysteine desulfurase ...

  9. KINETICS AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, R.

    2012-01-01

    AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDEmechanism for the catalytic oxidation of in an aqueous sus1ECHANISf 1 1 FOR TilE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

  10. A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOx̳ automotive catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Hairong

    2005-01-01

    Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

  11. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of Sulfur Mustard in Rats Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-05-01

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard (HD) [bis{2-chloroethyl)-sulfide) ' a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Little, however, is known about the mutagenic activity of HD in mammalian species and data regarding the dominant lethal effects of HD are ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine the dominant lethal effect in male and female rats orally exposed to HD. The study was conducted in two phases; a female dominant lethal phase and a male dominant lethal phase. Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were administered 0.08, 0.20, or 0.50 mg/kg HD in sesame oil 5 days/week for 10 weeks. For the female phase, treated or untreated males were mated with treated females and their fetuses were evaluated at approximately 14 days after copulation. For the male dominant lethal phase, treated males cohabited with untreated femal (during 5 days of each week for 10 weeks) and females were sacrificed for fetal evaluation 14 days after the midweek of cohabitation during each of the 10 weeks. The appearance and behavior of the rats were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no treatment-related deaths. Growth rates were reduced in both female and male rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg HD. Indicators of reproductive performance did not demonstrate significant female dominant lethal effects, although significant male dominant lethal effects were observed at 2 and 3 week post-exposure. These effects included increases of early fetal resorptions and preimplantation losses and decreases of total live embryo implants. These effects were most consistently observed at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg, but frequently occurred at the lower doses. Although no treatment-related effects on male reproductive organ weights or sperm motility were found, a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm was detected in males exposed to 0. 50 mg/kg HD. The timing of these effects is consistent with an effect during the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis, possibly involving the generally sensitive spermatids.

  12. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2003-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term DOE efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 60-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a PFA differential fixed-bed micro reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.01-0.047 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, moisture concentrations, reaction pressures on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 61-89 v% hydrogen, 2,300-9,200-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-4,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 2.6-13.7 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 100-110 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 28-127 psia. The following results were obtained based on experimental data generated from the differential reactor system, and their interpretations, (1) Concentration of moisture and concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the moisture range of 2.5-13.6 v% moisture at 140 C and 120-123 psia. (2) Concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the temperature range of 135-145 C at 5-v% moisture and 112-123 psia. However, reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} appear to decrease slightly with increased reaction temperatures over the temperature range of 135-145 C at 5-v% moisture and 112-123 psia. (3) Concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the pressure range of 28-123 psia at 5-v% moisture and 140 C. However, reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} increase significantly with increased reaction pressures over the pressure range of 28-123 psia at 5-v% moisture and 140 C.

  13. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trap and Remove Sediment Protection 2: Trap and Remove Sediment The 3 Protections Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated...

  14. A. Paytan and E.T. Gray Chapter 9 Sulfur Isotope Stratigraphy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    A. Paytan and E.T. Gray Chapter 9 Sulfur Isotope Stratigraphy Abstract: The sulfur isotopic.4. Measurement and Materials for Sulfur Isotope Stratigraphy 171 9.4.1. Isotope Analyses 171 9.4.2. Materials. The features in the record can also be used to correlate between stratigraphic sections and sequences

  15. The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India* A.L. Ganesan of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India A. L. Ganesan1, A. Chatterjee2, R. G-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluo- ride (SF6) from Darjeeling

  16. Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    sulfur diesel fuel is less expensive due to reduced taxes and as such may be prone to illegal use in on-road November 2005; published online 18 January 2006 A remote sensor for measuring on-road vehicles passing of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

  17. Paper 2008-01-0434 Effects of Sulfur Level and Anisotropy of Sulfide Inclusions on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatemi, Ali

    to fatigue strength, the high sulfur material had up to 25% lower fatigue strength than the ultra low sulfur, monotonic tensile and CVN impact behavior of SAE 4140 steel with high (0.077% S), low (0.012% S) and ultra low (0.004% S) sulfur contents at two hardness levels (40 HRC and 50 HRC). The longitudinally oriented

  18. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  19. Laboratory scale studies of Pd/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbents for the removal of trace contaminants from coal-derived fuel gas at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rupp, Erik C.; Granite, Evan J.; Stanko, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is a promising technology for the use of coal in a clean and efficient manner. In order to maintain the overall efficiency of the IGCC process, it is necessary to clean the fuel gas of contaminants (sulfur, trace compounds) at warm (150–540 °C) to hot (>540 °C) temperatures. Current technologies for trace contaminant (such as mercury) removal, primarily activated carbon based sorbents, begin to lose effectiveness above 100 °C, creating the need to develop sorbents effective at elevated temperatures. As trace elements are of particular environmental concern, previous work by this group has focused on the development of a Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent for Hg removal. This paper extends the research to Se (as hydrogen selenide, H{sub 2}Se), As (as arsine, AsH{sub 3}), and P (as phosphine, PH{sub 3}) which thermodynamic studies indicate are present as gaseous species under gasification conditions. Experiments performed under ambient conditions in He on 20 wt.% Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} indicate the sorbent can remove the target contaminants. Further work is performed using a 5 wt.% Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent in a simulated fuel gas (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) in both single and multiple contaminant atmospheres to gauge sorbent performance characteristics. The impact of H{sub 2}O, Hg and temperature on sorbent performance is explored.

  20. Removal - An alternative to clearance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feinhals, J.; Kelch, A.; Kunze, V.

    2007-07-01

    This presentation shows the differences between the application of clearance and removal, both being procedures for materials leaving radiation protection areas permanently. The differentiation will be done on the basis of the German legislation but may be also applicable for other national legislation. For clearance in Germany two basic requirements must be given, i.e. that the materials are activated or contaminated and that they result from the licensed use or can be assigned to the scope of the license. Clearance needs not to be applied to objects in Germany which are to be removed only temporarily from controlled areas with the purpose of repair or reuse in other controlled areas. In these cases only the requirements of contamination control apply. In the case of removal it must either be proved by measurements that the relevant materials are neither activated nor contaminated or that the materials result from areas where activation or contamination is impossible due to the operational history considering operational procedures and events. If the material is considered neither activated nor contaminated there is no need for a clearance procedure. Therefore, these materials can be removed from radiation protection areas and the removal is in the responsibility of the licensee. Nevertheless, the removal procedure and the measuring techniques to be applied for the different types of materials need an agreement from the competent authority. In Germany a maximum value of 10% of the clearance values has been established in different licenses as a criterion for the application of removal. As approximately 2/3 of the total mass of a nuclear power plant is not expected to be contaminated or activated there is a need for such a procedure of removal for this non contaminated material without any regulatory control especially in the case of decommissioning. A remarkable example is NPP Stade where in the last three years more than 8600 Mg were disposed of by removal and only 315 Mg were released by clearance, even before the decommissioning licensing procedure was finished. (authors)

  1. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  2. Catalyst added to Claus furnace reduces sulfur losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luinstra, E.A.; d'Haene, P.E. (Shell Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada). Oakville Research Centre)

    1989-07-01

    Several substances effectively catalyze the reduction of carbon disulfide in Claus gas streams at Claus reaction furnace conditions (about 1,000{sup 0}C). Some conversion of carbonyl sulfide also occurs. Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well-known problem compounds that reduce sulfur recovery efficiency in many sulfur recovery plants. Installation of a suitable catalytic material in the reaction furnace promises significant improvement of Claus plant efficiency, and prolonged life of the catalytic converters. Almost every Claus sulfur recovery plant makes some carbon disulfide (CS/sub 2/) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) in the reaction furnace, and in many of these plants, these compounds constitute a significant problem. CS/sub 2/ and COS often comprise more than 50% of sulfur losses in the tail gas. This article reexamines the issue of CS/sub 2/ and COS in the Claus plant. The relative importance of these two troublesome components is explored with data accumulated from Shell Canada Claus plants. The authors discuss which factors tend to produce these components. Then a method for reducing CS/sub 2/ and COS virtually at the source will be introduced.

  3. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  4. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  5. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1996-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

  6. Hydroprocessing key issue in low-sulfur' era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-26

    Refiners gave heavy attention to hydroprocessing operations at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association annual question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology. Among the topics covered were diesel color, blending to meet diesel sulfur specs, and ammonia injection in hydrocracking units. The panelists also related their experiences with increasing vacuum gas oil conversion in hydrocracking operations. These discussions are reproduced here.

  7. Sulfur controls edge closer in acid-rain debate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-10-04

    The role of airborne sulfur emissions from midwestern and southern coal-fired power plants in exacerbating the acid rain problem is discussed. This problem is discussed from the standpoint of legislation, compliance costs, scrubber performance and cost, and chemistry of acid rains.

  8. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  9. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  10. ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION WITH SULFUR RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.W. ROBERTS; J.W. PORTZER; S.C. KOZUP; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-05-31

    Engineering evaluations and economic comparisons of two hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) processes with elemental sulfur recovery, being developed by Research Triangle Institute, are presented. In the first process, known as the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), the SO{sub 2} tail gas from air regeneration of zinc-based HGD sorbent is catalytically reduced to elemental sulfur with high selectivity using a small slipstream of coal gas. DSRP is a highly efficient first-generation process, promising sulfur recoveries as high as 99% in a single reaction stage. In the second process, known as the Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP), the zinc-based HGD sorbent is modified with iron so that the iron portion of the sorbent can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} . This is followed by air regeneration to fully regenerate the sorbent and provide the required SO{sub 2} for iron regeneration. This second-generation process uses less coal gas than DSRP. Commercial embodiments of both processes were developed. Process simulations with mass and energy balances were conducted using ASPEN Plus. Results show that AHGP is a more complex process to operate and may require more labor cost than the DSRP. Also capital costs for the AHGP are higher than those for the DSRP. However, annual operating costs for the AHGP appear to be considerably less than those for the DSRP with a potential break-even point between the two processes after just 2 years of operation for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using 3 to 5 wt% sulfur coal. Thus, despite its complexity, the potential savings with the AHGP encourage further development and scaleup of this advanced process.

  11. TARGET SPECIES Table 1. Terrestrial target species.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that have only one or a very few number of key ecological functions. Functional specialist species could = Critical functional link species, species that are the only ones that perform a specific ecological Merganser Boreal Toad Wolverine FS Horned Grebe Long-toed Salamander CFLS BIRDS House Finch CFLS Northern

  12. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    wong, bunsen

    2014-11-20

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  13. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  14. Screening of carbon-based sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated combustion flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A fixed-bed reactor system with continuous Hg{sup 0} analysis capabilities was used to evaluate commercial carbon sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas. The objectives of the program were to compare the sorbent effectiveness under identical test conditions and to identify the effects of various flue gas components on elemental mercury sorption. Sorbents tested included steam-activated lignite, chemical-activated hardwood and bituminous coal, iodated steam-activated coconut shell, and sulfur-impregnated steam-activated bituminous coal. The iodated carbon was the most effective carbon, showing over 99% mercury removal according to EPA Method 101A. Data indicate that O{sub 2} (4 vol%) and SO{sub 2} (500 ppm) improved the mercury removal of the other carbons for tests at 150{degrees}C using 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}. Further, the presence of HCl (at 50 ppm) produced a magnitude increase in mercury removal for the steam-activated and sulfur-impregnated bituminous coal-based carbons.

  15. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

  16. UNIVERSITY OF SUSSEX Removal expenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    scale: first year of employment: 100% second year of employment: 50% third year of employment: 25 be payable to staff whose contract is for one year or more. However, new staff employed on a contract of less than one year who contract is subsequently extended beyond one year will then be eligible for removal

  17. Molecular Structure and Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Govind, Niranjan; Walter, Eric D.; Burton, Sarah D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Devaraj, Arun; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.; Karim, Ayman M.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2014-01-01

    Ability to predict the solubility and stability of lithium polysulfide is vital in realizing longer lasting lithium-sulfur batteries. Herein we report a combined computational and experimental spectroscopic analysis to understand the dissolution mechanism of lithium polysulfide species in an aprotic solvent medium. Multinuclear NMR and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) analysis reveals that the lithium exchange between polysulfide species and solvent molecule constitutes the first step in the dissolution process. Lithium exchange leads to de-lithiated polysulfide ions which subsequently forms highly reactive free radicals through disproportion reaction. The energy required for the disproportion and possible dimer formation reactions of the polysulfide species are analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We validate our calculations with variable temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. Based on these findings, we discuss approaches to optimize the electrolyte in order to control the polysulfide solubility. The energy required for the disproportion and possible dimer formation reactions of the polysulfide species are analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We validate our calculations with variable temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. Based on these findings, we discuss approaches to optimize the electrolyte in order to control the polysulfide solubility.

  18. Simultaneous SO2, SO3 and NOx removal by the EBA Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, S.; Aoki, S.; Izutsu, M.; Yuki, Y.

    1999-07-01

    The system for electron beam flue gas treatment, the EBA (Electron Beam with Ammonia) Process is an innovative, dry, air pollution control technology that, by ammonia injection and electron beam irradiation, can efficiently remove sulfur oxides, (SOx, i.e., SO2 and SO3), from partially humidified flue gas. This is accompanied by simultaneous nitrogen oxides, (NOx), emission reduction in an amount that is determined, optionally, by site-specific system design. The process operation converts these pollutants as well as gasborne hydrogen chloride into a dry by-product solids consisting principally of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride that can be used, worldwide, as a plant nutrient stock in large-scale agriculture. Commercial application of the Process has now been achieved, utilizing engineering data gained over many years of experience in operation of pilot plant facilities (including a process development unit that was field installed in the 1980s under sponsorship by US DOE at a coal-fired powerplant of Indianapolis Power and Light Company). With the co-operation of the Chinese government, EBARA Corporation has in 1997 completed the first commercial EBA Process installation, which is sited at the coal-fired Chengdu Power Station in China. This retrofit facility as a whole in addition to its performance in this high-sulfur bituminous coal service, including the targeted SOx removal efficiency, incidental NOx abatement and the usability of the by-product, were assessed and fully accepted contractually by a diversely structured, Examination Committee established by Chinese government authorities and assisted by an Expert Group. Criteria and considerations of the Chinese officials, in evaluating adequacy of the technology for further commercial application in China, all assessed positively, encompassed design, installation, operation, performance, reliability, environmental impact, cost effectiveness and by-product utilization/marketing. To illustrate attractive process economics for SOx removal in high-sulfur service with only incidental NOx removal, i.e. FGD (flue gas desulfurization) only, evaluation of cost-effectiveness of the Chengdu facility (at its moderate design SO2 removal efficiency) is presented.

  19. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-07-30

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  20. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger: Phase 1 final report, October 1995--July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, R.T.; Jankura, B.J.; Kudlac, G.A.

    1998-06-01

    The Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) system is a new concept whereby a Teflon{reg_sign} covered condensing heat exchanger is adapted to remove certain flue gas constitutents, both particulate and gaseous, while recovering low level heat. Phase 1 includes two experimental tasks. One task dealt principally with the pollutant removal capabilities of the IFGT at a scale of about 1.2MW{sub t}. The other task studied the durability of the Teflon{reg_sign} covering to withstand the rigors of abrasive wear by fly ash emitted as a result of coal combustion. The pollutant removal characteristics of the IFGT system were measured over a wide range of operating conditions. The coals tested included high, medium and low-sulfur coals. The flue gas pollutants studied included ammonia, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, particulate, sulfur dioxide, gas phase and particle phase mercury and gas phase and particle phase trace elements. The particulate removal efficiency and size distribution was investigated. These test results demonstrated that the IFGT system is an effective device for both acid gas absorption and fine particulate collection. The durability of the Teflon{reg_sign} covered heat exchanger tubes was studied on a pilot-scale single-stage condensing heat exchanger (CHX{reg_sign}). Data from the test indicate that virtually no decrease in Teflon{reg_sign} thickness was observed for the coating on the first two rows of heat exchanger tubes, even at high inlet particulate loadings. Evidence of wear was present only at the microscopic level, and even then was very minor in severity.

  1. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ? The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ? Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ? Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup ?1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  2. Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone Sorbants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    Over the past decade increasing concern over the potential environmental impact associated with the emissions of both gaseous and particulate pollutants has resulted in the promulgation of strict regulatory standards ...

  3. Feasibility of actinide separation from UREX-like raffinates using a combination of sulfur- and oxygen-donor extractants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zalupski, P.R.; Peterman, D.R.; Riddle, C.L. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A synergistic combination of bis(o-trifluoromethylphenyl)dithios-phosphinic acid and trioctylphosphine oxide has been recently shown to selectively remove uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium from aqueous environment containing up to 0.5 M nitric acid and 5.5 g/l fission products. Here the feasibility of performing this complete actinide recovery from aqueous mixtures is forecasted for a new organic formulation containing sulfur donor extractant of modified structure based on Am(III) and Eu(III) extraction data. A mixture of bis(bis-m,m-trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-dithios-phosphinic acid and TOPO in toluene enhances the extraction performance, accomplishing Am/Eu differentiation in aqueous mixtures up to 1 M nitric acid. The new organic recipe is also less susceptible to oxidative damage resulting from radiolysis. (authors)

  4. Feasibility of actinide separation from UREX-like raffinates using a combination of sulfur- and oxygen-donor extractants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter R. Zalupski; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle

    2013-09-01

    A synergistic combination of bis(o-trifluoromethylphenyl)dithiosphosphinic acid and trioctylphosphine oxide has been recently shown to selectively remove uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium from aqueous environment containing up to 0.5 M nitric acid and 5.5 g/L fission products. Here the feasibility of performing this complete actinide recovery from aqueous mixtures is forecasted for a new organic formulation containing sulfur donor extractant of modified structure based on Am(III) and Eu(III) extraction data. A mixture of bis(bis-m,m-trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-dithiosphosphinic acid and TOPO in toluene enhances the extraction performance, accomplishing Am/Eu differentiation in aqueous mixtures up to 1 M nitric acid. The new organic recipe is also less susceptible to oxidative damage resulting from radiolysis.

  5. Method of making sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO) [Boulder, CO; Lusk, Mark (Golden, CO) [Golden, CO; Thoen, Paul (Littleton, CO) [Littleton, CO

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports. Also disclosed are methods of making these membranes via sequential electroless plating techniques, wherein the method of making the membrane includes decomposing any organic ligands present on the substrate, reducing the palladium crystallites on the substrate to reduced palladium crystallites, depositing a film of palladium metal on the substrate and then depositing a second, gold film on the palladium film. These two metal films are then annealed at a temperature between about 200.degree. C. and about 1200.degree. C. to form a sulfur-resistant, composite PdAu alloy membrane.

  6. Modeling sulfur dioxide capture in a pulverized coal combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, R.B.; Yavuzkurt, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The formation and capture of sulfur dioxide in a pulverized coal combustor is investigated. A two-dimensional, steady, axisymmetric code, PCGC-2 (Pulverized Coal Gasification and Combustion-two Dimensional), originally developed at Brigham Young University, has been used to simulate combustion of the pulverized coal. This paper represents part of a project to investigate simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration in combustor effluents. Results from the code have been compared to experimental data obtained from MTCI`s (Manufacturing Technology and Conversion International) test pulse combustor, which generates sound pressure levels of {approximately}180 dB. The overall goal behind the pulse combustor program at MTCI is to develop combustors for stationary gas turbines that use relatively inexpensive coal-based fuels. This study attempts to model the capture of sulfur dioxide when injected into a pulse combustor firing micronized coal. While this work does not presume to model the complex gas flow-field generated by the pulsating flow, the effects of the acoustic field are expressed by increased heat and mass transfer to the particles (coal/sorbent) in question. A comprehensive calcination-sintering-sulfation model for single particles was used to model the capture of sulfur dioxide by limestone sorbent. Processes controlling sulfation are external heat and mass transfer, pore diffusion, diffusion through the product layer of CaSO{sub 4}, sintering, and calcination. The model was incorporated into the PCGC-2 program. Comparisons of exit concentrations of SO{sub 2} showed a fairly good agreement (within {approximately}10 percent) with the experimental results from MTCI.

  7. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

  8. Industrial lead paint removal specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, R.C.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader as to some of the pertinent rules and regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) that may effect an industrial lead paint removal project. The paper discusses a recommended schedule of procedures and preparations to be followed by the lead paint removal specification writer when analyzing the possible impact of the project on the environment, the public and workers. Implications of the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) along with hazardous waste handling, manifesting, transporting and disposal procedures are discussed with special emphasis placed as to their impact on the writer and the facility owner. As the rules and regulations are highly complex, the writer has attempted to explain the methodology currently being used in state-of-the-art industrial lead abatement specifications.

  9. Glass surface deactivants for sulfur-containing gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Gluck, S.J.

    1980-10-01

    In gas chromatographic technique for measuring reduced sulfur-containing gases in biogenic air fluxes, the major problem seemed to be the irreversible adsorption of the polar sulfur compounds on the glass surfaces of the cryogenic sampling traps. This article discusses the comparative degrees of Pyrex glass surface passivation for over 25 chemical deactivants and their related pretreatment procedures. Since H/sub 2/S was discovered to be the sulfur compound with a consistently lower recovery efficiency than COS, CH/sub 3/SH, CH/sub 3/SCH, CS/sub 2/ or CH/sub 3/SSCH/sub 3/, the percent recovery for H/sub 2/S was employed as the indicator of effectiveness for the various deactivation treatments. Tables are presented summarizing the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for chlorosilane deactivants and for the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for different pyrex surface pretreatments with an octadecyltrialkoxysilane deactivation. The general conclusion of this investigation is that the relative degree of passivation for glass surfaces by present deactivation techniques is dependent on the types of analyzed compounds and the nature of the glass surface.

  10. Sibley station low-sulfur coal conversion program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rupinskas, R.L. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Rembold, D.F. [Missouri Public Service, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1995-03-01

    After embarking on an upgrade project in 1986 that was designed to allow efficient and reliable operation of its coal-fired Sibley station through 2010, Missouri Public Service (MPS) faced the uncertainty of impending acid-rain legislation. To protect its investment in the Sibley Rebuild Program, the utility evaluated compliance options based on the emerging legislation and concluded that switching to low-sulfur coal offered the least-cost compliance approach. Compared to installing a scrubber, switching to a low-sulfur coal was also more straightforward, although not without challenges and complications. This paper reviews the Sibley low-sulfur coal conversion program. At Sibley, fuel switching was chosen only after numerous internal and external studies; it withstood late challenges from natural gas and allowance trading. Switching demanded additional equipment to blend Power River Basin coals and other coals, and demanded additional and upgraded protective equipment in the areas of fire protection, dust collection, and explosion prevention. In the year since the coal conversion project was completed the facility has operated reliably, the economic benefits of the lower cost Powder River Basin coals have been realized, and the station has also met the requirements of both phases of the acid rain legislation. Fuel switching at Sibley required a team approach and careful analysis. The coal conversion project also required attention and dedication by team members in order to minimize fuel costs while maintaining optimum plant efficiency and availability.

  11. How to Obtain Reproducible Results for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jianming; Lu, Dongping; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The basic requirements for getting reliable Li-S battery data have been discussed in this work. Unlike Li-ion batteries, electrolyte-rich environment significantly affects the cycling stability of Li-S batteries prepared and tested under the same conditions. The reason has been assigned to the different concentrations of polysulfide-containing electrolytes in the cells, which have profound influences on both sulfur cathode and lithium anode. At optimized S/E ratio of 50 g L-1, a good balance among electrolyte viscosity, wetting ability, diffusion rate dissolved polysulfide and nucleation/growth of short-chain Li2S/Li2S2 has been built along with largely reduced contamination on the lithium anode side. Accordingly, good cyclability, high reversible capacity and Coulombic efficiency are achieved in Li-S cell with controlled S/E ratio without any additive. Other factors such as sulfur content in the composite and sulfur loading on the electrode also need careful concern in Li-S system in order to generate reproducible results and gauge the various methods used to improve Li-S battery technology.

  12. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and the electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.

  13. INVASIVE RODENTS ON ISLANDS Avoiding surprise effects on Surprise Island: alien species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courchamp, Franck

    INVASIVE RODENTS ON ISLANDS Avoiding surprise effects on Surprise Island: alien species control Abstract Eradications of invasive alien species have generally benefited biodiversity. However, without following the sudden removal of an invasive alien that was exerting an ecological force on those species

  14. Removing Stains from Washable Fabrics. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beard, Ann Vanderpoorten

    1988-01-01

    unique treatment be cause of chemical make-up or physical characteristics. (Examples: chewing gum, iodine, lead pencil) Stain Removal Products Bleaches Chlorine bleaches contain a hypochlorite com pound. Do not use them on wool, silk, polyurethane... foam, spandex or blends of these fibers; on finishes which are embossed or flame retardant; or on fabrics labeled no chlorine bleach. Avoid contact with metal. Always follow package instructions for dilu tion. Liquid chlorine bleaches lose strength...

  15. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  16. Effects of weathering on coal and its sulfur constituents in refuse piles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, L.A.; Berggren, D.J.; Hughes, R.E.

    1984-12-01

    The rejects from coal mining and processing operations are intensively weathered in refuse piles. The effects of weathering on coal and and its associated sulfur-containing compounds are economically and environmentally significant. Chemical and x-ray diffraction analyses of material from abandoned mined lands, collected for a study of historic long-wall mines in Illinois, showed that most pyrite in weathered samples is converted to gypsum, jarosite, and minor alunite. There were only small reductions in the trace element concentrations of these samples. Coal readily takes up oxygen from air. Coal-oxygen complexes produced by oxygen adsorption or peroxide formation are very unstable, and the oxygen can be removed as oxygen gas, CO/sub 2/, or H/sub 2/O upon heating and evacuation. Heating coal under partial vacuum decreases its surface charge. The decrease in surface charge increases with heating time and temperature. This suggests that the adverse effect of exposure to air may be partially reversed, with a corresponding gain in the efficiency of the coal recovery processes.

  17. Natural sulfur flux from the Gulf of Mexico: dimethyl sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and sulfur dioxide. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valin, C.C.; Luria, M.; Wellman, D.L.; Gunter, R.L.; Pueschel, R.F.

    1987-06-01

    Atmospheric measurements of natural sulfur compounds were performed over the northern Gulf of Mexico during the late summer months of 1984. Air samples were collected with an instrumented aircraft at elevations of 30-3500 m, during both day and night. Most air samples were representative of the clean maritime atmosphere, although some were from continental contaminated air during periods of offshore flow at the coastline. In all samples, carbonyl sulfide concentrations were within the range of 400-500 pptv. Conversely, the dimethyl sulfide concentrations showed significant variability: during clean atmospheric conditions the average of all measurements was 27 pptv, whereas under polluted conditions the average was 7 pptv. Measureable quantities of dimethyl sulfide (>5 pptv) were not observed above the boundary layer. The average sulfur dioxide concentration measured in the marine (clean) atmosphere was 215 pptv, which is consistent with the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide being its major source.

  18. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility ofmore »the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.« less

  19. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Zhang, Xuran [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Li, Chao [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; McKinnon, Meaghan E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sadok, Rachel G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Qu, Deyu [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Lee, Hung-Sui [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-11-01

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  20. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  1. SLUDGE BATCH 7 (SB7) WASHING DEMONSTRATION TO DETERMINE SULFATE/OXALATE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY AND SETTLING BEHAVIOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.

    2010-12-10

    To support Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) washing, a demonstration of the proposed Tank Farm washing operation was performed utilizing a real-waste test slurry generated from Tank 4, 7, and 12 samples. The purpose of the demonstration was twofold: (1) to determine the settling time requirements and washing strategy needed to bring the SB7 slurry to the desired endpoint; and (2) to determine the impact of washing on the chemical and physical characteristics of the sludge, particularly those of sulfur content, oxalate content, and rheology. Seven wash cycles were conducted over a four month period to reduce the supernatant sodium concentration to approximately one molar. The long washing duration was due to the slow settling of the sludge and the limited compaction. Approximately 90% of the sulfur was removed through washing, and the vast majority of the sulfur was determined to be soluble from the start. In contrast, only about half of the oxalate was removed through washing, as most of the oxalate was initially insoluble and did not partition to the liquid phase until the latter washes. The final sulfur concentration was 0.45 wt% of the total solids, and the final oxalate concentration was 9,900 mg/kg slurry. More oxalate could have been removed through additional washing, although the washing would have reduced the supernatant sodium concentration.The yield stress of the final washed sludge (35 Pa) was an order of magnitude higher than that of the unwashed sludge ({approx}4 Pa) and was deemed potentially problematic. The high yield stress was related to the significant increase in insoluble solids that occurred ({approx}8 wt% to {approx}18 wt%) as soluble solids and water were removed from the slurry. Reduction of the insoluble solids concentration to {approx}14 wt% was needed to reduce the yield stress to an acceptable level. However, depending on the manner that the insoluble solids adjustment was performed, the final sodium concentration and extent of oxalate removal would be prone to change. As such, the strategy for completing the final wash cycle is integral to maintaining the proper balance of chemical and physical requirements.

  2. Production of low-sulfur binder pitch from high-sulfur Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this project is to produce electrode binder pitch with sulfur content below 0.6 wt% from high-sulfur Illinois coal mild gasification liquids. In this project, two approaches to sulfur reduction are being explored in conjunction with thermocracking: (1) the use of conventionally cleaned coal with low ({approximately}1%) sulfur as a mild gasification feedstock, and (2) direct biodesulfurization of the liquids prior to thermocracking. In Case 1, the crude pitch is being produced by mild gasification of IBC-109 coal in an existing IGT bench-scale reactor, followed by distillation of the scrubbing solvent and light-to-middle oils to isolate the crude pitch. In Case 2, the crude pitch for biodesulfurization is the same material previously studied, which was obtained from Illinois No. 6 coal tests conducted in the IGT mild gasification PRU in 1990. Biodesulfurization is to be performed by contacting the pitch with Rhodococcus Rhodochrous either as live cultures or in the form of concentrated biocatalyst. Following preparation of the crude pitches, pitch upgrading experiments are to be conducted in a continuous flash thermocracker (FTC) constructed in previous ICCI-sponsored studies. The finished pitch is then characterized for physical and chemical properties (density, softening point, QI, TI, coking value, and elemental composition), and compared to typical specifications for binder pitches. This quarter, 45 kg of IBC-109 coal was obtained and sized to 40 x 80 mesh for mild gasification. Laboratory experiments were conducted to identify means of dispersing or emulsifying pitch in water to render is accessible to biocatalysts, and exploratory desulfurization tests on one-gram pitch samples were begun.

  3. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  4. Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Fu, Wujun [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  5. Composites for removing metals and volatile organic compounds and method thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2006-12-12

    Functionalized hydrophobic aerogel/solid support structure composites have been developed to remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous and vapor media. The targeted metals and organics are removed by passing the aqueous or vapor phase through the composite which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The composites adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous or vapor stream. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific functionalization of the aerogels tailored towards specific metals and/or organics. After adsorption, the composites can be disposed of or the targeted metals and/or organics can be reclaimed or removed and the composites recycled.

  6. IDENTIFYING CANDIDATE PROTEIN FOR REMOVAL OF ENVIRONMENTALLY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uppsala Universitet

    IDENTIFYING CANDIDATE PROTEIN FOR REMOVAL OF ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Pharem Biotech products and technologies for removing environmental hazardous substances in our everyday life. The products can be applied in areas from the private customer up to the global corporate perspective

  7. Mexico HEU Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home content Four-Year Plan Mexico HEU Removal Mexico HEU Removal Location Mexico United States 24 24' 35.298" N, 102...

  8. Direct observation of the redistribution of sulfur and polysufides in Li-S batteries during first cycle by in situ X-Ray fluorescence microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiquian [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pan, Huilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Richland, WA (United States); Zhou, Yongning [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Northrup, Paul [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xiao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Richland, WA (United States); Bak, Seongmin [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Liu, Mingzhao [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nam, Kyung-Wan [Dongguk University-Seoul, Department of Energy and Materials Engineering, (Republic of Korea); Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Dept. of Chemistry, MA (United States); Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Richland, WA (United States); Wu, Tianpin [Argonne National Laboratory, X-ray Science Division, Lemont, IL (United States); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-03-25

    The demands on low cost and high energy density rechargeable batteries for both transportation and large-scale stationary energy storage are stimulating more and more research toward new battery systems. Since sulfur is an earth-abundant material with low cost, research on the high energy density Li–S batteries (2600 W h kg?¹) are getting more and more attention. The reactions between sulfur and lithium during charge–discharge cycling are quite complicated, going through multiple electron transfer process associated with chemical and electrochemical equilibrium between long- and short-chain polysulfide Li?Sx intermediates (1 < x ? 8). It is reported that the long-chain polysulfides can be dissolved into electrolyte with aprotic organic solvents and migrated to the Li anode side. This so-called “shuttle effect” is believed to be the main reason for capacity loss and low columbic efficiency of the Li–S batteries. In the past few years, a great deal of efforts have been made on how to overcome the problem of polysulfide dissolution through new sulfur electrode construction and cell designs, as well as the modification of the electrolyte. Although it has been reported by several publications that some Li–S cells can sustain more than a thousand cycles based on the thin film electrode configurations, the long-term cycling stability is still one of the major barriers for the real application of Li–S batteries. More in-depth studies on the fundamental understanding of the sulfur reaction mechanism and interactions among the different polysulfide species, the electrolyte and the electrodes are still greatly needed. Various in situ techniques have been developed and applied to study the mechanism of the sulfur chemistry in Li–S batteries during electrochemical cycling, such as transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The applications of these characterization techniques have demonstrated their power in probing the structure changes, morphology evolutions, and coordination of sulfur and polysulfides with the electrolyte in Li–S cells, providing complementary information to each other thus enhancing the understanding in Li–S battery systems. In this communication, in situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy was combined with XAS to directly probe the morphology changes of Li–S batteries during first cycle. The morphology changes of the sulfur electrode and the redistribution of sulfur and polysulfides were monitored in real time through the XRF images, while the changes of the sulfur containing compounds were characterized through the XAS spectra simultaneously. In contrast to other studies using ex situ or single characterization technique as reported in the literatures, the in situ technique used in this work has the unique feature of probing the Li–S cell under operating conditions, as well as the combination of XRF imaging with spectroscopy data. By doing this, the morphology evolution and redistribution of specific sulfur particles during cycling can be tracked and identified at certain locations in a real time. In addition, this technique allows us to select the field-of-view (FOV) area from micrometer to centimeter size, providing the capability to study the Li–S reactions not just at the material level, but also at the electrode level. This is very important for both understanding Li–S chemistry and designing effective strategies for Li–S batteries.

  9. Direct observation of the redistribution of sulfur and polysufides in Li-S batteries during first cycle by in situ X-Ray fluorescence microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiquian; Pan, Huilin; Zhou, Yongning; Northrup, Paul; Xiao, Jie; Bak, Seongmin; Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Qu, Deyang; Liu, Jun; et al

    2015-03-25

    The demands on low cost and high energy density rechargeable batteries for both transportation and large-scale stationary energy storage are stimulating more and more research toward new battery systems. Since sulfur is an earth-abundant material with low cost, research on the high energy density Li–S batteries (2600 W h kg?¹) are getting more and more attention. The reactions between sulfur and lithium during charge–discharge cycling are quite complicated, going through multiple electron transfer process associated with chemical and electrochemical equilibrium between long- and short-chain polysulfide Li?Sx intermediates (1 more »be dissolved into electrolyte with aprotic organic solvents and migrated to the Li anode side. This so-called “shuttle effect” is believed to be the main reason for capacity loss and low columbic efficiency of the Li–S batteries. In the past few years, a great deal of efforts have been made on how to overcome the problem of polysulfide dissolution through new sulfur electrode construction and cell designs, as well as the modification of the electrolyte. Although it has been reported by several publications that some Li–S cells can sustain more than a thousand cycles based on the thin film electrode configurations, the long-term cycling stability is still one of the major barriers for the real application of Li–S batteries. More in-depth studies on the fundamental understanding of the sulfur reaction mechanism and interactions among the different polysulfide species, the electrolyte and the electrodes are still greatly needed. Various in situ techniques have been developed and applied to study the mechanism of the sulfur chemistry in Li–S batteries during electrochemical cycling, such as transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The applications of these characterization techniques have demonstrated their power in probing the structure changes, morphology evolutions, and coordination of sulfur and polysulfides with the electrolyte in Li–S cells, providing complementary information to each other thus enhancing the understanding in Li–S battery systems. In this communication, in situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy was combined with XAS to directly probe the morphology changes of Li–S batteries during first cycle. The morphology changes of the sulfur electrode and the redistribution of sulfur and polysulfides were monitored in real time through the XRF images, while the changes of the sulfur containing compounds were characterized through the XAS spectra simultaneously. In contrast to other studies using ex situ or single characterization technique as reported in the literatures, the in situ technique used in this work has the unique feature of probing the Li–S cell under operating conditions, as well as the combination of XRF imaging with spectroscopy data. By doing this, the morphology evolution and redistribution of specific sulfur particles during cycling can be tracked and identified at certain locations in a real time. In addition, this technique allows us to select the field-of-view (FOV) area from micrometer to centimeter size, providing the capability to study the Li–S reactions not just at the material level, but also at the electrode level. This is very important for both understanding Li–S chemistry and designing effective strategies for Li–S batteries.« less

  10. Laser spectroscopy and dynamics of transient species. Final progress report, June 1, 1986--May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clouthier, D.J.

    1996-05-01

    This project involved the study of the spectroscopy and excited state dynamics of transient molecules, particularly sulfur- and/or oxygen-containing species. The identification and study of sulfur species is important in understanding their role in combustion processes, as sulfur compounds are often present in fuels. The oxygen-containing species chosen for study were new systems whose spectroscopy was only poorly documented. The major experimental techniques employed in this work were pyrolysis jet spectroscopy, intracavity dye laser spectroscopy and high-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Since many of the species had not been previously studied by laser techniques, much effort was devoted to determining methods for producing, identifying and studying them. We have been very successful in a number of cases and have developed some new experimental techniques. Lists of publications resulting from the work and graduate and postdoctoral students supported during this project are included at the end of this report. Summaries of the results of some specific aspects of the project are given below.

  11. High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan

    2011-07-31

    Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

  12. Nuclear & Radiological Material Removal | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    & Radiological Material Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation...

  13. Quick Stain Removal Guide (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Pamela J.

    2001-08-22

    -5191S de la Oficina de Extensi?n, Etiquetas de Instrucciones y su Ropa). Lleve las prendas de vestir de lavado en seco a tintorer?as profe- sionales. Siga estas pautas para las prendas de vestir lavables: Sepa de qu? es la mancha. Si no sabe, intente...). The Soap and Detergent Association, Marzo/Abril. NY: New York. Laundering Facts. (1991). The Soap and Detergent Association. NY: New York. Beard, A.V. (1989). Removing stains from washable fabrics. Servicio de Extensi?n Agr?cola de Texas. TX: College...

  14. Section 46: Removal of Waste

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-ThroughputUpcomingmagnetoresistanceand Governmentm D m r e DFigureEffects ofRemoval

  15. Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Gasoline Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to pollution when the fuel is burned. Beginning in 2004, standards were set on the amount of...

  16. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

  17. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

  18. Portable instrument and method for detecting reduced sulfur compounds in a gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, J.S.; Kelly, T.J.; Tanner, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    A portable real time instrument for detecting concentrations in the part per billion range of reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas. Ozonized air or oxygen and reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas stream react to produce chemiluminescence in a reaction chamber and the emitted light is filtered and observed by a photomultiplier to detect reduced sulfur compounds. Selective response to individual sulfur compounds is achieved by varying reaction chamber temperature and ozone and sample gas flows, and by the use of either air or oxygen as the ozone source gas.

  19. Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Christensen, Del Scot (Friendswood, TX)

    2009-12-15

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. Sulfur may be introduced into one or more wellbores located inside a perimeter of a treatment area in the formation having a permeability of at least 0.1 darcy. At least some of the sulfur is allowed to move towards portions of the formation cooler than the melting point of sulfur to solidify the sulfur in the formation to form the barrier.

  20. A Long-Life, High-Rate Lithium/Sulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Life, High-Rate LithiumSulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach to Enhancing Cell Performance Min-Kyu Song, , Yuegang Zhang,* ,, and Elton J. Cairns* ,, The...

  1. Status of Heavy Vehicle Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Test Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Sverdrup

    1999-06-07

    DECSE test program is well under way to providing data on effects of sulfur levels in diesel fuel on performance of emission control technologies.

  2. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

  3. Method of making thermally removable epoxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Russick, Edward M. (Rio Rancho, NM); McElhanon, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Saunders, Randall S. (late of Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable epoxy by mixing a bis(maleimide) compound to a monomeric furan compound containing an oxirane group to form a di-epoxy mixture and then adding a curing agent at temperatures from approximately room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a thermally-removable epoxy. The thermally-removable epoxy can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The epoxy material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  4. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) |(Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent:lithium-sulfur

  5. Method of removing and detoxifying a phosphorus-based substance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Steindler, M.J.

    1985-05-21

    A method of removing a phosphorus-based poisonous substance from water contaminated is presented. In addition, the toxicity of the phosphorus-based substance is also subsequently destroyed. A water-immiscible organic solvent is first immobilized on a supported liquid membrane before the contaminated water is contacted with one side of the supported liquid membrane to absorb the phosphorus-based substance in the organic solvent. The other side of the supported liquid membrane is contacted with a hydroxy-affording strong base to react with phosphorus-based solvated species to form a non-toxic product.

  6. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  7. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Meyer

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energyâ??s Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process â?? High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  8. Fuel removal, transport, and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reno, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The March 1979 accident at Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2) which damaged the core of the reactor resulted in numerous scientific and technical challenges. Some of those challenges involve removing the core debris from the reactor, packaging it into canisters, loading canisters into a rail cask, and transporting the debris to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for storage, examination, and preparation for final disposal. This paper highlights how some challenges were resolved, including lessons learned and benefits derived therefrom. Key to some success at TMI was designing, testing, fabricating, and licensing two rail casks, which each provide double containment of the damaged fuel. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  9. OFF-GAS MERCURY CONTROL USING SULFUR-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON – TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg

    2007-05-01

    Several laboratory and pilot-scale tests since the year 2000 have included demonstrations of off-gas mercury control using fixed bed, sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. These demonstrations have included operation of carbon beds with gas streams containing a wide range of mercury and other gas species concentrations representing off-gas from several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste treatment processes including electrical resistance heated (joule-heated) glass melters, fluidized bed calciners, and fluidized bed steam reformers. Surrogates of various DOE mixed waste streams (or surrogates of offgas from DOE mixed waste streams) including INL “sodium bearing waste” (SBW), liquid “low activity waste” (LAW) from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and liquid waste from Savannah River National Laboratory (“Tank 48H waste”) have been tested. Test results demonstrate mercury control efficiencies up to 99.999%, high enough to comply with the Hazardous Waste (HWC) Combustor Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards even when the uncontrolled off-gas mercury concentrations exceed 400,000 ug/dscm (at 7% O2), and confirm carbon bed design parameters for such high efficiencies. Results of several different pilot-scale and engineering-scale test programs performed over several years are presented and compared.

  10. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  11. book review: Species distribution models for species distribution modellers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dormann, Carsten F

    2012-01-01

    Mapping  species  distributions:  spa? tial inference and news and update  book review  Species distribution models for species distribution modellers  Ecological niches and 

  12. Crystal structure studies on sulfur oxygenase reductase from Acidianus tengchongensis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Mei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen Zhiwei [State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang Pingfeng; Pan Xiaowei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiang Chengying [State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); An Xiaomin [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu Shuangjiang [State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Chang Wenrui [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: wrchang@sun5.ibp.ac.cn

    2008-05-09

    Sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR) simultaneously catalyzes oxidation and reduction of elemental sulfur to produce sulfite, thiosulfate, and sulfide in the presence of molecular oxygen. In this study, crystal structures of wild type and mutants of SOR from Acidianus tengchongensis (SOR-AT) in two different crystal forms were determined and it was observed that 24 identical SOR monomers form a hollow sphere. Within the icosatetramer sphere, the tetramer and trimer channels were proposed as the paths for the substrate and products, respectively. Moreover, a comparison of SOR-AT with SOR-AA (SOR from Acidianus ambivalens) structures showed that significant differences existed at the active site. Firstly, Cys31 is not persulfurated in SOR-AT structures. Secondly, the iron atom is five-coordinated rather than six-coordinated, since one of the water molecules ligated to the iron atom in the SOR-AA structure is lost. Consequently, the binding sites of substrates and a hypothetical catalytic process of SOR were proposed.

  13. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivas, Girish (Thornton, CO); Bai, Chuansheng (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  14. Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, E.

    The oxidation of SO[subscript 2] to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to ...

  15. Mechanistic Studies on the Formation of Trifluoromethyl Sulfur Pentafluoride, SF5CF3sa Greenhouse Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistic Studies on the Formation of Trifluoromethyl Sulfur Pentafluoride, SF5CF3sa Greenhouse that a source for this potentially dangerous greenhouse gas might be the recombination of SF5(X2A1) and CF3(X2A1 the strongest greenhouse gas trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3) with a radiative force of 0.59 W m-2

  16. Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefohn, A.S.; Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B.; Brimblecombe, P.

    1996-07-19

    Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

  17. Understanding the Role of Different Conductive Polymers in Improving the Nanostructured Sulfur Cathode Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    structural configurations of conductive polymer-sulfur composites employed in previous studies. In this workUnderstanding the Role of Different Conductive Polymers in Improving the Nanostructured Sulfur for the confinement of lithium polysulfides. However, the roles of different conductive polymers

  18. In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries Johanna Information ABSTRACT: Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for high not well understood. In this Article, these changes in Li-S batteries are studied in operando by X

  19. High-performance hollow sulfur nanostructured battery cathode through a scalable, room temperature,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    capacity of 849 and 610 mAh/g at 2C and 4C, respectively. lithium sulfur battery | energy storage | long energy storage (1­4). To achieve a quantum leap in the batteries specific energy density, new electrodeHigh-performance hollow sulfur nanostructured battery cathode through a scalable, room temperature

  20. Surface Science 415 (1998) 2936 Structural studies of sulfur-passivated GaAs (100)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yanchao

    1998-01-01

    . Keywords: Atomic force microscopy; Gallium arsenide; Low-energy electron diffraction; Roughness; SulfurSurface Science 415 (1998) 29­36 Structural studies of sulfur-passivated GaAs (100) surfaces Abstract We present the results of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED

  1. Sulfur surface chemistry on the platinum gate of a silicon carbide based hydrogen sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobin, Roger G.

    Sulfur surface chemistry on the platinum gate of a silicon carbide based hydrogen sensor Yung Ho September 2007 We have investigated the effects of sulfur contamination on a Pt-gate silicon carbide based monitoring, solid-oxide fuel cells, and coal gasification, require operation at much higher temperatures than

  2. Memory-Assisted Exciton Diffusion in the Chlorosome Light-Harvesting Antenna of Green Sulfur Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikin, Semion

    Memory-Assisted Exciton Diffusion in the Chlorosome Light- Harvesting Antenna of Green Sulfur of bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) enclosed by a lipid monolayer.1-4 They can capture light and transfer it in a form. In green sulfur bacteria, light energy absorbed by the rolls is transferred via a baseplate9 to the Fenna

  3. The sulfur content of volcanic gases on Mars Fabrice Gaillard, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The sulfur content of volcanic gases on Mars Fabrice Gaillard, a and Bruno Scaillet1, a a CNRS sulfur contents of the martian regolith and lack of detection of extensive carbonate deposits suggest that the latest geological events that shaped the landscapes of Mars were dominated by acidic waters possibly

  4. Nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of hood performance evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guffey, Eric J. (Eric Jemison)

    2011-01-01

    The ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method is the standard test for laboratory hood containment performance. Sulfur hexafluoride is specified as the gas most suitable for this test and is most commonly used. Sulfur hexafluoride use has ...

  5. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes by Desulfovibrio vulgaris mutants lacking hydrogenases or type I tetraheme cytochrome c[subscript 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Min Sub

    The sulfur isotope effect produced by sulfate reducing microbes is commonly used to trace biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon in aquatic and sedimentary environments. To test the contribution of intracellular coupling ...

  6. Sulfur dioxide capture in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churney, K.L.; Buckley, T.J. . Center for Chemical Technology)

    1990-06-01

    Chlorine and sulfur mass balance studies have been carried out in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal in the NIST multikilogram capacity batch combustor. The catalytic effect of manganese dioxide on the trapping of sulfur dioxide by lime was examined. Under our conditions, only 4% of the chlorine was trapped in the ash and no effect of manganese dioxide was observed. Between 42 and 14% of the total sulfur was trapped in the ash, depending upon the lime concentration. The effect of manganese dioxide on sulfur capture was not detectable. The temperature of the ash was estimated to be near 1200{degrees}C, which was in agreement with that calculated from sulfur dioxide capture thermodynamics. 10 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  8. PRTR ion exchange vault water removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the removal of radiologically contaminated water from the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. Approximately 57,000 liters (15,000 gallons) of water had accumulated in the vault due to the absence of a rain cover. The water was removed and the vault inspected for signs of leakage. No evidence of leakage was found. The removal and disposal of the radiologically contaminated water decreased the risk of environmental contamination.

  9. Process for particulate removal from coal liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rappe, Gerald C. (Macungie, PA)

    1983-01-01

    Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

  10. Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bibler, Jane P. (813 E. Rollingwood Rd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

  11. Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bibler, J.P.

    1993-03-02

    A method and apparatus are presented for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

  12. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  13. Turkey HEU Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Turkey HEU Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the...

  14. General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regarding Medical Removal Protection Benefits Pursuant to 10 CFR Part 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical...

  15. Slag capture and removal during laser cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Clyde O. (Newington, CT)

    1984-05-08

    Molten metal removed from a workpiece in a laser cutting operation is blown away from the cutting point by a gas jet and collected on an electromagnet.

  16. Method of making thermally removable polymeric encapsulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small, James H. (Santa Fe, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); McElhanon, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Saunders, Randall S. (late of Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable encapsulant by heating a mixture of at least one bis(maleimide) compound and at least one monomeric tris(furan) or tetrakis(furan) compound at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a gel and cooling the gel to form the thermally-removable encapsulant. The encapsulant can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C., preferably in a polar solvent. The encapsulant can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the encapsulant for component repair, modification or quality control.

  17. Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Storage-Reduction Cu/K2Ti2O5 Qiang Wang,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Storage-Reduction Cu/K2Ti2O5 Catalyst Qiang Wang,*, Jiahua NOx through the NOx storage-reduction (NSR) process. However, its NSR performance in the presence of sulfur has not been investigated. In this article, the sulfur poisoning of the NOx storage-reduction

  18. Methanol Reaction with Sulfuric Acid: A Vibrational Spectroscopic Study Lisa L. Van Loon and Heather C. Allen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methanol Reaction with Sulfuric Acid: A Vibrational Spectroscopic Study Lisa L. Van Loon 43210 ReceiVed: May 27, 2004; In Final Form: August 19, 2004 The reaction between methanol and sulfuric peak in the 800 cm-1 region, not present in either the neat methanol or concentrated sulfuric acid

  19. Population, Economy and Energy Use’s Influence on Sulfur Emissions in the United States Since 1900 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, J. K.; Husar, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    and the transition from coal to less sulfur intensive fuels have reduced sulfur emissions. The net effect of all drivers has been moderate growth in sulfur emissions from 1900 to present. Since 1973, increased energy efficiency and the shift from an industrial to a...

  20. PINGREE PARK HERBACEOUS SPECIES LIST GRASSES & GRASSLIKES FORBS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    larkspur Fendlers sandwort daisy sulfur-flower western wallflower strawberry bedstraw geranium whisk

  1. Phosphate Glasses for Vitrification of Waste with High Sulfur Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Cassingham, Nathan J.

    2002-10-31

    The low solubility of sulfate in silicate-based glasses, approximately 1 mass% as SO3, limits the loading of high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) containing high concentrations of sulfur. Based on crucible melting studies, we have shown that the phosphate glasses may incorporate more than 5 mass% SO3; hence, the waste loading can be increased until another constraint is met, such as glass durability. A high-sulfate HLW glass has been formulated and tested to demonstrate the advantages of phosphate glasses. The effect of waste loading on the chemical durability of quenched and slow-cooled phosphate glasses was determined using the Product Consistency Test.

  2. Method of forming and starting a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paquette, David G. (Costa Mesa, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method of forming a sodium sulfur battery and of starting the reactive capability of that battery when heated to a temperature suitable for battery operation is disclosed. An anodic reaction zone is constructed in a manner that sodium is hermetically sealed therein, part of the hermetic seal including fusible material which closes up openings through the container of the anodic reaction zone. The hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is assembled under normal atmospheric conditions with a suitable cathodic reaction zone and a cation-permeable barrier. When the entire battery is heated to an operational temperature, the fusible material of the hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is fused, thereby allowing molten sodium to flow from the anodic reaction zone into reactive engagement with the cation-permeable barrier.

  3. Overview of Contaminant Removal From Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne, A.W.; Alvin, M.A.; Granite, E.; Pennline, H.W.; Siriwardane, R.V.; Keairns, D.; Newby, R.A.

    2007-11-01

    Gasification is an important strategy for increasing the utilization of abundant domestic coal reserves. DOE envisions increased use of gasification in the United States during the next 20 years. As such, the DOE Gasification Technologies Program, including the FutureGen initiative, will strive to approach a near-zero emissions goal, with respect to multiple pollutants, such as sulfur, mercury, and nitrogen oxides. Since nearly one-third of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are produced by coal-powered generation facilities, conventional coal-burning power plants, and advanced power generation plants, such as IGCC, present opportunities in which carbon can be removed and then permanently stored.
    Gas cleaning systems for IGCC power generation facilities have been effectively demonstrated and used in commercial operations for many years. These systems can reduce sulfur, mercury, and other contaminants in synthesis gas produced by gasifiers to the lowest level achievable in coal-based energy systems. Currently, DOE Fossil Energy's goals set for 2010 direct completion of R&D for advanced gasification combined cycle technology to produce electricity from coal at 45–50% plant efficiency. By 2012, completion of R&D to integrate this technology with carbon dioxide separation, capture, and sequestration into a zero-emissions configuration is targeted with a goal to provide electricity with less than a 10% increase in cost of electricity. By 2020, goals are set to develop zero-emissions plants that are fuel-flexible and capable of multi-product output and thermal efficiencies of over 60% with coal. These objectives dictate that it is essential to not only reduce contaminant emissions into the generated synthesis gas, but also to increase the process or system operating temperature to that of humid gas cleaning criteria conditions (150 to 370 °C), thus reducing the energy penalties that currently exist as a result of lowering process temperatures (?40 to 38 °C) with subsequent reheat to the required higher temperatures.
    From a historical perspective, the evolution of advanced syngas cleaning systems applied in IGCC and chemical and fuel synthesis plants has followed a path of configuring a series of individual cleaning steps, one for each syngas contaminant, each step controlled to its individual temperature and sorbent and catalyst needs. As the number of syngas contaminants of interest has increased (particulates, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, halides such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, alkali metals, metal carbonyls, mercury, arsenic, selenium, and cadmium) and the degree of syngas cleaning has become more severe, the potential feasibility of advanced humid gas cleaning has diminished. A focus on multi-contaminant syngas cleaning is needed to enhance the potential cost savings, and performance of humid gas cleaning will focus on multi-contaminant syngas cleaning. Groups of several syngas contaminants to be removed simultaneously need to be considered, resulting in significant gas cleaning system intensification. Intensified, multi-contaminant cleaning processes need to be devised and their potential performance characteristics understood through small-scale testing, conceptual design evaluation, and scale-up assessment with integration into the power generation system. Results of a 1-year study undertaken by DOE/NETL are presented to define improved power plant configurations and technology for advanced multi-contaminant cleanup options.

  4. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  5. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  6. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  7. TABLE OF CONTENTS Tree Maintenance and Removal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    protection should be worn for all tree maintenance and removal operations. b. Training shall be providedEM 385-1-1 30 Nov 14 31-i Section 31 TABLE OF CONTENTS Tree Maintenance and Removal Section: Page ....................................................................... 31-10 31.E Other Operations and Equipment

  8. Emission of biogenic sulfur gases from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Yang [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China); Li Kong [Nanjing Agricultural Univ. (China)

    1996-12-31

    Biogenic sulfur gases emitted from terrestrial ecosystem may play in important role in global sulfur cycle and have a profound influence on global climate change. But very little is known concerning emissions from paddy soil and rice plant, which are abundant in many parts of the world. As a big agricultural country, this is about 33 million hectare rice planted in China. With laboratory incubation and closed chamber method in the field, the biogenic sulfur gases emitted from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant were detected in both conditions: hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), methyl mercaptan (MSH), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Among which, DMS was predominant part of sulfur emission. Emission of sulfur gases from different paddy field exhibit high spatial and temporal variability. The application of fertilizer and organic manure, total sulfur content in wetland, air temperature were positively correlated to the emission of volatile sulfur gases from paddy soil. Diurnal and seasonal variation of total volatile sulfur gases and DMS indicate that their emissions were greatly influenced by the activity of the rice plant. The annual emission of total volatile sulfur gases, from Nanjing paddy field is ranged from 4.0 to 9.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}, that of DMS is ranged from 3.1 to 6.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}. Rice plant could absorb COS gas, that may be one of the sinks of COS.

  9. Toward understanding the effect of low-activity waste glass composition on sulfur solubility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong -Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Greg F.; Kruger, Albert A.; Jantzen, C.

    2014-07-24

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which inmore »turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ? P2O5 > Na2O ? B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ? SnO2 > Others ? SiO2. As a result, the order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.« less

  10. NONEQUILIBRIUM SULFUR CAPTURE & RETENTION IN AN AIR COOLED SLAGGING COAL COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert Zauderer

    2003-04-21

    Calcium oxide injected in a slagging combustor reacts with the sulfur from coal combustion to form sulfur-bearing particles. The reacted particles impact and melt in the liquid slag layer on the combustor wall by the centrifugal force of the swirling combustion gases. Due to the low solubility of sulfur in slag, it must be rapidly drained from the combustor to limit sulfur gas re-evolution. Prior analyses and laboratory scale data indicated that for Coal Tech's 20 MMBtu/hour, air-cooled, slagging coal combustor slag mass flow rates in excess of 400 lb/hr should limit sulfur re-evolution. The objective of this 42-month project was to validate this sulfur-in-slag model in a group of combustor tests. A total of 36 days of testing on the combustor were completed during the period of performance of this project. This was more that double the 16 test days that were required in the original work statement. The extra tests were made possible by cost saving innovations that were made in the operation of the combustor test facility and in additional investment of Coal Tech resources in the test effort. The original project plan called for two groups of tests. The first group of tests involved the injection of calcium sulfate particles in the form of gypsum or plaster of Paris with the coal into the 20 MMBtu/hour-combustor. The second group of tests consisted of the entire two-step process, in which lime or limestone is co-injected with coal and reacts with the sulfur gas released during combustion to form calcium sulfate particles that impact and dissolve in the slag layer. Since this sulfur capture process has been validated in numerous prior tests in this combustor, the primary effort in the present project was on achieving the high slag flow rates needed to retain the sulfur in the slag.

  11. Toward Understanding the Effect of Nuclear Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, I. S.; Kruger, Albert A.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which inmore »turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ? P2O5 > Na2O ? B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ? SnO2 > Others ? SiO2. The order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.« less

  12. Toward Understanding the Effect of Low-Activity Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-10-01

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis). If the amount of sulfur exceeds its tolerance level a molten salt will accumulate and upset melter operations and potentially shorten melter useful life. Therefore relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed which in-turn significantly impacts the amount of glass that will be produced, in particular at the Hanford site. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 312 individual glass compositions. This model was shown to well represent the data, accounting for over 80% of the variation in data and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed based on 19 scaled melter tests. The model is appropriate for control of waste glass processing which includes uncertainty quantification. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5 ? TiO2 < CaO < P2O5 ? ZnO. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > SiO2 ? ZrO2 > Al2O3.

  13. Test Plan for the overburden removal demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, P.; Thompson, D.; Winberg, M.; Skaggs, J.

    1993-06-01

    The removal of soil overburdens from contaminated pits and trenches involves using equipment that will remove a small layer of soil from 3 to 6 in. at any time. As a layer of soil is removed, overburden characterization techniques perform surveys to a depth that exceeds each overburden removal layer to ensure that the removed soil will be free of contamination. It is generally expected that no contamination will be found in the soil overburden, which was brought in after the waste was put in place. It is anticipated that some containers in the waste zone have lost their integrity, and the waste leakage from those containers has migrated by gravity downward into the waste zone. To maintain a safe work environment, this method of overburden removal should allow safe preparation of a pit or trench for final remediation. To demonstrate the soil overburden techniques, the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program has contracted vendor services to provide equipment and techniques demonstrating soil overburden removal technology. The demonstration will include tests that will evaluate equipment performance and techniques for removal of overburden soil, control of contamination spread, and dust control. To evaluate the performance of these techniques, air particulate samples, physical measurements of the excavation soil cuts, maneuverability measurements, and time versus volume (rate) of soil removal data will be collected during removal operations. To provide a medium for sample evaluation, the overburden will be spiked at specific locations and depths with rare earth tracers. This test plan will be describe the objectives of the demonstration, data quality objectives, methods to be used to operate the equipment and use the techniques in the test area, and methods to be used in collecting data during the demonstration.

  14. Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

  15. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

    1987-03-10

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

  16. Removable bearing arrangement for a wind turbine generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2010-06-15

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  17. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Niskayuna, NY); Jansen, Patrick Lee (Scotia, NY), Gadre; Aniruddha Dattatraya (Rexford, NY)

    2008-04-22

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  18. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

  19. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

    1997-10-14

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination. The process also uses further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed. 5 figs.

  20. Complexation of Mercury(II) in Soil Organic Matter: EXAFS Evidence for Linear Two-Coordination with Reduced Sulfur Groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skyllberg,U.; Bloom, P.; Qian, J.; Lin, C.; Bleam, W.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg) is to a great extent controlling biologically mediated processes, such as mercury methylation, in soils, sediments, and surface waters. Of utmost importance are complexation reactions with functional groups of natural organic matter (NOM), indirectly determining concentrations of bioavailable, inorganic Hg species. Two previous extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic studies have revealed that reduced organic sulfur (S) and oxygen/nitrogen (O/N) groups are involved in the complexation of Hg(II) to humic substances extracted from organic soils. In this work, covering intact organic soils and extending to much lower concentrations of Hg than before, we show that Hg is complexed by two reduced organic S groups (likely thiols) at a distance of 2.33 Angstroms in a linear configuration. Furthermore, a third reduced S (likely an organic sulfide) was indicated to contribute with a weaker second shell attraction at a distance of 2.92-3.08 Angstroms. When all high-affinity S sites, corresponding to 20-30% of total reduced organic S, were saturated, a structure involving one carbonyl-O or amino-N at 2.07 Angstroms and one carboxyl-O at 2.84 Angstroms in the first shell, and two second shell C atoms at an average distance of 3.14 Angstroms, gave the best fit to data. Similar results were obtained for humic acid extracted from an organic wetland soil. We conclude that models that are in current use to describe the biogeochemistry of mercury and to calculate thermodynamic processes need to include a two-coordinated complexation of Hg(II) to reduced organic sulfur groups in NOM in soils and waters.

  1. Preservation of a species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witt, Sarah (Sarah Elizabeth)

    2011-01-01

    To put it simply, humans are going extinct. I identify the source of the problem as an imperceptible societal trend to eliminate the experience that authenticates us as a living species: failure. We've unanimously designated ...

  2. Did the Clean Air Act cause the remarkable decline in sulfur dioxide concentrations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenstone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Over the last three decades, ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution have declined by approximately 80%. This paper tests whether the 1970 Clean Air Act and its subsequent amendments caused this decline. ...

  3. Frataxin (FXN) Based Regulation of the Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly Complex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabb, Jennifer

    2012-07-16

    Iron-sulfur clusters are protein cofactors that are critical for all life forms. Elaborate multi-component systems have evolved for the biosynthesis of these cofactors to protect organisms from the toxic effects of free ...

  4. Transport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Transport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur hydrogen efficiently on a large scale.1 This process has the advantage over traditional i.e., coal gasifica

  5. Relationship between pyrite formation and organic sulfur content of coal as revealed by electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Hagan, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    There are a large number of questions concerning the mode of occurrence of organic sulfur in peat, and what, if anything, alters its occurrence during and after coalification. The formation of pyrite during periods of peatification and coalification has been hypothesized to have a great effect on the organic sulfur content of organic material surrounding the pyrite. Measurement of organic sulfur contents at different distances from pyrite particles would serve as direct experimental proof for or against this pypothesis. A combination of in situ energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) line profiles, EDS x-ray maps, and WDS analyses across pyrite/coal interfaces in a variety of coals shows unequivocally that formation of pyrite does not alter the organic sulfur contents of the surrounding coal macerals.

  6. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Sulfate at Micromole Levels Using a Pyrolysis Technique in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Becky

    Sulfur and Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Sulfate at Micromole Levels Using a Pyrolysis Technique sample. The technique takes advantage of the easy pyrolysis of Ag2SO4 to SO2, O2, and Ag metal

  7. SO2 impacts on forage and soil sulfur concentrations near coal-fired power plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beene, Jack Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine if S02 emissions from coal-fired power plants could be contributing to the copper deficiency in cattle. Copper deficiency in cattle can result from excessive sulfur intake which is attributed...

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of ultra-low sulfur jet fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, Stephen (Stephen Richard)

    2010-01-01

    The growth of aviation has spurred increased study of its environmental impacts and the possible mitigation thereof. One emissions reduction option is the introduction of an Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) jet fuel standard for ...

  9. Explaining low sulfur dioxide allowance prices : the effect of expectation errors and irreversibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    1998-01-01

    The low price of allowances has been a frequently noted featured of the implementation of the sulfur dioxide emissions market of the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This paper presents theoretical and numerical analyses that explain ...

  10. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es105liang2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications CarbonSulfur...

  11. Facile synthesis, spectral properties and formation mechanism of sulfur nanorods in PEG-200

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Xin-yuan; Li, Li-yun; Zheng, Pu-sheng; Zheng, Wen-jie; Bai, Yan; Cheng, Tian-feng; Liu, Jie

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of about 6–8 was obtained. The sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble from spherical particles to nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift which was due to the production of nanorods. Highlights: ? A novel, facile and greener method to synthesize sulfur nanorods by the solubilizing and templating effect of PEG-200 was reported. ? S{sup 0} nanoparticles could self assemble in PEG-200 and finally form monodisperse and homogeneous rod-like structure with an average diameter of about 80 nm, the length ca. 600 nm. ? The absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously during the self-assembling process. ? PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sulfur sol by dissolving sublimed sulfur in a green solvent-PEG-200 was studied. Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of 6–8 was obtained. The structure, morphology, size, and stability of the products were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The spectral properties of the products were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy (RRS). The results showed that the spherical sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble into nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously. There was physical cross-linking between PEG and sulfur nanoparticles. PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. This research provides a greener and more environment-friendly synthetic method for the production of sulfur nanorods.

  12. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  13. Part removal of 3D printed parts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peña Doll, Mateo

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to understand the correlation between printing parameters in the FDM 3D printing process, and the force required to remove a part from the build platform of a 3D printing using a patent ...

  14. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Gus T. (Paducah, KY); Holshouser, Stephen K. (Boaz, KY); Coleman, Richard M. (Paducah, KY); Harless, Charles E. (Smithland, KY); Whinnery, III, Walter N. (Paducah, KY)

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  15. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  16. Ultrasound : an alternative solution for removing tattoos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teng, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The recent influx of tattoos has been accompanied by a rise in demand for tattoo removals. Due to the recent success of ultrasound as a noninvasive alternative for multiple medical therapies, the feasibility of ultrasound-mediated ...

  17. Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Reduction in energy and water use for the ethanol industry Ethanol is the leading biofuel in the U.S. with 13 Billion gallons produced...

  18. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  19. Method for removing RFI from SAR images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2003-08-19

    A method of removing RFI from a SAR by comparing two SAR images on a pixel by pixel basis and selecting the pixel with the lower magnitude to form a composite image. One SAR image is the conventional image produced by the SAR. The other image is created from phase-history data which has been filtered to have the frequency bands containing the RFI removed.

  20. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  1. Oil removal from water via adsorption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, William Edward

    1973-01-01

    WILLIAM EDWARD JACOBS 1974 OIL REMOVAL FROM WATER VIA ADSORPTION A Thesis by WILLIAM EDWARD JACOBS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1973 Major Subject: Civil Engineering OIL REMOVAL FROM WATER VIA ADSORPTION A Thesis by WILLIAM EDWARD JACOBS Approved as to style and content by: C airman of Committee ea o Department m er Member Memb December 1973 ABSTRACT Oil...

  2. Interaction of CuS and sulfur in Li-S battery system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Ke; Su, Dong; Zhang, Qing; Bock, David C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Gan, Hong

    2015-10-27

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery has been a subject of intensive research in recent years due to its potential to provide much higher energy density and lower cost than the current state of the art lithiumion battery technology. In this work, we have investigated Cupric Sulfide (CuS) as a capacitycontributing conductive additive to the sulfur electrode in a Li-S battery. Galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling has been used to compare the performance of both sulfur electrodes and S:CuS hybrid electrodes with various ratios. We found that the conductive CuS additive enhanced the utilization of the sulfur cathode under a 1C rate discharge. However, undermore »a C/10 discharge rate, S:CuS hybrid electrodes exhibited lower sulfur utilization in the first discharge and faster capacity decay in later cycles than a pure sulfur electrode due to the dissolution of CuS. The CuS dissolution is found to be the result of strong interaction between the soluble low order polysulfide Li2S3 and CuS. As a result, we identified the presence of conductive copper-containing sulfides at the cycled lithium anode surface, which may degrade the effectiveness of the passivation function of the solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) layer, accounting for the poor cycling performance of the S:CuS hybrid cells at low rate.« less

  3. Experimental and computational investigations of sulfur-resistant bimetallic catalysts for reforming of biomass gasification products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangan, Meghana; Yung, Matthew M.; Medlin, J. William (NREL); (Colorado)

    2011-11-17

    A combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimental studies of supported catalysts was used to identify H{sub 2}S-resistant biomass gasification product reforming catalysts. DFT calculations were used to search for bimetallic, nickel-based (1 1 1) surfaces with lower sulfur adsorption energies and enhanced ethylene adsorption energies. These metrics were used as predictors for H{sub 2}S resistance and activity toward steam reforming of ethylene, respectively. Relative to Ni, DFT studies found that the Ni/Sn surface alloy exhibited enhanced sulfur resistance and the Ni/Ru system exhibited an improved ethylene binding energy with a small increase in sulfur binding energy. A series of supported bimetallic nickel catalysts was prepared and screened under model ethylene reforming conditions and simulated biomass tar reforming conditions. The observed experimental trends in activity were consistent with theoretical predictions, with observed reforming activities in the order Ni/Ru > Ni > Ni/Sn. Interestingly, Ni/Ru showed a high level of resistance to sulfur poisoning compared with Ni. This sulfur resistance can be partly explained by trends in sulfur versus ethylene binding energy at different types of sites across the bimetallic surface.

  4. Unusual refinery boiler tube failures due to corrosion by sulfuric acid induced by steam leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Lopez, D.; Wong-Moreno, A.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion by sulfuric acid in boilers is a low probability event because gas temperature and metal temperature of boiler tubes are high enough to avoid the condensation of sulfuric acid from flue gases. This degradation mechanism is frequently considered as an important cause of air preheaters materials degradation, where flue gases are cooled by heat transfer to the combustion air. Corrosion is associated to the presence of sulfuric acid, which condensates if metal temperature (or gas temperature) is below of the acid dew point. In economizer tubes, sulfuric acid corrosion is an unlikely event because flue gas and tube temperatures are normally over the acid dewpoint. In this paper, the failure analysis of generator tubes (similar to the economizer of bigger boilers) of two small oil-fired subcritical boilers is reported. It is concluded that sulfuric acid corrosion was the cause of the failure. The sulfuric acid condensation was due to the contact of flue gases containing SO{sub 3} with water-steam spray coming from leaks at the interface of rolled tube to the drum. Considering the information gathered from these two cases studied, an analysis of this failure mechanism is presented including a description of the thermodynamics condition of water leaking from the drum, and an analysis of the factors favoring it.

  5. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

    1985-05-01

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

  7. Sulfur gas sensor using a calcium fluoride solid electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toniguchi, M.; Wakihara, M.; Uchida, T.; Hirakawa, K.; Nii, J.

    1988-01-01

    The sulfur gas potentials in the H/sub 2/S + H/sub 2/ buffer gases were measured by a galvanic cell Ps/sub 2/(g),Au(Pt)/(MoS/sub 2/ + CaS)/CaF/sub 2//(Cu + Cu/sub 2/S + CaS)/Au(Pt) in the temperature range from 650/sup 0/ to 950/sup 0/C and Ps/sub 2/ region from 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -10/ atm. A quick response time (within 5 to 10 min) in emf with the change of Ps/sub 2/ at a given temperature was observed by placing a MoS/sub 2/ and CaS mixed pellet auxiliary electrode at the bottom of the cylindrical single-crystal CaF/sub 2/ electrolyte. The observed emf's agreed well with with those calculated from the Nernst equation. Using this sensor, Ps/sub 2/ values in the SO/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/S gas system were also evaluated from the measured emf at 827/sup 0/C and were found to be in close agreement with those calculated from the thermochemical tables.

  8. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate the performance of low-cost activated carbon sorbents for removing mercury. In addition, the effects of the dual flue gas conditioning system on mercury removal performance were evaluated as part of short-term parametric tests on Unit 2. Based on the parametric test results, a single sorbent (e.g., RWE Super HOK) was selected for a 30-day continuous injection test on Unit 1 to observe long-term performance of the sorbent as well as its effects on ESP and FGD system operations as well as combustion byproduct properties. A series of parametric tests were also performed on Shawville Unit 3 over a three-week period in which several activated carbon sorbents were injected into the flue gas duct just upstream of either of the two Unit 3 ESP units. Three different sorbents were evaluated in the parametric test program for the combined ESP 1/ESP 2 system in which sorbents were injected upstream of ESP 1: RWE Super HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg, and a 62:38 wt% hydrated lime/DARCO Hg premixed reagent. Five different sorbents were evaluated for the ESP 2 system in which activated carbons were injected upstream of ESP 2: RWE Super HOK and coarse-ground HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg and DARCO Hg-LH, and DARCO Hg with lime injection upstream of ESP 1. The hydrated lime tests were conducted to reduce SO3 levels in an attempt to enhance the mercury removal performance of the activated carbon sorbents. The Plant Yates and Shawville studies provided data required for assessing carbon performance and long-term operational impacts for flue gas mercury control across small-sized ESPs, as well as for estimating the costs of full-scale sorbent injection processes.

  9. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William

    2012-01-01

    carbon filters for the control of ozone, sulfur dioxide, andMendell (2008). "Outdoor ozone and building-related symptomsAir filter materials, outdoor ozone and building-related

  10. Genomic definition of species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.

  11. Zirconium-modified materials for selective adsorption and removal of aqueous arsenic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hongting; Moore, Robert C.

    2004-11-30

    A method, composition, and apparatus for removing contaminant species from an aqueous medium comprising: providing a material to which zirconium has been added, the material selected from one or more of zeolites, cation-exchangeable clay minerals, fly ash, mesostructured materials, activated carbons, cellulose acetate, and like porous and/or fibrous materials; and contacting the aqueous medium with the material to which zirconium has been added. The invention operates on all arsenic species in the form of arsenate, arsenite and organometallic arsenic, with no pretreatment necessary (e.g., oxidative conversion of arsenite to arsenate).

  12. Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from Heavy Duty Trucks Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from Heavy Duty...

  13. Oak Ridge Removes Laboratory's Greatest Source of Groundwater...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Removes Laboratory's Greatest Source of Groundwater Contamination Oak Ridge Removes Laboratory's Greatest Source of Groundwater Contamination May 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers...

  14. New Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power Development New Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power Development January 10,...

  15. Evaluation of Passive and Active Soot Filters for Removal of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Passive and Active Soot Filters for Removal of Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines Evaluation of Passive and Active Soot Filters for Removal of Particulate Emissions from...

  16. Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate Authors: Qu, Xiaopeng 1 ;...

  17. Compensatory Feeding Following a Predator Removal Program : Detection and Mechanisms, 1982-1996 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, James H.

    2002-02-28

    Predator removal is one of the oldest management tools in existence, with evidence that ancient Greeks used a bounty reward for wolves over 3,000 years ago (Anonymous 1964). Efforts to control predators on fish have been documented in scientific journals for at least 60 years (Eschmeyer 1937; Lagler 1939; Foerster and Ricker 1941; Smith and Swingle 1941; Jeppson and Platts 1959), and has likely been attempted for much longer. Complete eradication of a target species from a body of water has rarely been the objective of predator removal programs, which instead have attempted to eliminate predators from specific areas, to reduce the density or standing stock of predators, or to kill the largest individuals in the population (Meronek et al. 1996). In evaluating management programs that remove only part of a predator population, the compensatory response(s) of the remaining predators must be considered. Some potential compensatory responses by remaining individuals include increased reproductive output, increased growth rate, or increased consumption of certain prey species (Jude et al. 1987). If compensation by predators that remain in the system following a removal effort occurs, it may reduce the effectiveness of the predator control program. Northern pike-minnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis (formerly called northern squawfish) consume juvenile salmon in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs in British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California. Northern pikeminnow have been estimated to consume about 11% of all juvenile salmon that migrate through John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River (Rieman et al. 1991). Modeling studies suggested that removal of 20% of the northern pikeminnow population in John Day Reservoir would result in a 50% decrease in predation-related mortality of juvenile salmon migrating through this reach (Beamesderfer et al. 1991). Since the early 1940's, other programs have been implemented to remove northern pikeminnow, with hopes of improving the survival of juvenile salmon (Ricker 1941; Jeppson and Platts 1959).

  18. Sulfur containing sediments influenced wear of superheater tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoffe, P. [Israel Electric Corp. Ltd., Haifa (Israel)

    1996-10-01

    The failed superheater tube was investigated at the point of failure and at a distance of 25 cm. At both of the cross sections two layers of sediment were detected. The external one contains Na2SO4 and Na3VO3 in concentration relation 6.4:1 approximately. The internal layer that situated on the tube surface consisted of V2O3 mainly (about 70%) and sodium pyrosulfates Na2SO3{center_dot}xSO3. The tube surface was covered with usual passive oxides such as Cr2O3, Fe2CrO4, and magnetite. In the failed section the last layer contained iron and chromium sulfides. Thinning of the wall was detected in both sections, but it was more evident in the failed section. Thermodynamic and kinetic estimations of the results were carried out. The following failure mechanism was proposed: (1) at 460 C the pyrosulfate dissociates with SO3 emanation, during SO3 interaction with steel both passive oxides and iron sulfide are produced simultaneously, sulfides damage the passive (protective) film; (2) in vicinity of partition the temperature increases and the structure of steel is changed, SO3 penetration along grain boundaries is possible, and it leads to embrittlement of the steel through sulfidization; (3) the embrittled layer is stripped off by falling ash deposit and collapsed passive film, thinning of the tube is accelerated at such a region. So, sulfur containing sediment accelerates the wear of the tube. This acceleration is strong especially in the vicinity of the boiler walls.

  19. Endangered Species Consultation Handbook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endangered Species Consultation Handbook Procedures for Conducting" " Consz~ltationand Conference Service March 1998 Final #12;FOREWORD It gives us great pleasure to introduce the final Section 7 Handbook Service employees. The Handbook provides internal guidance and establishes national policy for conducting

  20. System for removal of arsenic from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2004-11-23

    Systems for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical systems for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A system for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a system for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  1. Technetium Removal Using Tc-Goethite Coprecipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Jung, Hun Bok; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-18

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Low temperature waste forms coupled with technetium removal using an alternative immobilization process such as Fe(II) treated-goethite precipitation” to increase our understanding of 99Tc long-term stability in goethite mineral form and the process that controls the 99Tc(VII) reduction and removal by the final Fe (oxy)hydroxide forms. The overall objectives of this task were to 1) evaluate the transformation process of Fe (oxy)hydroxide solids to the more crystalline goethite (?-FeOOH) mineral for 99Tc removal and 2) determine the mechanism that limits 99Tc(IV) reoxidation in Fe(II)-treated 99Tc-goethite mineral and 3) evaluate whether there is a long-term 99Tcoxidation state change for Tc sequestered in the iron solids.

  2. Properly engineer lead paint removal projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaelin, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    Deciding how to mitigate the hazards during lead paint removal is complex and requires consideration of many variables. Assessment of public health risk, environmental impact, and emissions potential of the operations must be considered. Additionally, the removal technique, containment system, and monitoring criteria must be developed. This article presents an integrated approach to identifying lead hazards, assessing risks to workers, the environment, and the public, developing the appropriate maintenance strategy, and selecting paint removal and containment systems. Also considered are guidelines for selecting a third party to design the overall project. This approach is based on a decision path that provides criteria for project assessment in an orderly fashion. The design of lead paint management projects in industrial applications requires consideration of the variables shown in the decision path.

  3. Method of making thermally removable polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); McElhanon, James R. (Livermore, CA); Saunders, Randall S. (late of Albuquerque, NM); Durbin-Voss, Marvie Lou (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable polyurethane material by heating a mixture of a maleimide compound and a furan compound, and introducing alcohol and isocyanate functional groups, where the alcohol group and the isocyanate group reacts to form the urethane linkages and the furan compound and the maleimide compound react to form the thermally weak Diels-Alder adducts that are incorporated into the backbone of the urethane linkages during the formation of the polyurethane material at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. The polyurethane material can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The polyurethane material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  4. Toward Understanding the Effect of Nuclear Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Kim, Dong-Sang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Muller, I. S. [The Catholic University National Laboratory; Kruger, Albert A. [Department of Energy -- Ofice of River Protection; Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2014-10-01

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which in turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ? P2O5 > Na2O ? B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ? SnO2 > Others ? SiO2. The order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.

  5. Toward Understanding the Effect of Low-Activity Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Greg F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-07-24

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which in turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ? P2O5 > Na2O ? B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ? SnO2 > Others ? SiO2. The order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.

  6. Arsenic removal in conjunction with lime softening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khandaker, Nadim R.; Brady, Patrick V.; Teter, David M.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2004-10-12

    A method for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising adding lime to the aqueous medium, and adding one or more sources of divalent metal ions other than calcium and magnesium to the aqueous medium, whereby dissolved arsenic in the aqueous medium is reduced to a lower level than possible if only the step of adding lime were performed. Also a composition of matter for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising lime and one or more sources of divalent copper and/or zinc metal ions.

  7. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  8. Process for removing metals from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

    1987-06-29

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

  9. Method of making thermally removable adhesives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, James H.

    2004-11-30

    A method of making a thermally-removable adhesive is provided where a bismaleimide compound, a monomeric furan compound, containing an oxirane group an amine curative are mixed together at an elevated temperature of greater than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a homogeneous solution, which, when cooled to less than approximately 70.degree. C., simultaneously initiates a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and the bismaleimide and a epoxy curing reaction between the amine curative and the oxirane group to form a thermally-removable adhesive. Subsequent heating to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. causes the adhesive to melt and allows separation of adhered pieces.

  10. Computational studies of experimentally observed structures of sulfur on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfonso, Dominic

    2011-09-01

    First-principles electronic structure calculations were carried out to examine the experimentally observed structures of sulfur on close packed surfaces of a number of important metals - Ag(111), Cu(111), Ni(111), Pt(111), Rh(111), Re(0001) and Ru(0001). At low coverages ({le} 1/3 ML), the prediction is consistent with the typical pattern of preferred sulfur occupancy of threefold hollow sites, notably the fcc site on the (111) surfaces and the hcp site on the (0001) surfaces. Theoretical confirmation for the existence of pure sulfur overlayer phases on Pt(111), Rh(111), Re(0001) and Ru(0001) at higher coverages (> 1/3 ML) was provided. For the ({radical}7 x {radical}7) phase seen on Ag(111), the most preferred structure identified for adsorbed S trimer consists of an S atom on the top site bonded to two S atoms situated on the nearest neighbor off-bridge site positions. Among the different densely packed mixed sulfur-metal overlayer models suggested for the ({radical}7 x {radical}7) phase on Cu(111), the structure which consists of metal and S atoms in a hexagonal-like arrangement on the top substrate was found to be the most energetically favorable. For the (5{radical}3 x 2) phase on Ni(111), the calculations confirm the existence of clock-reconstructed top layer metal atoms onto which sulfur atoms are adsorbed.

  11. Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2011-02-28

    Surface Ni/Sb and Ni/Sb alloys were found to efficiently minimize the negative effects of sulfur on the performance of Ni/zirconia anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Prior to operating on fuel gas containing low concentrations of H2S, the nickel/zirconia anodes were briefly exposed to antimony or tin vapor, which only slightly affected the SOFC performance. During the subsequent exposures to 1 and 5 ppm H2S, increases in anodic polarization losses were minimal compared to those observed for the standard nickel/zirconia anodes. Post-test XPS analyses showed that Sb and Sn tended to segregate to the surface of Ni particles, and further confirmed a significant reduction of adsorbed sulfur on the Ni surface in Ni/Sn and Ni/Sb samples compared to the Ni. The effect may be the result of weaker sulfur adsorption on bimetallic surfaces, adsorption site competition between sulfur and Sb or Sn on Ni, or other factors. The use of dilute binary alloys of Ni-Sb or Ni-Sn in the place of Ni, or brief exposure to Sb or Sn vapor, may be effective means to counteract the effects of sulfur poisoning in SOFC anodes and Ni catalysts. Other advantages, including suppression of coking or tailoring the anode composition for the internal reforming, are also expected.

  12. Recommendation 183: Preferred Alternative for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ORSSAB Recommendation to DOE on the Preferred Alternative for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium.

  13. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  14. Method of removing cesium from steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carson, Jr., Neill J. (Clarendon Hills, IL); Noland, Robert A. (Oak Park, IL); Ruther, Westly E. (Skokie, IL)

    1991-01-01

    Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

  15. Tank waste remediation system compensatory measure removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MILLIKEN, N.J.

    1999-05-18

    In support of Fiscal Year 1998 Performance Agreement TWR1.4.3, ''Replace Compensatory Measures,'' the Tank Waste Remediation System is documenting the completion of field modifications supporting the removal of the temporary exemptions from the approved Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006. These temporary exemptions or compensatory measures expire September 30, 1998.

  16. The Scottish Government's Policy on Woodland Removal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    significant woodland removal associated with landscape design, restoration of priority habitats, wind farms associated with the internal re-design of woodlands to meet the UK Forestry Standard. #12;4 | Control comprises 18% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions (compared to 25% from electricity and heat generation

  17. Forecast Technical Document Felling and Removals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of local investment and business planning. Timber volume production will be estimated at sub. Planning of operations. Control of the growing stock. Wider reporting (under UKWAS). The calculation fellings and removals are handled in the 2011 Production Forecast system. Tom Jenkins Robert Matthews Ewan

  18. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Derzon, Dora K. (Albuquerque, NM); Nelson, Jill S. (Albuquerque, NM); Rand, Peter B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications.

  19. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Derzon, D.K.; Nelson, J.S.; Rand, P.B.

    1995-07-11

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications. 1 fig.

  20. Treatment tests for ex situ removal of chromate, nitrate, and uranium (VI) from Hanford (100-HR-3) groundwater. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, M.A.; Duncan, J.B.

    1993-11-15

    This report describes batch and anion exchange column laboratory-scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}), and uranium (present as uranyl (uranium [VI]) carbonato anionic species) from contaminated Hanford Site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium, and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium, and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1993). The goal of these tests was to determine the best method to remove selected contaminants to below the concentration of the project performance goals. The raw data and observations made during these tests can be found in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) laboratory notebooks (Beck 1992, Herting 1993). The method recommended for future study is anion exchange with Dowex 21K resin.

  1. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  2. Effect of sulfur loading on the desulfation chemistry of a commercial lean NOx trap catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Do Heui; Yezerets, Aleksey; Li, Junhui; Currier, Neal; Chen, Haiying; Hess, Howard .; Engelhard, Mark H.; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF

    2012-12-15

    We investigate the effects of initial sulfur loadings on the desulfation chemistry and the subsequent final activity of a commercial LNT catalyst. Identical total amounts of SO2 are applied to the samples, albeit with the frequency of desulfation varied. The results indicate that performance is better with less frequent desulfations. The greater the amount of sulfur deposited before desulfation, the more amount of SO2 evolution before H2S is observed during desulfation, which can be explained by two sequential reactions; initial conversion of sulfate to SO2, followed by the reduction of SO2 to H2S. After completing all sulfation/desulfation steps, the sample with only a single desulfation results in a fairly uniform sulfur distribution along the z-axis inside of the monolith. We expect that the results obtained in this study will provide useful information for optimizing regeneration strategies in vehicles that utilize the LNT technology.

  3. Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther Dieckmann

    2006-06-30

    In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

  4. Examination Of Sulfur Measurements In DWPF Sludge Slurry And SRAT Product Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C. J.; Wiedenman, B. J.

    2012-11-29

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to re-sample the received SB7b WAPS material for wt. % solids, perform an aqua regia digestion and analyze the digested material by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), as well as re-examine the supernate by ICP-AES. The new analyses were requested in order to provide confidence that the initial analytical subsample was representative of the Tank 40 sample received and to replicate the S results obtained on the initial subsample collected. The ICP-AES analyses for S were examined with both axial and radial detection of the sulfur ICP-AES spectroscopic emission lines to ascertain if there was any significant difference in the reported results. The outcome of this second subsample of the Tank 40 WAPS material is the first subject of this report. After examination of the data from the new subsample of the SB7b WAPS material, a team of DWPF and SRNL staff looked for ways to address the question of whether there was in fact insoluble S that was not being accounted for by ion chromatography (IC) analysis. The question of how much S is reaching the melter was thought best addressed by examining a DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Product sample, but the significant dilution of sludge material, containing the S species in question, that results from frit addition was believed to add additional uncertainty to the S analysis of SME Product material. At the time of these discussions it was believed that all S present in a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt sample would be converted to sulfate during the course of the SRAT cycle. A SRAT Product sample would not have the S dilution effect resulting from frit addition, and hence, it was decided that a DWPF SRAT Product sample would be obtained and submitted to SRNL for digestion and sample preparation followed by a round-robin analysis of the prepared samples by the DWPF Laboratory, F/H Laboratories, and SRNL for S and sulfate. The results of this round-robin analytical study are the second subject of this report.

  5. Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

  6. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. Much research and development has been sponsored on methods for particulate emissions control and the direct injection of calcium-based sorbents to reduce SO{sub 2} emission levels. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a {open_quotes}hot flue gas cleanup{close_quotes} subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process. The goal of the program is to support the DOE mission in developing coal-fired combustion gas turbines. In particular, the MTCI proprietary process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture will be evaluated and developed. The technology embodiment of the invention provides for the use of standard grind, moderately beneficiated coal and WEM for firing the gas turbine with efficient sulfur capture and particulate emission control upstream of the turbine. The process also accommodates injection of alkali gettering material if necessary. The proposed technology provides for practical, reliable, and capital (and O&M) cost-effective means of protection for the gas turbine from impurities in the coal combustor effluent.

  7. A reanalysis of carbonyl sulfide as a source of stratospheric background sulfur aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, M.; Davis, D.D. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-05-20

    The authors present an analysis of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the earth`s atmosphere, with the objective being to assess its role in the formation of sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere. They review the amount of OCS in the atmosphere, its distribution between the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimated source term for emission to the atmosphere, and from one-dimensional model calculations infer a stratospheric lifetime to photochemical reactions of ten years. Calculations infer a sulfur production rate from OCS oxidation which is a factor of 2 to 5 less than recent sulfur aerosol estimates would infer. They discuss a number of possible explanations for the discrepancy.

  8. NO.sub.x reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Virendra K. (Durham, NH); Breault, Ronald W. (Kingston, NH); McLarnon, Christopher R. (Exeter, NH); Medros, Frank G. (Waltham, MA)

    1992-01-01

    This invention presents an NO.sub.x environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO.sub.x reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO.sub.x bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

  9. NOx reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, V.K.; Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.R.; Medros, F.G.

    1993-08-31

    This invention presents an NO[sub x] environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO[sub x] reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO[sub x] bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

  10. NO.sub.x reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Virendra K. (Durham, NH); Breault, Ronald W. (Kingston, NH); McLarnon, Christopher R. (Exeter, NH); Medros, Frank G. (Waltham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention presents an NO.sub.x environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO.sub.x reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO.sub.x bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

  11. NO[sub x] reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, V.K.; Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.R.; Medros, F.G.

    1992-09-15

    This invention presents an NO[sub x] environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO[sub x] reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO[sub x] bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter. 7 figs.

  12. Selective trace determination of sulfur and aluminum using charged particle activation analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Terrence Dale

    1974-01-01

    for the characterization of ultra-pure materials. In a previous study ( 26) we had analyzed crude oil samples for their sulfur content using the reaction 3 S(p, oc ) P. P is a positron emitter with a half- 29 29 life of 4. . 2 seconds. The 0. 511 MeV gamma... gammas which tended to overload the detector, a lead absorber ( 2" thick) was used. A focused beam of 20 MeV protons was used for irradiating a pure sulfur pellet at very low beam currents (1 nano ampere) and the prompt 2. 23 MeV gamma ray...

  13. Sulfur determination in blood from inhabitants of Brazil using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2013-05-06

    In this study the NAA technique was applied to analyze sulfur in blood from inhabitants of Brazil for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering lifestyle factors (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure) of Brazilian inhabitants. The influence of gender was also investigated considering several age ranges (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, >50 years). These data are useful in clinical investigations, to identify or prevent diseases caused by inadequate sulfur ingestion and for nutritional evaluation of Brazilian population.

  14. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

    1985-07-01

    This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

  15. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY IN GIANT PLANETS, BROWN DWARFS, AND LOW-MASS DWARF STARS. II. SULFUR AND PHOSPHORUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY IN GIANT PLANETS, BROWN DWARFS, AND LOW-MASS DWARF STARS. II. SULFUR AND PHOSPHORUS Channon Visscher, Katharina Lodders, and Bruce Fegley, Jr. Planetary Chemistry Laboratory to model sulfur and phosphorus chemistry in giant planets, brown dwarfs, and extrasolar giant planets (EGPs

  16. Carbon Flow of Heliobacteria Is Related More to Clostridia than to the Green Sulfur Bacteria*S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    Carbon Flow of Heliobacteria Is Related More to Clostridia than to the Green Sulfur Bacteria*S, California 94720 The recently discovered heliobacteria are the only Gram-pos- itive photosynthetic bacteria the photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria (containing the type I reaction center) and Clostridia (forming heat

  17. Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost gas instead of continuing to burn low-sulfur fuel oil, a report said. Switching to liquefied natural who switch from gasoline-powered vehicles to ones fueled by compressed natural gas could save as much

  18. Improved Visible Light Harvesting of WO3 by Incorporation of Sulfur or Iodine: A Tale of Two Impurities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jung-Fu "Afu"

    Improved Visible Light Harvesting of WO3 by Incorporation of Sulfur or Iodine: A Tale of Two report the incorporation of sulfur or iodine into monoclinic tungsten trioxide (S:WO3 or I:WO3 pyrolysis with either ammonium sulfide or iodide added to the aqueous WO3 precursor solutions. Red shifts

  19. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  20. Part 2. Species Selection Adaptability of Some Eucalyptus Species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Part 2. Species Selection Adaptability of Some Eucalyptus Species in Southwest Oregon1 Lee O. Hunt2-industrial forest 1 Presented at the Workshop on Eucalyptus in California, June 14-16, 1983, Sacramento of harvesting in their life- times. The screening of trials of Eucalyptus species were a part of a personal

  1. CRADA Final Report For CRADA NO. CR-12-006 [Operation and Testing of an SO{sub 2}-depolarized Electrolyzer (SDE) for the Purpose of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, W. A.; Colon-Mercado, H. R.; Steimke, J. L.; Zahn, Steffen

    2014-02-24

    Over the past several years, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has led a team of collaborators under the Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear hydrogen production program to develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process. HyS is a 2-step water-splitting process consisting of high temperature decomposition of sulfuric acid to generate SO{sub 2}, followed by the electrolysis of aqueous SO{sub 2} to generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid. The latter is fed back into the high temperature reactor. SRNL designed and built an SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) and a test facility. Over 40 SDE’s were tested using different catalysts, membranes and other components. SRNL demonstrated that an SDE could be operated continuously for approximately 200 hours under certain conditions without buildup of sulfur at the SDE’s cathode, thus solving a key technical problem with SDE technology. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) is a major supplier of hydrogen production systems, and they have proprietary technology that could benefit from the SDE developed by SRNS, or some improved version thereof. However, to demonstrate that SRNL’s SDE is a truly viable approach to the electrolyzer design, continuous operation for far greater periods of time than 200 hours must be demonstrated, and the electrolyzer must be scaled up to greater hydrogen production capacities. SRNL and Air Products entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the objective of demonstrating the effectiveness of the SDE for hydrogen and sulfuric acid production and to demonstrate long-term continuous operation so as to dramatically increase the confidence in the SDE design for commercial operation. SRNL prepared a detailed technical report documenting previous SDE development, including the current SDE design and operating conditions that led to the 200-hour sulfurfree testing. SRNL refurbished its single cell SDE test facility and qualified the equipment for continuous operation. A new membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was fabricated and installed in the single cell electrolyzer (60 cm{sup 2} active cell area). Shakedown testing was conducted, and several modifications were made to the test facility equipment. Seven different MEAs were used during testing. Beginning on May 20, 2013, SRNL was able to test the SDE continuously for 1200 hours, including 1000 hours under power to generate hydrogen at an average rate of 10.8 liters per hour. The SDE was not removed or repaired during the 50-day test and was successfully restarted after each shutdown. The test was intentionally stopped after 1200 hours (1000 hours of hydrogen production) due to funding constraints. Post-test examination of the MEA using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDAX) showed no elemental sulfur deposits or sulfur layer inside the cell, thus successfully achieving the test goals. The results demonstrated that the SDE could be operated for extended periods without major performance degradation or the buildup of sulfur inside the MEA. Air Products conducted an assessment of the economic viability of the SDE based on the “as tested” design. The results indicated that the SDE faces significant economic obstacles in its current state. Further development and scale-up are necessary before the SDE is ready for commercialization.

  2. Development of bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery using LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unemoto, Atsushi, E-mail: unemoto@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Ikeshoji, Tamio [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yasaku, Syun; Matsuo, Motoaki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nogami, Genki; Tazawa, Masaru; Taniguchi, Mitsugu [Mitsubishi Gas Chemicals Co., Ltd., 182 Tayuhama Shinwari, Kita-ku, Niigata 950-3112 (Japan); Orimo, Shin-ichi [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-08-25

    Stable battery operation of a bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery was demonstrated by using a LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The electrochemical activity of insulating elemental sulfur as the positive electrode was enhanced by the mutual dispersion of elemental sulfur and carbon in the composite powders. Subsequently, a tight interface between the sulfur-carbon composite and the LiBH{sub 4} powders was manifested only by cold-pressing owing to the highly deformable nature of the LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The high reducing ability of LiBH{sub 4} allows using the use of a Li negative electrode that enhances the energy density. The results demonstrate the interface modification of insulating sulfur and the architecture of an all-solid-state Li-S battery configuration with high energy density.

  3. HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

    2009-05-12

    This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by PBMR (Pty.) Ltd. in the RSA, with the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in the US as part of the NHI. This work was performed by SRNL, Westinghouse Electric Company, Shaw, PBMR (Pty) Ltd., and Technology Insights under a Technical Consulting Agreement (TCA). Westinghouse Electric, serving as the lead for the PBMR process heat application team, established a cost-shared TCA with SRNL to prepare an updated HyS thermochemical water-splitting process flowsheet, a nuclear hydrogen plant preconceptual design and a cost estimate, including the cost of hydrogen production. SRNL was funded by DOE under the NHI program, and the Westinghouse team was self-funded. The results of this work are presented in this Final Report. Appendices have been attached to provide a detailed source of information in order to document the work under the TCA contract.

  4. SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE TREATMENT OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL TO ENHANCE SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.; Torres, R.; Korinko, P.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Becnel, J.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Adams, T.

    2012-09-25

    Reactive Gas Recycling (RGR) technology development has been initiated at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), with a stretch-goal to develop a fully dry recycling technology for Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF). This approach is attractive due to the potential of targeted gas-phase treatment steps to reduce footprint and secondary waste volumes associated with separations relying primarily on traditional technologies, so long as the fluorinators employed in the reaction are recycled for use in the reactors or are optimized for conversion of fluorinator reactant. The developed fluorination via SF{sub 6}, similar to the case for other fluorinators such as NF{sub 3}, can be used to address multiple fuel forms and downstream cycles including continued processing for LWR via fluorination or incorporation into a aqueous process (e.g. modified FLUOREX) or for subsequent pyro treatment to be used in advanced gas reactor designs such metal- or gas-cooled reactors. This report details the most recent experimental results on the reaction of SF{sub 6} with various fission product surrogate materials in the form of oxides and metals, including uranium oxides using a high-temperature DTA apparatus capable of temperatures in excess of 1000{deg}C . The experimental results indicate that the majority of the fission products form stable solid fluorides and sulfides, while a subset of the fission products form volatile fluorides such as molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluoride, as predicted thermodynamically. Additional kinetic analysis has been performed on additional fission products. A key result is the verification that SF{sub 6} requires high temperatures for direct fluorination and subsequent volatilization of uranium oxides to UF{sub 6}, and thus is well positioned as a head-end treatment for other separations technologies, such as the volatilization of uranium oxide by NF{sub 3} as reported by colleagues at PNNL, advanced pyrochemical separations or traditional full recycle approaches. Based on current results of the research at SRNL on SF{sub 6} fluoride volatility for UNF separations, SF{sub 6} treatment renders all anticipated volatile fluorides studied to be volatile, and all non-volatile fluorides studied to be non-volatile, with the notable exception of uranium oxides. This offers an excellent opportunity to use this as a head-end separations treatment process because: 1. SF{sub 6} can be used to remove volatile fluorides from a UNF matrix while leaving behind uranium oxides. Therefore an agent such as NF{sub 3} should be able to very cleanly separate a pure UF{sub 6} stream, leaving compounds in the bottoms such as PuF{sub 4}, SrF{sub 2} and CsF after the UNF matrix has been pre-treated with SF{sub 6}. 2. Due to the fact that the uranium oxide is not separated in the volatilization step upon direct contact with SF{sub 6} at moderately high temperatures (? 1000{deg}C), this fluoride approach may be wellsuited for head-end processing for Gen IV reactor designs where the LWR is treated as a fuel stock, and it is not desired to separate the uranium from plutonium, but it is desired to separate many of the volatile fission products. 3. It is likely that removal of the volatile fission products from the uranium oxide should simplify both traditional and next generation pyroprocessing techniques. 4. SF{sub 6} treatment to remove volatile fission products, with or without treatment with additional fluorinators, could be used to simplify the separations of traditional aqueous processes in similar fashion to the FLUOREX process. Further research should be conducted to determine the separations efficiency of a combined SF{sub 6}/NF{sub 3} separations approach which could be used as a stand-alone separations technology or a head-end process.

  5. Sulfur Emissions from Volcanic A c t i v i t y i n 1985 and 1990 Carmen M. Benkovitz and M. A l t a f Mubaraki

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPENDIX C Sulfur Emissions from Volcanic A c t i v i t y i n 1985 and 1990 Carmen M. Benkovitz). Global estimates o f anthropogenic emissions o f sulfur f o r 1985 are approximately 65 Tg S y-l (Benkovi Anthropogenic Sulfur Emissions f o r 1985 and 1990 i n t h i s report). Sulfur from biogenic sources i s emitted

  6. Photoacoustic removal of occlusions from blood vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); London, Richard A. (Orinda, CA); Maitland, IV, Duncan J. (Lafayette, CA); Esch, Victor C. (San Francisco, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Partial or total occlusions of fluid passages within the human body are removed by positioning an array of optical fibers in the passage and directing treatment radiation pulses along the fibers, one at a time, to generate a shock wave and hydrodynamics flows that strike and emulsify the occlusions. A preferred application is the removal of blood clots (thrombin and embolic) from small cerebral vessels to reverse the effects of an ischemic stroke. The operating parameters and techniques are chosen to minimize the amount of heating of the fragile cerebral vessel walls occurring during this photo acoustic treatment. One such technique is the optical monitoring of the existence of hydrodynamics flow generating vapor bubbles when they are expected to occur and stopping the heat generating pulses propagated along an optical fiber that is not generating such bubbles.

  7. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang, William A. Goddard, Yongchun Tang

    2005-05-05

    In the second year of this project, we continued our effort to develop low temperature decarboxylation catalysts and investigate the behavior of these catalysts at different reaction conditions. We conducted a large number of dynamic measurements with crude oil and model compounds to obtain the information at different reaction stages, which was scheduled as the Task2 in our work plan. We developed a novel adsorption method to remove naphthenic acid from crude oil using naturally occurring materials such as clays. Our results show promise as an industrial application. The theoretical modeling proposed several possible reaction pathways and predicted the reactivity depending on the catalysts employed. From all of these studies, we obtained more comprehensive understanding about catalytic decarboxylation and oil upgrading based on the naphthenic acid removal concept.

  8. Removal of mercury from waste gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muster, U.; Marr, R.; Pichler, G.; Kremshofer, S.; Wilferl, R.; Draxler, J.

    1996-12-31

    Waste and process gases from thermal power, incineration and metallurgical plants or those from cement and alkali chloride industries contain metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Widespread processes to remove the major amount of mercury are absorption and adsorption. Caused by the lowering of the emission limit from 200 to 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] by national and European legislators, considerable efforts were made to enhance the efficiency of the main separation units of flue gas cleaning plants. Specially impregnated ceramic carriers can be used for the selective separation of metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Using the ceramic reactor removal rates lower than 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] of gaseous mercury and its compounds can be achieved. The ceramic reactor is active, regenerable and stable for a long term operation. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Method of arsenic removal from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA)

    2010-10-26

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  10. Metathesis depolymerization for removable surfactant templates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zifer, Thomas (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Wheeler, David Roger; Rahimian, Kamayar; McElhanon, James Ross (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Long, Timothy Michael; Jamison, Gregory Marks; Loy, Douglas Anson (Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, NM); Kline, Steven R. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Simmons, Blake Alexander (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-03-01

    Current methodologies for the production of meso- and nanoporous materials include the use of a surfactant to produce a self-assembled template around which the material is formed. However, post-production surfactant removal often requires centrifugation, calcination, and/or solvent washing which can damage the initially formed material architecture(s). Surfactants that can be disassembled into easily removable fragments following material preparation would minimize processing damage to the material structure, facilitating formation of templated hybrid architectures. Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of novel cationic and anionic surfactants with regularly spaced unsaturation in their hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails and the first application of ring closing metathesis depolymerization to surfactant degradation resulting in the mild, facile decomposition of these new compounds to produce relatively volatile nonsurface active remnants.

  11. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1987-07-30

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  12. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Kerry A.; Bellamy, J. Steve; Chandler, Greg T.; Iyer, Natraj C.; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D.; Hackney, B.; Leduc, Dan R.

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  13. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (12833 S. 82nd Ct., Palos Park, IL 60464); Sinha, Shome N. (5748 Drexel, 2A, Chicago, IL 60637)

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  14. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Makarewicz, M.A.; Meredith, P.F.

    1985-03-04

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  15. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1990-05-15

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  16. Development of a real-time PCR method for the detection of fossil 16S rDNA fragments of phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    of phototrophic sulfur bacteria in the sediments of Lake Cadagno D. F. RAVASI,1 S. PEDUZZI,1 , 2 V. GUIDI,2 , 3 R sulfur bacteria in the chemocline has been monitored since 1994 with molecular methods such as 16S r sulfur bacteria populations from sediment samples. We detected fossil 16S rDNA of nine populations

  17. New Model to Predict Formation Damage due to Sulfur Deposition in Sour M.A. Mahmoud and A.A. Al-Majed, KFUPM, all SPE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    SPE 149535 New Model to Predict Formation Damage due to Sulfur Deposition in Sour Gas Wells M of SPE copyright. Abstract Elemental sulfur (S8) is often present in considerable amounts in sour gas to deposit in the formation. Sulfur deposition can cause severe loss in the pore space available for gas

  18. Neon and Sulfur Abundances of Planetary Nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Bernard-Salas; S. R. Pottasch; S. Gutenkunst; P. W. Morris; J. R. Houck

    2007-09-20

    The chemical abundances of neon and sulfur for 25 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Magellanic Clouds are presented. These abundances have been derived using mainly infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope. The implications for the chemical evolution of these elements are discussed. A comparison with similarly obtained abundances of Galactic PNe and HII regions and Magellanic Clouds HII regions is also given. The average neon abundances are 6.0x10(-5) and 2.7x10(-5) for the PNe in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds respectively. These are ~1/3 and 1/6 of the average abundances of Galactic planetary nebulae to which we compare. The average sulfur abundances for the LMC and SMC are respectively 2.7x10(-6) and 1.0x10(-6). The Ne/S ratio (23.5) is on average higher than the ratio found in Galactic PNe (16) but the range of values in both data sets is similar for most of the objects. The neon abundances found in PNe and HII regions agree with each other. It is possible that a few (3-4) of the PNe in the sample have experienced some neon enrichment, but for two of these objects the high Ne/S ratio can be explained by their very low sulfur abundances. The neon and sulfur abundances derived in this paper are also compared to previously published abundances using optical data and photo-ionization models.

  19. Performance of Sulfur Tolerant Reforming Catalysts for Production of Hydrogen from Jet Fuel Simulants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    Performance of Sulfur Tolerant Reforming Catalysts for Production of Hydrogen from Jet Fuel is a critical path for the use of jet fuels in powering the commercial growth of fuel cell systems for air the fuel through adsorptive methods is not practical for long term operations. The current work describes

  20. Impact of anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition on ocean acidification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    3 and H2SO4) and bases (NH3) alter surface seawater alkalinity, pH, and inorganic carbon storage. We and alkaline in the tropics because of am- monia inputs. However, because most of the excess ammonia Tmol/yr), ammonia (NH3, 4 Tmol/yr), and sulfur dioxide (SO2, 2 Tmol/yr) to the atmosphere (1). Globally