National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for removal catalyst research

  1. Congressionally Directed Project for Passive NOx Removal Catalysts Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, William

    2014-08-29

    The Recipient proposes to produce new scientific and technical knowledge and tools to enable the discovery and deployment of highly effective materials for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from lean combustion exhaust. A second goal is to demonstrate a closely coupled experimental and computational approach to heterogeneous catalysis research. These goals will be met through the completion of four primary technical objectives: First, an in-depth kinetic analysis will be performed on two prominent classes of NOx SCR catalysts, Fe- and Cu-exchanged beta and ZSM-5 zeolites, over a wide range of catalyst formulation and under identical, high conversion conditions as a function of gas phase composition. Second, the nanoscale structure and adsorption chemistry of these high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) catalysts will be determined using in situ and operando spectroscopy under the same reaction conditions. Third, first-principles molecular simulations will be used to model the metal-zeolite active sites, their adsorption chemistry, and key steps in catalytic function. Fourth, this information will be integrated into chemically detailed mechanistic and kinetic descriptions and models of the operation of these well- defined NOx SCR catalysts under practically relevant reaction conditions. The new knowledge and models that derive from this work will be published in the scientific literature.

  2. Catalyst regeneration process including metal contaminants removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganguli, Partha S.

    1984-01-01

    Spent catalysts removed from a catalytic hydrogenation process for hydrocarbon feedstocks, and containing undesired metals contaminants deposits, are regenerated. Following solvent washing to remove process oils, the catalyst is treated either with chemicals which form sulfate or oxysulfate compounds with the metals contaminants, or with acids which remove the metal contaminants, such as 5-50 W % sulfuric acid in aqueous solution and 0-10 W % ammonium ion solutions to substantially remove the metals deposits. The acid treating occurs within the temperature range of 60.degree.-250.degree. F. for 5-120 minutes at substantially atmospheric pressure. Carbon deposits are removed from the treated catalyst by carbon burnoff at 800.degree.-900.degree. F. temperature, using 1-6 V % oxygen in an inert gas mixture, after which the regenerated catalyst can be effectively reused in the catalytic process.

  3. Removal of metals from heavy oils with phosphorus - Alumina catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kukes, S.G.; Parrott, S.L.; Gardner, L.E. )

    1987-04-01

    Earlier it was found that various oil-soluble phosphorous compounds were active for vanadium removal from different crude oils. The phosphorous compounds preferentially reacted with low molecular weight vanadium species in the resin fraction and therefore the highest rate of vanadium removal was observed when the asphaltene fraction was partially or completely removed. Phosphorous compounds promoted the rate of vanadium removal during hydroprocessing over alumina in a trickle bed reactor. Some metal phosphates were prepared and tested for demetallization activity. Several mixed metal phosphates, such as Cr-Zr, Ni-Zr, Cu-Zr, V-Co-Zr, Fe-Co-Zr, Ni-Co-Zr, etc., exhibited high activity for both vanadium and nickel removal. These catalysts were found to possess HDM activity and activity maintenance comparable to conventional hydrotreating catalysts available commercially. The vanadium removal selectivity of the mixed metal phosphates was similar to that of the commercial catalyst, but much lower than that observed earlier for oil soluble phosphorous compounds. Since the lack of high vanadium selectivity for the mixed metal phosphates could be due to their transition metal component, they investigated the hydroprocessing of heavy oils over aluminas impregnated with different inorganic phosphorous compounds.

  4. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1993-01-01

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

  5. Nitrogen oxide removal using diesel fuel and a catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, George E.; Goerz, David A.; Hsiao, Mark; Merritt, Bernard T.; Penetrante, Bernie M.; Reynolds, John G.; Brusasco, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, such as diesel fuel, are added to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x in the presence of a amphoteric catalyst support material. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbons.

  6. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, C.Y.

    1993-09-21

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]. 1 figure.

  7. Adsorptive removal of catalyst poisons from coal gas for methanol synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, B.L.; Golden, T.C.; Hsiung, T.H. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))

    1991-12-01

    As an integral part of the liquid-phase methanol (LPMEOH) process development program, the present study evaluated adsorptive schemes to remove traces of catalyst poisons such as iron carbonyl, carbonyl sulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from coal gas on a pilot scale. Tests were conducted with coal gas from the Cool Water gasification plant at Daggett, California. Iron carbonyl, carbonyl sulfide, and hydrogen sulfide were effectively removed from the coal gas. The adsorption capacities of Linde H-Y zeolite and Calgon BPL carbon for Fe(CO){sub 5} compared well with previous bench-scale results at similar CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Adsorption of COS by Calgon FCA carbon appeared to be chemical and nonregenerable by thermal treatment in nitrogen. A Cu/Zn catalyst removed H{sub 2}S very effectively. With the adsorption system on-line, a methanol catalyst showed stable activity during 120 h operation, demonstrating the feasibility of adsorptive removal of trace catalyst poisons from the synthesis gas. Mass transfer coefficients were estimated for Fe(CO){sub 5} and COS removal which can be directly used for design and scale up.

  8. LSU EFRC - Center for Atomic Level Catalyst Design - Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research >> space control Wet Chemical Synthesis of Atomically Precise Nanocatalysts space control Control of Structures on Complex Catalyst Supports space control Electrocatalytic Reduction of CO2 space control Activation of CO on Metal Clusters space control Nano-structured Catalysts for CO Activation space control Modeling and Synthesis of Rare Earth Oxides space control space control Research space control space control The Six Projects that comprise our Center's research efforts have

  9. Milli-fluidic Reactor for Catalyst Research D. Yemane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Milli-fluidic Reactor for Catalyst Research D. Yemane 1 , C.S.S.R. Kumar 1,2 , J. Goettert ... Due to the well-defined space and reaction conditions within the reactor channels problems ...

  10. NREL Patents a Catalyst that Removes Syngas Tar, Boosting the Economics of Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Patents a Catalyst that Removes Syngas Tar, Boosting the Economics of Biofuels NREL has patented a catalyst that reforms tar into syngas, a breakthrough that can accelerate the process of getting biomass ready for fuel synthesis and use as a drop-in fuel. The process also can help reduce greenhouse gases because the biomass that is used in fuel gets combusted into carbon dioxide, which is food for future biomass. The result is that 90% of carbon emissions get recycled into new biomass. Syngas is

  11. New Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power Development New Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power Development January 10, ...

  12. Immobilizing tyrosinase within chitosan gels: A combination catalyst and sorbent for phenol removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Wei-Qiang; Payne, G.F.

    1995-12-01

    Phenols are common contaminants in chemical process effluents. To remove we developed a two step bioremediation approach in which an these contaminants, we developed a two step bioremediation approach in which an enzymatic reaction was coupled with absorption. In the first step, weakly adsorbable phenols are converted to reactive o-quinones by the enzyme tyrosinase. The quinones are then strongly adsorbed onto the surface of a chitosan sorbent in the second steel. Our results show that this two step approach can selectively and efficiently remove phenols from solution. To reduce this approach into practice, we immobilized the tyrosinase within a chitosan gel yielding a combined catalyst-sorbent film. Using this tyrosinase-containing chitosan gel, phenols (i.e. phenol, cresol and catechol) can be completely removed from solution.

  13. Selective ammonia slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx removal requirements of the future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A low precious metal loading ammonia-slip catalyst was developed that is able to oxidize the ammonia that slips past the SCR catalyst to nitrogen.

  14. NREL Patents a Catalyst that Removes Syngas Tar, Boosting the Economics of Biofuels (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    NREL has patented a catalyst that reforms tar into syngas, a breakthrough that can accelerate the process of getting biomass ready for fuel synthesis and use as a drop-in fuel.

  15. Catalyst rejuvenation technology and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duddy, J.E.; Hildebrandt, S.J.; Koseoglu, R.O.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major factors in the economics of residue hydroprocessing is the cost of catalyst. Catalyst replacement cost in Hydrocarbon Research, Inc.`s (HRI) H-Oil{reg_sign} Process is set by a number of factors, including the feedrate, processing objectives, and feedstock type. At a given level of process performance, the catalyst replacement rate is primarily set by the rate of catalyst deactivation resulting from contaminant metals in the feedstock depositing on the catalyst surface. This is especially true as the metals content of the feedstock increases. In the recent years, interest in processing high metals feedstock has increased. For example, HRI has recently designed a new H-Oil{reg_sign} Process unit for PEMEX in Mexico, where the metals content of the design feedstock is in excess of 700 wppm. Regeneration of used hydroprocessing catalysts, through controlled oxidation of the coke deposited on the catalyst, is a common practice in the refining industry. Activity can be restored to almost fresh catalyst activity level when the primary contaminant is coke. If there is a significant amount of metal contaminants on the catalyst, regeneration alone is not effective in restoring catalyst activity. Oxidation is unable to remove contaminant metals. HRI has developed and patented a washing procedure to remove the contaminant metals. A dilute acid wash (to remove metals), in conjunction with conventional regeneration (to remove coke), can restore high levels of catalyst activity of spent catalysts with high levels of metal contaminants. The combination of acid washing and controlled oxidation forms the basis of HRI`s Catalyst Rejuvenation Technology.

  16. Palladium nanoparticles produced by fermentatively cultivated bacteria as catalyst for diatrizoate removal with biogenic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hennebel, T.; Fitts, J.; Nevel, S. V.; Verschuere, S.; DeCorte, S.; DeGusseme, B.; Cuvelier, C.; vanderLelie, D.; Boon, N.; Verstraete, W.

    2011-05-17

    A new biological inspired method to produce nanopalladium is the precipitation of Pd on a bacterium, i.e., bio-Pd. This bio-Pd can be applied as catalyst in dehalogenation reactions. However, large amounts of hydrogen are required as electron donor in these reactions resulting in considerable costs. This study demonstrates how bacteria, cultivated under fermentative conditions, can be used to reductively precipitate bio-Pd catalysts and generate the electron donor hydrogen. In this way, one could avoid the costs coupled to hydrogen supply. The catalytic activities of Pd(0) nanoparticles produced by different strains of bacteria (bio-Pd) cultivated under fermentative conditions were compared in terms of their ability to dehalogenate the recalcitrant aqueous pollutants diatrizoate and trichloroethylene. While all of the fermentative bio-Pd preparations followed first order kinetics in the dehalogenation of diatrizoate, the catalytic activity differed systematically according to hydrogen production and starting Pd(II) concentration in solution. Batch reactors with nanoparticles formed by Citrobacter braakii showed the highest diatrizoate dehalogenation activity with first order constants of 0.45 {+-} 0.02 h{sup -1} and 5.58 {+-} 0.6 h{sup -1} in batches with initial concentrations of 10 and 50 mg L{sup -1} Pd, respectively. Nanoparticles on C. braakii, used in a membrane bioreactor treating influent containing 20 mg L{sup -1} diatrizoate, were capable of dehalogenating 22 mg diatrizoate mg{sup -1} Pd over a period of 19 days before bio-Pd catalytic activity was exhausted. This study demonstrates the possibility to use the combination of Pd(II), a carbon source and bacteria under fermentative conditions for the abatement of environmental halogenated contaminants.

  17. Tyrosinase-containing chitosan gels: A combined catalyst and sorbent for selective phenol removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, W.Q.; Payne, G.F.

    1996-07-05

    There are a series of examples in which phenols appear as contaminants in process streams and their selective removal is required for waste minimization. For the selective removal of a phenol from a mixture, the authors are exploiting the substrate specificity of the enzyme tyrosinase to convert phenols into reactive o-quinones which are then adsorbed onto the amine-containing polymer chitosan. To effectively package the enzyme and sorbent, tyrosinase was immobilized between two chitosan gel films. The entrapment of tyrosinase between the films led to little loss of activity during immobilization, while tyrosinase leakage during incubation was limited. The chitosan gels rapidly adsorb the tyrosinase-generated product(s) of phenol oxidation while the capacity of the gels is substantially greater than the capacity of chitosan flakes. The performance of tyrosinase-containing chitosan gels significantly depends on the ratio of tyrosinase-to-chitosan. High tyrosinase-to-chitosan ratios result in less efficient use of tyrosinase, presumably due to suicide inactivation. However, the efficiency of chitosan use increases with increased tyrosinase-to-chitosan ratios.

  18. Identification of Catalysts and Materials for a High-Energy Density Biochemical Fuel Cell: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-345

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghirardi, M.; Svedruzic, D.

    2013-07-01

    The proposed research attempted to identify novel biochemical catalysts, catalyst support materials, high-efficiency electron transfer agents between catalyst active sites and electrodes, and solid-phase electrolytes in order to maximize the current density of biochemical fuel cells that utilize various alcohols as substrates.

  19. Selective ammonia slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx removal requirements of the future Selective ammonia slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx removal requirements of the future A ...

  20. 08-ERD-071 Final Report: New Molecular Probes and Catalysts for Bioenergy Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thelen, M P; Rowe, A A; Siebers, A K; Jiao, Y

    2011-03-07

    A major thrust in bioenergy research is to develop innovative methods for deconstructing plant cell wall polymers, such as cellulose and lignin, into simple monomers that can be biologically converted to ethanol and other fuels. Current techniques for monitoring a broad array of cell wall materials and specific degradation products are expensive and time consuming. To monitor various polymers and assay their breakdown products, molecular probes for detecting specific carbohydrates and lignins are urgently needed. These new probes would extend the limited biochemical techniques available, and enable realtime imaging of ultrastructural changes in plant cells. Furthermore, degradation of plant biomass could be greatly accelerated by the development of catalysts that can hydrolyze key cell wall polysaccharides and lignin. The objective of this project was to develop cheap and efficient DNA reagents (aptamers) used to detect and quantify polysaccharides, lignin, and relevant products of their breakdown. A practical goal of the research was to develop electrochemical aptamer biosensors, which could be integrated into microfluidic devices and used for high-throughput screening of enzymes or biological systems that degrade biomass. Several important model plant cell wall polymers and compounds were targeted for specific binding and purification of aptamers, which were then tested by microscopic imaging, circular dichroism, surface plasmon resonance, fluorescence anisotropy, and electrochemical biosensors. Using this approach, it was anticiated that we could provide a basis for more efficient and economically viable biofuels, and the technologies established could be used to design molecular tools that recognize targets sought in medicine or chemical and biological defense projects.

  1. System for reactivating catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Anderson, Raymond P.

    2010-03-02

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst is provided. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  2. Theoretical Research Program on Bio-inspired Inorganic Hydrogen Generating Catalysts and Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selloni, Annabella; Car, Roberto; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-04-17

    In this project, we have successfully designed and characterized a promising biomimetic catalyst/electrode complex, [FeFe]P/FeS2 for producing hydrogen from water. It is comprised of earth-abundant materials and, with a diffusion-limited rate in acidified water, is efficient as well as oxygen tolerant. The theoretical techniques we have developed and the experience we have gained are broadly applicable for the design and analysis of biomimetic electrochemically active catalysts.

  3. New Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development | Department of Energy Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power Development New Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power Development January 10, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2012 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. Virginia Beach, Virginia - A new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research facility could help bring the United States closer to generating power from the winds and

  4. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Topical report No. 14. Catalyst activity trends in two-stage coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    The Two Stage Coal Liquefaction process became operational at Wilsonville in May 1981, with the inclusion of an H-OIL ebullated-bed catalytic reactor. The two stage process was initially operated in a nonintegrated mode and has recently been reconfigurated to fully integrate the thermal and the catalytic stages. This report focuses on catalyst activity trends observed in both modes of operation. A literature review of relevant catalyst screening studies in bench-scale and PDU units is presented. Existing kinetic and deactivation models were used to analyze process data over an extensive data base. Based on the analysis, three separate, application studies have been conducted. The first study seeks to elucidate the dependence of catalyst deactivation rate on type of coal feedstock used. A second study focuses on the significance of catalyst type and integration mode on SRC hydrotreatment. The third study presents characteristic deactivation trends observed in integrated operation with different first-stage thermal severities. In-depth analytical work was conducted at different research laboratories on aged catalyst samples from Run 242. Model hydrogenation and denitrogenation activity trends are compared with process activity trends and with changes observed in catalyst porosimetric properties. The accumulation of metals and coke deposits with increasing catalyst age, as well as their distribution across a pellet cross-section, are discussed. The effect of catalyst age and reactor temperature on the chemical composition of flashed bottoms product is addressed. Results from regenerating spent catalysts are also presented. 35 references, 31 figures, 18 tables.

  5. NNSA Completes Conversion of the Budapest Research Reactor and Removal of

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    All Fresh HEU in Hungary | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Completes Conversion of the Budapest Research Reactor and Removal of All Fresh HEU in Hungary September 15, 2009 WASHINGTON, D.C. - This week, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), in cooperation with KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, successfully converted the Budapest Research Reactor (BRR) from the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The BRR conversion

  6. Catalyst systems and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ozkan, Umit S.; Holmgreen, Erik M.; Yung, Matthew M.

    2012-07-24

    A method of carbon monoxide (CO) removal comprises providing an oxidation catalyst comprising cobalt supported on an inorganic oxide. The method further comprises feeding a gaseous stream comprising CO, and oxygen (O.sub.2) to the catalyst system, and removing CO from the gaseous stream by oxidizing the CO to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) in the presence of the oxidation catalyst at a temperature between about 20 to about 200.degree. C.

  7. EM Celebrates Milestone with Removal of Last Waste Tank at Separations Process Research Unit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NISKAYUNA, N.Y. – EM recently marked a notable milestone at the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) when workers removed the last of seven large waste storage tanks from a vault and shipped it to an offsite low-level radioactive waste disposal facility.

  8. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  9. New Catalyst Reduces Wasted Carbon in Biofuel Process, Lowers Cost (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL researchers have shown that incorporating copper-modified catalysts into the dimethyl ether-to- fuels pathway increases carbon efficiency and decreases overall production costs. The biomass-to-liquid-fuel approach remains one of the most promising renewable fuel processes in terms of its immediate impact and compatibility with existing infrastructure. Methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) can be produced from biomass, and recent inves- tigations have shown that certain catalysts can convert

  10. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh; Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy

    1999-01-01

    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption processes, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gasses from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or "passivating" the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

  11. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, S.; Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-07-27

    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption process, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gases from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or passivating the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

  12. Attrition Resistant Iron-Based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Goodwin, J.S.; Spivey, J.J.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1997-09-22

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T when using low CO/H{sub 2} ratio synthesis gases derived from modern coal gasifiers. This is because in addition to reasonable F-T activity, the F-T catalysts also possess high water gas shift (WGS) activity. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, making the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research are to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition resistance of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. Catalyst preparations will be based on the use of spray drying and will be scalable using commercially available equipment. The research will employ among other measurements, attrition testing and F-T synthesis, including long duration slurry reactor runs in order to ascertain the degree of success of the various preparations. The goal is to develop an Fe catalyst which can be used in a SBCR having only an internal filter for separation of the catalyst from the liquid product, without sacrificing F-T activity and selectivity.

  13. Researching Fe catalyst suitable for CO{sub 2}-containing syngas for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wensheng Ning; Naoto Koizumi; Muneyoshi Yamada

    2009-09-15

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a technology to produce liquid fuels from coal, natural gas, and biomass as an alternate to crude oil. However, the quantity of emitted CO{sub 2} from the FT process consisting of syngas preparation, FT synthesis, and product workup is one of the serious disadvantages of FT process. The conversion of CO{sub 2} into hydrocarbons is one of the promising methods to decrease CO{sub 2} emissions. Effects of promoter addition on the activity of precipitated Fe catalysts for the conversion of CO{sub 2} were studied using pure CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}-containing syngas feeds. The results suggested that CO{sub 2} can be activated by suitable promoter(s) for hydrocarbon synthesis at low temperature. Low K content is suitable for increasing hydrocarbon yield. The Fe catalysts promoted by equal Zn and Cu have higher CO and CO{sub 2} conversion and decreased CH{sub 4} selectivity. 36 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Development of a Novel Catalyst for No Decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale Akyurtlu

    2007-06-22

    Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NO{sub x} emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N{sub 2} will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the research that is being undertaken is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and elevated temperatures. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts having

  15. ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James G. Goodwin, Jr.; James J. Spivey; K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    1999-03-29

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T when using low CO/H2 ratio synthesis gases derived from modern coal gasifiers. This is because in addition to reasonable F-T activity, the F-T catalysts also possess high water gas shift (WGS) activity. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, making the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research are to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition resistance of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. Catalyst preparations will be based on the use of spray drying and will be scalable using commercially available equipment. The research will employ among other measurements, attrition testing and F-T synthesis, including long duration slurry reactor runs in order to ascertain the degree of success of the various preparations. The goal is to develop an Fe catalyst which can be used in a SBCR having only an internal filter for separation of the catalyst from the liquid product, without sacrificing F-T activity and selectivity. The effect of silica addition via coprecipitation and as a binder to a doubly promoted Fischer-Tropsch synthesis iron catalyst (100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K) was studied. The catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation, followed by binder addition and drying in a 1 m

  16. Mapping Metals Incorporation of a Single Catalyst Particle Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In this study, researchers from Utrecht University (Netherlands) and SSRL investigated a whole single equilibrium catalyst (E-cat) particle, i.e. a catalyst that had undergone ...

  17. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

    2004-04-28

    In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

  18. Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on the Performance of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitacre, Shawn D.

    2000-08-20

    Research focus: - Impact of sulfur on: Catalyst performance; Short term catalyst durability. This presentation summarizes results from fresh catalyst performance evaluations - WVU contracted to conduct DOC and Lean NOx catalyst testing for DECSE DECSE program. (experimental details discussed previously)

  19. Oxyhydrochlorination catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An improved catalyst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HCl and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  20. Catalysts for emerging energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Gates; George W. Huber; Christopher L. Marshall; Phillip N. Ross; Jeffrey Siirola; Yong Wang

    2008-04-15

    Catalysis is the essential technology for chemical transformation, including production of fuels from the fossil resources petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Typical catalysts for these conversions are robust porous solids incorporating metals, metal oxides, and/or metal sulfides. As efforts are stepping up to replace fossil fuels with biomass, new catalysts for the conversion of the components of biomass will be needed. Although the catalysts for biomass conversion might be substantially different from those used in the conversion of fossil feedstocks, the latter catalysts are a starting point in today's research. Major challenges lie ahead in the discovery of efficient biomass conversion catalysts, as well as in the discovery of catalysts for conversion of CO{sub 2} and possibly water into liquid fuels. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Development Of A Novel Catalyst For No Decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

    2006-09-14

    Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NO{sub x} emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N2 will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO2 catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the research that is being undertaken is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO2 catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and elevated temperatures. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO2 catalysts having different noble metal

  2. Catalyst and process for hydroprocessing heavy oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Audeh, C.A.; Yan, T.Y.

    1984-09-04

    Disclosed is a catalyst and process for making same wherein sepiolite is ion exchanged with a Group Ib, IIb, IIIb, IVb, Vb, or VIIa metal, impregnated with VIa metal and exchanged with a magnesium salt with intervening processing steps of calcining. The catalyst composition is useful in removing metals and hydroprocessing of hydrocarbon feedstocks. The catalyst can also be mixed with a high silica/alumina ratio zeolite such as sodium ZSM-5 zeolite.

  3. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Emission Treatment Catalyst | Department of Energy Emission Treatment Catalyst Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies of Emission Treatment Catalyst Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. p-08_narula.pdf (495.8 KB) More Documents & Publications Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies of Oxidation Catalyst for

  4. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  5. Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry : iron-containing particulate catalysts. Activity report : January 1, 2001 - December 31, 2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronauer, D.; Chemical Engineering

    2006-05-12

    Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry--specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it is desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. It is desired that selectivity be directed toward producing diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. The goal is to produce shape-selective catalysts that have the potential to limit the formation of longchain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage'. This cage also restricts their loss by attrition during use in slurry-bed reactors. The first stage of this program was to prepare and evaluate iron-containing particulate catalysts. This activity report centers upon this first stage of experimentation with particulate FT catalysts. (For reference, a second experimental stage is under way to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes.) To date, experimentation has centered upon the evaluation of a sample of iron-based, spray-dried catalyst prepared by B.H. Davis of the Center of Applied Energy Research (CAER) and samples of his catalyst onto which inorganic 'shells' were deposited. The reference CAER catalyst contained a high level of dispersed fine particles, a portion of which was removed by differential settling. Reaction conditions have been established using a FT laboratory unit such that reasonable levels of CO conversion can be achieved, where therefore a valid catalyst comparison can be made. A wide range of catalytic activities was observed with SiO{sub 2}-coated FT catalysts. Two techniques were used for SiO{sub 2}coating. The first involved a caustic precipitation of SiO{sub 2} from an

  6. Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming Success Story Converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as diesel and coal-based fuels, into hydrogen-rich synthesis gas is a necessary step for fuel cells and other applications. The high sulfur and aromatic content of these fuels poses a major technical challenge since these components can deactivate reforming catalysts. Taking on this challenge, NETL researchers invented a novel fuel-reforming catalyst that overcomes limitations of current catalysts by

  7. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  8. Steam Reforming of Ethylene Glycol over MgAl₂O₄ Supported Rh, Ni, and Co Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Xing, Rong; Albrecht, Karl O.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2015-11-25

    Steam reforming of ethylene glycol (EG) over MgAl₂O₄ supported metal (15 wt.% Ni, 5 wt.% Rh, and 15 wt.% Co) catalysts were investigated using combined experimental and theoretical methods. Compared to highly active Rh and Ni catalysts with 100% conversion, the steam reforming activity of EG over the Co catalyst is comparatively lower with only 42% conversion under the same reaction conditions (500°C, 1 atm, 119,000 h⁻¹, S/C=3.3 mol). However, CH₄ selectivity over the Co catalyst is remarkably lower. For example, by varying the gas hour space velocity (GHSV) such that complete conversion is achieved for all the catalysts, CH₄ selectivity for the Co catalyst is only 8%, which is much lower than the equilibrium CH₄ selectivity of ~ 24% obtained for both the Rh and Ni catalysts. Further studies show that varying H₂O concentration over the Co catalyst has a negligible effect on activity, thus indicating zero-order dependence on H₂O. These experimental results suggest that the supported Co catalyst is a promising EG steam reforming catalyst for high hydrogen production. To gain mechanistic insight for rationalizing the lower CH₃ selectivity observed for the Co catalyst, the initial decomposition reaction steps of ethylene glycol via C-O, O-H, C-H, and C-C bond scissions on the Rh(111), Ni(111) and Co(0001) surfaces were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Despite the fact that the bond scission sequence in the EG decomposition on the three metal surfaces varies, which leads to different reaction intermediates, the lower CH₄ selectivity over the Co catalyst, as compared to the Rh and Ni catalysts, is primarily due to the higher barrier for CH₄ formation. The higher S/C ratio enhances the Co catalyst stability, which can be elucidated by the facile water dissociation and an alternative reaction path to remove the CH species as a coking precursor via the HCOH formation. This work was financially supported by the United

  9. Development of attrition resistant iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-09-20

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. The use of iron-based catalysts is attractive not only due to their low cost and ready availability, but also due to their high water-gas shift activity which makes it possible to use these catalysts with low H{sub 2}/CO ratios. However, a serious problem with use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, makes the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objective of this research is to develop robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry bubble column reactor. Specifically we aim to develop to: (1) improve the performance and preparation procedure of the high activity, high attrition resistant, high alpha iron-based catalysts synthesized at Hampton University (2) seek improvements in the catalyst performance through variations in process conditions, pretreatment procedures and/or modifications in catalyst preparation steps and (3) investigate the performance in a slurry reactor. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to effects of pretreating procedures, using H{sub 2}, CO and syngas (H{sub 2}/CO = 0.67) as reductants, on the performance (activity, selectivity and stability with time) of a precipitated iron catalyst (100Fe/5Cu/4.2K/10SiO{sub 2} on a mass basis ) during F-T synthesis were studied in a fixed-bed reactor.

  10. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2010-08-17

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  11. Hydroprocessing catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, F.T.; Hensley, A.L. Jr.; Kukes, S.G.; Arters, D.C.

    1993-06-22

    A hydroprocessing catalyst is described comprising at least one hydrogenation metal selected from the group consisting of the Group VIB metals and the Group VIII metals deposited on an inorganic oxide support, said catalyst being characterized by a surface area of greater than about 220 m[sup 2]/g, a pore volume of 0.23-0.30 cc/g in pores greater than about 600 Angstroms, an average pore radius of about 30-70 Angstroms in pores less than about 600 Angstroms, and an incremental pore volume curve with a maximum at about 25-50 Angstroms radius.

  12. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2014-11-04

    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  13. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  14. Catalyst Support Interactions | Argonne Leadership Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the reactivity of metal catalyst particles. The research team will also study the adhesion properties by simulating the interactions between metal particles of different sizes...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adeyinka A. Adeyiga

    2003-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to convert syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) derived from natural gas or coal to liquid fuels and wax is a well-established technology. For low H{sub 2} to CO ratio syngas produced from CO{sub 2} reforming of natural gas or from gasification of coal, the use of Fe catalysts is attractive because of their high water gas shift activity in addition to their high FT activity. Fe catalysts are also attractive due to their low cost and low methane selectivity. Because of the highly exothermic nature of the FT reaction, there has been a recent move away from fixed-bed reactors toward the development of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) that employ 30 to 90 {micro}m catalyst particles suspended in a waxy liquid for efficient heat removal. However, the use of Fe FT catalysts in an SBCR has been problematic due to severe catalyst attrition resulting in fines that plug the filter employed to separate the catalyst from the waxy product. Fe catalysts can undergo attrition in SBCRs not only due to vigorous movement and collisions but also due to phase changes that occur during activation and reaction. The objectives of this research were to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. The catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation, followed by binder addition and spray drying at 250 C in a 1 m diameter, 2 m tall spray dryer. The binder silica content was varied from 0 to 20 wt %. The results show that use of small amounts of precipitated SiO{sub 2} alone in spray-dried Fe catalysts can result in good attrition resistance. All catalysts investigated with SiO{sub 2} wt% {le} 12 produced fines less than 10 wt% during the jet cup attrition test, making them suitable for long-term use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Thus, concentration rather than type of SiO{sub 2

  16. Method for reactivating catalysts and a method for recycling supercritical fluids used to reactivate the catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Anderson, Raymond P.

    2008-08-05

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  17. Photodriving Water Oxidation Catalysts: Extending Hole Lifetimes | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Photodriving Water Oxidation Catalysts: Extending Hole Lifetimes Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Photodriving Water Oxidation Catalysts: Extending Hole Lifetimes

  18. Catalyst activator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAdon, Mark H.; Nickias, Peter N.; Marks, Tobin J.; Schwartz, David J.

    2001-01-01

    A catalyst activator particularly adapted for use in the activation of metal complexes of metals of Group 3-10 for polymerization of ethylenically unsaturated polymerizable monomers, especially olefins, comprising two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms and a ligand structure including at least one bridging group connecting ligands on the two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms.

  19. Hydroprocessing catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alafandi, H.; Stamires, D.

    1980-04-15

    This invention relates to a hydroprocessing catalyst particularly useful in hydrocracking comprising a low sodium faujasite zeolite produced by a high pressure exchange of Na cations with a solution of an ammonium salt as a substrate for incorporation of a hydrogenating metal compound.

  20. MO-E-18C-05: Global Health Catalyst: A Novel Platform for Enhancing Access to Medical Physics Education and Research Excellence (AMPERE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngwa, W; Moreau, M; Asana, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a platform for catalyzing collaborative global Cancer Care Education and Research (CaRE), with a prime focus on enhancing Access to Medical Physics Education and Research Excellence (AMPERE) Methods: An analysis of over 50 global health collaborations between partners in the U.S. and low and middle income countries (LMIC) in Africa was carried out to assess the models of collaborations in Education and Research and relative success. A survey was carried out with questions including: the nature of the collaboration, how it was initiated, impact of culture and other factors, and recommendations for catalyzing/enhancing such collaborations. An online platform called Global Health Catalyst was developed for enhancing AMPERE. Results: The analysis yielded three main models for global health collaborations with survey providing key recommendations on how to enhance such collaborations. Based on this, the platform was developed, and customized to allow Medical Physicists and other Radiation oncology (RadOnc) professionals interested in participating in Global health to readily do so e.g. teach an online course module, participate in training Medical Physicists or other RadOnc health professionals in LMIC, co-mentor students, residents or postdocs, etc. The growing list of features on the platform also include: a feature to enable people to easily find each other, form teams, operate more effectively as partners from different disciplines, institutions, nations and cultural backgrounds, share tools and technologies, obtain seed funding to develop curricula and/or embark upon new areas of investigation, and participate in humanitarian outreach: remote treatment planning assistance, and participation in virtual Chart Rounds, etc. Conclusion: The developed Global Health Catalyst platform could enable any Medical Physicist or RadoOnc professional interested in global health to readily participate in the Education/training of next generation Rad

  1. Oxy-Combustion Burner and Integrated Pollutant Removal Research and Development Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Schoenfield; Manny Menendez; Thomas Ochs; Rigel Woodside; Danylo Oryshchyn

    2012-09-30

    A high flame temperature oxy-combustion test facility consisting of a 5 MWe equivalent test boiler facility and 20 KWe equivalent IPR® was constructed at the Hammond, Indiana manufacturing site. The test facility was operated natural gas and coal fuels and parametric studies were performed to determine the optimal performance conditions and generated the necessary technical data required to demonstrate the technologies are viable for technical and economic scale-up. Flame temperatures between 4930-6120F were achieved with high flame temperature oxy-natural gas combustion depending on whether additional recirculated flue gases are added to balance the heat transfer. For high flame temperature oxy-coal combustion, flame temperatures in excess of 4500F were achieved and demonstrated to be consistent with computational fluid dynamic modeling of the burner system. The project demonstrated feasibility and effectiveness of the Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process with Integrated Pollutant Removal process for CCS and CCUS. With these technologies total parasitic power requirements for both oxygen production and carbon capture currently are in the range of 20% of the gross power output. The Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process has been demonstrated at a Technology Readiness Level of 6 and is ready for commencement of a demonstration project.

  2. Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control | Department of Energy Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and

  3. Laboratory and Field Demonstration of Energy Efficient VOC Removal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efficient VOC Removal Using a Manganese Oxide Catalyst at Room Temperature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laboratory and Field Demonstration of Energy Efficient VOC ...

  4. Attrition Resistant Iron-Based Catalysts For F-T SBCRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adeyinka A. Adeyiga

    2006-01-31

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+ H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. The use of iron-(FE) based catalysts is attractive not only due to their low cost and ready availability, but also due to their high water-gas shift activity which makes it possible to use these catalysts with low H{sub 2}/CO ratios. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment; makes the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult, if not impossible; and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. Under a previous Department of Energy (DOE)/University Research Grant (UCR) grant, Hampton University reported, for the first time, the development of demonstrably attrition-resistant Fe F-T synthesis catalysts having good activity, selectivity, and attrition resistance. These catalysts were prepared by spray drying Fe catalysts with potassium (K), copper (Cu), and silica (SiO{sub 2}) as promoters. SiO{sub 2} was also used as a binder for spray drying. These catalysts were tested for activity and selectivity in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. Fundamental understanding of attrition is being addressed by incorporating suitable binders into the catalyst recipe. This has resulted in the preparation of a spray dried HPR-43 catalyst having average particle size (aps) of 70 {micro}m with high attrition resistance. This HPR-43 attrition resistant, active and selective catalyst gave 95% CO conversion through 125 hours of testing in a fixed-bed at 270 C, 1.48 MPa, H{sub 2}/CO=0.67 and 2.0 NL/g-cat/h with C{sub 5+} selectivity of >78% and methane selectivity of less than 5% at an

  5. Single-layer transition metal sulfide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoma, Steven G.

    2011-05-31

    Transition Metal Sulfides (TMS), such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2), are the petroleum industry's "workhorse" catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feedstocks and removing sulfur, nitrogen and other pollutants from fuels. We have developed an improved synthesis technique to produce SLTMS catalysts, such as molybdenum disulfide, with potentially greater activity and specificity than those currently available. Applications for this technology include heavy feed upgrading, in-situ catalysis, bio-fuel conversion and coal liquefaction.

  6. Fuel Reformation: Catalyst Requirements in Microchannel Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Pederson, Larry R.; Rawlings, Gregg C.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2005-09-06

    Microchannel reactors have unique capabilities for onboard hydrocarbon fuel processing, due to their ability to provide process intensification through high heat and mass transfer, leading to smaller and more efficient reactors. The catalyst requirements in microchannel devices are demanding, requiring high activity, very low deactivation rates, and strong adherence to engineered substrate. Each unit operation benefits from microchannel architecture: the steam reforming reactor removes heat transfer limitations, allowing the catalyst to operate at elevated temperatures at the kinetic limit; the water gas shift reactor uses unique temperature control to reduce catalyst volume requirements; the PROX reactor provides high CO conversion and minimizes H2 oxidation through effective control of reactor temperature.

  7. New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A research team from China recently developed the nanocomposite catalyst and used ... Now, researchers from the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics in China have developed a ...

  8. Clay complexes support HDS catalyst.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, C. L.; Carrado, K.; Chemical Engineering

    2000-01-01

    Hydroprocessing represents a crucial component of petroleum refining operations both in terms of environmental and economic considerations. Regulations concerning maximum amount of sulfur content of gasoline and emissions of sulfur-oxide compounds upon combustion are becoming more and more stringent. One 1994-2000 focus of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been the development of catalysts for hydrodesulfurization (HDS). Typical HDS catalysts are comprised of Co-Mo sulfides or Ni-Mo sulfides on an alumina support. Modification of the pore structure of the support has generated great attention among researchers. Most desulfurization test reactions have used dibenzothiophene (DBT) as the model compound to test various configurations of support material with Co-Mo-S and Ni-Mo-S catalysts. In this testing, the desired product would be biphenyl and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). A competing reaction creates cyclohexylbenzene by saturating one aromatic ring prior to desulfurization. Ring saturation requires more costly hydrogen and is not desirable. Fortunately, a more effective catalyst for adding hydrogen at the sulfur site with hydrogenating the aromatic rings has been found. However, this has only been tested on DBT. HDS uses various types of catalysts to add hydrogen to reduce unwanted sulfur compounds. Typically this requires expensive, high-pressure, high-temperature equipment to produce the environmentally friendly low-sulfur fuels. ANL scientists identified several new desulfurization catalysts with improved HDS activity and selectivity. From these new catalysts, it may be possible to achieve HDS processing at lower temperature and pressure. The catalysts used for HDS at ANL are various clay complexes. Natural clays have a history of use in the hydroprocessing industry since they are abundant and inexpensive. ANL's approach is to create synthetic organo-clay complexes (SOCC). An advantage of SOCCs is that the pore size and distribution can be controlled by

  9. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  10. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  11. Diesel DeNOx Catalyst - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Diesel DeNOx Catalyst New Argonne-Developed Catalyst Can Reduce NOx Emissions From Diesel Engines by 80-85% Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Inventor Chris Marshall shows the new catalyst that could help remove nitrogen oxides from diesel engine exhaust while saving energy. Inventor Chris Marshall shows the

  12. Rejuvenation and reuse of high-activity catalyst for hydroprocessing high metals residua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrandt, S.J.; Koseoglu, R.O.; Duddy, J.E.; Sherwood, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    In the 1980`s, Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) developed a new catalyst processing technology for recovery and reuse of spent catalysts from hydroprocessing of petroleum residua in the H-Oil Process. Recently, HRI and Texaco have applied Catalyst Rejuvenation Technology to a new high-activity H-Oil catalyst developed by Texaco. This paper will discuss the application of Catalyst Rejuvenation to the high activity Texaco catalyst when processing a high metals vacuum residuum.

  13. Development of Highly Reactive Nanometer Fe-Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz, James A.; Linehan, John C.; Matson, Dean W.; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Bekhazi, Jacky; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes research involving the liquefaction of coal and the removal of oxygen from coal product constituents. Subbituminous Coal and early stage coal liquefaction products contain a substantial fraction of hydroxy-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons (phenols). An important reaction for upgrading of coal-derived organic materials is to remove oxygen groups. This paper describes the hydro-deoxygenation of naphthols and the liquefaction of subbituminous Wyodak coal using a catalyst prepared by in-situ sulfidation of nanometer scale 6-line iron ferrihydrite. The FeS catalyst enables the conversion of naphthol in substantial yields to tetralin and naphthalene at 400 degrees C in 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene. The kinetics and procedures to observe coal liquefaction and hydro-deoxygenation, and the effects of in-situ sulfidation on conversion kinetics are described.

  14. Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students will have the opportunity to investigate alternative catalysts for the degradation of hydrogen peroxide, which will be used as a model system for the breaking down of cellulose into sugar. After identifying other potential catalysts, students will develop their own research question about catalysts and conduct an additional experiment of their own design to investigate their question.

  15. Low Temperature Catalyst for Fuel Injection System | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A low temperature oxidation catalyst applied to a DOC and DPF combined with a unique fuel injection system remove soot from a diesel exhaust system. deer08holroyd.pdf (242.72 KB) ...

  16. New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas Print Wednesday, 10 August 2016 00:00 Experiments at the ALS have helped to explain how a new catalyst significantly boosts the formation of light olefin molecules-important building blocks in the petrochemical industry-from a basic gas mixture called syngas (synthesis gas). A research team from China recently developed the nanocomposite catalyst and used ambient-pressure

  17. An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts Print Copper-based catalysts are widely used in chemical industries to convert water and carbon monoxide to hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methanol. There are theoretical models used to explain this reaction, but a complete understanding of the process has been lacking. However, recent research at the ALS has shed light on the process, giving scientists key data about how copper-based catalysts function at the atomic level. These catalysts

  18. An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts Print Copper-based catalysts are widely used in chemical industries to convert water and carbon monoxide to hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methanol. There are theoretical models used to explain this reaction, but a complete understanding of the process has been lacking. However, recent research at the ALS has shed light on the process, giving scientists key data about how copper-based catalysts function at the atomic level. These catalysts

  19. Cooperative Catalyst leads to Transformative Results | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cooperative Catalyst leads to Transformative Results Capitalizing on the concept that everything proceeds faster with a little cooperation, researchers showed how designing cooperation into solid catalysts leads to enormous benefits.Catalysts attached to a porous solid support are preferred industrially because they are easier to separate from liquid products and reuse. But, these bound catalysts typically do not perform as well and probing their interiors to figure out how to improve them has

  20. Leaching nickel cobalt molybdenum tungsten and vanadium from spent hydroprocessing catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubred, G. L.

    1985-04-30

    A process for removing nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, and vanadium from spent hydroprocessing catalyst particles by roasting the catalyst at between 400/sup 0/ C. and 600/sup 0/ C. and leaching the catalyst particles with an aqueous solution of ammonia and an ammonium salt.

  1. Method for producing catalysts from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

    1998-02-24

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

  2. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Amitava Sarkar; Burtron H. Davis

    2005-09-30

    In this reporting period, a study of ultra-fine iron catalyst filtration was initiated to study the behavior of ultra-fine particles during the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids filtration. The overall focus of the program is with slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems. Hydrocarbon products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. An efficient wax product/catalyst separation system is a key factor for optimizing operating costs for iron-based slurry-phase FTS. Previous work has focused on catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. With the current study, we are investigating how the filtration properties are affected by these chemical and physical changes of the catalyst slurry during activation/synthesis. The change of particle size during the slurry-phase FTS has monitored by withdrawing catalyst sample at different TOS. The measurement of dimension of the HRTEM images of samples showed a tremendous growth of the particles. Carbon rims of thickness 3-6 nm around the particles were observed. This growth in particle size was not due to carbon deposition on the catalyst. A conceptual design and operating philosophy was developed for an integrated wax filtration system for a 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor to be used in Phase II of this research program. The system will utilize a primary inertial hydroclone followed by a Pall Accusep cross-flow membrane. Provisions for cleaned permeate back-pulsing will be included to as a flux maintenance measure.

  3. Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berg, Lloyd; McCandless, Frank P.; Ramer, Ronald J.

    1982-01-01

    A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

  4. Evaluation of Mo catalyst precursors for hydrotreating coal derived liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.K.; Gibb, D.R.; Kimber, G.M.; Derbyshire, F.J.

    1997-04-01

    Numerous studies have examined the use of dispersed catalysts for promoting the dissolution of coal and upgrading high-boiling and residual liquids. Catalysts have been added in various forms, including oil soluble organometallics and carbonyls, with industrial interest for application to a spectrum of residual feedstocks, and demonstration in coal liquefaction at the pilot plant scale. Dispersed catalysts offer certain advantages over supported catalysts for hydroprocessing such feedstocks. Because of their large molecular size, many of the feed constituents cannot access the internal pore structure of supported catalysts, and hence upgrading must proceed by an indirect process, probably involving H-transfer via lower molecular weight species. Another major deficiency of supported catalysts is their susceptibility to deactivation by reactions which cause the deposition of carbon and metals. Dispersed catalysts can overcome the first of these obstacles and may be less susceptible to deactivation. At the same time, there are also difficulties in the utilization of dispersed catalysts. These include: attaining and maintaining adequate dispersion; and converting the precursor to the active phase. Moreover, the effective catalyst metals, such as Mo, are expensive and their application is only economically viable if they can be used at very low concentrations or efficiently recycled. In direct coal liquefaction, the presence of mineral matter and undissolved coal in the products of coal solubilization mean that a solids separation step is necessary and, inevitably, catalyst will be removed with the reject stream. This program studied the effectiveness of dispersed Mo catalysts for hydroprocessing solids-free residual coal liquids.

  5. Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin with Heterogeneous Catalysts: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-513

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckham, Gregg T.

    2015-08-04

    We will synthesize and screen solid catalysts for the depolymerization of lignin to monomeric and oligomeric oxygenated species, which could be fractionated and integrated into refinery intermediate streams for selective upgrading, or catalytically upgraded to fuels and chemicals. This work will primarily focus on the synthesis and application of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for depolymerization of lignin model compounds and softwood lignin. LDHs have been shown in our group to offer good supports and catalysts to promote base-catalyzed depolymerization of lignin model compounds and in preliminary experiments for the depolymerization of lignin from an Organosolv process. We will also include additional catalyst supports such as silica, alumina, and carbon as identified in ongoing and past efforts at NREL. This work will consist of two tasks. Overall, this work will be synergistic with ongoing efforts at NREL, funded by the DOE Biomass Program, on the development of catalysts for lignin depolymerization in the context of biochemical and thermochemical conversion of corn stover and other biomass feedstocks to advanced fuels and chemicals.

  6. Hydroprocessing catalyst manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lostaglio, V.J.; Carruthers, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Hydroprocessing catalysts for the oil-refining industry have undergone significant improvements since the oil shortages of the late 1970's. Spurred by the need for refiners to process heavy, sour feeds, catalyst manufacturers have developed technology to meet these changing demands. Current manufacturing techniques in the production of substrate and final catalyst are reviewed. New approach to the production of resid hydrotreatment catalysts are considered.

  7. Effect of residual catalyst on the vibrational modes of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, L.E.; Park, H.; Lu, J.P.; Peters, M.J.

    2004-11-01

    Raman scattering measurements of single-walled carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation with Ni/Co catalyst show that samples that have not been purified have a graphitic mode frequency that is 8 cm{sup -1} lower than that of samples from which most of the catalyst has been removed. The shift is attributed to charge transfer from the catalyst particles to the nanotubes. The charge transfer from the residual catalyst also affects the temperature dependence of the radial breathing mode.

  8. Removing mercury from coal emissions: options for ash-friendly technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sager, J.

    2009-07-01

    The article gives a brief description of techniques to remove mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants and discusses environmental considerations associated with the effect of emission controls on coal fly ash. Techniques covered include use of injected mercury sorbents (activated carbon, metal oxide catalysts, MerCAP{trademark} and MercScreen{trademark}) and fuel cleaning. Technologies currently being researched are mentioned. 8 refs.

  9. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Activity Dealloyed Catalysts 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-Off Frederick T. Wagner General Motors Research & Development Electrochemical Energy Research Lab Honeoye Falls, NY September 28, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 * Project start date: 1 Sept 2010 * Project end date: 31 Aug 2013 * Percent complete: 0% * Barriers addressed - B. Cost * Decrease required loading of precious metals including

  10. Hydroprocessing catalysts for heavy oil and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satriana, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Hydroprocessing catalysts, as described in over 230 processes covered in this book, are hydrogenation catalysts used in the upgrading of heavy crudes and coal to products expected to be in great demand as the world's primary oil supplies gradually dwindle. The techniques employed in hydroprocessing result in the removal of contaminants, the transformation of lower grade materials such as heavy crudes to valuable fuels, or the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous solids into gaseous or liquid fuel products. All of these techniques are, of course, carried out in the presence of hydrogen. Some of the brightest energy prospects for the future lie in heavy oil reservoirs and coal reserves. Heavy oils, defined in this book as having gravities of < 20/sup 0/API, are crudes so thick that they are not readily extracted from their reservoirs. However, processing of these crudes is of great importance, because the US resource alone is enormous. The main types of processing catalysts covered in the book are hydrorefining catalysts plus some combinations of the two. Catalysts for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials to gaseous or liquid fuels are also covered. The primary starting material for these conversions is coal, but wood, lignin, oil shale, tar sands, and peat are other possibilities. The final chapter describes the preparation of various catalyst support systems.

  11. High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies The Energy Department released the High Impact Technology Catalyst: ...

  12. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies of Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission Treatment Catalysts via First Principles Catalysts via ...

  13. Toward Molecular Catalysts by Computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raugei, Simone; DuBois, Daniel L.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Chen, Shentan; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Bullock, R. Morris; Dupuis, Michel

    2015-02-17

    Rational design of molecular catalysts requires a systematic approach to designing ligands with specific functionality and precisely tailored electronic and steric properties. It then becomes possible to devise computer protocols to predict accurately the required properties and ultimately to design catalysts by computer. In this account we first review how thermodynamic properties such as oxidation-reduction potentials (E0), acidities (pKa), and hydride donor abilities (ΔGH-) form the basis for a systematic design of molecular catalysts for reactions that are critical for a secure energy future (hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen and nitrogen reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction). We highlight how density functional theory allows us to determine and predict these properties within “chemical” accuracy (~ 0.06 eV for redox potentials, ~ 1 pKa unit for pKa values, and ~ 1.5 kcal/mol for hydricities). These quantities determine free energy maps and profiles associated with catalytic cycles, i.e. the relative energies of intermediates, and help us distinguish between desirable and high-energy pathways and mechanisms. Good catalysts have flat profiles that avoid high activation barriers due to low and high energy intermediates. We illustrate how the criterion of a flat energy profile lends itself to the prediction of design points by computer for optimum catalysts. This research was carried out in the Center for Molecular Electro-catalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the DOE by Battelle.

  14. Hydroprocessing of solvent-refined coal: catalyst-screening results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stiegel, G.J.; Tischer, R.E.; Polinski, L.M.

    1982-03-01

    This report presents the results of screening four catalysts for hydroprocessing a 50 wt% mixture of SRC-I in a prehydrogenated creosote oil using a continuous flow unit. All catalysts employed were nickel-molybdates with varying properties. Reaction conditions were 2000 psi, 8 SCFH of hydrogen, volume hourly space velocity of 0.6 to 1.0 cc of SRC-I/hr/cc of catalyst, and 48 hours at 750/sup 0/F followed by 72 hours at 780/sup 0/F. The results indicate that the Shell 324 catalyst is best for hydrogenation of the feedstock but only marginally better than CB 81-44 for denitrogenation. The CB 81-44 catalyst may be slightly better than Shell 324 for the conversion of the +850/sup 0/F fraction of the feedstock. Desulfurization was uniformly high for all catalysts. Catalysts with a bimodal pore size distribution (i.e., SMR7-6137(1)) appear to be better for denitrogenation than unimodal catalysts (i.e., SMR7-6137(4)) containing the same metals loading. Unimodal catalysts (i.e., Shell 324) with higher metals loadings are comparable to bimodal catalysts (i.e., CB 81-44) containing less metals. The results indicate that pore size distribution and metals loading are important parameters for high activity. Catalysts with a unimodal pore volume distribution are capable of being restored to their original state, while bimodal ones experience a loss in surface area and pore volume and an increase in pellet density. This is attributed to the more efficient use of the interior surface area of the catalyst, which results in higher accumulation of coke and metals. Since coke can be removed via controlled oxidation, the irreversible loss is due to the higher concentrations of metals in the catalyst.

  15. Research Update: A hafnium-based metal-organic framework as a catalyst for regioselective ring-opening of epoxides with a mild hydride source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephenson, Casey J.; Hassan Beyzavi, M.; Klet, Rachel C.; Hupp, Joseph T. E-mail: o-farha@northwestern.edu; Farha, Omar K. E-mail: o-farha@northwestern.edu

    2014-12-01

    Reaction of styrene oxide with sodium cyanoborohydride and a catalytic amount of Hf-NU-1000 yields the anti-Markovnikov product, 2-phenylethanol, with over 98% regioselectivity. On the other hand, propylene oxide is ring opened in a Markovnikov fashion to form 2-propanol with 95% regioselectivity. Both styrene oxide and propylene oxide failed to react with sodium cyanoborohydride without the addition of Hf-NU-1000 indicative of the crucial role of Hf-NU-1000 as a catalyst in this reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a metal-organic framework material as a catalyst for ring-opening of epoxides with hydrides.

  16. Methods of making textured catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong; Zacher, Alan H.

    2010-08-17

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  17. Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    INL's patented, continuous-flow Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC) produces the highest ASTM-quality B-100 biodiesel from waste fats, oils, and greases at the site of waste generation. SSC delivers low-cost transportation fuel, avoids significant landfill costs for municipalities, and reduces potent methane and other emissions produced in landfills from these wastes. You can learn more about INL's energy research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    INL's patented, continuous-flow Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC) produces the highest ASTM-quality B-100 biodiesel from waste fats, oils, and greases at the site of waste generation. SSC delivers low-cost transportation fuel, avoids significant landfill costs for municipalities, and reduces potent methane and other emissions produced in landfills from these wastes. You can learn more about INL's energy research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  19. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Page...

  20. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Pag...

  1. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  2. Liquefaction with microencapsulated catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weller, Sol W. (Williamsville, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A method of dispersing a liquefaction catalyst within coal or other carbonaceous solids involves providing a suspension in oil of microcapsules containing the catalyst. An aqueous solution of a catalytic metal salt is emulsified in the water-immiscible oil and the resulting minute droplets microencapsulated in polymeric shells by interfacial polycondensation. The catalyst is subsequently blended and dispersed throughout the powdered carbonaceous material to be liquefied. At liquefaction temperatures the polymeric microcapsules are destroyed and the catalyst converted to minute crystallites in intimate contact with the carbonaceous material.

  3. Synthesis and Understanding of Novel Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stair, Peter C.

    2013-07-09

    The research took advantage of our capabilities to perform in-situ and operando Raman spectroscopy on complex systems along with our developing expertise in the synthesis of uniform, supported metal oxide materials to investigate relationships between the catalytically active oxide composition, atomic structure, and support and the corresponding chemical and catalytic properties. The project was organized into two efforts: 1) Synthesis of novel catalyst materials by atomic layer deposition (ALD). 2) Spectroscopic and chemical investigations of coke formation and catalyst deactivation. ALD synthesis was combined with conventional physical characterization, Raman spectroscopy, and probe molecule chemisorption to study the effect of supported metal oxide composition and atomic structure on acid-base and catalytic properties. Operando Raman spectroscopy studies of olefin polymerization leading to coke formation and catalyst deactivation clarified the mechanism of coke formation by acid catalysts.

  4. NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps Research to identify most promising catalytic ...

  5. Tunable Catalysts - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lifetimes, Berkeley Lab Tunable Catalysts, made with affordable metals, utilize graphene to electrically tune the converting rate efficacy and efficiency of catalysts....

  6. Laser Catalyst - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Laser Catalyst Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's Laser Catalyst is a method for ...

  7. Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, R.D. ); Rao, V.U.S.; Cinquegrane, G.; Stiegel, G.J. )

    1990-02-01

    The slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process has attracted considerable attention recently. The process can make liquid fuels by reacting hydrogen-lean synthesis gas produced from modern energy-efficient gasifiers. continuing assessment of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) has a high priority within an indirect liquefaction program, a part of the liquid fuels program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and executed by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Funding for the indirect liquefaction program in 1990:0090 is anticipated to be about $8.5 million compared to $6.6 million in 1989 and a like amount in the year before. The studies within the program are conducted by industry, universities, national laboratories and in-house PETC research and development. This article reviews preparation and properties of iron-based catalysts, including recent patent activities and in-depth process analysis of slurry-phase FTS. The review provides an analysis of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst research and development trends and describes options to increase selectivity for iron-based catalysts in a slurry phase.

  8. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  9. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  10. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2015-09-29

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  11. New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas Print Experiments at the ALS have helped to explain how a new catalyst significantly boosts the formation of light olefin molecules-important building blocks in the petrochemical industry-from a basic gas mixture called syngas (synthesis gas). A research team from China recently developed the nanocomposite catalyst and used ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) to investigate the chemical changes occurring at the

  12. New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas Print Experiments at the ALS have helped to explain how a new catalyst significantly boosts the formation of light olefin molecules-important building blocks in the petrochemical industry-from a basic gas mixture called syngas (synthesis gas). A research team from China recently developed the nanocomposite catalyst and used ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) to investigate the chemical changes occurring at the

  13. Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability This presentation, which focuses on alloy cathode catalysts, was given by T. D. Jarvi of UTC Power at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects. new_fc_jarvi_utc.pdf (576 KB) More Documents & Publications PEM Fuel Cell Technology, Key Research Needs and Approaches (Presentation) PBI-Phosphoric Acid Based Membrane Electrode Assemblies: Status Update Development of

  14. Attrition Resistant Catalyst Materials for Fluid Bed Applications - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Attrition Resistant Catalyst Materials for Fluid Bed Applications National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryResearchers at NREL have developed novel steam reforming catalyst materials which have improved resistance to loss of catalyst due to attrition when producing hydrogen from gasified

  15. New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas Print Experiments at the ALS have helped to explain how a new catalyst significantly boosts the formation of light olefin molecules-important building blocks in the petrochemical industry-from a basic gas mixture called syngas (synthesis gas). A research team from China recently developed the nanocomposite catalyst and used ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) to investigate the chemical changes occurring at the

  16. New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas Print Experiments at the ALS have helped to explain how a new catalyst significantly boosts the formation of light olefin molecules-important building blocks in the petrochemical industry-from a basic gas mixture called syngas (synthesis gas). A research team from China recently developed the nanocomposite catalyst and used ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) to investigate the chemical changes occurring at the

  17. New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas Print Experiments at the ALS have helped to explain how a new catalyst significantly boosts the formation of light olefin molecules-important building blocks in the petrochemical industry-from a basic gas mixture called syngas (synthesis gas). A research team from China recently developed the nanocomposite catalyst and used ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) to investigate the chemical changes occurring at the

  18. Bio-inspired MOF-based Catalysts for Lignin Valorization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie; Ramakrishnan, Parthasarathi; Davis, Ryan Wesley

    2014-09-01

    Lignin is a potentially plentiful source of renewable organics, with %7E50Mtons/yr produced by the pulp/paper industry and 200-300 Mtons/yr projected production by a US biofuels industry. This industry must process approximately 1 billion tons of biomass to meet the US Renewable Fuel goals. However, there are currently no efficient processes for converting lignin to value-added chemicals and drop-in fuels. Lignin is therefore an opportunity for production of valuable renewable chemicals, but presents staggering technical and economic challenges due to the quantities of material involved and the strong chemical bonds comprising this polymer. Aggressive chemistries and high temperatures are required to degrade lignin without catalysts. Moreover, chemical non-uniformity among lignins leads to complex product mixtures that tend to repolymerize. Conventional petrochemical approaches (pyrolysis, catalytic cracking, gasification) are energy intensive (400-800 degC), require complicated separations, and remove valuable chemical functionality. Low-temperature (25-200 degC) alternatives are clearly desirable, but enzymes are thermally fragile and incompatible with liquid organic compounds, making them impractical for large-scale biorefining. Alternatively, homogeneous catalysts, such as recently developed vanadium complexes, must be separated from product mixtures, while many heterogenous catalysts involve costly noble metals. The objective of this project is to demonstrate proof of concept that an entirely new class of biomimetic, efficient, and industrially robust synthetic catalysts based on nanoporous Metal- Organic Frameworks (MOFs) can be developed. Although catalytic MOFs are known, catalysis of bond cleavage reactions needed for lignin degradation is completely unexplored. Thus, fundamental research is required that industry and most sponsoring agencies are currently unwilling to undertake. We introduce MOFs infiltrated with titanium and nickel species as catalysts

  19. Regeneration technology helps reduce catalyst costs and waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuman, D.J.; Roller, W.

    1997-05-01

    Worldwide hydroprocessing capacity and hydroprocessing catalyst usage has been increasing dramatically. Two major factors contributing to the increase are sulfur restrictions in gasoline, diesel and other fuels; and increasing demand for lighter products. The limit of 0.05 wt% sulfur for diesel fuels in US has led to the construction of many {open_quotes}low-sulfur diesel{close_quotes} hydrotreaters. Similarly strict sulfur restrictions have been imposed or considered in countries throughout Europe. These restrictions have also resulted in higher severity operation and shorter cycles in existing hydrotreating units. New catalyst regeneration technology is available for hydroprocessing catalysts of various sizes. These catalysts can be regenerated in a single pass, even at carbon levels above 30%. Regenerated carbon and sulfur levels are typically well below 1%, and nearly 100% recovery of the available surface area and catalyst length are achieved. The use of an inert gas stripper to remove excess hydrocarbons and water has also been successfully demonstrated. Pre-treating the catalyst in the stripper prior to regeneration has eliminated the potential for temperature excursions. Catalysts containing up to 40% volatile matter are now regenerated in a single pass by first pre-treating the catalyst in the stripper.

  20. Increasing FCC regenerator catalyst level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, R.F. )

    1993-11-01

    A Peruvian FCC unit's operations were improved by increasing the regenerator's catalyst level. This increase resulted in lower stack losses, an improved temperature profile, increased catalyst activity and a lower catalyst consumption rate. A more stable operation saved this Peruvian refiner over $131,000 per year in catalyst alone. These concepts and data may be suitable for your FCC unit as well.

  1. Supported catalysts using nanoparticles as the support material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Michael S.; Wachs, Israel E.; Knowles, William V.

    2010-11-02

    A process for making a porous catalyst, comprises a) providing an aqueous solution containing a nanoparticle precursor, b) forming a composition containing nanoparticles, c) adding a first catalytic component or precursor thereof and a pore-forming agent to the composition containing nanoparticles and allowing the first catalytic component, the pore-forming agent, and the nanoparticles form an organic-inorganic structure, d) removing water from the organic-inorganic structure; and e) removing the pore-forming agent from the organic-inorganic structure so as to yield a porous catalyst.

  2. Development of Highly Selective Oxidation Catalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to use Atomic Layer Deposition to construct nanostructured catalysts to improve the effectiveness of oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes. More effective catalysts could enable higher specific conversion rates and result in drastic energy savings - up to 25 trillion Btu per year by 2020.

  3. Lean-NOx Catalyst Development for Diesel Engine Applications | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Lean-NOx Catalyst Development for Diesel Engine Applications Lean-NOx Catalyst Development for Diesel Engine Applications 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Caterpillar Inc. 2002_deer_park.pdf (302.37 KB) More Documents & Publications Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control

  4. Catalyst Cartography: 3D Super-Resolution Mapping of Catalytic Activity |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Ames Laboratory Catalyst Cartography: 3D Super-Resolution Mapping of Catalytic Activity Thanks to a groundbreaking new method, scientists have created the first 3D super-resolution maps of catalytic activity on an individual catalytic nanoparticle while reactions are occurring. Catalysts are used in manufacturing everything from stain remover to rocket fuel; they make production more efficient by facilitating chemical reactions. Each catalyst being studied is only about 200 nanometers in

  5. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  6. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  7. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang, William A. Goddard, Yongchun Tang

    2005-05-05

    In the second year of this project, we continued our effort to develop low temperature decarboxylation catalysts and investigate the behavior of these catalysts at different reaction conditions. We conducted a large number of dynamic measurements with crude oil and model compounds to obtain the information at different reaction stages, which was scheduled as the Task2 in our work plan. We developed a novel adsorption method to remove naphthenic acid from crude oil using naturally occurring materials such as clays. Our results show promise as an industrial application. The theoretical modeling proposed several possible reaction pathways and predicted the reactivity depending on the catalysts employed. From all of these studies, we obtained more comprehensive understanding about catalytic decarboxylation and oil upgrading based on the naphthenic acid removal concept.

  8. BTO Catalyst | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BTO Catalyst BTO Catalyst bto_Catalyst_logo_072216.jpg The Building Technologies Office (BTO) is partnering with the successful SunShot Catalyst crowdsourcing competition to identify and solve problems related to software development, data, and/or automation in buildings. Over $1 million in total prize awards will be available during the different competition stages! The Catalyst competition consists of four phases: Ideation: Those working in the building technology space are invited to submit

  9. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Sopchak, David A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Reynolds, John G.; Satcher, Joseph H.; Gash, Alex E.

    2011-11-15

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  10. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Sopchak, David A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Reynolds, John G.; Satcher, Joseph H.; Gash, Alex E.

    2010-06-29

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  11. Catalysts and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  12. DOE Catalyst Demo Day

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy is organizing Catalyst Demo Day at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia to showcase the next big startups in building energy efficiency and solar energy. Demo Day...

  13. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  14. Plasmatron-catalyst system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander; Alexeev, Nikolai

    2004-09-21

    A plasmatron-catalyst system. The system generates hydrogen-rich gas and comprises a plasmatron and at least one catalyst for receiving an output from the plasmatron to produce hydrogen-rich gas. In a preferred embodiment, the plasmatron receives as an input air, fuel and water/steam for use in the reforming process. The system increases the hydrogen yield and decreases the amount of carbon monoxide.

  15. Plasmatron-catalyst system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander; Alexeev, Nikolai

    2007-10-09

    A plasmatron-catalyst system. The system generates hydrogen-rich gas and comprises a plasmatron and at least one catalyst for receiving an output from the plasmatron to produce hydrogen-rich gas. In a preferred embodiment, the plasmatron receives as an input air, fuel and water/steam for use in the reforming process. The system increases the hydrogen yield and decreases the amount of carbon monoxide.

  16. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anthony, Rayford G.; Dosch, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  17. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

    1993-01-05

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  18. Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angelici, Robert J.; Gao, Hanrong

    1998-08-04

    The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilation, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical.

  19. Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angelici, R.J.; Gao, H.

    1998-08-04

    The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilication, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanidation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical. 2 figs.

  20. Novel ebullated bed catalyst regeneration technology improves regenerated catalyst quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuman, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    Regeneration of spent hydroprocessing catalysts has long been practiced by the refining industry. With increased pressures on refiners to reduce catalyst expenditures and waste generation, refiners are more frequently reusing spent hydroprocessing catalysts after ex-situ regeneration to restore catalytic activity. By reusing regenerated catalyst for at least two cycles, the refiner reduces catalyst waste by at least one-half. As environmental laws become more restrictive, spent hydroprocessing catalyst is more likely to be classified as hazardous waste. Disposal of spent catalyst, which was previously accomplished by landfilling, now requires more expensive reclamation techniques. TRICAT has introduced the TRICAT Regeneration Process (TRP), a novel ebullated bed regeneration plant, to improve the catalyst regeneration process. The ebullated bed design allows for better control of heat release during the regeneration process. As a result, the regeneration can be accomplished in a single-pass, with improved catalyst activity retention. Catalyst losses are also minimized due to reduced catalyst handling. Commercial results from the TRP have demonstrated successful scale-up of the technology from pilot scale. The plant has achieved complete recovery of the available catalyst activity with little or no losses in catalyst yield or extrudate length. The flexibility of the TRP to process a variety of catalysts is also discussed.

  1. Development of Materials Analysis Tools for Studying NOx Adsorber Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A cooperative research and development agreement with Cummins Engine Company | Department of Energy Materials Analysis Tools for Studying NOx Adsorber Catalysts A cooperative research and development agreement with Cummins Engine Company Development of Materials Analysis Tools for Studying NOx Adsorber Catalysts A cooperative research and development agreement with Cummins Engine Company 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_watkins.pdf

  2. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission Treatment Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies of Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission ...

  3. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most ...

  4. Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Curt M.; Quiring, Michael S.; Jensen, Karen L.; Hickey, Richard F.; Gillham, Larry D.

    1998-10-27

    In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by slurring them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation.

  5. Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.

    1998-10-27

    In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst-free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by mixing them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation. 2 figs.

  6. Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halow, J.S.

    1999-04-20

    The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction. 1 fig.

  7. Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halow, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction.

  8. ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Jothimurugesan; James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Santosh K. Gangwal

    1999-10-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to convert syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) derived from natural gas or coal to liquid fuels and wax is a well-established technology. For low H{sub 2} to CO ratio syngas produced from CO{sub 2} reforming of natural gas or from gasification of coal, the use of Fe catalysts is attractive because of their high water gas shift activity in addition to their high FT activity. Fe catalysts are also attractive due to their low cost and low methane selectivity. Because of the highly exothermic nature of the FT reaction, there has been a recent move away from fixed-bed reactors toward the development of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) that employ 30 to 90 {micro}m catalyst particles suspended in a waxy liquid for efficient heat removal. However, the use of FeFT catalysts in an SBCR has been problematic due to severe catalyst attrition resulting in fines that plug the filter employed to separate the catalyst from the waxy product. Fe catalysts can undergo attrition in SBCRs not only due to vigorous movement and collisions but also due to phase changes that occur during activation and reaction.

  9. Supported organoiridium catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, R. Thomas; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Li, Hongbo

    2013-09-03

    Solid supported organoiridium catalysts, a process for preparing such solid supported organoiridium catalysts, and the use of such solid supported organoiridium catalysts in dehydrogenation reactions of alkanes is provided. The catalysts can be easily recovered and recycled.

  10. Mercury removal sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  11. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  12. Catalyst, Method Of Making, And Reactions Using The Catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Wang, Yong; Gao, Yufei

    2004-07-13

    The present invention includes a catalyst having a layered structure with, (1) a porous support, (2) a buffer layer, (3) an interfacial layer, and optionally (4) a catalyst layer. The invention also provides a process in which a reactant is converted to a product by passing through a reaction chamber containing the catalyst.

  13. Catalyst, method of making, and reactions using the catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA

    2009-03-03

    The present invention includes a catalyst having a layered structure with, (1) a porous support, (2) a buffer layer, (3) an interfacial layer, and optionally (4) a catalyst layer. The invention also provides a process in which a reactant is converted to a product by passing through a reaction chamber containing the catalyst.

  14. Catalyst, method of making, and reactions using the catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA

    2002-08-27

    The present invention includes a catalyst having a layered structure with, (1) a porous support, (2) a buffer layer, (3) an interfacial layer, and optionally (4) a catalyst layer. The invention also provides a process in which a reactant is converted to a product by passing through a reaction chamber containing the catalyst.

  15. Aerogel derived catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J. G., LLNL

    1996-12-11

    Aerogels area class of colloidal materials which have high surface areas and abundant mesoporous structure. SiO{sub 2} aerogels show unique physical, optical and structural properties. When catalytic metals are incorporated in the aerogel framework, the potential exists for new and very effective catalysts for industrial processes. Three applications of these metal-containing SiO{sub 2} aerogels as catalysts are briefly reviewed in this paper--NO{sub x} reduction, volatile organic compound destruction, and partial oxidation of methane.

  16. Method of improving fuel cell performance by removing at least one metal oxide contaminant from a fuel cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Choi, Jong-Ho; Zelenay, Piotr

    2009-08-18

    A method of removing contaminants from a fuel cell catalyst electrode. The method includes providing a getter electrode and a fuel cell catalyst electrode having at least one contaminant to a bath and applying a voltage sufficient to drive the contaminant from the fuel cell catalyst electrode to the getter electrode. Methods of removing contaminants from a membrane electrode assembly of a fuel cell and of improving performance of a fuel cell are also provided.

  17. Fuel-Borne Catalyst Assisted DPF regeneration on a Renault truck...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Borne Catalyst Assisted DPF regeneration on a Renault truck MD9 Engine Outfitted with SCR Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research ...

  18. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components

  19. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  20. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  1. Novel Intermetallic Catalysts to Enhance PEM Membrane Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis J. DiSalvo

    2009-01-06

    The research examined possible sources of degradation of platinum based anode catalysts under long term use. Scientists at the United Technologies Research Center had shown that the anode as well as the cathode catalysts degrade in hydrogen fuel cells. This goal of this research was to see if mechanisms of anode degradation could be understood using forefront electrochemical techniques in an aqueous system. We found that this method is limited by the very low levels of impurities (perhaps less than a part per trillion) in the electrolyte. This limitation comes from the relatively small catalyst surface area (a few sq cm or less) compared to the electrolyte volume of 10 to 25 ml. In real fuel cells this ratio is completelyreversed: high catalyst surface area and low electrolyte violume, making the system much less sensitive to impurities in the electrolyte. We conclude that degradation mechanisms should be studied in real fuel cell systems, rather than in ex-situ, large electrolyte volume experiments.

  2. Hydroprocessing catalyst composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apelian, M.R.; Degnan, T.F. Jr.; Marler, D.O.; Mazzone, D.N.

    1993-07-13

    A bifunctional hydroprocessing catalyst is described which comprises a metal component having hydrogenation/dehydrogenation functionality and a support component comprising an inorganic, non-layered, porous, crystalline phase material having pores with diameters of at least about 13 [angstrom] and exhibiting, after calcination, an X-ray diffraction pattern with at least one peak with a relative intensity of 100 at a d-spacing greater than about 18 [angstrom], the catalyst having a surface area S, where S, expressed in m[sup 2].g[sup [minus]1], is defined by the equation: S[ge]600-13.3X where X is the total metals loading in weight percent and is least 12 weight percent. A second hydroprocessing catalyst is described according to claim 1 in which the crystalline phase has a composition expressed as follows: M[sub n/q](W[sub a]X[sub b]Y[sub c]Z[sub d]O[sub h]) wherein M is one or more ions; n is the charge of the composition excluding M expressed as oxides; q is the weighted molar average valence of M; n/q is the number of moles or mole fraction of M; W is one or more divalent elements; X is one or more trivalent elements; Y is one or more tetravalent elements; Z is one or more pentavalent elements; a, b, c, and d are mole fraction of W, X, Y, and Z, respectively, h is a number of from 1 to 2.5; and (a+b+c+d) = 1. A third hydroprocessing catalyst is described according to claim 1 in which the catalyst is at least one base metal of Group VIA, VIIA or VIIIA of the Periodic Table.

  3. Molybdenum sulfide/carbide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.; Fuentes, Sergio; Torres, Brenda

    2007-05-29

    The present invention provides methods of synthesizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2) and carbon-containing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2-xC.sub.x) catalysts that exhibit improved catalytic activity for hydrotreating reactions involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrogenation. The present invention also concerns the resulting catalysts. Furthermore, the invention concerns the promotion of these catalysts with Co, Ni, Fe, and/or Ru sulfides to create catalysts with greater activity, for hydrotreating reactions, than conventional catalysts such as cobalt molybdate on alumina support.

  4. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  5. Developing Enzyme and Biomimetic Catalysts for Upgrading Heavy Crudes via Biological Hydrogenation and Hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, A P

    2006-08-22

    The recovery and conversion of heavy oils is limited due to the high viscosity of these crudes and their high heteroatom content. Conventional technology relies on thermochemical hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization to address these problems and is energy intensive due to the high operating temperature and pressure. This project was initiated to explore biological catalysts for adding hydrogen to the heavy oil molecules. Biological enzymes are efficient at hydrogen splitting at very mild conditions such as room temperature and pressure, however, they are very specific in terms of the substrates they hydrogenate. The goal of the project was to investigate how the specificity of these enzymes can be altered to develop catalysts for oil upgrading. Three approaches were used. First was to perform chemical modification of the enzyme surface to improve binding of other non-natural substrates. Second approach was to expose the deeply buried catalytic active site of the enzyme by removal of protein scaffolding to enable better interaction with other substrates. The third approach was based on molecular biology to develop genetically engineered systems for enabling targeted structural changes in the enzyme. The first approach was found to be limited in success due to the non-specificity of the chemical modification and inability to target the region near the active site or the site of substrate binding. The second approach produced a smaller catalyst capable of catalyzing hydrogen splitting, however, further experimentation is needed to address reproducibility and stability issues. The third approach which targeted cloning of hydrogenase in alternate hosts demonstrated progress, although further work is necessary to complete the cloning process. The complex nature of the hydrogenase enzyme structure-function relationship and role of various ligands in the protein require significant more research to better understand the enzyme and to enable success in strategies in

  6. Process for regenerating a spent resid hydroprocessing catalyst using a Group IV metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, F.T.; Springman, M.C.

    1993-08-03

    A method is described for regenerating a contaminant metal-containing, resid hydroprocessing molecular sieve-free catalyst for use with an ebullated bed reaction process wherein said catalyst contains a pore volume of pores having a diameter greater than 1200 Angstroms of at least 0.05 cc/gm, comprising the steps of: (a) partially decoking said catalyst in an initial coke-burning step wherein said catalyst is contacted with an oxygen-containing gas at a temperature ranging from about 400 F to about 700 F; (b) incorporating a Group IV metal onto said partially decoked catalyst such that the partially decoked catalyst contains about 0.1 to about 20.0 wt % of said Group IV metal calculated as the oxide and based on the fresh weight of said catalyst; and (c) decoking said partially decoked, Group IV metal-containing catalyst in a final coke-burning step wherein said catalyst is contacted with an oxygen-containing gas at a temperature ranging from about 600 F to about 1,400 F, thereby removing a substantial amount of said coke, wherein the loss on attrition of said resid hydroprocessing molecular sieve-free catalyst after step (c) is less than 9 weight percent fines per day calculated based on a regeneration temperature of 1,000 F.

  7. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2011 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Rummel, Becky L.

    2011-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Research during FY 2011 continued to examine the performance of RhMn catalysts on alternative supports including selected zeolite, silica, and carbon supports. Catalyst optimization continued using both the Davisil 645 and Merck Grade 7734 silica supports. Research also was initiated in FY 2011, using the both Davisil 645 silica and Hyperion CS-02C-063 carbon supports, to evaluate the potential for further improving catalyst performance, through the addition of one or two additional metals as promoters to the catalysts containing Rh, Mn, and Ir.

  8. Performance of catalysts for CO removal by methanation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshiro, Hitoshi; Nagaya, Kiichi; Mitani, Koichi

    1996-12-31

    This report forms part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quotes}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns an experiment in reducing by methanation to a level below 10 ppm the CO that is contained to around 1% in reformate gas.

  9. An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts Print Thursday, 05 May 2016 12:20 Copper-based catalysts are widely used in chemical industries to convert water and carbon monoxide to hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methanol. There are theoretical models used to explain this reaction, but a complete understanding of the process has been lacking. However, recent research at the ALS has shed light on the process, giving scientists key

  10. Binary ferrihydrite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, G.P.; Zhao, J.; Feng, Z.

    1996-12-03

    A method of preparing a catalyst precursor comprises dissolving an iron salt and a salt of an oxoanion forming agent, in water so that a solution of the iron salt and oxoanion forming agent salt has a ratio of oxoanion/Fe of between 0.0001:1 to 0.5:1. Next is increasing the pH of the solution to 10 by adding a strong base followed by collecting of precipitate having a binary ferrihydrite structure. A binary ferrihydrite catalyst precursor is also prepared by dissolving an iron salt in water. The solution is brought to a pH of substantially 10 to obtain ferrihydrite precipitate. The precipitate is then filtered and washed with distilled water and subsequently admixed with a hydroxy carboxylic acid solution. The admixture is mixed/agitated and the binary ferrihydrite precipitate is then filtered and recovered. 3 figs.

  11. Binary ferrihydrite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P.; Zhao, Jianmin; Feng, Zhen

    1996-01-01

    A method of preparing a catalyst precursor comprises dissolving an iron salt and a salt of an oxoanion forming agent, in water so that a solution of the iron salt and oxoanion forming agent salt has a ratio of oxoanion/Fe of between 0.0001:1 to 0.5:1. Next is increasing the pH of the solution to 10 by adding a strong base followed by collecting of precipitate having a binary ferrihydrite structure. A binary ferrihydrite catalyst precursor is also prepared by dissolving an iron salt in water. The solution is brought to a pH of substantially 10 to obtain ferrihydrite precipitate. The precipitate is then filtered and washed with distilled water and subsequently admixed with a hydroxy carboxylic acid solution. The admixture is mixed/agitated and the binary ferrihydrite precipitate is then filtered and recovered.

  12. Fluorination process using catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hochel, R.C.; Saturday, K.A.

    1983-08-25

    A process is given for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/, AgF/sub 2/ and NiF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/ and AgF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  13. Fluorination process using catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hochel, Robert C.; Saturday, Kathy A.

    1985-01-01

    A process for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3, AgF.sub.2 and NiF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3 and AgF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  14. Steam reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramarz, Kurt W.; Bloom, Ira D.; Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Wilkenhoener, Rolf; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel. A vapor of the hydrocarbon fuel and steam is brought in contact with a two-part catalyst having a dehydrogenation powder portion and an oxide-ion conducting powder portion at a temperature not less than about 770.degree.C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich. The H.sub.2 content of the hydrogen gas is greater than about 70 percent by volume. The dehydrogenation portion of the catalyst includes a group VIII metal, and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide from the group crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure and mixtures thereof. The oxide-ion conducting portion of the catalyst is a ceramic powder of one or more of ZrO.sub.2, CeO.sub.2, Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, (BiVO).sub.4, and LaGaO.sub.3.

  15. SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-11-19

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

  16. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Tzou, Ming-Shin; Jiang, Hui-Jong

    1987-01-01

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  17. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

    1987-03-31

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  18. POISON RESISTANT CATALYST DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew W. Wang

    2001-03-29

    The Alternative Fuels Field Test Unit (AFFTU) is a portable laboratory designed specifically to provide on-site evaluation of potential feedstocks for processes that produce alternative fuels from indigenous raw materials such as coal, natural gas or environmentally disadvantaged carbonaceous feedstocks. Since conversion of these raw materials into feed gas streams can produce a variety of bulk gas compositions, which furthermore can contain a myriad of trace components, it is necessary to evaluate each new feedstock on an individual basis. While it is possible to prepare blended gas mixtures to simulate the bulk composition of a known feedstock, it is neither possible nor cost-effective to simulate adequately the variety of trace chemicals present in that feedstock--some of which may not even be detected by routine analysis. Additionally, the transient composition of the gas during upsets or routine process changes may have an impact on the proposed process that is not foreseen in standard design. To address these concerns, the AFFTU was constructed with the following experimental capabilities: (1) A state-of-the-art gas chromatograph system to perform semi-continuous monitoring of both bulk composition and the concentration of key trace poisons down to one part per billion (ppb). (2) A 30-mL reactor system that can accept up to two feed streams from the customer, allowing a true life test with the actual gas projected for use in the proposed facility. (3) A manifold of four adsorbent beds, located upstream of the reactor, which permits the testing of adsorbents for the removal of contaminants from the feed stream. The effectiveness of these adsorbents may be evaluated either by analysis of the gas upstream and downstream of the bed (or at an intermediate point within the bed) or by observing the impact of the presence or absence of that bed on the actual stability of the catalyst activity. To achieve portability, the AFFTU was constructed in a commercial 48-foot

  19. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; Yang, Ruizhi; Easton, E. Bradley; Dahn, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, David G.

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  20. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhichao; Benavides, Pahola T.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Cronauer, Donald C.

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al2O3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  1. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst using supercritical fluid extraction. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of SCF extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer- Tropsch (F-T) slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor into two fractions: (1) a catalyst-free wax containing less than 10 ppm particulate matter and (2) a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle or regeneration. The wax will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300{degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two major factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished without entraining the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds, i.e., a constant carbon-number distribution of the alkanes in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. To implement our objectives, the following task structure is being implemented: Task 1 equilibrium solubility measurements; Task 2 thermodynamic modeling; and Task 3 process design studies. Progress reports are presented for each task.

  2. High Impact Technology (HIT) Catalyst

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact Technology (HIT) Catalyst Images courtesy CREE, True Manufacturing, A.O. Smith, Bernstein Associates, Cambridge Engineering, Alliance Laundry Systems, NREL Commercial ...

  3. Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided Fundamental Atomistic Insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suljo Linic

    2008-12-31

    Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, various Ni alloy catalysts as potential carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. The alloy catalysts were synthesized and tested in steam reforming and partial oxidation of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalysts are much more carbon-tolerant than monometallic Ni catalysts under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by two characteristics: (a) knowledge-based, bottomup approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) the focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

  4. Molecular water oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gratzel, Michael; Munavalli, Shekhar; Pern, Fu-Jann; Frank, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the production of the above functionally substituted bidentate ligand diaqua oxo-bridged ruthenium dimers and their use as water oxidation catalysts is described.

  5. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2010 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; White, J. F.; Rummel, Becky L.; Stevens, Don J.

    2010-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research for the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy, Biomass Program to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas. In recent years this research has primarily involved the further development of a silica-supported catalyst containing rhodium and manganese that was selected from earlier catalyst screening tests. A major effort during 2010 was to examine alternative catalyst supports to determine whether other supports, besides the Davisil 645 silica, would improve performance. Optimization of the Davisil 645 silica-supported catalyst also was continued with respect to candidate promoters iridium, platinum, and gallium, and examination of selected catalyst preparation and activation alternatives for the baseline RhMn/SiO2 catalyst.

  6. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components

  7. Exhaust Phosphorous Chemistry and Catalyst Poisoning | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemistry and Catalyst Poisoning Exhaust Phosphorous Chemistry and Catalyst Poisoning 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National ...

  8. Refiners Increasingly Employing Catalyst Regeneration as Alternative...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    million by the end of 2019. Refiners Benefit from Catalyst Regeneration Technology via Price Reductions and Lower Maintenance Costs The catalyst regeneration technology is the...

  9. Oxford Catalysts Group plc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxford Catalysts Group plc Place: Oxford, United Kingdom Zip: OX2 6UD Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Developer of catalysts for room-temperature hydrogen production, hot steam...

  10. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles ...

  11. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Brnsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with

  12. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A.; Iton, Lennox E.; Pasterczyk, James W.; Winterer, Markus; Krause, Theodore R.

    1994-01-01

    A zeolite based catalyst for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C.sub.2 + hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  13. Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-02-18

    A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

  14. Catalysts for low temperature oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toops, Todd J.; Parks, III, James E.; Bauer, John C.

    2016-03-01

    The invention provides a composite catalyst containing a first component and a second component. The first component contains nanosized gold particles. The second component contains nanosized platinum group metals. The composite catalyst is useful for catalyzing the oxidation of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and other pollutants at low temperatures.

  15. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, V.A.; Iton, L.E.; Pasterczyk, J.W.; Winterer, M.; Krause, T.R.

    1994-04-26

    A zeolite-based catalyst is described for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C[sub 2]+ hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  16. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of

  17. Supported molten-metal catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datta, Ravindra; Singh, Ajeet; Halasz, Istvan; Serban, Manuela

    2001-01-01

    An entirely new class of catalysts called supported molten-metal catalysts, SMMC, which can replace some of the existing precious metal catalysts used in the production of fuels, commodity chemicals, and fine chemicals, as well as in combating pollution. SMMC are based on supporting ultra-thin films or micro-droplets of the relatively low-melting (<600.degree. C.), inexpensive, and abundant metals and semimetals from groups 1, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16, of the periodic table, or their alloys and intermetallic compounds, on porous refractory supports, much like supported microcrystallites of the traditional solid metal catalysts. It thus provides orders of magnitude higher surface area than is obtainable in conventional reactors containing molten metals in pool form and also avoids corrosion. These have so far been the chief stumbling blocks in the application of molten metal catalysts.

  18. Deactivation of methanol synthesis catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, G.W.; Brown, D.M.; Hsiung, T.H.; Lewnard, J.J. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))

    1993-08-01

    A novel methanol synthesis process, the liquid-phase methanol (LPMEOH) process, has been developed and scaled up to a nominal 380 kg/h (10 ton/day) pilot plant. The process is based on a gas-sparged slurry reactor instead of a conventional, fixed-bed reactor. The use of slurry reactors, which are essentially gradientless, greatly facilitated the interpretation and quantification of catalyst deactivation phenomena. With a poison-free, CO-rich feedstream, the rate of deactivation of the Cu/ZnO catalyst increased rapidly with temperature. At constant temperature, in the absence of poisons, the decline with time in the rate constant for methanol synthesis correlated with the loss of BET surface area. Iron carbonyl, nickel carbonyl, and carbonyl sulfide are severe and highly specific poisons for methanol-synthesis catalyst. There was a linear relationship between the catalyst activity loss and the concentration of metal or sulfur on the catalyst.

  19. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by use of molten metal halide catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating at least a substantial portion of the carbonaceous material associated with the reaction mixture from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the metal halide catalyst, an improvement comprising contacting the spent molten metal halide catalyst after removal of a major portion of the carbonaceous material therefrom with an additional quantity of hydrogen is disclosed.

  20. Accelerated deployment of nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts. Final CRADA Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libera, J.A.; Snyder, S.W.; Mane, A.; Elam, J.W.; Cronauer, D.C.; Muntean, J.A.; Wu, T.; Miller, J.T.

    2012-08-27

    Nanomanufacturing offers an opportunity to create domestic jobs and facilitate economic growth. In response to this need, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy issued a Research Call to develop nanomanufacturing capabilities at the National Laboratories. High performance catalysts represent a unique opportunity to deploy nanomanufacturing technologies. Re-refining of used lube oil offers an opportunity to create manufacturing jobs and decrease dependence on imported petroleum. Improved catalysts are required to produce a better quality product, decrease environmental impact, extend catalyst life, and improve overall economics of lube oil re-refining. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) in cooperation with Universal Lubricants, Inc. (ULI) and Chemical Engineering Partners (CEP) have carried out a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to prepare nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to exhibit superior performance for the re-refining of used lube oil. We investigated the upgrading of recycled lube oil by hydrogenation using commercial, synthetically-modified commercial catalysts, and synthesized catalysts. A down-flow (trickle bed) catalytic unit was used for the hydrogenation experiments. In addition to carrying out elemental analyses of the various feed and product fractions, characterization was undertaken using H{sup 1} and C{sup 13} NMR. Initially commercial were evaluated. Second these commercial catalysts were promoted with precious metals using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Performance improvements were observed that declined with catalyst aging. An alternate approach was undertaken to deeply upgrade ULI product oils. Using a synthesized catalyst, much lower hydrogenation temperatures were required than commercial catalysts. Other performance improvements were also observed. The resulting lube oil fractions were of high purity even at low reaction severity. The

  1. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bercaw, J.E.; Herzog, T.A.

    1998-01-13

    A metallocene catalyst system is described for the polymerization of {alpha}-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula shown wherein: R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, and R{sup 3} are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyls as a substituent, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R{sup 8}){sub 3} where R{sup 8} is selected from the group consisting of C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; R{sup 4} and R{sup 6} are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R{sup 1} and R{sup 3}; R{sup 5} is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E{sup 1}, E{sup 2} are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Ge(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Sn(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, where R{sup 9} is C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C{sub S} or C{sub 1}-symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from {alpha}-olefin monomers.

  2. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bercaw, John E.; Herzog, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    A metallocene catalyst system for the polymerization of .alpha.-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula ##STR1## wherein: R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyls as a substituent, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R.sup.8).sub.3 where R.sup.8 is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; R.sup.4 and R.sup.6 are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R.sup.1 and R.sup.3 ; R.sup.5 is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E.sup.1, E.sup.2 are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Si(R.sup.9).sub.2 --Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Ge(R.sup.9).sub.2, Sn(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2 --C(R.sup.9).sub.2, where R.sup.9 is C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C.sub.S or C.sub.1 -symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from .alpha.-olefin monomers.

  3. Evaluation of West Virginia University`s iron catalyst impregnated on coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives to evaluate and compare the activities/selectivities of fine-particle size catalysts being developed in the DOE/PETC Advanced Research (AR) Coal Liquefaction program by using standard coal liquefaction activity test procedures. Previously reported results have described the standard test procedure developed at Sandia to evaluate fine-particle size iron catalysts being developed in DOE/PETC`s AR Coal Liquefaction Program and described the evaluation of several catalysts (commercially available pyrite, University of Pittsburgh`s catalyst, Pacific Northwest Laboratories` catalyst) using these procedures. The test uses DECS-17 Blind Canyon Coal, phenanthrene as the reaction solvent, and a factorial experimental design that enables evaluation of a catalyst over ranges of temperature (350 to 400{degree}C), time (20 to 60 minutes), and catalyst loading (0 to 1 wt % on an as-received coal basis). Recent work has focused on the evaluation of West Virginia University`s iron catalyst that WVU impregnated on DECS-17 Blind Canyon coal. Results showed good activity for this catalyst including the highest amount of 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (13.2%) observed in a reaction product and a small but significant catalytic effect for heptane conversion (0.5%). Additional experiments are being performed to enable comparison with previously tested catalysts. Tetrahydrofuran insolubles from selected reactions have been sent to the University of Kentucky for Mossbauer characterization of the iron phases present.

  4. Accelerated Thermal Aging of Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalysts Using an Engine-Based

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems Approach | Department of Energy Thermal Aging of Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalysts Using an Engine-Based Systems Approach Accelerated Thermal Aging of Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalysts Using an Engine-Based Systems Approach This research points the way for developing a rapid aging cycle for SSCR-DPF systems. deer08_bunting.pdf (318.51 KB) More Documents & Publications Deactivation of Accelerated Engine-Aged and Field-Aged SCR Catalysts and the Role of the DOC Catalyst Characterization

  5. Modeling Study of SCR/PGM Interactions in NH3 Slip Catalysts | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Study of SCR/PGM Interactions in NH3 Slip Catalysts Modeling Study of SCR/PGM Interactions in NH3 Slip Catalysts The focus of this research is on the optimization of NH3 slip catalyst performance by simulating the behavior of different SCR/PGM configurations. p-19_nova.pdf (250.42 KB) More Documents & Publications Experimental and Modelling Study of the Effect of Diffusional Limitations on the NH3 SCR Activity Selective ammonia slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx

  6. Chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso-Vante, Nicolas (Buxerolles, FR); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Choi, Jong-Ho (Los Alamos, NM); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL); Cao, Dianxue (Urbana, IL)

    2009-09-15

    A methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst and a membrane electrode assembly for fuel cells that includes such a cathode catalyst. The cathode catalyst includes a support having at least one transition metal in elemental form and a chalcogen disposed on the support. Methods of making the cathode catalyst and membrane electrode assembly are also described.

  7. Chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zelenay, Piotr; Choi, Jong-Ho; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas; Wieckowski, Andrzej; Cao, Dianxue

    2010-08-24

    A methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst and a membrane electrode assembly for fuel cells that includes such a cathode catalyst. The cathode catalyst includes a support having at least one transition metal in elemental form and a chalcogen disposed on the support. Methods of making the cathode catalyst and membrane electrode assembly are also described.

  8. Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2010-04-20

    Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts are disclosed, including silver hollandite and cryptomelane. These materials can be used, for example, to catalyze the oxidation of CO.sub.x (e.g., CO), NO.sub.x (e.g., NO), hydrocarbons (e.g., C.sub.3H.sub.6) and/or sulfur-containing compounds. The disclosed materials also may be used to catalyze other reactions, such as the reduction of NO.sub.2. In some cases, the disclosed materials are capable of sorbing certain products from the reactions they catalyze. Silver hollandite, in particular, can be used to remove a substantial portion of certain sulfur-containing compounds from a gas or liquid by catalysis and/or sorption. The gas or liquid can be, for example, natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon.

  9. Textured catalysts, methods of making textured catalysts, and methods of catalyzing reactions conducted in hydrothermal conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-12-30

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  10. Electrochemically assisted paint removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, R.; Hydock, D.M.; Burleigh, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    A method to remove paint coatings from metal and other electronically conductive substrates is being studied. In particular, the remediation of objects coated with lead based paints is the focus of research. The approach also works very well with automotive coatings and may be competitive with sandblasting. To achieve debonding of the coating, the deteriorated or artifically damaged surface of the object is cathodically polarized. The object can be immersed in a benign aqueous electrolyte for treatment, or the electrolyte can be retained in an absorbent pad covering the surface to be treated.

  11. SunShot Catalyst Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The SunShot Catalyst program is actively reaching out to communities of software and business innovators across the country to find individuals with startup ideas to make solar faster, more...

  12. Secret Lives of Catalysts Revealed

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Miquel Salmeron and Gabor Somorjai

    2010-01-08

    Miquel Salmeron and Gabor Somorjai of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division discuss the first-ever glimpse of nanoscale catalysts in action. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-relea...

  13. Facilities removal working group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  14. EM Celebrates Milestone with Removal of Last Waste Tank at Separations...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Celebrates Milestone with Removal of Last Waste Tank at Separations Process Research Unit EM Celebrates Milestone with Removal of Last Waste Tank at Separations Process Research Unit ...

  15. Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong Zhaoping . E-mail: zzhong@seu.edu.cn; Jin Baosheng; Huang Yaji; Zhou Hongcang; Lan Jixiang

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m{sup 3}/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10{sup -13} kg/Nm{sup 3} and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries.

  16. Silica Scaling Removal Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaling Removal Process Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel technology to remove both dissolved and colloidal silica using small gel particles....

  17. Methods and apparatus for carbon dioxide removal from a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, Wei; Ruud, James Anthony; Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Liu, Ke

    2010-01-19

    An apparatus for producing hydrogen gas wherein the apparatus includes a reactor. In one embodiment, the reactor includes at least two conversion-removal portions. Each conversion-removal portion comprises a catalyst section configured to convert CO in the stream to CO.sub.2 and a membrane section located downstream of and in flow communication with the catalyst section. The membrane section is configured to selectively remove the CO.sub.2 from the stream and to be in flow communication with a sweep gas.

  18. Haloporphyrins and their preparation and use as catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1997-09-02

    The invention provides novel catalyst compositions, useful in the oxidation of hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to form hydroxy-group containing compounds and in the decomposition of hydroperoxides to form hydroxy-group containing compounds. The catalysts comprise transition metal complexes of a porphyrin ring having 1 to 12 halogen substituents on the porphyrin ring, at least one of said halogens being in a meso position and/or the catalyst containing no aryl group in a meso position. The compositions are prepared by halogenating a transition metal complex of a porphyrin. In one embodiment, a complex of a porphyrin with a metal whose porphyrin complexes are not active for oxidation of hydrocarbons is halogenated, thereby to obtain a haloporphyrin complex of that metal, the metal is removed from the haloporphyrin complex to obtain the free base form of the haloporphyrin, and a metal such as iron whose porphyrin complexes are active for oxidation of hydrocarbons and for the decomposition of alkyl hydroperoxides is complexed with the free base to obtain an active catalyst for oxidation of hydrocarbons and decomposition of alkyl hydroperoxides.

  19. Haloporphyrins and their preparation and use as catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Lyons, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides novel catalyst compositions, useful in the oxidation of hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to form hydroxy-group containing compounds and in the decomposition of hydroperoxides to form hydroxy-group containing compounds. The catalysts comprise transition metal complexes of a porphyrin ring having 1 to 12 halogen substituents on the porphyrin ring, at least one of said halogens being in a meso position and/or the catalyst containing no aryl group in a meso position. The compositions are prepared by halogenating a transition metal complex of a porphyrin. In one embodiment, a complex of a porphyrin with a metal whose porphyrin complexes are not active for oxidation of hydrocarbons is halogenated, thereby to obtain a haloporphyrin complex of that metal, the metal is removed from the haloporphyrin complex to obtain the free base form of the haloporphyrin, and a metal such as iron whose porphyrin complexes are active for oxidation of hydrocarbons and for the decomposition of alkyl hydroperoxides is complexed with the free base to obtain an active catalyst for oxidation of hydrocarbons and decomposition of alkyl hydroperoxides.

  20. Cyclic process for producing methane with catalyst regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C.; Risch, Alan P.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. For practical commercial operations utilizing the two-step process of the invention of a cyclic basis, nickel, cobalt, ruthenium, thenium and alloys thereof are especially prepared for use in a metal state, with CO disproportionation being carried out at temperatures up to about 350.degree. C. and with the conversion of active surface carbon to methane being carried out by reaction with steam. The catalyst is employed in such cyclic operations without the necessity for employing a regeneration step as part of each processing cycle. Inactive carbon or coke that tends to form on the catalyst over the course of continuous operations utilizing such cyclic process is effectively and advantageously removed, on a periodic basis, in place of conventional burn off with an inert stream containing a low concentration of oxygen.

  1. Hydroprocessing conditions affect catalyst shape selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, B.H.; Donnis, B.B.L.; Moyse, B.

    1986-12-08

    Diffusion characteristics, pressure drop limitations, catalyst pore size, catalyst loading techniques, and catalytic activity requirements all affect the selection of the catalyst shape used in hydroprocessing of heavy distillates. Haldor Topsoe Inc. has studied the effects of these hydroprocessing conditions on various shapes of its TK-551 nickel-molybdenum hydroprocessing catalysts. The studies were carried out using Arabian Heavy vacuum gas oil (VGO). For hydroprocessing heavy distillates, polylobed catalysts and dense loading techniques have obvious advantages. The higher external surface of polylobed catalysts ensures better accessibility to the inner surface of the catalyst, and dense loading allows more catalytic activity in a given reactor volume. However there are drawbacks. Polylobed catalysts tend to pack less densely thus reducing volume activity. And dense loading results in higher pressure through the bed. The philosophy behind the use of polylobed catalysts is to improve the diffusion characteristics.

  2. Catalyst for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huibers, Derk T. A.; Kang, Chia-Chen C.

    1984-01-01

    An improved catalyst for a coal liquefaction process; e.g., the H-Coal Process, for converting coal into liquid fuels, and where the conversion is carried out in an ebullated-catalyst-bed reactor wherein the coal contacts catalyst particles and is converted, in addition to liquid fuels, to gas and residual oil which includes preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. The improvement comprises a catalyst selected from the group consisting of the oxides of nickel molybdenum, cobalt molybdenum, cobalt tungsten, and nickel tungsten on a carrier of alumina, silica, or a combination of alumina and silica. The catalyst has a total pore volume of about 0.500 to about 0.900 cc/g and the pore volume comprises micropores, intermediate pores and macropores, the surface of the intermediate pores being sufficiently large to convert the preasphaltenes to asphaltenes and lighter molecules. The conversion of the asphaltenes takes place on the surface of micropores. The macropores are for metal deposition and to prevent catalyst agglomeration. The micropores have diameters between about 50 and about 200 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 50 to about 80% of the pore volume, whereas the intermediate pores have diameters between about 200 and 2000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume, and the macropores have diameters between about 2000 and about 10,000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume. The catalysts are further improved where they contain promoters. Such promoters include the oxides of vanadium, tungsten, copper, iron and barium, tin chloride, tin fluoride and rare earth metals.

  3. Method of synthesizing bulk transition metal carbide, nitride and phosphide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jae Soon; Armstrong, Beth L; Schwartz, Viviane

    2015-04-21

    A method for synthesizing catalyst beads of bulk transmission metal carbides, nitrides and phosphides is provided. The method includes providing an aqueous suspension of transition metal oxide particles in a gel forming base, dropping the suspension into an aqueous solution to form a gel bead matrix, heating the bead to remove the binder, and carburizing, nitriding or phosphiding the bead to form a transition metal carbide, nitride, or phosphide catalyst bead. The method can be tuned for control of porosity, mechanical strength, and dopant content of the beads. The produced catalyst beads are catalytically active, mechanically robust, and suitable for packed-bed reactor applications. The produced catalyst beads are suitable for biomass conversion, petrochemistry, petroleum refining, electrocatalysis, and other applications.

  4. PNNL: Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis - Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research News 2016 Transformations: Fundamental Catalysis Enabling Zero-Carbon-Footprint Future, Scale-up of Aviation Biofuels from Alcohols, Five Cents about Nickel Catalysts (August 2016) The Case of the Cobalt Catalyst (July 2016) Following Nature's Lead: Mimicking Enzymes to Release Energy (June 2016) Catalyze It! Special Issue Highlights Drive for Discoveries at National Labs (May 2016) Five Cents About Nickel Catalysts (May 2016) Measuring Up: The Gold Standard for Catalysts in Real World

  5. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P.

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  6. Non-precious metal catalysts prepared from precursor comprising cyanamide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chung, Hoon Taek; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-10-27

    Catalyst comprising graphitic carbon and methods of making thereof; said graphitic carbon comprising a metal species, a nitrogen-containing species and a sulfur containing species. A catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction for an alkaline fuel cell was prepared by heating a mixture of cyanamide, carbon black, and a salt selected from an iron sulfate salt and an iron acetate salt at a temperature of from about 700.degree. C. to about 1100.degree. C. under an inert atmosphere. Afterward, the mixture was treated with sulfuric acid at elevated temperature to remove acid soluble components, and the resultant mixture was heated again under an inert atmosphere at the same temperature as the first heat treatment step.

  7. Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, G.O.; Copeland, R.; Dubovik, M.; Gershanovich, Y.

    2002-09-20

    Gasification technologies convert coal and other heavy feedstocks into synthesis gas feed streams that can be used in the production of a wide variety of chemicals, ranging from hydrogen through methanol, ammonia, acetic anhydride, dimethyl ether (DME), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), high molecular weight liquid hydrocarbons and waxes. Syngas can also be burned directly as a fuel in advanced power cycles to generate electricity with very high efficiency. However, the coal-derived synthesis gas contains a myriad of trace contaminants that may poison the catalysts that are used in the downstream manufacturing processes and may also be regulated in power plant emissions. Particularly, the catalysts used in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol and other liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids) have been found to be very sensitive to the low levels of poisons, especially arsenic, that are present in the synthesis gas from coal. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing an expendable high capacity, low-cost chemical absorbent to remove arsenic from coal-derived syngas. Unlike most of the commercially available sorbents that physically adsorb arsenic, TDA's sorbent operates at elevated temperatures and removes the arsenic through chemical reaction. The arsenic content in the coal gas stream is reduced to ppb levels with the sorbent by capturing and stabilizing the arsenic gas (As4) and arsenic hydrides (referred to as arsine, AsH3) in the solid state. To demonstrate the concept of high temperature arsenic removal from coal-derived syngas, we carried out bench-scale experiments to test the absorption capacity of a variety of sorbent formulations under representative conditions. Using on-line analysis techniques, we monitored the pre- and post-breakthrough arsine concentrations over different sorbent samples. Some of these samples exhibited pre-breakthrough arsine absorption capacity over 40% wt. (capacity is defined as lb of arsenic absorbed/lb of sorbent), while

  8. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  9. Catalysts for the hydrodenitrogenation of organic materials and process for the preparation of the catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, R.M.; Hirschon, A.S.; Wilson, R.B. Jr.

    1987-12-29

    A process is described for the preparation of a multimetallic catalyst for the hydrodenitrogenation of an organic feedstock, which process comprises: (a) forming a precatalyst itself comprising: (1) a first metal compound selected from compounds of nickel, cobalt or mixtures thereof; (2) a second metal compound selected from compounds of chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, or mixtures thereof; and (3) an inorganic support; (b) heating the precatalyst of step (a) with a source of sulfide in a first non-oxidizing gas at a temperature and for a time effective to presulfide the precatalyst; (c) adding in a second non-oxidizing gas to the sulfided precatalyst of step (b) an organometallic transition metal moiety selected from compounds of iridium, rhodium, iron, ruthenium, tungsten or mixtures thereof for a time and at a temperature effective to chemically combine the metal components; and (d) optionally heating the chemically combined catalyst of step (b) in vacuum at a temperature and for a time effective to remove residual volatile organic materials. 12 figs.

  10. Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. [DOE patent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vollhardt, K.P.C.; Perkins, P.

    Novel compounds are described which are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO + H/sub 2/ to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

  11. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in point. The complex chemistry associated with the iron-based catalyst has made even the identity of the active catalyst at work an unsolved mystery. At the ALS, de Smit et al....

  12. Long term experiences with HDD SCR Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Test bench results and on-road experiences of more than 1 million km offer comparisons of fresh and used catalyst activity and NOx conversion capability using appropriate methods of catalyst analysis.

  13. Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Douglas W.; Spiro, Clifford L.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1985-01-01

    Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

  14. Inorganometallic Catalyst Design Center (ICDC) | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) Inorganometallic Catalyst Design Center (ICDC) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Inorganometallic Catalyst Design Center (ICDC) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page ICDC Header Director Laura Gagliardi Lead Institution University of Minnesota Year Established 2014 Mission To computationally guide the discovery of a new class of

  15. Biomass Catalyst Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Biomass Catalyst Characterization Laboratory (BCCL) capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center.

  16. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support,

  17. High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies The Energy Department released the High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies to serve as an overview of the HIT Catalyst program activities, including a summary of the selection process undertaken to identify, evaluate and prioritize the current HITs, descriptions of the technologies and markets for each HIT, and plans for deployment. High

  18. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  19. Bench-scale studies on gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Wilcox, W.A.

    1987-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of bench-scale studies on the development of catalysts for conversion of biomass to specific gas products. The primary objective of these studies was to define operating conditions that allow long lifetimes for secondary catalysts used in biomass gasification. Nickel-based catalysts that were found to be active for conversion of wood to synthesis gases in previous studies were evaluated. These catalysts remained active indefinitely in laboratory studies but lost activity rapidly when evaluated in a process research unit. Bench-scale equipment was designed and installed to resolve the differences between laboratory and PRU results. Primary catalysts (alkali carbonates) were also evaluated for their effectiveness in improving conversion yields from biomass gasification. 21 refs., 27 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1993-02-01

    This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275[degrees]C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

  1. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1993-02-01

    This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275{degrees}C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

  2. Silver doped catalysts for treatment of exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul Worn; Hester, Virgil Raymond; Ragle, Christie Susan; Boyer, Carrie L.

    2009-06-02

    A method of making an exhaust treatment element includes washcoating a substrate with a slurry that includes a catalyst support material. At least some of the catalyst support material from the slurry may be transferred to the substrate, and silver metal (Ag) is dispersed within the catalyst support material.

  3. Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Research Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Research thorium test foil A thorium test foil target for proof-of-concept actinium-225 production In addition to our routine isotope products, the LANL Isotope Program is focused on developing the next suite of isotopes and services to meet the Nation's emerging needs. The LANL Isotope Program's R&D strategy is focused on four main areas (see

  4. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  5. Turbomachinery debris remover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krawiec, Donald F.; Kraf, Robert J.; Houser, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for removing debris from a turbomachine. The apparatus includes housing and remotely operable viewing and grappling mechanisms for the purpose of locating and removing debris lodged between adjacent blades in a turbomachine.

  6. Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided by Fundamental Atomistics Insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suljo Linic

    2006-08-31

    Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a novel hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, Sn/Ni alloy as a potential carbon tolerant reforming catalyst. Sn/Ni alloy was synthesized and tested in steam reforming of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalyst is carbon-tolerant under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by a few characteristics: (a) Knowledge-based, bottom-up approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) The focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

  7. Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

  8. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Kenneth D.

    1991-01-01

    Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  9. Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.

    1986-10-14

    Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

  10. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, K.D.

    1991-06-25

    Perovskites of the structure A[sub 2]B[sub 2]C[sub 3]O[sub 10] are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  11. Method for forming gold-containing catalyst with porous structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biener, Juergen; Hamza, Alex V; Baeumer, Marcus; Schulz, Christian; Jurgens, Birte; Biener, Monika M.

    2014-07-22

    A method for forming a gold-containing catalyst with porous structure according to one embodiment of the present invention includes producing a starting alloy by melting together of gold and at least one less noble metal that is selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, rhodium, palladium, and platinum; and a dealloying step comprising at least partial removal of the less noble metal by dissolving the at least one less noble metal out of the starting alloy. Additional methods and products thereof are also presented.

  12. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-12-31

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  13. Catalyst selection important for residuum hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, R.L.; Chen, H.C.; Gibson, K.R.; Hung, C.

    1985-07-29

    The authors examine the effective hydro-processing of residuum from heavy crude oils, through proper catalyst selection. Utilizing proper catalyst selection and application can make residuum hydroprocessing an attractive process route to lighter products, allowing flexibility to handle a wide range of feedstock properties. Chevron has analyzed the important catalyst properties and how they affect catalyst selection for, and catalyst application to, different residuum processing routes to transportation fuels. They have also examined the role of hydroprocessing in those routes. Data were obtained from commercial operation in Chevron's Richmond, Calif., and Pascagoula, Miss., refineries.

  14. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, Kurt Edward; Kolsun, George J.

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  15. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  16. Hydroprocessing using regenerated spent heavy hydrocarbon catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, F.T.; Hensley, A.L. Jr.

    1992-10-13

    This patent describes a process for hydroprocessing a hydrocarbon feedstock. It comprises: contacting the feedstock with hydrogen under hydroprocessing conditions with a hydroprocessing catalyst wherein the hydroprocessing catalyst contains a total contaminant metals build-up of greater than about 4 wt. % nickel plus vanadium, a hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of Group VIB metals and Group VIII metals and is regenerated spent hydroprocessing catalyst regenerated by a process comprising the steps: partially decoking the spent catalyst in an initial coke-burning step; impregnating the partially decoked catalyst with a Group IIA metal-containing impregnation solution; and decoking the impregnated catalyst in a final coke-burning step wherein the impregnated catalyst is contacted with an oxygen-containing gas at a temperature of about 600[degrees]F to about 1400[degrees]F.

  17. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpel, Michael; Liu, Di-Jia

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  18. Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-10-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance.

  19. Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The LANL Isotope Program's R&D strategy is focused on four main areas (see article list below for recent efforts in these areas): Medical Applications are a key focus for research ...

  20. Improved Catalysts for Heavy Oil Upgrading Based on Zeolite Y Nanoparticles Encapsulated Stable Nanoporous Host

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

    2007-09-30

    The objective of this project is to synthesize nanocrystals of highly acidic zeolite Y nanoclusters, encapsulate them within the channels of mesoporous (nanoporous) silicates or nanoporous organosilicates, and evaluate the 'zeolite Y/Nanoporous host' composites as catalysts for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstocks. In comparison to conventionally-used zeolite Y catalysts of micron size particles, the nanocrystals (< 100 nm particle size) which contain shorter path lengths, are expected to allow faster diffusion of large hydrocarbon substrates and the catalysis products within and out of the zeolite's channels and cages (<1 nm size). This is expected to significantly reduce deactivation of the catalyst and to prolong their period of reactivity. Encapsulating zeolite Y nanocrystals within the nanoporous materials is expected to protect its external surfaces and pore entrances from being blocked by large hydrocarbon substrates, since these substrates will initially be converted to small molecules by the nanoporous host (a catalyst in its own right). The project consisted of four major tasks as follows: (1) synthesis of the nanoparticles of zeolite Y (of various chemical compositions) using various techniques such as the addition of organic additives to conventional zeolite Y synthesis mixtures to suppress zeolite Y crystal growth; (2) synthesis of nanoporous silicate host materials of up to 30 nm pore diameter, using poly (alkylene oxide) copolymers which when removed will yield a mesoporous material; (3) synthesis of zeolite Y/Nanoporous Host composite materials as potential catalysts; and (4) evaluation of the catalyst for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstocks.

  1. Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

    2010-06-30

    This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the demonstration early, during

  2. Supported Au-CuO Catalysts for Low Temperature CO Oxidation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Supported Au-CuO Catalysts for Low Temperature CO Oxidation Supported Au-CuO Catalysts for Low Temperature CO Oxidation Catalytic properties of Au-CuOx/SiO2 are investigated in removing pollutants from simulated automotive exhaust to meet an increasing demand for high emissions control at low temperatures. p-02_bauer.pdf (718.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Low Temperature Emission Control Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Low Temperature Emission Control to

  3. Conversion of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen by reaction with a sulfided catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A method is provided for removing ammonia from the sour water stream of a coal gasification process. The basic steps comprise stripping the ammonia from the sour water; heating the stripped ammonia to a temperature from between 400.degree. to 1,000.degree. F; passing the gaseous ammonia through a reactor containing a sulfided catalyst to produce elemental hydrogen and nitrogen; and scrubbing the reaction product to obtain an ammonia-free gas. The residual equilibrium ammonia produced by the reactor is recycled into the stripper. The ammonia-free gas may be advantageously treated in a Claus process to recover elemental sulfur. Iron sulfide or cobalt molybdenum sulfide catalysts are used.

  4. Advanced Catalysts and MEAs for Reversible Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts and MEAs for Reversible Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells Hui Xu (PI) Giner Inc Newton, MA This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information DOE Catalyst Work Group Meeting June 8, 2015 2 Barriers Addressed * Activity (catalyst; MEA) * Durability (catalyst; MEA) * Cost (catalyst; MEA) Technical Targets * Design and develop ORR/OER bi-functional oxide catalysts * Integrate ORR/OER bifunctional oxide catalysts and alkaline membranes to

  5. Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Rational Catalyst Design Approach | Department of Energy Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with Rational Catalyst Design Approach Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with Rational Catalyst Design Approach Discusses results of a project focused on overcoming hydrocarbon inhibition on Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts by using a rational catalyst design approach. deer11_kapur.pdf (745.87 KB) More Documents &

  6. NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps Research to identify most promising catalytic formulations and operation for the in-situ generation of NH3, storage on a downstream SCR catalyst, and utilized to reduce the remaining NOx deer12_toops.pdf (3.08 MB) More Documents & Publications Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

  7. Evaluation of Promoters for Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-08

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially-available catalysts or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially-available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. A total of 28 tests were conducted to evaluate 22 different promoters as well as an unpromoted catalyst. The following general trends were observed for the test results: The highest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates occurred at the lowest reaction temperatures and accompanying lowest space time yields (STYs). The lowest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates occurred at the highest reaction temperatures because of high carbon conversion to hydrocarbons. The highest C2+-oxygenate STYs occurred between 300C and 325C, with the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) adjusted when necessary to maintain carbon conversion ranges between ~ 30 and 40 percent. Higher carbon selectivity to hydrocarbons at higher temperatures resulted in lower C2+-oxygenate STYs. When catalysts were heated to between 300C and 325C the catalysts showed evidence of some deactivation with respect to C2+ oxygenate productivity, accompanied by reduced chain growth for the hydrocarbon products. The degree of deactivation and the temperature at which it occurred varied between the different catalysts tested. Of all of the catalysts evaluated, the Li-promoted catalysts had the highest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates (47 percent) under the conditions at which the maximum C2+-oxygenate STYs were obtained.

  8. Biomimetic catalysts responsive to specific chemical signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Yan

    2015-03-04

    Part 1. Design of Biomimetic Catalysts Based on Amphiphilic Systems The overall objective of our research is to create biomimetic catalysts from amphiphilic molecules. More specifically, we aim to create supramolecular systems that can be used to control the microenvironment around a catalytic center in a biomimetic fashion and apply the learning to construct supramolecular catalysts with novel functions found in enzymatic catalysts. We have prepared synthetic molecules (i.e., foldamers) that could fold into helical structures with nanometer-sized internal hydrophilic cavities. Cavities of this size are typically observed only in the tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins but were formed in our foldamer prepared in just a few steps from the monomer. Similar to many proteins, our foldamers displayed cooperativity in the folding/unfolding equilibrium and followed a two-state conformational transition. In addition, their conformational change could be triggered by solvent polarity, pH, or presence of metal ions and certain organic molecules. We studied their environmentally dependent conformational changes in solutions, surfactant micelles, and lipid bilayer membranes. Unlike conventional rigid supramolecular host, a foldamer undergoes conformational change during guest binding. Our study in the molecular recognition of an oligocholate host yielded some extremely exciting results. Cooperativity between host conformation and host–guest interactions was found to “magnify” weak binding interactions. In other words, since binding affinity is determined by the overall change of free energy during the binding, guest-induced conformational change of the host, whether near or far from the binding site, affects the binding. This study has strong implications in catalysis because enzymes have been hypothesized to harvest similar intramolecular forces to strengthen their binding with the transition state of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The supramolecular and

  9. Catalyst for selective conversion of synthesis gas and method of making the catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, Paul N.; Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1986-01-01

    A Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst, a method of making the catalyst and an F-T process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consists of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of an F-T metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

  10. Supported fischer-tropsch catalyst and method of making the catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, Paul N.; Pierantozzi, Ronald; Withers, Howard P.

    1987-01-01

    A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a method of making the catalyst for a Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas, is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

  11. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  12. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, Geoffrey L.; Kanazirev, Vladislav

    1996-01-01

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  13. Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars Wednesday, October 7, 2015 - 1:10pm NNSA Blog Sandia National Laboratories post-doctoral fellow Stan Chou demonstrates the reaction of more efficiently catalyzing hydrogen. In this simulation, the color is from dye excited by light and generating electrons for the catalyst molybdenum disulfide to evolve hydrogen. ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. -Sandia National Laboratories researchers seeking to make

  14. Mass-selected Nanoparticles of PtxY as Model Catalysts for Oxygen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electroreduction | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Mass-selected Nanoparticles of PtxY as Model Catalysts for Oxygen Electroreduction Thursday, July 31, 2014 A team of researchers from the Technical University of Denmark and the SUNCAT Institute at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has demonstrated the superior performance of nanoparticles of platinum-yttrium (PtxY) as catalysts for oxygen electroreduction. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

  15. Membrane-Electrode Structures for Low Cost Molecular Catalysts in Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells and Other Electrochemical Devices - Energy Innovation Portal Membrane-Electrode Structures for Low Cost Molecular Catalysts in Fuel Cells and Other Electrochemical Devices Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A team of Berkeley Lab researchers has developed a technology to coat electrode surfaces with a homogeneous catalyst that has been immobilized within a polymer layer. The team demonstrated that a 3-D distributed array

  16. Designing catalysts for hydrogen production | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Production catalysts for hydrogen production 12 Oct 2012 Dr. Anne Jones is a Principal Investigator in the Center of Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel production at Arizona State University. Her lab is involved in Subtasks 1 (Total systems analysis, assembly and testing) and Subtask 3 (Fuel production complex) of the Center. Major research efforts are directed towards developing artificial, hydrogen-producing catalysts and functionally connecting them to electrode surfaces. In the Jones group,

  17. LSU EFRC - Center for Atomic Level Catalyst Design - Technical Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012 2 space control 2012 Technical Conference: Center for Atomic-level Catalyst Design Oct. 8-10, 2012 LSU Welcomes CALC-D researchers to the Center's 4th Annual Technical Conference. Over 50 investigators from the US and Europe, along with students and post-docs, will exchange information over the 3 days of the conference. The conference will feature technical presentations, tours of LSU's synchrotron facility , and five short courses designed to introduce students to the principles and

  18. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1986-09-30

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160 C) and preferably in the range 80--120 C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen are disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa-M(OAc)[sub 2] where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1--6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)[sub 6] is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  19. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  20. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  1. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  2. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  3. New Catalyst Converts CO₂ to Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Catalyst Converts CO₂ to Fuel New Catalyst Converts CO₂ to Fuel Calculations run at NERSC help confirm University of Illinois breakthrough September 5, 2014 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Scientists from the University of Illinois at Chicago have synthesized a catalyst that improves their system for converting waste carbon dioxide (CO₂) into syngas, a precursor of gasoline and other energy-rich products, bringing the process closer to commercial viability.

  4. Catalysts for Dehydrogenation of ammonia boranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinekey, Dennis M.

    2014-12-19

    Several effective homogeneous catalysts for the dehydrogenation of amine boranes have been developed. The best catalyst uses an iridium complex, and is capable of dehydrogenating H3NBH3 (AB) and CH3NH2BH3 (MeAB) at comparable rates. Thermodynamic measurements using this catalyst demonstrate that the dehydrogenation of AB and MeAB is substantially exothermic, which has important implications for regeneration.

  5. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  6. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  7. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  8. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  9. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  10. High Impact Technology Catalyst | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Buildings » High Impact Technology Catalyst High Impact Technology Catalyst High impact technologies (HITs) are cost-effective, underutilized energy-efficient commercial building technologies. Through the High Impact Technology Catalyst program, initiated in 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identifies and guides HITs through their early market introduction phases, ultimately leading them to the broader market through partnerships with the commercial buildings industry via

  11. Solid Catalyst - Alkylation - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Solid Catalyst - Alkylation Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary This is a method used to reactivate solid/liquid catalysts used in INL's super critical process to produce alkylates. The method brings the catalyst into contact with the designated fluid that serves as the reactivating agent and has the density to dissolve the impurities. The process reactivates the

  12. Improvement of microbead cracking catalyst manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirskii, Ya.B.; Kosolapova, A.P.; Meged, N.F.

    1986-11-01

    In order to improve the manufacturing process for KMTsR microbead catalyst for use in new cracking units, the authors consider the method of increasing the content of aluminum oxide in its amorphous part. A microbead catalyst of zeolite, containing rare-earth elements of the KMTsR type was obtained by spray-drying a slurry prepared by mechanical dispersion of hydrogel beads, with the subsequent molding and processing operations the same as in the production of bead catalyst.

  13. Developing Intermetallic Catalysts | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1: Precious metals and metal alloys are important heterogeneous catalysts for renewable energies and materials. However, both of them have their limitations. Precious metals have...

  14. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants...

  15. Polyfunctional catalyst for processiing benzene fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Byakov; B.D. Zubitskii; B.G. Tryasunov; I.Ya. Petrov

    2009-05-15

    A by-product of the coke industry is a raw benzene fraction benzene- 1 which may serve as for catalytic processes. The paper reports a study on the influence of the composition and temperatures on the activity and selectivity of NiO-V{sub 2}O{sub 6}-MoO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts and the corresponding binary and tertiary subsystems are studied by a pulse method in model reactions; the hydrodealkylating of toluene and the hydrodesulfurizing of thioprhene. The optimal catalyst composition is established. The new catalyst is compared with industrial catalysts.

  16. Breakout Group 1: Catalysts and Supports

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and their potential for fuel cell application * Fundamental understanding - of active sites in non-platinum group metal ... ANODE CATALYSTS FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS * Fundamental ...

  17. Advanced Cathode Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe Catalysis Working Group Kick-Off ...

  18. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Sansone, Michael J.; Slegeir, William A. R.

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint.

  19. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint. 9 figs.

  20. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauterbach, Jochen; Snively, Christopher M.; Vijay, Rohit; Hendershot, Reed; Feist, Ben

    2010-10-12

    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  1. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes. ... The measurements generated chemical contour maps for the species present. Quantitative ...

  2. Nanostructured Water Oxidation Catalysts - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Nanostructured Water Oxidation Catalysts Lawrence ... Berkeley Lab have developed a visible light driven catalytic system for oxidizing water. ...

  3. Process for coal liquefaction using electrodeposited catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of solid hydrocarbonaceous materials is disclosed. Particles of such materials are electroplated with a metal catalyst and are then suspended in a hydrocarbon oil and subjected to hydrogenolysis to liquefy the solid hydrocarbonaceous material. A liquid product oil is separated from residue solid material containing char and the catalyst metal. The catalyst is recovered from the solid material by electrolysis for reuse. A portion of the product oil can be employed as the hydrocarbon oil for suspending additional particles of catalyst coated solid carbonaceous material for hydrogenolysis.

  4. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

  5. Catalyst Assisted Manufacture of Olefins (CAMOL)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    oxide and calcium tungstate as catalysts) Project Objective Reduce energy consumption in the radiant section (furnace coils) of an ethane cracker by 15% (6% savings ...

  6. Characterization of Catalysts for Aftertreatment and Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Aftertreatment and Biomass-derived Fuels: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Characterization of Catalysts for Aftertreatment...

  7. Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts Citation ... Publication Date: 2016-03-24 OSTI Identifier: 1245398 Report ...

  8. Device for removing blackheads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkovich, Tamara

    1995-03-07

    A device for removing blackheads from pores in the skin having a elongated handle with a spoon shaped portion mounted on one end thereof, the spoon having multiple small holes piercing therethrough. Also covered is method for using the device to remove blackheads.

  9. On the nature of the deactivation of supported palladium nanoparticle catalysts in the decarboxylation of fatty acids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping, E. W.; Pierson, J.; Wallace, R.; Miller, J. T.; Fuller, T. F.; Jones, C. W.

    2011-04-15

    Supported palladium catalysts are effective catalysts for the hydrogen-free decarboxylation of fatty acids. However, the catalysts deactivate severely after one use. Here, the recyclability of a well-defined, mesoporous silica-supported palladium nanoparticle catalyst is evaluated in the batch decarboxylation of stearic acid at 300 C under inert atmosphere, producing n-heptadecane. The nature of the catalyst deactivation is examined in detail via an array of characterization techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrates that little palladium surface oxidation occurs over the course of the reaction, and a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggests negligible particle sintering or agglomeration. Physisorption and chemisorption measurements demonstrate substantial loss in total surface area and porosity as well as accessible palladium surface area with these losses attributed to significant organic deposition on the catalyst, as verified via thermogravimetric analysis. High temperature calcination is applied to combust and remove these residues, but resultant nanoparticle agglomeration is significant. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid dissolution followed by organic extraction methodologies demonstrate that the carbonaceous deposits are not coke but rather strongly adsorbed reactants and products. Detrimental coke formation, as suggested by prior literature, is verified to be absent, as extraction of the surface-deposited organic species yields nearly complete recovery of the total surface area, pore volume, and active palladium surface area. Furthermore, the regenerated catalyst exhibits a corresponding significant recovery of decarboxylation activity.

  10. Comparative evaluation of rejuvenation of spent residue hydroprocessing catalysts in the decoked (oxide) and coked (sulfided) forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanislaus, A.; Marafi, M.; Absi-Halabi, M.

    1993-12-31

    Two routes were used to rejuvenate spent residue hydroprocessing catalyst by leaching foulant metals. In the first, the deoiled spent catalyst containing coke and deposited metals in the sulfide form was chemically treated to remove the metal foulants. In the second, the deoiled spent catalyst was decoked by controlled combustion of coke and the resultant coke free catalyst containing the metals in the oxide form was subjected to leaching. Oxalic acid, a chelating agent, that can form soluble metal complexes was used for metal leaching in both routes. The influence of adding an oxidizing agent such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to oxalic acid on the leaching efficiency was also examined in both routes. The spent and treated catalysts were characterized and the improvements in surface area pore volume and HDS activity of the catalysts as a result of leaching in different routes compared. The selectivity for leaching of the major metal foulant (vanadium) was better, and activity recovery was higher for the catalyst rejuvenated by metal leaching prior to decoking.

  11. Shape selective catalysts for F-T chemistry. Interim report : January 2001 - December 2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronauer, D. C.

    2003-01-29

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) chemistry, specifically the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to F-T catalysts needing high activity, it is desirable that they have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. In this project, selectivity is directed toward the production of diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. Shape-selective catalysts have the potential to both limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected ''cage.'' This cage also restricts their loss by attrition during use in slurry-bed reactors. Experimentation has included evaluation of samples of (1) iron-based F-T catalysts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory, (2) iron-based F-T catalysts prepared by B.H. Davis of the Center of Applied Energy Research (CAER), (3) the Davis catalyst that were sized by differential gravity separation, and (4) the Davis catalyst onto which inorganic or catalytic ''shells'' were deposited. The ANL-prepared samples had a wide range of particle size and were irregular in shape. A sizeable portion of the samples provided by Davis were spherical, because they had been prepared by spray-drying. To compare the catalytic activities of the samples, we used a micro-scale fixed-bed reactor system for F-T runs of low conversion to avoid thermal and mass transfer effects. In summary, the highest activity was that of the original Davis catalyst; additional research must be carried out to generate more permeable surface cages. A number of approaches that have been published for other applications will be tested.

  12. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clay, David T.; Lynn, Scott

    1976-10-19

    A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

  13. Final report on solid ferrous scrap copper removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, A.D.; Williamson, C.A.; Davis. D.L.

    1996-08-01

    Research has shown that physically distinct impurities in shredded ferrous scrap can be removed, and that metallic values can be recovered from the removed impurities. Although the closing of the U.S. Bureau of Mines terminated this research, it should be continued by others. Areas for continued research consideration could include further scrap testing to optimize process parameters, among others.

  14. Direct Conversion of Syngas-to-Hydrocarbons over Higher Alcohols Synthesis Catalysts Mixed with HZSM-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Li, Jinjing; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-10

    The synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels directly from synthesis gas (i.e. one step process) was investigated with a catalytic system comprised of HZSM-5 physically mixed with either a methanol synthesis catalyst or a higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) catalyst. The metal sites of the methanol or HAS synthesis catalyst enable the conversion of syngas to alcohols, whereas HZSM-5 provides acid sites required for methanol dehydration, and dimethyl ether-to-hydrocarbons reactions. Catalytic performance for HZSM-5 when mixed with either a 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst or a HAS catalyst was evaluated at 300C, 70 bars, GHSV=700 h-1 and H2/CO=1 using a HZSM-5: alcohols synthesis catalyst weight ratio of 3:1. The major difference observed between the methanol synthesis and HAS catalyst mixtures was found in the production of durene which is an undesirable byproduct. While durene formation is negligible with any of the HAS catalysts mixed with the HZSM-5 evaluated in this study, it represents almost 50% of the C5+ fraction for the methanol synthesis catalyst (5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 ) mixed with HZSM-5. This presents an advantage for using HAS catalysts over the methanol synthesis catalyst to minimize the durene by-product. The yield toward the desired C5+ hydrocarbons is thus twice higher with selected HAS catalysts as compared to when HZSM-5 is mixed with 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3. Among all the HAS catalysts evaluated in this study, a catalyst with 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst was found the most promising due to higher production of C5+ hydrocarbons and low durene formation. The efficiency of the one-step process was thus further evaluated using the HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst mixture under a number of process conditions to maximize liquid hydrocarbons product yield. At 300oC, 70 bars, GHSV = 700 h-1 and HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu = 3:1 (wt.), the C5+ fraction represents 48.5% of the hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to achieve higher selectivity to

  15. Improved Catalysts for Heavy Oil Upgrading Based on Zeolite Y Nanoparticles Encapsulated Stable Nanoporous Host

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

    2007-03-31

    The addition of hydrothermally-aged zeolite Y precursor to an SBA-15 synthesis mixture under a mildly acidic condition resulted in the formation of a mesoporous aluminosilicate catalyst, AlSBA-15. The Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst contains strong Br{umlt o}nsted acid sites and aluminum (Al) stabilized in a totally tetrahedral coordination. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalyst varied as a function of the synthesis conditions. The catalyst possessed surface areas ranging between 690 and 850 m{sup 2}/g, pore sizes ranging from 5.6 to 7.5 nm, and pore volumes up 1.03 cm{sup 3}, which were comparable to the parent SBA-15 synthesized under similar conditions. Two wt % Al was present in the catalyst that was obtained from the reaction mixture that contained the highest Al content. The Al remained stable in totally tetrahedral coordination after calcination at a temperature of 550 C. The Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst showed significant catalytic activity for cumene dealkylation, and the activity increased as the amount of zeolite precursor added to the SBA-15 mixture was increased. In preparation for the final phase of the project, the catalyst was embedded into a psuedoboemite alumina (catapal B) matrix and then formed into pellets. In the final phase of the project, the pelletized catalyst is being evaluated for the conversion of a heavy petroleum feedstock to naphtha and middle distillates. This phase was significantly delayed during the past six months due to a serious malfunction of the fume hoods in the Clark Atlanta University's Research Center for Science and Technology, where the project is being conducted. The fume hood system was repaired and the catalyst evaluation is now underway.

  16. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-10-31

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the second set of mercury measurements was made after the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 2,000 hours. There was good agreement between the Ontario Hydro measurements and the SCEM measurements. Carbon trap measurements of total mercury agreed fairly well with the SCEM. There did appear to be some loss of mercury in the sampling system toward the end of the sampling campaign. NO{sub x} reductions across the catalysts ranged from 60% to 88%. Loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts was not observed, as it had been in the March/April test series. It is not clear whether this was due to aging of the catalyst or to changes in the sampling system made between March/April and August. In the presence of ammonia, the blank monolith showed no oxidation. Two of the commercial catalysts showed mercury oxidation that was comparable to that in the March/April series. The other three commercial catalysts showed a decrease in mercury oxidation relative to the March/April series. Oxidation of mercury increased without ammonia present. Transient experiments showed that when ammonia was turned on, mercury appeared to desorb from the catalyst, suggesting displacement of adsorbed mercury by the ammonia.

  17. An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts Print Thursday, 05 May 2016 12:20 Copper-based catalysts are widely ...

  18. Understanding the Distributed Intra-Catalyst Impact of Sulfation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Water Gas Shift in a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst Understanding the Distributed Intra-Catalyst Impact of Sulfation on Water Gas Shift in a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst The Lean NOx Trap ...

  19. NNSA Partnership Successfully Removes All Remaining HEU from...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... research reactors and medical isotope production facilities to the use of LEU, removing excess HEU and separated plutonium, and dispositioning HEU and plutonium domestically. ...

  20. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parent, Yves O.; Magrini, Kim; Landin, Steven M.; Ritland, Marcus A.

    2011-03-29

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  1. Thermodynamic Properties of Supported Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorte, Raymond J.

    2014-03-26

    The goals of this work were to develop Coulometric Titration as a method for characterizing the thermodynamic redox properties of oxides and to apply this technique to the characterization of ceria- and vanadia-based catalysts. The redox properties of ceria and vanadia are a major part of what makes these materials catalytically active but their properties are also dependent on their structure and the presence of other oxides. Quantifying these properties through the measurement of oxidation energetics was the goal of this work.

  2. Formation of alcohol conversion catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2001-01-01

    The method of the present invention involves a composition containing an intimate mixture of (a) metal oxide support particles and (b) a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, its method of manufacture, and its method of use for converting alcohols to aldehydes. During the conversion process, catalytically active metal oxide from the discrete catalytic metal oxide particles migrates to the oxide support particles and forms a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on the oxide support particle to form a catalyst composition having a higher specific activity than the admixed particle composition.

  3. Performance of a palladium membrane reactor using a Ni catalyst for fusion fuel impurities processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willm, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Okuno, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    The palladium membrane reactor (PMR) provides a means to recover hydrogen isotopes from impurities expected to be present in fusion reactor exhaust. This recovery is based on reactions such as water gas shift and steam reforming for which conversion is equilibrium limited. By including a selectively permeable membrane such as Pd/Ag in the catalyst bed, hydrogen isotopes can be removed from the reacting environment, thus promoting the reaction to complete conversion. Such a device has been built and operated at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the reactions listed above, earlier study with this unit has shown that hydrogen single-pass recoveries approaching 100% can be achieved. It was also determined that a nickel catalyst is a feasible choice for use with a PMR appropriate for fusion fuel impurities processing. The purpose of this study is to systematically assess the performance of the PMR using a nickel catalyst. Reactions which will be studied include the water gas shift reaction, steam reforming and methane cracking. Extended operation will be performed to detect performance degradation if it exists. The use of methane in these tests may lead to the formation of coke on the catalyst. Methods of removing the coke such as treatment with carbon dioxide or diluted oxygen will be examined.

  4. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission Treatment | Department of Energy Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission Treatment Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies of Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission Treatment The overlap among theory, structure, and fully formed catalysts form the foundation of this study deer09_narula.pdf (430.71 KB) More Documents & Publications Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and

  5. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

    2005-03-31

    In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was continued to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. The overall focus of the program is with slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems. Hydrocarbon products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. An efficient wax product/catalyst separation system is a key factor for optimizing operating costs for iron-based slurry-phase FTS. Previous work has focused on catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. With the current study, we are investigating how the filtration properties are affected by these chemical and physical changes of the catalyst slurry during activation/synthesis. In this reporting period, a series of crossflow filtration experiments were initiated to study the effect of olefins and oxygenates on the filtration flux and membrane performance. Iron-based FTS reactor waxes contain a significant amount of oxygenates, depending on the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Mono-olefins and aliphatic alcohols were doped into an activated iron catalyst slurry (with Polywax) to test their influence on filtration properties. The olefins were varied from 5 to 25 wt% and oxygenates from 6 to 17 wt% to simulate a range of reactor slurries reported in the literature. The addition of an alcohol (1-dodecanol) was found to decrease the permeation rate while the olefin added (1-hexadecene) had no effect on the permeation rate. A passive flux maintenance technique was tested that can temporarily increase the permeate rate for 24 hours.

  6. X-ray absorption and electrochemical studies of direct methanol fuel cell catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurawski, D.J.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr.; Baxter, S.F.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    In order for polymer electrolyte fuel cells to operate directly on methanol instead of hydrogen, a distinct advantage for portable applications, methanol oxidation must be catalyzed effectively in the acidic environment of the cell. Platinum-ruthenium and platinum-ruthenium oxide are generally considered to be the most active catalysts for this purpose. The presence of ruthenium significantly enhances the activity of platinum in these catalysts, for reasons not yet fully understood. We are using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electrochemical techniques to evaluate the mechanisms proposed to account for this enhancement in order to further improve the catalyst`s activity. We are considering three enhancement mechanisms. An intermediate in the oxidation of methanol on platinum is carbon monoxide and its oxidation is the rate-determining step in the overall oxidation mechanism. It has been proposed that ruthenium facilitates the removal of carbon monoxide from the platinum surface. First, it has been proposed that ruthenium decreases the strength of the platinum-carbon monoxide bond. Carbon monoxide bonds to the catalyst by interacting with the d-band of platinum, therefore a change in the d-band occupancy of platinum as a result of alloying may influence the bond strength of carbon monoxide. Another proposed enhancement mechanism involves lowering of the potential for the formation of the CO-oxidizing species. Finally, the binary catalysts may have a structure which is more conducive to the methanol dehydrogenation and carbon monoxide reactions. Based on these three proposed enhancement mechanisms, a goal of this study is to correlate catalyst electronic properties, structure, and oxidation state with the performance of proton-exchange membrane (Nafion) direct methanol fuel cells.

  7. Mesoporous materials derived from synthetic organo-clays as novel hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrado, K.A.; Marshall, C.L.; Brenner, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Various pore size distributions are found for synthetic organo-clay complexes from which the organic portion has been removed via calcination. The clays are prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of gels containing silica, magnesium hydroxide, lithium fluoride, and an organic of choice. The organic serves to impart long-range structural order to the inorganic network that does not disappear upon its removal. Mesoporous materials are prepared from a host of organic modifiers. For example, pore diameters of 40-50{Angstrom} result from tetraethyl ammonium and celluloses, and polydimethyl diallyl ammonium imparts diameters of about 110{Angstrom} on average. These materials have begun to be explored as hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst supports. Preliminary results show performance commensurate with commercial catalysts for the mesoporous materials when a model oil feed is used (1% dibenzothiophene in hexadecane). The target application is HDS of an actual heavy crude oil from California.

  8. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell ...

  9. Home Improvement Catalyst: Strategies for Ongoing Customer Engagement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Improvement Catalyst: Strategies for Ongoing Customer Engagement (201) Home Improvement Catalyst: Strategies for Ongoing Customer Engagement (201) June 23, 2016 1:00PM to ...

  10. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies ...

  11. Developing an Approach for First-principles Catalyst Design:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Catalyst Design: Application to Carbon Capture Catalysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Developing an Approach for First-principles Catalyst Design: Application ...

  12. Toward Catalyst Design from Theoretical Calculations (464th Brookhaven...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Toward Catalyst Design from Theoretical Calculations (464th Brookhaven Lecture) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward Catalyst Design from Theoretical Calculations...

  13. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, ...

  14. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle ...

  15. Understanding the Deactivation Mechanisms of Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deactivation Mechanisms of CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Understanding the Deactivation Mechanisms of CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application To understand ...

  16. Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sulfur Deactivation on CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur ...

  17. Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity) Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity) Below is information about the student activity...

  18. Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Presentation ...

  19. Positional control of catalyst nanoparticles for the synthesis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Positional control of catalyst nanoparticles for the synthesis of high density carbon nanofiber arrays Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Positional control of catalyst ...

  20. Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ford Motor ...

  1. Ordered Nanoparticle Catalysts article is an Energy Focus > Archived...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ordered Nanoparticle Catalysts article is an Energy Focus January 24th, 2013 A Nature Materials paper on ordered nanoparticle catalysts has been highlighted as an "Energy...

  2. Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications DOE's Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities 2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for ...

  3. Global kinetics for a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kinetics for a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst with two exhaust hydrocarbons Global kinetics for a commercial diesel oxidation catalyst with two exhaust hydrocarbons ...

  4. Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with Rational Catalyst Design Approach Vehicle Technologies Office Merit ...

  5. CATALYST-ASSISTED PRODUCTION OF OLEFINS FROM NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CATALYST-ASSISTED PRODUCTION OF OLEFINS FROM NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT AND FULL-SCALE TESTING CATALYST-ASSISTED PRODUCTION OF OLEFINS FROM NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS: ...

  6. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol ...

  7. Characterization of deactivated bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Characterization of deactivated bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of deactivated bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts ...

  8. Nanosegregated Surfaces as Catalysts for Fuel Cells | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanosegregated Surfaces as Catalysts for Fuel Cells Technology available for licensing: A method for creating a new class of platinum multi-metallic catalysts that are not only...

  9. New catalyst may hasten commercialization of fuel cell vehicles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New catalyst may hasten commercialization of fuel cell vehicles By Vic Comello * August ... National Laboratory have developed a new fuel cell catalyst using earthly abundant ...

  10. Computational catalyst screening: Scaling, bond-order and catalysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Computational catalyst screening: Scaling, bond-order and catalysis This content will become publicly available on December 29, 2017 Prev Next Title: Computational catalyst ...

  11. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pm029allard2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst...

  12. Cooling of stripped catalyst prior to regeneration in cracking...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    stripped catalyst, prior to passing it into the regenerator vessel; wherein the cooling step comprises passing the stripped catalyst stream to a heat-exchanger located outside the ...

  13. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures Title: Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation ...

  14. Ligand iron catalysts for selective hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casey, Charles P.; Guan, Hairong

    2010-11-16

    Disclosed are iron ligand catalysts for selective hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones and imines. A catalyst such as dicarbonyl iron hydride hydroxycyclopentadiene) complex uses the OH on the five member ring and hydrogen linked to the iron to facilitate hydrogenation reactions, particularly in the presence of hydrogen gas.

  15. Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

    1984-05-25

    This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Membrane catalyst layer for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1993-01-01

    A gas reaction fuel cell incorporates a thin catalyst layer between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane and a porous electrode backing. The catalyst layer is preferably less than about 10 .mu.m in thickness with a carbon supported platinum catalyst loading less than about 0.35 mgPt/cm.sup.2. The film is formed as an ink that is spread and cured on a film release blank. The cured film is then transferred to the SPE membrane and hot pressed into the surface to form a catalyst layer having a controlled thickness and catalyst distribution. Alternatively, the catalyst layer is formed by applying a Na.sup.+ form of a perfluorosulfonate ionomer directly to the membrane, drying the film at a high temperature, and then converting the film back to the protonated form of the ionomer. The layer has adequate gas permeability so that cell performance is not affected and has a density and particle distribution effective to optimize proton access to the catalyst and electronic continuity for electron flow from the half-cell reaction occurring at the catalyst.

  17. Catalyst and method for production of methylamines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G.; Vedage, Gamini A.

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved catalyst and method for the selective production of methylamines. More particularly, it is concerned with the preparation of stable highly active catalysts for producing methylamines by a catalytic reaction of ammonia or substituted amines and binary synthesis gas (CO+H.sub.2).

  18. Improved catalyst can clear the air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritchard, S.

    2006-05-15

    Catalyst technology can make clean coal plants look as clean as they are. This article examines the need and available methods for SO{sub 2} control with a specific focus on a catalyst technology developed by Cormetech. It also presents the results of commercial operating experience. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, Howard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  20. Integrated current collector and catalyst support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bregoli, L.J.

    1984-10-17

    An integrated current collecting electrode for a molten carbonate fuel cell includes a corrugated metal conductive strip positioned in contact with a catalyst layer. The corrugations of the metal strip form a plurality of gas channels immediately adjacent the surface of the catalyst through which a reactant gas flows. Each channel is filled with a particulate material to maintain separation between the metal strip and the catalyst in ensuring gas channel integrity. The catalyst may be in the form of a compacted, particulate material provided the particle size of the material within the gas channels is larger than that of the catalyst particles to prevent catalyst migration to the metal conductor and provide reactant gas access to the catalyst layer. The gas channels formed by the corrugations of the metal strip are arranged in an offset pattern along the direction of gas flow for improved reactant gas distribution to the catalyst layer. The particulate material positioned within the gas flow channels may be a ceramic conductor such as a perovskite or a spinel for enhanced current collection.

  1. Integrated current collector and catalyst support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bregoli, Lawrence J.

    1985-10-22

    An integrated current collecting electrode for a molten carbonate fuel cell includes a corrugated metal conductive strip positioned in contact with a catalyst layer. The corrugations of the metal strip form a plurality of gas channels immediately adjacent the surface of the catalyst through which a reactant gas flows. Each channel is filled with a particulate material to maintain separation between the metal strip and the catalyst in ensuring gas channel integrity. The catalyst may be in the form of a compacted, particulate material provided the particle size of the material within the gas channels is larger than that of the catalyst particles to prevent catalyst migration to the metal conductor and provide reactant gas access to the catalyst layer. The gas channels formed by the corrugations of the metal strip are arranged in an offset pattern along the direction of gas flow for improved reactant gas distribution to the catalyst layer. The particulate material positioned within the gas flow channels may be a ceramic conductor such as a perovskite or a spinel for enhanced current collection.

  2. CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; James G.C. Shen; Qisheng Ma

    2000-08-31

    A novel 1,2-ethanediol, bis(hydrogen sulfate), disodium salt precursor-based solid acid catalyst with a zirconia substrate was synthesized and demonstrated to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) or isobutene from methanol-isobutanol mixtures. The precursor salt was synthesized and provided by Dr. T. H. Kalantar of the M.E. Pruitt Research Center, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI 48674. Molecular modeling of the catalyst synthesis steps and of the alcohol coupling reaction is being carried out. A representation of the methyl transfer from the surface activated methanol molecule (left) to the activated oxygen of the isobutanol molecule (right) to form an ether linkage to yield MIBE is shown.

  3. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARK C. THIES; PATRICK C. JOYCE

    1998-10-31

    The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished at conditions that do not entrain the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds. That is, a constant carbon-number distribution in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. Three major tasks are being undertaken to evaluate our proposed SCF extraction process. Task 1: Equilibrium solubility measurements for model F-T wax components in supercritical fluids at conditions representative of those in a SBC reactor. Task 2: Thermodynamic modeling of the measured VLE data for extending our results to real wax systems. Task 3: Process design studies of our proposed process. Additional details of the task structure are given.

  4. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  5. Continuous sulfur removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, V.; Ryu, J.

    1994-04-26

    A continuous process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream using a membrane comprising a metal oxide deposited on a porous support is disclosed. 4 figures.

  6. Reactor for removing ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luo, Weifang; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  7. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Rhudy

    2006-06-30

    This final report presents and discusses results from a mercury control process development project entitled ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems''. The objective of this project was to demonstrate at pilot scale a mercury control technology that uses solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. Oxidized mercury is removed in downstream wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and leaves with the FGD byproducts. The goal of the project was to achieve 90% oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas and 90% overall mercury capture with the downstream wet FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (now CPS Energy) of San Antonio were also project co-funders and provided host sites. URS Group, Inc. was the prime contractor. Longer-term pilot-scale tests were conducted at two sites to provide catalyst life data. GRE provided the first site, at their Coal Creek Station (CCS), which fires North Dakota lignite, and CPS Energy provided the second site, at their Spruce Plant, which fires Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Mercury oxidation catalyst testing began at CCS in October 2002 and continued through the end of June 2004, representing nearly 21 months of catalyst operation. An important finding was that, even though the mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit was installed downstream of a high-efficiency ESP, fly ash buildup began to plug flue gas flow through the horizontal catalyst cells. Sonic horns were installed in each catalyst compartment and appeared to limit fly ash buildup. A palladium-based catalyst showed initial elemental mercury oxidation percentages of 95% across the catalyst, declining to 67% after 21 months in service. A carbon-based catalyst began with almost 98

  8. Cooperative Research Program in coal liquefaction. Technical report, May 1, 1994--October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts.

  9. Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doctor, R.D.

    1993-10-05

    A process is described for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded. 1 figures.

  10. Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doctor, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded.

  11. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Task 2.2: Definition of preferred catalyst system; Task 2.3: Process variable scans on the preferred catalyst system; Task 2.4: Life-test on the preferred catalyst system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    As part of the DOE-sponsored contract for the Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal- Derived Syngas, the single-step, slurry phase DME synthesis process was developed. The development involved screening of catalyst systems, process variable studies, and catalyst life studies in two 300 ml stirred autoclaves. As a spin-off of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH*) process, the new process significantly improves the syngas conversion efficiency of the LPMEOH process. This improvement can be achieved by replacing a portion of methanol catalyst with a dehydration catalyst in the reactor, resulting in the product methanol being converted to DME, thus avoiding the thermodynamic equilibrium constraint of the methanol reaction. Overall, this increases syngas conversion per-pass. The selectivity and productivity of DME and methanol are affected by the catalyst system employed as well as operating conditions. A preferred catalyst system, consisting of a physical mixture of a methanol catalyst and a gamma alumina, was identified. An improvement of about 50% in methanol equivalent productivity was achieved compared to the LPMEOH process. Results from the process variable study indicate that higher pressure and CO{sub 2} removal benefit the process significantly. Limited life studies performed on the preferred catalyst system suggest somewhat higher than expected deactivation rate for the methanol catalyst. Several DME/methanol mixtures were measured for their key properties as transportation fuels. With small amounts of DME added, significant improvements in both flash points and Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) were observed over the corresponding values of methanol alone.

  12. Catalysts for the hydrodenitrogenation of organic materials and process for the preparation of the catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, Richard M.; Hirschon, Albert S.; Wilson, Jr., Robert B.

    1987-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for forming a catalyst for the hydrodenitrogenation of an organic feedstock, which includes (a) obtaining a precatalyst comprising cobalt and molybdenum or nickel and molybdenum; (b) adding in a non-oxidizing an atmosphere selected from hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, neon, argon, carbon monoxide or mixtures thereof to the precatalyst of step (a), a transition met ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of research partially sponsored by the Department of Energy through grants DE-FG22-83P C60781 and DE-FG-85-PC80906, and partially supported by grant CHE82-19541 of the National Science Foundation. The invention is subject to Public Law 96-517 (and amendments), and the United States Government has rights in the present invention.

  13. Nanostructured carbide catalysts for the hydrogen economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ram Seshadri, Susannah Scott, Juergen Eckert

    2008-07-21

    The above quote, taken from the executive summary of the Report from the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences Workshop held August 6–8, 2007,[1] places in context the research carried out at the University of California, Santa Barbara, which is reported in this document. The enormous impact of heterogeneous catalysis is exemplified by the Haber process for the synthesis of ammonia, which consumes a few % of the world’s energy supply and natural gas, and feeds as many as a third of the world’s population. While there have been numerous advances in understanding the process,[2] culminating in the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Gerhard Ertl in 2007, it is interesting to note that the catalysts themselves have changed very little since they were discovered heuristically in the the early part of the 20th century. The thesis of this report is that modern materials chemistry, with all the empirical knowledge of solid state chemistry, combined with cutting edge structural tools, can help develop and better heterogeneous catalysis. The first part of this report describes research in the area of early transition metal carbides (notably of Mo and W), potentially useful catalysts for water gas shift (WGS) and related reactions of use to the hydrogen economy. Although these carbides have been known to be catalytically useful since the 1970s,[3] further use of these relatively inexpensive materials have been plagued by issues of low surface areas and ill-defined, and often unreactive surfaces, in conjunction with deactivation. We have employed for the first time, a combination of constant-wavelength and time-of-flight neutron scattering, including a total scattering analysis of the latter data, to better understand what happens in these materials, in a manner that for the first time, reveals surface graphitic carbon in these materials in a quantitative manner. Problems of preparation, surface stability, and irreversible reactivity have become manifest in this class of materials

  14. Influence of process conditions and catalyst properties on catalyst deactivation during hydroprocessing of Kuwait vacuum residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Absi-Halabi, M.; Stanislaus, A.

    1995-12-31

    A comprehensive study of catalyst deactivation during hydroprocessing of Kuwait vacuum residue in trickle-bed reactors was carried out. The influence of selected process and catalyst parameters including temperature, hydrogen pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, presulfiding and catalyst pore size on coke and metals deposition was investigated. Increasing reactor temperature increased both coke and metal deposition on the catalyst, while increasing pressure decreased coke deposition. Vanadium deposition on the other hand increased with increasing pressure. Increasing feed flow rates increased the rate of deactivation by metals, but decreased coke deposition. Catalyst pore size distribution had a significant effect on catalyst deactivation. The rate of deactivation by both coke and metals deposition was found to be higher for catalysts having predominantly narrow pores. Presulfiding of the catalyst reduced coking and led to better distribution of foulant metals within the catalyst pellet. The effect of the studied parameters on surface area and pore volume of the catalyst was determined. Mechanistic arguments will be presented to explain the results.

  15. Catalyst for producing lower alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.; Heiberger, John J.

    1987-01-01

    A process and system for the production of the lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and propanol involves the reaction of carbon monoxide and water in the presence of a lead salt and an alkali metal formate catalyst combination. The lead salt is present as solid particles such as lead titanate, lead molybdate, lead vanadate, lead zirconate, lead tantalate and lead silicates coated or in slurry within molten alkali metal formate. The reactants, carbon monoxide and steam are provided in gas form at relatively low pressures below 100 atmospheres and at temperatures of 200-400.degree. C. The resulted lower alcohols can be separated into boiling point fractions and recovered from the excess reactants by distillation.

  16. New hydroprocessing catalysts prepared from molecular complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, T.C.

    1994-12-31

    Current commercial hydroprocessing catalysts are transition metal sulfides (TMS) based on Group 8 and 11 metals. They are prepared by dispersing MoO{sub 3} and a promoter metal oxide, either CoO or NiO, on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SiO{sub 2}-modified Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This is followed by sulfiding with a sulfur-bearing stream such as H{sub 2}S at high temperatures. The thus formed MoS{sub 2} crystallites are the backbone of the working catalysts. A potentially fruitful approach to new catalysts would be to molecularly incorporate promoter metals into the structure of MoS{sub 2} edge planes. As a first step, it would seem reasonable to exploit the use of heterometallic metal sulfur complexes as hydroprocessing catalyst precursors. The authors have developed several families of new catalysts along this line. In this paper the authors restrict themselves to the metal amine thiomolybdate-derived catalysts. Specifically, they give an overview of the performance of the bulk (unsupported) FeMo sulfide prepared from MAT. This low-surface-area catalyst shows a high HDN-to-HDS volumetric activity ratio and is also active for HDA. While most of the results are taken from their previous publications, some new results are reported here.

  17. Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vollhardt, Kurt P. C.; Perkins, Patrick

    1981-01-01

    Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula: PS --R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS --H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS --Br; treating said PS --Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS --Li; substituting said PS-- Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

  18. Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vollhardt, Kurt P. C.; Perkins, Patrick

    1980-01-01

    Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula: PS --R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS --H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS --Br; treating said PS --Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS --Li; substituting said PS-- Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

  19. Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vollhardt, Kurt P. C.; Perkins, Patrick

    1981-01-01

    Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula PS -R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS -H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS -Br; treating said PS -Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS -Li; substituting said PS - Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

  20. Multimetal Nanoframes Improve Catalyst Performance | U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science (SC) Multimetal Nanoframes Improve Catalyst Performance Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585

  1. Taking snapshots of different redox states of the water oxidation catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Photosystem II Center Objective The Science Center Publications Graduate Research opportunities Undergraduate research opportunities EFRC-501 graduate class Seminar schedules Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Taking snapshots of different redox states of the water oxidation catalyst in Photosystem II 9 Jul 2014 BISfuel, July 9, 2014 - Deciphering the puzzles of the natural photosynthetic water oxidation

  2. Arsenic removal from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  3. Formic acid fuel cells and catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I.; Larsen, Robert; Ha, Su Yun

    2010-06-22

    An exemplary fuel cell of the invention includes a formic acid fuel solution in communication with an anode (12, 134), an oxidizer in communication with a cathode (16, 135) electrically linked to the anode, and an anode catalyst that includes Pd. An exemplary formic acid fuel cell membrane electrode assembly (130) includes a proton-conducting membrane (131) having opposing first (132) and second surfaces (133), a cathode catalyst on the second membrane surface, and an anode catalyst including Pd on the first surface.

  4. Non-PGM Catalyst Targets: Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Arlington, Virginia Crystal Gateway Marriott Hotel - Monday, June 8, 2015 Non-PGM Catalyst Performance Targets - Summary Catalysis Working Group, Arlington, VA - June 8 th , 2015 4 Discussion of Non-PGM ORR Catalyst Targets * Non-PGM ORR catalyst targets and test protocols discussed extensively at four CWG meetings: - Arlington, VA on May 15 th , 2013 (open CWG meeting at AMR) - Golden, CO on December 18 th , 2013 (joint CWG-DWG meeting; contractors only) - Washington, D.C. on June 16 th , 2014

  5. Hydrodesulfurization catalyst by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarty, K.F.; Schrader, G.L.

    1985-05-20

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M/sub x/Mo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS/sub 2/ catalysts. The most active catalysts were the ''large'' cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the ''small'' cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  6. Formic acid fuel cells and catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I.; Larsen, Robert; Ha, Su Yun

    2010-06-22

    An exemplary fuel cell of the invention includes a formic acid fuel solution in communication with an anode (12, 134), an oxidizer in communication with a cathode (16, 135) electrically linked to the anode, and an anode catalyst that includes Pd. An exemplary formic acid fuel cell membrane electrode assembly (130) includes a proton-conducting membrane (131) having opposing first (132) and second surfaces (133), a cathode catalyst on the second membrane surface, and an anode catalyst including Pd on the first surface.

  7. SunShot Catalyst Priz Competition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst Prize Competition SunShot Catalyst is an open innovation program launched in 2014 by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative that aims to catalyze the rapid creation and development of products and solutions that address near-term challenges in the U.S. solar energy marketplace. Through a series of prize challenges, SunShot Catalyst makes it faster and easier for American innovators to launch cutting-edge solar companies, while tackling time-sensitive market challenges. Since

  8. Synthesis of iron based hydrocracking catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Eldredge, Patricia A. (Barboursville, VA); Ladner, Edward P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A method of preparing a fine particle iron based hydrocracking catalyst and the catalyst prepared thereby. An iron (III) oxide powder and elemental sulfur are reacted with a liquid hydrogen donor having a hydroaromatic structure present in the range of from about 5 to about 50 times the weight of iron (III) oxide at a temperature in the range of from about 180.degree. C. to about 240.degree. C. for a time in the range of from about 0 to about 8 hours. Various specific hydrogen donors are disclosed. The catalysts are active at low temperature (<350.degree. C.) and low pressure.

  9. Development of unique catalysts for hydrodenitrogenation of coal-derived liquids. Annual report, September 15, 1979-September 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katzer, J.R.; Stiles, A.B.; Kwart, H.

    1980-12-15

    Hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline and decahydroquinoline has been studied employing several catalysts: Bronsted and Lewis acid catalysts without metal, and silica-alumina, ..gamma..-alumina and magnesia impregnated with molybdenum, tungsten, nickel or cobalt. Our results show that nitrogen removal rate was highest for molybdenum on alumina and tungsten on silica-alumina or alumina catalysts. Nitrogen abstraction using ..gamma..-alumina support is considerably faster than with magnesia support. Several catalysts have been prepared and tested, with the emphasis on understanding the role of acidity in the carbon-nitrogen bond scission reaction. Hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline has been studied by using Ni,Mo/chlorided or fluorided alumina catalysts, with various halide concentrations. Preliminary results from this study indicate that halogenation of ..gamma..-alumina catalysts slightly enhanced the hydrogenolysis activity but showed little effect on the hydrogenation activity. Initial results from phenothiazine hydroprocessing show that carbon-sulfur bonds in the reactant are broken much faster than the carbon-nitrogen bonds. Data relevant to this reaction are being evaluated, utilizing kinetic analysis to give quantitative rates of C-N and C-S bond scission and the extents and rates of hydrogenation. Note: this report contains 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th quarterly reports.

  10. Reaction selectivity studies on nanolithographically-fabricated platinum model catalyst arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grunes, Jeffrey Benjamin

    2004-05-15

    In an effort to understand the molecular ingredients of catalytic activity and selectivity toward the end of tuning a catalyst for 100% selectivity, advanced nanolithography techniques were developed and utilized to fabricate well-ordered two-dimensional model catalyst arrays of metal nanostructures on an oxide support for the investigation of reaction selectivity. In-situ and ex-situ surface science techniques were coupled with catalytic reaction data to characterize the molecular structure of the catalyst systems and gain insight into hydrocarbon conversion in heterogeneous catalysis. Through systematic variation of catalyst parameters (size, spacing, structure, and oxide support) and catalytic reaction conditions (hydrocarbon chain length, temperature, pressures, and gas composition), the data presented in this dissertation demonstrate the ability to direct a reaction by rationally adjusting, through precise control, the design of the catalyst system. Electron beam lithography (EBL) was employed to create platinum nanoparticles on an alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) support. The Pt nanoparticle spacing (100-150-nm interparticle distance) was varied in these samples, and they were characterized using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), both before and after reactions. The TEM studies showed the 28-nm Pt nanoparticles with 100 and 150-nm interparticle spacing on alumina to be polycrystalline in nature, with crystalline sizes of 3-5 nm. The nanoparticle crystallites increased significantly after heat treatment. The nanoparticles were still mostly polycrystalline in nature, with 2-3 domains. The 28-nm Pt nanoparticles deposited on alumina were removed by the AFM tip in contact mode with a normal force of approximately 30 nN. After heat treatment at 500 C in vacuum for 3 hours, the AFM tip, even at 4000 nN, could not remove the platinum nanoparticles. The

  11. Supported catalyst systems and method of making biodiesel products using such catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Manhoe; Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2015-10-20

    A heterogeneous catalyst system, a method of preparing the catalyst system and a method of forming a biodiesel product via transesterification reactions using the catalyst system is disclosed. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of supported mixed metal oxides that include at least calcium oxide and another metal oxide deposited on a lanthanum oxide or cerium oxide support. Preferably, the catalysts include CaO--CeO.sub.2ZLa.sub.2O.sub.3 or CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3/CeO.sub.2. Optionally, the catalyst may further include additional metal oxides, such as CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3--GdOxZLa.sub.2O.sub.3.

  12. Drum lid removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pella, Bernard M.; Smith, Philip D.

    2010-08-24

    A tool for removing the lid of a metal drum wherein the lid is clamped over the drum rim without protruding edges, the tool having an elongated handle with a blade carried by an angularly positioned holder affixed to the midsection of the handle, the blade being of selected width to slice between lid lip and the drum rim and, when the blade is so positioned, upward motion of the blade handle will cause the blade to pry the lip from the rim and allow the lid to be removed.

  13. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith.

  14. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.

    1994-10-04

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith. 8 figs.

  15. Methods for providing bond activation catalysts and related catalysts, systems, and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goddard, III, William A.; Cheng, Mu-Jeng; Fu, Ross

    2016-04-12

    Described herein are catalysts for activation of an R--H bond in a R--H substrate and related catalytic matrices, compositions, methods and systems.

  16. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, E.; Kirby, S.; Song, Chunshan; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-04-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more, efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts can be superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires infinite contact between the catalyst and coal. The primary objective of this research is to explore the potential of bimetallic dispersed catalysts from heterometallic molecular precursors in their use in model compound liquefaction reactions. This quarterly report describes the use of three precursors in model compound reactions. The first catalyst is a heterometallic complex consisting of two transition metals, Mo and Ni, and sulfur in a single molecule. The second is a thiocubane type complex consisting of cobalt, molybdenum and sulfur. The third is a thiocubane type cluster consisting of iron and sulfur and the fourth, the pure inorganic salt ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATM). It was found that the structure and the ligands in the model complexes affect the activity of the resulting catalyst significantly. The optimum reaction at a pressure of 6.9 MPa hydrogen gas varied for different catalysts. The bimetallic catalysts generated in situ from the organometallic precursor are more active than monometallic catalysts like ATTM and the thiocubane type cluster Fe{sub 4}. Main products are hydrogenated phenanthrene derivatives, like DBP, THP, sym-OHP, cis- and trans-unsym-OHP with minor isomerization products such as sym-OHA. Our results indicate that other transition metal and ligand combinations in the organometallic precursors and the use of another model compound could result in substantially higher conversion activity.

  17. Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K.; Rabo, Jule A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  18. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. 5_gm_catalysts_wagner.pdf (1.14 MB) More Documents & Publications DOE's Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

  19. Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, P.K.; Rabo, J.A.

    1985-12-03

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C[sub 5][sup +] hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising a SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  20. Catalyst Business Innovation Finalists Announced | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst Business Innovation Finalists Announced Catalyst Business Innovation Finalists Announced September 11, 2015 - 2:31pm Addthis The Energy Department's SunShot Catalyst prize winners from the competition’s first cycle pose with their awards. | Photo Courtesy of NREL. The Energy Department's SunShot Catalyst prize winners from the competition's first cycle pose with their awards. | Photo Courtesy of NREL. The second cycle of the Catalyst prize program is taking off with today's

  1. Condensate removal device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maddox, James W.; Berger, David D.

    1984-01-01

    A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.

  2. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2012 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Testing continued in FY 2012 to further improve the Ir-promoted RhMn catalysts on both silica and carbon supports for producing mixed oxygenates from synthesis gas. This testing re-examined selected alternative silica and carbon supports to follow up on some uncertainties in the results with previous test results. Additional tests were conducted to further optimize the total and relative concentrations of Rh, Mn, and Ir, and to examine selected promoters and promoter combinations based on earlier results. To establish optimum operating conditions, the effects of the process pressure and the feed gas composition also were evaluated.

  3. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P.J. Kooyman, H.W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B.M. Weckhuysen, and F.M.F. de Groot, "Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy," Nature...

  4. Advanced Cathode Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 3lanl.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Catalysts Science ...

  5. Extended Platinum Nanotubes as Fuel Cell Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alia, S.; Pivovar, B. S.; Yan, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption has relied principally on fossil fuels as an energy source; fuel cells, however, can provide a clean and sustainable alternative, an answer to the depletion and climate change concerns of fossil fuels. Within proton exchange membrane fuel cells, high catalyst cost and poor durability limit the commercial viability of the device. Recently, platinum nanotubes (PtNTs) were studied as durable, active catalysts, providing a platform to meet US Department of Energy vehicular activity targets.[1] Porous PtNTs were developed to increase nanotube surface area, improving mass activity for oxygen reduction without sacrificing durability.[2] Subsurface platinum was then replaced with palladium, forming platinum-coated palladium nanotubes.[3] By forming a core shell structure, platinum utilization was increased, reducing catalyst cost. Alternative substrates have also been examined, modifying platinum surface facets and increasing oxygen reduction specific activity. Through modification of the PtNT platform, catalyst limitations can be reduced, ensuring a commercially viable device.

  6. Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, R.H.

    2001-03-26

    This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

  7. High Impact Technology Catalyst Industry Roundtable

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please join the Department of Energy Commercial Buildings Integration Program for an Industry Roundtable discussion on the High Impact Technology Catalyst. The Roundtable will be part of the BTO...

  8. "Multifunctional Mesoporous Silica Catalyst" Patent Awarded ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silica Catalyst" Patent Awarded Congratulations to the late Victor Lin, Show-Ling Lee, Chih-Hsiang Tsai, Hung-Ting Chen, Marek Pruski and Takeshi Kobayashi for being awarded...

  9. Moderated ruthenium fischer-tropsch synthesis catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrevaya, Hayim (Wilmette, IL)

    1991-01-01

    The subject Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprises moderated ruthenium on an inorganic oxide support. The preferred moderator is silicon. Preferably the moderator is effectively positioned in relationship to ruthenium particles through simultaneous placement on the support using reverse micelle impregnation.

  10. Catalyst and method for aqueous phase reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase without substantially affecting the catalytic activity, thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst.

  11. Bimetallic complexes and polymerization catalysts therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patton, Jasson T.; Marks, Tobin J.; Li, Liting

    2000-11-28

    Group 3-6 or Lanthanide metal complexes possessing two metal centers, catalysts derived therefrom by combining the same with strong Lewis acids, Bronsted acid salts, salts containing a cationic oxidizing agent or subjected to bulk electrolysis in the presence of compatible, inert non-coordinating anions and the use of such catalysts for polymerizing olefins, diolefins and/or acetylenically unsaturated monomers are disclosed.

  12. Application of the AT Research Capabilities: Investigation of Diesel Soot

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxidation and of the Catalysts Degradation | Department of Energy the AT Research Capabilities: Investigation of Diesel Soot Oxidation and of the Catalysts Degradation Application of the AT Research Capabilities: Investigation of Diesel Soot Oxidation and of the Catalysts Degradation 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Cummins Inc. 2002_deer_currier.pdf (295.65 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Cummins-ORNL\FEERC Emissions CRADA: NOx Control

  13. Process for removing NO sub x emissions from combustion effluents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, D.O.; Moniz, G.A.; Gouveia, M.J.

    1992-06-09

    This patent describes a method of removing NO from a stream of combustion products injecting an alkyl amine into the stream to effect reduction of NO to N{sub 2}, wherein the alkyl amine comprises methyl amine, and the process is conducted at a temperature within the range of 350{degrees} C at a molar ratio to amine within the range of about 0.2 to 2.0 without a NO reduction catalyst, the method being capable of at least about a 50% conversion of NO in the combustion products to N{sub 2}.

  14. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.; Mahajan, Devinder

    1986-01-01

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160.degree. C.) and preferably in the range 80.degree.-120.degree. C. used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa--M(OAc).sub.2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M=Ni and R=tertiary amyl). Mo(CO).sub.6 is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  15. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1986-10-28

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160 C) and preferably in the range 80--120 C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen are disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa-M(OAc)[sub 2] where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is NiC (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)[sub 6] is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  16. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1985-03-12

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-RONa-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  17. A Cobalt-based Catalyst for CO2 Hydrogenation Under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeletic, Matthew S.; Mock, Michael T.; Appel, Aaron M.; Linehan, John C.

    2013-08-07

    Due to the continually rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, research into conversion of CO2 into fuels using carbon-neutral energy is currently an important topic in catalysis. Recent research on molecular catalysts has led to improved rates of CO2 conversion to formate, but unfortunately the resulting catalysts are based on precious metals such as iridium, ruthenium and rhodium and require high temperatures and high pressures for catalytic reactivity. Using established thermodynamic properties, a cobalt-based catalyst system has been designed for the catalytic production of formate from CO2 and H2, even at room temperature and one atmosphere of pressure. Using Co(dmpe)2H (dmpe is bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) as a catalyst in tetrahydrofuran, room temperature turnover frequencies of 3,400 h-1 at 1 atm of 1:1 CO2:H2 and 74,000 h-1 at 20 atm were obtained. These results highlight the value of basic thermodynamic properties in the rational design of catalysts. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  18. LSU EFRC - Center for Atomic Level Catalyst Design - Technical Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2013 3 space control 2013 Technical Conference: Center for Atomic-level Catalyst Design Oct. 21-23, 2013 LSU welcomes CALC-D researchers to the Center's 5th Annual Technical Conference. space control space control Click to obtain printable version of Technical Conference agenda Mon Oct. 21: Arrive 6:00 pm: Dinner (provided in Abell room), set up posters space control Tues Oct. 22: 8:00 am: (a) Breakfast (provided in hotel for those staying at the Lod Cook hotel; continental breakfast

  19. Comparative Investigation of Benzene Steam Reforming over Spinel Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Albrecht, Karl O.; Kovarik, Libor; Flake, Matt; Dagle, Robert A.

    2013-06-07

    activity on the supported highly dispersed Rh catalyst can be rationalized by the thermodynamic limitation for the very first C-C bond scission of benzene on the small Ir50 catalyst. The C-C bond scission of benzene on the small Ir50 catalyst is highly endothermic although the barrier is competitive with the barriers of both the C-C and the C-H bond-breakings on the small Rh50 catalyst. The calculations also imply that, for the supported Rh catalysts the C-C and C-H bond scissions are competitive, independently of the Rh cluster sizes. After the initial dissociation step via either the C-C or the C-H bond scission, the C-H bond breaking seems to be more favorable rather than the C-C bond breaking on the larger Rh terrace surface. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Biomass Program’s. Computing time was granted by a user project at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  20. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  1. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, John E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  2. Monodisperse metal nanoparticle catalysts on silica mesoporous supports: synthesis, characterizations, and catalytic reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2009-09-14

    The design of high performance catalyst achieving near 100% product selectivity at maximum activity is one of the most important goals in the modern catalytic science research. To this end, the preparation of model catalysts whose catalytic performances can be predicted in a systematic and rational manner is of significant importance, which thereby allows understanding of the molecular ingredients affecting the catalytic performances. We have designed novel 3-dimensional (3D) high surface area model catalysts by the integration of colloidal metal nanoparticles and mesoporous silica supports. Monodisperse colloidal metal NPs with controllable size and shape were synthesized using dendrimers, polymers, or surfactants as the surface stabilizers. The size of Pt, and Rh nanoparticles can be varied from sub 1 nm to 15 nm, while the shape of Pt can be controlled to cube, cuboctahedron, and octahedron. The 3D model catalysts were generated by the incorporation of metal nanoparticles into the pores of mesoporous silica supports via two methods: capillary inclusion (CI) and nanoparticle encapsulation (NE). The former method relies on the sonication-induced inclusion of metal nanoparticles into the pores of mesoporous silica, whereas the latter is performed by the encapsulation of metal nanoparticles during the hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous silica. The 3D model catalysts were comprehensively characterized by a variety of physical and chemical methods. These catalysts were found to show structure sensitivity in hydrocarbon conversion reactions. The Pt NPs supported on mesoporous SBA-15 silica (Pt/SBA-15) displayed significant particle size sensitivity in ethane hydrogenolysis over the size range of 1-7 nm. The Pt/SBA-15 catalysts also exhibited particle size dependent product selectivity in cyclohexene hydrogenation, crotonaldehyde hydrogenation, and pyrrole hydrogenation. The Rh loaded SBA-15 silica catalyst showed structure sensitivity in CO oxidation reaction. In

  3. Materials derived from synthetic organo-clay complexes as novel hydrodesulfurization catalyst supports.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrado, K. A.; Marshall, C. L.; Brenner, J. R.; Song, K.; Chemistry

    1998-01-01

    A series of mesoporous synthetic organo-clay complexes has been prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of gels containing silica, magnesium hydroxide, lithium fluoride, and an organic of choice, followed by calcination to remove the organics. The organic serves to impart structural order to the inorganic network that does not disappear upon its removal. The choice of organic modifier can be used to control the pore structure of the resulting mesoporous materials. Pore size distributions appear in some cases to be related to the type of polymer packing upon clay formation in situ. These materials are being explored as Co Mo hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst supports. Preliminary HDS results show performance commensurate with commercial catalysis for the mesoporous materials when a model heavy oil feed is used (1 wt% S as dibenzothiophene in hexadecane). Temperature programmed reduction experiments of used catalysts suggest a relationship between HDS activity and ease of reduction of the CoMo/clay catalysts. Reactivity of the CoMo clay also correlates with the percentage of mesopore volume remaining after reaction. Losses in mesopore volume are largely recouped by recalcination, suggesting that reversible coke is formed inside the pore structure of clays faster than inside conventional alumina.

  4. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

    2010-12-31

    This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed

  5. Graphitized hollow carbon spheres and yolk-structured carbon spheres fabricated by metal-catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xufan; Chi, Miaofang; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Liu, Rui; Chuang, Yen -Jun; Dai, Sheng; Pan, Zhengwei

    2016-01-18

    Hard-sphere-templating method has been widely used to synthesize hollow carbon spheres (HCSs), in which the spheres were firstly coated with a carbon precursor, followed by carbonization and core removal. The obtained HCSs are generally amorphous or weakly graphitized (with the help of graphitization catalysts). In this work, we report on the fabrication of graphitized HCSs and yolk–shell Au@HCS nanostructures using a modified templating method, in which smooth, uniform graphene layers were grown on SiO2 spheres or Au@SiO2 nanoparticles via metal-catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane. Furthermore, our work not only provides a new method to fabricate high-quality, graphitized HCSsmore » but also demonstrates a reliable approach to grow quality graphene on oxide surfaces using CVD without the presence of metal catalysts.« less

  6. Method of treating emissions of a hybrid vehicle with a hydrocarbon absorber and a catalyst bypass system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Gonze, Eugene V; Santoso, Halim G; Spohn, Brian L

    2014-01-14

    A method of treating emissions from an internal combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle includes directing a flow of air created by the internal combustion engine when the internal combustion engine is spinning but not being fueled through a hydrocarbon absorber to collect hydrocarbons within the flow of air. When the hydrocarbon absorber is full and unable to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through an electrically heated catalyst to treat the flow of air and remove the hydrocarbons. When the hydrocarbon absorber is not full and able to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through a bypass path that bypasses the electrically heated catalyst to conserve the thermal energy stored within the electrically heated catalyst.

  7. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternative power sources for transportation and stationary applications. The degradation of commonly used electrode catalysts (e.g. Pt, Ag, and others) and corrosion of carbon substrates are making commercialization of fuel cells incorporating present day technologies economically problematic. Furthermore, due to the instability of the Pt catalyst, the performance of fuel cells declines on long-term operation. When methanol is used as the fuel, a voltage drop, as well as significant thermal management problems can be encountered, the later being due to chemical oxidation of methanol at the platinized carbon at the cathode. Though extensive work was conducted on platinized electrodes for both the oxidation and reduction reactions, due to the problems mentioned above, fuel cells have not been fully developed for widespread commercial use. Several investigators have previously evaluated metal macrocyclic complexes as alternative catalysts to Pt and Pt/Ru in fuel cells. Unfortunately, though they have demonstrated catalytic activity, these materials were found to be unstable on long term use in the fuel cell environment. In order to improve the long-term stability of metal macrocyclic complexes, we have chemically bonded these complexes to the carbon substrate, thereby enhancing their catalytic activity as well as their chemical stability in the fuel cell environment. We have designed, synthesized, and evaluated these catalysts for O{sub 2} reduction, H{sub 2} oxidation, and direct methanol oxidation in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) and aqueous carbonate fuel cells. These catalysts exhibited good catalytic activity and long-term stability. In this paper we confine our discussion to the initial performance results of some of these catalysts in H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} PEM fuel cells, including their long-term performance characteristics as well as CO poisoning effects on these catalysts.

  8. Removal of sulfur contaminants in methanol for fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Kumar, R.; Sederquist, R.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell power plants are being developed for transit bus and passenger car applications that use methanol as the on-board fuel. Commodity methanol by itself contains very little sulfur; however, it may occasionally be contaminated with up to about 1% diesel fuel or gasoline in current liquid-fuel distribution systems, leading to the presence of sulfur in the methanol fuel. This sulfur must be removed because of its deleterious effect on the reforming catalysts. International Fuel Cells has set the allowable sulfur limit in the methanol fuel at less than 1 ppm. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm and breakthrough data were used to assess the feasibility of developing a granular activated carbon adsorber for the removal of sulfur from transportation fuel cell systems.

  9. Homogeneous catalysts in hypersonic combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harradine, D.M.; Lyman, J.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Pack, R.T.; Schott, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Density and residence time both become unfavorably small for efficient combustion of hydrogen fuel in ramjet propulsion in air at high altitude and hypersonic speed. Raising the density and increasing the transit time of the air through the engine necessitates stronger contraction of the air flow area. This enhances the kinetic and thermodynamic tendency of H/sub 2/O to form completely, accompanied only by N/sub 2/ and any excess H/sub 2/(or O/sub 2/). The by-products to be avoided are the energetically expensive fragment species H and/or O atoms and OH radicals, and residual (2H/sub 2/ plus O/sub 2/). However, excessive area contraction raises air temperature and consequent combustion-product temperature by adiabatic compression. This counteracts and ultimately overwhelms the thermodynamic benefit by which higher density favors the triatomic product, H/sub 2/O, over its monatomic and diatomic alternatives. For static pressures in the neighborhood of 1 atm, static temperature must be kept or brought below ca. 2400 K for acceptable stability of H/sub 2/O. Another measure, whose requisite chemistry we address here, is to extract propulsive work from the combustion products early in the expansion. The objective is to lower the static temperature of the combustion stream enough for H/sub 2/O to become adequately stable before the exhaust flow is massively expanded and its composition ''frozen.'' We proceed to address this mechanism and its kinetics, and then examine prospects for enhancing its rate by homogeneous catalysts. 9 refs.

  10. Method of depositing a catalyst on a fuel cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dearnaley, Geoffrey; Arps, James H.

    2000-01-01

    Fuel cell electrodes comprising a minimal load of catalyst having maximum catalytic activity and a method of forming such fuel cell electrodes. The method comprises vaporizing a catalyst, preferably platinum, in a vacuum to form a catalyst vapor. A catalytically effective amount of the catalyst vapor is deposited onto a carbon catalyst support on the fuel cell electrode. The electrode preferably is carbon cloth. The method reduces the amount of catalyst needed for a high performance fuel cell electrode to about 0.3 mg/cm.sup.2 or less.

  11. SunShot Catalyst Prize Rules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst Prize Rules SunShot Catalyst Prize Rules SunShot Catalyst is an open innovation program that aims to catalyze the rapid creation and development of products and solutions that address near-term challenges in the U.S. solar marketplace. This document details the rules for the contest. SunShot Catalyst Prize Rules - May 2015.pdf (591.46 KB) More Documents & Publications SunShot Prize Race to 7-Day Solar SunShot Catalyst Prize Rules SunShot Catalyst Demo Day 2015 Media Resources

  12. CAMD Research Highlights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CAMD Research Highlights Metal Containing Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) Deposition System (pdf) Funded by the Board of Regents Enhancement Program CAMD researchers have built and commissioned a more versatile DLC system suitable for large sample sizes and enabling deposition of DLC, metal(s)/ ceramic(s) and/or metal/ceramic containing films. Milli-fluidic Reactor for Catalyst Research (pdf) Miniaturization of laboratory processes offers advantages including increased speed of analysis, parallel

  13. Retrofit and Testing of a Pre-Turbo, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst on a Tier 0,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SD60M Freight Locomotive Achieving Over 50% PM Reduction | Department of Energy and Testing of a Pre-Turbo, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst on a Tier 0, SD60M Freight Locomotive Achieving Over 50% PM Reduction Retrofit and Testing of a Pre-Turbo, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst on a Tier 0, SD60M Freight Locomotive Achieving Over 50% PM Reduction Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by

  14. FY17 SBIR Phase I Release 1 Topics Announced: Includes Fuel Cell Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy FY17 SBIR Phase I Release 1 Topics Announced: Includes Fuel Cell Catalysts and Hydrogen Delivery FY17 SBIR Phase I Release 1 Topics Announced: Includes Fuel Cell Catalysts and Hydrogen Delivery July 21, 2016 - 1:22pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has announced the 2017 Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I Release 1 topics, including two subtopics focused on hydrogen and fuel

  15. Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_slone.pdf (64.66 KB) More Documents & Publications Noxtechs PAC System Development and Demonstration Plasma

  16. Impact of Lube-oil Phosphorus on Diesel Oxidation Catalysts | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Lube-oil Phosphorus on Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Impact of Lube-oil Phosphorus on Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_bunting.pdf (294.55 KB) More Documents & Publications The Development of Rapid Aging and Poisoning Protocols for

  17. Mexico HEU Removal: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security Administration |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (NNSA) Mexico HEU Removal: Fact Sheet March 26, 2012 At the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit, the United States, Mexico and Canada announced the successful removal of HEU from Mexico and conversion of the TrigaII Research Reactor to LEU. The HEU removal and reactor conversion were completed with international cooperation from Canada, Mexico and the United States and was supported by the IAEA. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) led the US government team in executing this mission

  18. Process and catalyst for carbonylating olefins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zoeller, J.R.

    1998-06-02

    Disclosed is an improved catalyst system and process for preparing aliphatic carbonyl compounds such as aliphatic carboxylic acids, alkyl esters of aliphatic carboxylic acids and anhydrides of aliphatic carboxylic acids by carbonylating olefins in the presence of a catalyst system comprising (1) a first component selected from at least one Group 6 metal, i.e., chromium, molybdenum, and/or tungsten and (2) a second component selected from at least one of certain halides and tertiary and quaternary compounds of a Group 15 element, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus and/or arsenic, and (3) as a third component, a polar, aprotic solvent. The process employing the improved catalyst system is carried out under carbonylating conditions of pressure and temperature discussed herein. The process constitutes and improvement over known processes since it can be carried out at moderate carbonylation conditions without the necessity of using an expensive noble metal catalyst, volatile, toxic materials such as nickel tetracarbonyl, formic acid or a formate ester. Further, the addition of a polar, aprotic solvent to the catalyst system significantly increases, or accelerates, the rate at which the carbonylation takes place.

  19. Comparison of unimodal versus bimodal pore catalysts in residues hydrotreating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Absi-Halabi, M.; Stanislaus, A.; Al-Zaid, H.

    1994-12-31

    Catalyst pore structure is a critical factor influencing the performance of residues hydroprocessing catalysts. The effect is reflected in both hydrodesulfurization activity of the catalyst and its rate of deactivation. In this paper, the pore size distributions of two categories of catalysts, unimodal and bimodal, were systematically varied. Performance evaluation tests in a fixed bed reactor using vacuum residues under conditions comparable to typical refinery operations were conducted. Two series of unimodal and bimodal catalyst extrudates were prepared starting from boehmite gel, whereby the pore structure was systematically varied using hydrothermal treatment and organic additives. For the unimodal catalysts, the pore maxima ranged between 50 and 500 {angstrom} with 70--80% of the pore volume in the desired pore diameter range. The bimodal catalysts had narrow pores with pore diameters less than 100 {angstrom} and wide pres with pore diameter around 5,000 {angstrom}. For bimodal catalyst, an increase in the average wide pore diameter, while maintaining the narrow pore constant, had no significant effect on the catalyst performance. For monomodal catalyst, the activity of the catalyst was noted to have an optimum between 150--350 {angstrom} diameter. Furthermore, the performance of the catalyst concerning its desulfurization activity and deactivation was superior to that of the bimodal catalysts.

  20. Process for the regeneration of metallic catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katzer, James R.; Windawi, Hassan

    1981-01-01

    A method for the regeneration of metallic hydrogenation catalysts from the class consisting of Ni, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt and Ru poisoned with sulfur, with or without accompanying carbon deposition, comprising subjecting the catalyst to exposure to oxygen gas in a concentration of about 1-10 ppm. intermixed with an inert gas of the group consisting of He, A, Xe, Kr, N.sub.2 and air substantially free of oxygen to an extent such that the total oxygen molecule throughout is in the range of about 10 to 20 times that of the hydrogen sulfide molecular exposure producing the catalyst poisoning while maintaining the temperature in the range of about 300.degree. to 500.degree. C.

  1. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  2. Ship-in-a-bottle catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haw, James F.; Song, Weiguo

    2006-07-18

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a novel catalyst system in which the catalytic structure is tailormade at the nanometer scale using the invention's novel ship-in-a-bottle synthesis techniques. The invention describes modified forms of solid catalysts for use in heterogeneous catalysis that have a microporous structure defined by nanocages. Examples include zeolites, SAPOs, and analogous materials that have the controlled pore dimensions and hydrothermal stability required for many industrial processes. The invention provides for modification of these catalysts using reagents that are small enough to pass through the windows used to access the cages. The small reagents are then reacted to form larger molecules in the cages.

  3. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  4. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  5. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1991-02-12

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  6. Low temperature catalyst system for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.

    1984-04-20

    This patent discloses a catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (150/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The catalyst components are used in slurry form and comprise (1) a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-ROH-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms and (2) a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. For the first component, Nic is preferred (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). For the second component, Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is preferred. The mixture is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  7. Protein Scaffolding for Small Molecule Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, David

    2014-09-14

    We aim to design hybrid catalysts for energy production and storage that combine the high specificity, affinity, and tunability of proteins with the potent chemical reactivities of small organometallic molecules. The widely used Rosetta and RosettaDesign methodologies will be extended to model novel protein / small molecule catalysts in which one or many small molecule active centers are supported and coordinated by protein scaffolding. The promise of such hybrid molecular systems will be demonstrated with the nickel-phosphine hydrogenase of DuBois et. al.We will enhance the hydrogenase activity of the catalyst by designing protein scaffolds that incorporate proton relays and systematically modulate the local environment of the catalyticcenter. In collaboration with DuBois and Shaw, the designs will be experimentally synthesized and characterized.

  8. Hydrolysis of COS and CS{sub 2} over alumina catalysts at lower temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shangguan Ju; Li Chunhu; Guo Hanxian [Taiyuan Univ. of Technology, Shanxi (China). Research Inst. of Chemical Engineering for Coal

    1997-12-31

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) widely exist in chemical processing gases from natural gas, coal, Claus tail gas, and petroleum. Those sulfur compound are a major factor of deactivation of synthesis catalysts. Since it is difficult to remove COS and CS{sub 2} completely by the conventional desulfurization, a hydrolysis process has been developed in recent years. The activity of COS and CS{sub 2} hydrolysis was measured in a fixed bed reactor and the surface basicity was studied by CO{sub 2}-TPD. The results showed that the apparent reaction activation energies of COS over three catalysts are 57.80, 52.50 and 44.71 kJ/mol at lower temperature, and those of CS{sub 2}, 55.53, 38.70 and 35.30 kJ/mol, respectively. The apparent activation energies of desorption for weak type basic center over three catalysts were 25.97, 27.92 and 29.77kJ/mol respectively. The surface basicity on catalysts played an important role in the hydrolysis of COS and CS{sub 2}.The weak basic center was the catalytic active center of COS hydrolysis, while the weak and the weaker basic centers took part in catalytic reaction of CS{sub 2} hydrolysis. The K{sub 2}O and Pt loaded on active {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} could greatly change the distribution of surface basicity over catalysts and increase organic sulfide catalytic hydrolysis.

  9. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature- staged liquefaction. [Catalyst precursors for molybdenum-based catalyst and iron-based catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1992-07-01

    Two coals, a Texas subbituminous C and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling and catalyst impregnation on liquefaction conversion behavior in temperature staged reactions for 30 minutes each at 275{degree} and 425{degree}C in H{sub 2} and 95:5 H{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S atmospheres. Methanol, pyridine, tetrahydrofuran, and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide were used as swelling agents. Molybdenum-based catalyst precursors were ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, molybdenum trisulfide, molybdenum hexacarbonyl, and bis(tricarbonylcyclopentadienyl-molybdenum). Ferrous sulfate and bis(dicarbonylcyclo-pentadienyliron) served as iron-based catalyst precursors. In addition, ion exchange was used for loading iron onto the subbituminous coal. For most experiments, liquefaction in H{sub 2}:H{sub 2}S was superior to that in H{sub 2}, regardless of the catalyst precursor. The benefit of the H{sub 2}S was greater for the subbituminous, presumably because of its higher iron content relative to the hvab coal. Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide was the only swelling agent to enhance conversion of the hvab coal significantly; it also caused a remarkable increase in conversion of the subbituminous coal. The combined application of solvent swelling and catalyst impregnation also improves liquefaction, mainly through increased oil yields from the hvab coal and increased asphaltenes from the subbituminous. A remarkable effect from use of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate as a catalyst precursor is substantial increase in pristane and phytane yields. Our findings suggest that these compounds are, at least in part, bound to the coal matrix.

  10. Carbon-Based and Carbon-Supported Heterogeneous Catalysts for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon-Based and Carbon-Supported Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Conversion of Biomass Carbon-based heterogeneous catalysts play a central role in the conversion of biomass to...

  11. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-09-22

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  12. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-12-28

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  13. Volatility of Vanadia from Vanadia-Based SCR Catalysts under...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Volatility of Vanadia from Vanadia-Based SCR Catalysts under Accelerated Aging Conditions TiO2-supported vanadia (and tungsta) can be stabillized by optimization of the catalyst ...

  14. Novel catalysts for hydrogen fuel cell applications:Final report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Novel catalysts for hydrogen fuel cell applications:Final report (FY03-FY05). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel catalysts for hydrogen fuel cell ...

  15. An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts Print Copper-based catalysts are widely used in chemical industries to convert water and carbon monoxide to hydrogen, carbon ...

  16. Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in...

  17. Method of performing sugar dehydration and catalyst treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-06-01

    The invention includes a method of treating a solid acid catalyst. After exposing the catalyst to a mixture containing a sugar alcohol, the catalyst is washed with an organic solvent and is then exposed to a second reaction mixture. The invention includes a process for production of anhydrosugar alcohol. A solid acid catalyst is provided to convert sugar alcohol in a first sample to an anhydrosugar alcohol. The catalyst is then washed with an organic solvent and is subsequently utilized to expose a second sample. The invention includes a method for selective production of an anhydrosugar. A solid acid catalyst is provided within a reactor and anhydrosugar alcohol is formed by flowing a starting sugar alcohol into the reactor. The acid catalyst is then exposed to an organic solvent which allows a greater amount of additional anhydrosugar to be produced than would occur without exposing the acid catalyst to the organic solvent.

  18. Large-pore catalysts for hydroprocessing of residual oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ying, Z.S.; Gevert, B.; Otterstedt, J.E.; Sterte, J.

    1995-05-01

    Hydroprocessing catalysts were prepared using fibrillar alumina and attapulgite as carrier materials and nickel and molybdenum as active substances. With fibrillar alumina as primary particles, a carrier material was obtained which combined a large surface area (138 m{sup 2}/g) with a large average pore diameter (252 {angstrom}). Due to side-by-side association of the fibers, attapulgite did not yield a catalyst carrier with as large pores as was expected. The catalysts were tested for hydroprocessing of an atmospheric petroleum resid, and the results were compared with those obtained for a commercial catalyst with similar loading of nickel and molybdenum. The catalyst prepared using fibrillar alumina as carrier material was more active than the commercial catalyst for hydrodemetallization, equally active for hydrodesulfurization, and less active for hydrodenitrogenation. The catalyst prepared using attapulgite as carrier material was inferior to the other two catalysts in all respects.

  19. Calcium and lanthanum solid base catalysts for transesterification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ng, K. Y. Simon; Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O.

    2015-07-28

    In one aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises calcium hydroxide and lanthanum hydroxide, wherein the catalyst has a specific surface area of more than about 10 m.sup.2/g. In another aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises a calcium compound and a lanthanum compound, wherein the catalyst has a specific surface area of more than about 10 m.sup.2/g, and a total basicity of about 13.6 mmol/g. In further another aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises calcium oxide and lanthanum oxide, wherein the catalyst has a specific surface area of more than about 10 m.sup.2/g. In still another aspect, a process for preparing a catalyst comprises introducing a base precipitant, a neutral precipitant, and an acid precipitant to a solution comprising a first metal ion and a second metal ion to form a precipitate. The process further comprises calcining the precipitate to provide the catalyst.

  20. Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on ...

  1. Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in ...

  2. Method for producing iron-based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Diehl, J. Rodney; Kathrein, Hendrik

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing an acid catalyst having a long shelf-life is provided comprising doping crystalline iron oxides with lattice-compatible metals and heating the now-doped oxide with halogen compounds at elevated temperatures. The invention also provides for a catalyst comprising an iron oxide particle having a predetermined lattice structure, one or more metal dopants for said iron oxide, said dopants having an ionic radius compatible with said lattice structure; and a halogen bound with the iron and the metal dopants on the surface of the particle.

  3. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1986-01-01

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  4. Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HIGHLY DISPERSED ALLOY CATHODE CATALYST FOR DURABILITY T. D. Jarvi UTC Power Corporation This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information HIGHLY DISPERSED ALLOY CATALYST Objectives of project Characteristic DOE 2010 Target Pt group metal Total Content 0.50 g/kW rated Pt group metal Total Loading 0.30 mg PGM/cm 2 Durability with cycling <80 o C; >80 o C 5000 h; 2000 h Electrochemical Area Loss < 40 % Mass Activity at 900 mV RHE (IR-Free) 0.44 A/mg Pt

  5. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2006-08-01

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  6. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  7. Catalysts For Lean Burn Engine Exhaust Abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2004-04-06

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  8. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1986-12-16

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  9. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James R

    2014-11-04

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  10. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  11. 90 Seconds of Discovery: Biofuel Catalyst Life and Plugs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zacher, Alan; Olarte, Mariefel

    2014-06-12

    Scientist at PNNL are working to extend the life of the catalysts used in the production of biomass fuels.

  12. Breakout Group 1: Catalysts and Supports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: Catalysts and Supports Breakout Group 1: Catalysts and Supports Report from Breakout Group 1 of the Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop, January 23-24, 2008 fc_pre-solicitation_workshop_catalysts_supports.pdf (51.7 KB) More Documents & Publications Breakout Group 2: Membrane Electrode Assemblies DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 1: Catalysts DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 5: Long-Term Innovative Technologies

  13. Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in alkaline media of any non-precious metal catalyst developed to date. June 4, 2013 A high-resolution microscopic image of a new type of nanostructured-carbon-based catalyst developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that could pave the way for reliable, economical next-generation batteries and alkaline fuel cells.

  14. Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in alkaline media of any non-precious metal catalyst developed to date. June 4, 2013 A high-resolution microscopic image of a new type of nanostructured-carbon-based catalyst developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that could pave the way for reliable, economical next-generation batteries and alkaline fuel cells.

  15. Catalyst structure and method of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yong; Vanderwiel, David P.; Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Gao, Yufei; Baker, Eddie G.

    2004-06-15

    The present invention includes Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, reactions using Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, methods of making Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, processes of hydrogenating carbon monoxide, and fuels made using these processes. The invention provides the ability to hydrogenate carbon monoxide with low contact times, good conversion rates and low methane selectivities. In a preferred method, the catalyst is made using a metal foam support.

  16. 90 Seconds of Discovery: Biofuel Catalyst Life and Plugs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacher, Alan; Olarte, Mariefel

    2014-06-11

    Scientist at PNNL are working to extend the life of the catalysts used in the production of biomass fuels.

  17. Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K.

    1986-01-01

    The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  18. Catalyst structure and method of fischer-tropsch synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Vanderwiel, David P [Richland, WA; Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA; Baker, Eddie G [Pasco, WA

    2002-12-10

    The present invention includes Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, reactions using Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, methods of making Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, processes of hydrogenating carbon monoxide, and fuels made using these processes. The invention provides the ability to hydrogenate carbon monoxide with low contact times, good conversion rates and low methane selectivities. In a preferred method, the catalyst is made using a metal foam support.

  19. Hollow Nanoparticles as Active and Durable Catalysts - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Hollow Nanoparticles as Active and Durable Catalysts Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology <p> Performance characteristics of the hollow nanoparticle catalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction</p> Performance characteristics of the hollow nanoparticle catalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction Technology Marketing Summary Platinum is an excellent catalyst for many reactions. However, it is also very expensive. The catalytic activity per gram of

  20. Substituted pyridine ligands and related water-soluble catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Emrick, Todd S.

    2011-06-14

    Versatile Group VIII metathesis catalysts, as can be used in a range of polymerization reactions and other chemical methodologies.

  1. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Catalysts | Department of Energy This presentation demonstrates how nano-array catalysts have excellent robustness, use ultra-low amounts of PGM, and can be tuned for optimum performance. deer12_guo.pdf (3.95 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano-Array Catalysts for Low Temperature Diesel Oxidation Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Metal Oxide Nano-Array Catalysts for Low Temperature Diesel Oxidation

  2. Criterion buys Akzo`s naphtha reforming catalysts business

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotman, D.

    1993-12-08

    In a move that further consolidates the refinery catalysts market, Criterion Catalyst (Houston) has bought Akzo`s reforming business for an undisclosed price. The acquisition gives Criterion-a joint venture between Shell and American Cyanamid-roughly 35% of the $50-million/year worldwide reforming market. Akzo says it is quitting the business to focus on larger refinery catalysts applications in hydroprocessing and fluid cracking catalysts.

  3. The Effects of Hydrothermal Agingon a Commercial Cu SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Examines the effect of hydrothermal aging on the Nox reduction over a commercial Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst.

  4. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing: Direct coal liquification of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal. Technical report, July 1995--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coless, L.A.; Poole, M.C.; Wen, M.Y.

    1996-05-24

    In 1994 extensive tests were conducted in the Exxon Research and Engineering Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The work conducted in 1994 explored a variety of dispersed iron molybdenum promoted catalyst systems for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide subbituminus coal. The goal was to identify the preferred iron system. We learned that among the catalysts tested, all were effective; however, none showed a large process advantage over the others. In 1995, we tested dispersed molybdenum catalysts systems for direct coal liquefaction on a second subbituminous coal, Black Thunder. Catalyst properties are shown in Table 1. We also checked a molybdenum promoted iron case, as well as the impact of process variables, such as sulfur type, hydrogen treat rate, and catalyst addition rate, as shown in Table 2. In 1995, we ran 18 material balances over a 7 week period, covering 7 conditions. This report covers the 1995 operations and results.

  5. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Yang, Xiaofan; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Mullins, David R; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Wu, Zili

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broader operating temperature windows to treat diesel engine emissions to enable diesel engine based equipment and vehicles to meet future regulatory requirements. A second objective was to improve hydrothermal durability of zeolite catalysts to at least 675 C. The results presented in this report show that we have successfully achieved both objectives. Since it is accepted that the first step in NO{sub x} conversion under SCR (selective catalytic reduction) conditions involves NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}, we reasoned that catalyst modification that can enhance NO oxidation at low-temperatures should facilitate NO{sub x} reduction at low temperatures. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 is a more efficient catalyst than Fe-ZSM-5 at low-temperature, we chose to modify Cu-ZSM-5. It is important to point out that the poor low-temperature efficiency of Fe-ZSM-5 has been shown to be due to selective absorption of NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures rather than poor NO oxidation activity. In view of this, we also reasoned that an increased electron density on copper in Cu-ZSM-5 would inhibit any bonding with NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures. In addition to modified Cu-ZSM-5, we synthesized a series of new heterobimetallic zeolites, by incorporating a secondary metal cation M (Sc{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}, and La{sup 3+}) in Cu exchanged ZSM-5, zeolite-beta, and SSZ-13 zeolites under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Characterization by diffuse-reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) does not permit conclusive structural determination but supports the proposal that M{sup 3+} has been incorporated in the vicinity of Cu(II). The protocols for degreening catalysts, testing under various operating conditions, and accelerated aging

  6. Removal of asphaltene and paraffin deposits using micellar solutions and fused reactions. Final report, 1995--1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.L.; Nalwaya, V.; Singh, P.; Fogler, H.S.

    1998-05-01

    Chemical treatments of paraffin and asphaltene deposition by means of cleaning fluids were carried out in this research project. Research focused on the characterization of asphaltene and paraffin materials and dissolution of asphaltene and paraffin deposits using surfactant/micellar fluids developed early in the project. The key parameters controlling the dissolution rate were identified and the process of asphaltene/paraffin dissolution were examined using microscopic apparatus. Numerical modeling was also carried out to understand the dissolution of paraffin deposits. The results show that fused chemical reaction systems are a promising way of removing paraffin deposits in subsea pipelines. The fused system may be in the form of alternate pulses, emulsions systems or encapsulated catalyst systems. Fused reaction systems, in fact, are extremely cost-effective--less than 10% of the cost of replacing entire sections of the blocked pipeline. The results presented in this report can have a real impact on the petroleum industry and the National Oil Program, if it is realized that the remediation technologies developed here can substantially delay abandonment (due to asphaltene/paraffin plugging) of domestic petroleum resources. The report also sheds new light on the nature and properties of asphaltenes and paraffin deposits which will ultimately help the scientific and research community to develop effective methods in eliminating asphaltene/paraffin deposition problems. It must also be realized that asphaltene remediation technologies developed and presented in this report are a real alternative to aromatic cleaning fluids currently used by the petroleum industry.

  7. Attrition resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    2004-05-25

    A catalyst support having improved attrition resistance and a catalyst produced therefrom. The catalyst support is produced by a method comprising the step of treating calcined .gamma.-alumina having no catalytic material added thereto with an acidic aqueous solution having an acidity level effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the calcined .gamma.-alumina.

  8. Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes a process for the separation of catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The separation is accomplished by extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic. The purified catalyst can be upgraded by various methods.

  9. Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts having improved selectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, James G.; Rabo, Jule A.

    1989-01-01

    The promoter(s) Mn oxide or Mn oxide and Zr oxide are added to a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst combined with the molecular sieve TC-103 or TC-123 such that the resultant catalyst demonstrates improved product selectivity, stability and catalyst life. The improved selectivity is evidenced by lower methane production, higher C5+ yield and increased olefin production.

  10. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  11. Anne LaPointe > Director, Catalyst Discovery and Development Laboratory >

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers, Postdocs & Graduates > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Anne LaPointe Director, Catalyst Discovery and Development Laboratory aml329@cornell.edu Dr. LaPointe received her PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and then went on to a Postdoc at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. He research interests are in catalysis, high throughput experimentation, organometallic chemistry and polymer chemistry

  12. Rubber stopper remover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stitt, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    A device for removing a rubber stopper from a test tube is mountable to an upright wall, has a generally horizontal splash guard, and a lower plate spaced parallel to and below the splash guard. A slot in the lower plate has spaced-apart opposing edges that converge towards each other from the plate outer edge to a narrowed portion, the opposing edges shaped to make engagement between the bottom of the stopper flange and the top edge of the test tube to wedge therebetween and to grasp the stopper in the slot narrowed portion to hold the stopper as the test tube is manipulated downwardly and pulled from the stopper. The opposing edges extend inwardly to adjoin an opening having a diameter significantly larger than that of the stopper flange.

  13. NREL: Biomass Research - Chemical and Catalyst Science Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conversion performance, measure mass transport, and develop links between biomass ... Biorefinery Processes Microalgal Biofuels Biomass Process & Sustainability ...

  14. CO2ReMoVe | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of industrial, research and service organizations with experience in CO2 geological storage. References: CO2ReMoVe1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding...

  15. The Corrosion of PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Supports and Its Implications for Developing Durable Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Jun; Kou, Rong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-01-03

    Studying the corrosion behavior of catalyst support materials is of great significance for understanding the degradation of PEM fuel cell performance and developing durable catalysts. The oxidation of Vulcan carbon black (the most widely-used catalyst support for PEM fuel cells) was investigated using various electrochemical stressing methods (fixed-potential holding vs. potential step cycling), among which the potential step cycling was considered to mimic more closely the real drive cycle operation of vehicle PEM fuel cells. The oxidation of carbon was accelerated under potential step conditions as compared with the fixed-potential holding condition. Increasing potential step frequency or decreasing the lower potential limit in the potential step can further accelerate the corrosion of carbon. The accelerated corrosion of carbon black was attributed to the cycle of consumption/regeneration of some easily oxidized species. These findings are being employed to develop a test protocol for fast screening durable catalyst support.

  16. Mercury Reduction and Removal from High Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 12511

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrouzi, Aria; Zamecnik, Jack

    2012-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site during production of enriched uranium and plutonium required by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. One of the constituents in the nuclear waste is mercury, which is present because it served as a catalyst in the dissolution of uranium-aluminum alloy fuel rods. At high temperatures mercury is corrosive to off-gas equipment, this poses a major challenge to the overall vitrification process in separating mercury from the waste stream prior to feeding the high temperature melter. Mercury is currently removed during the chemical process via formic acid reduction followed by steam stripping, which allows elemental mercury to be evaporated with the water vapor generated during boiling. The vapors are then condensed and sent to a hold tank where mercury coalesces and is recovered in the tank's sump via gravity settling. Next, mercury is transferred from the tank sump to a purification cell where it is washed with water and nitric acid and removed from the facility. Throughout the chemical processing cell, compounds of mercury exist in the sludge, condensate, and off-gas; all of which present unique challenges. Mercury removal from sludge waste being fed to the DWPF melter is required to avoid exhausting it to the environment or any negative impacts to the Melter Off-Gas system. The mercury concentration must be reduced to a level of 0.8 wt% or less before being introduced to the melter. Even though this is being successfully accomplished, the material balances accounting for incoming and collected mercury are not equal. In addition, mercury has not been effectively

  17. Catalysts compositions for use in fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Steven S.C.

    2015-12-01

    The present invention generally relates to the generation of electrical energy from a solid-state fuel. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a solid-oxide fuel cell for generating electrical energy from a carbon-based fuel, and to catalysts for use in a solid-oxide fuel cell.

  18. Attrition resistant gamma-alumina catalyst support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    2006-03-14

    A .gamma.-alumina catalyst support having improved attrition resistance produced by a method comprising the steps of treating a particulate .gamma.-alumina material with an acidic aqueous solution comprising water and nitric acid and then, prior to adding any catalytic material thereto, calcining the treated .gamma.-alumina.

  19. Catalyst compositional for hydroprocessing petroleum feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherwood, D.E.; Bartley, B.H.; Neff, L.D.; Dai, P.S.E.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes a catalyst composition useful in the hydroprocessing of a sulfur- and metal-containing hydrocarbon feedstock. It comprises 1.0-5.0 weight percent of an oxide of nickel or cobalt and 10.0-25.0 weight percent of an oxide of molybdenum, all supported on a porous alumina support in such a manner that the molybdenum gradient of the catalyst has a value of less than 6.0, 15-30% of the nickel or cobalt is in an acid extractable form, and the catalyst is further characterized by having a total surface area of 150-210 m{sup 2}/g, a total pore volume of 0.50-0.75 cc/g, and a pore size distribution such that pores having diameters of less than 100A constitute less than 25.0%, pores having diameters of 100-160A constitute 70.0-85.0% and pores having diameters of greater than 250A constitute 1.0-15.0% of the total pore volume of the catalyst.

  20. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Lyons, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Alkanes are oxidized by contact with oxygen-containing gas in the presence as catalyst of a metalloporphyrin in which hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring have been replaced with one or more nitro groups. Hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring may also be substituted with halogen atoms.