Sample records for remain tight reflecting

  1. Coarse scale simulation of tight gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Ahmady, Mohamed Hamed

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It is common for field models of tight gas reservoirs to include several wells with hydraulic fractures. These hydraulic fractures can be very long, extending for more than a thousand feet. A hydraulic fracture width is ...

  2. AIR-TIGHTNESS OF U.S. DWELLINGS: 0 LBL-35700 AIR-TIGHTNESS OF U.S. DWELLINGS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AIR-TIGHTNESS OF U.S. DWELLINGS: 0 LBL-35700 AIR-TIGHTNESS OF U.S. DWELLINGS* Max Sherman Darryl University of California Berkeley, California Blower Doors are used to measure the air tightness and air systems, quantification of air-tightness data is critical in order to answer the following kinds questions

  3. Coarse scale simulation of tight gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Ahmady, Mohamed Hamed

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It is common for field models of tight gas reservoirs to include several wells with hydraulic fractures. These hydraulic fractures can be very long, extending for more than a thousand feet. A hydraulic fracture width is usually no more than about 0...

  4. Tight Binding Hamiltonians and Quantum Turing Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Benioff

    1996-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper extends work done to date on quantum computation by associating potentials with different types of computation steps. Quantum Turing machine Hamiltonians, generalized to include potentials, correspond to sums over tight binding Hamiltonians each with a different potential distribution. Which distribution applies is determined by the initial state. An example, which enumerates the integers in succession as binary strings, is analyzed. It is seen that for some initial states the potential distributions have quasicrystalline properties and are similar to a substitution sequence.

  5. Tight Binding Hamiltonians and Quantum Turing Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benioff, P. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper extends work done to date on quantum computation by association of potentials with different types of steps. Quantum Turing machine Hamiltonians, generalized to include potentials, correspond to sums over tight binding Hamiltonians each with a different potential distribution. Which distribution applies is determined by the initial state. An example, which enumerates the integers in succession as binary strings, is analyzed. It is seen that for some initial states, the potential distributions have quasicrystalline properties and are similar to a substitution sequence. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Tight gas reservoirs: A visual depiction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future gas supplies in the US will depend on an increasing contribution from unconventional sources such as overpressured and tight gas reservoirs. Exploitation of these resources and their conversion to economically producible gas reserves represents a major challenge. Meeting this challenge will require not only the continuing development and application of new technologies, but also a detailed understanding of the complex nature of the reservoirs themselves. This report seeks to promote understanding of these reservoirs by providing examples. Examples of gas productive overpressured tight reservoirs in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming are presented. These examples show log data (raw and interpreted), well completion and stimulation information, and production decline curves. A sampling of wells from the Lewis and Mesaverde formations are included. Both poor and good wells have been chosen to illustrate the range of productivity that is observed. The second section of this document displays decline curves and completion details for 30 of the best wells in the Greater Green River Basin. These are included to illustrate the potential that is present when wells are fortuitously located with respect to local stratigraphy and natural fracturing, and are successfully hydraulically fractured.

  7. Armament remains from His Majesty's sloop Boscawen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Brinnen Stiles

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    His Majesty's Sloop Boscawen was built on Lake Champlain by British forces in 1759 as part of their successful campaign to drive the French Army from the Champlain Valley. This thesis describes and analyzes the armament remains found in and around...

  8. Coal remains a hot commodity for Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bram, L.

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based largely on analyses by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics in late 2005 and early 2006, the article looks at the recent and near future export market for Australian coal. Demand in Asia is growing; European demand remains steady. Developments existing and new mines in Queensland are summarised in the article. 3 tabs.

  9. Tax credit for tight-sands gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schugart, G.L.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a $3 per barrel tax credit, which is tied to crude oil prices, in the Windfall Profits Tax (WPT) for producing fuels from certain unconventional sources. Concentrating on the tight gas formations section of qualifying fuels, the author examines the tax credit and certain factors natural gas producers may want to consider in deciding on whether to choose the tax credit or the incentive prices of the Natural Gas Policy Act. The decline in oil prices is significant enough to provide some producers an opportunity to take advantage of the tax credit. They should do some tax planning by calculating the estimated break-even point for NGPA incentive prices and the nonconventional gas production tax credit.

  10. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  11. Air Tightness of US Homes: Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been gathering residential air leakage data from many sources and now has a database of more than 100,000 raw measurements. This paper uses that database to develop a model for estimating air leakage as a function of climate, building age, floor area, building height, floor type, energy-efficiency and low-income designations. The model developed can be used to estimate the leakage distribution of populations of houses.

  12. Dispositional reflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brummans, Boris H. J. M.

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis suggests that the studied scholars enact these games to understand a more or less common object of knowledge, but also to constitute a more or less identifiable position in this given social space. Reflection on the ontological complicity between...

  13. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

  14. Completion methods in thick, multilayered tight gas sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogueri, Obinna Stavely

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Tight gas sands, coal-bed methane, and gas shales are commonly called unconventional reservoirs. Tight gas sands (TGS) are often described as formations with an expected average permeability of 0.1mD or less. Gas production rates from TGS reservoirs...

  15. Completion methods in thick, multilayered tight gas sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogueri, Obinna Stavely

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Tight gas sands, coal-bed methane, and gas shales are commonly called unconventional reservoirs. Tight gas sands (TGS) are often described as formations with an expected average permeability of 0.1mD or less. Gas production rates from TGS reservoirs...

  16. DOE Showcases Websites for Tight Gas Resource Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two U.S. Department of Energy projects funded by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory provide quick and easy web-based access to sought after information on tight-gas sandstone plays.

  17. Effect of pressure-dependent permeability on tight gas wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franquet Barbara, Mariela

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    an economically adequate production rate. Other modern technologies for the production of tight gas reservoirs include horizontal and multilateral wells, as well as underbalanced drilling. _________________ This thesis follows the style of the SPE...

  18. A Tight Lower Bound for the Adjacent Quadratic Assignment Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borzou Rostami

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sep 23, 2014 ... A Tight Lower Bound for the Adjacent Quadratic Assignment Problem ... The first is based on a ``flow'' formulation whose linear relaxation can be solved very efficiently ... Category 2: Integer Programming (0-1 Programming ).

  19. Selection of fracture fluid for stimulating tight gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malpani, Rajgopal Vijaykumar

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    , surveys from fracturing experts, and statistical analysis of production data, this research provides guidelines for selection of the appropriate stimulation treatment fluid in most gas shale and tight gas reservoirs. This study takes into account various...

  20. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling...

  1. On the Number of Tight Wavelet Frame Generators associated with Multivariate Box Splines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Ming-Jun

    Kronecker poduct method in [2]. Keywords Sum of square magnitudes, Multivariate box splines, Tight wavelet

  2. Qubits from tight knots and bent nano-bars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor Atanasov; Rossen Dandoloff

    2008-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a novel mechanism for creating a qubit based on a tight knot, that is a nano-quantum wire system so small and so cold as to be quantum coherent with respect to curvature-induced effects. To establish tight knots as legitimate candidates for qubits, we propose an effective curvature-induced potential that produces the two-level system and identify the tunnel coupling between the two local states. We propose also a different design of nano-mechanical qubit based on twisted nano-rods. We describe how both devices can be manipulated. Also we outline possible decoherence channels, detection schemes and experimental setups.

  3. Impact of Tight Energy Markets on Industrial Energy Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, R. N.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    not come as a surprise. We initially became aware of impending energy problems in the winter of 2000-2001, when limited supplies of hydro-electric power and tight natural gas combined with a cold winter to force natural gas prices to record high...IMPACT OF TIGHT ENERGY MARKETS ON INDUSTRIAL ENERGY PLANNING R. NEAL ELLIOTT, PH.D., P.E., INDUSTRIAL PROGRAM DIRECTOR, AMERICAN COUNCIL FOR AN ENERGY-EFFICIENT ECONOMY, WASHINGTON, D.C. ABSTRACT The past five years have seen growing...

  4. TIGHT FRAMES AND GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF WAVELET SETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benedetto, John J.

    TIGHT FRAMES AND GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF WAVELET SETS John J. Benedetto and Songkiat Sumetkijakan # January 29, 2004 1 Introduction 1.1 Background and wavelet sets b R d is Euclidean space, R d , considered of a measurable set K # b R d of finite measure. K # b R d is a wavelet set if the function # # Ÿ 1K is a single

  5. The Performance of Fractured Horizontal Well in Tight Gas Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiajing

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ?, including tight gas, gas/oil shale, oil sands, and coal-bed methane. North America has a substantial growth in its unconventional oil and gas market over the last two decades. The primary reason for that growth is because North America, being a mature...

  6. ELASTIC ROCK PROPERTIES OF TIGHT GAS SANDSTONES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to successfully produce low permeability gas reservoirs. My study links rock physics to well log and seismic data shales to reservoir sandstones. Typically, the presence of gas-saturated sandstones lowers the Vp/Vs evenELASTIC ROCK PROPERTIES OF TIGHT GAS SANDSTONES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AT RULISON FIELD

  7. Developing a tight gas sand advisor for completion and stimulation in tight gas reservoirs worldwide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogatchev, Kirill Y

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    should be initiated in perforation (Manrique, Bjornen, Ehlig-Economides24). Ramirez et al.25 suggested that for a production test in high a pressure/high temperature exploration TGS wells, propellant-assisted perforating could be an attractive... promotes grain-to-grain contact, and remains as a liquid until it is fully cured downhole. A variety of LRS products was specially formulated to accommodate all temperature ranges: a low-temperature, two-component, epoxy system (70° F - 225° F); a high-temperature...

  8. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical issues in tight gas fracturing, in particular the roles of gel damage, polymer loading (water-frac versus gel frac), and proppant concentration on the created fracture conductivity. To achieve this objective, we have designed the experimental apparatus to conduct the dynamic fracture conductivity tests. The experimental apparatus has been built and some preliminary tests have been conducted to test the apparatus.

  9. The VENUS/NWChem Software Package. Tight Coupling Between Chemical Dynamics Simulations and Electronic Structure Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lourderaj, Upakarasamy; Sun, Rui; De Jong, Wibe A.; Windus, Theresa L.; Hase, William L.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interface for VENUS and NWChem, and the resulting software package for direct dynamics simulations are described. The coupling of the two codes is considered to be a tight coupling. The two codes are compiled and linked together and act as one executable with data being passed between the two codes through routine calls. The advantages of this type of coupling are discussed. The interface has been designed to have as little interference as possible with the core codes of both VENUS and NWChem. VENUS is the code that propagates the direct dynamics trajectories and, therefore, is the program that drives the overall execution of VENUS/NWChem. VENUS has remained an essentially sequential code, which uses the highly parallel structure of NWChem. Subroutines of the interface which accomplish the data transmission and communication between the two computer programs are described. Recent examples of the use of VENUS/NWChem for direct dynamics simulations are summarized.

  10. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  11. A National Forum on Demand Response: Results on What Remains...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forum on Demand Response: Results on What Remains to Be Done to Achieve Its Potential - Cost-Effectiveness Working Group A National Forum on Demand Response: Results on What...

  12. Second-order susceptibility from a tight-binding Hamiltonian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumitrica, T.; Graves, JS; Allen, Roland E.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    measurements. In Sec. PRB 580163-1829/98/58~23!/15340~4!/$15.00 a tight-binding Hamiltonian , and R. E. Allen , College Station, Texas 77843 June 1998! g Hamiltonian to include interaction with a time- l expression for the second-order susceptibility... potential A; however, the term that is neglected ~involving PRB 58 BRIEF REPORT A2) does not give rise to electronic transitions in the long- wavelength approximation, since it can be eliminated through a unitary transformation.15 Only the last term...

  13. Entangled webs: Tight bound for symmetric sharing of entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masato Koashi; Vladimir Buzek; Nobuyuki Imoto

    2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum entanglement cannot be unlimitedly shared among arbitrary number of qubits. Larger the number of entangled pairs in an N-qubit system, smaller the degree of bi-partite entanglement is. We analyze a system of N qubits in which an arbitrary pair of particles is entangled. We show that the maximum degree of entanglement (measured in the concurrence) between any pair of qubits is 2/N. This tight bound can be achieved when the qubits are prepared in a pure symmetric (with respect to permutations) state with just one qubit in the basis state |0> and the others in the basis state |1>.

  14. Fields of an ultrashort tightly-focused laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jian-Xing; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Keitel, Christoph H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic fields of an ultrashort, tightly focused, laser pulse in vacuum are derived from scalar and vector potentials, using on equal footing two small parameters connected with the waist size of the laser beam and its duration. Compared with fields derived from a complex-source-point approach and a Lax series expansion approach, the derived fields are shown to be well-behaved and accurate even in the subcycle pulse regime. Terms stemming from the scalar potential are shown to be non-negligible and could significantly influence laser-matter interactions, in particular, direct electron acceleration in vacuum by an ultrashort laser pulse.

  15. Proceedings: EPRI Workshop on Condition and Remaining Life Assessment of Hot Gas Path Components of Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The severity of modern combustion turbine operation is a reflection of industry competition to achieve higher thermal efficiency. This competitive stance has resulted in new turbine designs and material systems that have at times outpaced condition and remaining life assessment (CARLA) technology. These proceedings summarize a two-day workshop on CARLA technology for hot section components of large combustion turbines.

  16. Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, D.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Nico, P.

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Tight gas sands are unconventional hydrocarbon energy resource storing large volume of natural gas. Microscopy and 3D imaging of reservoir samples at different scales and resolutions provide insights into the coaredo not significantly smaller in size than conventional sandstones, the extremely dense grain packing makes the pore space tortuous, and the porosity is small. In some cases the inter-granular void space is presented by micron-scale slits, whose geometry requires imaging at submicron resolutions. Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations simulate different scenarios of capillary-equilibrium two-phase fluid displacement. For tight sands, the simulations predict an unusually low wetting fluid saturation threshold, at which the non-wetting phase becomes disconnected. Flow simulations in combination with Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations evaluate relative permeability curves. The computations show that at the threshold saturation, when the nonwetting fluid becomes disconnected, the flow of both fluids is practically blocked. The nonwetting phase is immobile due to the disconnectedness, while the permeability to the wetting phase remains essentially equal to zero due to the pore space geometry. This observation explains the Permeability Jail, which was defined earlier by others. The gas is trapped by capillarity, and the brine is immobile due to the dynamic effects. At the same time, in drainage, simulations predict that the mobility of at least one of the fluids is greater than zero at all saturations. A pore-scale model of gas condensate dropout predicts the rate to be proportional to the scalar product of the fluid velocity and pressure gradient. The narrowest constriction in the flow path is subject to the highest rate of condensation. The pore-scale model naturally upscales to the Panfilov's Darcy-scale model, which implies that the condensate dropout rate is proportional to the pressure gradient squared. Pressure gradient is the greatest near the matrix-fracture interface. The distinctive two-phase flow properties of tight sand imply that a small amount of gas condensate can seriously affect the recovery rate by blocking gas flow. Dry gas injection, pressure maintenance, or heating can help to preserve the mobility of gas phase. A small amount of water can increase the mobility of gas condensate.

  17. ADVANCED FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR TIGHT GAS: AN EAST TEXAS FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukul M. Sharma

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this research was to improve completion and fracturing practices in gas reservoirs in marginal plays in the continental United States. The Bossier Play in East Texas, a very active tight gas play, was chosen as the site to develop and test the new strategies for completion and fracturing. Figure 1 provides a general location map for the Dowdy Ranch Field, where the wells involved in this study are located. The Bossier and other tight gas formations in the continental Unites States are marginal plays in that they become uneconomical at gas prices below $2.00 MCF. It was, therefore, imperative that completion and fracturing practices be optimized so that these gas wells remain economically attractive. The economic viability of this play is strongly dependent on the cost and effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing used in its well completions. Water-fracs consisting of proppant pumped with un-gelled fluid is the type of stimulation used in many low permeability reservoirs in East Texas and throughout the United States. The use of low viscosity Newtonian fluids allows the creation of long narrow fractures in the reservoir, without the excessive height growth that is often seen with cross-linked fluids. These low viscosity fluids have poor proppant transport properties. Pressure transient tests run on several wells that have been water-fractured indicate a long effective fracture length with very low fracture conductivity even when large amounts of proppant are placed in the formation. A modification to the water-frac stimulation design was needed to transport proppant farther out into the fracture. This requires suspending the proppant until the fracture closes without generating excessive fracture height. A review of fracture diagnostic data collected from various wells in different areas (for conventional gel and water-fracs) suggests that effective propped lengths for the fracture treatments are sometimes significantly shorter than those predicted by fracture models. There was no accepted optimal method for conducting hydraulic fracturing in the Bossier. Each operator used a different approach. Anadarko, the most active operator in the play, had tested at least four different kinds of fracture treatments. The ability to arrive at an optimal fracturing program was constrained by the lack of adequate fracture models to simulate the fracturing treatment, and an inability to completely understand the results obtained in previous fracturing programs. This research aimed at a combined theoretical, experimental and field-testing program to improve fracturing practices in the Bossier and other tight gas plays.

  18. MANAGING TIGHT BINDING RECEPTORS FOR NEW SPEARATIONS TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DARYLE H BUSCH RICHARD S GIVENS

    2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Much of the earth's pollution involves compounds of the metallic elements, including actinides, strontium, cesium, technetium, and RCRA metals. Metal ions bind to molecules called ligands, which are the molecular tools that can manipulate the metal ions under most conditions. This DOE-EMSP sponsored program strives (1) to provide the foundations for using the most powerful ligands in transformational separations technologies and (2) to produce seminal examples of their applications to separations appropriate to the DOE EM mission. These ultra tight-binding ligands can capture metal ions in the most competitive of circumstances (from mineralized sites, lesser ligands, and even extremely dilute solutions), but they react so slowly that they are useless in traditional separations methodologies. Two attacks on this problem are underway. The first accommodates to the challenging molecular lethargy by developing a seminal slow separations methodology termed the soil poultice. The second designs ligands that are only tight-binding while wrapped around the targeted metal ion, but can be put in place by switch-binding and removed by switch-release. We envision a kind of molecular switching process to accelerate the union between metal ion and tight-binding ligand. Molecular switching processes are suggested for overcoming the slow natural equilibration rate with which ultra tight-binding ligands combine with metal ions. Ligands that bind relatively weakly combine with metal ions rapidly, so the trick is to convert a ligand from a weak, rapidly binding species to a powerful, slow releasing ligand--during the binding of the ligand to the metal ion. Such switch-binding ligands must react with themselves, and the reaction must take place under the influence of the metal ion. For example, our generation 1 ligands showed that a well-designed linear ligand with ends that readily combine, forms a cyclic molecule when it wraps around a metal ion. Our generation 2 ligands are even more interesting. They convert from rings to structures that wrap around a metal ion to form a cage. These ligands are called cryptands. Switch release is accomplished by photolytic cleavage of a bond to convert a cyclic ligand into a linear ligand or to break similar bonds in a cryptate. Our studies have demonstrated switch binding and switch release with cryptates of calcium. These remarkable cyclic ligands and cage-like ligands are indeed tight-binding and may, in principle, be incorporated in various separations methodologies, including the soil poultice. The soil poultice mimics the way in which microbes secrete extremely powerful ligands into the soil in order to harvest iron. The cellular membrane of the microbe recognizes the iron/ligand complex and admits it into the cell. The soil poultice uses molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) to play the role of the cellular membrane. Imprinting involves creation of the polymer in the presence of the metal/ligand complex. In principle, a well design ligand/MIP combination can be highly selective toward almost any targeted metal ion. The principles for that design are the focus of these investigations. An imprinting molecule can interact with the polymer through any, some, or all of the so-called supramolecular modes; e.g., hydrogen bonding, electrostatic charge, minor ligand bonding, Pi-Pi stacking, and hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions. Historically these modes of binding have given MIPs only small re-binding capacities and very limited selectivities. This program has shown that each mode of interaction can be made more powerful than previously suspected and that combinations of different supramolecular interaction modes can produce remarkable synergisms. The results of this systematic study provide a firm foundation for tailoring molecular imprinted polymers for reclamation of specific metal ion, including those important to the DOE EM mission.

  19. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  20. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  1. Accomplishments and Remaining Challenges: THREDDS Data Server and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accomplishments and Remaining Challenges: THREDDS Data Server and Common Data Model Ethan Davis Unidata Policy Committee Meeting 23-24 May 2011 #12;THREDDS Data Server (TDS) · Web server for scientific;THREDDS Data Server (TDS) · ... · Data access services: ­ OPeNDAP ­ OGC WMS and WCS ­ NCSS · Data

  2. Reply to Davies: Hydraulic fracturing remains a possible mechanism for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    LETTER Reply to Davies: Hydraulic fracturing remains a possible mechanism for observed methane in aquifers overlying the Marcellus formation but asserts that we prematurely ascribed its cause to hydraulic mechanisms were leaky gas well casings and the possibility that hydraulic fracturing might generate new

  3. Qutrit Magic State Distillation Tight in Some Directions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hillary Dawkins; Mark Howard

    2015-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Magic state distillation is a crucial component in the leading approaches to implementing universal fault tolerant quantum computation, with existing protocols for both qubit and higher dimensional systems. Early work focused on determining the region of distillable states for qubit protocols, yet comparatively little is known about which states can be distilled and with what distillable region for d>2. Here we focus on d=3 and present new four-qutrit distillation schemes that improve upon the known distillable region, and achieve distillation tight to the boundary of undistillable states for some classes of state. As a consequence of recent results, this implies that there is a family of quantum states that enable universality if and only if they exhibit contextuality with respect to stabilizer measurements. We also identify a new routine whose fixed point is a magic state with maximal sum-negativity i.e., it is maximally non-stabilizer in a specific sense.

  4. Methods and apparatus for measuring the tightness of enclosures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Modera, Mark P. (3815 Brighton Ave., Oakland, CA 94602); Sherman, Max H. (461 Hudson St., Oakland, CA 94618)

    1987-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for measuring tightness of an enclosure such as a building by utilizing alternating pressurization techniques. One method comprises providing apparatus capable of causing an internal volume change for the enclosure, the apparatus including a means for determining the instantaneous volume change, and a means for determining the instantaneous pressure within the enclosure. The apparatus is operated within the enclosure to change the volume thereof, and at least one of the frequency and the displacement is adjusted to achieve a root mean square pressure in the enclosure approximately equal to a reference pressure. At that pressure, the leakage of the enclosure is determined from the instantaneous displacement and instantaneous pressure values.

  5. Methods and apparatus for measuring the tightness of enclosures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    1987-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for measuring tightness of an enclosure such as a building by utilizing alternating pressurization techniques. One method comprises providing apparatus capable of causing an internal volume change for the enclosure, the apparatus including a means for determining the instantaneous volume change, and a means for determining the instantaneous pressure within the enclosure. The apparatus is operated within the enclosure to change the volume thereof, and at least one of the frequency and the displacement is adjusted to achieve a root mean square pressure in the enclosure approximately equal to a reference pressure. At that pressure, the leakage of the enclosure is determined from the instantaneous displacement and instantaneous pressure values. 3 figs.

  6. Effect of confining pressure on pore volume in tight sandstones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampath, K.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of confining pressure on the pore volume of some tight sandstones from the Uinta Basin, Utah, was investigated. A new method based on the pressure-volume relationships of a gas was developed and used to measure pore volume reduction. The results were compared with the results obtained using the more common method that involves the measurement of liquid expelled from a saturated core and were found to be in good agreement. Pore volume compressibility of the samples studies is in the range of values reported by other investigators and ranges from 2.0 x 10/sup -6/ to 1.3 x 10/sup -5/ pv/pv/psi at a confining pressure of 5,000 psi.

  7. Pressure analysis of the hydromechanical fracture behaviour in stimulated tight sedimentary geothermal reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wessling, S.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The future of Geothermal Energy. Massachusetts Institute ofthe exploitation of geothermal energy from such rocks. Wemethod to extract geothermal energy from tight sedimentary

  8. Analysis of stress sensitivity and its influence on oil production from tight reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei, Qun; Xiong, Wei; Yuan, Cui; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Its Influence on Oil Production from Tight Reservoirscan affect well oil production. Specifically, pressure-Stress Sensitivity on Oil Production During oil production

  9. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  10. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  11. Integrated seismic study of naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.M.; Nur, A.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflection seismic methods are, and will continue to be, the key geophysical tool for imaging these heterogeneities in the subsurface of the earth. However, in spite of great advances in field acquisition techniques and computer processing power, the primary product of conventional seismic work is still only the spatial pattern of reflectivity, which is a measure of velocity variations. Most of the amplitude information goes unused. Although fracture zones may have a reflectivity signature, more often they will not, because of steeply dipping angles, limited offset range in the acquisition, a subtle impedance mismatch, or too thin a fractured zone relative to the wavelength. In fact, there is probably no single seismic attribute that will always tell us what we need to know about fracture zones. Our objective, in the project, is to integrate the principles of rock physics into a quantitative interpretation scheme that exploits the broader spectrum of fracture zone signatures: anomalous compressional and shear wave velocities; Q and velocity dispersion; increased velocity anisotropy amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response. Our goal is to incorporate four key elements: Acquisition and processing of seismic reflection field data. Theoretical studies of the anisotropic signatures of fractured rocks. Laboratory measurements of seismic velocity, velocity anisotropy, and attenuation in reservoir and cap rocks. Integration and interpretation of seismic, well log, and laboratory data, incorporating forward modeling.

  12. Reflecting to learn mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachael Kenney

    2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    integrating reflective practice and writing to learn mathematics (WTLM) in order ... concern or interest as well as potential explanations for and solutions to ..... teacher, I know I need to be universally good in both language and numbers. ... The PSMTs' reflections also revealed that completing the prompts encouraged them to.

  13. Constraining corotation from shocks in tightly-wound spiral galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Gittins; C. Clarke

    2003-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new method for estimating the corotation radius in tightly wound spiral galaxies, through analysis of the radial variation of the offset between arms traced by the potential (P-arms) and those traced by dust (D-arms). We have verified the predictions of semi-analytical theory through hydrodynamical simulations and have examined the uniqueness of the galactic parameters that can be deduced by this method. We find that if the range of angular offsets measured at different radii in a galaxy is greater than around pi/4, it is possible to locate the radius of corotation to within ~ 25%. We argue that the relative location of the P- and D-arms provides more robust constraints on the galactic parameters than can be inferred from regions of enhanced star formation (SF-arms), since interpretation of the latter involves uncertainties due to reddening and the assumed star formation law. We thus stress the importance of K-band studies of spiral galaxies.

  14. US Geological Survey publications on western tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupa, M.P.; Spencer, C.W.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography includes reports published from 1977 through August 1988. In 1977 the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's, (DOE), Western Gas Sands Research program, initiated a geological program to identify and characterize natural gas resources in low-permeability (tight) reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region. These reservoirs are present at depths of less than 2,000 ft (610 m) to greater than 20,000 ft (6,100 m). Only published reports readily available to the public are included in this report. Where appropriate, USGS researchers have incorporated administrative report information into later published studies. These studies cover a broad range of research from basic research on gas origin and migration to applied studies of production potential of reservoirs in individual wells. The early research included construction of regional well-log cross sections. These sections provide a basic stratigraphic framework for individual areas and basins. Most of these sections include drill-stem test and other well-test data so that the gas-bearing reservoirs can be seen in vertical and areal dimensions. For the convenience of the reader, the publications listed in this report have been indexed by general categories of (1) authors, (2) states, (3) geologic basins, (4) cross sections, (5) maps (6) studies of gas origin and migration, (7) reservoir or mineralogic studies, and (8) other reports of a regional or specific topical nature.

  15. Tight JunctionAssociated Signaling Pathways Modulate Cell Proliferation in Uveal Melanoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tight Junction­Associated Signaling Pathways Modulate Cell Proliferation in Uveal Melanoma Ashwath the role of tight junction (TJ)­associ- ated signaling pathways in the proliferation of uveal melanoma. METHODS. Human uveal melanoma cell lines overexpressing the TJ molecule blood vessel epicardial substance

  16. Light-Tightness Quality Check for Curtis Schmidt 8-inch Shutters Tyler W. Behm,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light-Tightness Quality Check for Curtis Schmidt 8-inch Shutters Tyler W. Behm,1, J.P. Rheault,1 light is "leaked" through a closed CCD shutter. We find that by orienting the actuator towards the CCD 1 in 250,000 at most. I. INTRODUCTION Light-tightness is an important quality in shutters. Poor

  17. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE-funded research into seismic detection of natural fractures is one of six projects within the DOE`s Detection and Analysis of Naturally Fractured Gas Reservoirs Program, a multidisciplinary research initiative to develop technology for prediction, detection, and mapping of naturally fractured gas reservoirs. The demonstration of successful seismic techniques to locate subsurface zones of high fracture density and to guide drilling orientation for enhanced fracture permeability will enable better returns on investments in the development of the vast gas reserves held in tight formations beneath the Rocky Mountains. The seismic techniques used in this project were designed to capture the azimuthal anisotropy within the seismic response. This seismic anisotropy is the result of the symmetry in the rock fabric created by aligned fractures and/or unequal horizontal stresses. These results may be compared and related to other lines of evidence to provide cross-validation. The authors undertook investigations along the following lines: Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-wave seismic data; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in a nine-component (P- and S-sources, three-component receivers) vertical seismic profile; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-to-S converted wave seismic data (P-wave source, three-component receivers); and Description of geological and reservoir-engineering data that corroborate the anisotropy: natural fractures observed at the target level and at the surface, estimation of the maximum horizontal stress in situ, and examination of the flow characteristics of the reservoir.

  18. Coal: Long-term prospects remain very good

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerell, P.E. [ed.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Worldwide, it is the most economic and widespread fossil fuel available. The importance of coal will continue to grow to generate enough electricity to meet a rapidly increasing demand for energy. The first sign of a rising standard of living is access to a reliable and plentiful supply of electricity-and that means power generation from coal. The World Energy Conference in Tokyo last October called upon governments to {open_quotes}recognize that fossil fuels are likely to remain cost-competitive against alternatives over the next few decades and are set to play a greater and longer role than is widely thought.{close_quotes} Since coal, of all fossil fuels, has by far the most abundant reserves, this applies especially to coal. The International Energy Agency in Paris predicts a constant increase in the international hard-coal trade. While in 1973 (at the beginning of the first oil price crisis) only 8% of world hard coal produced was traded worldwide, this contribution increased to 11% by 1992 and may even grow to 16% between 1992 and 2010. Regarding volume, this would mean that the international hard-coal trade would more than double in the 18 years to 2010, i.e., from 403M to 852 M mt/yr. The 1995 update of the {open_quotes}Review of World Coal Trade,{close_quotes} published by the U.N. Economic Commission for Europe in Geneva, Switzerland, gives lower but still very considerable growth rate estimates: requirements from 3.508B (1990) to 3.982B mt (2010), production from 3.549B to 3994B mt, imports from 396M to 566M mt, and exports from 395M to 578M mt.

  19. Remaining-life estimation of boiler pressure parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borden, M.P.; Ellis, F.V. (ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, Chattanooga, TN (USA)); Miller, D.A.; Gladwin, D. (National Power, Leatherhead (UK))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the objectives of this project was to determine the effect of prior creep damage on the remaining life of base material and HAZ material subjected to pure fatigue and creep fatigue loading. Life assessment techniques for cyclic loading conditions are required due to the need to two shifts (two shifts on, one shift off) or load-follow for conventional fossil power plant as new nuclear units become available. Described herein are the results of work undertaken at ABB Combustion Engineering Systems in the US and South Western Regional Scientific Services Department and Central Electricity Research Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board in the UK. An interrupted creep testing program was conducted on a single heat of 1Cr--1/2Mo steel to produce creep damaged or pre-crept material for the pure fatigue and creep-fatigue test programs. Metallographic examination of the pre-crept material revealed the primary creep damage mechanism was thermal softening for the base material and creep cavitation for the HAZ material. Creep rupture properties were measured for the virgin, aged, and pre-crept materials at the creep-fatigue test temperature of 535{degree}C to aid in interpretation of the effect of prior creep on creep-fatigue life. Creep-fatigue life prediction was performed using the linear life fraction rule, stress based and strain-based life fraction approaches. The remanent creep-fatigue of the HAZ material can be predicted by conducting a linear summation of creep life fraction and creep-fatigue life fraction. This approach is not applicable for base material. The life fraction method of predicting the as-received creep-fatigue endurance data based on a ductility exhaustion approach gave better prediction than a stress based approach. The implications of the current project results are discussed in terms of developing an assessment procedure for determining the creep-fatigue life of elevated temperature components. 21 refs., 54 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Help for declining natural gas production seen in the unconventional sources of natural gas. [Eastern shales, tight sands, coal beds, geopressured zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staats, E.B.

    1980-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil imports could be reduced and domestic gas production increased if additional gas production is obtained from four unconventional resources-eastern Devonian shales, tight sands, coal beds, and geopressured zones. Gas produced from these resources can help maintain overall production levels as supplies from conventional gas sources gradually decline. The eastern shales and western sands are the chief potential contributors in the near term. Further demonstrations of coal bed methane's recovery feasibility could improve the prospects for its production while future geopressured methane production remains speculative at this time.

  1. Numerical Modeling of Fractured Shale-Gas and Tight-Gas Reservoirs Using Unstructured Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olorode, Olufemi Morounfopefoluwa

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Various models featuring horizontal wells with multiple induced fractures have been proposed to characterize flow behavior over time in tight gas and shale gas systems. Currently, there is little consensus regarding the effects of non...

  2. Study of Multi-scale Transport Phenomena in Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoir Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Craig Matthew

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    . In this work we contribute a numerical model which captures multicomponent desorption, diffusion, and phase behavior in ultra-tight rocks. We also describe a workflow for incorporating measured gas composition data into modern production analysis....

  3. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  4. Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maria Cecilia Bravo

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.

  5. Solar Reflectance Index Calculator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYouof Energy Projects to ReduceReflectance

  6. Evaluation and Effect of Fracturing Fluids on Fracture Conductivity in Tight Gas Reservoirs Using Dynamic Fracture Conductivity Test 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Correa Castro, Juan

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    EVALUATION AND EFFECT OF FRACTURING FLUIDS ON FRACTURE CONDUCTIVITY IN TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS USING DYNAMIC FRACTURE CONDUCTIVITY TEST A Thesis by JUAN CARLOS CORREA CASTRO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... in Tight Gas Reservoirs Using Dynamic Fracture Conductivity Test Copyright 2011 Juan Carlos Correa Castro EVALUATION AND EFFECT OF FRACTURING FLUIDS ON FRACTURE CONDUCTIVITY IN TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS USING DYNAMIC FRACTURE CONDUCTIVITY TEST A...

  7. 3-DIMENSIONAL GEOMECHANICAL MODELING OF A TIGHT GAS RESERVOIR, RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3-DIMENSIONAL GEOMECHANICAL MODELING OF A TIGHT GAS RESERVOIR, RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO by Kurtis R. Wikel #12;ii #12;iii ABSTRACT An integrated 3-dimensional geomechanical model have used the predictive geomechanical model to compare production and effective stress change

  8. Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Regulations while Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission and the oil & gas industries. The combustion system used in Solar's products are discussed along- bility for the introduction of new combustion systems for gas turbine products to enhance fuel

  9. Pricing the American Put Using A New Class of Tight Lower Bounds Malik Magdon-Ismail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdon-Ismail, Malik

    , and an important issue is the trade off between the pricing accuracy and the computational cost. Our approachPricing the American Put Using A New Class of Tight Lower Bounds Malik Magdon-Ismail Department of lower bounds for the price of the American put option on a dividend paying stock when the stock follows

  10. Permeability Estimation from Fracture Calibration Test Analysis in Shale and Tight Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Han 1988-

    2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    to these two tests, a step-rate test is sometimes conducted before a mini-fracture test to determine fracture extension pressure. (Figure 2. 1) In tight gas or shale gas formation the short and low rate injection-fall off test using slick water as injection...

  11. Analysis of Thermoelectric Properties of Scaled Silicon Nanowires Using an Atomistic Tight-Binding Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Analysis of Thermoelectric Properties of Scaled Silicon Nanowires Using an Atomistic Tight Abstract Low dimensional materials provide the possibility of improved thermoelectric performance due. As a result of suppressed phonon conduction, large improvements on the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT

  12. Quantum confined Stark effect in Gaussian quantum wells: A tight-binding study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramírez-Morales, A.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad Esquina Con Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main characteristics of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) are studied theoretically in quantum wells of Gaussian profile. The semi-empirical tight-binding model and the Green function formalism are applied in the numerical calculations. A comparison of the QCSE in quantum wells with different kinds of confining potential is presented.

  13. Disordered graphene and boron nitride in a microwave tight-binding analogue S. Barkhofen,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Disordered graphene and boron nitride in a microwave tight-binding analogue S. Barkhofen,1 M Sophia-Antipolis, 06108 Nice, France (Dated: December 20, 2012) Experiments on hexagonal graphene of the high flexibility of the discs positions, consequences of the disorder introduced in the graphene

  14. Results from Tight and Loose Coupled Multiphysics in Nuclear Fuels Performance Simulations using BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. R. Novascone; B. W. Spencer; D. Andrs; R. L. Williamson; J. D. Hales; D. M. Perez

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of nuclear fuel in the reactor environment is affected by multiple physics, most notably heat conduction and solid mechanics, which can have a strong influence on each other. To provide credible solutions, a fuel performance simulation code must have the ability to obtain solutions for each of the physics, including coupling between them. Solution strategies for solving systems of coupled equations can be categorized as loosely-coupled, where the individual physics are solved separately, keeping the solutions for the other physics fixed at each iteration, or tightly coupled, where the nonlinear solver simultaneously drives down the residual for each physics, taking into account the coupling between the physics in each nonlinear iteration. In this paper, we compare the performance of loosely and tightly coupled solution algorithms for thermomechanical problems involving coupled thermal and mechanical contact, which is a primary source of interdependence between thermal and mechanical solutions in fuel performance models. The results indicate that loosely-coupled simulations require significantly more nonlinear iterations, and may lead to convergence trouble when the thermal conductivity of the gap is too small. We also apply the tightly coupled solution strategy to a nuclear fuel simulation of an experiment in a test reactor. Studying the results from these simulations indicates that perhaps convergence for either approach may be problem dependent, i.e., there may be problems for which a loose coupled approach converges, where tightly coupled won’t converge and vice versa.

  15. Using multi-layer models to forecast gas flow rates in tight gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerez Vera, Sergio Armando

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    , and (2) to use the single-layer match to demonstrate the error that can occur when forecasting long-term gas production for such complex gas reservoirs. A finite-difference reservoir simulator was used to simulate gas production from various layered tight...

  16. Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maria Cecilia Bravo; Mariano Gurfinkel

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying possible relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. Based on a critical review of the available literature, a better understanding of the main weaknesses of the current state of the art of modeling and simulation for tight sand reservoirs has been reached. Progress has been made in the development and implementation of a simple reservoir simulator that is still able to overcome some of the deficiencies detected. The simulator will be used to quantify the impact of microscopic phenomena in the macroscopic behavior of tight sand gas reservoirs. Phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization are being considered as part of this study. To date, the adequate modeling of gas slippage in porous media has been determined to be of great relevance in order to explain unexpected fluid flow behavior in tight sand reservoirs.

  17. Efficiency and Fluctuation in Tight-Coupling Model of Molecular Motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hidetsugu Sakaguchi

    2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple tight-coupling model of a molecular chemical engine is proposed. The efficiency of the chemical engine and its average velocity can be explicitly calculated. The diffusion constant is evaluated approximately using the fluctuation theorem. Langevin simulations with stochastic boundary conditions are performed and the numerical results are compared with theoretical calculations.

  18. Monte-Carlo simulation of the tight-binding model of graphene with partially screened Coulomb interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominik Smith; Lorenz von Smekal

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on Hybrid-Monte-Carlo simulations of the tight-binding model with long-range Coulomb interactions for the electronic properties of graphene. We investigate the spontaneous breaking of sublattice symmetry corresponding to a transition from the semimetal to an antiferromagnetic insulating phase. Our short-range interactions thereby include the partial screening due to electrons in higher energy states from ab initio calculations based on the constrained random phase approximation [T.O.Wehling {\\it et al.}, Phys.Rev.Lett.{\\bf 106}, 236805 (2011)]. In contrast to a similar previous Monte-Carlo study [M.V.Ulybyshev {\\it et al.}, Phys.Rev.Lett.{\\bf 111}, 056801 (2013)] we also include a phenomenological model which describes the transition to the unscreened bare Coulomb interactions of graphene at half filling in the long-wavelength limit. Our results show, however, that the critical coupling for the antiferromagnetic Mott transition is largely insensitive to the strength of these long-range Coulomb tails. They hence confirm the prediction that suspended graphene remains in the semimetal phase when a realistic static screening of the Coulomb interactions is included.

  19. Benchmarking of Graphite Reflected Critical Assemblies of UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments were carried out in 1963 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for use in space reactor research programs. A core containing 93.2% enriched UO2 fuel rods was used in these experiments. The first part of the experimental series consisted of 253 tightly-packed fuel rods (1.27 cm triangular pitch) with graphite reflectors [1], the second part used 253 graphite-reflected fuel rods organized in a 1.506 cm triangular pitch [2], and the final part of the experimental series consisted of 253 beryllium-reflected fuel rods with a 1.506 cm triangular pitch. [3] Fission rate distribution and cadmium ratio measurements were taken for all three parts of the experimental series. Reactivity coefficient measurements were taken for various materials placed in the beryllium reflected core. The first part of this experimental series has been evaluated for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [4] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbooks, [5] and is discussed below. These experiments are of interest as benchmarks because they support the validation of compact reactor designs with similar characteristics to the design parameters for a space nuclear fission surface power systems. [6

  20. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, T.C.

    1986-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

  1. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Thomas C. (Raleigh, NC)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

  2. Photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors at room and cryogenic temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Farsi; Mario Siciliani de Cumis; Francesco Marino; Francesco Marin

    2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing requirements in the sensitivity of interferometric measurements is a common feature of several research fields, from gravitational wave detection to quantum optics. This motivates refined studies of high reflectivity mirrors and of noise sources that are tightly related to their structure. In this work we present an experimental characterization of photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors, i.e., of the variations in the position of their effective reflection plane due to weak residual power absorption. The measurements are performed by modulating the impinging power in the range 10 Hz $\\div$ 100 kHz. The experimental results are compared with an expressly derived theoretical model in order to fully understand the phenomena and exploit them to extract useful effective thermo-mechanical parameters of the coating. The measurements are extended at cryogenic temperature, where most high sensitivity experiments are performed (or planned in future versions) and where characterizations of dielectric film coatings are still poor.

  3. Concise and Tight Security Analysis of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 Protocol with Finite Key Lengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masahito Hayashi; Toyohiro Tsurumaru

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a tight security analysis of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol taking into account the finite size effect of key distillation, and achieving unconditional security. We begin by presenting a concise analysis utilizing the normal approximation of the hypergeometric function. Then next we show that a similarly tight bound can also be obtained by a rigorous argument without relying on any approximation. In particular, for the convenience of experimentalists who wish to evaluate the security of their QKD systems, we also give explicit procedures of our key distillation, and also show how to calculate the secret key rate and the security parameter from a given set of experimental parameters. Besides the exact values of key rates and security parameters, we also present how to obtain their rough estimates using the normal approximation.

  4. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the quarterly report dated January 1-March 31, 1997 for the Naturally Fractured Tight Gas Reservoir Detection Optimization project. Topics covered in this report include AVOA modeling using paraxial ray tracing, AVOA modeling for gas- and water-filled fractures, 3-D and 3-C processing, and technology transfer material. Several presentations from a Geophysical Applications Workshop workbook, workshop schedule, and list of workshop attendees are also included.

  5. Tight bound on the coherent-state quantum key distribution with heterodyne detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lodewyck, Jerome [Thales Research and Technologies, RD 128, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique, CNRS, UMR 8501, Campus Universitaire, Batiment 503, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France); Grangier, Philippe [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique, CNRS, UMR 8501, Campus Universitaire, Batiment 503, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an upper bound for the eavesdropper's information in the direct and reverse reconciliated coherent states quantum key distribution protocols with heterodyne detection. This bound is derived by maximizing the leaked information over the symplectic group of transformations that spans every physical Gaussian attack on individual pulses. We exhibit four different attacks that reach this bound, which shows that this bound is tight. Finally, we compare the secret key rate obtained with this bound to the homodyne rate.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF INFILL DRILLING IN NATURALLY-FRACTURED TIGHT-GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence W. Teufel; Her-Yuan Chen; Thomas W. Engler; Bruce Hart

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major goal of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fossil energy program is to increase gas reserves in tight-gas reservoirs. Infill drilling and hydraulic fracture stimulation in these reservoirs are important reservoir management strategies to increase production and reserves. Phase II of this DOE/cooperative industry project focused on optimization of infill drilling and evaluation of hydraulic fracturing in naturally-fractured tight-gas reservoirs. The cooperative project involved multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and simulation studies to determine infill well potential in the Mesaverde and Dakota sandstone formations at selected areas in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. This work used the methodology and approach developed in Phase I. Integrated reservoir description and hydraulic fracture treatment analyses were also conducted in the Pecos Slope Abo tight-gas reservoir in southeastern New Mexico and the Lewis Shale in the San Juan Basin. This study has demonstrated a methodology to (1) describe reservoir heterogeneities and natural fracture systems, (2) determine reservoir permeability and permeability anisotropy, (3) define the elliptical drainage area and recoverable gas for existing wells, (4) determine the optimal location and number of new in-fill wells to maximize economic recovery, (5) forecast the increase in total cumulative gas production from infill drilling, and (6) evaluate hydraulic fracture simulation treatments and their impact on well drainage area and infill well potential. Industry partners during the course of this five-year project included BP, Burlington Resources, ConocoPhillips, and Williams.

  7. Simultaneous imaging/reflectivity measurements to assess diagnostic mirror cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, C. H.; Gentile, C. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Doerner, R. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We describe a technique to assess the efficacy of mirror cleaning techniques and detect any damage to the mirror surface. The method combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements in the red, green, and blue spectral regions and at selected wavelengths. The method has been applied to laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150-420 nm thick. It is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber.

  8. acromegaly remains under-recognized: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bees 144 Voices from the Small Cinemas: Beyond the Remaining Countries University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: This introduction to a special volume dedicated to...

  9. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  10. An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries Peng cycle-life tends to shrink significantly. The capacities of commercial lithium-ion batteries fade by 10 prediction model to estimate the remaining capacity of a Lithium-Ion battery. The proposed analytical model

  11. PREDICTION OF REMAINING LIFE OF POWER TRANSFORMERS BASED ON LEFT TRUNCATED AND RIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PREDICTION OF REMAINING LIFE OF POWER TRANSFORMERS BASED ON LEFT TRUNCATED AND RIGHT CENSORED of the remaining life of high-voltage power transform- ers is an important issue for energy companies because of the need for planning maintenance and capital expenditures. Lifetime data for such transformers

  12. Fish remains (Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii) from the Late Cretaceous of1 the Benue Trough, Nigeria2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish remains (Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii) from the Late Cretaceous of1 the Benue Trough address: romain.vullo@univ-rennes1.fr9 10 Abstract11 Selachian and ray-finned fish remains from various Cenomanian­early Turonian and25 Maastrichtian) created opportunities for the dispersal of many marine fish

  13. Ultrasonic flowmetering with reflected pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyle, David C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter was tested with two different reflected pulse trajectories in flowing air at ambient conditions against an orifice meter. The flowmeter was designed to be highly accurate, to require ...

  14. Study of Flow Regimes in Multiply-Fractured Horizontal Wells in Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoir Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Craig M.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Various analytical, semi-analytical, and empirical models have been proposed to characterize rate and pressure behavior as a function of time in tight/shale gas systems featuring a horizontal well with multiple hydraulic fractures. Despite a small...

  15. Study of Flow Regimes in Multiply-Fractured Horizontal Wells in Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoir Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Craig M.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Various analytical, semi-analytical, and empirical models have been proposed to characterize rate and pressure behavior as a function of time in tight/shale gas systems featuring a horizontal well with multiple hydraulic fractures. Despite a small...

  16. The effects of fracture fluid cleanup upon the analysis of pressure buildup tests in tight gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Atle Thomas

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECTS OF FRACTURE FLUID CLEANUP UPON THE ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE BUILDUP TESTS IN TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ATLE THOMAS JOHANSEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECTS OF FRACTURE FLUID CLEANUP UPON THE ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE BUILDUP TESTS IN TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ATLE THOMAS JOHANSEN Approved...

  17. Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Tight Western Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedel, E.F.; Cowan, C.E.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a study to identify and evaluate potential public health and safety problems and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Tight Western Sands are reported. A brief discussion of economic and technical constraints to development of this resource is also presented to place the environmental and safety issues in perspective. A description of the resource base, recovery techniques, and possible environmental effects associated with tight gas sands is presented.

  18. Tight bounds on the size of neural networks for classification problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beiu, V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pauw, T. de [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Dept. de Mathematique

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper relies on the entropy of a data-set (i.e., number-of-bits) to prove tight bounds on the size of neural networks solving a classification problem. First, based on a sequence of geometrical steps, the authors constructively compute an upper bound of O(mn) on the number-of-bits for a given data-set - here m is the number of examples and n is the number of dimensions (i.e., R{sup n}). This result is used further in a nonconstructive way to bound the size of neural networks which correctly classify that data-set.

  19. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes progress in the following five projects: (1) Geologic assessment of the Piceance Basin; (2) Regional stratigraphic studies, Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, southern Piceance Basin, Colorado; (3) Structurally controlled and aligned tight gas reservoir compartmentalization in the San Juan and Piceance Basins--Foundation for a new approach to exploration and resource assessments of continuous type deposits; (4) Delineation of Piceance Basin basement structures using multiple source data--Implications for fractured reservoir exploration; and (5) Gas and water-saturated conditions in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado--Implications for fractured reservoir detection in a gas-centered coal basin.

  20. Gas-Tight Sealing Method for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof EnergyFunding OpportunityF GGaryPortal Gas-Tight

  1. Current Size and Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This report contains information on Current Size and Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program."

  2. Comparative analysis of remaining oil saturation in waterflood patterns based on analytical modeling and simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azimov, Anar Etibar

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In assessing the economic viability of a waterflood project, a key parameter is the remaining oil saturation (ROS) within each pattern unit. This information helps in identifying the areas with the highest ROS and thus ...

  3. Taphonomy of the faunal remains of a rural roman farmsite, San Giovanni di Ruoti, Italy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter, Cristi Assad

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hunter, B. A. , California State University at Sacramento Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. D. Gentry Steele The faunal remains from a rural Roman farmsite, San Giovanni di Ruoti, Italy, were used to perform a taphonomic analysis. The goal... remains. The taphonomic analysis included examination of the pig skeletal element representation, identification of the specific agents that modify bone, identification of the butchering techniques used at the site, and documentation of possible...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: reflected optical wave

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reflected optical wave New Sandia Mirror Isn't Shiny: Instead It Reflects Infrared Light Using a Metamaterial On December 12, 2014, in Capabilities, Materials Science, News, News &...

  5. Leak-Tight Welding Experience from the Industrial Assembly of the LHC Cryostats at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourcey, N; Chiggiato, P; Limon, P; Mongelluzzo, A; Musso, G; Poncet, A; Parma, V

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The assembly of the approximately 1700 LHC main ring cryostats at CERN involved extensive welding of cryogenic lines and vacuum vessels. More than 6 km of welding requiring leak tightness to a rate better than 1.10-9 mbar.l.s-1 on stainless steel and aluminium piping and envelopes was made, essentially by manual welding but also making use of orbital welding machines. In order to fulfil the safety regulations related to pressure vessels and to comply with the leak-tightness requirements of the vacuum systems of the machine, welds were executed according to high qualification standards and following a severe quality assurance plan. Leak detection by He mass spectrometry was extensively used. Neon leak detection was used successfully to locate leaks in the presence of helium backgrounds. This paper presents the quality assurance strategy adopted for welds and leak detection. It presents the statistics of non-conformities on welds and leaks detected throughout the entire production and the advances in the use...

  6. December2010 AboutReflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    in the student-nominated category. In addition we focus on a range of innovations in teaching, learning of Reflections, the newsletter which focuses on teaching, learning and assessment in Queen's and more generally and this time focused on Increasing Students' Satisfaction in the context of the National Student Survey (NSS

  7. Multiple reflection solar energy absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, W.L.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting solar energy into heat energy thereby generating power is described comprising the steps: (a) focusing said solar energy by means of a primary concentrator, (b) concentrating said solar energy from said primary concentrator by means of a secondary concentrator located at the focal point of said primary concentrator, (c) slowing the flux of said solar energy from said secondary concentrator by means of a multiple reflection chamber attached to the rear aperture of the secondary concentrator, (d) circulating a working fluid by means of a working fluid delivery tube into said secondary concentrator and said multiple reflection chamber, (e) absorbing said solar energy into said working fluid by means of an ultra high concentration of said solar energy in said multiple reflection chamber, (f) insulating said working fluid by means of a surrounding thermal barrier, (g) exhausting the heat working fluid by means as of a nozzle joined to said multiple reflection chamber, (h) replacing said working fluid by means of a working fluid delivery tube, thereby completing a cycle for generating power.

  8. Characterization of Tight Gas Reservoir Pore Structure Using USANS/SANS and Gas Adsorption Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarkson, Christopher R [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Agamalian, Michael [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey; Bustin, Mark [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small-angle and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (SANS and USANS) measurements were performed on samples from the Triassic Montney tight gas reservoir in Western Canada in order to determine the applicability of these techniques for characterizing the full pore size spectrum and to gain insight into the nature of the pore structure and its control on permeability. The subject tight gas reservoir consists of a finely laminated siltstone sequence; extensive cementation and moderate clay content are the primary causes of low permeability. SANS/USANS experiments run at ambient pressure and temperature conditions on lithologically-diverse sub-samples of three core plugs demonstrated that a broad pore size distribution could be interpreted from the data. Two interpretation methods were used to evaluate total porosity, pore size distribution and surface area and the results were compared to independent estimates derived from helium porosimetry (connected porosity) and low-pressure N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption (accessible surface area and pore size distribution). The pore structure of the three samples as interpreted from SANS/USANS is fairly uniform, with small differences in the small-pore range (< 2000 {angstrom}), possibly related to differences in degree of cementation, and mineralogy, in particular clay content. Total porosity interpreted from USANS/SANS is similar to (but systematically higher than) helium porosities measured on the whole core plug. Both methods were used to estimate the percentage of open porosity expressed here as a ratio of connected porosity, as established from helium adsorption, to the total porosity, as estimated from SANS/USANS techniques. Open porosity appears to control permeability (determined using pressure and pulse-decay techniques), with the highest permeability sample also having the highest percentage of open porosity. Surface area, as calculated from low-pressure N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption, is significantly less than surface area estimates from SANS/USANS, which is due in part to limited accessibility of the gases to all pores. The similarity between N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}-accessible surface area suggests an absence of microporosity in these samples, which is in agreement with SANS analysis. A core gamma ray profile run on the same core from which the core plug samples were taken correlates to profile permeability measurements run on the slabbed core. This correlation is related to clay content, which possibly controls the percentage of open porosity. Continued study of these effects will prove useful in log-core calibration efforts for tight gas.

  9. Nonhyperbolic reflection moveout for orthorhombic media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Dajani, A.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflection moveout in azimuthally anisotropic media is not only azimuthally dependent but it is also

  10. Material Aging and Degradation Detection and Remaining Life Assessment for Plant Life Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Henager, Charles H.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Pitman, Stan G.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the major factors that may impact long term operations is structural material degradation, Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined, and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided.

  11. Unconventional gas sources. Executive summary. [Coal seams, Devonian shale, geopressured brines, tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The long lead time required for conversion from oil or gas to coal and for development of a synthetic fuel industry dictates that oil and gas must continue to supply the United States with the majority of its energy requirements over the near term. In the interim period, the nation must seek a resource that can be developed quickly, incrementally, and with as few environmental concerns as possible. One option which could potentially fit these requirements is to explore for, drill, and produce unconventional gas: Devonian Shale gas, coal seam gas, gas dissolved in geopressured brines, and gas from tight reservoirs. This report addresses the significance of these sources and the economic and technical conditions under which they could be developed.

  12. Geologic and production characteristics of the Tight Mesaverde Group: Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myal, F.R.; Price, E.H.; Hill, R.E.; Kukal, G.C.; Abadie, P.A.; Riecken, C.C.

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mesaverde Group of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado has been a pilot study area for government-sponsored tight gas sand research for over 20 years. This study provides a critical comparison of the geologic, production and reservoir characteristics of existing Mesaverde gas producing areas within the basin to those same characteristics at the MWX site near Rifle, Colorado. As will be discussed, the basin has been partitioned into three areas having similar geologic and production characteristics. Stimulation techniques have been reviewed for each partitioned area to determine the most effective stimulation technique currently used in the Mesaverde. This study emphasizes predominantly the southern Piceance Basin because of the much greater production and geologic data there. There may be Mesaverde gas production in northern areas but because of the lack of production and relatively few penetrations, the northern Piceance Basin was not included in the detailed parts of this study. 54 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Demonstration of a memory for tightly guided light in an optical nanofiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Gouraud; D. Maxein; A. Nicolas; O. Morin; J. Laurat

    2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the experimental observation of slow-light and coherent storage in a setting where light is tightly confined in the transverse directions. By interfacing a tapered optical nanofiber with a cold atomic ensemble, electromagnetically induced transparency is observed and light pulses at the single-photon level are stored in and retrieved from the atomic medium with an overall efficiency of (10 +/- 0.5) %. Collapses and revivals can be additionally controlled by an applied magnetic field. Our results based on subdiffraction-limited optical mode interacting with atoms via the strong evanescent field demonstrate an alternative to free-space focusing and a novel capability for information storage in an all-fibered quantum network.

  14. Tight Bounds for Influence in Diffusion Networks and Application to Bond Percolation and Epidemiology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemonnier, Remi; Vayatis, Nicolas

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we derive theoretical bounds for the long-term influence of a node in an Independent Cascade Model (ICM). We relate these bounds to the spectral radius of a particular matrix and show that the behavior is sub-critical when this spectral radius is lower than $1$. More specifically, we point out that, in general networks, the sub-critical regime behaves in $O(\\sqrt{n})$ where $n$ is the size of the network, and that this upper bound is met for star-shaped networks. We apply our results to epidemiology and percolation on arbitrary networks, and derive a bound for the critical value beyond which a giant connected component arises. Finally, we show empirically the tightness of our bounds for a large family of networks.

  15. A Simple and Fast Iterative Soft-thresholding Algorithm for Tight Frames in Compressed Sensing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yunsong; Cai, Jian-Feng; Guo, Di; Chen, Zhong; Qu, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compressed sensing has shown great potentials in accelerating magnetic resonance imaging. Fast image reconstruction and high image quality are two main issues faced by this new technology. It has been shown that, redundant image representations, e.g. tight frames, can significantly improve the image quality. But how to efficiently solve the reconstruction problem with these redundant representation systems is still challenging. This paper attempts to address the problem of applying fast iterative soft-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) to tight frames based magnetic resonance image reconstruction. By introducing the canonical dual frame, we construct an orthogonal projection operator on the range of the analysis sparsity operator and propose a new algorithm, called the projected FISTA (pFISTA). We theoretically prove that pFISTA converges to the minimum of a function with a balanced tight frame sparsity. One major advantage of pFISTA is that only one extra parameter, the step size, is introduced and the numerical...

  16. Appraisal of the tight sands potential of the Sand Wash and Great Divide Basins. Final report, June 1989--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The volume of future tight gas reserve additions is difficult to estimate because of uncertainties in the characterization and extent of the resource and the performance and cost-effectiveness of stimulation and production technologies. Ongoing R&D by industry and government aims to reduce the risks and costs of producing these tight resources, increase the certainty of knowledge of their geologic characteristics and extent, and increase the efficiency of production technologies. Some basins expected to contain large volumes of tight gas are being evaluated as to their potential contribution to domestic gas supplies. This report describes the results of one such appraisal. This analysis addresses the tight portions of the Eastern Greater Green River Basin (Sand Wash and Great Divide Subbasins in Northwestern Colorado and Southwestern Wyoming, respectively), with respect to estimated gas-in-place, technical recovery, and potential reserves. Geological data were compiled from public and proprietary sources. The study estimated gas-in-place in significant (greater than 10 feet net sand thickness) tight sand intervals for six distinct vertical and 21 areal units of analysis. These units of analysis represent tight gas potential outside current areas of development. For each unit of analysis, a ``typical`` well was modeled to represent the costs, recovery and economics of near-term drilling prospects in that unit. Technically recoverable gas was calculated using reservoir properties and assumptions about current formation evaluation and extraction technology performance. Basin-specific capital and operating costs were incorporated along with taxes, royalties and current regulations to estimate the minimum required wellhead gas price required to make the typical well in each of unit of analysis economic.

  17. Power Outage 1. Remain Calm; provide assistance to others if necessary.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Power Outage 1. Remain Calm; provide assistance to others if necessary. 2. Report the outage, call. Campus-wide telephone communications will continue to operate during a power outage on standard phones. If emergency assistance is required, call UC Security on Extn 6111 and state "POWEr OUTAgE" or mobile 0800 823

  18. Prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in men in the United States, with an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    Prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in men in the United States, with an estimated of death from cancer in men, with 33,720 estimated deaths (11% of all estimated deaths) in 2011 (REF. 1-year relative survival rate is essentially 100% based on 2001­2007 statistics2 . However, for patients

  19. A Bayesian Prognostic Algorithm for Assessing Remaining Useful Life of Nuclear Power Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dixit, Mukul; Henager, Charles H.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A central issue in life extension for the current fleet of light water nuclear power reactors is the early detection and monitoring of significant materials degradation. To meet this need nondestructive measurement methods that are suitable for on-line, continuous, in-plant monitoring over extended time periods (months to years) are needed. A related issue is then, based on a condition assessment or degradation trend, to have the ability to estimate the remaining useful life based of components, structures and systems based on the available materials degradation information. Such measurement and modeling methods form the basis for a new range of advanced diagnostic and prognostic approaches. Prognostic methods that predict remaining life based on large crack growth, and phenomena that can be described by linear elastic fracture mechanics, have been reported by several researchers. The challenge of predicting remaining life for earlier phases of degradation is largely unsolved. Monitoring for early detection of materials degradation requires novel and enhanced sensors and data integration techniques. A recent review has considered the stages of degradation and sensing methods that can potentially be employed to detect and monitor early degradation for nuclear power plant applications. An experimental assessment of selected diagnostic techniques was also reported recently. However, the estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) determined from nondestructive diagnostic measurements for early degradation is still an unsolved problem. This present paper will discuss the application of Bayesian prognostic algorithms applied to the early degradation- life problem.

  20. `TVLSI-00029-2003.R1 An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    . Reference [7] studied the battery discharge efficiency under different loading conditions and approximated`TVLSI-00029-2003.R1 1 An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries Peng Rong, Student Member, IEEE and Massoud Pedram, Fellow, IEEE Abstract -- Predicting

  1. Grantee Performance Required to Release the Hold on Remaining 50% of Obligated Recovery Act Funds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization Assistance Program Notice 10-05 deals with performance requirements for program grantees?states and U.S. territories?to receive the remaining 50% of obligated funds under the 2009 American Reinvestment and Recovery Act.

  2. Reflections of Harry J. Longwell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Jacqueline

    skills, has remained with me throughout my career. My first mentor at Exxon, then Humble Oil and Refining very similar to that found in the petroleum industry. Consequently, after graduation, I was well technical education and the excellent reputation in the petroleum industry which its graduates have produced

  3. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greitzer, Frank L. (Richland, WA); Kangas, Lars J. (West Richland, WA); Terrones, Kristine M. (Los Alamos, NM); Maynard, Melody A. (Richland, WA); Pawlowski, Ronald A. (West Richland, WA), Ferryman; Thomas A. (Richland, WA); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA); Wilson, Bary W. (Coconut Creek, FL)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  4. Thermoelectric Properties of Scaled Silicon Nanowires Using the s*-SO Atomistic Tight-Binding Model and Boltzmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Thermoelectric Properties of Scaled Silicon Nanowires Using the sp3 d5 s*-SO Atomistic Tight|kosina}@iue.tuwien.ac.at Abstract As a result of suppressed phonon conduction, large improvements of the thermoelectric figure, the Seebeck coefficient, and the thermoelectric power factor. We examine n-type nanowires of diameters of 3nm

  5. Dirac Point and Edge States in a Microwave Realization of Tight-Binding Graphene-like Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Dirac Point and Edge States in a Microwave Realization of Tight-Binding Graphene-like Structures U-binding graphene-like structures. The structures are realized using disks with a high index of refraction properties, mechan- ically as electronically. Another realization is graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope

  6. Stability of polycrystalline and wurtzite Si nanowires via symmetry-adapted tight-binding objective molecular dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumitrica,Traian

    Stability of polycrystalline and wurtzite Si nanowires via symmetry-adapted tight-binding objective polycrystalline of fivefold symmetry and the wurtzite wires of threefold symmetry are the most favorable quasi only low-energy 001 Si sur- faces. In another recent study,10 wurtzite NWs with hexago- nal cross

  7. Reflectance Function Approximation for Material Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Charles R.

    Reflectance Function Approximation for Material Classification Edward Wild CS 766 Final Project This report summarizes the results of a project to approximate reflectance functions and classify materials to classify materials. Classification algorithms are proposed to deal with unseen materials. Experimental

  8. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions called symbols. Generali* *zing this, we define Green functions associated to complex reflection

  9. Reflective equilibrium and the 'moral conservatism' objection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandler, James Robert

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflective equilibrium is widely accepted as a method of justifying ethical beliefs. Narrow reflective equilibrium justifies moral beliefs by achieving coherence between moral principles and moral judgments. However, this theory has been accused...

  10. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  11. April 22, 2010 Seismic Reflection VI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    4/21/2010 1 GG450 April 22, 2010 Seismic Reflection VI Data Interpretation II Today's material section Chrono- stratigraphic section Relations of strata to boundaries of a depositional sequence Seismic stratigraphic reflection terminations within an idealized seismic sequence Reflection configurations #12

  12. The Exact Form of the Green's Function of the Hückel (Tight Binding) Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramis Movassagh; Yuta Tsuji; Roald Hoffmann

    2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The applications of the H\\"uckel (tight binding) model are ubiquitous in quantum chemistry and solid state physics. The matrix representation is isomorphic to an unoriented vertex adjacency matrix of a bipartite graph, which is also the Laplacian matrix plus twice the identity. In this paper, we analytically calculate the determinant and, when it exists, the inverse of this matrix in connection with the Green's function, $\\mathbf{G}$, of the $N\\times N$ H\\"uckel matrix for linear chains and cyclic systems. For an open linear chain we prove that $\\mathbf{G}$ is a real symmetric matrix whose entries are $G\\left(r,s\\right)=\\left(-1\\right)^{\\frac{r+s-1}{2}}$ when $ $$r$ is even and $s

  13. A triple origin for the lack of tight coplanar circumbinary planets around short-period binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamers, Adrian S; Zwart, Simon F Portegies

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection of transiting circumbinary planets is more tractable around short-period binaries, however, no such binaries were found with orbits shorter than 7 days. Short-period main sequence binaries have been suggested to form in triple systems, through a combination of secular Kozai-Lidov cycles and tidal friction (KLCTF). Here, we show that coplanar circumbinary transiting planets are unlikely to exist around short-period binaries, due to triple evolution. We use secular analysis, $N$-body simulations and analytic considerations as well as population synthesis models to characterize their overall properties. We find that the existence of a circumbinary planet in a triple is likely to produce one of the following outcomes. (1) Sufficiently massive planets in tight and/or coplanar orbits around the inner binary can partially or completely quench the KL evolution, `shielding' the inner binary from the secular effects of the tertiary, and not allowing the KLCTF process to take place. In this case, the inner bin...

  14. Bounds and phase diagram of efficiency at maximum power for tight-coupling molecular motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. C. Tu

    2013-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency at maximum power (EMP) for tight-coupling molecular motors is investigated within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. It is found that the EMP depends merely on the constitutive relation between the thermodynamic current and force. The motors are classified into four generic types (linear, superlinear, sublinear, and mixed types) according to the characteristics of the constitutive relation, and then the corresponding ranges of the EMP for these four types of molecular motors are obtained. The exact bounds of the EMP are derived and expressed as the explicit functions of the free energy released by the fuel in each motor step. A phase diagram is constructed which clearly shows how the region where the parameters (the load distribution factor and the free energy released by the fuel in each motor step) are located can determine whether the value of the EMP is larger or smaller than 1/2. This phase diagram reveals that motors using ATP as fuel under physiological conditions can work at maximum power with higher efficiency ($>1/2$) for a small load distribution factor ($<0.1$).

  15. warming ocean and changes in currents and mixing? The global carbon cycle is also tightly coupled to the cycles of nutrients and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 warming ocean and changes in currents and mixing? The global carbon cycle is also tightly is a fundamental constituent of life and its global cycle is tightly connected to the habitability of our planet an important forcing factor of the global climate, which, on the other hand, controls the sources and sinks

  16. Globular clusters with the extended horizontal-branch as remaining cores of galaxy building blocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young-Wook Lee; Hansung B. Gim; Chul Chung

    2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The relics of building blocks that made stellar halo and bulge are yet to be discovered unless they were completely disrupted throughout the history of the Galaxy. Here we suggest that about 25% of the Milky Way globular clusters have characteristics of the remaining cores of these early building blocks rather than genuine star clusters. They are clearly distinct from other normal globular clusters in the presence of extended horizontal-branch and multiple stellar populations, in mass (brightness), and most importantly in orbital kinematics. Based on this result, a three-stage formation picture of the Milky Way is suggested, which includes early mergers, collapse, and later accretion.

  17. Crack closure effects on fatigue crack growth thresholds and remaining life in an HSLA steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, J.A.; Mostovoy, S. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering; Chen, L. [Texas Instruments, Attleboro, MA (United States); Yankov, E.Y. [A. Finkl and Sons, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of crack closure on the near-threshold corrosion fatigue crack growth behavior of Mil S-24645 HSLA steel and its weld metal have been investigated in air, ASTM seawater at the free corrosion potential, and ASTM seawater at {minus}0.8V and {minus}1.0V (SCE) using frequencies of 10, 2, and 0.2 Hz, and a stress ratio, R = 0.1. Remaining life, in the presence and absence of crack closure, has been estimated as a function of applied stress range for a structure containing a 3-mm-deep surface semi-elliptical flaw.

  18. A little rain doesn't fix it: Farmers and ranchers remain cautious as drought continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisek, Danielle

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A little rain doesn?t fix it Farmers and ranchers remain cautious as drought continues Summer 2012 tx H2O 11 ] Story by Danielle Kalisek Rains in the Brazos Valley early in 2012 helped this grass green up, but more rains are needed now... to help warm-season grasses. Photo by Danielle Kalisek. This might sound like a broken record, but it still rings true: Last year?s drought was historic the worst one-year drought in Texas? history. #31;ough recent rains in some parts of the state...

  19. MCA 22-3-801 - Human Skeletal Remains and Burial Site Protection Act | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma: EnergyMAREC Jump to: navigation,Remains |

  20. appearance of the remaining chapters. This Flash transmits the first installment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015Visiting Strong,Women @JoinEnergyappearance of the remaining

  1. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  2. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  3. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gin, Stephane [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Dept. of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoda (Japan)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical durability is not a single material property that can be uniquely measured. Instead it is the response to a host of coupled material and environmental processes whose rates are estimated by a combination of theory, experiment, and modeling. High-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is perhaps the most studied of any material yet there remain significant technical gaps regarding their chemical durability. The phenomena affecting the long-term performance of HLW glasses in their disposal environment include surface reactions, transport properties to and from the reacting glass surface, and ion exchange between the solid glass and the surrounding solution and alteration products. The rates of these processes are strongly influenced and are coupled through the solution chemistry, which is in turn influenced by the reacting glass and also by reaction with the near-field materials and precipitation of alteration products. Therefore, those processes must be understood sufficiently well to estimate or bound the performance of HLW glass in its disposal environment over geologic time-scales. This article summarizes the current state of understanding of surface reactions, transport properties, and ion exchange along with the near-field materials and alteration products influences on solution chemistry and glass reaction rates. Also summarized are the remaining technical gaps along with recommended approaches to fill those technical gaps.

  4. Lubrication Oil Condition Monitoring and Remaining Useful Life Prediction with Particle Filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junda Zhu; Jae M. Yoon; David He; Yongzhi Qu; Eric Bechhoefer

    In order to reduce the costs of wind energy, it is necessary to improve the wind turbine availability and reduce the operational and maintenance costs. The reliability and availability of a functioning wind turbine depend largely on the protective properties of the lubrication oil for its drive train subassemblies such as the gearbox and means for lubrication oil condition monitoring and degradation detection. The wind industry currently uses lubrication oil analysis for detecting gearbox and bearing wear but cannot detect the functional failures of the lubrication oils. The main purpose of lubrication oil condition monitoring and degradation detection is to determine whether the oils have deteriorated to such a degree that they no longer fulfill their functions. This paper describes a research on developing online lubrication oil condition monitoring and remaining useful life prediction using particle filtering technique and commercially available online sensors. It first introduces the lubrication oil condition monitoring and degradation detection for wind turbines. Viscosity and dielectric constant are selected as the performance parameters to model the degradation of lubricants. In particular, the lubricant performance evaluation and remaining useful life prediction of degraded lubrication oil with viscosity and dielectric constant data using particle filtering are presented. A simulation study based on lab verified models is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed technique. 1.

  5. Petrophysical Analysis and Geographic Information System for San Juan Basin Tight Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Robert Balch; Tom Engler; Roger Ruan; Shaojie Ma

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project is to increase the availability and ease of access to critical data on the Mesaverde and Dakota tight gas reservoirs of the San Juan Basin. Secondary goals include tuning well log interpretations through integration of core, water chemistry and production analysis data to help identify bypassed pay zones; increased knowledge of permeability ratios and how they affect well drainage and thus infill drilling plans; improved time-depth correlations through regional mapping of sonic logs; and improved understanding of the variability of formation waters within the basin through spatial analysis of water chemistry data. The project will collect, integrate, and analyze a variety of petrophysical and well data concerning the Mesaverde and Dakota reservoirs of the San Juan Basin, with particular emphasis on data available in the areas defined as tight gas areas for purpose of FERC. A relational, geo-referenced database (a geographic information system, or GIS) will be created to archive this data. The information will be analyzed using neural networks, kriging, and other statistical interpolation/extrapolation techniques to fine-tune regional well log interpretations, improve pay zone recognition from old logs or cased-hole logs, determine permeability ratios, and also to analyze water chemistries and compatibilities within the study area. This single-phase project will be accomplished through four major tasks: Data Collection, Data Integration, Data Analysis, and User Interface Design. Data will be extracted from existing databases as well as paper records, then cleaned and integrated into a single GIS database. Once the data warehouse is built, several methods of data analysis will be used both to improve pay zone recognition in single wells, and to extrapolate a variety of petrophysical properties on a regional basis. A user interface will provide tools to make the data and results of the study accessible and useful. The final deliverable for this project will be a web-based GIS providing data, interpretations, and user tools that will be accessible to anyone with Internet access. During this project, the following work has been performed: (1) Assimilation of most special core analysis data into a GIS database; (2) Inventorying of additional data, such as log images or LAS files that may exist for this area; (3) Analysis of geographic distribution of that data to pinpoint regional gaps in coverage; (4) Assessment of the data within both public and proprietary data sets to begin tuning of regional well logging analyses and improve payzone recognition; (5) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort, including data from northwest New Mexico; (6) Acquisition and digitization of logs to create LAS files for a subset of the wells in the special core analysis data set; and (7) Petrophysical analysis of the final set of well logs.

  6. Naturally fractured tight gas: Gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Economically viable natural gas production from the low permeability Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado requires the presence of an intense set of open natural fractures. Establishing the regional presence and specific location of such natural fractures is the highest priority exploration goal in the Piceance and other western US tight, gas-centered basins. Recently, Advanced Resources International, Inc. (ARI) completed a field program at Rulison Field, Piceance Basin, to test and demonstrate the use of advanced seismic methods to locate and characterize natural fractures. This project began with a comprehensive review of the tectonic history, state of stress and fracture genesis of the basin. A high resolution aeromagnetic survey, interpreted satellite and SLAR imagery, and 400 line miles of 2-D seismic provided the foundation for the structural interpretation. The central feature of the program was the 4.5 square mile multi-azimuth 3-D seismic P-wave survey to locate natural fracture anomalies. The interpreted seismic attributes are being tested against a control data set of 27 wells. Additional wells are currently being drilled at Rulison, on close 40 acre spacings, to establish the productivity from the seismically observed fracture anomalies. A similar regional prospecting and seismic program is being considered for another part of the basin. The preliminary results indicate that detailed mapping of fault geometries and use of azimuthally defined seismic attributes exhibit close correlation with high productivity gas wells. The performance of the ten new wells, being drilled in the seismic grid in late 1996 and early 1997, will help demonstrate the reliability of this natural fracture detection and mapping technology.

  7. Why does Low-Luminosity AGN Fueling Remain an Unsolved Problem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Martini

    2004-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite many years of effort, observational studies have not found a strong correlation between the presence of any proposed fueling mechanism and low-luminosity AGN. After a discussion of the mass requirements for fueling, I summarize this observational work and provide a number of hypotheses for why the nature of AGN fueling has remained unresolved. In particular, I stress the potential importance of the increasing number of candidate fueling mechanisms with decreasing mass accretion rate, the relevant spatial scales for different fueling mechanisms, and the lifetime of an individual episode of nuclear accretion. The episodic AGN lifetime is a particularly relevant complication if it is comparable to or shorter than the time that the responsible fueling mechanisms are observationally detectable. I conclude with a number of relatively accessible areas for future investigation.

  8. Spread of highly localized wave-packet in the tight-binding lattice: Entropic and information-theoretical characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuevas, F.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Avenida Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile); Curilef, S., E-mail: scurilef@ucn.cl [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Avenida Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile); Plastino, A.R., E-mail: arplastino@ugr.es [National University La Plata, CREG-UNLP, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Instituto Carlos I, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The spread of a wave-packet (or its deformation) is a very important topic in quantum mechanics. Understanding this phenomenon is relevant in connection with the study of diverse physical systems. In this paper we apply various 'spreading measures' to characterize the evolution of an initially localized wave-packet in a tight-binding lattice, with special emphasis on information-theoretical measures. We investigate the behavior of both the probability distribution associated with the wave packet and the concomitant probability current. Complexity measures based upon Renyi entropies appear to be particularly good descriptors of the details of the delocalization process. - Highlights: > Spread of highly localized wave-packet in the tight-binding lattice. > Entropic and information-theoretical characterization is used to understand the delocalization. > The behavior of both the probability distribution and the concomitant probability current is investigated. > Renyi entropies appear to be good descriptors of the details of the delocalization process.

  9. Detection of terahertz radiation by tightly concatenated InGaAs field-effect transistors integrated on a single chip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popov, V. V., E-mail: popov-slava@yahoo.co.uk [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Saratov Branch), Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov 410019 (Russian Federation); Yermolaev, D. M.; Shapoval, S. Yu. [Institute of Microelectronic Technology and High-Purity Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region 142432 (Russian Federation); Maremyanin, K. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Nizhni Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Zemlyakov, V. E.; Bespalov, V. A.; Yegorkin, V. I. [National Research University of Electronic Technology, Zelenograd, Moscow 124498 (Russian Federation); Maleev, N. A.; Ustinov, V. M. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A tightly concatenated chain of InGaAs field-effect transistors with an asymmetric T-gate in each transistor demonstrates strong terahertz photovoltaic response without using supplementary antenna elements. We obtain the responsivity above 1000?V/W and up to 2000?V/W for unbiased and drain-biased transistors in the chain, respectively, with the noise equivalent power below 10{sup ?11} W/Hz{sup 0.5} in the unbiased mode of the detector operation.

  10. Preliminary design study of small long life boiling water reactor (BWR) with tight lattice thorium nitride fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trianti, Nuri, E-mail: nuri.trianti@gmail.com, E-mail: szaki@fi.itba.c.id; Su'ud, Zaki, E-mail: nuri.trianti@gmail.com, E-mail: szaki@fi.itba.c.id; Arif, Idam, E-mail: nuri.trianti@gmail.com, E-mail: szaki@fi.itba.c.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Bandung Institute of Technology (Ganesha 10 Bandung, Indonesia) (Indonesia); Riyana, EkaSapta [Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutronic performance of small long-life boiling water reactors (BWR) with thorium nitride based fuel has been performed. A recent study conducted on BWR in tight lattice environments (with a lower moderator percentage) produces small power reactor which has some specifications, i.e. 10 years operation time, power density of 19.1 watt/cc and maximum excess reactivity of about 4%. This excess reactivity value is smaller than standard reactivity of conventional BWR. The use of hexagonal geometry on the fuel cell of BWR provides a substantial effect on the criticality of the reactor to obtain a longer operating time. Supported by a tight concept lattice where the volume fraction of the fuel is greater than the moderator and fuel, Thorium Nitride give good results for fuel cell design on small long life BWR. The excess reactivity of the reactor can be reduced with the addition of gadolinium as burnable poisons. Therefore the hexagonal tight lattice fuel cell design of small long life BWR that has a criticality more than 20 years of operating time has been obtained.

  11. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  12. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical project. The main point of preference for the offered reactor is its likely cheapness as a power source. Key words: Micro-thermonuclear reactor, Multi-reflex AB-thermonuclear reactor, Self-magnetic AB-thermonuclear reactor, aerospace thermonuclear engine.

  13. Optimization Online - Constrained optimization in seismic reflection ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Delbos

    2004-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 7, 2004 ... Constrained optimization in seismic reflection tomography: an SQP augmented Lagrangian approach. F. Delbos (Frederic.Delbos ***at*** ifp.fr)

  14. Understanding teacher beliefs with reflective tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karwan, Vanessa Ann

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflective Tools by Vanessa Ann Karwan Doctor of EducationLeadership by Vanessa Ann Karwan Committee in charge:Kathleen Cohn Copyright Vanessa Ann Karwan, 2009 All rights

  15. An Assessment of Uncertainty in Remaining Life Estimation for Nuclear Structural Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Fricke, Jacob M.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, several operating US light-water nuclear power reactors (LWRs) have moved to extended-life operations (from 40 years to 60 years), and there is interest in the feasibility of extending plant life to 80 years. Operating experience suggests that material degradation of structural components in LWRs (such as the reactor pressure vessel) is expected to be the limiting factor for safe operation during extended life. Therefore, a need exists for assessing the condition of LWR structural components and determining its remaining useful life (RUL). The ability to estimate RUL of degraded structural components provides a basis for determining safety margins (i.e., whether safe operation over some pre-determined time horizon is possible), and scheduling degradation management activities (such as potentially modifying operating conditions to limit further degradation growth). A key issue in RUL estimation is calculation of uncertainty bounds, which are dependent on current material state, as well as past and future stressor levels (such as time-at-temperature, pressure, and irradiation). This paper presents a preliminary empirical investigation into the uncertainty of RUL estimates for nuclear structural materials.

  16. Neutron measurements of the fuel remaining in the TMI II once-through steam generators (OTSG'S)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geelhood, B.D.; Abel, K.H.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polypropylene tubes containing a string of 18 copper rods were inserted into the lower head region and each J-leg of the two once-through steam generators (OTSG) of the unit two reactor at Three Mile Island. The object was to measure the neutron flux present in those regions and estimate the amount of residual fuel remaining in each OTSG. The neutron flux from any residual fuel induces a radioisotope, /sup 64/Cu, in the copper coupons. The /sup 64/Cu activity is detected by coincidence counting the two 511-keV gamma rays produced by the annihilation of the positron emitted in the decay of /sup 64/Cu. The copper coupons were placed between two 6-inch diameter, 6-inch long NaI(Tl) crystals and the electronics produced a coincidence count whenever the two gamma rays were uniquely detected. The net coincidence count is proportional to the amount of /sup 64/Cu activity in the coupon. This document discusses calculation methods, statistical methods, and results of this research. 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. The Genome Organization of Thermotoga maritima Reflects Its Lifestyle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latif, Haythem; Lerman, Joshua A.; Portnoy, Vasiliy A.; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Nagarajan, Harish; Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lee, Dae-Hee; Qiu, Yu; Zengler, Karsten

    2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies have revealed that microbial genomes have many more organizational features than previously thought. Here, an integrated approach utilizing multiple ‘omics’ datasets and bioinformatics tools is established that elucidates genomic features spanning various levels of cellular organization. This methodology produces gene annotation improvements and includes the definition of transcription units. These enhancements to the annotation enable identification of a set of genetic elements instrumental to gene expression and regulation including promoters, ribosome binding sites (RBSs) and untranslated regions (UTRs). This was applied to characterize the genome organization of Thermotoga maritima—a phylogenetically deep-branching, hyperthermophilic bacterium with a small 1.86 Mb genome. Analysis derived from this multiomics approach in combination with bioinformatics tools demonstrate that the genome organization of T. maritima reflects its lifestyle, both with respect to its extreme growth temperature and compact genome. Comparative analysis of genome features suggests that thermodynamic limitations on binding kinetics for RNA polymerase and the ribosome necessitate increased sequence conservation of promoters and RBSs. Thus, restricting the sequences capable of initiating transcription and translation. Furthermore, this organism has uncharacteristically short 5’UTRs (11-17 nucleotides), which reduce the potential for 5’UTR regulatory interactions. The short intergenic distances in the T. maritima genome (5 bp on average) leave little space for regulation through transcription factor binding. The net effect of these constraints, temperature and genomic space, is a reduced ability to tune gene expression. This effect is readily apparent in global gene expression patterns, which show a high fraction of genes expressed independent of growth state with a tight, linear mRNA/protein correlation (Pearson r = 0.62, p < 2.2 x 10-16 t-test). This methodology for characterizing the genome organization is applicable to any culturable bacteria, and as similar studies are completed in diverse taxa, comparative analysis of genome features may provide insights into microbial evolution.

  18. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS TOSHIAKI SHOJI Department of Mathematics Science University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278­8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions of classical groups this, we define Green functions associated to complex reflection groups G(e, 1, n), and study

  19. Measurement of Marine Animal Reflectance Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    angular reflectance behavior and point the way toward future studies. Definition of BRDF and REFF of the ridges seen in the enlarged light microscope image of the specimen (shown at right), reflectance exposure images, and combination of three measured wavelengths. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM

  20. Wideband reflectance tympanometry in chinchillas and humansa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Jont

    Wideband reflectance tympanometry in chinchillas and humansa) Robert H. Margolis,b) Saurav Paul reflectance tympanometry was performed on twelve chinchillas ears. The complex input impedance of the middle. The complex impedance of the chinchilla ear has a lower stiffness reactance at low frequencies, a higher mass

  1. Integrated seismic study of naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs. Final report, September 1991--January 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.; Nur, A.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The approach in this project has been to integrate the principles of rock physics into a quantitative processing and interpretation scheme that exploits, where possible, the broader spectrum of fracture zone signatures: (1) anomalous compressional and shear wave velocity; (2) Q and velocity dispersion; (3) increased velocity anisotropy; (4) amplitude vs. offset (AVO) response, and (5) variations in frequency content. As part of this the authors have attempted to refine some of the theoretical rock physics tools that should be applied in any field study to link the observed seismic signatures to the physical/geologic description of the fractured rock. The project had 3 key elements: (1) rock physics studies of the anisotropic viscoelastic signatures of fractured rocks, (2) acquisition and processing of seismic reflection field data, and (3) interpretation of seismic and well log data. The study site is in a producing field operated by Amoco and Arco at the southern boundary of the Powder River basin in Wyoming. During the winter of 1992--1993 the authors collected about 50 km of 9-component reflection seismic data and obtained existing log data from several wells in the vicinity. The paper gives background information on laboratory studies, seismic field studies of fracture anisotropy, and the problem of upscaling from the laboratory to the field. It discusses fluid effects on seismic anisotropy and a method for predicting stress-induced seismic anisotropy. Then results from the field experiment are presented and discussed: regional geologic framework and site description; seismic data acquisition; shear wave data and validation; and P-wave data analysis. 106 refs., 52 figs.

  2. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculated time integrated energy balance term in the 5 thCalculated time integrated energy balance term in the 5 thof air tightness and energy balance Hyung-Mok Kim 1 , Jonny

  3. A proliferation resistant hexagonal tight lattice BWR fueled core for increased burnup and reduced fuel storage requirements. Annual progress report: August, 1999 to July, 2000 [DOE NERI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiroshi Takahashi; Upendra Rohatgi; T.J. Downar

    2000-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    (OAK/B204) A proliferation resistant hexagonal tight lattice BWR fueled core for increased burnup and reduced fuel storage requirements. Annual progress report: August, 1999 to July, 2000 [DOE NERI

  4. Use of bitumen reflectance in hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodarzi, F.; Gentzis, T. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta)

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bitumen is a sensitive indicator of the thermal maturity of sedimentary rocks, particularly in carbonates and lower Paleozoic, where vitrinite is scarce. The optical properties of bitumen (at 546 nm) follow trends similar to those of vitrinite with increasing maturity. However, the following differences exist: (1) bitumen has lower reflectance than vitrinite up to the onset of oil generation, as determined by vitrinite reflectance; (2) reflectance of bitumen follows a higher trend than that of vitrinite at an R{sub 0} level of 1.0% (peak of oil generation). Bitumen reflectance can be converted to vitrinite reflectance using Jacob's formula. In lower Paleozoic rocks (Ordovician and older) bitumen can be used as a thermal indicator for determining the level of maturity with increasing burial depth. There are, however, complexities in the above application because of differentiation between reservoir-migrated and primary bitumen.

  5. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early warning of aging and degradation. Examples of such key indicators include changes in chemical structure, mechanical modulus, and dielectric permittivity. While some of these indicators are the basis of currently used technologies, there is a need to increase the volume of cable that may be inspected with a single measurement, and if possible, to develop techniques for in-situ inspection (i.e., while the cable is in operation). This is the focus of the present report.

  6. CSC418 / CSCD18 / CSC2504 Basic Lighting and Reflection 8 Basic Lighting and Reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    CSC418 / CSCD18 / CSC2504 Basic Lighting and Reflection 8 Basic Lighting and Reflection Up things, on the lighting that illuminates the scene, and on the interaction of light with the objects in the scene. Some of the basic qualitative properties of lighting and object reflectance that we need

  7. Design and Implementation of Energized Fracture Treatment in Tight Gas Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukul Sharma; Kyle Friehauf

    2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydraulic fracturing is essential for producing gas and oil at an economic rate from low permeability sands. Most fracturing treatments use water and polymers with a gelling agent as a fracturing fluid. The water is held in the small pore spaces by capillary pressure and is not recovered when drawdown pressures are low. The un-recovered water leaves a water saturated zone around the fracture face that stops the flow of gas into the fracture. This is a particularly acute problem in low permeability formations where capillary pressures are high. Depletion (lower reservoir pressures) causes a limitation on the drawdown pressure that can be applied. A hydraulic fracturing process can be energized by the addition of a compressible, sometimes soluble, gas phase into the treatment fluid. When the well is produced, the energized fluid expands and gas comes out of solution. Energizing the fluid creates high gas saturation in the invaded zone, thereby facilitating gas flowback. A new compositional hydraulic fracturing model has been created (EFRAC). This is the first model to include changes in composition, temperature, and phase behavior of the fluid inside the fracture. An equation of state is used to evaluate the phase behavior of the fluid. These compositional effects are coupled with the fluid rheology, proppant transport, and mechanics of fracture growth to create a general model for fracture creation when energized fluids are used. In addition to the fracture propagation model, we have also introduced another new model for hydraulically fractured well productivity. This is the first and only model that takes into account both finite fracture conductivity and damage in the invaded zone in a simple analytical way. EFRAC was successfully used to simulate several fracture treatments in a gas field in South Texas. Based on production estimates, energized fluids may be required when drawdown pressures are smaller than the capillary forces in the formation. For this field, the minimum CO{sub 2} gas quality (volume % of gas) recommended is 30% for moderate differences between fracture and reservoir pressures (2900 psi reservoir, 5300 psi fracture). The minimum quality is reduced to 20% when the difference between pressures is larger, resulting in additional gas expansion in the invaded zone. Inlet fluid temperature, flow rate, and base viscosity did not have a large impact on fracture production. Finally, every stage of the fracturing treatment should be energized with a gas component to ensure high gas saturation in the invaded zone. A second, more general, sensitivity study was conducted. Simulations show that CO{sub 2} outperforms N{sub 2} as a fluid component because it has higher solubility in water at fracturing temperatures and pressures. In fact, all gas components with higher solubility in water will increase the fluid's ability to reduce damage in the invaded zone. Adding methanol to the fracturing solution can increase the solubility of CO{sub 2}. N{sub 2} should only be used if the gas leaks-off either during the creation of the fracture or during closure, resulting in gas going into the invaded zone. Experimental data is needed to determine if the gas phase leaks-off during the creation of the fracture. Simulations show that the bubbles in a fluid traveling across the face of a porous medium are not likely to attach to the surface of the rock, the filter cake, or penetrate far into the porous medium. In summary, this research has created the first compositional fracturing simulator, a useful tool to aid in energized fracture design. We have made several important and original conclusions about the best practices when using energized fluids in tight gas sands. The models and tools presented here may be used in the future to predict behavior of any multi-phase or multi-component fracturing fluid system.

  8. Fresnel Reflection 9.0.3 polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    Chapter 9 Fresnel Reflection 9.0.3 polarization: iE rE tE i r t 1 2 iH rH tH iE rE tE i r t 1 2 i that n1 sin i = n2 sin t (9.2) 45 #12;46 CHAPTER 9. FRESNEL REFLECTION Boundary conditions iH rH tH #12;48 CHAPTER 9. FRESNEL REFLECTION and here Ei + Er = Et (9.16) or Hi Z-1 1 + Hr Z-1 1

  9. Transmission and spectral aspects of tight-binding Hamiltonians for the counting quantum Turing machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benioff, P. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One-dimensional (1D) systems with deterministic disorder, such as those with quasiperiodic or substitutional sequence potential distributions, have been extensively studied. It was recently shown that a generalization of quantum Turing machines (QTM`s), in which potentials are associated with elementary steps or transitions of the computation, generates potential distributions along computation paths of states in some basis B, which are computable and are thus periodic or have deterministic disorder. These generalized machines (GQTM`s) can be used to investigate the effect of potentials in causing reflections and reducing the completion probability of computations. This paper expands on this work by determining the spectral and transmission properties of an example GQTM, which enumerates the integers in succession as binary strings. A potential is associated with just one type of step. For many computation paths the potential distributions are initial segments of a distribution that is quasiperiodic and corresponds to a substitution sequence. Thus the methods developed in the study of 1D systems can be used to calculate the energy band spectra and Landauer resistance (LR). For energies below the barrier height, the LR fluctuates rapidly with momentum with minima close to or at band-gap edges. Also for several values of the parameters involved there is good transmission over some momentum regions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Analysis of Differences in Void Coefficient Predictions for Mixed-Oxide-Fueled Tight-Pitch Light Water Reactor Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unesaki, Hironobu [Kyoto University (Japan); Shiroya, Seiji [Kyoto University (Japan); Kanda, Keiji [Kyoto University (Japan); Cathalau, Stephane [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (France); Carre, Franck-Olivier [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (France); Aizawa, Otohiko [Musashi Institute of Technology (Japan); Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka University (Japan)

    2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of the benchmark problems on the void coefficient of mixed-oxide (MOX)-fueled tight-pitch cells has been performed using the Japanese SRAC code system with the JENDL-3.2 library and the French APOLLO-2 code with the CEA93 library based on JEF-2.2. The benchmark problems have been specified to investigate the physical phenomena occurring during the progressive voidage of MOX-fueled tight-pitch lattices, such as high conversion light water reactor lattices, and to evaluate the impact of nuclear data and calculational methods. Despite the most recently compiled nuclear data libraries and the sophisticated calculation schemes employed in both code systems, the k{sub {infinity}} and void reactivity values obtained by the two code systems show considerable discrepancy especially in the highly voided state. The discrepancy of k{sub {infinity}} values shows an obvious dependence on void fraction and also has been shown to be sensitive to the isotopic composition of plutonium. The observed discrepancies are analyzed by being decomposed into contributing isotopes and reactions and have been shown to be caused by a complicated balance of both negative and positive components, which are mainly attributable to differences in a limited number of isotopes including {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 16}O, and stainless steel.

  11. Unmasking online reflective practices in higher education 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Jennifer

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Online reflective practices that are high-stakes – summatively assessed, or used as evidence for progression or membership in a professional body – are increasingly prevalent in higher education, especially in professional ...

  12. Preparing reflective substrate surfaces for laser treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flick, F.F.

    1984-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A coating of either copper oxide or felt tip pen ink is used on reflective copper or gold substrates to enhance laser beam coupling when the substrates are cut or welded with a laser.

  13. Diffuse reflectance imaging with astronomical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasinoff, Samuel W.

    Diffuse objects generally tell us little about the surrounding lighting, since the radiance they reflect blurs together incident lighting from many directions. In this paper we discuss how occlusion geometry can help invert ...

  14. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

  15. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field...

  16. Effective Field Theory for Bound State Reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michelle Pine; Dean Lee

    2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Elastic quantum bound-state reflection from a hard-wall boundary provides direct information regarding the structure and compressibility of quantum bound states. We discuss elastic quantum bound-state reflection and derive a general theory for elastic reflection of shallow dimers from hard-wall surfaces using effective field theory. We show that there is a small expansion parameter for analytic calculations of the reflection scattering length. We present a calculation up to second order in the effective Hamiltonian in one, two, and three dimensions. We also provide numerical lattice results for all three cases as a comparison with our effective field theory results. Finally, we provide an analysis of the compressibility of the alpha particle confined to a cubic lattice with vanishing Dirichlet boundaries.

  17. Oblique reflections of internal gravity wave beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimi, Hussain H. (Hussain Habibullah)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study nonlinear effects in reflections of internal gravity wave beams in a continuously stratified liquid which are incident upon a uniform slope at an oblique angle. Wave motion in a stratified fluid medium is unique ...

  18. REFLECTION PRINCIPLE IN HIGHER DIMENSION SERGEY PINCHUK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbondandolo, Alberto

    's for Complex and CR-Geometry" held at ITC-IRST in Povo - Trento. The focus is on the reflection (Schwarz) (Diederich & Pinchuk [6] 2003) The previous results hold also when f is not a biholomorphism, but only

  19. Plasma generation for controlled microwave-reflecting surfaces in plasma antennas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bliokh, Yury P.; Felsteiner, Joshua; Slutsker, Yakov Z. [Physics Department, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea of replacing metal antenna elements with equivalent plasma objects has long been of interest because of the possibility of switching the antenna on and off. In general, two kinds of designs have so far been reported: (a) Separate plasma “wires” which are thin glass tubes filled with gas, where plasma appears due to discharge inside. (b) Reflecting surfaces, consisting of tightly held plasma wires or specially designed large discharge devices with magnetic confinement. The main disadvantages of these antennas are either large weight and size or too irregular surfaces for proper reflection. To design a microwave plasma antenna in the most common radar wavelength range of 1–3?cm with a typical gain of 30?dB, a smooth plasma mirror having a 10–30?cm diameter and a proper curvature is required. The plasma density must be 10{sup 12}–10{sup 14}?cm{sup ?3} in order to exceed the critical density for the frequency of the electromagnetic wave. To achieve this we have used a ferromagnetic inductively coupled plasma (FICP) source, where a thin magnetic core of a large diameter is fully immersed in the plasma. In the present paper, we show a way to adapt the FICP source for creating a flat switchable microwave plasma mirror with an effective diameter of 30?cm. This mirror was tested as a microwave reflector and there was found no significant difference when compared with a copper plate having the same diameter.

  20. Improving experimental phases for strong reflections prior to density modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin [University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck (Germany); University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck (Germany); Hilgenfeld, Rolf, E-mail: hilgenfeld@biochem.uni-luebeck.de [University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck (Germany); Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai 201203, People’s Republic of (China); Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Read, Randy J. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck (Germany)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A genetic algorithm has been developed to optimize the phases of the strongest reflections in SIR/SAD data. This is shown to facilitate density modification and model building in several test cases. Experimental phasing of diffraction data from macromolecular crystals involves deriving phase probability distributions. These distributions are often bimodal, making their weighted average, the centroid phase, improbable, so that electron-density maps computed using centroid phases are often non-interpretable. Density modification brings in information about the characteristics of electron density in protein crystals. In successful cases, this allows a choice between the modes in the phase probability distributions, and the maps can cross the borderline between non-interpretable and interpretable. Based on the suggestions by Vekhter [Vekhter (2005 ?), Acta Cryst. D61, 899–902], the impact of identifying optimized phases for a small number of strong reflections prior to the density-modification process was investigated while using the centroid phase as a starting point for the remaining reflections. A genetic algorithm was developed that optimizes the quality of such phases using the skewness of the density map as a target function. Phases optimized in this way are then used in density modification. In most of the tests, the resulting maps were of higher quality than maps generated from the original centroid phases. In one of the test cases, the new method sufficiently improved a marginal set of experimental SAD phases to enable successful map interpretation. A computer program, SISA, has been developed to apply this method for phase improvement in macromolecular crystallography.

  1. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

  2. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Butler, PA); Turner, Brian (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  3. Do bark beetle remains in lake sediments correspond to severe outbreaks? A review of published and ongoing research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, R. Scott

    Watt e , Kelly Derr a , Michael F.J. Pisaric f , R. Scott Anderson g , Andrea R. Brunelle d outbreak episodes. Our synthesis suggests that the remains of pri- mary attack beetles are rarely preserved

  4. An analysis of the lithic remains from several ring middens in Crockett County, Texas: A study in site function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Bill

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE LITHIC REMAINS FROM SEVERAL RING MIDDENS IN CROCKETT COUNTY, TEXAS: A STUDY IN SITE FUNCTION A Thesis by WILLIAM EDWARD MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AKIM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS May 1980 Major Subject: Anthropology AN ANALYSIS OF THE LITHIC REMAINS FROM SEVERAL RING MIDDENS IN CROCKETT COUNTY, TEXAS: A STUDY IN SITE FUNCTION A Thesis by WILLIAM EDWARD MOORE Approved as to style...

  5. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 {mu}m wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  6. Unitary reflection groups for quantum fault tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Planat, Michel

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the representation of quantum computing in terms of unitary reflections (unitary transformations that leaves invariant a hyperplane of a vector space). The symmetries of qubit systems are found to be supported by Euclidean real reflections (i.e., Coxeter groups) or by specific imprimitive reflection groups, introduced (but not named) in a recent paper [Planat M and Jorrand Ph 2008, J Phys A: Math Theor 41, 182001]. The automorphisms of multiple qubit systems are found to relate to some Clifford operations once the corresponding group of reflections is identified. For a short list, one may point out the Coxeter systems of type B3 and G2 (for single qubits), D5 and A4 (for two qubits), E7 and E6 (for three qubits), and the complex reflection groups G(2l, 2, 5). The relevant fault tolerant groups of reflections (the Bell groups) are generated, as subgroups of the Clifford groups, by the Hadamard gate, the $\\pi$/4 phase gate and an entangling (braid) gate [Kauffman L H and Lomonaco S J 2004 Ne...

  7. Tight-binding Tight-binding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    .2 Nicolas 7) Tc* = 1.35 Tt* = 0.68 9) rc = 2.5 5.5 b. 6,10) SPC/E, TIP4P CC SPC/E (Extended Simple Point Lennard-Jones 9 14.3 Jorgenson TIP4P 12) 14.3 HOH 2 SPC/E TIP4P TIP4P Jorgenson OPLS (optimized potential for liquid simulations) 13) CC (Carravetta-Clementi) 14) TIP4P (14.8) Lennard-Jones SPC/E, TIP4P, CC 1.85 D

  8. Ion-acoustic shocks with reflected ions: modeling and PIC simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liseykina, T; Vshivkov, V; Malkov, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-relativistic collisionless shock waves are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas and are known as efficient particle accelerators. However, our understanding of collisionless shocks, including their structure and the mechanisms whereby they accelerate particles remains incomplete. We present here the results of numerical modeling of an ion-acoustic collisionless shock based on one-dimensional (1D) kinetic approximation both for electrons and ions with a real mass ratio. Special emphasis is made on the shock-reflected ions as the main driver of shock dissipation. The reflection efficiency, velocity distribution of reflected particles and the shock electrostatic structure are studied in terms of the shock parameters. Applications to particle acceleration in geophysical and astrophysical shocks are discussed.

  9. REFLECT: A computer program for the x-ray reflectivity of bent perfect crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etelaeniemi, V.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of monochromators for x-ray applications, using either standard laboratory sources on synchrotron radiation sources, requires a knowledge of the reflectivity of the crystals. The reflectivity depends on the crystals used, the geometry of the reflection, the energy range of the radiation, and, in the present case, the cylindrical bending radius of the optical device. This report is intended to allow the reader to become familiar with, and therefore use, a computer program called REFLECT which we have used in the design of a dual beam Laue monochromator for synchrotron angiography. The results of REFLECT have been compared to measured reflectivities for both bent Bragg and Laue geometries. The results are excellent and should give full confidence in the use of the program. 6 refs.

  10. REFLECTIONS ON THE NOTIONS OF "EMPIRE" AND "KINGDOM" IN SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ETHIOPIA: ROYAL POWER AND LOCAL POWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    REFLECTIONS ON THE NOTIONS OF "EMPIRE" AND "KINGDOM" IN SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ETHIOPIA: ROYAL POWER depuis 2006 le Centre d'études des mondes africains Generally, historians of Ethiopia have remained vague, in his excellent synthesis on "medieval" Ethiopia, chose "kingdom" over "empire."1 Several modern authors

  11. Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . A survey of good practices for reflectivity measurement in CSP applications was completed by Solar of reflectivity includes both specular and diffuse reflectivity as well a directional and spectral measurement

  12. Unitary reflection groups for quantum fault tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Planat; Maurice R. Kibler

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the representation of quantum computing in terms of unitary reflections (unitary transformations that leave invariant a hyperplane of a vector space). The symmetries of qubit systems are found to be supported by Euclidean real reflections (i.e., Coxeter groups) or by specific imprimitive reflection groups, introduced (but not named) in a recent paper [Planat M and Jorrand Ph 2008, {\\it J Phys A: Math Theor} {\\bf 41}, 182001]. The automorphisms of multiple qubit systems are found to relate to some Clifford operations once the corresponding group of reflections is identified. For a short list, one may point out the Coxeter systems of type $B_3$ and $G_2$ (for single qubits), $D_5$ and $A_4$ (for two qubits), $E_7$ and $E_6$ (for three qubits), the complex reflection groups $G(2^l,2,5)$ and groups No 9 and 31 in the Shephard-Todd list. The relevant fault tolerant subsets of the Clifford groups (the Bell groups) are generated by the Hadamard gate, the $\\pi/4$ phase gate and an entangling (braid) gate [Kauffman L H and Lomonaco S J 2004 {\\it New J. of Phys.} {\\bf 6}, 134]. Links to the topological view of quantum computing, the lattice approach and the geometry of smooth cubic surfaces are discussed.

  13. Integrated seismic study of naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.; Nur, A.

    1994-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This was the ninth quarter of the contract. During this quarter we (1) continued processing the seismic data, (2) collected additional logs to aid in the interpretation, and (3)began modeling some of the P-wave amplitude anomalies that we see in the data. The study area is located at the southern end of the powder river Basin in Converse county in east-central Wyoming. It is a low permeability fractured site, with both has and oil present. Reservoirs are highly compartmentalized due tot he low permeabilities, and fractures provide the only practical drainage paths for production. The two formations of interest are: The Niobrara; a fractured shale and limey shale to chalk, which is a reservoir rock, but also its own source rock. The Frontier, a tight sandstone lying directly below the Niobrara, brought into contract with it by an unconformity.

  14. Integrated seismic study of naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs. Technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.; Nur, A.

    1994-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The study area is located at the southern end of the Powder River Basin in Converse County in east-central Wyoming. It is a low permeability fractured site, with both gas and oil present. Reservoirs are highly compartmentalized due to the low permeabilities, and fractures provide the only practical drainage paths for production. The two formations of interest are: The Niobrara, a fractured shale and limey shale to chalk, which is a reservoir rock, but also its own source rock; and the Frontier, a tight sandstone lying directly below the Niobrara, brought into contact with it by an unconformity. This was the tenth quarter of the contract. During this quarter the investigators (1) continued processing the seismic data, and (2) continued modeling some of the P-wave amplitude anomalies that we see in the data.

  15. Implementation and benchmark of a long-range corrected functional in the density functional based tight-binding method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsker, Vitalij; Niehaus, Thomas A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bridging the gap between first principles methods and empirical schemes, the density functional based tight-binding method (DFTB) has become a versatile tool in predictive atomistic simulations over the past years. One of the major restrictions of this method is the limitation to local or gradient corrected exchange-correlation functionals. This excludes the important class of hybrid or long-range corrected functionals, which are advantageous in thermochemistry, as well as in the computation of vibrational, photoelectron and optical spectra. The present work provides a detailed account of the implementation of DFTB for a long-range corrected functional in generalized Kohn-Sham theory. We apply the method to a set of organic molecules and compare ionization potentials and electron affinities with the original DFTB method and higher level theory. The new scheme cures the significant overpolarization in electric fields found for local DFTB, which parallels the functional dependence in first principles density fu...

  16. Tight bounds on the eavesdropping of a continuous-variable quantum cryptographic protocol with no basis switching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudjana, J.; Magnin, L.; Garcia-Patron, R.; Cerf, N. J. [QuIC, Ecole Polytechnique, CP 165, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gaussian continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on coherent states and heterodyne detection [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 170504 (2004)] has the advantage that no active random basis switching is needed on the receiver's side. Its security is, however, not very satisfyingly understood today because the bounds on the secret key rate that have been derived from Heisenberg relations are not attained by any known scheme. Here, we address the problem of the optimal Gaussian individual attack against this protocol, and derive tight upper bounds on the information accessible to an eavesdropper. Interestingly, this protocol is proven to be even more resistant to individual attacks than originally thought. Optical schemes achieving these bounds are also exhibited, which concludes the security analysis of Gaussian protocols against individual attacks.

  17. Constrained optimization in seismic reflection tomography: an SQP ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Seismic reflection tomography is a method for determining a subsurface velocity model from the traveltimes of seismic waves reflecting on geological interfaces.

  18. ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS This presentation was delivered...

  19. Characterization of the plastic substrates, the reflective layers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the plastic substrates, the reflective layers, the adhesives, and the grooves of today's archival-grade Characterization of the plastic substrates, the reflective layers, the...

  20. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,transfer at the siding surface. Direct solar radiation tosiding, reflected solar radiation from nearby surfaces,

  1. Terra Sigillata: Evolution of Roman Ceramics Reflect Changes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Terra Sigillata: Evolution of Roman Ceramics Reflect Changes in Technology, Life Terra Sigillata: Evolution of Roman Ceramics Reflect Changes in Technology, Life Print Wednesday,...

  2. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  3. X-ray induced optical reflectivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Durbin, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The change in optical reflectivity induced by intense x-ray pulses can now be used to study ultrafast many body responses in solids in the femtosecond time domain. X-ray absorption creates photoelectrons and core level holes subsequently filled by Auger or fluorescence processes, and these excitations ultimately add conduction and valence band carriers that perturb optical reflectivity.Optical absorption associated with band filling and band gap narrowing is shown to explain the basic features found in recent measurements on an insulator (silicon nitride, Si3N4), a semiconductor(gallium arsenide,GaAs), and a metal (gold,Au), obtained with ?100 fs x-ray pulses at 500-2000 eV and probed with 800 nm laser pulses. In particular GaAs exhibits an abrupt drop in reflectivity, persisting only for a time comparable to the x-ray excitation pulse duration, consistent with prompt band gap narrowing.

  4. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  5. Method of making reflecting film reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G. (Center Moriches, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reflector of the reflecting film type is disclosed and which may be used in a heliostatic system for concentrating solar energy and comprising a reflecting film bonded to an appropriate rigid substrate in such a way that specularity of a very high order is achieved. A method of bonding the reflecting film to the substrate is also disclosed and comprises the steps of initially adhering the film to a smooth, clean flat rigid surface with a non-bonding liquid between the rigid surface and film, and then bonding the substrate and film. The non-bonding liquid has a molecular adhesion greater than any stresses due to handling or curing of the bonding agent which is applied between the film and the opposing surface of the rigid substrate.

  6. Apparatus for determining past-service conditions and remaining life of thermal barrier coatings and components having such coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Devitt, John William (Clifton Park, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Brewer, Luke Nathaniel (Rexford, NY)

    2004-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining past-service conditions and/or remaining useful life of a component of a combustion engine and/or a thermal barrier coating ("TBC") of the component comprises a radiation source that provides the exciting radiation to the TBC to excite a photoluminescent ("PL") material contained therein, a radiation detector for detecting radiation emitted by the PL material, and means for relating a characteristic of an emission spectrum of the PL material to the amount of a crystalline phase in the TBC, thereby inferring the past-service conditions or the remaining useful life of the component or the TBC.

  7. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Martin J. (Lee, NY)

    1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  8. Metasurfaces for suppressing reflection over broadband

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patra, Anuradha; Nagarajan, Arvind; Achanta, Venu Gopal

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfaces patterned with arrays of quasi-periodic air holes having conical depth profile have been studied for their effectiveness in suppressing air-substrate reflection in the wavelength range of 450-1350 nm (limited by our measurement). The role of quasi-periodic air-hole pattern, depth of holes and launch angle on the observed antireflection behavior are investigated. The average optical transmittance of the patterned quartz substrate at near normal incidence is more than 97% and reflectance is less than 2%. Patterned quartz surfaces with 450 nm thin graded rarefaction region maintain the antireflective property up to 30{\\deg} (limited by our measurements) angle of incidence.

  9. Volume rendering at interactive frame rates remains a chal-lenge, especially with today's increasingly large datasets. We pro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawfis, Roger

    Abstract Volume rendering at interactive frame rates remains a chal- lenge, especially with today's increasingly large datasets. We pro- pose a framework, using concepts from Image-Based Rendering (IBR), that decreases the required framerate for the volume ren- derer significantly. All the volume renderer needs

  10. Volume rendering at interactive frame rates remains a chal-lenge, especially with today's increasingly large datasets. We pro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Klaus

    1 Abstract Volume rendering at interactive frame rates remains a chal- lenge, especially with today's increasingly large datasets. We pro- pose a framework, using concepts from Image-Based Rendering (IBR), that decreases the required framerate for the volume ren- derer significantly. All the volume renderer needs

  11. of hydrogen-powered cars," he says. But a major hurdle remains: the cost of platinum metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of hydrogen-powered cars," he says. But a major hurdle remains: the cost of platinum metal needed to make fuel cells efficient. Fuel cells work by combining hydrogen gas with oxygen from the air for hydrogen-powered cars in mass production facilities," says SFU chemistry professor Steve Holdcroft, who

  12. eleCTriCAl AnD CoMPUTer engineering 31 foundation needed to remain effective,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    eleCTriCAl AnD CoMPUTer engineering · 31 foundation needed to remain effective, take on new fundamental areas of mathematics, science, and electrical engineering that are required to support specialized-the-art specialty areas in electrical engineering. This is implemented through our senior electives. Students

  13. A Joint Programme of: "Water will remain a strategic resource for countries worldwide, and the quest for water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    the distinction between water as a resource and water as a service and thus lack the necessary institutionalA Joint Programme of: "Water will remain a strategic resource for countries worldwide, and the quest for water sustainability will become increasingly intricate and delicate. A keen understanding

  14. Job Postings The question was raised about the minimum time a position should remain posted before it

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Tony R.

    Job Postings 121610 The question was raised about the minimum time a position should remain: EXTERNAL JOB POSTINGS1, 2 · Staff ­ one week minimum · Administrative ­ two weeks minimum · Faculty ­ two weeks minimum 1 The recruitment process for EXTERNAL job postings may be opened to: all

  15. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Gerouki, Alexandra (Medford, MA); Liu, Te-Yang (Arlington, MA); Goldner, Mark A. (Cambridge, MA); Haas, Terry E. (Southborough, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

  16. Optical Reflectivity of Graphene Christopher Yaluma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    Optical Reflectivity of Graphene Christopher Yaluma Stephen Johnson Patrick Hunley Andrei Terentiev Aaron Meacham Abhishek Sundararajan Santiago de León Doug Strachan #12;Graphene transistors on membranes · Want to construct few-layer graphene Field Effect Transistors (FETs) on transparent membranes #12

  17. Reflections of Murray F. Hawkins, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Jacqueline

    of petroleum engineering and technology came largely from several petroleum production research laboratoriesReflections of Murray F. Hawkins, Jr. On joining the petroleum engineering faculty at LSU in 1947 I and political implications for the world. It was about this time that U.S. energy usage of petroleum first

  18. Static corrections from shallow-reflection surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steeples, Don W.; Miller, Richard D.; Black, Ross A.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of unconsolidated materials can be substantially less than the velocity of sound in air. Weathered-layer thickness variation of 1 m in these low-velocity materials could result in a static anomaly in excess of 3 ms. Shallow-reflection data from the Texas panhandle...

  19. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  20. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, R.B.; Gerouki, A.; Liu, T.Y.; Goldner, M.A.; Haas, T.E.

    2000-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 mum.

  1. Reflections "Welcome back! Have a good

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reflections "Welcome back! Have a good vacation"? "I wasn't on vacation. I was in the field." "I in a dig at the granting agency that spent nearly $1,750 in support of your research. A basic stock of fine, they will sprint to their typewriters and set their two forefingers to banging out near poetry in praise of basic

  2. Reflections of Edmond J. Langhetee, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Jacqueline

    Reflections of Edmond J. Langhetee, Jr. My education at Louisiana State University began in March, wondering whether I should reconsider my decision to enter petroleum engineering. Nuclear energy in its most, I was able to handle these and many other projects because of my educational background

  3. Deep reflection-mode photoacoustic imaging of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    near-infrared laser pulses of 804-nm wavelength for PA excitation to achieve deep penetration-frequency PAM system. To achieve deep penetration of light, we chose the 804-nm near-infrared wavelengthDeep reflection-mode photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue Kwang Hyun Song and Lihong V. Wang

  4. 14. Reflections on Legality Michael Caie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitelson, Branden

    14. Reflections on Legality Michael Caie 85. The Primacy of Law -We have seen that, on Bennett, and in order to get from one event to the occurrence of another we need, as Bennett puts it, " `the cement. -Bennett claims to have little sympathy for this account, and levels three objections against it

  5. Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

  6. Estimation of original gas in place from short-term shut-in pressure data for commingled tight gas reservoirs with no crossflow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khuong, Chan Hung

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas production (GP) under these circumstances. This research studies different empirical methods to estimate the original gas in place (OGIP) for one-layer or commingled two-layer tight gas reservoirs without crossflow, from short-term (72-hour) shut...

  7. EXPERIMENT #3 REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY We will use the reflectance attachment and fiber optics OceanOptics spectrophotometer to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    EXPERIMENT #3 REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY We will use the reflectance attachment and fiber optics OceanOptics spectrophotometer to measure the reflectance spectrum of several paint samples in the special optically flat-bottomed cell so that the bottom is completely covered. Scan the reflectance

  8. Investigations of late archaic coprolites: pollen and macrofossil remains from Hinds Cave (41VV456), Val Verde County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Sherrian Kay

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    KAY EDWARDS Approved as to style and content by: aughn M. Bryant, J (+air of Comm' te r &) Merrill H. Sweet (Member) p' Vaughn M. Br ant, J (Head of Department) May 1990 ABSTRACT Investigations of Late Archaic Coprolites: Pollen... and Macrofossil Remains from Hinds Cave (41VV456), Val Verde County, Texas. (May 1990) Sherrian Ray Edwards, B. A. , University of Texas Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Vaughn M. Bryant, Jr. The analysis of desiccated human fecal material (coprolites) left...

  9. Old Socorro Mission: an osteobiological analysis of the skeletal remains from the 1982-1985 field excavations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raisor, Michelle Jeanette

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 119 Skull 38 exhibiting "saddle nose". 122 FIGURE Page 19 20 Cranial deformation of Burial 18. Bifid sacral hiatus of Burial 36. 126 129 21 Asymmetry of mandibular condyles (Burial 20). 132 22 Congenital absence of the left transverse process... River, it remained in constant use until A. D. 1829 when the church was severely damaged by flood waters and abandoned (Figure 1). Originally the small mission was built to administer to the Spanish families and the Piro Indians that accompanied...

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-DR-1, 1608-DR Effluent Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-035

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiological characterization, decommissioning and demolition of the 132-DR-1 site, 1608-DR Effluent Pumping Station was performed in 1987. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  11. A geologic assessment of natural gas from tight gas sandstones in the San Juan Basin. Final report, June 1989--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, M.R.; Lombardi, T.E.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors conducted a detailed geologic appraisal, estimated gas in place and recoverable volumes, and evaluated the impact of technology improvements on potential Cretaceous (Pictured Cliffs, Chacra, Cliff House, Point Lookout and Dakota intervals) tight gas reserves of the San Juan Basin. This report summarizes the results of a disaggregated appraisal of the undeveloped San Juan tight gas resource in the context of current and near-term technology, project economics and market potential. A geologic data base was constructed based on location reservoir properties, and typical well recoveries were modeled on a township-specific basis. Project costing and cash flow economics were analyzed to derive potential reserves for various technology specifications and wellhead prices. These data provide a foundation for operators and pipelines to more closely examine these tight formations for development in the near future. Gas in place for the undeveloped tight portion of the five intervals studied was estimated at 17.2 Tcf, with the Dakota Formation accounting for two thirds of this volume. Using current technology, potential ultimate recovery for all intervals is 7.2 Tcf. Potential reserve additions are 1.1 Tcf at $1.50/Mcf, 2.3 Tcf at $2.00/Mcf, and 5.9 Tcf at $5.00/Mcf. The availability of the Nonconventional Fuels Tax Credit for eligible wells drilled in 1991 and 1992 could improve project economics by an after tax equivalent of $0.66/Mcf at the wellhead. Over 300 geophysical logs were evaluated to construct depth, overburden and isopach maps and a location-specific resource database. The database was analyzed using TGAS-PC{reg_sign}, an integrated engineering and economics model for tight sands that has the capability to do rapid sensitivity analysis of geological, technology and economic assumptions.

  12. X-ray reflectivity and surface roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ocko, B.M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the advent of high brightness synchrotron radiation sources there has been a phenomenal growth in the use of x-rays as a probe of surface structure. The technique of x-ray reflectivity is particularly relevant to electrochemists since it is capable of probing the structure normal to an electrode surface in situ. In this paper the theoretical framework for x-ray reflectivity is reviewed and the results from previous non-electrochemistry measurements are summarized. These measurements are from the liquid/air interface (CCl/sub 4/), the metal crystal vacuum interface (Au(100)), and from the liquid/solid interface(liquid crystal/silicon). 34 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  14. Reflective optical imaging method and circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  15. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  16. Integrated seismic study of naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs. Technical progress report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nur, A.

    1993-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This was the fifth quarter of the contract. During this quarter we (1) got approval for the NEPA requirements related to the field work, (2) placed the subcontract for the field data acquisition, (3) completed the field work, and (4) began processing the seismic data. As already reported, the field data acquisition was at Acomo`s Powder River Basin site in southeast Wyoming. This is a low permeability fractured site, with both gas and oil present. The reservoir is highly compartmentalized, due to the low permeability, with the fractures providing the only practical drainage paths for production. The two formations of interest are: The Niobrara: a fractured shale and limey shale to chalk, which is a reservoir rock, but also its own source rock. The Frontier: a tight sandstone lying directly below the Niobrara, brought into contact with it by an unconformity. The fractures are thought to lie in a roughly northwest-southeast trend, along the strike of a flexure, which forms one of the boundaries of the basin.

  17. Integrated seismic study of naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs. Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.; Nur, A.

    1993-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This was the seventh quarter of the contract. During this quarter we (1) continued the large task of processing the seismic data, (2) collected additional geological information to aid in the interpretation, (3) tied the well log data to the seismic via generation of synthetic seismograms, (4) began integrating regional structural information and fracture trends with our observations of structure in the study area, (5) began constructing a velocity model for time-to-depth conversion and subsequent AVO and raytrace modeling experiments, and (6) completed formulation of some theoretical tools for relating fracture density to observed elastic anisotropy. The study area is located at the southern end of the Powder River Basin in Converse County in east-central Wyoming. It is a low permeability fractured site, with both gas and oil present. Reservoirs are highly compartmentalized due to the low permeabilities, and fractures provide the only practical drainage paths for production. The two formations of interest are: The Niobrara: a fractured shale and limey shale to chalk, which is a reservoir rock, but also its own source rock. The Frontier: a tight sandstone lying directly below the Niobrara, brought into contact with it by an unconformity. A basemap is presented with the seismic lines being analyzed for this project plus locations of 13 wells that we are using to supplement the analysis. The arrows point to two wells for which we have constructed synthetic seismograms.

  18. Integrated seismic study of naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.; Nur, A.

    1993-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    During this quarter we (1) received the last of the field tapes and survey information for the seismic field data acquisition which was finished at the very end of the previous quarter, (2) began the large task of processing the seismic data, (3) collected well logs and other informination to aid in the interpretation, and (4) initiated some seismic modeling studies. As already reported, the field data acquisition was at Amoco`s Powder River Basin site in southeast Wyoming. This is a low permeability fractured site, with both gas and oil present. The reservoir is highly compartmentalized, due to the low permeability, with the fractures providing the only practical drainage paths for production. The two formations of interest are: The Niobrara: a fractured shale and limey shale to chalk, which is a reservoir rock, but also its own source rock. The Frontier: a tight sandstone lying directly below the Niobrara, brought into contact with it by an unconformity. The fractures are thought to lie in a roughly northwest-southeast trend, along the strike of a flexure, which forms one of the boundaries of the basin.

  19. Empirical tight-binding model for titanium phase transformations D. R. Trinkle,1,2 M. D. Jones,3,2 R. G. Hennig,4 S. P. Rudin,2 R. C. Albers,2 and J. W. Wilkins4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkins, John

    Empirical tight-binding model for titanium phase transformations D. R. Trinkle,1,2 M. D. Jones,3 published study of the titanium hexagonal close packed to omega transformation, a tight-binding model was developed for titanium that accurately reproduces the structural energies and elec- tron eigenvalues from

  20. Spin, Statistics, and Reflections, II. Lorentz Invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernd Kuckert; Reinhard Lorenzen

    2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of the relation between modular P$_1$CT-symmetry -- a consequence of the Unruh effect -- and Pauli's spin-statistics relation is continued. The result in the predecessor to this article is extended to the Lorentz symmetric situation. A model $\\G_L$ of the universal covering $\\widetilde{L_+^\\uparrow}\\cong SL(2,\\complex)$ of the restricted Lorentz group $L_+^\\uparrow$ is modelled as a reflection group at the classical level. Based on this picture, a representation of $\\G_L$ is constructed from pairs of modular P$_1$CT-conjugations, and this representation can easily be verified to satisfy the spin-statistics relation.

  1. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  2. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N. (Sunol, CA); Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  3. Reflective echo tomographic imaging using acoustic beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An inspection system includes a plurality of acoustic beamformers, where each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers including a plurality of acoustic transmitter elements. The system also includes at least one controller configured for causing each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers to generate an acoustic beam directed to a point in a volume of interest during a first time. Based on a reflected wave intensity detected at a plurality of acoustic receiver elements, an image of the volume of interest can be generated.

  4. Reflection Survey (Majer, 2003) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:bJumpRed Bank, NewCatalystReflection

  5. Analysis of Critical Permeabilty, Capillary Pressure and Electrical Properties for Mesaverde Tight Gas Sandstones from Western U.S. Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; Robert Cluff; John Webb; John Victorine; Ken Stalder; Daniel Osburn; Andrew Knoderer; Owen Metheny; Troy Hommertzheim; Joshua Byrnes; Daniel Krygowski; Stefani Whittaker

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Although prediction of future natural gas supply is complicated by uncertainty in such variables as demand, liquefied natural gas supply price and availability, coalbed methane and gas shale development rate, and pipeline availability, all U.S. Energy Information Administration gas supply estimates to date have predicted that Unconventional gas sources will be the dominant source of U.S. natural gas supply for at least the next two decades (Fig. 1.1; the period of estimation). Among the Unconventional gas supply sources, Tight Gas Sandstones (TGS) will represent 50-70% of the Unconventional gas supply in this time period (Fig. 1.2). Rocky Mountain TGS are estimated to be approximately 70% of the total TGS resource base (USEIA, 2005) and the Mesaverde Group (Mesaverde) sandstones represent the principal gas productive sandstone unit in the largest Western U.S. TGS basins including the basins that are the focus of this study (Washakie, Uinta, Piceance, northern Greater Green River, Wind River, Powder River). Industry assessment of the regional gas resource, projection of future gas supply, and exploration programs require an understanding of reservoir properties and accurate tools for formation evaluation. The goal of this study is to provide petrophysical formation evaluation tools related to relative permeability, capillary pressure, electrical properties and algorithms for wireline log analysis. Detailed and accurate moveable gas-in-place resource assessment is most critical in marginal gas plays and there is need for quantitative tools for definition of limits on gas producibility due to technology and rock physics and for defining water saturation. The results of this study address fundamental questions concerning: (1) gas storage; (2) gas flow; (3) capillary pressure; (4) electrical properties; (5) facies and upscaling issues; (6) wireline log interpretation algorithms; and (7) providing a web-accessible database of advanced rock properties. The following text briefly discusses the nature of these questions. Section I.2 briefly discusses the objective of the study with respect to the problems reviewed.

  6. Mapping bedrock beneath glacial till using CDP seismic reflection methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiswetter, Dean; Black, Ross A.; Steeples, Don W.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a case history demonstrating the applicability of the common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection method to image bedrock beneath glacial till in northwestern Iowa. Reflections from the base of the 40-m thick glacial till are clearly...

  7. Strong transmission and reflection of edge modes in bounded photonic graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ablowitz, Mark J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The propagation of linear and nonlinear edge modes in bounded photonic honeycomb lattices formed by an array of rapidly varying helical waveguides is studied. These edge modes are found to exhibit strong transmission (reflection) around sharp corners when the dispersion relation is topologically nontrivial (trivial), and can also remain stationary. An asymptotic theory is developed that establishes the presence (absence) of edge states on all four sides, including in particular armchair edge states, in the topologically nontrivial (trivial) case. In the presence of topological protection, nonlinear edge solitons can persist over very long distances.

  8. NuSTAR Reveals Relativistic Reflection But No Ultra-Fast Outflow In The Quasar PG 1211+143

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zoghbi, A; Walton, D J; Harrison, F A; Fabian, A C; Reynolds, C S; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W; Hailey, C J; Stern, D; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on four epochs of observations of the quasar PG 1211+143 using NuSTAR. The net exposure time is 300 ks. Prior work on this source found suggestive evidence of an 'ultra-fast outflow' (or, UFO) in the Fe K band, with a velocity of approximately 0.1c. The putative flow would carry away a high mass flux and kinetic power, with broad implications for feedback and black hole-galaxy co-evolution. NuSTAR detects PG 1211+143 out to 30 keV, meaning that the continuum is well-defined both through and above the Fe K band. A characteristic relativistic disk reflection spectrum is clearly revealed, via a broad Fe K emission line and Compton back-scattering curvature. The data offer only weak constraints on the spin of the black hole. A careful search for UFO's show no significant absorption feature above 90% confidence. The limits are particularly tight when relativistic reflection is included. We discuss the statistics and the implications of these results in terms of connections between accretion onto quasars,...

  9. SX-02484-100, Rev. 2 Reflectance and Transmittance Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    ................................................. 10 Operating Procedures Measurements ................. 20 Maintenance through a sample medium. Labsphere offers two standard products for reflectance and transmittance

  10. Absence of zero-temperature transmission rate of a double-chain tight-binding model for DNA with random sequence of nucleotides in thermodynamic limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gang Xiong; X. R. Wang

    2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The zero-temperature transmission rate spectrum of a double-chain tight-binding model for real DNA is calculated. It is shown that a band of extended-like states exists only for finite chain length with strong inter-chain coupling. While the whole spectrum tends to zero in thermodynamic limit, regardless of the strength of inter-chain coupling. It is also shown that a more faithful model for real DNA with periodic sugar-phosphate chains in backbone structures can be mapped into the above simple double-chain tight-binding model. Combined with above results, the transmission rate of real DNA with long random sequence of nucleotides is expected to be poor.

  11. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

  12. A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Remote Methodology used at B Plant Hanford to Map High Radiation and Contamination Fields and Document Remaining Hazards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote radiation mapping system using the Gammacam{trademark} (AIL Systems Inc. Trademark) with real-time response was used in deactivating the B Plant at Hanford to produce digitized images showing actual radiation fields and dose rates. Deployment of this technology has significantly reduced labor requirements, decreased personnel exposure, and increased the accuracy of the measurements. Personnel entries into the high radiation/contamination areas was minimized for a dose savings of 30 Rem (.3 Seivert) and a cost savings of $640K. In addition, the data gathered was utilized along with historical information to estimate the amount of remaining hazardous waste in the process cells. The B Plant facility is a canyon facility containing 40 process cells which were used to separate cesium and strontium from high level waste. The cells and vessels are contaminated with chemicals used in the separation and purification processes. Most of the contaminants have been removed but the residual contamination from spills in the cells and heels in the tanks contribute to the localized high radioactivity. The Gammacam{trademark} system consists of a high density terbium-activated scintillating glass detector coupled with a digitized video camera. Composite images generated by the system are presented in pseudo color over a black and white image. Exposure times can be set from 10 milliseconds to 1 hour depending on the field intensity. This information coupled with process knowledge is then used to document the hazardous waste remaining in each cell. Additional uses for this radiation mapping system would be in support of facilities stabilization and deactivation activities at Hanford or other DOE sites. The system is currently scheduled for installation and mapping of the U Plant in 1999. This system is unique due to its portability and its suitability for use in high dose rate areas.

  14. Effects of composition and exposure on the solar reflectance of Portland cement concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing the solar reflectance (albedo) of a paved surface keeps it cooler in the sun, reducing convection of heat from pavement to air and thereby decreasing the ambient air temperature. Simulations of the influence of pavement albedo on air temperature in Los Angeles predict that increasing the albedo of 1,250 km2 of pavement by 0.25 would save cooling energy worth $15M yr-1, and reduce smog-related medical and lost-work expenses by $76M yr-1. Most sidewalks and a small fraction of roads and parking areas are paved with portland cement concrete, which can be made quite reflective through suitable choice of cement and aggregate. Variations with composition and environmental exposure of the albedos of portland cement concrete pavements were investigated through laboratory fabrication and exposure of 32 mixes of concrete. Twenty-four mixes yielded substandard, ''rough'' concretes due to high, unmet aggregate water demand. The albedos of the remaining eight ''smooth'' concrete mixes ranged from 0.41 to 0.77 (mean 0.59). Simulated weathering, soiling, and abrasion each reduced average concrete albedo (mean decreases 0.06, 0.05, and 0.19, respectively), though some samples became slightly more reflective through weathering or soiling. Simulated rain (wetting) strongly depressed the albedos of concretes (mean decrease 0.23) until their surfaces were dried. Concrete albedo grew as the cement hydration reaction progressed (mean increase 0.08), but stabilized within six weeks of casting. White-cement concretes were on average significantly more reflective than gray-cement concretes. The albedo of the most-reflective white-cement concrete was 0.18 to 0.39 higher than that of the most-reflective gray-cement concrete, depending on state of exposure. Concrete albedo generally correlated with cement albedo and sand albedo, and, after abrasion, with rock albedo. Cement albedo had a disproportionately strong influence on the reflectance of concrete. Efflorescence and surface carbonation whitened some gray-cement mixes.

  15. Improving the Availability and Delivery of Critical Information for Tight Gas Resource Development in the Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mary Behling; Susan Pool; Douglas Patchen; John Harper

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To encourage, facilitate and accelerate the development of tight gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin, the geological surveys in Pennsylvania and West Virginia collected widely dispersed data on five gas plays and formatted these data into a large database that can be accessed by individual well or by play. The database and delivery system that were developed can be applied to any of the 30 gas plays that have been defined in the basin, but for this project, data compilation was restricted to the following: the Mississippian-Devonian Berea/Murrysville sandstone play and the Upper Devonian Venango, Bradford and Elk sandstone plays in Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and the 'Clinton'/Medina sandstone play in northwestern Pennsylvania. In addition, some data were collected on the Tuscarora Sandstone play in West Virginia, which is the lateral equivalent of the Medina Sandstone in Pennsylvania. Modern geophysical logs are the most common and cost-effective tools for evaluating reservoirs. Therefore, all of the well logs in the libraries of the two surveys from wells that had penetrated the key plays were scanned, generating nearly 75,000 scanned e-log files from more than 40,000 wells. A standard file-naming convention for scanned logs was developed, which includes the well API number, log curve type(s) scanned, and the availability of log analyses or half-scale logs. In addition to well logs, other types of documents were scanned, including core data (descriptions, analyses, porosity-permeability cross-plots), figures from relevant chapters of the Atlas of Major Appalachian Gas Plays, selected figures from survey publications, and information from unpublished reports and student theses and dissertations. Monthly and annual production data from 1979 to 2007 for West Virginia wells in these plays are available as well. The final database also includes digitized logs from more than 800 wells, sample descriptions from more than 550 wells, more than 600 digital photos in 1-foot intervals from 11 cores, and approximately 260 references for these plays. A primary objective of the research was to make data and information available free to producers through an on-line data delivery model designed for public access on the Internet. The web-based application that was developed utilizes ESRI's ArcIMS GIS software to deliver both well-based and play-based data that are searchable through user-originated queries, and allows interactive regional geographic and geologic mapping that is play-based. System tools help users develop their customized spatial queries. A link also has been provided to the West Virginia Geological Survey's 'pipeline' system for accessing all available well-specific data for more than 140,000 wells in West Virginia. However, only well-specific queries by API number are permitted at this time. The comprehensive project web site (http://www.wvgs.wvnet.edu/atg) resides on West Virginia Geological Survey's servers and links are provided from the Pennsylvania Geological Survey and Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium web sites.

  16. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  17. Quantum radiation from a partially reflecting moving mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nistor Nicolaevici

    2000-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the quantum radiation from a partially reflecting moving mirror for the massless scalar field in 1+1 Minkowski space. Partial reflectivity is achieved by localizing a delta-type potential at the mirror's position. The radiated flux is exactly obtained for arbitrary motions as an integral functional of the mirror's past trajectory. Partial reflectivity corrections to the perfect mirror result are discussed.

  18. Quantum reflection and Liouville transformations from wells to walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriel Dufour; Romain Guérout; Astrid Lambrecht; Serge Reynaud

    2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Liouville transformations map in a rigorous manner one Schr\\"odinger equation into another, with a changed scattering potential. They are used here to transform quantum reflection of an atom on an attractive well into reflection of the atom on a repulsive wall. While the scattering properties are preserved, the corresponding semiclassical descriptions are completely different. A quantitative evaluation of quantum reflection probabilities is deduced from this method.

  19. The important effect of electron reflection on thermionic converter performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasor, N.S.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although only a few percent of high energy electrons are reflected from bare metal surfaces, 20--60% of low energy incident electrons are reflected from thermionic converter electrodes with adsorbed cesium and oxygen. The TECMDL computer model indicates that electron reflection in cesium vapor thermionic converters increases the arc potential drop, offsetting the gain in performance obtainable by lowering the collector work function via the coadsorbed Cs/O layer. The possible suppression of electron reflection by using electrodes with sub-micron surface structure is hypothesized and supported by experimental data obtained by employing a new method for testing in cesium-oxygen vapor.

  20. angular dependent reflection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structure factor near Bragg reflections: Graphite Physics Websites Summary: -binding model (see e. g. 15, 16) have been used extensively to study in-plane properties of...

  1. analyzing solar reflective: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and thermal emittance are referred to as "Cool Roof hot, light-colored surfaces reflect solar energy and stay cooler. However, high emittance is also 6 Microstructured...

  2. Ion reflection, gyration, and dissipation at supercritical shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gosling, J.T.; Robson, A.E.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brief review emphasizes the following points: (1) Ion reflection is the dominant ion dissipation mechanism at nearly perpendicular, supercritical shocks. (2) An increasing fraction of the ions incident on a supercritical shock is reflected as the Mach number increases. The actual fraction reflected can be predicted using the Rankine-Hugoniot conservation relations. (3) The effective temperature associated with the dispersion in velocity space associated with ion reflection accounts for a large fraction of the temperature rise observed across supercritical, quasi-perpendicular shocks.

  3. KP solitons and Mach reflection in shallow water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuji Kodama

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This gives a survey of our recent studies on soliton solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation with an emphasis on the Mach reflection problem in shallow water.

  4. U-043: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lifecycle Attachmate Downloads SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1026340 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium Discussion: A vulnerability was reported in Attachmate Reflection. A remote user...

  5. Session 35 - Panel: Remaining US Disposition Issues for Orphan or Small Volume Low Level and Low Level Mixed Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blauvelt, Richard [Navarro Engineering Research Inc. (United States); Small, Ken [Doe Nevada (United States); Gelles, Christine [DOE EM HQ (United States); McKenney, Dale [Fluor Hanford (United States); Franz, Bill [LATA Portsmouth (United States); Loveland, Kaylin [Energy Solutions Inc. (United States); Lauer, Mike [Waste Control Specialists (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Faced with closure schedules as a driving force, significant progress has been made during the last 2 years on the disposition of DOE mixed waste streams thought previously to be problematic. Generators, the Department of Energy and commercial vendors have combined to develop unique disposition paths for former orphan streams. Recent successes and remaining issues will be discussed. The session will also provide an opportunity for Federal agencies to share lessons learned on low- level and mixed low-level waste challenges and identify opportunities for future collaboration. This panel discussion was organized by PAC member Dick Blauvelt, Navarro Research and Engineering Inc who served as co-chair along with Dave Eaton from INL. In addition, George Antonucci, Duratek Barnwell and Rich Conley, AFSC were invited members of the audience, prepared to contribute the Barnwell and DOD perspective to the issues as needed. Mr. Small provide information regarding the five year 20K M3 window of opportunity at the Nevada Test Site for DOE contractors to dispose of mixed waste that cannot be received at the Energy Solutions (Envirocare) site in Utah because of activity levels. He provided a summary of the waste acceptance criteria and the process sites must follow to be certified to ship. When the volume limit or time limit is met, the site will undergo a RCRA closure. Ms. Gelles summarized the status of the orphan issues, commercial options and the impact of the EM reorganization on her program. She also announced that there would be a follow-on meeting in 2006 to the very successful St. Louis meeting of last year. It will probably take place in Chicago in July. Details to be announced. Mr. McKenney discussed progress made at the Hanford Reservation regarding disposal of their mixed waste inventory. The news is good for the Hanford site but not good for the rest of the DOE complex since shipment for out of state of both low level and low level mixed waste will continue to be prohibited until the completion of a new NEPA study. This is anticipated to take several years. Bill Franz from Portsmouth and Dave Eaton representing the INL provided the audience with information regarding some of the problematic mixed waste streams at their respective sites. Portsmouth has some unique radiological issues with isotopes such as Tc-99 while the INL is trying to deal with mixed waste in the 10-100 nCi/g range. Kaylin Loveland spoke of the new,Energy Solutions organization and provided information on mixed waste treatment capabilities at the Clive site. Mike Lauer described the licensing activities at the WCS site in Texas where they are trying to eventually have disposal capabilities for Class A, B and C mixed waste from both DOE and the commercial sector. The audience included about 75 WM'06 attendees who asked some excellent questions and provided an active and informative exchange of information on the topic. (authors)

  6. Applying Appearance Standards to Light Reflection Models Harold B. Westlund

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Gary

    standards for gloss, haze, and goniochromatic color are applied to computer graphic reflection modelsApplying Appearance Standards to Light Reflection Models Harold B. Westlund Gary W. Meyer. Correspondences are derived between both the gloss and haze standards and the specular exponent of the Phong model

  7. Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis M. Catalfanoa, USA; b SEMATECH Inc., Albany, NY 12203, USA ABSTRACT We investigated Ru mirror contamination film at different angles. During the contamination process, the EUV reflectivity of the Ru film

  8. Phase matching using Bragg reflection waveguides for monolithic nonlinear optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , (2005). 9. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, " Bragg reflection waveguides," Opt. Commun. 19, 427-430 (1976). 10. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, C Hong "Electromagnetic propagation in periodic stratified media: I. General Theory," JPhase matching using Bragg reflection waveguides for monolithic nonlinear optics applications A. S

  9. Fabricating Microgeometry for Custom Surface Reflectance Tim Weyrich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a variety of sur- faces, ranging from reproductions of measured BRDFs to materials with unconventional reflectance mod- els continue to be used in rendering applications, more complex and realistic material models material (metal, dielectric, translucent / scattering, etc.). Many analytic reflectance models used

  10. Reflection of focused beams from opal photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonsson, Fredrik

    . Chutinan, "Full Three-Dimensional Photonic Bandgap Crystals at Near-Infrared Wavelengths," Science 289, 604Reflection of focused beams from opal photonic crystals Karri Varis, Marco Mattila Optoelectronics 10-14, D-55099 Mainz, Germany Abstract: We present a robust method for computing the reflection

  11. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  12. Reflections on fieldwork among the Gurungs of Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

      REFLECTIONS ON FIELDWORK AMONG THE GURUNGS OF NEPAL     These reflections on work among the Gurungs were filmed in the autumn of 2000 A.D. I talked into the camera in order to capture some of the reasons why I ended up doing fieldwork...

  13. Carbachol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage by down-regulating NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ying [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China (China)] [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China (China); Li, Jianguo, E-mail: 2010lijianguo@sina.cn [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China (China)] [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China (China)

    2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced ileal tight junction damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol prevented the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol exerted its beneficial effects in an {alpha}7 nicotinic receptor-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist that protects the intestines after trauma or burn injury. The present study determines the beneficial effects of carbachol and the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg LPS. Results showed that the gut barrier permeability was reduced, the ultrastructural disruption of tight junctions (TJs) was prevented, the redistribution of zonula occludens-1 and claudin-2 proteins was partially reversed, and the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-{kappa}{beta}) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) activation in the intestinal epithelium were suppressed after carbachol administration in LPS-exposed rats. Pretreatment with the {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7nAchR) antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin blocked the protective action of carbachol. These results suggested that carbachol treatment can protect LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Carbachol exerts its beneficial effect on the amelioration of the TJ damage by inhibiting the NF-{kappa}{beta} and MLCK pathways in an {alpha}7nAchR-dependent manner.

  14. Hydraulic fracture model and diagnostics verification at GRI/DOE multi-site projects and tight gas sand program support. Final report, July 28, 1993--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, J.E.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mesaverde Group of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado has been a pilot study area for government-sponsored tight gas sand research for over twenty years. Early production experiments included nuclear stimulations and massive hydraulic fracture treatments. This work culminated in the US Department of Energy (DOE)`s Multiwell Experiment (MWX), a field laboratory designed to study the reservoir and production characteristics of low permeability sands. A key feature of MWX was an infrastructure which included several closely spaced wells that allowed detailed characterization of the reservoir through log and core analysis, and well testing. Interference and tracer tests, as well as the use of fracture diagnostics gave further information on stimulation and production characteristics. Thus, the Multiwell Experiment provided a unique opportunity for identifying the factors affecting production from tight gas sand reservoirs. The purpose of this operation was to support the gathering of field data that may be used to resolve the number of unknowns associated with measuring and modeling the dimensions of hydraulic fractures. Using the close-well infrastructure at the Multiwell Site near Rifle, Colorado, this operation focused primarily on the field design and execution of experiments. The data derived from the experiments were gathered and analyzed by DOE team contractors.

  15. Greenwood, Foster, and Romani: Archaeological Study of CA-VEN-110, California; and Roeder: Archaeological Study of CA-VEN-110, Ventura, California: Fish Remains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, John R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    procedures had been followed by Ventura County, the Corps ofStudy of CA-VEN-110, Ventura, California: Fish Remains. MarkLemos, and Jamie Karl V, Ventura County, et al,. Central

  16. Vertebrate remains from the Wilson-Leonard site (41WM235), Williamson County, Texas: Holocene animal exploitation in central Texas prehistory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Barry Wayne

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VERTEBRATE REMAINS FROM THE WILSON-LEONARD SITE (41WM235L WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TEXAS: HOLOCENE ANIMAL EXPLOITATION IN CENTRAL TEXAS PREHISTORY A Thesis by BARRY WAYNE BAKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS May 1994 Major Subject: Anthropology VERTEBRATE REMAINS FROM THE WILSON-LEONARD SITE (41WM235), WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TEXAS: HOLOCENE ANIMAL EXPLOITATION IN CENTRAL TEXAS...

  17. Solids Fraction Measurement with a Reflective Fiber Optic Probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seachman, S.M.; Yue, P.C.; Ludlow, J.C.; Shadle, L.J.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method has been developed to extract solids fraction information from a reflective fiber optic probe. The commercially available reflective fiber optic probe was designed to measure axial particle velocity (both up and down directions). However, the reflected light intensity measured is related to particle size and particle concentration. A light reflection model is used to relate the reflected light intensity to solids fraction. In this model we assume that the reflected light intensity is a fixed fraction, K1, of the total light intensity lost in penetration of a solid layer. Also, the solids fraction is related to particle concentration, N, in the light path, by N = K2 (1- ?), where (1-?) is the solids fraction. The parameters K1 and K2 are determined through a calibration and curve fitting procedure. This paper describes this procedure and the steps taken to derive the values of K1 and K2. It is proposed that the reflective fiber optic can be used for real time measurement of solids fraction in a circulating fluid bed.

  18. The Influence of Particle Size on Infrared Reflectance Spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflectance spectra of solids are influenced by the absorption coefficient as well as the particle size and morphology. In the infrared, spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: in general, the upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from surface scattering, which are rays that have reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks result from either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated into the sample or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signal reflected from solids usually encompasses all these effects which include dependencies on particle size, morphology and sample density. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. The bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and then sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions: 0-45, 45-90, 90-180, 180-250, 250-500, and >500 microns. The directional-hemispherical spectra were recorded using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere to measure the reflectance for all of the particle-size fractions. We have studied both organic and inorganic materials, but this paper focuses on inorganic salts, NaNO3 in particular. Our studies clearly show that particle size has an enormous influence on the measured reflectance spectra for bulk materials and that successful identification requires sufficient representative reflectance data so as to include the particle size(s) of interest. Origins of the effects are discussed.

  19. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage and energy efficiency viewpoint. Our numerical approach and energy analysis will next be applied in designing and evaluating the performance of a planned full-scale pilot test of the proposed underground CAES concept.

  20. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  1. Quantitative laboratory observations of internal wave reflection on ascending slopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dauxois, Thierry

    a stratified fluid with an angle that is fixed with respect to gravity. Upon reflection on a sloping bed that for a fixed frequency, the direction in which energy propagates with respect to the horizontal, , is fixed

  2. Seismic reflection analysis of the Manson Impact Structure, Iowa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiswetter, Dean; Black, Ross A.; Steeples, Don W.

    1996-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Our combined interpretation of new, high-resolution seismic reflection data and reprocessed, but previously published, industrial Vibroseis data indicates that the Manson Impact Structure, Iowa, has an apparent crater ...

  3. Image statistics and the perception of surface reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharan, Lavanya

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Humans are surprisingly good at judging the reflectance of complex surfaces even when the surfaces are viewed in isolation, contrary to the Gelb effect. We argue that textural cues are important for this task. Traditional ...

  4. Seismic Reflection Studies in Long Valley Caldera, Califomia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Ross A.; Deemer, Sharon J.; Smithson, Scott B.

    1991-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Seismic reflection studies in Long Valley caldera, California, indicate that seismic methods may be successfully employed to image certain types of features in young silicic caldera environments. However, near-surface ...

  5. Reflective Interfaces : assisting teens with stressful situations online

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Birago (Birago Korayga)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the concept of Reflective Interfaces, a novel approach to user experience design that promotes positive behavioral norms. Traditional interface design methodologies such as User Centered Design are ...

  6. Quantum field theoretical description for the reflectivity of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordag, M; Mostepanenko, V M; Petrov, V M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the polarization tensor of graphene at nonzero temperature in (2+1)-dimensional space-time. The obtained tensor coincides with the previously known one at all Matsubara frequencies, but, in contrast to it, admits analytic continuation to the real frequency axis satisfying all physical requirements. Using the obtained representation for the polarization tensor, we develope quantum field theoretical description for the reflectivity of graphene. The analytic asymptotic expressions for the reflection coefficients and reflectivities at low and high frequencies are derived for both independent polarizations of the electromagnetic field. The dependencies of reflectivities on the frequency and angle of incidence are investigated. Numerical computations using the exact expressions for the polarization tensor are performed and application regions for the analytic asymptotic results are determined.

  7. Reflective Cracking Study: HVS Test Section Forensic Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, David; Steven, B.; Harvey, John T

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the asphalt concrete. Summary of Testing on the Underlyingtesting performed to validate Caltrans overlay strategies for the rehabilitation of cracked asphalt concrete.concrete. It describes the forensic investigation of the HVS rutting and reflective cracking testing

  8. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions and Hall-Littlewoo* *d functions associated to W are introduced, and Green functions are described

  9. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin Films. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin...

  10. Standardization of Solar Mirror Reflectance Measurements - Round Robin Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyen, S.; Lupfert, E.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Kennedy, C.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the SolarPaces Task III standardization activities, DLR, CIEMAT, and NREL have concentrated on optimizing the procedure to measure the reflectance of solar mirrors. From this work, the laboratories have developed a clear definition of the method and requirements needed of commercial instruments for reliable reflectance results. A round robin test was performed between the three laboratories with samples that represent all of the commercial solar mirrors currently available for concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The results show surprisingly large differences in hemispherical reflectance (sh) of 0.007 and specular reflectance (ss) of 0.004 between the laboratories. These differences indicate the importance of minimum instrument requirements and standardized procedures. Based on these results, the optimal procedure will be formulated and validated with a new round robin test in which a better accuracy is expected. Improved instruments and reference standards are needed to reach the necessary accuracy for cost and efficiency calculations.

  11. alfven wave reflection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    viscosity and the magnetic diffusivity of the fluid, also known as the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. In the special case Pm1, there is no reflection on an insulating, no-slip...

  12. Method of fabricating reflection-mode EUV diffraction elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P. (Oakland, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques for fabricating a well-controlled, quantized-level, engineered surface that serves as substrates for EUV reflection multilayer overcomes problems associated with the fabrication of reflective EUV diffraction elements. The technique when employed to fabricate an EUV diffraction element that includes the steps of: (a) forming an etch stack comprising alternating layers of first and second materials on a substrate surface where the two material can provide relative etch selectivity; (b) creating a relief profile in the etch stack wherein the relief profile has a defined contour; and (c) depositing a multilayer reflection film over the relief profile wherein the film has an outer contour that substantially matches that of the relief profile. For a typical EUV multilayer, if the features on the substrate are larger than 50 nm, the multilayer will be conformal to the substrate. Thus, the phase imparted to the reflected wavefront will closely match that geometrically set by the surface height profile.

  13. Reflective Middleware Solutions for Context-Aware Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Wolfgang

    Reflective Middleware Solutions for Context-Aware Applications Licia Capra, Wolfgang Emmerich and Cecilia Mascolo Dept. of Computer Science University College London Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK {L.Capra|W.Emmerich

  14. aqua modis reflectance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Standards Process Breakout Session June 15, 2005 Robert Wolfe NASA GSFC Code 614.5 & Raytheon ITSS 12;June 15, 2005 - Wolfe - San Diego 2 MODIS Land Surface Reflectance products:...

  15. Reflection and Transmission of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields through Multilayered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oughstun, Kurt

    Reflection and Transmission of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields through Multilayered Biological Media- cally rigorous, physically correct description of the propagation of pulsed electromagnetic fields pulses through multilayered biological media consisting of three biological tissue layers rep- resenting

  16. andreev reflection spectroscopy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Probing Exotic Superconducting Order Parameters Using Point-contact Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy. Open Access...

  17. andreev reflection measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Probing Exotic Superconducting Order Parameters Using Point-contact Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy. Open Access...

  18. Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Dianne P.

    Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members Dianne P. O'Leary http O'Leary. Copyright Dianne P. O'Leary, 1999 Version 1: June 1999 1 Picture Yourself: You are male

  19. Anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun; Branz, Howard M

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H.sub.2 production from water splitting half-reaction.

  20. Universal signal processing method for multimode reflective sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Robert Eugene

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sensitivity, but the sensor configuration is complicated and requires the use of expensive lasers and single mode fibers. Amplitude modulation trades sensitivity for low cost and ease of configuration by using light emitting diodes and multimode fibers. A... method for reflective sensors using optical fibers as the data transmission media. The proposed transmitter - receiver unit was based on the amplitude modulation of reflected optical signals. This involves the use of an light emitting diode (LED...

  1. The Lyons Creek boat remains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neyland, Robert Stephen

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transportation. Only a few other American colonial-era small craft have as yet been studied, some of which are the Brown's P*y 1 'S*thC1', thEm'Lk Champlain, the Hart's Cove wzeck in New Hampshire, the J R' b t 1 V' g' ', d tl* ~Sk Massachusetts (Albright..., beginning at its mouth, is 9ust over a mile, while the drainage system extends for several miles east of Maryland Route 4. Near the mouth of Lyons Creek, the northern shore is a wetland that is reduced to a grassy mudflat at ebb tide. Only a slender...

  2. Diesel prices remain fairly stable

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management FermiDavidDiesel prices continueU.S.DieselDiesel

  3. DEWEK Wind Energy Conference 2012 Category: 4. Simulation models BACKWARD EXTRAPOLATION OF SHORT-TIME MEASUREMENT DATA FOR A REMAINING SERVICE LIFE ESTIMATION OF WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    DEWEK Wind Energy Conference 2012 Category: 4. Simulation models 1 BACKWARD EXTRAPOLATION OF SHORT-TIME MEASUREMENT DATA FOR A REMAINING SERVICE LIFE ESTIMATION OF WIND TURBINES Dipl.-Ing. René Kamieth, Prof. Dr, Germany, Tel.: +49-(0)30-314-23603, Fax: +49-(0)30-314-26131 Summary Wind turbines built in the last

  4. Remaining FY13 Compensatory (COMP) Bank Balances in ITAMS This is to remind you that compensatory (COMP) hours may not be carried over from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Remaining FY13 Compensatory (COMP) Bank Balances in ITAMS This is to remind you that compensatory week that Fiscal Year 2013 COMP hours can be used via ITAMS. Approved timesheets for the June 9-15th University policy, hours may not be recorded in units of less than one-quarter hour. ITAMS only allows work

  5. Remaining FY14 Compensatory (COMP) Bank Balances in ITAMS This is to remind you that compensatory (COMP) hours may not be carried over from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Remaining FY14 Compensatory (COMP) Bank Balances in ITAMS This is to remind you that compensatory week that Fiscal Year 2014 COMP hours can be used via ITAMS. Approved timesheets for the June 8-14th that per University policy, hours may not be recorded in units of less than one-quarter hour. ITAMS only

  6. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE | VOL 3 | FEBRUARY 2013 | www.nature.com/natureclimatechange 105 ossil fuels are expected to remain the dominant source of energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    fuels are expected to remain the dominant source of energy for decades to come1 (Fig. 1). Capturing, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Blue Map scenario2 envis- ages a 19% CO2 reductions contribution from CCS (ref. 4.) The IEA World Energy Outlook 20111 forecasts that existing energy facilities will account

  7. http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/search/detail/Bird_flu_ban_remains_despite_migration_shift.html?siteSect=881& sid=7420407&cKey=1168586962000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Nadir

    , warmer than average temperatures in the Atlantic and Mediterranean ­ all pumping heat into the atmosphere_flu_ban_remains_despite_migration_shift.html?siteSect=881& sid=7420407&cKey=1168586962000 Monday 05.03.2007 Climate warning resonates in Switzerland weather heralded a bumper year for bugs and ticks. He said a cold snap in February or March would still

  8. Reflection and Exclusion of Shear Zones in Inhomogeneous Granular Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamas Borzsonyi; Tamas Unger; Balazs Szabo; Sandra Wegner; Frank Angenstein; Ralf Stannarius

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Shear localization in granular materials is studied experimentally and numerically. The system consists of two material layers with different effective frictions. The presence of the material interface leads to a special type of "total internal reflection" of the shear zone. In a wide range of configurations the reflection is characterized by a fixed angle which is analogous to the critical angle of refraction in optics. The zone leaves and reenters the high friction region at this critical angle and in between it stays near the interface in the low friction region. The formalism describing the geometry of the shear zones and that of refracted and reflected light beams is very similar. For the internal visualization of shear localization two independent experimental techniques were used (i) excavation and (ii) Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  9. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  10. Corrosion-resistant multilayer structures with improved reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Robinson, Jeff C.

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In one general embodiment, a thin film structure includes a substrate; a first corrosion barrier layer above the substrate; a reflective layer above the first corrosion barrier layer, wherein the reflective layer comprises at least one repeating set of sub-layers, wherein one of the sub-layers of each set of sub-layers being of a corrodible material; and a second corrosion barrier layer above the reflective layer. In another general embodiment, a system includes an optical element having a thin film structure as recited above; and an image capture or spectrometer device. In a further general embodiment, a laser according to one embodiment includes a light source and the thin film structure as recited above.

  11. Simulation of the Reflected Blast Wave froma C-4 Charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, W M; Kuhl, A L; Tringe, J W

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 {micro}m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 8 ranges (GR = 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 inches) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 2 inches), which were dominated by jetting effects.

  12. Relativistic Effects on Reflection X-ray Spectra of AGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; /University Coll. London; Fuerst, Steven V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Brandwardi-Raymond, Graziella; Wu, Kinwah; Crowley, Oliver; /University Coll. London

    2007-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We have calculated the reflection component of the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and shown that they can be significantly modified by the relativistic motion of the accretion flow and various gravitational effects of the central black hole. The absorption edges in the reflection spectra suffer severe energy shifts and smearing. The degree of distortion depends on the system parameters, and the dependence is stronger for some parameters such as the inner radius of the accretion disk and the disk viewing inclination angles. The relativistic effects are significant and are observable. Improper treatment of the reflection component of the X-ray continuum in spectral fittings will give rise to spurious line-like features, which will mimic the fluorescent emission lines and mask the relativistic signatures of the lines.

  13. Millisecond time resolution neutron reflection from a nematic liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalgliesh, R.M.; Lau, Y.G.J.; Richardson, R.M.; Riley, D.J. [ISIS Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantocks Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The director reorientation of the liquid crystal 4,4' octyl cyanobiphenyl in the nematic phase under application of bursts of ac field have been observed using time-resolved neutron scattering in reflection geometry. The relaxation of the director has been shown to agree with existing theory, as determined by material and cell parameters. This result shows that it is possible to use neutron reflection measurements from buried interfaces to follow kinetic processes on a time scale comparable with the pulse length of the ISIS neutron source (20 ms)

  14. Effect of window reflections on photonic Doppler velocimetry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ao, T.; Dolan, D. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) has rapidly become a standard diagnostic for measuring velocities in dynamic compression research. While free surface velocity measurements are fairly straightforward, complications occur when PDV is used to measure a dynamically loaded sample through a window. Fresnel reflections can severely affect the velocity and time resolution of PDV measurements, especially for low-velocity transients. Shock experiments of quartz compressed between two sapphire plates demonstrate how optical window reflections cause ringing in the extracted PDV velocity profile. Velocity ringing is significantly reduced by using either a wedge window or an antireflective coating.

  15. High-accuracy measurements of the normal specular reflectance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voarino, Philippe; Piombini, Herve; Sabary, Frederic; Marteau, Daniel; Dubard, Jimmy; Hameury, Jacques; Filtz, Jean Remy

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The French Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is designed and constructed by the French Commissariata l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Its amplifying section needs highly reflective multilayer mirrors for the flash lamps. To monitor and improve the coating process, the reflectors have to be characterized to high accuracy. The described spectrophotometer is designed to measure normal specular reflectance with high repeatability by using a small spot size of 100 {mu}m. Results are compared with ellipsometric measurements. The instrument can also perform spatial characterization to detect coating nonuniformity.

  16. The enlargement of high reflectance range in ultra-narrow bandpass filter with disordered one-dimensional photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Guibin, E-mail: gbchen@hytc.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low Dimensional Material, Huaiyin Normal University, Jiangsu 223300 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics, Optoelectronic Technology and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yu, Haichun [Department of Physics and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low Dimensional Material, Huaiyin Normal University, Jiangsu 223300 (China)

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The conventional ultra-narrow bandpass filter structure has only a very limited width of high-reflectance range. This study, by introducing disorder into one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal, attempts to enlarge the width of high-reflectance range while keeping the ultra-narrow bandpass. Enlargement by 46.8% was obtained after theoretical design. Since this structure contains some degree of disorder already, it has a strong tolerance of the variation of layer thicknesses. Unlike studies using conventional periodic structures, theoretical statistical results in this study demonstrate that high quality remains even after allowing for ±5% variation of layer thicknesses. This indicates that only a very low thickness control precision is required in the future and the production difficulty is immensely lowered. To put the construction to test, a structure has been developed and demonstrated by a magnetron reactive sputtering coating system, which agrees with the theoretical result very well. By introducing disorder into the periodic 1D photonic crystal structure, the high-reflectance range is significantly extended by 37%, with an ultra-narrow pass band of 0.8?nm and intensity of 82%.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 118-C-3:3, 105-C French Drains, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The 118-C-3:3 french drains received condensate from the steam heating system in the 105-C Reactor Building. The 118-C-3:3 french drain meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Phased Construction Completion Report for Bldg. K-1401 of the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Phased Construction Completion Report documents the demolition of Bldg. K-1401, Maintenance Building, addressed in the Action Memorandum for the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2003a) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 non-time-critical removal action. The objectives of the removal action (DOE 2003a) - to eliminate the source of potential contamination, to eliminate the threat of potential future releases, and/or to eliminate the threats to the general public and the environment - were met. The end state of this action is for the slab to remain with all penetrations sealed and grouted or backfilled. The basement and pits remain open. There is residual radiological and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination on the slab and basement. A fixative was applied to the area on the pad contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. Interim land-use controls will be maintained until final remediation decisions are made under the Zone 2 Record of Decision (DOE 2005a).

  19. Phased Construction Completion Report for Building K-1401 of the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at the East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garland S.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Phased Construction Completion Report documents the demolition of Bldg. K-1401, Maintenance Building, addressed in the Action Memorandum for the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2003a) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 non-time-critical removal action. The objectives of the removal action (DOE 2003a) - to eliminate the source of potential contamination, to eliminate the threat of potential future releases, and/or to eliminate the threats to the general public and the environment - were met. The end state of this action is for the slab to remain with all penetrations sealed and grouted or backfilled. The basement and pits remain open. There is residual radiological and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination on the slab and basement. A fixative was applied to the area on the pad contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. Interim land-use controls will be maintained until final remediation decisions are made under the Zone 2 Record of Decision (DOE 2005a).

  20. Freie Universitt Berlin Transient reflectivity and coherent phonon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Martin

    Freie Universität Berlin Transient reflectivity and coherent phonon excitation: An ultrafast probe-Hubbard? . . . . . . 35 1.3.3 The photoinduced phase transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 I #12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2.1.1 Generation of ultrashort laser pulses: the mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillator

  1. Visible and near infrared reflectances measured from laboratory ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    ,aswellasuncertaintiesin data, validation by means of the independent in situ airborne and ground-based measurements that are co. Liou Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles the measured ice particle morphology. We demonstrate that laboratory scat- tering and reflectance data for thin

  2. Propagation and reflection of internal waves B. R. Sutherlanda)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Bruce

    Propagation and reflection of internal waves B. R. Sutherlanda) Department of Mathematical Sciences 01205-2 I. INTRODUCTION An internal wave is a disturbance propagating under the effects of buoyancy gravity waves incident upon a level where the Doppler-shifted frequency of the waves is comparable

  3. Vitrinite reflectance anisotropy as a tectonic fabric element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington); Davis, A.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The anisotropy of the coal maceral vitrinite was analyzed in relation to the tectonic setting of a coal from the Southern Anthracite Field in Pennsylvania. For the coal studied, the maximum-intermediate reflectance plane essentially paralleled the axial plane of the synclinorium (N66/sup 0/E strike, 64/sup 0/SE dip).

  4. Toward Infusing Modular and Reflective Design Learning throughout the Curriculum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgas, John

    Toward Infusing Modular and Reflective Design Learning throughout the Curriculum John C. Georgas intervention that cen- ters on the widespread infusion of design learning throughout the curriculum using: An emphasis on broadly infusing design learning through the curriculum using modular design challenges

  5. architecture reflects pluripotency: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    architecture reflects pluripotency First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A Preliminary...

  6. Recent supermarket prices may reflect strong consumer demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    's population should help to sustain relatively high prices that are needed to pay for the labor- and management) efficient horticultural practices; 5) effective management of weeds, pests and diseases; 6) timely crop management plan" should be derived to reflect the specific philosophy (eg., organic vs. conven

  7. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. for residential buildings. To meet IECC's U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) requirements insulatingLBNL-5022E Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Authors: R. Hart*, C. Curcija of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would

  8. Green functions and Macdonald functions associated to complex reflection groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    Green functions and Macdonald functions associated to complex reflection groups Toshiaki Shoji Department of Mathematics Science University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278­8510, Japan 1. Introduction 1.1. Green functions are introduced by J.A. Green [G] in 1955, in connection with the representation theory of general

  9. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II TOSHIAKI SHOJI Department of Mathematics Science University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278­8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions associated­Littlewood functions associated to W are introduced, and Green functions are described as the transition matrix between

  10. ON GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    ON GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS TOSHIAKI SHOJI Department of Mathematics Science University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278­8510, Japan §1. What are the Green functions Green functions are introduced by J.A. Green[G] in 1955, in connection with the representation theory of general linear groups GL

  11. ON GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    ON GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan x1. What are the Green functions Green functions are introduced by J.A. Green[G] in 1955, in connection with * *the

  12. Stochastic Systems Group MR Bias Correction and Reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willsky, Alan S.

    . Fisher, M. Cetin, S. Haker, A. Willsky #12;Stochastic Systems Group Outline 1. Introduction 2. MR) · Both maps will have edges #12;Stochastic Systems Group Outline 1. Introduction 2. MR measurement modelStochastic Systems Group MR Bias Correction and Reflectance and Illumination Separation Ayres Fan

  13. Fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays using low reflectance internal mirrors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong-Seo

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new design of fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays phics. using low reflectance internal mirrors in optical fibers is investigated. The mirrors are produced by fusion arc splicing of two fibers, one of which has a thin film of TiO2 on the end. A...

  14. AOP and Reflection for Dynamic Hyperslices R. Chitchyan, I. Sommerville

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommerville, Ian

    ­ for decomposition and reflection as a means for composition of software modules. This model allows for structured Hyperslices model [8, 9] is intended to support the dynamic evolution of non-stop systems, i.e. systems. The model uses the Hyperspaces approach [10-12] to decompose the software system into "single

  15. Reflections on Fusion's History and Implications for Fusion's Future*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reflections on Fusion's History and Implications for Fusion's Future* Robert Conn Fusion Energy, "Opportunities and Directions in Fusion Energy Science for the Next Decade", held July 11-23, 1999 in Snowmass, Colorado. #12;2 Abstract History shows that all the major opportunities to advance fusion research were

  16. Skin cancer detection by oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Elizabeth Brooks

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer and it is on the rise. If skin cancer is diagnosed early enough, the survival rate is close to 90%. Oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance (OIR) spectroscopy offers a technology that may be used...

  17. Some reflections on mathematics and its relation to computer science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Some reflections on mathematics and its relation to computer science Liesbeth De Mol "No paradigm, it is worthless Knuth used this story to explain how he considered mathematics and computer science to be distinct, for developing my thoughts on experimental mathematics and computer science. Of equal importance is the fact

  18. Light Source Interpolation for Sparsely Sampled Reflectance Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Light Source Interpolation for Sparsely Sampled Reflectance Fields Billy Chen, Hendrik P. A. Lensch present a technique that approximates the correct result of relighting from intermediate light source resolution in the light source positions is rather lim- ited. As a consequence, smoothly moving high- lights

  19. REFLECTIONS: PERSONAL ESSAYS ON EVOLUTION Use the Word Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, John N.

    REFLECTIONS: PERSONAL ESSAYS ON EVOLUTION Use the Word Evolution John N. Thompson Published online: 20 November 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007 Examples of rapid evolution abound that evolution is a glacially slow process that is almost impossible for humans to observe. This disconnection

  20. Some Reflections on the Periodization of Tibetan History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuevas, Bryan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some Reflections on the Periodization of Tibetan History* Bryan J. Cuevas(Florida State University, USA) istory is always expressed as a narrative, a story about the past. Towrite a story out of the events of the past, historians must give...

  1. Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Dianne P.

    Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members Dianne P. O'Leary \\Lambda June. This document benefitted from helpful advice and references from Nora Sleumer and Timothy O'Leary. Copyright Dianne P. O'Leary, 1999 Version 1: June 1999 1 Picture Yourself: You are male, almost 20 years old, naive

  2. Exploiting tightly-coupled cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bates, Daniel; Bradbury, Alex; Koltes, Andreas; Mullins, Robert

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    . The scratchpad has the advantage that when a table is stored, element x of the table can often be stored at index x of the scratchpad, eliminating the need to generate a memory address. 2.4 Memory system Each tile holds eight 8kB memory banks which make up... the cache hierarchy. In general, the benchmarks with the highest energy consumption per operation are those for which the L0 instruction cache performs poorly: adpcm (both compression and decompression) consists mainly of a single loop which is too large...

  3. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarketsNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15Gas Reserve

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-233 Waste Site, Vertical Pipe Near 100-B Electrical Laydown Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-041

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The 600-233 waste site consisted of three small-diameter pipelines within the 600-232 waste site, including previously unknown diesel fuel supply lines discovered during site remediation. The 600-233 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F7, 141-M Building Septic Tank, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-040

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1607-F7, 141-M Building Septic Tank waste site was a septic tank and drain field that received sanitary sewage from the former 141-M Building. Remedial action was performed in August and November 2005. The results of verification sampling demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. These results also show that residual concentrations support unrestricted future use of shallow zone soil and that contaminant levels remaining in the soil are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Integral Field Spectroscopy of a Tightly Collimated Bipolar Jet from the Herbig Ae star LkHa 233

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall D. Perrin; James R. Graham

    2007-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the integral field spectrograph OSIRIS and laser guide star adaptive optics at Keck Observatory to obtain high angular resolution (0.06"), moderate spectral resolution (R ~ 3800) images of the bipolar jet from the Herbig Ae star LkHa 233, seen in near-IR [Fe II] emission at 1.600 & 1.644 microns. This jet is narrow and tightly collimated, with an opening angle of only 9 degrees, and has an average radial velocity of ~ 100 km/s. The jet and counterjet are asymmetric, with the red-shifted jet much clumpier than its counterpart at the angular resolution of our observations. The observed properties are in general similar to jets seen around T Tauri stars, though it has a relatively large mass flux of (1.2e-7 +- 0.3e-7) M_sun/year, near the high end of the observed mass flux range around T Tauri stars. We also spatially resolve an inclined circumstellar disk around LkHa 233, which obscures the star from direct view. By comparison with numerical radiative transfer disk models, we estimate the disk midplane to be inclined i = 65 +- 5 degrees relative to the plane of the sky. Since the star is seen only in scattered light at near-infrared wavelengths, we detect only a small fraction of its intrinsic flux. Because previous estimates of its stellar properties did not account for this, either LkHa 233 must be located closer than the previously believed, or its true luminosity must be greater than previously supposed, consistent with its being a ~4 M_sun star near the stellar birthline.

  8. Measuring large optical reflection matrices of turbid media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hyeonseung; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the measurement of a large optical reflection matrix (RM) of a highly disordered medium. Incident optical fields onto a turbid sample are controlled by a spatial light modulator, and the corresponding fields reflected from the sample are measured using full-field Michelson interferometry. The number of modes in the measured RM is set to exceed the number of resolvable modes in the scattering media. We successfully study the subtle intrinsic correlations in the RM which agrees with the theoretical prediction by random-matrix theory when the effect of the limited numerical aperture on the eigenvalue distribution of the RM is taken into account. The possibility of the enhanced delivery of incident energy into scattering media is also examined from the eigenvalue distribution which promises efficient light therapeutic applications.

  9. Multipath Reflections Analysis on Indoor Visible Light Positioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Wenjun; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Visible light communication (VLC) has become a promising research topic in recent years, and finds its wide applications in indoor environments. Particularly, for location based services (LBS), visible light also provides a practical solution for indoor positioning. Multipath-induced dispersion is one of the major concerns for complex indoor environments. It affects not only the communication performance but also the positioning accuracy. In this paper, we investigate the impact of multipath reflections on the positioning accuracy of indoor VLC positioning systems. Combined Deterministic and Modified Monte Carlo (CDMMC) approach is applied to estimate the channel impulse response considering multipath reflections. Since the received signal strength (RSS) information is used for the positioning algorithm, the power distribution from one transmitter in a typical room configuration is first calculated. Then, the positioning accuracy in terms of root mean square error is obtained and analyzed.

  10. Method and apparatus for inspecting reflection masks for defects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey (Oakland, CA); Lin, Yun (Berkeley, CA)

    2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An at-wavelength system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defect detection is provided. When a focused beam of wavelength 13 nm is incident on a defective region of a mask blank, three possible phenomena can occur. The defect will induce an intensity reduction in the specularly reflected beam, scatter incoming photons into an off-specular direction, and change the amplitude and phase of the electric field at the surface which can be monitored through the change in the photoemission current. The magnitude of these changes will depend on the incident beam size, and the nature, extent and size of the defect. Inspection of the mask blank is performed by scanning the mask blank with 13 nm light focused to a spot a few .mu.m in diameter, while measuring the reflected beam intensity (bright field detection), the scattered beam intensity (dark-field detection) and/or the change in the photoemission current.

  11. Quantum Brownian motion near a point-like reflecting boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. De Lorenci; E. S. Moreira Jr.; M. M. Silva

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Brownian motion of a test particle interacting with a quantum scalar field in the presence of a perfectly reflecting boundary is studied in (1 + 1)-dimensional flat spacetime. Particularly, the expressions for dispersions in velocity and position of the particle are explicitly derived and their behaviors examined. The results are similar to those corresponding to an electric charge interacting with a quantum electromagnetic field near a reflecting plane boundary, mainly regarding the divergent behavior of the dispersions at the origin (where the boundary is placed), and at the time interval corresponding to a round trip of a light pulse between the particle and the boundary. We close by addressing some effects of allowing the position of the particle to fluctuate.

  12. A fractal set from the binary reflected Gray code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. Oteo; J. Ros

    2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The permutation associated with the decimal expression of the binary reflected Gray code with $N$ bits is considered. Its cycle structure is studied. Considered as a set of points, its self-similarity is pointed out. As a fractal, it is shown to be the attractor of a IFS. For large values of $N$ the set is examined from the point of view of time series analysis

  13. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, David M. (Voorheesville, NY); Downing, Robert G. (Albany, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence.

  14. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, D.M.; Downing, R.G.

    1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence. 11 figs.

  15. A statistical study of bright spot reflection parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godwin, David Lee

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cal Study of Bright Spot Reflection Parameters. (December 1981) David Lee Godwin, B. S. , Pepperdine University Chairman of Adv1sory Committee: Dr. T. W. Spencer A data set consisting of two seismic lines served as the basis of study... obtained from each of the seismic lines were compared to deter- mine if the presence of commercial quantities of gas could be identified. The measurement process revealed that the interval travel time measurements between the marker horizons...

  16. Reflection beamshifts of visible light due to graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermosa, N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I present theoretical calculations of reflection beamshifts, Goos-H\\"anchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts, due to the presence of a monolayer graphene on a dielectric media when using a beam with wavelength in the visible range. Specifically, I look at beamshifts for different polarization states (p, s, $45^0$, $\\sigma^+$). The Goos-H\\"anchen shifts I calculated are in good agreement with results of a recent experiment. I will discuss other possible experimental routes to determine beamshifts in graphene.

  17. An asymptotic model of seismic reflection from a permeable layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, D.; Goloshubin, G.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of compression wave propagation in a poroelastic medium predicts a peak of reflection from a high-permeability layer in the low-frequency end of the spectrum. An explicit formula expresses the resonant frequency through the elastic moduli of the solid skeleton, the permeability of the reservoir rock, the fluid viscosity and compressibility, and the reservoir thickness. This result is obtained through a low-frequency asymptotic analysis of Biot's model of poroelasticity. A review of the derivation of the main equations from the Hooke's law, momentum and mass balance equations, and Darcy's law suggests an alternative new physical interpretation of some coefficients of the classical poroelasticity. The velocity of wave propagation, the attenuation factor, and the wave number, are expressed in the form of power series with respect to a small dimensionless parameter. The absolute value of this parameter is equal to the product of the kinematic reservoir fluid mobility and the wave frequency. Retaining only the leading terms of the series leads to explicit and relatively simple expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients for a planar wave crossing an interface between two permeable media, as well as wave reflection from a thin highly-permeable layer (a lens). Practical applications of the obtained asymptotic formulae are seismic modeling, inversion, and at-tribute analysis.

  18. Partially Reflected Brownian Motion: A Stochastic Approach to Transport Phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis S. Grebenkov

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Transport phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and known to be important for various scientific domains. Examples can be found in physics, electrochemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, physiology, etc. To obtain new information about diffusive or Laplacian transport towards a semi-permeable or resistive interface, one can study the random trajectories of diffusing particles modeled, in a first approximation, by the partially reflected Brownian motion. This stochastic process turns out to be a convenient mathematical foundation for discrete, semi-continuous and continuous theoretical descriptions of diffusive transport. This paper presents an overview of these topics with a special emphasis on the close relation between stochastic processes with partial reflections and Laplacian transport phenomena. We give selected examples of these phenomena followed by a brief introduction to the partially reflected Brownian motion and related probabilistic topics (e.g., local time process and spread harmonic measure). A particular attention is paid to the use of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator. Some practical consequences and further perspectives are discussed.

  19. Reflection nebulae in the Galactic Center: the case for soft X-ray imaging polarimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marin, F; Soffitta, P; Karas, V; Kunneriath, D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of irradiation and fluorescence of the 6.4 keV bright giant molecular clouds surrounding Sgr A*, the central supermassive black hole of our Galaxy, remains enigmatic. Testing the theory of a past active period of Sgr A* requires X-ray polarimetry. In this paper, we show how modern imaging polarimeters could revolutionize our understanding of the Galactic Center. Through Monte Carlo modeling, we produce a 4-8 keV polarization map of the Galactic Center, focusing on the polarimetric signature produced by Sgr B1, Sgr B2, G0.11-0.11, Bridge E, Bridge D, Bridge B2, MC2, MC1, Sgr C3, Sgr C2, and Sgr C1. We estimate the resulting polarization, include polarized flux dilution by the diffuse plasma emission detected toward the GC, and simulate the polarization map that modern polarimetric detectors would obtain assuming the performances of a mission prototype. The eleven reflection nebulae investigated in this paper present a variety of polarization signatures, ranging from nearly unpolarized to highly pola...

  20. Energy conservation through interior shading of windows: an analysis, test, and evaluation of reflective venetian blinds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dyck, R L; Konen, T P

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows admit radiant and conducted heat energy as well as light and, for this reason, effective means for control is mandatory. Venetian blinds, providing continuous solar control, are ideal for energy efficient windows. They may be closed in the summer to block out undesirable solar radiation and opened in the winter to admit the valuable energy of the sun while providing year-round glare free illumination. Architects, engineers, and manufacturers have been reluctant to promote the use of venetian blinds as energy saving products because of remaining uncertainties in the technology. This cooperative program involving industry, government, and a university research team has developed predictive equations and has confirmed their ability to accurately predict shading coefficients through experiments in an environmental simulator with an artificial sun. Ten venetian blinds with a wide range of surface finishes, including gloss and Satin finish paints, polished aluminum, chrome deposition, and units with different colors on the upper and lower surfaces of the slats were included in the experimental work. The effect of solar incidence and slat angle on blind reflectance and shading coefficient was determined. The impact of varying incidence and slat angle on building energy load is discussed.

  1. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Brenchley, David L.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hashemian, Hash; Konnik, Robert; Ray, Sheila

    2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), NDE instrumentation development, universities, commercial NDE services and cable manufacturers, and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The motivation for the R&D roadmap comes from the need to address the aging management of in-containment cables at nuclear power plants (NPPs).

  2. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, K.L.; Ramuhali, P.; Brenchley, D.L.; Coble, J.B.; Hashemian, H.M.; Konnick, R.; Ray, S.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary [partial] The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. A workshop was held to gather subject matter experts to develop the NDE R&D Roadmap for Cables. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, and NDE instrumentation development from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), universities, commercial NDE service vendors and cable manufacturers, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:1 Main Process Sewer Collection Line, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The 100-C-9:1 main process sewer pipeline, also known as the twin box culvert, was a dual reinforced process sewer that collected process effluent from the 183-C and 190-C water treatment facilities, discharging at the 132-C-2 Outfall. For remedial action purposes, the 100-C-9:1 waste site was subdivided into northern and southern sections. The 100-C-9:1 subsite has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-44:2, Discovery Pipeline Near 108-F Building, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The 100-F-44:2 waste site is a steel pipeline that was discovered in a junction box during confirmatory sampling of the 100-F-26:4 pipeline from December 2004 through January 2005. The 100-F-44:2 pipeline feeds into the 100-F-26:4 subsite vitrified clay pipe (VCP) process sewer pipeline from the 108-F Biology Laboratory at the junction box. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The 100-D-9 site is the former location of an underground storage tank used for holding fuel for the 184-DA Boiler House. Results of soil-gas samples taken from six soil-gas probes in a rectangle around the site the tank had been removed from concluded that there were no volatile organic compounds at detectable levels in the area. The 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Kansas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Kansas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the state of Kansas and the nation as a whole.

  8. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas and Oklahoma. Volume 5, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma for five other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Kansas` known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma and the nation as a whole.

  9. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Oklahoma: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Oklahoma. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Oklahoma`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Oklahoma oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Oklahoma and the nation as a whole.

  10. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, domestic oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the nation as a whole.

  11. Effects of emitter sheath ion reflection and trapped ions on thermionic converter performance using an isothermal electron model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Main, G.L.; Lam, S.H.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper couples exact collisionless sheath calculations to an isothermal electron model of a thermionic converter. The emitter sheath structure takes into account reflected ions, trapped ions, and surface emission ions. It is shown that lessening the net loss of ions at the emitter in the ignited mode by these phenomena degrades performance. In addition, it is shown that when the emitter returns too many of the ions, the arc is extinguished because there is insufficient resistive heating to maintain the necessary plasma electron temperature for ionization. These results suggest that the ignited mode cannot be improved much. However, nonignited modes in which the electron temperature remains low, such as the pulsed mode, do not suffer from this adverse behavior.

  12. A Survey of Near Infrared Emission in Visual Reflection Nebulae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Sellgren; M. W. Werner; L. J. Allamandola

    1995-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a survey for extended 2.2 $\\mu$m emission in 20 new visual reflection nebulae, illuminated by stars with temperatures of 3,600 --- 33,000 K. We detect extended 2.2 $\\mu$m emission in 13 new nebulae, illuminated by stars with temperatures of 6,800 -- 33,000 K. For most of these 13 nebulae we have measured $J-K$, $H-K$, and $K-L'$, as well as obtaining surface brightness measurements at the wavelength of the 3.3 $\\mu$m emission feature. All of the reflection nebulae with extended near infrared emission in excess over scattered starlight have very similar near infrared colors and show the 3.3 $\\mu$m feature in emission with similar feature-to-continuum ratios. The 3.3 $\\mu$m feature-to-continuum ratio ranges from $\\sim$3 to $\\sim$9, both within individual nebulae and from nebula to nebula, which suggests that the 3.3 $\\mu$m feature and its underlying continuum arise from different materials, or from different ranges of sizes within a size distribution of particles. No dependence on the temperature of the illuminating star is seen in the near infrared colors or 3.3 $\\mu$m feature-to-continuum ratio, over a factor of two in stellar temperature. This is similar to our previous IRAS results, in which we found no dependence of the ratio of 12 $\\mu$m to 100 $\\mu$m surface brightnesses in reflection nebulae illuminated by stars with temperatures of 5,000--33,000 K.

  13. Graphene fish-scale array as controllable reflecting photonic structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitriev, Victor; Prosvirnin, Sergey L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report resonant features of novel controllable reflectarray which consists of meander-like graphene strips placed on a metal-backed dielectric substrate. The structure manifests two kinds of resonances appeared as sharp deeps of reflectivity. The first one exists because the strips of periodic cells of the structure have resonant sizes for induced surface plasmon-polaritons. The second kind of resonances is defined by excitation of TM eigenwaves of the whole structure as a plane photonic crystal. The latter resonances do not depend on whether the strips of the unit cells have resonant sizes or not.

  14. The reflection of very cold neutrons from diamond powder nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Nesvizhevsky; E. V. Lychagin; A. Yu. Muzychka; A. V. Strelkov; G. Pignol; K. V. Protasov

    2008-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study possibility of efficient reflection of very cold neutrons (VCN) from powders of nanoparticles. In particular, we measured the scattering of VCN at a powder of diamond nanoparticles as a function of powder sample thickness, neutron velocity and scattering angle. We observed extremely intense scattering of VCN even off thin powder samples. This agrees qualitatively with the model of independent nanoparticles at rest. We show that this intense scattering would allow us to use nanoparticle powders very efficiently as the very first reflectors for neutrons with energies within a complete VCN range up to $10^{-4}$ eV.

  15. Accurate hydrogen depth profiling by reflection elastic recoil detection analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verda, R. D. (Raymond D.); Tesmer, Joseph R.; Nastasi, Michael Anthony,; Bower, R. W. (Robert W.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique to convert reflection elastic recoil detection analysis spectra to depth profiles, the channel-depth conversion, was introduced by Verda, et al [1]. But the channel-depth conversion does not correct for energy spread, the unwanted broadening in the energy of the spectra, which can lead to errors in depth profiling. A work in progress introduces a technique that corrects for energy spread in elastic recoil detection analysis spectra, the energy spread correction [2]. Together, the energy spread correction and the channel-depth conversion comprise an accurate and convenient hydrogen depth profiling method.

  16. Fresnel reflection from a cavity with net roundtrip gain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansuripur, Tobias S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planewave incident on an active etalon with net roundtrip gain may be expected to diverge in field amplitude, yet Maxwell's equations admit only a convergent solution. By examining a Gaussian beam obliquely incident on such a cavity, we find that the "side-tail" of the beam leaks into the cavity and gives rise to a field that interferes with the main portion of the beam, which is ultimately responsible for the convergence of the field. This mechanism offers perspective for many phenomena, and we specifically discuss the implications for amplified total internal reflection.

  17. Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2001) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:bJumpRed Bank,Reflection Survey Activity

  18. Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2008) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:bJumpRed Bank,Reflection Survey

  19. Reflection Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Goranson, 2005) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:bJumpRed Bank,Reflection| OpenEnergy

  20. Evolutionary History of Helicobacter pylori Sequences Reflect Past Human Migrations in Southeast Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evolutionary History of Helicobacter pylori Sequences Reflect Past Human Migrations in Southeast analyse housekeeping gene sequences of the human stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori from various, Dieye FB, et al. (2011) Evolutionary History of Helicobacter pylori Sequences Reflect Past Human

  1. Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations This...

  2. Complex harmonic wave scattering asthe framework for investigation of bounded beam reflection and transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Complex harmonic wave scattering asthe framework for investigation of bounded beam reflection their pro- files.We will verifythesestatementswith a largenumberof illustrations. I. COMPLEX HARMONIC WAVE REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION A. Representation of a complex harmonic wave in a viscoelastic medium

  3. Polarization-dependent infrared reflectivity study of Sr???Ca????Cu??O?? under pressure: Charge dynamics, charge distribution, and anisotropy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Frank, S.; Huecker, M.; Huber, A.; Ammerahl, U.; Kuntscher, C. A.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a polarization-dependent infrared reflectivity study of the spin-ladder compound Sr???Ca????Cu??O?? under pressure. The optical response is strongly anisotropic, with the highest reflectivity along the ladders/chains (E?c) revealing a metallic character. For the polarization direction perpendicular to the ladder plane, an insulating behavior is observed. With increasing pressure the optical conductivity for E?c shows a strong increase, which is most pronounced below 2000cm?¹. According to the spectral weight analysis of the E?c optical conductivity the hole concentration in the ladders increases with increasing pressure and tends to saturate at high pressure. At ~7.5 GPa the number of holes permore »Cu atom in the ladders has increased by ??=0.09(±0.01), and the Cu valence in the ladders has reached the value +2.33. The optical data suggest that Sr???Ca????Cu??O?? remains electronically highly anisotropic up to high pressure, also at low temperatures.« less

  4. Polarization-dependent infrared reflectivity study of Sr???Ca????Cu??O?? under pressure: Charge dynamics, charge distribution, and anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, S. [Univ. Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Huecker, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huber, A. [Univ. Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Ammerahl, U. [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Kuntscher, C. A. [Univ. Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a polarization-dependent infrared reflectivity study of the spin-ladder compound Sr???Ca????Cu??O?? under pressure. The optical response is strongly anisotropic, with the highest reflectivity along the ladders/chains (E?c) revealing a metallic character. For the polarization direction perpendicular to the ladder plane, an insulating behavior is observed. With increasing pressure the optical conductivity for E?c shows a strong increase, which is most pronounced below 2000cm?¹. According to the spectral weight analysis of the E?c optical conductivity the hole concentration in the ladders increases with increasing pressure and tends to saturate at high pressure. At ~7.5 GPa the number of holes per Cu atom in the ladders has increased by ??=0.09(±0.01), and the Cu valence in the ladders has reached the value +2.33. The optical data suggest that Sr???Ca????Cu??O?? remains electronically highly anisotropic up to high pressure, also at low temperatures.

  5. The aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds is quantified using measured reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol polluted cloud scenes and modeled reflectance spectra of unpolluted cloud scenes. The cloud reflectance spectra are read from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    distribution of clouds and aerosols along the white CALIPSO track in Fig.1b is shown in Fig. 2. The distanceThe aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds is quantified using measured reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol polluted cloud scenes and modeled reflectance spectra of unpolluted cloud

  6. Measured Energy Savings from the Application of Reflective Roofs in 3 AT&T Regeneration Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to save 22% after the application of a highly reflective coating (Boutwell and Salinas 1986). In addition

  7. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). TORIS is a tested and verified system maintained and operated by the Department of Energy`s Bartlesville Project Office. The TORTS system was used to evaluate over 2,300 major reservoirs in a consistent manner and on an individual basis, the results of which have been aggregated to arrive at the national total.

  8. Measurements of submillimeter polarization induced by oblique reflection from aluminum alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novak, Giles

    Measurements of submillimeter polarization induced by oblique reflection from aluminum alloy Tom of submillimeter radiation when it is obliquely reflected by a flat mirror made of aluminum alloy. For angles by oblique reflection from aluminum alloy at a wavelength of 1 cm agrees with the prediction of the ordinary

  9. Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form Date: Climate Roof) Roofing products with high solar reflectance and thermal emittance are referred to as "Cool Roof hot, light-colored surfaces reflect solar energy and stay cooler. However, high emittance is also

  10. Revised 1/19/06 Reflection Seismic Data Interpretation -GEY 772/772L Spring 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Revised 1/19/06 Reflection Seismic Data Interpretation - GEY 772/772L ­ Spring 2006 Room TEC 104 Processing, Yilmaz; and Practical Seismic Interpretation, Badley; A Lab Manual of Seismic Reflection the fundamentals of geologic interpretation of 2D and 3D reflection seismic data. The class provides hands

  11. Normalized Microwave Reflection Index: A Vegetation Measurement Derived From GPS Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, Eric

    is known as Normalized Differ- ence Water Index (NDWI) [12]. It is calculated using reflectance in two near infrared (NIR) channels. Similar indices have been proposed that use reflectance at other NIR wavelengthsNormalized Microwave Reflection Index: A Vegetation Measurement Derived From GPS Networks Kristine

  12. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  13. Method of fabricating reflection-mode EUV diffusers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Erik; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques for fabricating well-controlled, random relief, engineered surfaces that serve as substrates for EUV optical devices are accomplished with grayscale exposure. The method of fabricating a multilevel EUV optical element includes: (a) providing a substrate; (b) depositing a layer of curable material on a surface of the substrate; (c) creating a relief profile in a layer of cured material from the layer of curable material wherein the relief profile comprises multiple levels of cured material that has a defined contour; and (d) depositing a multilayer reflection film over the relief profile wherein the film has an outer contour that substantially matches that of the relief profile. The curable material can comprise photoresist or a low dielectric constant material.

  14. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sleiman, Mohamad

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells Arizona Ohio Single-Energy Materials & Solar Cells no change Aged solar reflectance OHIO (OHIO Initial solar reflectance Initial solar reflectance July 29, 2011 Resubmitted to Solar Energy

  15. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A FORCE-REFLECTING TELEOPERATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For certain applications, such as space servicing, undersea operations, and hazardous material handling tasks in nuclear reactors, the environments can be uncertain, complex, and hazardous. Lives may be in danger if humans were to work under these conditions. As a result, a man-machine system--a teleoperator system--has been developed to work in these types of environments. In a typical teleoperator system, the actual system operates at a remote site; the operator located away from this system usually receives visual information from a video image and/or graphical animation on the computer screen. Additional feedback, such as aural and force information, can significantly enhance performance of the system. Force reflection is a type of feedback in which forces experienced by the remote manipulator are fed back to the manual controller. Various control methods have been proposed for implementation on a teleoperator system. In order to examine different control schemes, a one Degree-Of-Freedom (DOF) Force-Reflecting Manual Controller (FRMC) is constructed and integrated into a PC. The system parameters are identified and constructed as a mathematical model. The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic controllers are developed and tested experimentally. Numerical simulation results obtained from the mathematical model are compared with those of experimental data for both types of controllers. In addition, the concept of a telesensation system is introduced. A telesensation system is an advanced teleoperator system that attempts to provide the operator with sensory feedback. In this context, a telesensation system integrates the use of a Virtual Reality (VR) unit, FRMC, and Graphical User Interface (GUI). The VR unit is used to provide the operator with a 3-D visual effect. Various commercial VR units are reviewed and features compared for use in a telesensation system. As for the FRMC, the conceptual design of a 3-DOF FRMC is developed in an effort to make the system portable, compact, and lightweight. A variety of design alternatives are presented and evaluated. Finally, a GUI software package is developed to interface with several teleoperation unit components. These components include an industrial robot, electric motor, encoder, force/torque sensor, and CCD camera. The software includes features such as position scaling, force scaling, and rereferencing and is intended to provide a sound basis for the development of a multi-DOF FRMC system in the future.

  16. A simple method for the measurement of reflective foil emissivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballico, M. J.; Ham, E. W. M. van der [National Measurement Institute, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflective metal foil is widely used to reduce radiative heat transfer within the roof space of buildings. Such foils are typically mass-produced by vapor-deposition of a thin metallic coating onto a variety of substrates, ranging from plastic-coated reinforced paper to 'bubble-wrap'. Although the emissivity of such surfaces is almost negligible in the thermal infrared, typically less than 0.03, an insufficiently thick metal coating, or organic contamination of the surface, can significantly increase this value. To ensure that the quality of the installed insulation is satisfactory, Australian building code AS/NZS 4201.5:1994 requires a practical agreed method for measurement of the emissivity, and the standard ASTM-E408 is implied. Unfortunately this standard is not a 'primary method' and requires the use of specified expensive apparatus and calibrated reference materials. At NMIA we have developed a simple primary technique, based on an apparatus to thermally modulate the sample and record the apparent modulation in infra-red radiance with commercially available radiation thermometers. The method achieves an absolute accuracy in the emissivity of approximately 0.004 (k=2). This paper theoretically analyses the equivalence between the thermal emissivity measured in this manner, the effective thermal emissivity in application, and the apparent emissivity measured in accordance with ASTM-E408.

  17. Water-Moderated and -Reflected Slabs of Uranium Oxyfluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Clinton Gross

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of ten experiments were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiment Facility in December 1955, and January 1956, in an attempt to determine critical conditions for a slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). These experiments were recorded in an Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Logbook and results were published in a journal of the American Nuclear Society, Nuclear Science and Engineering, by J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and J. H. Marable (Reference 1). The purpose of these experiments was to obtain the minimum critical thickness of an effectively infinite slab of UO2F2 solution by extrapolation of experimental data. To do this the slab thickness was varied and critical solution and water-reflector heights were measured using two different fuel solutions. Of the ten conducted experiments eight of the experiments reached critical conditions but the results of only six of the experiments were published in Reference 1. All ten experiments were evaluated from which five critical configurations were judged as acceptable criticality safety benchmarks. The total uncertainty in the acceptable benchmarks is between 0.25 and 0.33 % ?k/keff. UO2F2 fuel is also evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-043, HEU-SOL-THERM-011, and HEU-SOL-THERM-012, but these those evaluation reports are for large reflected and unreflected spheres. Aluminum cylinders of UO2F2 are evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-050.

  18. Using Van Manen's model to assess levels of reflectivity among preservice physical education teachers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballard, Kristy Kay

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    as we improvise, revise, and create new ways of deriving meaning from experience ? thinking to learn.? (p. 844). Rodgers states that reflection includes four criteria: a meaning-making process that makes continuity of learning possible; a systematic... and society; and reflective teaching is committed to reflection as a communal activity. According to Van Manen (1977), teachers must be able to apply a variety of techniques to the curriculum and to the teaching-learning process so that a predetermined...

  19. General calculation model for reflection and transmission matrices of nanowire end facets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svendsen, Guro K; Skaar, Johannes

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanowires show a large potential for various electrooptical devices, such as light emitting diodes, solar cells and nanowire lasers. We present a direct method developed to calculate the modal reflection and transmission matrix at the end facets of a waveguide of arbitrary cross section, resulting in a generalized version of the Fresnel equations. The reflection can be conveniently computed using Fast Fourier Transforms. We demonstrate that the reflection is qualitatively described by two main parameters, the modal field confinement and the average Fresnel reflection of the plane waves constituting the waveguide mode.

  20. Nanosecond dynamics of a gallium mirror's light-induced reflectivity change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Albanis; S. Dhanjal; V. I. Emelyanov; V. A. Fedotov; K. F. MacDonald; P. Petropoulos; D. J. Richardson; N. I. Zheludev

    2000-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient pump-probe optical reflectivity measurements of the nano/microsecond dynamics of a fully reversible, light-induced, surface-assisted metallization of gallium interfaced with silica are reported. The metallization leads to a considerable increase in the interface's reflectivity when solid a-gallium is on the verge of melting. The reflectivity change was found to be a cumulative effect that grows with light intensity and pulse duration. The reflectivity relaxes back to that of alpha-gallium when the excitation is withdrawn in a time that increases critically at gallium's melting point. The effect is attributed to a non-thermal light-induced structural phase transition.

  1. Time dependent changes in extreme ultraviolet reflectivity of Ru mirrors from electron-induced surface chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering Purdue University, West Lafayette verified by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Moreover, the impact on EUV reflectivity (EUVR) with time

  2. Home, Home (Video) on the Range: Reflections on Small-Town Video Stores in 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbert, Daniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    theory, and practices of video culture in the United States.Home, Home (Video) on the RangeReflections on Small-Town Video Stores in 2010 Daniel

  3. Measurement of the specific surface area of snow using infrared reflectance in an integrating sphere at 1310 and 1550 nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallet, J.-C.; Domine, F.; Zender, C. S; Picard, G.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflection of solar radiation by the Antarctic snow surface at ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared

  4. Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy is a Rapid, Cost-Effective Predictor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsh, Helene

    Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy is a Rapid, Cost-Effective Predictor of Seagrass Nutrients + Business Media, Inc. 2006 Abstract Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy was used to analyze nutrient com to the laboratory, and separated into leaf and root/rhizome fractions. They were dried, ground, and near-infrared

  5. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  6. In-flight degradation correction of SCIAMACHY UV reflectances and Absorbing Aerosol Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    In-flight degradation correction of SCIAMACHY UV reflectances and Absorbing Aerosol Index L. G) derived from the observed Earth reflectance. Instrument degradation of the Scanning Imaging Absorption mean should be more or less constant when instrument degradation is absent. The analysis reveals

  7. Light is said to be reflected when the angle at which light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    1 #12;2 Light is said to be reflected when the angle at which light initially strikes a surface is equal to the angle at which light bounces off the same surface. In the diagram, light strikes a surface", this is an example of reflected light. Refraction is the bending of a wave when it enters a medium where it's speed

  8. {beta}{sub eff} measurements in reflected reactors using a Rossi-{alpha} technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doulin, V.A. [Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Spriggs, G.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report the authors calculate the effective delayed neutron fraction equation for reflected reactors using the Rossi-{alpha} technique. They determine that the equation for the delayed neutron fraction is just as valid for reflected systems as it is for unreflected systems.

  9. Doppler Effect Associated with the Reflection of Light on a Moving Mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernhard Rothenstein; Ioan Damian

    2005-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Doppler Effect associated with the reflection on a moving mirror is reduced to two Doppler Effect experiments involving the incoming incident ray and the outgoing reflected ray or vice-versa. The dependence of the corresponding Doppler factors on the incidence angle on the stationary mirror.

  10. Laboratory measurements of spectral reflection from ice clouds of various habits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    ­4 It has been shown theoretically and from in situ measurements that ice cloud visi- ble and near-infrared, as described in Section 2, can be largely controlled. Zander8,9 measured the infrared reflection proper- ties preliminary comparisons between the near-IR ice cloud reflection and expectations based on the mea- sured

  11. Wide-field near-infrared all-reflecting camera with Fabry--Perot for astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashley, Michael C. B.

    Wide-field near-infrared all-reflecting camera with Fabry--Perot for astronomy Yin-sheng Sun to small temperature differences in the optical system. Keywords: Fabry-Perot etalon, reflecting, near-infrared, imaging, astronomy 1 INTRODUCTION Our goal is to build a camera that can acquire near-infrared images

  12. Spectral variations in the near-infrared ocean reflectance Mava Doron a,b,c,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Marcel

    Spectral variations in the near-infrared ocean reflectance Maéva Doron a,b,c, , Simon Bélanger d Available online 5 April 2011 Keywords: Ocean color Near-infrared Reflectance Satellite data In situ data range, in the near-infrared (NIR, 700­900 nm), have received little attention because they are often

  13. Simultaneous measurement of laser reflection and transmission of poly,,vinyl chloride...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    , unpigmented state are highly transmissive of light in the near-infrared range, al- lowing laser transmissionSimultaneous measurement of laser reflection and transmission of poly,,vinyl chloride... James D reflection, emphasizing the light transmitted through a material. This paper presents work creating a low

  14. No oceans on Titan from the absence of a near-infrared specular reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael E.

    No oceans on Titan from the absence of a near-infrared specular reflection R. A. West1 , M. E shown specular reflection are shown in Fig. 2. To understand how sensitive the near-infrared images-based observations (at near-infrared wavelengths) and calculations showing that there is no evidence thus far

  15. Microstructured anti-reflection surface design for the omni-directional solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Weidong

    Microstructured anti-reflection surface design for the omni-directional solar cells Li Chen for the formation of hemispherical structures as an omni-directional anti-reflection (omni-AR) coating in solar cell current in such hemispherical solar cells hence enhanced to 1.5 times of bulk silicon solar cells

  16. 596revision:1997-03-23modified:1997-03-23 Some independence results on reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelah, Saharon

    596revision:1997-03-23modified:1997-03-23 Some independence results on reflection James Cummings;596revision:1997-03-23modified:1997-03-23 Baumgartner proved in [1] that if is weakly compact, GCH holds sense the strong non-reflection principle captures 2 #12;596revision:1997-03-23modified:1997

  17. Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    of depleted uranium metal (less than 0.2% U-235). After sputtering, the uranium was allowed to oxidize1 Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV Richard L. Sandberg, David D. Allred.byu.edu ABSTRACT We present the measured reflectances (beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) of naturally oxidized uranium

  18. Measurement of reflective liquid crystal displays S. T. Tang and H. S. Kwoka)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement of reflective liquid crystal displays S. T. Tang and H. S. Kwoka) Department . Existing measurement methods only apply to transmittive LC cells. These methods are obviously unsuitable for measuring the cell gaps of reflective LCDs with internal reflectors. This kind of LCD includes single

  19. Reflection systems and partial root systems Ottmar Loos and Erhard Neher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Erhard

    Reflection systems and partial root systems Ottmar Loos and Erhard Neher Abstract. We develop a general theory of reflection systems and, more specifically, partial root sys- tems which provide a unifying framework for finite root systems, Kac-Moody root systems, extended affine root systems

  20. CONCRETE REFLECTED ARRAYS OF U(93.2) METAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackenzie Gorham; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Virginia Dean; Davis Reed

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period from 1963 – 1973, experiments involving highly enriched uranium units were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine various critical configurations of three-dimensional arrays. The experiments formed a four-part series, and were reported by several different experimenters; the results of interest for this evaluation are those reported for the fourth experimentation, Critical Three-Dimensional Arrays of Neutron Interacting Units: Part IV, published and performed by D.W.Magnuson (Ref 1). Information is also available in the logbook . This set of experiments utilized subcritical metal units on a split table apparatus to determine critical configurations for 2×2×2 arrangements of highly enriched uranium reflected by concrete. Magnuson manipulated the configuration of several uranium cylinders and blocks within a concrete reflector. The different permutations utilized uranium cylinders of two different heights in various positions in the three dimensional array; certain cases also placed thin uranium blocks on top of the cylinders. The thickness of the surrounding concrete, as well as the inner dimensions of the concrete reflector was also varied in certain cases. The variations resulted in fourteen different experimental permutations or configurations. All fourteen configurations were judged to be unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmarks. All experiments were initially evaluated; however only three configurations were evaluated in detail. Configurations 2, 4, 6 and 12 were not evaluated in detail because they are subcritical and configurations 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 were also were not evaluated in detail because they were supercritical by more than beta effective (~0.007), or prompt critical. The experiments evaluated in detail for this benchmark were configurations 1, 3, and 11. The experimental report also contains the information for HEU-MET-FAST-056. Closely related work has been recorded in HEU-MET-FAST-053, which is a benchmark evaluation of a different series of three dimensional array experiments with four different moderator materials. HEU-MET-FAST-023 and HEU-MET-FAST-026 are also related because they utilize the same metal cylinders as these experiments.

  1. Quantitative Total and Diffuse Reflectance Laboratory Measurements for Remote, Standoff, and Point Sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Forland, Brenda M.; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for making total and diffuse directional/hemispherical reflectance measurements in the shortwave to longwave infrared using an integrating sphere are described. The sphere is a commercial, off-the-shelf optical device with its sample port at the bottom, which is essential for examining powdered samples without using a cover glass. The reflectance spectra of recently-developed National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) infrared reflectance standards have been measured using the sphere. Reflectance spectra of other materials such as Spectralon and Infragold were also measured. The relative systematic error for the total reflectance measurements is estimated to be on the order of 3%, and random measurement error for multiple samples of each material is on the order of 0.5%.

  2. Enhanced reflection via phase compensation from anomalous dispersion in atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Junxiang; Zhou Haitao [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Wang Dawei [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhu Shiyao [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase compensation mechanism induced by anomalous dispersion in the reflection process of four-wave mixing (or reflection from a grating) in a three-level system is investigated, where the four wave vectors do not match in vacuum. An efficiency of the reflected signal of as high as 43% from a hot atomic cell of Cs is observed. The maximum reflection occurs when the frequency of the probe beam (and consequently the frequency of the reflected signal) is slightly red detuned from the transition frequency, which is attributed to the phase compensation from the steep anomalous dispersion accompanied with a strong probe absorption. The dependences of the efficiency on the angle between the coupling and probe lights, on the intensity of the coupling, field and on atomic density are studied. A theoretical model is presented and it is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  3. Accounting for Remaining Injected Fracturing Fluid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yannan

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology of multi-stage fracturing of horizontal wells made the development of shale gas reservoirs become greatly successful during the past decades. A large amount of fracturing fluid, usually from 53,000 bbls to 81,400 bbls, is injected...

  4. Accounting for Remaining Injected Fracturing Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yannan

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology of multi-stage fracturing of horizontal wells made the development of shale gas reservoirs become greatly successful during the past decades. A large amount of fracturing fluid, usually from 53,000 bbls to 81,400 bbls, is injected...

  5. Animal representations and animal remains at Çatalhöyük

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Nerissa; Meece, Stephanie

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (Level VII). Volcano above town plan, leopard skin above geometric design, or other representations? Level VI paintings lack fully convinc­ ing animal depictions. A patch of painting on the east wall of building VIA.66 includes a number of geomet­ ric... the centrepieces of the north walls of two rather similar buildings. In a sense they parallel the situation in the faunal assemblage, where cattle are not terribly common, but figure prominently in cer­ emonial consumption (see Russell & Martin, Volume 4...

  6. TIPS TO REMAIN SLIM * Set realistic goals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    a week. * Aerobic exercise like jogging, swimming, cycling, running accelerates weight loss. Consult in the morning. * Go for skimmed milk. * As far as possible avoid weight loss supplements. * When you have a physician before starting any weight loss program. Aerobic exercise combined with healthy eating

  7. Geothermal developers remain optimistic | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To: CongestionDevelopment of a downhole wireline tool toEnergyWhile

  8. Los Alamos supercomputer remains fastest in world

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is YourAwardspublicexceedsScientists monitorNano 50

  9. Performance of a variable line spaced master reflection grating for use in the reflection grating spectrometer on the X-ray Multimirror Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, J.V.; Hailey, C.J.; Mauche, C.W.; Teague, P.F.; Thoe, R.S. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Kahn, S.M.; Paerels, F.B.S. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.)

    1991-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The X-ray Multimirror Mission will include a spectrometer consisting of two arrays of variable line spaced reflection gratings for use in the 350 eV to 2.5 keV energy range. Approximately 720 replica gratings will be needed for two flight grating arrays and one spare. We have begun evaluation of potential master gratings to be used in the replication process. We report both reflectivity and scattering X-ray measurements for three mechanically ruled prototype master gratings. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Plasma waves reflection from a boundary with specular accommodative boundary conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. V. Gritsienko; A. V. Latyshev; A. A. Yushkanov

    2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work the linearized problem of plasma wave reflection from a boundary of a half--space is solved analytically. Specular accommodative conditions of plasma wave reflection from plasma boundary are taken into consideration. Wave reflectance is found as function of the given parameters of the problem, and its dependence on the normal electron momentum accommodation coefficient is shown by the authors. The case of resonance when the frequency of self-consistent electric field oscillations is close to the proper (Langmuir) plasma oscillations frequency, namely, the case of long wave limit is analyzed. Refs. 17. Figs. 6.

  11. Relativistic smearing of the reflection spectrum in Galactic Black Hole Candidates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Done; P. T. Zycki; D. A. Smith

    1997-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We identify the reflected component in the GINGA spectra of Nova Muscae, a Black Hole transient system which has been used as the prototype for the recent advection dominated disk models. We see that the reflected spectrum is generally significantly relativistically smeared, and use this and the amount of reflection to track the innermost extent of the accretion disk. We see that the optically thick disk does retreat during the decline, but more slowly than predicted by the advective models, posing problems for this description of the accretion flow.

  12. A theoretical analysis of reflection of X-rays from water at energies relevant for diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arsenovic, Dusan [Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, P.O. Box 57, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Davidovic, Dragomir M.; Vukanic, Jovan [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O Box 522, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2003-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection of X-rays from a semi-infinite water target, for energies used in X-ray diagnostics, is treated by the analog Monte Carlo simulation. In the developed procedure it was possible to calculate separately contributions of photons scattered, before reflection, fixed number of times with target electrons. It turned out that multiple collision type of reflection dominates at all energies investigated, whenever the absorption is small. The same process was also treated analytically as the classical albedo problem for isotropic scattering without energy loss. Very good agreement of results of the two approaches is obtained.

  13. Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

  14. [The Journal of Geology, 2004, volume 112, p. 91110] No copyright is claimed for this article. It remains in the public domain. Geochemical Discrimination of Five Pleistocene Lava-Dam Outburst-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poreda, Robert J.

    . It remains in the public domain. 91 Geochemical Discrimination of Five Pleistocene Lava-Dam Outburst- Flood@usgs.gov) A B S T R A C T Pleistocene basaltic lava dams and outburst-flood deposits in the western Grand Canyon outburst-flood deposit came from a common source, a lava dam. With these data, it is possible

  15. Reflective Cracking Study: First-level Report on HVS Testing on Section 588RF - 90 mm AR4000-DOverlay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, David; Wu, R; Harvey, John T

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    testing being performed to validate Caltrans overlay strategies for the rehabilitation of cracked asphalt concrete.concrete. It describes the results of the fourth HVS reflective cracking testingconcrete. It describes the results of the fourth HVS reflective cracking testing

  16. Reflective Cracking Study: First-Level Report on HVS Testing on Section 590RF - 90 mm MB4-G Overlay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, David; Tsai, Bor-Wen; Harvey, John T

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    testing being performed to validate Caltrans overlay strategies for the rehabilitation of cracked asphalt concrete.concrete. It describes the results of the first HVS reflective cracking testingconcrete. It describes the results of the first HVS reflective cracking testing

  17. Study of the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in the analysis of the tree foliage intake of goats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Study of the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in the analysis of the tree whether near-infrared reflectance spec- troscopy (NIRS) could be of future use in the analysis of the food

  18. In Vitro Human Embryos: Interdisciplinary reflections on the first 4 decades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Gispert, Adrià

    , in the Marshall Lab in the early 1970's #12;1 In Vitro Human Embryos: Interdisciplinary reflections on the first Department) for providing organisational support; Debbie Spikins for her untiring work dealing

  19. A TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF TITAN'S NORTH POLAR ATMOSPHERE FROM A SPECULAR REFLECTION OF THE SUN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Jason W.

    Cassini/VIMS T85 observations of a solar specular reflection off of Kivu Lacus (87[° over .]4N 241[° over .]1E) provide an empirical transmission spectrum of Titan's atmosphere. Because this observation was acquired from ...

  20. Using Van Manen's model to assess levels of reflectivity among preservice physical education teachers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballard, Kristy Kay

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this study was two-fold. The first purpose was to apply Van Manen's model to specific strategies (i.e., written assignments) and supervisory practices (i.e., interviews) to examine levels of reflectivity ...

  1. NON-INVASIVE OPTICAL DETECTION OF EPITHELIAL CANCER USING OBLIQUE INCIDENCE DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes the design, fabrication and testing of an oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry (OIDRS) system for in-vivo and noninvasive detection of epithelial cancer. Two probes were fabricated using micromachining...

  2. Recent advances in reflective optics for EUV/x-ray light sources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent advances in reflective optics for EUVx-ray light sources Wednesday, June 24, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Regina Soufli, LLNL Program...

  3. Ultra-Shallow Imaging Using 2D & 3D Seismic Reflection Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, Steven D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the survey design, acquisition, processing, and interpretation of ultra-shallow seismic reflection (USR) data in two and three dimensions. The application of 3D USR ...

  4. The effect of multiply reflected molecules in free molecule flow over a general body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Gordon Lee

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method was devised and calculations were performed to determine the effects of reflected molecules on the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for a body in free molecule flow. A procedure was developed for determining the velocity...

  5. A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of Fractures and Permeable Zones Over a Known Geothermal Resource at Soda Lake, Churchill...

  6. Short pulse laser stretcher-compressor using a single common reflective grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Biswal, Subrat; Bartolick, Joseph M.; Stuart, Brent C.; Telford, Steve

    2004-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an easily aligned, all-reflective, aberration-free pulse stretcher-compressor in a compact geometry. The stretcher-compressor device is a reflective multi-layer dielectric that can be utilized for high power chirped-pulse amplification material processing applications. A reflective grating element of the device is constructed: 1) to receive a beam for stretching of laser pulses in a beam stretcher beam path and 2) to also receive stretched amplified pulses to be compressed in a compressor beam path through the same (i.e., common) reflective multilayer dielectric diffraction grating. The stretched and compressed pulses are interleaved about the grating element to provide the desired number of passes in each respective beam path in order to achieve the desired results.

  7. Quality Control of WSR-88D Reflectivity Data V Lakshmanan, Kurt Hondl, Gregory Stumpf, Travis Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakshmanan, Valliappa

    Quality Control of WSR-88D Reflectivity Data V Lakshmanan, Kurt Hondl, Gregory Stumpf, Travis Smith this to compare our technique. · Steiner and Smith, from Princeton University, developed a rule base. Similar

  8. A system for optimizing interior daylight distribution using reflective Venetian blinds with independent blind angle control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, Molly E

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An operational algorithm for blind angle control is developed to optimize the daylighting performance of a system of reflective Venetian blinds. Numerical modeling and experiment confirm that independent control of alternating ...

  9. High-amplitude reflection packets (HARPs) of the Mississippi Fan, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francis, Jason Michael

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examination of seismic data from the deep-water Gulf of Mexico reveals the presence of High-Amplitude Reflection Packets (HARPs). An analog study conducted by the Ocean Drilling Program Leg 155 identified and described ...

  10. Reflections on my conjecture, and several new ones Donald G. Saari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saari, Don

    Reflections on my conjecture, and several new ones Donald G. Saari August 3, 2005 1 Introduction] and Saari [15]) and the general setting for N = 3 (e.g., Llibre and Pina [8] and McCord [9]). The current

  11. Coincident P and Sh reflections from basement rocks at Coso geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coincident P and Sh reflections from basement rocks at Coso geothermal field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Coincident P and Sh...

  12. A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Identify the Seismic Response of Fractures and Permeable Zones Over a Known Geothermal Resource at Soda Lake, Churchhill Co., NV A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data...

  13. Geophysical Prospecting 31,265-292, 1983. REFLECTION OF ELASTIC WAVES FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    Geophysical Prospecting 31,265-292, 1983. REFLECTION OF ELASTIC WAVES FROM PERIODICALLY STRATIFIED from Periodically Stratified Media with Interfacial Slip, Geophysical Prospecting 31 phase propagation in some other direction. INTRODUCTION Geophysical media often exhibit anisotropic

  14. Multiple gene genealogies and microsatellite markers reflect relationships between morphotypes of Sphaeropsis sapinea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple gene genealogies and microsatellite markers reflect relationships between morphotypes between isolates representing different S. sapinea morphotypes, using multiple gene genealogies inferred from partial sequences of six protein-coding genes and six microsatellite loci. Genealogies generated

  15. Non-invasive detection of oral cancer using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGee, Sasha Alanda

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In vivo reflectance and fluorescence spectra were collected from patients with oral lesions, as well as healthy volunteers, in order to evaluate the potential of spectroscopy to serve as a non-invasive tool for the detection ...

  16. Simulation Studies of Hydrogen Ion reflection from Tungsten for the Surface Production of Negative Hydrogen Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi [Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan)

    2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The production efficiency of negative ions at tungsten surface by particle reflection has been investigated. Angular distributions and energy spectra of reflected hydrogen ions from tungsten surface are calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that angular distributions of reflected hydrogen ions show narrow distributions for low-energy incidence such as 50 eV, and energy spectra of reflected ions show sharp peaks around 90% of incident energy. These narrow angular distributions and sharp peaks are favorable for the efficient extraction of negative ions from an ion source equipped with tungsten surface as negative ionization converter. The retained hydrogen atoms in tungsten lead to the reduction in extraction efficiency due to boarded angular distributions.

  17. A program to design asphalt concrete overlays to mitigate reflection cracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satyanarayana Rao, Sindhu

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the research are to understand the occurrence and behavior of reflection cracking and for devising ways of mitigating them and to put together an effective and complete package of computer programs to design asphalt concrete overlays. Another primary objective...

  18. Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat or curved roofing assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy-use effects of cool roofs on California commercialfrom the application of reflective roofs in two small non-saving potentials of light-colored roofs for residential and

  19. The effect of multiply reflected molecules in free molecule flow over a general body 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Gordon Lee

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method was devised and calculations were performed to determine the effects of reflected molecules on the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for a body in free molecule flow. A procedure was developed for determining the velocity...

  20. Does monetary poverty reflect caloric intake? Ibrahima BOCOUM CIRAD, UMR MOISA, F-34398 Montpellier, France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Does monetary poverty reflect caloric intake? Ibrahima BOCOUM CIRAD, UMR MOISA, F-34398 poverty. Using a Maliansurvey thatincorporatesexceptionally detailed information on food consumption, we: poverty, food insecurity, caloric intake, household surveys, Mali 1 Introduction Estimating the number

  1. The estimation of geotechnical properties of marine sediments from their acoustic reflectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebel, Martin

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 3.5 kilohertz subbottom profiler was calibrated such that digitized signals from reflections can be used to quantitatively describe the acoustic response of the seafloor. Two methods were used to calibrate the system, both methods require...

  2. The use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict protein fractions in free-ranging cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitley, Evan Micah

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was conducted to assess the feasibility of using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology to predict fractional protein utilization in cattle on forage based diets. Forage samples were obtained from esophageal and ruminal...

  3. Impacts of a recurrent resuspension event and variable phytoplankton community composition on remote sensing reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impacts of a recurrent resuspension event and variable phytoplankton community composition resuspension event and variable phytoplankton community composition on remote sensing reflectance, J. Geophys shoreline erosion, and high river runoff. These forces lead to significant resuspension of particles, which

  4. Reflectivity of silver and silver-coated substrates from 25 C to 800 C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaworske, D.A. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A bench top facility was used to evaluate the reflectivity of several candidate coating-substrate combinations in vacuum at elevated temperatures. Silver was selected as the reflective coating of choice, while copper, nickel, electroless nickel on copper, and 304 stainless steel were selected as substrates. Pure silver, with no coating at all, was also evaluated. An optically flat silver-coated sapphire substrate was used as a standard. All metal substrates were either metallurgically polished or diamond turned to a mirror finish prior to silver deposition. Silicon dioxide was used as a protective coating in most cases. Reflectivity measurements were made at room temperature in the visible range with a spectrophotometer, and at elevated temperatures up to 800 C with a helium-neon laser at 632 nm. Results from the high temperature reflectivity measurements will be presented.

  5. Generating intense ultrashort radiation by reflecting an ultrashort laser pulse from a thin target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Wenmin [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou (China); Yu, M. Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou (China); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle-in-cell simulation and analytical modeling demonstrate that the reflection of a single-cycle light pulse from a thin target can produce an ultrashort ultraintense electromagnetic field.

  6. NON-INVASIVE OPTICAL DETECTION OF EPITHELIAL CANCER USING OBLIQUE INCIDENCE DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes the design, fabrication and testing of an oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry (OIDRS) system for in-vivo and noninvasive detection of epithelial cancer. Two probes were fabricated using micromachining...

  7. Comparison between arc drops in ignited thermionic converters with and without ion reflections at the emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundgren, L.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The output performance of two thermionic energy converters is compared. One converter has a normal emitter, working with zero field at the emitter which is close to the optimum working point, and the other has a low work function emitter and ion reflection at the emitter. A simple model of the plasma and the sheaths shows that a converter working with a low work function emitter and ion reflections gives a worse performance than a similar converter with a normal emitter.

  8. Seismic reflection data analysis of the Oriente and Swan Fracture Zones bounding the Cayman Trough 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinker, Mary Norris

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS OF THE ORIENTE AND SWAN FRACTURE ZONES BOUNDING THE CAYMAN TROUGH A Thesis by MARY NORRIS TINKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Geophysics SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS OF THE ORIENTE AND SWAN FRACTURE ZONES BOUNDING THE CAYMAN TROUGH A Thesis by MARY NORRIS TINKER Approved as to style and content by: D. A. Fa quiet...

  9. Present and Near-Future Reflected Light Searches for Close-In Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Charbonneau; Robert W. Noyes

    2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Close-in extrasolar giant planets may be directly detectable by their reflected light, due to the proximity of the planet to the illuminating star. The spectrum of the system will contain a reflected light component that varies in amplitude and Doppler shift as the planet orbits the star. Intensive searches for this effect have been carried out for only one extrasolar planet system, tau Boo. There exist several other attractive targets, including the transiting planet system HD 209458.

  10. Reflection, absorption, and transmission of ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves through a Gaussian conductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, R.T. [Physics Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58105 (United States)] [Physics Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58105 (United States); Davis, J.; Bobb, L. [Naval Air Warfare Center, Code 4556, Mail Stop 2, Patuxent River, Maryland 20670 (United States)] [Naval Air Warfare Center, Code 4556, Mail Stop 2, Patuxent River, Maryland 20670 (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection, transmission, and absorption coefficients are derived for long-wavelength electromagnetic radiation propagating through a medium that exhibits a Gaussian conductivity. It is shown that, under certain circumstances, this applies to the ionosphere. The effects of different peak conductivities and Gaussian widths are examined, and a useful form for calculating transmission and reflection coefficients is presented. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Multilayer deposition and EUV reflectance characterization of 131 ? flight mirrors for AIA at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soufli, R; Robinson, J C; Spiller, E; Baker, S L; Dollar, F J; Gullikson, E M

    2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Mo/Si multilayer coatings reflecting at 131 {angstrom} were deposited successfully on the AIA primary and secondary flight mirrors and on two coating witness Si wafers, on November 16, 2005, at LLNL. All coatings were characterized by means of EUV reflectance measurements at beamline 6.3.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron at LBNL, and were found to be well within specifications.

  12. Semianalytic Monte Carlo calculation of reflected and transmitted radiance in a plane parallel atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffitt, John Russell

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SEMIANALYTIC MONTE CARLO CALCULATION OF REFLECTED AND TRANSMITTED RADIANCE IN A PLANE PARALLEL ATMOSPHERE A Thesis by JOHN RUSSELL MOFFITT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1972 Major Subject: Physics SEMIANALYTIC MONTE CARLO CALCULATION OF REFLECTED AND TRANSMITTED RADIANCE IN A PLANE PARALLEL ATMOSPHERE A Thesis by JOHN RUSSELL MOFFITT Approved as to style and content by: (Cha...

  13. Using Visible and Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy to Characterize and Classify Soil Profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Katrina Margarette

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    USING VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY TO CHARACTERIZE AND CLASSIFY SOIL PROFILES A Thesis by KATRINA MARGARETTE WILKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Soil Science USING VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY TO CHARACTERIZE AND CLASSIFY SOIL PROFILES A Thesis...

  14. Seismic reflection data analysis of the Oriente and Swan Fracture Zones bounding the Cayman Trough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinker, Mary Norris

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS OF THE ORIENTE AND SWAN FRACTURE ZONES BOUNDING THE CAYMAN TROUGH A Thesis by MARY NORRIS TINKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Geophysics SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA ANALYSIS OF THE ORIENTE AND SWAN FRACTURE ZONES BOUNDING THE CAYMAN TROUGH A Thesis by MARY NORRIS TINKER Approved as to style and content by: D. A. Fa quiet...

  15. Effects of the reflective scattering in hadron production at high energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Troshin; N. E. Tyurin

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A gradual transition to the reflecting scattering mode developing already at the LHC energies is affecting multiparticle production dynamics, in particular, relation of the centrality with the impact parameter values of $pp$--collisions. We discuss the issues in the framework of the geometrical picture for the multiparticle production processes proposed by Chou and Yang. We consider effects of reflective scattering mode presence for the inclusive cross-sections.

  16. Study of anisotropy of spin cast and vapor deposited polyimide films using internal reflection techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liberman, V.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have compared anisotropy of spin cast and vapor deposited polyimide (VDP) films, using internal reflection infrared spectroscopy. The films were deposited directly on the internal reflection element. We find that spin cast films are more anisotropic than their VDP counterparts, with the polyimide chains tending to align parallel to the substrate. Both films are found to contain more and less ordered regions. Within the ordered regions, the plane of the phenyl ring tends to align parallel to the substrate.

  17. Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bane, K L F; Tu, J J

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator

  18. Fracture detection in crystalline rock using ultrasonic reflection techniques: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, S.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research was initiated to investigate using ultrasonic seismic reflection techniques to detect fracture discontinuities in a granitic rock. Initial compressional (P) and shear (SH) wave experiments were performed on a 0.9 {times} 0.9 {times} 0.3 meter granite slab in an attempt to detect seismic energy reflected from the opposite face of the slab. It was found that processing techniques such as deconvolution and array synthesis could improve the standout of the reflection event. During the summers of 1979 and 1980 SH reflection experiments were performed at a granite quarry near Knowles, California. The purpose of this study was to use SH reflection methods to detect an in situ fracture located one to three meters behind the quarry face. These SH data were later analyzed using methods similar to those applied in the laboratory. Interpretation of the later-arriving events observed in the SH field data as reflections from a steeply-dipping fracture was inconclusive. 41 refs., 43 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Summary Leaf reflectance at visible and near-infrared wavelengths (4001000 nm) is related primarily to pigmenta-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Andrew D.

    Summary Leaf reflectance at visible and near-infrared wavelengths (400­1000 nm) is related physiology and relationships between plants and their growth environment. We studied reflectance of two co collected from 24 sites and white spruce from 30 sites. Overall, reflectance spectra of the two species were

  20. A density functional tight binding/force field approach to the interaction of molecules with rare gas clusters: Application to (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}){sup +/0}Ar{sub n} clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iftner, Christophe; Simon, Aude; Korchagina, Kseniia; Rapacioli, Mathias; Spiegelman, Fernand [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique Quantiques LCPQ/IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse (UPS) and CNRS, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France)] [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique Quantiques LCPQ/IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse (UPS) and CNRS, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose in the present paper a SCC-DFTB/FF (Self-Consistent-Charge Density Functional based Tight Binding/Force-Field) scheme adapted to the investigation of molecules trapped in rare gas environments. With respect to usual FF descriptions, the model involves the interaction of quantum electrons in a molecule with rare gas atoms in an anisotropic scheme. It includes polarization and dispersion contributions and can be used for both neutral and charged species. Parameters for this model are determined for hydrocarbon-argon complexes and the model is validated for small hydrocarbons. With the future aim of studying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Ar matrices, extensive benchmark calculations are performed on (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}){sup +/0}Ar{sub n} clusters against DFT and CCSD(T) calculations for the smaller sizes, and more generally against other experimental and theoretical data. Results on the structures and energetics (isomer ordering and energy separation, cohesion energy per Ar atom) are presented in detail for n = 1–8, 13, 20, 27, and 30, for both neutrals and cations. We confirm that the clustering of Ar atoms leads to a monotonous decrease of the ionization potential of benzene for n ? 20, in line with previous experimental and FF data.

  1. CRITICAL CONFIGURATION FOR BERYLLIUM REFLECTED ASSEMBLIES OF U(93.15)O2 FUEL RODS (1.506-CM PITCH AND 7-TUBE CLUSTERS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of critical experiments were completed in 1962-1965 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Critical Experiments Facility in support of the Medium-Power Reactor Experiments (MPRE) program. In the late 1950’s efforts were made to study “power plants for the production of electrical power in space vehicles”. The MPRE program was a part of those efforts and studied the feasibility of a stainless steel system, boiling potassium 1 MW(t), or about 140 kW(e), reactor. The program was carried out in [fiscal years] 1964, 1965, and 1966. A summary of the program’s effort was compiled in 1967. The delayed critical experiments were a mockup of a small, potassium-cooled space power reactor for validation of reactor calculations and reactor physics methods. Initial experiments, performed in November and December of 1962, consisted of a core of 253 unmoderated stainless steel tubes, each containing 26 UO2 fuel pellets, surrounded by a graphite reflector. Measurements were made to determine critical reflector arrangements, fission-rate distributions, and cadmium ratio distributions. “The [assemblies were built] on [a] vertical assembly machine so that the movable part was the core and bottom reflector.” The first two experiments in the series were evaluated in HEU-COMP-FAST-001 (SCCA-FUND-EXP-001) and HEU-COMP-FAST-002 (SCCA-FUND-EXP-002). The first experiment had the 253 fuel tubes packed tightly into a 22.87 cm outside diameter (OD) core tank (References 1 and 2). The second experiment in the series, performed in early 1963, had the 253 fuel tubes at a 1.506-cm triangular lattice in a 25.96 cm OD core tank and graphite reflectors on all sides. The third set of experiments in the series, performed in mid-1963, which is studied in this evaluation, used beryllium reflectors. The beryllium reflected system was the preferred reactor configuration for this application because of the small thickness of the reflector. The two core configurations had the 253 fuel tubes at a 1.506-cm triangular lattice and arranged in 7-tube clusters. The experiments have been determined to represent acceptable benchmark experiments. Information for this evaluation was compiled from published reports on all three parts of the experimental series (Reference 1-5) and the experimental logbook as well as from communication with the experimenter, John T. Mihalczo.

  2. High reflectance and low stress Mo2C/Be multilayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bajt, Sasa (Livermore, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A material for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) multilayers that will reflect at about 11.3 nm, have a high reflectance, low stress, and high thermal and radiation stability. The material consists of alternating layers of Mo.sub.2 C and Be deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on a substrate, such as silicon. In one example a Mo.sub.2 C/Be multilayer gave 65.2% reflectance at 11.25 nm measured at 5 degrees off normal incidence angle, and consisted of 70 bilayers with a deposition period of 5.78 nm, and was deposited at 0.83 mTorr argon (Ar) sputtering pressure, with the first and last layers being Be. The stress of the multilayer is tensile and only +88 MPa, compared to +330 MPa of a Mo/Be multilayers of the same thickness. The Mo.sub.2 C/Be multilayer was capped with carbon which produced an increase in reflectivity of about 7% over a similar multilayer with no carbon capping material, thus raising the reflectivity from 58.3% to over 65%. The multilayers were formed using either Mo.sub.2 C or Be as the first and last layers, and initial testing has shown the formation of beryllium carbide at the interfaces between the layers which both stabilizes and has a smoothing effect, and appear to be smoother than the interfaces in Mo/Be multilayers.

  3. Quantitative Reflectance Spectra of Solid Powders as a Function of Particle Size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ertel, Alyssa B.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have recently developed vetted methods for obtaining quantitative infrared directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra using a commercial integrating sphere. In this paper, the effects of particle size on the spectral properties are analyzed for several samples such as ammonium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and sodium sulfate as well as one organic compound, lactose. We prepared multiple size fractions for each sample and confirmed the mean sizes using optical microscopy. Most species displayed a wide range of spectral behavior depending on the mean particle size. General trends of reflectance vs. particle size are observed such as increased albedo for smaller particles: for most wavelengths, the reflectivity drops with increased size, sometimes displaying a factor of 4 or more drop in reflectivity along with a loss of spectral contrast. In the longwave infrared, several species with symmetric anions or cations exhibited reststrahlen features whose amplitude was nearly invariant with particle size, at least for intermediate- and large-sized sample fractions; that is, > ~150 microns. Trends of other types of bands (Christiansen minima, transparency features) are also investigated as well as quantitative analysis of the observed relationship between reflectance vs. particle diameter.

  4. Tight extended formulations for independent set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    3. there is finite set Q and a mapping f : V ? 2Q such that. (a) f is “consistent” with the acyclicity, namely, for every hyperarc (J, i) ?. A and for every j ? J, we ...

  5. Capacity additions ease tight methanol supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greek, B.F. (C and EN, Houston, TX (US))

    1988-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Two menthanol plants now in operation - one in the U.S., the other in Chile - will boost global supplies of methanol more than 375 million gal annually. This large capacity addition and smaller expansions in other parts of the world will exceed demand growth during 1988 and 1989, easing the squeeze on supplies. As the result of increased supplies, methanol prices could slip slightly in the fourth quarter. They are more likely to decline next year, however. The two plants, which started up in August, are owned and operated by Tenneco Oil Co. Processing and Marketing and by Cape Horn Methanol (CHM). The Tenneco plant, located in Pasadena, Tex., was restarted after a shutdown in 1982 when prices for methanol were low. It now is running at full capacity of 125 million gal per year. The plant uses the low-pressure process technology of Lurgi, reportedly requiring for feedstock and energy between 100,000 and 125,000 cu ft of methane per gallon. Global trade in methanol smooths out the supply and demand inconsistencies. Surging methanol demand in the U.S. and in Western Europe has been met by imports from areas where methanol production is most economical - that is, where natural gas is readily available and has no other application as high in value. Canada, Chile, and Trinidad are examples of those areas.

  6. Keep Learning Even with Tight Budgets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Registration link: CHRIS Training Workflow - CHRIS Code: 002652, Session: 0001For organizations not currently using the CHRIS workflow process, please follow your existing interoffice training...

  7. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this report was on preparing data and modules for Piceance Basin-wide fracture prediction. A review of the geological data input and automated history reconstruction approach was made. Fluid pressure data analysis and preliminary basin simulations were carried out. These activities are summarized briefly below and reviewed in more detail in Appendices A-E. Appendix D is a review of the fluid pressure data and its implications for compartmentation. Preliminary fracture prediction computations on generic basins are presented in Appendix E; these were carried out as part of our code testing activities. The results of these two Appendices are the beginning of what will be the basis of the model testing; fluid pressures are directly comparable with the model predictions and are a key element of fracture nucleation and presentation. We summarize the tectonic and sedimentary history of the Piceance Basin based on our automated history reconstruction and published interpretations. The narrative and figures provide the basic material we have quantified for our CIRF.B basin simulator input. This data supplements our existing well data interpretation approach. It provides an independent check of the automated sedimentary/subsidence history reconstruction module. Fluid pressure data was gathered and analyzed. This data serves two functions. Fluid pressure distribution across the basin provides a quantitative test as it is a direct prediction of CIRF.B. Furthermore, fluid pressure modifies effective stress. It thereby enters fracture nucleation criteria and fracture extension rate and aperture laws. The pressure data is presented in Appendix Din terms of overpressure maps and isosurfaces.

  8. Keep Learning Even With Tight Budgets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Registration link: Register through Employee Self Service (ESS) CHRIS System.For organizations not currently using the CHRIS workflow process, please follow your existing interoffice training...

  9. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

  10. Autonomous buoy for seismic reflection data acquisition in the inaccessible parts of the Arctic Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kristoffersen, Yngve

    . Remaining challenges - power supplied by batteries charged by solar panels and wind mill has proven & electronics battery solar panels Field tests Results Deployment on the ice north of Svalbard Test locations

  11. Develop statewide recommendations for application of PCC joint reflective cracking rehabilitation strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Rahul Padamkumar

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spalling of cracks and joints is the cracking, breaking or chipping of the slab edges within 2 ft (0.6m) if the joint or crack (Huang et. al 2004). Joint spalling is a construction related distress in the rigid pavement that mainly affects the structural... in the asphalt concrete overlays laid on the concrete pavements. Reflection cracks are caused by discontinuities in the underlying layers which propagate through the HMA surface due to movement at crack (Roberts et al 1996). Reflection cracks in AC overlays...

  12. EVALUATION OF THE SACCHAROFLEX 2000 REFLECTANCE MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR REFINED SUGAR COLOUR ESTIMATION AT HULETTS REFINERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Moodley; N K Padayachee; V Govender

    Due to the successful use of the Saccharoflex 2000 reflectance measurement instrument on the estimation of refined sugar colour elsewhere in the world, it was decided by Tongaat-Hulett Sugar to evaluate the instrument at the refinery in Durban. Tests were carried out on first, second, third and fourth refined sugars, the results of which showed a good correlation between the ICUMSA colour measurement and the reflectance reading obtained from the Saccharoflex 2000. The instrument offers a number of advantages, the main one being that a refined sugar colour value can be obtained in less than a minute. The refinery has therefore purchased one for process control.

  13. Passivating overcoat bilayer for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passivating overcoat bilayer is used for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft x-ray applications to prevent oxidation and corrosion of the multilayer coating, thereby improving the EUV optical performance. The overcoat bilayer comprises a layer of silicon or beryllium underneath at least one top layer of an elemental or a compound material that resists oxidation and corrosion. Materials for the top layer include carbon, palladium, carbides, borides, nitrides, and oxides. The thicknesses of the two layers that make up the overcoat bilayer are optimized to produce the highest reflectance at the wavelength range of operation. Protective overcoat systems comprising three or more layers are also possible.

  14. Semianalytic Monte Carlo calculation of reflected and transmitted radiance in a plane parallel atmosphere 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffitt, John Russell

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thickness. Both Rayleigh and isotropic scattering are considered and examples are included for r = 1, m = 1, n = -1, m ' o ' 1 and A = 0. The method is also extended to include non-zero ground albedos and an example is included. A method... scattering for = 1 m = 1 n = -1 and A = 0. The continuous m o 1 10 curve is Matrix Operator Theory result 27 INTROBNCTION 1. Current and Past Methods for Calculating Reflected and Trans- mitted Radiance Early work in calculating the reflected...

  15. Reflectivity of linear and nonlinear gamma radiated apodized chirped Bragg grating under ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamdalla, Taymour A. [Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Faculty of Science, Tabuk University, Tabuk (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the effect Co{sup 60} gamma radiation is investigated on the effective refractive index of apodized chirped Bragg grating. Nine apodization profiles are considered. Comparison between the reflectivity of the gamma radiated and non radiated fiber Bragg grating has been carried out. The electric field of signals propagating through the apodized chirped fiber Bragg grating (ACFBG) is first calculated from which, new values for the refractive index are determined. The nonlinear effects appear on the ACFBG reflectivity. The effect of nonlinearity and undersea temperature and pressure on the grating is also studied.

  16. Reflection of electromagnetic radiation from plasma with an anisotropic electron velocity distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vagin, K. Yu., E-mail: vagin@sci.lebedev.ru; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection of a test electromagnetic pulse from the plasma formed as a result of tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of a circularly polarized high-power radiation pulse is analyzed using the kinetic approach to describe electron motion. It is shown that the reflected pulse is significantly amplified due to the development of Weibel instability. The amplification efficiency is determined by the maximum value of the instability growth rate, which depends on the degree of anisotropy of the photoelectron distribution function.

  17. Dispositional reflections 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brummans, Boris H. J. M.

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation, I explicate how scholars implicate themselves in the subfield of organizational communication studies by engaging in antinomic language-games which make the conduct of research (and textwork in particular) possible. My...

  18. Reflecting Absence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arad, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fox, and asked the owner, Jimmy Awad, if I could borrowfinalists. I went back to Jimmy Awad’s model shop, this timetogether over a few short days. Jimmy is from Syria, and the

  19. Theoretical analysis of reflected ray error from surface slope error and their application to the solar concentrated collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Weidong

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface slope error of concentrator is one of the main factors to influence the performance of the solar concentrated collectors which cause deviation of reflected ray and reduce the intercepted radiation. This paper presents the general equation to calculate the standard deviation of reflected ray error from slope error through geometry optics, applying the equation to calculate the standard deviation of reflected ray error for 5 kinds of solar concentrated reflector, provide typical results. The results indicate that the slope error is transferred to the reflected ray in more than 2 folds when the incidence angle is more than 0. The equation for reflected ray error is generally fit for all reflection surfaces, and can also be applied to control the error in designing an abaxial optical system.

  20. EVALUATION OF ACTIVATION PRODUCTS IN REMAINING IN REMAINING K-, L- AND C-REACTOR STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, D.; Webb, R.

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytic model and calculational methodology was previously developed for P-reactor and R-reactor to quantify the radioisotopes present in Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor tanks and the surrounding structural materials as a result of neutron activation of the materials during reactor operation. That methodology has been extended to K-reactor, L-reactor, and C-reactor. The analysis was performed to provide a best-estimate source term input to the Performance Assessment for an in-situ disposition strategy by Site Decommissioning and Demolition (SDD). The reactor structure model developed earlier for the P-reactor and R-reactor analyses was also used for the K-reactor and L-reactor. The model was suitably modified to handle the larger Creactor tank and associated structures. For all reactors, the structure model consisted of 3 annular zones, homogenized by the amount of structural materials in the zone, and 5 horizontal layers. The curie content on an individual radioisotope basis and total basis for each of the regions was determined. A summary of these results are provided herein. The efficacy of this methodology to accurately predict the radioisotopic content of the reactor systems in question has been demonstrated and is documented in Reference 1. As noted in that report, results for one reactor facility cannot be directly extrapolated to other SRS reactors.