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1

Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

format. HEADLINES... 2012 Annual Report 2012 draft data available through the REMS query tool 2012 Submittal Notification REMS Reporting Guide, containing the required format...

2

Microsoft Word - Final Annual TRU Waste Inventory Report-2009...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Conservation and Recovery Act rem Roentgen equivalent man RFETS Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site RH Remote-handled RN Radionuclide SNL-A Sandia National Laboratories -...

3

ORISE: DOE's Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Monitoring System (REMS) Monitoring System (REMS) ORISE maintains large database of radition exposure records for the U.S. Department of Energy ORISE staff monitoring radiation data for DOE Rule 10 CFR 835 establishes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) occupational protection rule and requires assessment and recording of radiation doses to individuals who are exposed to sources of radiation or contamination. The Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) database is the radiation exposure data repository for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors and members of the public. REMS maintains dose records for all monitored individuals dating back to 1969. Aggregated, site-specific data are available on the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System website for all years since 1986. Currently,

4

Rem&al Action Performed  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Rem&al Action Performed Rem&al Action Performed at the B&T Metals Site in * Columbus, Ohio Department of Energy Office of Assistant Manager for Environmenta/ Management Oak Ridge Operations June 2007 Printed on recycled/recyclable paper. 1.41 2503.2 CERTIFICATION DOCKET FOR THE REMEDIAL ACTION PER-FORMED AT THE B&T METALS SITE IN COLUMBUS, OHIO JUNE 200 1 Prepared for United States Department of Energy Under Contract No. DACW45-98-D-0028 BY Bechtel National, Inc. Oak Ridge, Tennessee Bechtel Job No. 14501 B&TFinal 6/2001 CONTENTS FIGURES ..................................................................................................................................................... iv ACRON-YhiS ...............................................................................................................................................

5

Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

Wen, J

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

6

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: REM/Rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

REM/Rate REM/Rate REM/Rate logo. User-friendly, yet highly sophisticated, residential energy analysis, code compliance and rating software developed specifically for the needs of HERS providers. REM/Rate calculates heating, cooling, hot water, lighting, and appliance energy loads, consumption and costs for new and existing single and multi-family homes. Climate data is available for cities and towns throughout North America. A home energy rating is calculated based on the proposed DOE HERS guidelines (10 CFR 437) as modified by the RESNET/NASEO HERS Technical Committee. In addition to an energy rating, REM/Rate creates value added information including energy efficiency mortgage report, energy appraisal addendum, energy code compliance (MEC, IECC, and ASHRAE), improvement analysis (existing homes), design optimization (new homes),

7

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: REM/Design  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

REM/Design REM/Design REM/Design logo. User-friendly, yet highly sophisticated, residential energy analysis and code compliance software which eliminates the uncertainty and guesswork from energy design and code compliance decisions. Developed specifically with the needs of homebuilders, remodelers, energy consultants and designers in mind, REM/Design calculates heating, cooling, hot water, lights and appliance loads, consumption and costs for single and multi-family designs in over 250 North American cities. This Windows-based software automatically analyzes the energy and economic performance of numerous energy design features including envelope insulation, air leakage control, duct leakage control, active and passive solar systems, heating and cooling equipment, mechanical ventilation and more. In addition to

8

Conformity or Equivalent Diameter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...7(a), at left) and two external (Fig. 7(b), at right). The equations for the equivalent diameter, DE, are given in Fig. 7 for both modes. The equivalent diameter is the size of wheel that

9

NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By:...

10

Evaluation of 2 Rem per Year Occupational Dose Limit: Potential Effects on U.S. Nuclear Utilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This interim report provides an evaluation of potential impacts on the U.S. nuclear power industry of a reduction in the occupational radiation dose limit from 5 rem per year to 2 rem per year.

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

11

Efficiency of Equivalence Algorithms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper was first presented at the Symposium on Complexity of Computer Computations, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York, on March 22, 1972. The equivalence problem is to determine the ...

Fischer, Michael J.

1972-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Free products, Orbit Equivalence and Measure Equivalence Rigidity Aur´elien Alvarez and Damien Gaboriau February 18, 2009 Abstract We study the analogue in orbit equivalence of free product decomposition and free indecomposability for countable groups. We introduce the (orbit equivalence invariant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

13

The Equivalence Principle Revisited  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A precise formulation of the strong Equivalence Principle is essential to the understanding of the relationship between gravitation and quantum mechanics. The relevant aspects are reviewed in a context including General Relativity, but allowing for the presence of torsion. For the sake of brevity, a concise statement is proposed for the Principle: "An ideal observer immersed in a gravitational field can choose a reference frame in which gravitation goes unnoticed". This statement is given a clear mathematical meaning through an accurate discussion of its terms. It holds for ideal observers (time-like smooth non-intersecting curves), but not for real, spatially extended observers. Analogous results hold for gauge fields. The difference between gravitation and the other fundamental interactions comes from their distinct roles in the equation of force.

R. Aldrovandi; P. B. Barros; J. G. Pereira

2002-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

14

Conversion factors for energy equivalents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Conversion factors for energy equivalents, For your convenience, you may convert energies online below. Or display factors as: ...

15

Data processing unit and power system for the LANL REM instrument package. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The NEPSTP spacecraft needs highly reliable instrumentation to measure the nuclear reactor health and performance. These reactor measurements are essential for initial on-orbit phase operations and documentation of performance over time. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the guidance of W. C. Feldman, principal investigator, has designed the Radiation Environment Monitoring (REM) package to meet these needs. The instrumentation package contains two neutron detectors, one gamma-ray detector, a data processing unit, and an instrument power system. The REM package is an integration of quick turn-around, state of the practice technology for detectors, data processors, and power systems. A significant portion of REM consists of subsystems with flight history. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has been tasked by LANL to design support electronics, including the Data Processing Unit (DPU) and Power System for REM. The goal for this project is to use technologies from current programs to speed up and simplify the design process. To meet these design goals, the authors use an open architecture VME bus for the DPU and derivatives of CASSINI power supplies for the instrument power system. To simplify integration and test activities, they incorporate a proven software development strategy and tool kits from outside vendors. The objective of this report is to illustrate easily incorporated system level designs for the DPU, power system and ground support electronics (GSE) in support of the important NEPSTP program.

Lockhart, W. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Instrumentation and Space Research Div.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

HQFMSP Chapter 16, Equivalencies and Exemptions | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6, Equivalencies and Exemptions HQFMSP Chapter 16, Equivalencies and Exemptions October 2013 2013 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 16, Equivalencies and...

17

Equivalence between therm and gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce the notion of thermal entropy density, and first demonstrated that there exists an equivalence between therm and gravity without depending on the definition of temperature or horizon. This equivalence indicates that gravity possesses thermal features, or, therm possesses effects of gravity. This may shed light on the nature of gravity.

Yang, Rong-Jia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Basis of conversion factors for energy equivalents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Basis of conversion factors for energy equivalents Conversion factors for energy equivalents are derived from the following relations: ...

19

Conversion factors for energy equivalents: All factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Conversion factors for energy equivalents Return to online conversions. Next page of energy equivalents. Definition of uncertainty ...

20

Methodology and results of the impacts of modeling electric utilities ; a comparative evaluation of MEMM and REM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study compares two models of the U.S. electric utility industry including the EIA's electric utility submodel in the Midterm Energy Market Model (MEMM), and the Baughman-Joskow Regionalized Electricity Model (REM). ...

Baughman, Martin L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Conversion factors for energy equivalents: All factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Previous page of energy equivalents. Definition of uncertainty notation eg, 123(45) | Basis of conversion factors for energy equivalents. Top. ...

22

Neutron flux, spectrum, and dose equivalent measurements for a 4500-W(th) /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ general purpose heat source  

SciTech Connect

The total emission rate is (4.5 +- 0.4) 10/sup 7/ n/s, and the average neutron energy is (1.64 +- 0.07) MeV. The factor for converting from neutron fluence to dose equivalent for this spectrum is (3.10 +- 0.24) 10/sup -5/ mRem/n-cm/sup -2/. The factor for converting from neutron fluence to tissue absorbed dose is (3.18 +- 0.26) 10/sup -6/ mRad/n-cm/sup -2/.

Anderson, M.E.

1985-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

23

Snow water equivalent estimation using blackbox optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 23, 2011 ... Abstract: Accurate measurements of snow water equivalent (SWE) is an ... managing water resources for hydroelectric power generation.

24

Property:Equivalent URI | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Equivalent URI Equivalent URI Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI is a special property in Semantic MediaWiki with a built-in meaning: it marks a page in the wiki as having a well-known meaning beyond this wiki, in an external URI. For example an extension to the Semantic MediaWiki extension might introduce its own property, and all wikis should use the same equivalent URI for it. In RDF Export the "Equivalent URI" special property exports as owl:sameAs. Pages using the property "Equivalent URI" This property is a special property in this wiki. Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 2 2010 Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada: Third Edition + http://cleanenergysolutions.org/content/2010-carbon-sequestration-atlas-united-states-and-canada-third-edition +

25

Defense Program Equivalencies for Technical Qualification Standard  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Defense Program Equivalencies for Technical Qualification Standard Defense Program Equivalencies for Technical Qualification Standard Competencies12/12/1995 Defense Program Equivalencies for Technical Qualification Standard Competencies12/12/1995 Defense Programs has undertaken an effort to compare the competencies in the General Technical Base Qualification Standard and the Functional Area Qualification Standards with various positions in the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and the commercial nuclear industry. The purpose of this effort is to determine if equivalencies can be granted for competencies based on previous training and experience in these areas. The equivalency crosswalk was developed by subject matter experts who held positions in the Navy and/or the commercial nuclear power program. To date, equivalencies have been

26

Snow water equivalent estimation using blackbox optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 7, 2011 ... Abstract: Accurate measurements of snow water equivalent (SWE) is an important factor in managing water resources for hydroelectric power...

27

Chapter_16_Equivalencies_and_Exemptions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for requesting and approving "equivalencies and exemptions" to the requirements in DOE directives. These categories are defined in the Headquarters (HQ) Implementation...

28

Brief Equivalence of hybrid dynamical models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper establishes equivalences among five classes of hybrid systems: mixed logical dynamical (MLD) systems, linear complementarity (LC) systems, extended linear complementarity (ELC) systems, piecewise affine (PWA) systems, and max-min-plus-scaling ... Keywords: Equivalent models, Hybrid systems, Piecewise affine systems

W. P. M. H. Heemels; B. De Schutter; A. Bemporad

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality  

SciTech Connect

We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

On Formulas for Equivalent Potential Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several new formulas for pseudoadiabatic equivalent potential temperature (EPT) are devised and compared to previous ones. The maximum errors of all the formulas are determined from calculations on a dense grid of points in the region of a ...

Robert Davies-Jones

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Models of translational equivalence among words  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parallel texts (bitexts) have properties that distinguish them from other kinds of parallel data. First, most words translate to only one other word. Second, bitext correspondence is typically only partial---many words in each text have no clear equivalent ...

I. Dan Melamed

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

The Computation of Equivalent Potential Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simplified procedure is described for computation of equivalent potential temperature which remains valid in situations such as in the tropics where a term which is omitted in the derivation of the conventional formula can lead to an error of ...

David Bolton

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Decidability and Coincidence of Equivalences for Concurrency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are two fundamental problems concerning equivalence relations in con-currency. One is: for which system classes is a given equivalence decidable? The second is: when do two equivalences coincide? Two well-known equivalences are history preserving bisimilarity (hpb) and hereditary history preserving bisimi-larity (hhpb). These are both independence equivalences: they reflect causal dependencies between events. Hhpb is obtained from hpb by adding a back-tracking requirement. This seemingly small change makes hhpb computationally far harder: hpb is well-known to be decidable for finite-state systems, whereas the decidability of hhpb has been a renowned open problem for several years; only recently it has been shown undecidable. The main aim of this thesis is to gain insights into the decidability problem for hhpb, and to analyse when it coincides with hpb; less technically, we might say, to analyse the power of the interplay between concurrency, causality, and conflict. We first examine the backtracking condition, and see that it has two dimen-

Sibylle Frschle

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Instability of Equivalent-Barotropic Riders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown, by the integration of numerical initial-value problems, that modon-with-rider solutions to the equivalent barotropic equation are unstable in the parametric range relevant to Gulf Stream rings. The fastest growing mode is found to ...

Mark Swenson

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

THE NEW WIND CHILL EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE CHART  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formula used in the U.S. and Canada to express the combined effect of wind and low temperature on how cold it feels was changed in November 2001. Many had felt that the old formula for equivalent temperature, derived in the 1960s from Siple ...

Randall Osczevski; Maurice Bluestein

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

CALIFORNIA IGETC EQUIVALENCIES TO BINGHAMTON UNIVERSITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA IGETC EQUIVALENCIES TO BINGHAMTON UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK GENERAL of courses that prospective transfer students attending California Community Colleges may complete to satisfy the lower-division breadth and general education requirements at both the University of California

Suzuki, Masatsugu

37

Core equivalence in economy for modal logic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate a pure exchange economy under uncertainty with emphasis on the logical point of view; the traders are assumed to have a multi-modal logic with non-partitional information structures.We propose a generalized notion of rational expectations ... Keywords: core equivalence theorem, ex-post core, multi-modal logic, pure exchange economy under reflexive information structure, rational expectations equilibrium

Takashi Matsuhisa

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

Fitch, V. L.

1972-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

39

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Gasoline Gallon Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Gasoline Gallon Equivalent (GGE) Definition

40

Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

42

Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

43

Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

44

Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

45

Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

46

Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

47

Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

48

Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

49

Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

50

Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

51

West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

52

Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

53

Equivalence between executable OOZE and algebraic specification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper two algorithms are presented: one which turns an executable OOZE specification into an algebraic specification and another which does the reverse operation. In this way, we shall be able to prove in a constructive way that executable OOZE and algebraic specification are equivalent and that, generally speaking, state-based specification is equivalent to to algebraic specification. We shall discuss whether these results can be made to cover other object-oriented Z dialects. 1 Introduction Formal methods are a constant subject of research within the field of Software Engineering. They have been being developed since the mid 70's, and are nowadays beginning to be applied in industry (see [Hal90]) and are expected to become a most favourable tool for saving the time and effort which is spent in the development of applications. This very same objective is shared by object-oriented programming. This new style of programming, which helps to reduce costs during the development pr...

Vicent-Ramon Palasi Lallana

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Kinetic Energy and the Equivalence Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According to the general theory of relativity, kinetic energy contributes to gravitational mass. Surprisingly, the observational evidence for this prediction does not seem to be discussed in the literature. I reanalyze existing experimental data to test the equivalence principle for the kinetic energy of atomic electrons, and show that fairly strong limits on possible violations can be obtained. I discuss the relationship of this result to the occasional claim that ``light falls with twice the acceleration of ordinary matter.''

S. Carlip

1999-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

55

Quantal Definition of the Weak Equivalence Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work analyzes the meaning of the Weak Equivalence Principle in the context of quantum mechanics. A quantal definition for this principle is introduced. This definition does not require the concept of trajectory and relies upon the phase shift induced by a gravitational field in the context of a quantum interference experiment of two coherent beams of particles. In other words, it resorts to wave properties of the system and not to classical concepts as the idea of trajectory.

Abel Camacho; Arturo Camacho-Guardian

2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

56

Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.

Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Matone, M. [Univ. of Padova (Italy)

1997-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

A neutron dose detector with REM response to 1 GeV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The limitation of current remmeters, which do not measure neutron dose equivalents above about 15 MeV, is a serious problem at high-energy accelerator facilities, where a much wider range of neutron energies exist. The purpose of this work was to measure the response of a modified Anderson-Braun (A-B) remmeter to neutron energies up to 1 GeV. The modifications to the standard A-B remmeter were based on the experimental results of Pb(n,xn) reactions.

Sun, R.K.; Krebs, G.F.; Smith, A.R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Hsu, H.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Realistic Carbon Equivalent for Underwater Welding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon equivalent (CE) formulas have been used for many years to provide a general idea of the weldability of steels. These formulas reduce the significant composition variables to a single number or CE that is calculated from the base metal composition and includes no other variables. The current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code case N-516-2 specifies an equation to be used for calculating the CE. It additionally states that if all the elements required for the formula are not listed...

2002-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

59

Equivalence of three-dimensional spacetimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A solution to the equivalence problem in three-dimensional gravity is given and a practically useful method to obtain a coordinate invariant description of local geometry is presented. The method is a nontrivial adaptation of Karlhede invariant classification of spacetimes of general relativity. The local geometry is completely determined by the curvature tensor and a finite number of its covariant derivatives in a frame where the components of the metric are constants. The results are presented in the framework of real two-component spinors in three-dimensional spacetimes, where the algebraic classifications of the Ricci and Cotton-York spinors are given and their isotropy groups and canonical forms are determined. As an application we discuss Goedel-type spacetimes in three-dimensional General Relativity. The conditions for local space and time homogeneity are derived and the equivalence of three-dimensional Goedel-type spacetimes is studied and the results are compared with previous works on four-dimensional Goedel-type spacetimes.

F. C. Sousa; J. B. Fonseca; C. Romero

2007-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

60

Chemical turbulence equivalent to Nikolavskii turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We find evidence that a certain class of reaction-diffusion systems can exhibit chemical turbulence equivalent to Nikolaevskii turbulence. The distinctive characteristic of this type of turbulence is that it results from the interaction of weakly stable long-wavelength modes and unstable short-wavelength modes. We indirectly study this class of reaction-diffusion systems by considering an extended complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation that was previously derived from this class of reaction-diffusion systems. First, we show numerically that the power spectrum of this CGL equation in a particular regime is qualitatively quite similar to that of the Nikolaevskii equation. Then, we demonstrate that the Nikolaevskii equation can in fact be obtained from this CGL equation through a phase reduction procedure applied in the neighborhood of a codimension-two Turing--Benjamin-Feir point.

Dan Tanaka

2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Tracer Equivalent Latitude: A Diagnostic Tool for Isentropic Transport Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Area equivalent latitude based on potential vorticity (PV) is a widely used diagnostic for isentropic transport in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Here, an alternate method for calculating equivalent latitude is explored, namely, a ...

Douglas R. Allen; Noboru Nakamura

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Local Equivalence of Rank-Two Quantum Mixed States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the equivalence of quantum mixed states under local unitary transformations. For a class of rank-two mixed states, a sufficient and necessary condition of local equivalence is obtained by giving a complete set of invariants under local unitary transformations, such that two states in this class are locally equivalent if and only if all these invariants have equal values for them.

Sergio Albeverio; Shao-Ming Fei; Debashish Goswami

2007-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

63

Joint spacing criterion for equivalent continuum model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Currently, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is investigating the feasibility of the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the unsaturated Topopah Spring formation. The Topopah Spring formation is a heavily fractured, predominantly vertically jointed, welded tuff, and the potential disposal area is cut by the Ghost Dance fault and bounded by several other faults structures. The joints in the tuff and the faults may have an impact on the emplacement drift or borehole stability, as well as on the movement of fluids through the rock mass. The design of the repository drifts and layout, the waste emplacement scheme, and the thermomechanical performance of the rock mass will be analyzed using various numerical models. These models may be based on different assumptions regarding the representation of the fracture behavior under given applied stresses, and will range from discrete models where individual mechanically active fractures are treated distinctly, to continuum models where the joint behavior is smeared over a representative volume. There is always the question of applicability of a model with respect to a given material domain to be analyzed. For the mechanical analysis of the rock mass response around a repository drift, the applicability of an equivalent continuum model is dependent on the joint spacing in the rock mass. Considering the joint spacings that may be encountered at the potential repository site, a ratio of joint spacing to the planned drift diameter may be adopted as a criterion for evaluating the applicability of the Compliant Joint Model (CJM) in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. In this paper, this criterion is established by reviewing basic continuum concepts and numerical approximation implications used to build the CJM and by examining rock mass conditions that may be encountered at the potential Yucca Mountain repository site.

Tsai, F.C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

64

Translation equivalents for health/medical terminology in Xitsonga.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A comparative study of translation equivalents for health/medical terminology in Xitsonga was conducted. The research involved studying a selection of terms from a glossary (the (more)

Mabasa, Tirhani Abigail

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Defense Program Equivalencies for Technical Qualification Standard Competencies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2, 1995 2, 1995 MEMORANDUM FOR Distribution FROM: Thomas W. Evans Technical Personnel Program Coordinator SUBJECT: Defense Program Equivalencies for Technical Qualification Standard Competencies Defense Programs has undertaken an effort to compare the competencies in the General Technical Base Qualification Standard and the Functional Area Qualification Standards with various positions in the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and the commercial nuclear industry. The purpose of this effort is to determine if equivalencies can be granted for competencies based on previous training and experience in these areas. The equivalency crosswalk was developed by subject matter experts who held positions in the Navy and/or the commercial nuclear power program. To date, equivalencies have been

66

,"Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012...

67

,"U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Bcf)",1,"Monthly","92013" ,"Release...

68

,"New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

69

,"Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

70

,"Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

71

,"Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

72

Optimization Online - Asymptotic equivalence and Kobayashi-type ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 13, 2008 ... Asymptotic equivalence and Kobayashi-type estimates for nonautonomous monotone operators in Banach spaces. F Alvarez (falvarez ***at***...

73

Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE-Open Compliant Simulations Description The Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology...

74

Aging in reversible dynamics of disordered systems. II. Emergence of the arcsine law in the random hopping time dynamics of the REM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Applying the new tools developed in [G1], we investigate the arcsine aging regime of the random hopping time dynamics of the REM. Our results are optimal in several ways. They cover the full time-scale and temperature domain where this phenomenon occurs. On this domain the limiting clock process and associated time correlation function are explicitly constructed. Finally, all convergence statements w.r.t. the law of the random environment are obtained in the strongest sense possible, except perhaps on the very last scales before equilibrium.

Vronique Gayrard

2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

75

Dosimetric verification of the anisotropic analytical algorithm in lung equivalent heterogeneities with and without bone equivalent heterogeneities  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this study, the authors evaluated the accuracy of dose calculations performed by the convolution/superposition based anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) in lung equivalent heterogeneities with and without bone equivalent heterogeneities. Methods: Calculations of PDDs using the AAA and Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP4C) were compared to ionization chamber measurements with a heterogeneous phantom consisting of lung equivalent and bone equivalent materials. Both 6 and 10 MV photon beams of 4x4 and 10x10 cm{sup 2} field sizes were used for the simulations. Furthermore, changes of energy spectrum with depth for the heterogeneous phantom using MCNP were calculated. Results: The ionization chamber measurements and MCNP calculations in a lung equivalent phantom were in good agreement, having an average deviation of only 0.64{+-}0.45%. For both 6 and 10 MV beams, the average deviation was less than 2% for the 4x4 and 10x10 cm{sup 2} fields in the water-lung equivalent phantom and the 4x4 cm{sup 2} field in the water-lung-bone equivalent phantom. Maximum deviations for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field in the lung equivalent phantom before and after the bone slab were 5.0% and 4.1%, respectively. The Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated an increase of the low-energy photon component in these regions, more for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field compared to the 4x4 cm{sup 2} field. Conclusions: The low-energy photon by Monte Carlo simulation component increases sharply in larger fields when there is a significant presence of bone equivalent heterogeneities. This leads to great changes in the build-up and build-down at the interfaces of different density materials. The AAA calculation modeling of the effect is not deemed to be sufficiently accurate.

Ono, Kaoru; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hirokawa, Yutaka [Department of Radiation Physics, Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, 1-31 Kawaramachi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0856 (Japan); Quantum Energy Applications, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 730-8527 (Japan); Center of Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, 17 Minami 1 Jo, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, 1-31 Kawaramachi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0856 (Japan)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

On equivalence of thinning fluids used for hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper aims to answer the question: if and how non-Newtonian fluids may be compared in their mechanical action when used for hydraulic fracturing? By employing the modified formulation of the PKN problem we obtain its simple analytical solutions in the cases of perfectly plastic and Newtonian fluids. Since the results for shear thinning fluids are intermediate between those for these cases, the obtained equation for the fracture length suggests a criterion of the equivalence of various shear thinning fluids for the problem of hydraulic fractures. We assume fluids equivalent in their hydrofracturing action, when at a reference time they produce fractures of the same length. The equation for the fracture length translates the equivalence in terms of the hydraulic fracture length and treatment time into the equivalence in terms of the properties of a fracturing fluid (behavior and consistency indices). Analysis shows that the influence of the consistency and behavior indices on the fracture length, particle v...

Linkov, Alexander

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle in Bekenstein's theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bekenstein has shown that violation of Weak Equivalence Principle is strongly supressed in his model of charge variation. In this paper, it is shown that nuclear magnetic energy is large enough to produce observable effects in Eotvos experiments.

L. Kraiselburd; H. Vucetich

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

78

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 121 116 93 1970's 79 55 70 71 75 68 61 45 64 49 1980's 41 29 40 55 61 145 234 318 272 254 1990's 300 395 604 513 513 582 603 734 732 879 2000's 586 691 566 647 634 700 794 859 1,008 1,295 2010's 4,578 8,931 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Processing

79

General Technical Base Qualification Equivalencies Based On Previous  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

General Technical Base Qualification Equivalencies Based On General Technical Base Qualification Equivalencies Based On Previous Experience, 12/12/95 General Technical Base Qualification Equivalencies Based On Previous Experience, 12/12/95 "The header lists the general field of experience, Commercial Nuclear Power or Navy Nuclear Power Program, with all other categories under these two areas. The subheader lists the position title of the military or job category within that industry. The next level lists the qualification standard subject with the competencies associated with it listed below. To locate the equivalencies that you may claim, locate the position title of your prior military or job category, then find the qualification standards and listed competencies that apply to your current position. The competencies listed below the qualification standards are those you

80

Development of an Equivalent Wind Plant Power-Curve: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Development of an equivalent wind plant power-curve becomes highly desirable and useful in predicting plant output for a given wind forecast. Such a development is described and summarized in this paper.

Wan, Y. H.; Ela, E.; Orwig, K.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Return Levels of Northern Great Plains Snow Water Equivalents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper estimates return levels of extreme snow water equivalents (SWE) in the northern Great Plains region, containing North and South Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. The return levels are estimated from extreme-value methods using a ...

Andrew J. Grundstein; Qi Qi Lu; Robert Lund

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

The Lorentz Condition is Equivalent to Maxwell Equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that the Lorentz condition which is a conservation law on the electromagnetic four-vector-density A, plus the Lorentz transformation, taken together, are equivalent to the microscopic Maxwell's equations.

Edmund A. Di Marzio

2008-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

83

Containment, Equivalence and Coreness from CSP to QCSP and beyond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) and its quantified extensions, whether without (QCSP) or with disjunction (QCSP_or), correspond naturally to the model checking problem for three increasingly stronger fragments of positive first-order logic. Their complexity is often studied when parameterised by a fixed model, the so-called template. It is a natural question to ask when two templates are equivalent, or more generally when one "contain" another, in the sense that a satisfied instance of the first will be necessarily satisfied in the second. One can also ask for a smallest possible equivalent template: this is known as the core for CSP. We recall and extend previous results on containment, equivalence and "coreness" for QCSP_or before initiating a preliminary study of cores for QCSP which we characterise for certain structures and which turns out to be more elusive.

Madelaine, Florent

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Flow equivalence of shifts of finite type via positive factorizations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Together with M. Boyle and D. Huang (2000), this paper gives an alternate development of the Huang classification of shifts of finite type up to flow equivalence, and provides additionalfunctorialinformation, used to analyze the action of the mapping class group of the mapping torus of a shift of finite type on the isotopy futures group, which is introduced here. For a shift of finite type ?A, this group is isomorphic to the Bowen-Franks group cok(I ?A). The action on the isotopy futures group of a subshift is the flow equivalence analogue of the dimension group representation.

Mike Boyle

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Electric circuit networks equivalent to chaotic quantum billiards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We formulate two types of electric RLC resonance network equivalent to quantum billiards. In the network of inductors grounded by capacitors squared resonant frequencies are eigenvalues of the quantum billiard. In the network of capacitors grounded by inductors squared resonant frequencies are given by inverse eigen values of the billiard. In both cases local voltages play role of the wave function of the quantum billiard. However as different from quantum billiards there is a heat power because of resistance of the inductors. In the equivalent chaotic billiards we derive the distribution of the heat power which well describes numerical statistics.

Evgeny N. Bulgakov; Dmitrii N. Maksimov; Almas F. Sadreev

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Equivalence of string and fusion loop-spin structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The importance of the fusion relation of loops was recognized in the context of spin structures on the loop space by Stolz and Teichner and further developed by Waldorf. On a spin manifold M the equivalence classes of `fusive' spin structures on the loop space LM, incorporating the fusion property, strong regularity and reparameterization-invariance, are shown to be in 1-1 correspondence with equivalence classes of string structures on M. The identification is through the affine space of `string' cohomology classes considered by Redden.

Chris Kottke; Richard Melrose

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

An ideal independent source as an equivalent 1-port  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a 1-port, not necessarily linear, with a dependent source, appearing at the port. The control of the source is entirely internal for the 1-port. If this source is a parallel voltage source, then the equivalent circuit is an ideal independent voltage source, and if it is a series current source, then the equivalent circuit is an ideal independent current source. (As usual, "ideal" source is defined as a source whose proposed function is independent of the load.) In the simple LTI case, these results can be obtained, respectively, by either taking RTh zero in the Thevenin equivalent, or taking RN infinite in the Norton equivalent; however the very fact that the final circuits do not include any linear elements indicates the possibility of generalization to nonlinear 1-ports. Some limitations on the circuit's structure (functional dependencies in it) are required, and the clearness of these limitations, i.e. clearness of the conditions for the 1-port to be an ideal source for any load, is the aesthetical point.

Emanuel Gluskin; Anatoly Patlakh

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

88

Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,127 971 1,334 1970's 1,270 1,217 1,058 878 679 567 520 367 485 1,146 1980's 553 830 831 633 618 458 463 437 811 380 1990's 445 511 416 395 425 377 340 300 495 5,462 2000's 11,377 15,454 16,477 11,430 13,697 14,308 14,662 13,097 10,846 18,354 2010's 18,405 11,221 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

89

Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 3,499 3,667 3,475 1970's 3,235 2,563 1,197 1,118 952 899 823 674 883 1,308 1980's 1,351 1,327 1,287 1,258 1,200 1,141 1,318 1,275 1,061 849 1990's 800 290 413 507 553 488 479 554 451 431 2000's 377 408 395 320 254 231 212 162 139 168 2010's 213 268 424 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

90

Laboratory Protocol to Demonstrate Equivalency for Plant Wastewater Cotreatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adding chemical metal-cleaning wastes to ash ponds can be an inexpensive, effective method for removing contaminant metals from both wastes and ponds.This proposed laboratory protocol defines steps for determining the usefulness of ash pond comixing on a case-by-case basis and for demonstrating the equivalency of comixing with dedicated waste treatment, as required by EPA.

1987-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

91

Probability Models for Annual Extreme Water-Equivalent Ground Snow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical analysis of annual extreme water-equivalents of ground snow (reported as inches of water) measured up through the winter of 197980 at 76 weather stations in the northeast quadrant of the United States is presented. The analysis ...

Bruce Ellingwood; Robert K. Redfield

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Scanning multichannel microwave radiometer snow water equivalent assimilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climatic driver through the surface albedo's role in energy and water budgets [e.g., Yeh et al., 1983Scanning multichannel microwave radiometer snow water equivalent assimilation Jiarui Dong,1 due to complicating effects, including distance to open water, presence of wet snow, and presence

Houser, Paul R.

93

A Few Equivalences of Wall-Sun-Sun Prime Conjecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we prove a few lemmas concerning Fibonacci numbers modulo primes and provide a few statements that are equivalent to Wall-Sun-Sun Prime Conjecture. Further, we investigate the conjecture through heuristic arguments and propose a few additional conjectures for future research.

Saha, Arpan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Compositional Synthesis of Maximally Permissive Supervisors Using Supervision Equivalence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a general framework for efficient synthesis of supervisors for discrete event systems. The approach is based on compositional minimisation, using concepts of process equivalence. In this context, a large number of ways are suggested ... Keywords: Controllability, Discrete event systems, Finite state automata, Model reduction, Nonblocking, Supervisory control, Synthesis

Hugo Flordal; Robi Malik; Martin Fabian; Knut kesson

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Determination of equivalent circuit for PVDF shock-pressure gauges  

SciTech Connect

Broadband impedance measurements of a PVDF shock-pressure gauge are used to build an equivalent circuit for the gauge. The essential components are a gauge capacitance and a low-loss transmission line. Component features are consistent with the physical characteristics. With knowledge of this circuit, troublesome oscillations can be anticipated and prevented.

Kotulski, J.D.; Anderson, M.U.; Brock, B.C.; Gomez, J.; Graham, R.A.; Vittitoe, C.N.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Determination of equivalent circuit for PVDF shock-pressure gauges  

SciTech Connect

Broadband impedance measurements of a PVDF shock-pressure gauge are used to build an equivalent circuit for the gauge. The essential components are a gauge capacitance and a low-loss transmission line. Component features are consistent with the physical characteristics. With knowledge of this circuit, troublesome oscillations can be anticipated and prevented. [copyright]American Institute of Physics

Kotulski, J.D.; Anderson, M.U.; Brock, B.C.; Gomez, J.; Graham, R.A.; Vittitoe, C.N. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-5800 (United States))

1994-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

97

Equivalent Effect Function and Fast Intrinsic Mode Decomposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Equivalent Effect Function (EEF) is defined as having the identical integral values on the control points of the original time series data; the EEF can be obtained from the derivative of the spline function passing through the integral values on the control points. By choosing control points with different criteria, the EEF can be used to find the intrinsic mode function(IMF, fluctuation) and the residue (trend); to fit the curve of the original data function; and to take samples on original data with equivalent effect. As examples of application, results of trend and fluctuation on real stock historical data are calculated on different time scales. A new approach to extend the EEF to 2D intrinsic mode decomposition is introduced to resolve the inter slice non continuity problem, some photo image decomposition examples are presented.

Lu, Louis Yu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Short-range tests of the equivalence principle  

SciTech Connect

We tested the equivalence principle at short length scales by rotating a 3 ton {sup 238}U attractor around a compact torsion balance containing Cu and Pb test bodies. The observed differential acceleration of the test bodies toward the attractor, a{sub Cu}-a{sub Pb}=(1.0{+-}2.8)x10{sup -13} cm/s{sup 2}, should be compared to the corresponding gravitational acceleration of 9.2x10{sup -5} cm/s{sup 2}. Our results set new constraints on equivalence-principle violating interactions with Yukawa ranges down to 1 cm, and improve by substantial factors existing limits for ranges between 10 km and 1000 km. Our data also set strong constraints on certain power-law potentials that can arise from two-boson exchange processes. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

Smith, G. L. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Hoyle, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Gundlach, J. H. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Adelberger, E. G. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Heckel, B. R. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Swanson, H. E. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Hermitian K-theory, derived equivalences and Karoubi's Fundamental Theorem.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within the framework of dg categories with weak equivalences and duality that have uniquely 2-divisible mapping complexes, we show that higher Grothendieck-Witt groups (aka. hermitian K-groups) are invariant under derived equivalences and that Morita exact sequences induce long exact sequences of Grothendieck-Witt groups. This implies an algebraic Bott sequence and a new proof and generalization of Karoubi's Fundamental Theorem. For the higher Grothendieck-Witt groups of vector bundles of (possibly singular) schemes with an ample family of line-bundles such that 2 is invertible in the ring of regular functions, we obtain Mayer-Vietoris long exact sequences for Nisnevich coverings and blow-ups along regularly embedded centers, projective bundle formulas, and a Bass fundamental theorem. For coherent Grothendieck-Witt groups, we obtain a localization theorem analogous to Quillen's K'-localization theorem.

Marco Schlichting

100

Dialogue on the Principle of Mass-Energy Equivalence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is directed to the readers who are familiar with the earlier papers by the author on the topic of mass-energy equivalence. A number of important questions about the total energy equation H=mv^2 and its implications are answered qualitatively. The relationship between the equation H=mv^2 and the 4-vector (Minkowski) representation of Special Relativity is discussed in detail. Other issues, such as de Broglie's original formulation of wave mechanics, are also discussed.

Ezzat G. Bakhoum

2004-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Teleparallel Equivalent of the Kaluza-Klein Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relying upon the equivalence between a gauge theory for the translation group and general relativity, a teleparallel version of the original Kaluza-Klein theory is developed. In this model, only the internal space (fiber) turns out to be five dimensional, spacetime being kept always four dimensional. A five-dimensional translational gauge theory is obtained which unifies, in the sense of Kaluza-Klein theories, gravitational and electromagnetic interactions.

V. C. de Andrade; L. C. T. Guillen; J. G. Pereira

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Design, construction and implementation of spherical tissue equivalent proportional counter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are used for medical and space activities whenever a combination of high and low LET (lineal energy transfer) radiations are present. With the frequency and duration of space activities increasing, exposure to fast heavy ions from galactic cosmic radiation and solar events is a major concern. The optimum detector geometry is spherical; to obtain an isotropic response, but simple spherical detectors have the disadvantage of a non-uniform electric field. In order to achieve a uniform electric field along the detector axis, spherical tissue equivalent proportional counters have been designed with different structures to modify the electric field. Some detectors use a cylindrical coil that is coaxial with the anode, but they are not reliable because of their sensitivity to microphonic noise and insufficient mechanical strength. In this work a new spherical TEPC was developed. The approach used was to divide the cathode in several rings with different thicknesses, and adjust the potential difference between each ring and the anode to produce an electric field that is nearly constant along the length of the anode. A-150 tissue equivalent plastic is used for the detector walls, the insulator material between the cathode rings is low density polyethylene, and the gas inside the detector is propane. The detector, along with the charge sensitive preamplifier, is encased in a stainless steel vacuum chamber. The gas gain was found to be 497.5 at 782 volts and the response to neutrons as a function of angle was constant 7%. This spherical tissue equivalent proportional counter detector system will improve the accuracy of dosimetry in space, and as a result improve radiation safety for astronauts.

Perez Nunez, Delia Josefina

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 5,150 5,428 4,707 1970's 4,490 3,592 3,199 2,969 2,571 2,404 2,421 2,257 2,394 2,986 1980's 3,677 5,008 5,602 7,171 7,860 8,420 6,956 7,859 6,945 6,133 1990's 6,444 6,342 6,055 5,924 5,671 5,327 4,937 5,076 5,481 5,804 2000's 6,021 6,168 5,996 5,818 6,233 6,858 7,254 7,438 7,878 10,140 2010's 11,381 14,182 26,156 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1/7/2014

104

SOME EQUIVALENCES FOR MARTINS AXIOM IN ASYMMETRIC TOPOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We find some statements in the language of asymmetric topology and continuous partial orders which are equivalent to the statements ? Martins Axiom has many equivalent statements, consequences, and variations in the literature which can be stated in topological terms. Most of the treatments we have seen so far from set-theoretic topologists assume that spaces are Hausdorff. In view of recent interest in asymmetric topology, in which even T1 spaces are a highly symmetric special case, we give some equivalences for Martins Axiom which utilize the terms of this field. Our reference for properties related to Martins Axiom is [2], and for properties related to continuous lattices we referred to [6]. Definition 1. A partially ordered set (P, ?) is upwards-ccc if any uncountable subset of P must have two distinct members which have a common upper bound in P. The cardinal m is the least cardinal such that there exists a non-empty upwards-ccc partially ordered set (P, ?) and a collection {D? | ? Martins Axiom of the title is the statement m = c. Definition 2. A topological space is ccc if any uncountable collection of open sets has two distinct members which are not disjoint. A space is locally compact if every open set contains a compact neighborhood of each of its

Bruce S. Burdick

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 433,684 457,117 447,325 1970's 466,016 448,288 470,105 466,143 448,993 435,571 428,635 421,110 393,819 352,650 1980's 350,312 345,262 356,406 375,849 393,873 383,719 384,693 364,477 357,756 343,233 1990's 342,186 353,737 374,126 385,063 381,020 381,712 398,442 391,174 388,011 372,566 2000's 380,535 355,860 360,535 332,405 360,110 355,589 373,350 387,349 401,503 424,042 2010's 433,622 481,308 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

106

Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 115,177 140,290 179,117 1970's 193,209 195,072 197,967 206,833 194,329 189,541 172,584 166,392 161,511 165,515 1980's 142,171 142,423 128,858 124,193 132,501 117,736 115,604 124,890 120,092 121,425 1990's 119,405 129,154 132,656 130,336 128,583 146,048 139,841 150,008 144,609 164,794 2000's 164,908 152,862 152,724 124,955 133,434 103,381 105,236 110,745 94,785 95,359 2010's 102,448 95,630 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

107

Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 3,351 3,244 2,705 1970's 2,330 2,013 1,912 1,581 1,921 2,879 6,665 11,494 14,641 15,686 1980's 15,933 14,540 14,182 13,537 12,829 11,129 11,644 10,876 10,483 9,886 1990's 8,317 8,103 8,093 7,012 6,371 6,328 6,399 6,147 5,938 5,945 2000's 5,322 4,502 4,230 3,838 4,199 3,708 3,277 3,094 3,921 2,334 2010's 2,943 2,465 2,480 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013

108

California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 34,803 32,639 30,334 1970's 29,901 27,585 24,156 17,498 17,201 15,221 14,125 13,567 13,288 10,720 1980's 8,583 7,278 14,113 14,943 15,442 16,973 16,203 15,002 14,892 13,376 1990's 12,424 11,786 12,385 12,053 11,250 11,509 12,169 11,600 10,242 10,762 2000's 11,063 11,060 12,982 13,971 14,061 13,748 14,056 13,521 13,972 13,722 2010's 13,244 12,095 12,755 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

109

Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 11,500 8,573 8,579 1970's 6,574 6,133 6,063 5,441 5,557 5,454 5,231 4,764 6,192 3,923 1980's 6,845 5,638 6,854 6,213 6,516 6,334 4,466 2,003 2,142 1,444 1990's 1,899 2,181 2,342 2,252 2,024 2,303 2,385 2,404 2,263 2,287 2000's 1,416 1,558 1,836 1,463 2,413 1,716 2,252 1,957 2,401 3,270 2010's 4,576 4,684 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014

110

New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 46,149 48,635 50,484 1970's 52,647 53,810 54,157 55,782 54,986 56,109 61,778 72,484 77,653 62,107 1980's 59,457 60,544 56,857 56,304 58,580 53,953 51,295 65,156 63,355 61,594 1990's 66,626 70,463 75,520 83,193 86,607 85,668 108,341 109,046 106,665 107,850 2000's 110,411 108,958 110,036 111,292 105,412 101,064 99,971 96,250 92,579 94,840 2010's 91,963 90,291 84,562 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

111

Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 4,126 4,546 4,058 1970's 3,405 4,152 4,114 4,674 6,210 9,620 11,944 13,507 13,094 12,606 1980's 12,651 13,427 12,962 11,314 10,771 11,913 10,441 10,195 11,589 13,340 1990's 13,178 15,822 18,149 18,658 19,612 25,225 23,362 28,851 24,365 26,423 2000's 29,105 29,195 31,952 33,650 35,821 34,782 36,317 38,180 53,590 67,607 2010's 82,637 90,801 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

112

Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 236 1970's 225 281 243 199 501 694 661 933 1,967 4,845 1980's 4,371 4,484 4,727 4,709 5,123 5,236 4,836 4,887 4,774 5,022 1990's 4,939 4,997 5,490 5,589 5,647 5,273 5,361 4,637 4,263 18,079 2000's 24,086 13,754 14,826 11,293 15,133 13,759 21,065 19,831 17,222 17,232 2010's 19,059 17,271 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages:

113

Teleparallel Equivalent of Non-Abelian Kaluza-Klein Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the equivalence between a gauge theory for the translation group and general relativity, a teleparallel version of the non-abelian Kaluza-Klein theory is constructed. In this theory, only the fiber-space turns out to be higher-dimensional, spacetime being kept always four-dimensional. The resulting model is a gauge theory that unifies, in the Kaluza-Klein sense, gravitational and gauge fields. In contrast to the ordinary Kaluza-Klein models, this theory defines a natural length-scale for the compact sub-manifold of the fiber space, which is shown to be of the order of the Planck length.

A. L. Barbosa; L. C. T. Guillen; J. G. Pereira

2002-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

114

Tomographic Quantum Cryptography: Equivalence of Quantum and Classical Key Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other.

Dagmar Bruss; Matthias Christandl; Artur Ekert; Berthold-Georg Englert; Dagomir Kaszlikowski; Chiara Macchiavello

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

115

Distributed resonance self-shielding using the equivalence principle  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an extension of the equivalence principle to allow distributed resonance self-shielding in a multi-region fuel configuration. Rational expansion of fuel-to-fuel collision probability is applied in order to establish equivalence between the actual fuel configuration and a homogeneous mixture of hydrogen and resonant absorber, which is a commonly used model to calculate library tables of resonance integrals. The main steps in derivation are given along with the basic physics assumptions on which the presented approach relies. The method has been implemented in the lattice code WIMS-AECL and routinely used for calculation of CANDU-type reactor lattices. Its capabilities are illustrated by comparison of WIMS-AECL and MCNP results of {sup 238}U resonance capture in a CANDU lattice cell. In order to determine optimal rational expansion of fuel-to-fuel collision probability, the calculations were carried out by varying the number of rational terms from 1 to 6. The results show that 4 terms are sufficient. The further increase of the number of terms affects the computing time, while the impact on accuracy is negligible. To illustrate the convergence of the results, the fuel subdivision is gradually refined varying the number of fuel pin subdivisions from 1 to 32 equal-area annuli. The results show very good agreement with the reference MCNP calculation. (authors)

Altiparmakov, D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Suggested Equivalencies for General Technical Base Qualification Standard  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Base Base Qualification Equivalencies Based On Previous Experience The following information was distributed by Thomas W. Evans (HR 1.5) in a memorandum dated December 12, 1995. The memorandum is on file in DOE-ID Training and if needed can be referenced as "DOE Memorandum, Course Catalog and Competency to Course Matching", dated December 12, 1995. DOE Technical Qualification Program Standards specify competencies that technical DOE employees must possess to accomplish their assigned tasks and activities. These competencies can be gained in a number of ways including through training, education, or prior military or job experience. This material contains lists of the military or job experience and the competencies that were gained as a result of that

117

Are vortices in rotating superfluids breaking the Weak Equivalence Principle?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to the breaking of gauge symmetry in rotating superfluid Helium, the inertial mass of a vortex diverges with the vortex size. The vortex inertial mass is thus much higher than the classical inertial mass of the vortex core. An equal increase of the vortex gravitational mass is questioned. The possibility that the vortices in a rotating superfluid could break the weak equivalence principle in relation with a variable speed of light in the superfluid vacuum is debated. Experiments to test this possibility are investigated on the bases that superfluid Helium vortices would not fall, under the single influence of a uniform gravitational field, at the same rate as the rest of the superfluid Helium mass.

Clovis Jacinto de Matos

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Neutron scattered dose equivalent to a fetus from proton radiotherapy of the mother  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scatteredneutrondose equivalent to a representative point for a fetus is evaluated in an anthropomorphic phantom of the mother undergoing protonradiotherapy. The effect on scatteredneutrondose equivalent to the fetus of changing the incident proton beam energy

Geraldine Mesoloras; George A. Sandison; Robert D. Stewart; Jonathan B. Farr; Wen C. Hsi

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Interannual variability of monsoon precipitation and local subcloud equivalent potential"! temperature#!  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

! "! Interannual variability of monsoon precipitation and local subcloud equivalent potential.hurley@yale.edu"&! "'! Keywords: monsoon, interannual variability, convective quasi-equilibrium, equivalent potential"(! temperature")! #12;! #! ABSTRACT"*! The interannual variability of monsoon precipitation is described

120

Uniform Logical Characterizations of Testing Equivalences for Nondeterministic, Probabilistic and Markovian Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Logical characterizations of nondeterministic, probabilistic, and Markovian variants of bisimulation equivalence rely on similar modal languages, each including true, negation, conjunction, and diamond. Likewise, logical characterizations of the corresponding ... Keywords: Markovian processes, modal logic, nondeterministic processes, probabilistic processes, testing equivalence

Marco Bernardo

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Human equivalent antenna model for HF exposures: analytical versus numerical approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the human exposure to HF radiation is analyzed using the simplified human equivalent antenna model featuring analytical and numerical approach, respectively. Namely, the human body is represented by an equivalent receiving straight thin ...

Dragan Poljak; Silvestar Sesnic; Ivana Zulim

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Department Chair/Equivalent Unit Director Mid-appointment Review Cover Sheet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Department Chair/Equivalent Unit Director Mid-appointment Review Cover Sheet The review committee:______________________________________________________________________________ 1. A copy of the committee report has been given to the department chair/equivalent unit director. 2. The committee has discussed its report with the department chair/ equivalent unit director. 3. A copy

123

A ''Toolbox''21 Equivalent Process for Safety Analysis Software  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software) identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls that prevent or mitigate potential accidents. The development and maintenance of a collection, or ''toolbox,'' of multiple-site use, standard solution, Software Quality Assurance (SQA)-compliant safety software is one of the major improvements identified in the associated DOE Implementation Plan (IP). The DOE safety analysis toolbox will contain a set of appropriately quality-assured, configuration-controlled, safety analysis codes, recognized for DOE-broad, safety basis applications. Currently, six widely applied safety analysis computer codes have been designated for toolbox consideration. While the toolbox concept considerably reduces SQA burdens among DOE users of these codes, many users of unique, single-purpose, or single-site software may still have sufficient technical justification to continue use of their computer code of choice, but are thwarted by the multiple-site condition on toolbox candidate software. The process discussed here provides a roadmap for an equivalency argument, i.e., establishing satisfactory SQA credentials for single-site software that can be deemed ''toolbox-equivalent''. The process is based on the model established to meet IP Commitment 4.2.1.2: Establish SQA criteria for the safety analysis ''toolbox'' codes. Implementing criteria that establish the set of prescriptive SQA requirements are based on implementation plan/procedures from the Savannah River Site, also incorporating aspects of those from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (SNL component) and the Yucca Mountain Project. The major requirements are met with evidence of a software quality assurance plan, software requirements and design documentation, user's instructions, test report, a configuration and control procedure, an error notification and corrective action process, and evidence of available training on use of the software. The process is best performed with an independent SQA evaluator, i.e., a technically knowledgeable individual in the application area who is not part of the development team. The process provides a consistent, systematic approach based on the experience gained with SQA evaluations of the toolbox codes. Experience has shown that rarely will existing software be fully compliant with SQA criteria. Instead, the typical case is where SQA elements are deficient. For this case, it is recommended that supplemental remedial documentation be generated. Situations may also arise where the SQA evaluator must weigh whether the entire SQA suite be reconstituted. Regardless, the process is described sufficiently to guide a comprehensive evaluation. If the candidate software is successful in meeting process requirements, the software is ''toolbox-equivalent''. The benefit of the methodology outlined is that it provides a standard evaluation technique for choosing the most applicable software for a given application. One potential outcome is that the software of choice will be found to be applicable with ample SQA justification. Alternatively, the software in question may be found not to meet SQA process requirements. In this case, the analyst may then make an informed decision and possibly select one of the multiple-use, toolbox codes. With either outcome, the DSA is improved.

O'KULA, KR

2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

124

Assessment of the Effective Dose Equivalent for External Photon Radiation: Volume 2: Calculational Techniques for Estimating Externa l Effective Dose Equivalent from Dosimeter Readings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent revisions to the radiation protection standards contained in Title 10 Part 20 of the Code of Federal Regulations require nuclear power plants to assess a worker's "effective dose equivalent" (EDE). This report explains the concept of effective dose equivalent and describes research to improve the dosimetric methods presently used for assessing EDE.

1995-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

125

Equivalent circuit modeling of hybrid electric vehicle drive train  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main goals of the advanced vehicles designer are to improve efficiency, to decrease emissions and to meet customer's requirements. The design of such vehicles is challenging and cannot efficiently be achieved without an appropriate tool. The objective of this work is to develop and validate a modeling and design method adapted to advanced vehicles conception. The designer, as a system engineer, needs performances predictions and physical understanding of the system dynamics. In order to achieve this objective, a methodology based on electrical analogies and transducers theory is presented in this work. Using the powerful circuit theory to solve multi-disciplinary problems is not revolutionary, but applied to the design of advanced vehicles, it brings a strong insight and a visual, intuitive interpretation of the set of differential equations. The equivalent circuit obtained from this method offers an elegant alternative to traditional methods and is especially adapted to the study of the interactions between the mechanical and the electrical side of any electromechanical system.

Routex, Jean-Yves

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

NIST: X-Ray Mass Atten. Coef. - Tissue-Equivalent Gas ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table of Contents Back to table 4 Tissue-Equivalent Gas (Propane Based) HTML table format. Energy, ?/?, ? en /?. (MeV), (cm 2 /g), (cm 2 /g). ...

127

Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Griffith, Richard A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Large-Strain Time-Temperature Equivalence and Adiabatic Heating of Polyethylene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time-temperature equivalence is a well-known phenomenon in time-dependent material response, where rapid events at a moderate temperature are indistinguishable from some occurring at modest rates but elevated temperatures. However, there is as-yet little elucidation of how well this equivalence holds for substantial plastic strains. In this work, we demonstrate time-temperature equivalence over a large range in a previously studied high-density polyethylene formulation (HDPE). At strain-rates exceeding 0.1/s, adiabatic heating confounds the comparison of nominally isothermal material response, apparently violating time-temperature equivalence. Strain-rate jumps can be employed to access the instantaneous true strain rate without heating. Adiabatic heating effects were isolated by comparing a locus of isothermal instantaneous flow stress measurements from strain-rate jumps up to 1/s with the predicted equivalent states at 0.01/s and 0.001/s in compression. Excellent agreement between the isothermal jump condition locus and the quasi-static tests was observed up to 50% strain, yielding one effective isothermal plastic response for each material for a given time-temperature equivalent state. These results imply that time-temperature equivalence can be effectively used to predict the deformation response of polymers during extreme mechanical events (large strain and high strain-rate) from measurements taken at reduced temperatures and nominal strain-rates in the laboratory.

Furmanski, Jevan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cady, Carl M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

129

,"Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sla_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sla_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

130

,"Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sne_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sne_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

131

,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_spa_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_spa_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

132

,"South Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_ssd_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_ssd_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

133

,"Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_swy_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_swy_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

134

,"Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_smi_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_smi_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

135

,"Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sfl_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sfl_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

136

,"Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sms_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sms_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

137

,"Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_stx_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_stx_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

138

,"Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_smt_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_smt_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

139

,"Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sks_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sks_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

140

,"Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sal_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sal_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

,"California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sca_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sca_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

142

,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sok_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sok_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

143

,"Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_soh_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_soh_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

144

,"Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sut_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sut_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

145

,"Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sak_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sak_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

146

,"Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1150_sin_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1150_sin_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

147

2012 CERTS R&M Peer Review - Development of Attribute Preserving Network Equivalents - Tom Overbye  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Network Equivalents Thomas J. Overbye Fox Family Professor of Electrical and Computer Eng. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign overbye@illinois.edu Graduate Students Wonhyeok Jang (wjang7@illinois.edu) Saurav Mohapatra (smohapa2@illinois.edu) August 7-8, 2012 CERTS Meeting Overview  Objective - develop attribute preserving power system network equivalents - preserve the essence of a model for some purpose  Desirable properties include... - Economic analysis of electric power systems including transfer capacity - Transient stability response - LMP characteristics - Application Dependent!!  Present focus is on developing equivalents that preserve the line limits of the original system 2 Applications of Previous Work

148

Does Quantum Mechanics Clash with the Equivalence Principle - and Does it Matter?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With an eye on developing a quantum theory of gravity, many physicists have recently searched for quantum challenges to the equivalence principle of general relativity. However, as historians and philosophers of science are well aware, the principle of equivalence is not so clear. When clarified, we think quantum tests of the equivalence principle won't yield much. The problem is that the clash/not-clash is either already evident or guaranteed not to exist. Nonetheless, this work does help teach us what it means for a theory to be geometric.

Okon, Elias

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

A Linear Equivalent Barotropic Model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current with Realistic Coastlines and Bottom Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear equivalent barotropic (EB) model is applied to study the effects of the bottom topography H and baroclinicity on the total transport and the position of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). The model is based on the observation of ...

Alexander Krupitsky; Vladimir M. Kamenkovich; Naomi Naik; Mark A. Cane

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Learning Spanish-Galician translation equivalents using a comparable corpus and a bilingual dictionary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

So far, research on extraction of translation equivalents from comparable, non-parallel corpora has not been very popular. The main reason was the poor results when compared to those obtained from aligned parallel corpora. The method proposed in this ...

Pablo Gamallo Otero; Jos Ramom Pichel Campos

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

A Simple Method for Specifying Snowpack Water Equivalent in the Northeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistical regression models were developed to estimate snowpack water equivalent (SWE) using only meteorological variables available at National Co-operative Observer Program (co-op) sites. These include the square root of snow depth, the ...

D. Samelson; D. S. Wilks

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Equivalence of Fluctuation Splitting and Finite Volume for One-Dimensional Gas Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equivalence of the discretized equations resulting from both fluctuation splitting and finite volume schemes is demonstrated in one dimension. Scalar equations are considered for advection, diffusion, and combined advection/diffusion. Analysis of ...

Wood William A.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Estimating Snow Water Equivalent Using Snow Depth Data and Climate Classes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many practical applications snow depth is known, but snow water equivalent (SWE) is needed as well. Measuring SWE takes 20 times as long as measuring depth, which in part is why depth measurements outnumber SWE measurements worldwide. Here a ...

Matthew Sturm; Brian Taras; Glen E. Liston; Chris Derksen; Tobias Jonas; Jon Lea

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Equivalent electric circuit modeling of differential structures in PCB with genetic algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces an equivalent circuit extraction technique for differential structures using a hybrid genetic algorithm. The procedure searches for the proper parameters of lumped circuit elements to fit the scattering parameters which can be obtained ...

Jong Kang Park; Yong Ki Byun; Jong Tae Kim

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Equivalent Transformations in the Model of Programs with Commuting and Monotone Operators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fundamental problem in the theory of algebraic program models is considered. It consists in constructing a system of equivalent transformations of program schemes that is complete in the model. It is solved for a model different from those considered ...

R. I. Podlovchenko

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Feasibility Test of Multifrequency Radiometric Data Assimilation to Estimate Snow Water Equivalent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A season-long, point-scale radiometric data assimilation experiment is performed in order to test the feasibility of snow water equivalent (SWE) estimation. Synthetic passive microwave observations at Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and ...

Michael Durand; Steven A. Margulis

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Satellite-Scale Snow Water Equivalent Assimilation into a High-Resolution Land Surface Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four methods based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) are tested to assimilate coarse-scale (25 km) snow water equivalent (SWE) observations (typical of passive microwave satellite retrievals) into finescale (1 km) land model simulations. ...

Gabrille J. M. De Lannoy; Rolf H. Reichle; Paul R. Houser; Kristi R. Arsenault; Niko E. C. Verhoest; Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Automated Quality Control Procedure for the "Water Equivalent of Snow on the Ground" Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snow water equivalent (SWE) has been measured daily by the United States National Weather Service since 1952, whenever snow depth is 2 in. (5 cm) or greater. These data are used to develop design snow loads for buildings, for hydrological ...

Thomas W. Schmidlin; Daniel S. Wilks; Megan McKay; Richard P. Cember

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Simulation of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) Using Thermodynamic Snow Models in Qubec, Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snow cover plays a key role in the climate system by influencing the transfer of energy and mass between the soil and the atmosphere. In particular, snow water equivalent (SWE) is of primary importance for climatological and hydrological ...

A. Langlois; J. Kohn; A. Royer; P. Cliche; L. Brucker; G. Picard; M. Fily; C. Derksen; J. M. Willemet

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Modulation of shallow water equatorial waves due to a varying equivalent height background  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of convectively coupled equatorial waves (CCEWs) is analyzed in an idealized model of the large scale atmospheric circulation. The model is composed of a linear rotating shallow water system with a variable equivalent height, or ...

Juliana Dias; Pedro L. Silva Dias; George N. Kiladis; Maria Gehne

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

TH?C?230A?05: Neutron Scattered Dose Equivalent to a Fetus From Proton Radiotherapy of the Mother  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scatteredneutrondose equivalent to a representative point for a fetus is evaluated in an anthropomorphic phantom of the mother undergoing protonradiotherapy. The effect on scatteredneutrondose equivalent to the fetus of changing the incident proton beam energy

G Mesoloras; G Sandison; R Stewart; J Farr; W Hsi

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Evaluation and Application of Conditional Symmetric Instability, Equivalent Potential Vorticity, and Frontogenetic Forcing in an Operational Forecast Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The related fields of equivalent potential temperature (?e), geostrophic momentum (Mg), equivalent potential vorticity (EPV), and frontogenetic forcing were computed, analyzed, and evaluated for two mid-Atlantic states snowstorms in which ...

James L. Wiesmueller; Steven M. Zubrick

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Derivation of Accident-Specific Material-at-Risk Equivalency Factors  

SciTech Connect

A novel method for calculating material at risk (MAR) dose equivalency developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) now allows for increased utilization of dose equivalency for facility MAR control. This method involves near-real time accounting for the use of accident and material specific release and transport. It utilizes all information from the committed effective dose equation and the five factor source term equation to derive dose equivalency factors which can be used to establish an overall facility or process MAR limit. The equivalency factors allow different nuclide spectrums to be compared for their respective dose consequences by relating them to a specific quantity of an identified reference nuclide. The ability to compare spectrums to a reference limit ensures that MAR limits are in fact bounding instead of attempting to establish a representative or bounding spectrum which may lead to unintended or unanalyzed configurations. This methodology is then coupled with a near real time material tracking system which allows for accurate and timely material composition information and corresponding MAR equivalency values. The development of this approach was driven by the complex nature of processing operations in some INL facilities. This type of approach is ideally suited for facilities and processes where the composition of the MAR and possible release mechanisms change frequently but in well defined fashions and in a batch-type nature.

Jason P. Andrus; Dr. Chad L. Pope

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Effects of fuel type and equivalence ratios on the flickering of triple flames  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study has been conducted in axisymmetric, co-flowing triple flames with different equivalence ratios of the inner and outer reactant streams (2propane/propane, propane/methane or methane/methane in the inner and outer streams respectively, have been used in the experiments. The structures of the triple flames have been compared for the different fuel combinations and equivalence ratios. The conditions under which triple flames exhibit oscillation have been identified. During the oscillation, the non-premixed flame and the outer lean premixed flame flicker strongly, while the inner rich premixed flame remains more or less stable. The flickering frequency has been evaluated through image processing and fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the average pixel intensity of the image frames. It is observed that, for all the fuel combinations, the frequency decreases with the increase in the outer equivalence ratio, while it is relatively invariant with the change in the inner equivalence ratio. However, an increase in the inner equivalence ratio affects the structure of the flame by increasing the heights of the inner premixed flame and non-premixed flame and also enlarges the yellow soot-laden zone at the tip of the inner flame. A scaling analysis of the oscillating flames has been performed based on the measured parameters, which show a variation of Strouhal number (St) with Richardson number (Ri) as St {proportional_to} Ri{sup 0.5}. The fuel type is found to have no influence on this correlation. (author)

Sahu, K.B.; Kundu, A.; Ganguly, R.; Datta, A. [Department of Power Engineering, Jadavpur University, Salt Lake Campus, Kolkata 700098 (India)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Microsoft Word - LS-324 - Equivalent Circuit Model & Power Calculations - DRAFT.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL AND POWER CALCULATIONS EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT MODEL AND POWER CALCULATIONS FOR THE APS SPX CRAB CAVITIES T. Berenc 1/26/2011 Abstract An equivalent parallel resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit with beam loading for a polarized TM 110 dipole-mode cavity is developed and minimum radio- frequency (rf) generator requirements are calculated for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) short-pulse x-ray (SPX) superconducting rf (SRF) crab cavities. INTRODUCTION The polarized TM 110 dipole-mode loss parameter is defined as [1]: U y V Q y R q U y k Z r loss 4 ) ( 2 ) ( ) ( 2 ) 1 ( 2      , (1) where ) ( ) 1 ( y R is the shunt resistance of the dipole-mode transverse wake impedance, U loss is the energy lost to the dipole-mode by charge q with vertical offset y, Q is the loaded quality factor of the cavity, and

167

Reconstruction of chronic dose equivalents for Rongelap and Utirik residents: 1954 to 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From June 1946 to August 1958, the US Department of Defense and Atomic Energy Commission conducted nuclear weapons tests in the Northern Marshall Islands. BRAVO, an aboveground test in the Castle series, resulted in radioactive fallout contaminating Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. On March 3, 1954, the inhabitants of these atolls were relocated until radiation exposure rates declined to acceptable levels. Environmental and personnel radiological monitoring programs were begun in the mid 1950's by Brookhaven National Laboratory to ensure that dose equivalents received or committed remained within US Federal Radiation Council Guidelines for members of the general public. Body burden and dose equivalent histories along with activity ingestion patterns post return are presented. Dosimetric methods, results, and internal dose equivalent distributions for subgroups of the population are also described.

Lessard, E.T.; Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The equivalence of uniform and Shapley value-based cost allocations in a specific game  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper concerns the possible equivalence of the Shapley value and other allocations in specific games. For a group buying game with a linear quantity discount schedule, the uniform allocation results in the same cost allocation as the Shapley value. ... Keywords: Cooperative game, Core, Group buying, Shapley value, Uniform cost allocation

Rachel R. Chen; Shuya Yin

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Remarks on the equivalence of full additivity and monotonicity for the entanglement cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyse the relationship between the full additivity of the entanglement cost and its full monotonicity under local operations and classical communication. We show that the two properties are equivalent for the entanglement cost. The proof works for the regularization of any convex, subadditive, and asymptotically continuous entanglement monotone, and hence also applies to the asymptotic relative entropy of entanglement.

Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Michal Horodecki; Martin B. Plenio; Shashank Virmani

2007-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

170

On the Equivalence of Semi-Lagrangian Schemes and Particle-in-Cell Finite Element Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that the semi-Lagrangian schemes with cubic spline interpolation are equivalent to a particle-in-cell finite element method. The method conserves mass, is unconditionally stable, and has a truncation error as high as fourth-order for ...

Rodolfo Bermejo

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Numerical fluid solutions for nonlocal electron transport in hot plasmas: Equivalent diffusion versus nonlocal source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flux limitation and preheat are important processes in electron transport occurring in laser produced plasmas. The proper calculation of both of these has been a subject receiving much attention over the entire lifetime of the laser fusion project. Where ... Keywords: Equivalent diffusion, Implicit-explicit diffusion algorithm, Krook model, Nonlocal electron transport, Numerical stability

Denis Colombant; Wallace Manheimer

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Creating dynamic equivalent PV circuit models with impedance spectroscopy for arc-fault modeling.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Article 690.11 in the 2011 National Electrical Code{reg_sign} (NEC{reg_sign}) requires new photovoltaic (PV) systems on or penetrating a building to include a listed arc fault protection device. Currently there is little experimental or empirical research into the behavior of the arcing frequencies through PV components despite the potential for modules and other PV components to filter or attenuate arcing signatures that could render the arc detector ineffective. To model AC arcing signal propagation along PV strings, the well-studied DC diode models were found to inadequately capture the behavior of high frequency arcing signals. Instead dynamic equivalent circuit models of PV modules were required to describe the impedance for alternating currents in modules. The nonlinearities present in PV cells resulting from irradiance, temperature, frequency, and bias voltage variations make modeling these systems challenging. Linearized dynamic equivalent circuits were created for multiple PV module manufacturers and module technologies. The equivalent resistances and capacitances for the modules were determined using impedance spectroscopy with no bias voltage and no irradiance. The equivalent circuit model was employed to evaluate modules having irradiance conditions that could not be measured directly with the instrumentation. Although there was a wide range of circuit component values, the complex impedance model does not predict filtering of arc fault frequencies in PV strings for any irradiance level. Experimental results with no irradiance agree with the model and show nearly no attenuation for 1 Hz to 100 kHz input frequencies.

Johnson, Jay Dean; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Strauch, Jason E.; Schoenwald, David Alan

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Fundamental groups, homology equivalences and one-sided h-cobordisms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give a sufficient and necessary condition of the fundamental group homomorphism of a map between manifolds to induce homology equivalences. Moreover, a classification of one-sided h-cobordism of manifolds up to diffeomorphisms is obtained, based on Quillen's plus construction with Whitehead torsions.

Yang Su; Shengkui Ye

174

Extrapolating Impingement and Entrainment Losses to Equivalent Adults and Production Foregone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides guidance on the use of two types of fish loss extrapolation models: equivalent adult (EA) and production foregone (PF) models. The report is a companion to EPRI report 1007821, which summarizes impingement survival information and EPRI report 1000757, which summarizes entrainment survival information. It complements EPRI reports TR-112013 and 1005176, which review fish population assessment methods in general.

2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

175

Conditions for exact equivalence of Kaluza-Klein and Yang-Mills theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although it is well known that Kaluza-Klein and Yang-Mills theories define equivalent structures on principal bundles, the general conditions for equivalence of their Lagrangians have not been explicitly stated. In this paper we address the conditions for equivalence. The formulation of these conditions is based on previous work in which the Dirac and Einstein equations were unified in a tetrad formulation of the Kaluza-Klein model. This Kaluza-Klein model is derived from mapping a bispinor field to a set of SL(2,R) x U(1) gauge potentials and a complex scalar field. (A straightforward derivation of this map using Hestenes' tetrad for the spin connection in a Riemannian space-time is included in this paper.) Investigation of this Kaluza-Klein model reveals two general conditions for establishing an exact equivalence between Kaluza-Klein and Yang-Mills theories. The first condition is that only horizontal vector fields occur in the Kaluza-Klein Lagrangian. The second is that the scalar curvature be restricted to a sum over horizontal sectional curvatures. We conclude that all known fields (including fermion fields) can then be represented as components of a Kaluza-Klein metric together with scalar fields.

Frank Reifler; Randall Morris

2007-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

176

Calculation of extremity neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors are calculated for three types of finger and wrist extremity phantoms: (1) the polymethyl methacrylate models specified by the U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program for Personnel Dosimetry Systems (DOELAP); (2) the tissue-and-bone phantoms suggested by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; and (3) the Radiology Support Devices (RSD) Inc. RS-122T an-n/shoulder phantom. Extremity factors are determined at shallow surface and bone levels for bare, D20moderated and polyethylene moderated 112Cf. The DOELAP free-field calibration geometry and a realistic glovebox scenario are simulated using a Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code. Calculated DOELAP and RSD extremity fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors for the free-field calibration geometry are 1 to 9 percent lower than the calculated whole-body conversion factor. The tissue-and-bone phantoms exhibit conversion factors 1 to 10 percent greater than the whole-body factor. Glovebox fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors range from 12 percent less than to 128 percent greater than calculated free-field whole-body conversion factors. A preliminary evaluation of the application of the calculated fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors to Los Alamos National Laboratory extremity dosimeter correction factors is performed.

Wood-Zika, Annmarie Ruth

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Neutron scattered dose equivalent to a fetus from proton radiotherapy of the mother  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scattered neutron dose equivalent to a representative point for a fetus is evaluated in an anthropomorphic phantom of the mother undergoing proton radiotherapy. The effect on scattered neutron dose equivalent to the fetus of changing the incident proton beam energy, aperture size, beam location, and air gap between the beam delivery snout and skin was studied for both a small field snout and a large field snout. Measurements of the fetus scattered neutron dose equivalent were made by placing a neutron bubble detector 10 cm below the umbilicus of an anthropomorphic Rando[reg] phantom enhanced by a wax bolus to simulate a second trimester pregnancy. The neutron dose equivalent in milliSieverts (mSv) per proton treatment Gray increased with incident proton energy and decreased with aperture size, distance of the fetus representative point from the field edge, and increasing air gap. Neutron dose equivalent to the fetus varied from 0.025 to 0.450 mSv per proton Gray for the small field snout and from 0.097 to 0.871 mSv per proton Gray for the large field snout. There is likely to be no excess risk to the fetus of severe mental retardation for a typical proton treatment of 80 Gray to the mother since the scattered neutron dose to the fetus of 69.7 mSv is well below the lower confidence limit for the threshold of 300 mGy observed for the occurrence of severe mental retardation in prenatally exposed Japanese atomic bomb survivors. However, based on the linear no threshold hypothesis, and this same typical treatment for the mother, the excess risk to the fetus of radiation induced cancer death in the first 10 years of life is 17.4 per 10 000 children.

Mesoloras, Geraldine; Sandison, George A.; Stewart, Robert D.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Hsi, Wen C. [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute (MPRI), Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Variation of equivalence ratio and element ratios in low-pressure premixed flames of aliphatic fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In previously published work it was found that the element ratios (such as C/O, H/O, H/C) and the equivalence ratio all varied in the flame zone of a low-pressure premixed fuel-rich benzene/oxygen/argon laminar flat flame. These variations were seen from analyses of both the data and detailed kinetic modeling. In the present work, seven additional flames were analyzed in the same manner, including five flames with a single hydrocarbon fuel (methane, acetylene, ethylene, allene, and propene) and two flames with a mixture of fuels (acetylene/allene, hydrogen/allene). All the flames had argon as the diluent, with pressures between 20 and 37.5 Torr, equivalence ratios between 1.6 and 2.5, cold gas velocities between 42 and 126 cm/sec. All of these flames showed variations in the element ratios and equivalence ratios. Furthermore, these variations changed in a consistent pattern with respect to the molecular weight of the fuel. In the flame zone, the percent change in the H/O, C/O and equivalence ratios increased with increasing molecular weight of the fuel, except for the hydrogen/allene flame in which the C/O ratio first increases, then decreases in the flame zone. Also, unlike all the other hydrocarbon flames, the C/O ratio decreases below its inlet value for the methane flame. The H/O and equivalence ratios decrease below their inlet values for the hydrogen/allene flame. These results are explained in terms of differential diffusion effects between the products and the reactants, which increase as the fuel becomes increasingly heavier than the major carbon- and hydrogen-containing products.

C. J. Pope; J. A. Miller

2000-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

179

2012 CERTS R&M Peer Review - Summary: Development of Attribute Preserving Network Equivalents - Tom Overbye  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Network Equivalents Network Equivalents Project Lead: Tom Overbye, Ray Klump Objective: The overall objective of the proposed work is to develop and demonstrate algorithms to construct equivalent system models that preserve desired attributes and behaviors of a large portion (or entire portion) on an interconnected electric power grid. An equivalent is a model of a system that consists of fewer nodes and branches than the corresponding full model. The purpose of an equivalent is to enable more efficient computer simulation of the system, without unduly sacrificing the accuracy of the simulation's results. Major Technical Accomplishments for This Year: As described in the proposal, this year we have focused on development of attribute preserving network equivalents. The

180

Equivalent teleparallel theories in diagonalizable spacetimes: Comment on "Metric-affine approach to teleparallel gravity"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is well known that the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity yields the same vacuum solutions as general relativity does, which ensures that this particular teleparallel model is in good agreement with experiments. A less known result concerns the existence of a wider class of teleparallel models which also admits these solutions when the spacetime is diagonalizable by means of a coordinate change. However, it is stated in Ref. [Phys. Rev. D 67, 044016 (2003).] that the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity is the only teleparallel model which admits black holes. To show that this statement is not true, I prove the existence of this wider class by taking an approach different from that of Ref. [Phys. Rev. D 19, 3524 (1979)].

J. B. Formiga

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Measurement of the Equivalent Thermal Resistance of Rooftop Lawns in a Hot-Climate Wind Tunnel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a very hot summer equivalent to a Guangzhou summer, the reduction of heat coming into rooms is very important with respect to thermal comfort and energy efficiency. The objective of this study is to investigate the evaporation cooling effect on a rooftop lawn. A hot-climate wind tunnel experiment was carried out in order to obtain and analyze the heat and moisture transport in the rooftop lawn. Furthermore, a calculation with the energy conservation equation was carried out using the results of the hot-climate wind tunnel experiment. The calculated equivalent thermal resistance and synthesis exterior surface heat transfer coefficient were in fairly good agreement with that in the design standard for energy efficiency of residential buildings in the hot summer and warm winter zone, while the average velocity in hot-climate wind tunnel equals the summer average outdoor velocity in Guangzhou.

Meng, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The Equivalent Thermal Resistance of Tile Roofs with and without Batten Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clay and concrete tile roofs were installed on a fully instrumented attic test facility operating in East Tennessee s climate. Roof, attic and deck temperatures and heat flows were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventionally pigmented and direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The data were used to benchmark a computer tool for simulation of roofs and attics and the tool used to develop an approach for computing an equivalent seasonal R-value for sub-tile venting. The approach computed equal heat fluxes through the ceilings of roofs having different combinations of surface radiation properties and or building constructions. A direct nailed shingle roof served as a control for estimating the equivalent thermal resistance of the air space. Simulations were benchmarked to data in the ASHRAE Fundamentals for the thermal resistance of inclined and closed air spaces.

Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Universality in SRG-Evolved Potential Matrix Elements and T-Matrix Equivalence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine how the universality of two-nucleon interactions evolved using similarity renormalization group (SRG) transformations correlates with T-matrix equivalence, with the ultimate goal of gaining insight into universality for three-nucleon forces. With sufficient running of the SRG flow equations, the low-energy matrix elements of different realistic potentials evolve to a universal form. Because these potentials are fit to low-energy data, they are (approximately) phase equivalent only up to a certain energy, and we find universality in evolved potentials up to the corresponding momentum. More generally we find universality in local energy regions, reflecting a local decoupling by the SRG. The further requirements for universality in evolved potential matrix elements are explored using two simple alternative potentials. We see evidence that in addition to predicting the same observables, common long-range potentials (i.e., explicit pion physics) is required for universality in the potential matrix eleme...

Dainton, B; Perry, R J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Strong Equivalence, Lorentz and CPT Violation, Anti-Hydrogen Spectroscopy and Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The strong equivalence principle, local Lorentz invariance and CPT symmetry are fundamental ingredients of the quantum field theories used to describe elementary particle physics. Nevertheless, each may be violated by simple modifications to the dynamics while apparently preserving the essential fundamental structure of quantum field theory itself. In this paper, we analyse the construction of strong equivalence, Lorentz and CPT violating Lagrangians for QED and review and propose some experimental tests in the fields of astrophysical polarimetry and precision atomic spectroscopy. In particular, modifications of the Maxwell action predict a birefringent rotation of the direction of linearly polarised radiation from synchrotron emission which may be studied using radio galaxies or, potentially, gamma-ray bursts. In the Dirac sector, changes in atomic energy levels are predicted which may be probed in precision spectroscopy of hydrogen and anti-hydrogen atoms, notably in the Doppler-free, two-photon $1s-2s$ and $2s-nd (n \\sim 10)$ transitions.

Graham M. Shore

2004-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

185

Fish Life History Parameter Values for Equivalent Adult and Production Foregone Models: Comprehensive Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A previous Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) report (1008471) provided guidance on the use of two types of extrapolation models used in economic benefits analyses related to entrainment and impingement at power plant intake structures: equivalent adult (EA) models and production foregone (PF) models. To facilitate applications of these models by EPRI members, a follow-on report (1008832) provided estimates of species-specific mortality and growth rate parameters for 25 fish and macroinvertebrate s...

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

186

Formulating a simplified equivalent representation of distribution circuits for PV impact studies.  

SciTech Connect

With an increasing number of Distributed Generation (DG) being connected on the distribution system, a method for simplifying the complexity of the distribution system to an equivalent representation of the feeder is advantageous for streamlining the interconnection study process. The general characteristics of the system can be retained while reducing the modeling effort required. This report presents a method of simplifying feeders to only specified buses-of-interest. These buses-of-interest can be potential PV interconnection locations or buses where engineers want to verify a certain power quality. The equations and methodology are presented with mathematical proofs of the equivalence of the circuit reduction method. An example 15-bus feeder is shown with the parameters and intermediate example reduction steps to simplify the circuit to 4 buses. The reduced feeder is simulated using PowerWorld Simulator to validate that those buses operate with the same characteristics as the original circuit. Validation of the method is also performed for snapshot and time-series simulations with variable load and solar energy output data to validate the equivalent performance of the reduced circuit with the interconnection of PV.

Reno, Matthew J.; Broderick, Robert Joseph; Grijalva, Santiago [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

RCRA permit modifications and the functional equivalency demonstration: A case study  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous waste operating permits issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) often impose requirements, typically by reference to the original permit application, that specific components and equipment be used. Consequently, changing these items, even for the purpose of routine maintenance, may first require that the owner/operator request a potentially time-consuming and costly permit modification. However, the owner/operator may demonstrate that a modification is not required because the planned changes are functionally equivalent, as defined by RCRA, to the original specifications embodied by the permit. The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is scheduled for maintenance and improvements that involve replacement of components. The incinerator`s carbon adsorption unit/high efficiency particulate air filtration system, in particular, was redesigned to improve reliability and minimize maintenance. A study was performed to determine whether the redesigned unit would qualify as functionally equivalent to the original component. in performing this study, the following steps were taken: (a) the key performance factors were identified; (b) performance data describing the existing unit were obtained; (c) performance of both the existing and redesigned units was simulated; and (d) the performance data were compared to ascertain whether the components could qualify as functionally equivalent.

Kinker, J.; Lyon, W.; Carnes, R.; Loehr, C. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elsberry, K.; Garcia, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Solar system and equivalence principle constraints on f(R) gravity by chameleon approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study constraints on f(R) dark energy models from solar system experiments combined with experiments on the violation of equivalence principle. When the mass of an equivalent scalar field degree of freedom is heavy in a region with high density, a spherically symmetric body has a thin-shell so that an effective coupling of the fifth force is suppressed through a chameleon mechanism. We place experimental bounds on the cosmologically viable models recently proposed in literature which have an asymptotic form f(R)=R-lambda R_c [1-(R_c/R)^{2n}] in the regime R >> R_c. From the solar-system constraints on the post-Newtonian parameter gamma, we derive the bound n>0.5, whereas the constraints from the violations of weak and strong equivalence principles give the bound n>0.9. This allows a possibility to find the deviation from the LambdaCDM cosmological model. For the model f(R)=R-lambda R_c(R/R_c)^p with 0

Salvatore Capozziello; Shinji Tsujikawa

2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

189

Universality in SRG-Evolved Potential Matrix Elements and T-Matrix Equivalence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine how the universality of two-nucleon interactions evolved using similarity renormalization group (SRG) transformations correlates with T-matrix equivalence, with the ultimate goal of gaining insight into universality for three-nucleon forces. With sufficient running of the SRG flow equations, the low-energy matrix elements of different realistic potentials evolve to a universal form. Because these potentials are fit to low-energy data, they are (approximately) phase equivalent only up to a certain energy, and we find universality in evolved potentials up to the corresponding momentum. More generally we find universality in local energy regions, reflecting a local decoupling by the SRG. The further requirements for universality in evolved potential matrix elements are explored using two simple alternative potentials. We see evidence that in addition to predicting the same observables, common long-range potentials (i.e., explicit pion physics) is required for universality in the potential matrix elements after SRG flow. In agreement with observations made previously for Vlowk evolution, regions of universal potential matrix elements are restricted to where half-on-shell T-matrix equivalence holds.

B. Dainton; R. J. Furnstahl; R. J. Perry

2013-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

190

Reflector modelling of small high leakage cores making use of multi-group nodal equivalence theory  

SciTech Connect

This research focuses on modelling reflectors in typical material testing reactors (MTRs). Equivalence theory is used to homogenise and collapse detailed transport solutions to generate equivalent nodal parameters and albedo boundary conditions for reflectors, for subsequent use in full core nodal diffusion codes. This approach to reflector modelling has been shown to be accurate for two-group large commercial light water reactor (LWR) analysis, but has not been investigated for MTRs. MTRs are smaller, with much larger leakage, environment sensitivity and multi-group spectrum dependencies than LWRs. This study aims to determine if this approach to reflector modelling is an accurate and plausible homogenisation technique for the modelling of small MTR cores. The successful implementation will result in simplified core models, better accuracy and improved efficiency of computer simulations. Codes used in this study include SCALE 6.1, OSCAR-4 and EQUIVA (the last two codes are developed and used at Necsa). The results show a five times reduction in calculational time for the proposed reduced reactor model compared to the traditional explicit model. The calculated equivalent parameters however show some sensitivity to the environment used to generate them. Differences in the results compared to the current explicit model, require more careful investigation including comparisons with a reference result, before its implementation can be recommended. (authors)

Theron, S. A. [South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa), PO Box 582, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Reitsma, F. [Calvera Consultants, PO Box 150, Strubensvallei, 1735 (South Africa)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Measurements of neutron dose equivalent for a proton therapy center using uniform scanning proton beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Neutron exposure is of concern in proton therapy, and varies with beam delivery technique, nozzle design, and treatment conditions. Uniform scanning is an emerging treatment technique in proton therapy, but neutron exposure for this technique has not been fully studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the neutron dose equivalent per therapeutic dose, H/D, under various treatment conditions for uniform scanning beams employed at our proton therapy center. Methods: Using a wide energy neutron dose equivalent detector (SWENDI-II, ThermoScientific, MA), the authors measured H/D at 50 cm lateral to the isocenter as a function of proton range, modulation width, beam scanning area, collimated field size, and snout position. They also studied the influence of other factors on neutron dose equivalent, such as aperture material, the presence of a compensator, and measurement locations. They measured H/D for various treatment sites using patient-specific treatment parameters. Finally, they compared H/D values for various beam delivery techniques at various facilities under similar conditions. Results: H/D increased rapidly with proton range and modulation width, varying from about 0.2 mSv/Gy for a 5 cm range and 2 cm modulation width beam to 2.7 mSv/Gy for a 30 cm range and 30 cm modulation width beam when 18 Multiplication-Sign 18 cm{sup 2} uniform scanning beams were used. H/D increased linearly with the beam scanning area, and decreased slowly with aperture size and snout retraction. The presence of a compensator reduced the H/D slightly compared with that without a compensator present. Aperture material and compensator material also have an influence on neutron dose equivalent, but the influence is relatively small. H/D varied from about 0.5 mSv/Gy for a brain tumor treatment to about 3.5 mSv/Gy for a pelvic case. Conclusions: This study presents H/D as a function of various treatment parameters for uniform scanning proton beams. For similar treatment conditions, the H/D value per uncollimated beam size for uniform scanning beams was slightly lower than that from a passive scattering beam and higher than that from a pencil beam scanning beam, within a factor of 2. Minimizing beam scanning area could effectively reduce neutron dose equivalent for uniform scanning beams, down to the level close to pencil beam scanning.

Zheng Yuanshui; Liu Yaxi; Zeidan, Omar; Schreuder, Andries Niek; Keole, Sameer [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States); INTEGRIS Cancer Insititute, 5911 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States); ProCure Treatment Centers, 420 North Walnut Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit modifications and the functional equivalency demonstration: a case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hazardous waste operating permits issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) often impose requirements that specific components and equipment be used. Consequently, changing these items, may first require that the owner/operator request a potentially time-consuming and costly permit modification. However, the owner/operator may demonstrate that a modification is not required because the planned changes are ``functionally equivalent.`` The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is scheduled for maintenance and improvements. The incinerator`s carbon adsorption unit/high efficiency particulate air filtration system, was redesigned to improve reliability and minimize maintenance. A study was performed to determine whether the redesigned unit would qualify as functionally equivalent to the original component. In performing this study, the following steps were taken: (a) the key performance factors were identified; (b) performance data describing the existing unit were obtained; (c) performance of both the existing and redesigned units was simulated; and (d) the performance data were compared to ascertain whether the components could qualify as functionally equivalent. In this case, the key performance data included gas residence time and distribution of flow over the activated carbon. Because both units were custom designed and fabricated, a simple comparison of manufacturers` specifications was impossible. Therefore, numerical simulation of each unit design was performed using the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulic computer code to model isothermal hydrodynamic performance under steady-state conditions. The results of residence time calculations from the model were coupled with flow proportion and sampled using a Monte Carlo-style simulation to derive distributions that describe the predicted residence times.

Elsberry, K.; Garcia, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Carnes, R.; Kinker, J.; Loehr, C; Lyon, W. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Entanglement-assisted transformation is asymptotically equivalent to multiple-copy transformation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that two ways of manipulation of quantum entanglement, namely, entanglement-assisted local transformation [D. Jonathan and M. B. Plenio, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 83}, 3566 (1999)] and multiple-copy transformation [S. Bandyopadhyay, V. Roychowdhury, and U. Sen, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 65}, 052315 (2002)], are equivalent in the sense that they can asymptotically simulate each other's ability to implement a desired transformation from a given source state to another given target state with the same optimal success probability. As a consequence, this yields a feasible method to evaluate the optimal conversion probability of an entanglement-assisted transformation.

Runyao Duan; Yuan feng; Mingsheng Ying

2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

194

The SWAP test and the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect are equivalent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect from quantum optics is equivalent to the SWAP test, a quantum information primitive which compares two arbitrary states. We first derive a destructive SWAP test that doesn't need the ancillary qubit that appears in the usual quantum circuit. Then, we study the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect for two photons meeting at a beam splitter and prove it is, in fact, an optical implementation of the destructive SWAP test. This result offers both an interesting simple realization of a powerful quantum information primitive and an alternative way to understand and analyse the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

Juan Carlos Garcia-Escartin; Pedro Chamorro-Posada

2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

195

Applicability of Equivalent Static Method to seismic response of piping and other components  

SciTech Connect

The Equivalent Static Method (ESM) is a simple and cost effective approach in the design of systems and components subjected to seismic loads. However, its applicability is restricted to systems which can be represented by a ``simple model.`` In this paper the restriction to a simple model is examined using the example of a propped cantilever, for which some codes or standards explicitly state that ESM is not applicable. By comparing ESM results for the propped cantilever with those for a regular (un-propped) cantilever, it is found that ESM can conditionally be applied to the propped cantilever configuration.

Hsieh, B.J.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Illustrating an error in "An equivalent condition for a uniform space to be coverable"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Berestovskii and Plaut introduced the concept of a coverable space when developing their theory of generalized universal covering maps for uniform spaces. If a space is coverable and chain connected then it has a generalized universal covering map. Brodskiy, Dydak, LaBuz, and Mitra introduced the concept of a uniformly joinable space when developing a theory of generalized uniform covering maps. It is easy to see that a chain connected coverable space is uniformly joinable. This paper discusses the attempt in Plaut's "An equivalent condition for a uniform space to be coverable" to prove that a uniformly joinable chain connected space is coverable.

Labuz, B

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Equivalence between Entanglement and the Optimal Fidelity of Continuous Variable Teleportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We devise the optimal form of Gaussian resource states enabling continuous variable teleportation with maximal fidelity. We show that a nonclassical optimal fidelity of $N$-user teleportation networks is {\\it necessary and sufficient} for $N$-party entangled Gaussian resources, yielding an estimator of multipartite entanglement. This {\\it entanglement of teleportation} is equivalent to entanglement of formation in the two-user protocol, and to localizable entanglement in the multi-user one. The continuous-variable tangle, quantifying entanglement sharing in three-mode Gaussian states, is operationally linked to the optimal fidelity of a tripartite teleportation network.

Gerardo Adesso; Fabrizio Illuminati

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

The improvement of the method of equivalent cross section in HTR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Method of Equivalence Cross-Sections (MECS) is a combined transport-diffusion method. By appropriately adjusting the diffusion coefficient of homogenized absorber region, the diffusion theory could yield satisfactory results for the full core model with strong neutron absorber material, for example the control rod in High temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR). Original implementation of MECS based on 1-D cell transport model has some limitation on accuracy and applicability, a new implementation of MECS based on 2-D transport model are proposed and tested in this paper. This improvement can extend the MECS to the calculation of twin small absorber ball system which have a non-circular boring in graphite reflector and different radial position. A least-square algorithm for the calculation of equivalent diffusion coefficient is adopted, and special treatment for diffusion coefficient for higher energy group is proposed in the case that absorber is absent. Numerical results to adopt MECS into control rod calculation in HTR are encouraging. However, there are some problems left. (authors)

Guo, J.; Li, F. [Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing 100084 (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Extreme-Value Statistics for Snowpack Water Equivalent in the Northeastern United States Using the Cooperative Observer Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A procedure is developed to estimate extreme-value statistics for snowpack water equivalent (SWE) using historical snow depth measurements at cooperative observer stations in the northeastern United States. The method specifies pseudodensities ...

Daniel S. Wilks; Megan McKay

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

The equivalent electrical permittivity of gas-solid mixtures at intermediate solid volume fractions.  

SciTech Connect

Several mixture models are evaluated for their suitability in predicting the equivalent permittivity of dielectric particles in a dielectric medium for intermediate solid volume fractions (0.4 to 0.6). Predictions of the Maxwell, Rayleigh, Bottcher and Bruggeman models are compared to computational simulations of several arrangements of solid particles in a gas and to the experimentally determined permittivity of a static particle bed. The experiment uses spherical glass beads in air, so air and glass permittivity values (1 and 7, respectively) are used with all of the models and simulations. The experimental system used to measure the permittivity of the static particle bed and its calibration are described. The Rayleigh model is found to be suitable for predicting permittivity over the entire range of solid volume fractions (0-0.6).

Torczynski, John Robert; Ceccio, Steven Louis; Tortora, Paul Richard

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Necessary conditions of the equivalence of canonical and grand canonical ensembles in Coulomb system thermodynamics  

SciTech Connect

It was found that the equivalence of the grand canonical and canonical ensembles for the Coulomb systems is possible only when charged particles of different types in calculating the physical quantities are considered as formally 'independent' ones, and the quasi-neutrality condition is used in the final stage of calculations. The phase equilibrium condition is obtained and the expression is derived for the isothermal compressibility of matter as a two-component Coulomb system, which corresponds to the known limit relations for static structure factors. On this basis, it is demonstrated that the critical point of matter, considering as the Coulomb system is determined from the condition of vanishing mean square of fluctuations of the total charge per unit volume.

Bobrov, V. B. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13/19, Izhorskaia Str., Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Sokolov, I. M. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Trigger, S. A. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13/19, Izhorskaia Str., Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Clinical prototype of a plastic water-equivalent scintillating fiber dosimeter array for QA applications  

SciTech Connect

A clinical prototype of a scintillating fiber dosimeter array for quality assurance applications is presented. The array consists of a linear array of 29 plastic scintillation detectors embedded in a water-equivalent plastic sheet coupled to optical fibers used to guide optical photons to a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The CCD is packaged in a light-tight, radiation-shielded housing designed for convenient transport. A custom designed connector is used to ensure reproducible mechanical positioning of the optical fibers relative to the CCD. Profile and depth dose characterization measurements are presented and show that the prototype provides excellent dose measurement reproducibility ({+-}0.8%) in-field and good accuracy ({+-}1.6% maximum deviation) relative to the dose measured with an IC10 ionization chamber.

Lacroix, Frederic; Archambault, Louis; Gingras, Luc; Guillot, Mathieu; Beddar, A. Sam; Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, Quebec G1R2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, Quebec G1R2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, Quebec G1R2J6 (Canada)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

An equivalent circuit model and power calculations for the APS SPX crab cavities.  

SciTech Connect

An equivalent parallel resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit with beam loading for a polarized TM110 dipole-mode cavity is developed and minimum radio-frequency (rf) generator requirements are calculated for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) short-pulse x-ray (SPX) superconducting rf (SRF) crab cavities. A beam-loaded circuit model for polarized TM110 mode crab cavities was derived. The single-cavity minimum steady-state required generator power has been determined for the APS SPX crab cavities for a storage ring current of 200mA DC current as a function of external Q for various vertical offsets including beam tilt and uncontrollable detuning. Calculations to aid machine protection considerations were given.

Berenc, T. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS))

2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

204

Convergence analysis of a CMFD method based on generalized equivalence theory  

SciTech Connect

CMFD acceleration methods have been successful in reducing the computational burden for steady-state and transient reactor calculations. However, recent work on a complex coupled code BWR ATWS event has exposed possible issues with the stability of the CMFD method when standard CMFD methods are used. During the simulation of the ATWS boron injection event in the BWR, the PARCS code failed to converge with the existing CMFD method. A new CMFD method based on generalized equivalence theory was developed and the PARCS solution converged for the same ATWS event. This paper presents the new method and a detailed analytic and numerical convergence analysis. The results show that the new CMFD converges for all possible cross sections combinations anticipated in Light Water Reactor simulation and unlike existing CMFD methods, it is very robust even when the initial guess is far from final true solution. (authors)

Xu, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, Bldg. 208, 9700 South Case Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Downar, T. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Simulation and Analysis of a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter Using the Monte Carlo Transport Code FLUKA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to determine how well the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA can simulate a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and produce the expected delta ray events when exposed to high energy heavy ions (HZE) like in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment. Accurate transport codes are desirable because of the high cost of beam time, the inability to measure the mixed field GCR on the ground and the flexibility they offer in the engineering and design process. A spherical TEPC simulating a 1 um site size was constructed in FLUKA and its response was compared to experimental data for an 56Fe beam at 360 MeV/nucleon. The response of several narrow beams at different impact parameters were used to explain the features of the response of the same detector exposed to a uniform field of radiation. Additionally, an investigation was made into the effect of the wall thickness on the response of the TEPC and the range of delta rays in the tissue-equivalent (TE) wall material. A full impact parameter test (from IP = 0 to IP = detector radius) was performed to show that FLUKA produces the expected wall effect. That is, energy deposition in the gas volume can occur even when the primary beam does not pass through the gas volume. A final comparison to experimental data was made for the simulated TEPC exposed to various broad beams in the energy range of 200 - 1000 MeV/nucleon. FLUKA overestimated energy deposition in the gas volume in all cases. The FLUKA results differed from the experimental data by an average of 25.2 % for yF and 12.4 % for yD. It is suggested that this difference can be reduced by adjusting the FLUKA default ionization potential and density correction factors.

Northum, Jeremy Dell

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Solvent Blending Strategy to Upgrade MCU CSSX Solvent to Equivalent Next-Generation CSSX Solvent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of the present study have validated an equal-volume blending strategy for upgrading freshly prepared CSSX solvent to a blended solvent functionally equivalent to NG-CSSX solvent. It is shown that blending fresh CSSX solvent as currently used in MCU with an equal volume of an NG-CSSX solvent concentrate of appropriate composition yields a blended solvent composition (46.5 mM of MaxCalix, 3.5 mM of BOBCalixC6, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, 3 mM of guanidine suppressor, and 1.5 mM of TOA in Isopar L) that exhibits equivalent batch ESS performance to that of the NG-CSSX solvent containing 50 mM of MaxCalix, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, and 3 mM of guanidine suppressor in Isopar L. The solvent blend composition is robust to third-phase formation. Results also show that a blend containing up to 60% v/v of CSSX solvent could be accommodated with minimal risk. Extraction and density data for the effect of solvent concentration mimicking diluent evaporation or over-dilution of the equal-volume blended solvent are also given, providing input for setting operational limits. Given that the experiments employed all pristine chemicals, the results do not qualify a blended solvent starting with actual used MCU solvent, which can be expected to have undergone some degree of degradation. Consequently, further work should be considered to evaluate this risk and implement appropriate remediation if needed.

Delmau, Laetitia Helene [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

An Equivalence of Entanglement-Assisted Transformation and Multiple-Copy Entanglement Transformation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the powers of entanglement-assisted transformation and multiple-copy entanglement transformation. First, we find a sufficient condition of when a given catalyst is useful in producing another specific target state. As an application of this condition, for any non-maximally entangled bipartite pure state and any integer $n$ not less than 4, we are able to explicitly construct a set of $n\\times n$ quantum states which can be produced by using the given state as a catalyst. Second, we prove that for any positive integer $k$, entanglement-assisted transformation with $k\\times k$-dimensional catalysts is useful in producing a target state if and only if multiple-copy entanglement transformation with $k$ copies of state is useful in producing the same target. Moreover, a necessary and sufficient condition for both of them is obtained in terms of the Schmidt coefficients of the target. This equivalence of entanglement-assisted transformation and multiple-copy entanglement transformation implies many interesting properties of entanglement transformation. Furthermore, these results are generalized to the case of probabilistic entanglement transformations.

Runyao Duan; Yuan Feng; Mingsheng Ying

2004-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

208

Size-Abundance Relationships in an Amazonian Bird Community: Implications for the Energetic Equivalence Rule  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

abstract: We studied size-abundance relationships in a speciesrich Amazonian bird community and found that the slope of the logarithmic relationship between population density and body mass ( b p ?0.22) is significantly shallower than expected under Damuths energetic equivalence rule (EER), which states that population energy use (PEU) is independent of species body mass. We used estimates of avian field metabolic rates to examine the logarithmic relationship between PEU and body mass and its variation among ecological guilds. The relationship for all species had a significantly positive slope ( b p 0.46), indicating that PEU of larger species was greater than that of smaller species. Analyses of guilds revealed significant variation. The slopes of the frugivore-omnivore, insectivore, and granivore guilds were all significantly positive, with that of the frugivore-omnivore guild being the steepest. In contrast, PEU did not vary significantly with species body mass among raptors. These results were confirmed in analyses using both species values and phylogenetically independent contrasts, and the results do not support the EER in this community. The spatial distribution of resources and mechanisms of interference competition within guilds may explain why most patterns differed from the predictions of the EER. Other sources of variation, including the effects of scale, are also discussed.

Sabrina E. Russo; Scott K. Robinson; John Terborgh

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Diversity of supernovae Ia determined using equivalent widths of Si II 4000  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectroscopic and photometric properties of low and high-z supernovae Ia (SNe Ia) have been analyzed in order to achieve a better understanding of their diversity and to identify possible SN Ia sub-types. We use wavelet transformed spectra in which one can easily measure spectral features. We investigate the \\ion{Si}{II} 4000 equivalent width ($EW_w\\lbrace\\ion{Si}{II}\\rbrace$). The ability and, especially, the ease in extending the method to SNe at high-$z$ is demonstrated. We applied the method to 110 SNe Ia and found correlations between $EW_w\\lbrace\\ion{Si}{II}\\rbrace$ and parameters related to the light-curve shape for 88 supernovae with available photometry. No evidence for evolution of $EW_w\\lbrace\\ion{Si}{II}\\rbrace$ with redshift is seen. Three sub-classes of SNe Ia were confirmed using an independent cluster analysis with only light-curve shape, colour, and $EW_w\\lbrace\\ion{Si}{II}\\rbrace$. SNe from high-$z$ samples seem to follow a similar grouping to nearby objects. The $EW_w\\lbrace\\ion{Si}{II}\\rbrace$ value measured on a single spectrum may point towards SN Ia sub-classification, avoiding the need for expansion velocity gradient calculations.

V. Arsenijevic; S. Fabbro; A. M. Mourao; A. J. Rica da Silva

2008-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

210

Equivalence of QCD in the epsilon-regime and chiral Random Matrix Theory with or without chemical potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove that QCD in the epsilon-regime of chiral Perturbation Theory is equivalent to chiral Random Matrix Theory for zero and both non-zero real and imaginary chemical potential mu. To this aim we prove a theorem that relates integrals over fermionic and bosonic variables to super-Hermitian or super-Unitary groups also called superbosonization. Our findings extend previous results for the equivalence of the partition functions, spectral densities and the quenched two-point densities. We can show that all k-point density correlation functions agree in both theories for an arbitrary number of quark flavors, for either mu=0 or mu=/=0 taking real or imaginary values. This implies the equivalence for all individual k-th eigenvalue distributions which are particularly useful to determine low energy constants from Lattice QCD with chiral fermions.

Francesco Basile; Gernot Akemann

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Online at: www.jus.org.uk Possible and Necessary Orders, Equivalences, etc.: From Modal Logic to Modal Mathematics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In practice, we are often interested in order relations (e.g., when we describe preferences) or equivalence relations (e.g., when we describe clustering). Often, we do not have a complete information about the corresponding relation; as a result, we have several relations consistent with our knowledge. In such situations, it is desirable to know which elements a and b are possibly connected by the relation and which are necessarily connected by this relation. In this paper, we provide a full description of all such possible and necessary orders and equivalence relations. For example, possible orders are exactly reflexive relations, while necessary orders are exactly order relations. 1

Francisco Zapata; Olga Kosheleva

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Water-equivalent dosimeter array for small-field external beam radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing complexity of dose patterns external beam radiotherapy, there is a great need for new types of dosimeters. We studied the first prototype of a new dosimeter array consisting of water-equivalent plastic scintillating fibers for dose measurement in external beam radiotherapy. We found that this array allows precise, rapid dose evaluation of small photon fields. Starting with a dosimeter system constructed with a single scintillating fiber coupled to a clear optical fiber and read using a charge coupled device camera, we looked at the dosimeter's spatial resolution under small radiation fields and angular dependence. Afterward, we analyzed the camera's light collection to determine the maximum array size that could be built. Finally, we developed a prototype made of ten scintillating fiber detectors to study the behavior and precision of this system in simple dosimetric situations. The scintillation detector showed no measurable angular dependence. Comparison of the scintillation detector and a small-volume ion chamber showed agreement except for 1x1 and 0.5x5.0 cm{sup 2} fields where the output factor measured by the scintillator was higher. The actual field of view of the camera could accept more than 4000 scintillating fiber detectors simultaneously. Evaluation of the dose profile and depth dose curve using a prototype with ten scintillating fiber detectors showed precise, rapid dose evaluation even with placement of more than 75 optical fibers in the field to simulate what would happen in a larger array. We concluded that this scintillating fiber dosimeter array is a valuable tool for dose measurement in external beam radiotherapy. It possesses the qualities necessary to evaluate small and irregular fields with various incident angles such as those encountered in intensity-modulated radiotherapy, radiosurgery, and tomotherapy.

Archambault, Louis; Beddar, A. Sam; Gingras, Luc; Lacroix, Frederic; Roy, Rene; Beaulieu, Luc [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, 77030 (United States) and Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, 77030 (United States); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec City (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 20, NO. 1, JANUARY 2005 149 Deriving an Equivalent Circuit of Transformers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. INTRODUCTION THE CONDITION of oil/paper insulation system in a power transformer is deteriorated of dielectric response measurements that have been used in recent times for the diagnosis of power transformersIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 20, NO. 1, JANUARY 2005 149 Deriving an Equivalent

Saha, Tapan Kumar

214

A Critique of the Climatic Record of Water Equivalent of Snow on the Ground in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The water equivalent of snow on the ground (SWE) has been measured daily since 1952 at National Weather Service first-order stations whenever snow depth exceeded 5 cm (2 in). These data are used in snowmelt analyses, snow climatology, and snow ...

Thomas W. Schmidlin

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Matrix at slow roll: On the equivalence of the energy spectrum and anomalous dimensions for Yang-Mills models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the low energy limit of the massive version of a BFSS-like matrix model and show that in this limit it is equivalent to the matrix model introduced for description of the spectrum of anomalous dimensions for local gauge invariant composite operators in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills

Sochichiu, Corneliu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Using the equivalent source technique to estimate noise in 4D TEM data Kristopher MacLennan* and Yaoguo Li  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of groundwater aquifers and petroleum reservoirs, require dense data distribution over a grid, acquired using is related wholly to the distribution of electrical current in the subsurface at that particular instantUsing the equivalent source technique to estimate noise in 4D TEM data Kristopher Mac

217

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from instrumental chemical analyses in fractions containing polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Toxic equivalents were calculated by use of an additive model in which the product of the concentrations of instrumentally measured individual congeners were multiplied by their TCDD equivalency factors and were summed to give a total concentration of TEQs. The TCDD-EQs were compared with TEQs to develop a mass balance to determine whether all the TCDD-like activity was accounted for. The TEQs determined by chemical analyses for coplanar PCBs was 770 pg/g fw, and that of PCDD/PCDFs was 270 pg/g fw in this eagle. Thus, concentrations of TCDD-EQs were approx. 20% greater than those of TEQs. The true difference in activities is probably greater because of lower recoveries and infra-additivities among congeners in the bioassay. This indicates that there are compounds present in the extracts that can contribute to the total concentrations of TCDD-EQs in white-tailed sea eagle eggs to the no-observable-adverse-effect concentration, ranged from 7.3 to 141. This indicates that current concentrations of TCDD-EQs in these eggs are likely causing adverse effects in the Baltic populations of white-tailed sea eagles. This study indicated that the H4IIE bioassay is useful for monitoring the presence and biological activity of TCDD-like compounds in environmental samples like white-tailed sea eagles.

Koistinen, J.; Giesy, J.P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Koivusaari, J. [Western Finland Regional Environment Centre, Vaasa (Finland); Nuuja, I. [Milieu-Data Cc, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Vuorinen, P.J. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Paasivirta, J. [Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE-OPEN Compliant Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Engineering simulations of coal gasifiers are typically performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, where a 3-D representation of the gasifier equipment is used to model the fluid flow in the gasifier and source terms from the coal gasification process are captured using discrete-phase model source terms. Simulations using this approach can be very time consuming, making it difficult to imbed such models into overall system simulations for plant design and optimization. For such system-level designs, process flowsheet software is typically used, such as Aspen Plus [1], where each component where each component is modeled using a reduced-order model. For advanced power-generation systems, such as integrated gasifier/gas-turbine combined-cycle systems (IGCC), the critical components determining overall process efficiency and emissions are usually the gasifier and combustor. Providing more accurate and more computationally efficient reduced-order models for these components, then, enables much more effective plant-level design optimization and design for control. Based on the CHEMKIN-PRO and ENERGICO software, we have developed an automated methodology for generating an advanced form of reduced-order model for gasifiers and combustors. The reducedorder model offers representation of key unit operations in flowsheet simulations, while allowing simulation that is fast enough to be used in iterative flowsheet calculations. Using high-fidelity fluiddynamics models as input, Reaction Designs ENERGICO [2] software can automatically extract equivalent reactor networks (ERNs) from a CFD solution. For the advanced reduced-order concept, we introduce into the ERN a much more detailed kinetics model than can be included practically in the CFD simulation. The state-of-the-art chemistry solver technology within CHEMKIN-PRO allows that to be accomplished while still maintaining a very fast model turn-around time. In this way, the ERN becomes the basis for high-fidelity kinetics simulation, while maintaining the spatial information derived from the geometrically faithful CFD model. The reduced-order models are generated in such a way that they can be easily imported into a process flowsheet simulator, using the CAPE-OPEN architecture for unit operations. The ENERGICO/CHEMKIN-PRO software produces an ERN-definition file that is read by a dynamically linked library (DLL) that can be easily linked to any CAPE-OPEN compliant software. The plug-in unitoperation module has been successfully demonstrated for complex ERNs of coal gasifiers, using both Aspen Plus and COFE process flowsheet simulators through this published CAPE-OPEN interface.

Meeks, E.; Chou, C. -P.; Garratt, T.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

219

MODIFYING A 60 YEAR OLD STACK SAMPLING SYSTEM TO MEET ANSI N13.1-1999 EQUIVALENCY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 291-T-1 stack was constructed in 1944 to support ongoing missions associated with the Hanford Project. Recent changes in the plant mission required a revision to the existing license of the stack that was operating as a minor emission unit. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington Department of Health (WDOH) deemed this revision to be a significant modification, thereby requiring the stack to operate to the ANSI N13.1-1999 sampling and monitoring requirements. Because the stack is similar to other stacks on the Hanford site, allowance was made by EPA to demonstrate equivalency to the ANSI standard via calculations in lieu of actual testing. Calculations were allowed for determining the deposition, nozzle transmission and aspiration ratios, but measurements were required for the stack flow coefficient of variation (COV). The equivalency determination was to be based on the requirements of Table 6 of the ANSI N13.1-1999 Standard.

SIMMONS, F.M.

2006-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

220

Gravity-induced phase-shift of light: outline of an interferometric test of the Equivalence Principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I analyze the change of the interference pattern in an optical interferometer when it passes from rest to free fall. It is shown that the "disconnection" of the gravitational field causes a jump in the phase difference that could be measured with the current sensitivity of these instruments. For this reason, I propose to the optical interferometry community the possibility of a test of the Equivalence Principle based on the aforementioned effect.

Eduardo Diaz-Miguel

2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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221

Bound-free pair production cross section in heavy-ion colliders from the equivalent photon approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exact calculations of the electron-positron pair production by a single photon in the Coulomb field of a nucleus with simultaneous capture of the electron into the K-shell are discussed for different nuclear charges. Using the equivalent photon method of Weizsaecker and Williams, a simple expression for the bound-free production of electron-positron pairs by colliding very-high-energy fully stripped heavy ions is derived for nuclei of arbitrary charge.

Andreas Aste

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

222

A Methodology to Derive Radar ReflectivityLiquid Equivalent Snow Rate Relations Using C-Band Radar and a 2D Video Disdrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to derive equivalent radar reflectivity factorliquid equivalent snow rate (ZeSR) power-law relations for snowfall using the C-band King City operational weather radar and a 2D video disdrometer (2DVD). The 2DVD ...

Gwo-Jong Huang; V. N. Bringi; Robert Cifelli; David Hudak; W. A. Petersen

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Tabulation of dose equivalent per microcurie-day for source and target organs of an adult for various radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Data are tabulated on the radiation dose equivalent per microcurie-day for source and target organs of a human adult for 100 radionuclides. These are listed at the end of the volume. Included are several radionuclides where the parent has a daughter radionuclide of physical half-life less than five minutes. In such cases separate S tables are given for the parent and for the daughter as well as a composite table which contains S values for the parent plus S values for the daughter weighted according to the percent decay via the daughter. (CH)

Snyder, W.S.; Ford, M.R.; Warner, G.G.; Watson, S.B.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Equivalent Circuit Description of Non-compensated n-p Codoped TiO2 as Intermediate Band Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The novel concept of non-compensated n-p codoping has made it possible to create tunable intermediate bands in the intrinsic band gap of TiO2, making the codoped TiO2 a promising material for developing intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs). Here we investigate the quantum efficiency of such IBSCs within two scenarios - with and without current extracted from the extended intermediate band. Using the ideal equivalent circuit model, we find that the maximum efficiency of 57% in the first scenario and 53% in the second are both much higher than the Shockley-Queisser limit from single gap solar cells. We also obtain various key quantities of the circuits, a useful step in realistic development of TiO2 based solar cells invoking device integration. These equivalent circuit results are also compared with the efficiencies obtained directly from consideration of electron transition between the energy bands, and both approaches reveal the intriguing existence of double peaks in the maximum quantum efficiency as a function of the relative location of IBs.

Tian-Li Feng; Guang-Wei Deng; Yi Xia; Feng-Cheng Wu; Ping Cui; Hai-Ping Lan; Zhen-Yu Zhang

2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

225

Does The Principle Of Equivalence Prevent Trapped Surfaces From Being Formed In The General Relativistic Collapse Process?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been recently shown (Mitra,- astro-ph/9910408, astro-ph/0207056) that the timelike spherical collapse of a radiating, physical fluid in General Relativity, as seen by an interior co-moving observer at rest in the physical fluid, does not permit formation of ``trapped surfaces''. This followed from the fact that the formation of a trapped surface in a physical fluid would cause the timelike world lines of the collapsing fluid to become null at the would be trapped surface, thus violating the Principle of Equivalence in General Theory of Relativity. In this paper we generalize and extend this result by studying the problem from the point of view of the exterior Vaidya metric of a collapsing radiating fluid as seen by an exterior stationary observer, and find that the "no trapped surface condition" becomes g00 > 0 consistent with that obtained for the interior co-moving metric. Since we have shown that the Principle of Equivalence prevents trapped surfaces from being formed in collapsing, radiating objects, then true event horizons cannot exist and Galactic Black Hole Candidates (GBHC) must have physically observable intrinsic magnetic dipole moments. Because of this fact it follows (Robertson and Leiter - astro-ph/0102381, astro-ph/0208333) that GBHC can be consistently described, within the framework of General Relativity, in terms of a magneto-spheric eternally collapsing objects (MECO) without true event horizons.

Darryl Leiter; Stanley Robertson

2001-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

226

Sources Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Natural background Medical Consumer products Industrial, security, educational and research Occupational 0.311 rem 0.300 rem 0.013 rem 0.0003 rem 0.0005 rem Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, provides radiological protection services and oversight at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These services include radiation dose measurements for persons who enter areas where they may be exposed to radiation or radioactive material. The results are periodically reported to monitored individuals. The results listed are based on a radiation dose system developed by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The system uses the terms "effective dose," "equivalent dose" and units of rem. You may be more familiar with the term "millirem" (mrem), which is 1/1000 of a rem.

227

The Creation of a High Equivalent Potential Temperature Reservoir in Tropical Storm Humberto (2001) and Its Possible Role in Storm Deepening  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thirty global positioning system dropwindsondes (GPS sondes) were used to identify and examine the creation of a reservoir of high equivalent potential temperature (?e) in the nascent eye of Tropical Storm Humberto (2001). The ?e did not increase ...

Klaus P. Dolling; Gary M. Barnes

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

The Scientific Beaufort Equivalent Scale: Effects on Wind Statistics and Climatological Air-Sea Flux Estimates in the North Atlantic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Beaufort equivalent scale of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), used for decades to transform marine Beaufort estimates to surface wind speeds over the oceans, contains systematic errors that depend nonlinearly on the wind speed. ...

Hans-Jrg Isemer; Lutz Hasse

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Merging Conventional (191592) and Passive Microwave (19782002) Estimates of Snow Extent and Water Equivalent over Central North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A detailed evaluation of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow cover extent (SCE) derived using the combined Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature records for the 1978...

C. Derksen; R. Brown; A. Walker

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Table B1. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas in the United States, Metric Equivalents, 2005-2009  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Table B1. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas in the United States, Metric Equivalents, 2005-2009 See footnotes at end of table. Number of Wells Producing at End of Year .... 425,887 440,516 452,945 R 476,652 493,100 Production (million cubic meters) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells .............................................. 494,748 509,577 483,238 R 442,265 420,197 From Oil Wells ................................................ 169,476 156,860 164,759 R 162,742 164,611 From Coalbed Wells ....................................... NA NA 50,400 R 56,249 55,990 From Shale Gas Wells .................................... NA NA NA 64,682 95,811 Total ................................................................. 664,223 666,438 698,397 R 725,938 736,609

231

Table B1. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas in the United States, Metric Equivalents, 2004-2008  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Table B1. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas in the United States, Metric Equivalents, 2004-2008 See footnotes at end of table. Number of Wells Producing at End of Year .... 406,147 425,887 440,516 R 452,945 478,562 Production (million cubic meters) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells .............................................. 506,454 494,748 509,577 R 483,238 510,019 From Oil Wells ................................................ 172,292 169,476 156,860 R 164,759 165,506 From Coalbed Wells ....................................... NA NA NA 50,400 53,757 Total ................................................................. 678,746 664,223 666,438 R 698,397 729,282 Repressuring .................................................... 104,819 104,759

232

Table B1. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas in the United States, Metric Equivalents, 2003-2007  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Table B1. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas in the United States, Metric Equivalents, 2003-2007 See footnotes at end of table. Number of Wells Producing at End of Year .... 393,327 406,147 425,887 R 440,516 452,768 Production (million cubic meters) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells .............................................. 506,356 506,454 494,748 R 509,577 530,629 From Oil Wells ................................................ 176,617 172,292 169,476 R 156,860 165,699 Total ................................................................. 682,973 678,746 664,223 R 666,438 696,328 Repressuring .................................................... 100,462 104,819 104,759 92,453 107,274 Vented and Flared ............................................

233

Table B1. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas in the United States, Metric Equivalents, 2002-2006  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Table B1. Summary Statistics for Natural Gas in the United States, Metric Equivalents, 2002-2006 See footnotes at end of table. Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year .................................. 387,772 393,327 406,147 R 425,887 448,641 Production (million cubic meters) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells .............................................. 503,894 506,356 506,454 R 494,748 508,075 From Oil Wells ................................................ 174,047 176,617 172,292 R 169,476 157,583 Total ................................................................. 677,942 682,973 678,746 R 664,223 665,657 Repressuring .................................................... 97,839 100,462 104,819 R 104,759 92,453 Vented and Flared

234

A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A metafilm (also referred to as a metasurface) is the surface equivalent of a metamaterial. More precisely, a metafilm is a surface distribution of suitable chosen electrically small scatterers. Metafilms are becoming popular as an alternative to full three-dimensional metamaterials. Unfortunately, many papers in the literature present incorrect interpretations and mischaracterizations of these metafilms. In fact, some of the characterizations presented in the literature result in non-unique parameters for a uniquely defined metafilm. In this paper we discuss an appropriate interpretation and characterization of metafilms and present a correct manner to characterize a metafilm. Additionally, we illustrate the error that results from an incorrect characterization of metafilms. We present various examples to emphasize these points. Finally we present a retrieval approach for determining the uniquely defined quantities (the electric and magnetic susceptibilities of its constituent scatterers) that characterize a metafilm.

O'hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Estimation of radiation-induced cancer from three-dimensional dose distributions: Concept of organ equivalent dose  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Estimates of secondary cancer risk after radiotherapy are becoming more important for comparative treatment planning. Modern treatment planning systems provide accurate three-dimensional dose distributions for each individual patient. These data open up new possibilities for more precise estimates of secondary cancer incidence rates in the irradiated organs. We report a new method to estimate organ-specific radiation-induced cancer incidence rates. The concept of an organ equivalent dose (OED) for radiation-induced cancer assumes that any two dose distributions in an organ are equivalent if they cause the same radiation-induced cancer incidence. Methods and Materials: The two operational parameters of the OED concept are the organ-specific cancer incidence rate at low doses, which is taken from the data of the atomic bomb survivors, and cell sterilization at higher doses. The effect of cell sterilization in various organs was estimated by analyzing the secondary cancer incidence data of patients with Hodgkin's disease who were treated with radiotherapy in between 1962 and 1993. The radiotherapy plans used at the time the patients had been treated were reconstructed on a fully segmented whole body CT scan. The dose distributions were calculated in individual organs for which cancer incidence data were available. The model parameter that described cell sterilization was obtained by analyzing the dose and cancer incidence rates for the individual organs. Results: We found organ-specific cell radiosensitivities that varied from 0.017 for the mouth and pharynx up to 1.592 for the bladder. Using the two model parameters (organ-specific cancer incidence rate and the parameter characterizing cell sterilization), the OED concept can be applied to any three-dimensional dose distribution to analyze cancer incidence. Conclusion: We believe that the concept of OED presented in this investigation represents a first step in assessing the potential risk of secondary cancer induction after the clinical application of radiotherapy.

Schneider, Uwe [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, City Hospital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: uwe.schneider@psi.ch; Zwahlen, Daniel [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, City Hospital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland); Ross, Dieter [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, City Hospital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaser-Hotz, Barbara [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radio-Oncology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland)

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Kicked-Harper model vs On-Resonance Double Kicked Rotor Model: From Spectral Difference to Topological Equivalence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent studies have established that, in addition to the well-known kicked Harper model (KHM), an on-resonance double kicked rotor model (ORDKR) also has Hofstadter's butterfly Floquet spectrum, with strong resemblance to the standard Hofstadter's spectrum that is a paradigm in studies of the integer quantum Hall effect. Earlier it was shown that these quasi-energy spectra of the two dynamical models can (i) exactly overlap with each other if an effective Planck constant takes irrational multiples of $2\\pi$ and (ii) will be different if the same parameter takes rational multiples of $2\\pi$. This work makes some detailed comparison between these two models, with an effective Planck constant given by $2\\pi M/N$, where $M$ and $N$ are coprime integers. It is found that for odd $M$ and $N$, the ORDKR spectrum has one flat band and $N-1$ non-flat bands whose widths decay in power law as $\\sim K^{N+2}$, where $K$ is a kicking strength parameter. The existence of a flat band is strictly proved and the power law scaling, numerically checked for a number of cases, is also analytically proved for a three-band case. By contrast, the KHM does not have any flat band and their band width scales linearly with $K$. This is shown to result in dramatic differences in their dynamical behavior, such as transient (but extremely long) dynamical localization in ORDKR. Finally, we show that despite these differences, from a topological point of view, KHM and ORDRK are actually topologically equivalent. A theoretical derivation of this topological equivalence is provided.

Hailong Wang; Derek Y. H. Ho; Wayne Lawton; Jiao Wang; Jiangbin Gong

2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

237

NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 930,320 953,451 1,024,082 1,066,366 1,134,473 1,250,340 1930-2012 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2011 Alabama 19,831 17,222 17,232 19,059 17,271 1969-2011 Alaska 26,332 24,337 22,925 20,835 21,554 21,470 1969-2012 Arkansas 162 139 168 213 268 424 1967-2012 California 13,521 13,972 13,722 13,244 12,095 12,755 1967-2012 Colorado 38,180 53,590 67,607 82,637 90,801 1967-2011 Florida 132 22 0 0 0 0 1968-2012 Illinois 48 42 31 345 1,043 0 1967-2012 Indiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2012

238

Energy Equivalent Conversions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Kilograms. 907.18470. 1.00000. 1000.00000. 1016.04700. 0.45359. Metric Tons. 0.90718. 0.00100. 1.00000. 1.01605. 0.00045. Long Tons. 0.89286. 0.00098. 0.98421. 1 ...

239

Formation Kinetics of Nitric Oxide of Biodiesel Relative to Petroleum Diesel under Comparable Oxygen Equivalence Ratio in a Homogeneous Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interest in biodiesel has piqued with advent of stringent emissions regulations. Biodiesel is a viable substitute for petroleum diesel because biodiesel produces significantly lower particulate and soot emissions relative to petroleum diesel. Higher nitric oxide (NO) emissions for biodiesel, however, are of primary concern in biodiesel-fueled engines. Search for an in-cylinder technique to reduce NO emissions for biodiesel has motivated studies to gain an improved understanding of fundamental factors that drive increase in NO emissions with biodiesel. Potential factors include fuel-bound oxygen, fuel-bound nitrogen and post-flame gas temperature. The role of fuel-bound oxygen however is debated in the literature. The research objective of this study is to computationally determine if biodiesel and petroleum diesel yield equivalent concentrations of NO with the same oxygen equivalence ratio in a 0-D homogeneous reactor, to explain the role of fuel-bound oxygen in biodiesel on increases in NO emissions with biodiesel. The results from this study indicate that the biodiesel surrogate yields higher NO emissions than the n-heptane because of its lower oxygen consumption efficiency. The lower oxygen consumption efficiency for biodiesel is likely because of the slower decomposition of the individual components and the blending ratios of the biodiesel surrogate blend. The relative differences in combustion efficiency of individual components of the biodiesel blend suggest this conclusion. The more efficient burning of the methyl esters relative to the n-heptane in biodiesel surrogate perhaps indicates the favorable role of fuel-bound oxygen in the fuels combustion. The low utilization of oxygen by the biodiesel surrogate could not be explained in this study. The dominance of NO2 H ? NO OH and N NO ? N2 O mechanisms during biodiesel combustion however explain the high NO emissions for the biodiesel surrogate relative to the n-heptane. The biodiesel may yield lower NO emissions than the petroleum diesel if the blending ratios for the biodiesel are adjusted such that combustion efficiency of biodiesel and petroleum diesel is same or the NO2 H ? NO OH and N NO ? N2 O mechanisms are suppressed during biodiesel combustion.

Rathore, Gurlovleen K.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Table B1. Summary statistics for natural gas in the United States, metric equivalents, 2008-2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 Table B1. Summary statistics for natural gas in the United States, metric equivalents, 2008-2012 See footnotes at end of table. Number of Wells Producing at End of Year 476,652 493,100 487,627 514,637 482,822 Production (million cubic meters) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 428,565 408,167 375,127 348,044 360,663 From Oil Wells 158,841 160,673 165,220 167,294 140,725 From Coalbed Wells 57,263 56,922 54,277 50,377 43,591 From Shale Gas Wells 81,268 112,087 164,723 240,721 291,566 Total 725,938 737,849 759,347 806,436 836,545 Repressuring 103,034 99,734 97,172 95,295 92,304 Vented and Flared 4,726 4,682 4,699 5,931 6,027 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 20,351 20,431 23,693 24,577 21,573

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241

Estimation of radiation dose at various depths for commonly used radionuclides in radiosynoviorthesis in a tissue equivalent material  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the paper is to report on the dose estimation studies at various depths for the commonly used beta-emitting {sup 90}Y, {sup 166}Ho, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 32}P, and {sup 177}Lu radionuclides in a phantom fabricated using the poly methyl methacrylate tissue equivalent material having a density of 1.19 gm/cc, by using thermoluminescent dosemeters. GAFChromic MD-55 films were used to calculate the calibration factor for the thermoluminescent micro-rods used in our study. It is observed that {sup 90}Y delivers the highest dose at 1 mm amongst the radionuclides tested followed by {sup 32}P, {sup 166}Ho, {sup 153}Sm, and {sup 177}Lu, whereas the cumulative dose received by the joint was found to be more for {sup 32}P followed by {sup 90}Y, {sup 166}Ho, {sup 153}Sm, and {sup 177}Lu. The highest therapeutic range obtained is 3.1 mm for {sup 153}Sm amongst the tested radionuclides. The dose values obtained for all the above-mentioned radionuclides can serve as reference material for those researchers and clinicians who are interested in selection of the radionuclide for the type of joint treated and the amount of dose necessary to be delivered to the synovial membrane.

Tandon, Pankaj; Malpani, B. L.; Venkatesh, Meera; Bhatt, B. C. [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, CT and CRS Building, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai, 400 094 (India); Radiation Medicine Centre, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, CT and CRS Building, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai, 400 094 (India); Radiopharmaceutical Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, CT and CRS Building, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai, 400 094 (India); Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, CT and CRS Building, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai, 400 094 (India)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

ON THE (NON-)ENHANCEMENT OF THE Ly{alpha} EQUIVALENT WIDTH BY A MULTIPHASE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been suggested that radiative transfer effects may explain the unusually high equivalent widths (EWs) of the Ly{alpha} line, observed occasionally from starburst galaxies, especially at high redshifts. If the dust is locked up inside high-density clouds dispersed in an empty intercloud medium, the Ly{alpha} photons could scatter off of the surfaces of the clouds, effectively having their journey confined to the dustless medium. The continuum radiation, on the other hand, does not scatter, and would thus be subject to absorption inside the clouds. This scenario is routinely invoked when Ly{alpha} EWs higher than what is expected theoretically are observed, although the ideal conditions under which the results are derived usually are not considered. Here we systematically examine the relevant physical parameters in this idealized framework, testing whether any astrophysically realistic scenarios may lead to such an effect. It is found that although clumpiness indeed facilitates the escape of Ly{alpha}, it is highly unlikely that any real interstellar media should result in a preferential escape of Ly{alpha} over continuum radiation. Other possible causes are discussed, and it is concluded that the observed high EWs are more likely to be caused by cooling radiation from cold accretion and/or anisotropic escape of the Ly{alpha} radiation.

Laursen, Peter; Duval, Florent; Oestlin, Goeran, E-mail: pela@dark-cosmology.dk [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)] [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Chemical and biological 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in fly ash from combustion of bleached kraft pulp mill sludge  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash was collected from five large-scale or pilot tests in which burning of bleached kraft pulp mill sludge was studied. The content of dioxin-like compounds in this fly ash was estimated both chemically and biologically. Fly ash was analyzed chemically for 17 PCDD and PCDF congeners by high-resolution GC-MS, and the data were transformed to Nordic TCDD equivalents. The biological analyses were based on the induction of several enzymes (aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase [AHH], 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase [EROD], aldehyde dehydrogenase-3 [ALDG3]) by the fly ash extracts in a mouse hepatoma cell line, Hepa-1. The inducing potencies were expressed as biological TCDD equivalents. There was a good correlation between the Nordic and the biological TCDD equivalents. Differences in the amounts of dioxin-like compounds among the combustions were attributed mainly to the boiler types and not to fuel characteristics or combustion parameters.

Kopponen, P.; Toerroenen, R. (Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Physiology); Vaelttilae, O.; Talka, E. (Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Inst., Espoo (Finland)); Tarhanen, J.; Ruuskanen, J. (Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences); Kaerenlampi, S. (Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biotechnology)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Method for measuring dose-equivalent in a neutron flux with an unknown energy spectra and means for carrying out that method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for measuring the dose-equivalent for exposure to an unknown and/or time varing neutron flux which comprises simultaneously exposing a plurality of neutron detecting elements of different types to a neutron flux and combining the measured responses of the various detecting elements by means of a function, whose value is an approximate measure of the dose-equivalent, which is substantially independent of the energy spectra of the flux. Also, a personnel neutron dosimeter, which is useful in carrying out the above method, comprising a plurality of various neutron detecting elements in a single housing suitable for personnel to wear while working in a radiation area.

Distenfeld, Carl H. (Mattituck, NY)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Dynamical response of the "GGG" rotor to test the Equivalence Principle: theory, simulation and experiment. Part I: the normal modes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent theoretical work suggests that violation of the Equivalence Principle might be revealed in a measurement of the fractional differential acceleration $\\eta$ between two test bodies -of different composition, falling in the gravitational field of a source mass- if the measurement is made to the level of $\\eta\\simeq 10^{-13}$ or better. This being within the reach of ground based experiments, gives them a new impetus. However, while slowly rotating torsion balances in ground laboratories are close to reaching this level, only an experiment performed in low orbit around the Earth is likely to provide a much better accuracy. We report on the progress made with the "Galileo Galilei on the Ground" (GGG) experiment, which aims to compete with torsion balances using an instrument design also capable of being converted into a much higher sensitivity space test. In the present and following paper (Part I and Part II), we demonstrate that the dynamical response of the GGG differential accelerometer set into supercritical rotation -in particular its normal modes (Part I) and rejection of common mode effects (Part II)- can be predicted by means of a simple but effective model that embodies all the relevant physics. Analytical solutions are obtained under special limits, which provide the theoretical understanding. A simulation environment is set up, obtaining quantitative agreement with the available experimental data on the frequencies of the normal modes, and on the whirling behavior. This is a needed and reliable tool for controlling and separating perturbative effects from the expected signal, as well as for planning the optimization of the apparatus.

G. L. Comandi; M. L. Chiofalo; R. Toncelli; D. Bramanti; E. Polacco; A. M. Nobili

2006-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

246

Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Comparison of artificial neural network and combined models in estimating spatial distribution of snow depth and snow water equivalent in Samsami basin of Iran  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snow water equivalent (SWE) is a key parameter in hydrological cycle, and information on regional SWE is required for various hydrological and meteorological applications, as well as for hydropower production and flood forecasting. This study compares ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Combined methods, Snow depth, Spatial distribution

Hossein Tabari; S. Marofi; H. Zare Abyaneh; M. R. Sharifi

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update  

SciTech Connect

This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

2012-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

249

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: REM/Rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

utility DSM compliance analysis, and U.S. EPA Energy Star Home analysis. REMRate operates in Windows and has many unique features, including a simplified input...

250

I PHAEi:'I:. REM E :ACTO N  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

consists of three main areas: I* ARC proper (the main research facility); the former Biomass Research Facility which consists of approximately 0.8-ha (2-acre), located south of...

251

Admission REQUiREmEnTsnsC PROGRAMME MINIMUM ADMISSION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACCEPTANCE LEVEL SELECTION PROCEDURES HEALTH SCIENCES · Bachelor of Medicine and Bach- elor of Surgery - MB BCh (6 years) · Bachelor of Pharmacy ­ BPharm (4 years) · Bachelor of Dental Science ­ BDS (5 years) · Bachelor of Science in Physio- therapy ­ BSc(Physiotherapy) (4 years) · Bachelor of Health Sciences (Bio

Wagner, Stephan

252

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11002: Number of Cars Equivalent to 100 Metric Tons of Avoided Greenhouse Gases per Year  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

02 Date: January 5, 2011 02 Date: January 5, 2011 Title: Number of Cars Equivalent to 100 Metric Tons of Avoided Greenhouse Gases per Year Originator: Andrea Chew & Tien Nguyen Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: January 25, 2011 A conventional mid-size gasoline car emits 0.45 kg of greenhouse gases (GHG) per mile. 1 One hundred (100) metric tons (t) of GHG per year are equivalent to emissions from 17 conventional gasoline cars. Item: The GHG emissions cited above are from an analysis record prepared by the Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies and Vehicle Technologies Programs on life-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases and petroleum use for several light-duty vehicles. 1 For cars that are between 1 and 5 years old, the average mileage is approximately 13,000,

253

Comparison of the Halpha equivalent width of HII regions in a flocculent and a grand design galaxy: possible evidences for IMF variations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here a study of the Halpha equivalent widths of the flocculent galaxy NGC 4395 and the grand design galaxy NGC 5457. A difference between the mean values of the Halpha equivalent widths for the two galaxies has been found. Several hypotheses are presented in order to explain this difference: differences in age, metallicity, star formation rate, photon leakage and initial mass function. Various tests and Monte Carlo models are used to find out the most probable cause of this difference. The resultsshow that the possible cause for the difference could be a variation in the initial mass function. This difference is such that it seems to favor a fraction of more massive stars in the grand design galaxy when compared with the flocculent galaxy. This could be due to a change of the environmental conditions due to a density wave.

Cedres, B; Tomita, A; Cedres, Bernabe; Cepa, Jordi; Tomita, Akihiko

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Comparison of the Halpha equivalent width of HII regions in a flocculent and a grand design galaxy: possible evidences for IMF variations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here a study of the Halpha equivalent widths of the flocculent galaxy NGC 4395 and the grand design galaxy NGC 5457. A difference between the mean values of the Halpha equivalent widths for the two galaxies has been found. Several hypotheses are presented in order to explain this difference: differences in age, metallicity, star formation rate, photon leakage and initial mass function. Various tests and Monte Carlo models are used to find out the most probable cause of this difference. The resultsshow that the possible cause for the difference could be a variation in the initial mass function. This difference is such that it seems to favor a fraction of more massive stars in the grand design galaxy when compared with the flocculent galaxy. This could be due to a change of the environmental conditions due to a density wave.

Bernabe Cedres; Jordi Cepa; Akihiko Tomita

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

255

RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH AND RELATED STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. VOLUME 2 OF HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

References for Section 4 Glossary ;;'j iJ I' vii SELECTEDreport are defined in the Glossary. U . :i U li. ~ U '.fl i:as "dose equivalent", see Glossary) is the "rem". sour ce s

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the technical basis for determining that stabilizing highpurity PuO{sub 2} derived from oxalate precipitation at the SRS HB-Line facility at a minimum of 625 {degree}C for at least four hours in an oxidizing atmosphere is equivalent to stabilizing at a minimum of 950 {degree}C for at least two hours as regards meeting the objectives of stabilization defined by DOE-STD-3013 if the material is handled in a way to prevent excessive absorption of water.

Duffey, J. M.; Livingston, R. R.; Berg, J. M.; Veirs, D. K.

2013-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

257

Inherent fluctuation-mediated equivalent force drives directional motions of nanoscale asymmetric particles -- Surf-riding of asymmetric molecules in thermal fluctuations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a simple theoretical model of a nanoscale asymmetric particle/molecule with asymmetric structure or/and asymmetric charge distribution, here using a charge dipole as an example, we show that there is unidirectional transportation mediated by non-white fluctuations if the asymmetric orientation of the particle/molecule is constrained. This indicates the existence of an inherent equivalent force, which drives the particle/molecule itself along the orientation of the asymmetric particle in the environment of fluctuations. In practical systems, equivalent force also exist in the asymmetric molecules, such as water and ethanol, at the ambient condition since thermal fluctuations are not white anymore at nanoscale [Wan, R., J. Hu, and H. Fang, Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 2012, 55, 751]. Molecular dynamic simulations show that there is unidirectional transportation of an ultrathin water layer on solid surface at room temperature when the orientations of water molecules have a preference. The finding will play an essential role in the understanding of the world from a molecular view and the developing of novel technology for various nanoscale and bulk applications, such as chemical separation, water treatment, sensing and drug delivery.

Yusong Tu; Nan Sheng; Rongzheng Wan; Haiping Fang

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

258

Criticality Safety Analysis on the Mixed Be, Nat-U, and C (Graphite) Reflectors in 55-Gallon Waste Drums and Their Equivalents for HWM Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this analysis is to develop and establish the technical basis on the criticality safety controls for the storage of mixed beryllium (Be), natural uranium (Nat-U), and carbon (C)/graphite reflectors in 55-gallon waste containers and/or their equivalents in Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. Based on the criticality safety limits and controls outlined in Section 3.0, the operations involving the use of mixed-reflector drums satisfy the double-contingency principle as required by DOE Order 420.1 and are therefore criticality safe. The mixed-reflector mass limit is 120 grams for each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent. a reflector waiver of 50 grams is allowed for Be, Nat-U, or C/graphite combined. The waived reflectors may be excluded from the reflector mass calculations when determining if a drum is compliant. The mixed-reflector drums are allowed to mix with the typical 55-gallon one-reflector drums with a Pu mass limit of 120 grams. The fissile mass limit for the mixed-reflector container is 65 grams of Pu equivalent each. The corresponding reflector mass limits are 300 grams of Be, and/or 100 kilograms of Nat-U, and/or 110 kilograms of C/graphite for each container. All other unaffected control parameters for the one-reflector containers remain in effect for the mixed-reflector drums. For instance, Superior moderators, such as TrimSol, Superla white mineral oil No. 9, paraffin, and polyethylene, are allowed in unlimited quantities. Hydrogenous materials with a hydrogen density greater than 0.133 gram/cc are not allowed. Also, an isolation separation of no less than 76.2 cm (30-inch) is required between a mixed array and any other array. Waste containers in the action of being transported are exempted from this 76.2-cm (30-inch) separation requirement. All deviations from the CS controls and mass limits listed in Section 3.0 will require individual criticality safety analyses on a case-by-case basis for each of them to confirm their criticality safety prior to their deployment and implementation.

Chou, P

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

259

New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, equivalence of temperature and time proposed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When the difference between changes in energy and entropy at a given temperature is correlated with the ratio between the same changes in energy and entropy at zero average free energy of an ensemble of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects, a highly significant linear dependence results from which a relationship between energy and entropy is derived and the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified. This fundamental energy-entropy relationship is likely to be of general interest in physics, most notably in particle physics and cosmology. We predict a consistent and testable way of classifying mini black holes, to be generated in future Large Hadron Collider experiments, by their gravitational energy and area entropy. For any isolated universe we propose absolute temperature and absolute time to be equivalent, much in the same way as energy and entropy are for an isolated ensemble of similar objects. According to this principle, the cosmo...

Zimak, Petr; Strazewski, Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM OXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The HB-Line (HBL) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to produce high-purity plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) which is suitable for future use in production of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) requires PuO{sub 2} feed to be packaged per the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) to comply with the facility's safety basis. The stabilization conditions imposed by DOE-STD-3013 for PuO{sub 2} (i.e., 950 C for 2 hours) preclude use of the HBL PuO{sub 2} in direct fuel fabrication and reduce the value of the HBL product as MFFF feedstock. Consequently, HBL initiated a technical evaluation to define acceptable operating conditions for production of high-purity PuO{sub 2} that fulfills the DOE-STD-3013 criteria for safe storage. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that within the defined operating conditions, the HBL process will be equivalent for meeting the requirements of the DOE-STD-3013 stabilization process for plutonium-bearing materials from the DOE complex. The proposed 3013 equivalency reduces the prescribed stabilization temperature for high-purity PuO{sub 2} from oxalate precipitation processes from 950 C to 640 C and places a limit of 60% on the relative humidity (RH) at the lowest material temperature. The equivalency is limited to material produced using the HBL established flow sheet, for example, nitric acid anion exchange and Pu(IV) direct strike oxalate precipitation with stabilization at a minimum temperature of 640 C for four hours (h). The product purity must meet the MFFF acceptance criteria of 23,600 {micro}g/g Pu (i.e., 2.1 wt %) total impurities and chloride content less than 250 {micro}g/g of Pu. All other stabilization and packaging criteria identified by DOE-STD-3013-2012 or earlier revisions of the standard apply. Based on the evaluation of test data discussed in this document, the expert judgment of the authors supports packaging the HBL product under a 3013 equivalency. Under the defined process conditions and associated material specifications, the high-purity PuO{sub 2} produced in HBL presents no unique safety concerns for packaging or storage in the 3013 required configuration. The PuO{sub 2} produced using the HBL flow sheet conditions will have a higher specific surface area (SSA) than PuO{sub 2} stabilized at 950 C and, consequently, under identical conditions will adsorb more water from the atmosphere. The greatest challenge to HBL operators will be controlling moisture content below 0.5 wt %. However, even at the 0.5 wt % moisture limit, the maximum acceptable pressure of a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in the 3013 container is greater than the maximum possible pressure for the HBL PuO{sub 2} product.

Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Berg, J.; Veirs, D.

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Equivalence of Local Potential Approximations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent papers it has been noted that the local potential approximation of the Legendre and Wilson-Polchinski flow equations give, within numerical error, identical results for a range of exponents and Wilson-Fisher fixed points in three dimensions, providing a certain ``optimised'' cutoff is used for the Legendre flow equation. Here we point out that this is a consequence of an exact map between the two equations, which is nothing other than the exact reduction of the functional map that exists between the two exact renormalization groups. We note also that the optimised cutoff does not allow a derivative expansion beyond second order.

Tim R. Morris

2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

262

An energy equivalency analysis of trade-offs between thermal efficiency and standby loss requirements for commercial gas service water heaters  

SciTech Connect

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Standing Standard Project Committee 90.1 has approved an addendum (90.lb) to ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989. The addendum specifies an increase in the minimum thermal efficiency requirement (from 77% to 78%), accompanied by an easing of the standby loss requirements, for commercial gas-fired service water heaters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed an energy equivalency analysis to assess the impact of trade-offs between the improved thermal efficiency and the less stringent standby loss requirements. The analysis objective was to estimate whether the energy savings during firing would offset the increased energy losses during standby periods. The primary focus of this report is to summarize the major results of the analysis and provide a recommendation for minimum energy-efficiency commercial gas-fired service water heaters. Limitations to the availability of detailed performance and energy-use data for these commercial water heaters are also pointed out.

Somasundaram, S.; Jarnagin, R.E.; Keller, J.M.; Schliesing, J.S.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A new water-equivalent 2D plastic scintillation detectors array for the dosimetry of megavoltage energy photon beams in radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The objective of this work is to present a new 2D plastic scintillation detectors array (2D-PSDA) designed for the dosimetry of megavoltage (MV) energy photon beams in radiation therapy and to characterize its basic performance. Methods: We developed a 2D detector array consisting of 781 plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) inserted into a plane of a water-equivalent phantom. The PSDs were distributed on a 26 x 26 cm{sup 2} grid, with an interdetector spacing of 10 mm, except for two perpendicular lines centered on the detection plane, where the spacing was 5 mm. Each PSD was made of a 1 mm diameter by 3 mm long cylindrical polystyrene scintillating fiber coupled to a clear nonscintillating plastic optical fiber. All of the light signals emitted by the PSDs were read simultaneously with an optical system at a rate of one measurement per second. We characterized the performance of the optical system, the angular dependency of the device, and the perturbation of dose distributions caused by the hundreds of PSDs inserted into the phantom. We also evaluated the capacity of the system to monitor complex multileaf collimator (MLC) sequences such as those encountered in step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. We compared our results with calculations performed by a treatment planning system and with measurements taken with a 2D ionization chamber array and with a radiochromic film. Results: The detector array that we developed allowed us to measure doses with an average precision of better than 1% for cumulated doses equal to or greater than 6.3 cGy. Our results showed that the dose distributions produced by the 6-MV photon beam are not perturbed (within {+-}1.1%) by the presence of the hundreds of PSDs located into the phantom. The results also showed that the variations in the beam incidences have little effect on the dose response of the device. For all incidences tested, the passing rates of the gamma tests between the 2D-PSDA and the treatment planning system were higher than 97.5% when the standard clinical tolerances of 3% or 3 mm were used. Excellent agreement was obtained between the doses measured and calculated when we used the 2D-PSDA for monitoring a MLC sequence from a step-and-shoot IMRT plan. Conclusions: We demonstrated the feasibility of using a large number of PSDs in a new 2D-PSDA for the dosimetry of MV energy photon beams in radiation therapy. The excellent precision, accuracy, and low angular dependence of the device indicate that such a prototype could potentially be used as a high-accuracy quality assurance tool for IMRT and arc therapy patient plan verification. The homogeneity and water-equivalence of the prototype we built suggest that this technology could be extended to multiple detection planes by arranging the fibers into more complex orientations, opening the possibility for 3D dosimetry with PSDs.

Guillot, Mathieu; Beaulieu, Luc; Archambault, Louis; Beddar, Sam; Gingras, Luc [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 94, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Plutonium Equivalent Inventory for Belowground Radioactive Waste at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Many aspects of the management of this waste are conducted at Technical Area 54 (TA-54); Area G plays a key role in these management activities as the Laboratory's only disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Furthermore, Area G serves as a staging area for transuranic (TRU) waste that will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. A portion of this TRU waste is retrievably stored in pits, trenches, and shafts. The radioactive waste disposed of or stored at Area G poses potential short- and long-term risks to workers at the disposal facility and to members of the public. These risks are directly proportional to the radionuclide inventories in the waste. The Area G performance assessment and composite analysis (LANL, 2008a) project long-term risks to members of the public; short-term risks to workers and members of the public, such as those posed by accidents, are addressed by the Area G Documented Safety Analysis (LANL, 2011a). The Documented Safety Analysis uses an inventory expressed in terms of plutonium-equivalent curies, referred to as the PE-Ci inventory, to estimate these risks. The Technical Safety Requirements for Technical Area 54, Area G (LANL, 2011b) establishes a belowground radioactive material limit that ensures the cumulative projected inventory authorized for the Area G site is not exceeded. The total belowground radioactive waste inventory limit established for Area G is 110,000 PE-Ci. The PE-Ci inventory is updated annually; this report presents the inventory prepared for 2011. The approach used to estimate the inventory is described in Section 2. The results of the analysis are presented in Section 3.

French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

265

DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

none,

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

266

DC Cancellation As a Method of Generating a t^2 Response and of Solving the Radial Nonobservability Problem in a Concentric Free-Falling Two-Sphere Equivalence-Principle Experiment in a Drag-Free Satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper solves two major problems which have blocked a free-fall Equivalence-Principle (EP) in a satellite for 25 years: a semimajor-axis error between the two proof masses cannot be distinguished from an EP violation and the response to an EP violation only grows as t not t^2. Using the cancellation method described in this paper, the nonobservability problem can be suppressed and a t^2 response can be generated which lasts between 10^4 and 10^6 seconds depending on the cancellation accuracy. t^2 response times between 10^5 and 10^6 seconds are equivalent to a very tall (0.1 to 10 AU) drop tower with a constant gravitational field of 3/7 ge.

Benjamin Lange

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

267

LCLS CDR Chapter 14  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 4 Radiological Considerations TECHNICAL SYNOPSIS The radiation protection issues for the LCLS are normally encountered at both high-energy electron linacs and synchrotron radiation facilities. The SLAC Radiological Control Manual [1] specifies an annual total effective dose equivalent limit to workers from both internal and external radiation sources of 5 rem. In addition, SLAC maintains an administrative control level of 1.5 rem. Radiation dose criteria used in design of the LCLS radiation safety systems are those required for SLAC facilities. The integrated dose equivalent outside the surface of the FFTB shielding barriers must not exceed 1 rem in a year for normal beam operation [1]. The integrated dose equivalent to personnel working inside and around the experimental

268

Microsoft PowerPoint - Dose Ranges 24Jan 05.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

20 40 60 20 40 60 80 100 rem NRC Dose Limit for Public 100 mrem/yr = 1 mSv/yr (DOE, ICRP, NCRP) ANSI standard N43.17 Personnel scanner, max = 25 mrem/yr Cleanup criteria for site decommissioning/ license termination 25 mrem/yr NCRP "Negligible Dose" Medical Diagnostics (A-J) A C D E G B Temporary "Special Case" annual Public Limit (NRC, DOE) NRC Dose Limit for Workers = 5 rem/yr = 50 mSv/yr Cancer Epidemiology Life Span Study (A-bomb survivors) ( Chart compiled by NF Metting, Office of Science DOE/BER; 24Jan2005,"Orders of Magnitude") Absorbed dose: 100 rad = 1 Gray Dose equivalent: 100 rem = 1 Sievert 100 mrem = 1 mSv (1 rem = 1 rad for x- and gamma- rays) Estimated dose for

269

Two-dimensional [sup 1]H-NMR EXSY study of the fluxional behavior of the novel carbenium ion complex [FvMo[sub 2](CO)[sub 4]([mu],[eta][sup 2],[eta][sup 3]-MeC[equivalent to]CCH[sub 2])][BF[sub 4  

SciTech Connect

The title compound [FuMo[sub 2](CO)[sub 4]([mu],[eta][sup 2],[eta][sup 3]-MeC[equivalent to]CCH[sub 2])][BF[sub 4

Amouri, H.E.; Besace, Y.; Vollhardt, K.P.C.; Ball, G.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Vaissermann, J. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing...

271

Chapter_16_Equivalencies_and_Exemptions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

certain measures to be taken to protect DOE security interests. In some cases, a DOE organization may be unable to comply with the requirements as specified in the directive,...

272

NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent at Processing Plants  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

930,320 953,451 1,024,082 1,066,366 1,134,473 1,250,340 1930-2012 930,320 953,451 1,024,082 1,066,366 1,134,473 1,250,340 1930-2012 Alaska 26,332 24,337 22,925 20,835 21,554 21,470 1969-2012 Alaska Onshore 21,470 2012-2012 Alaska State Offshore NA 2012-2012 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2011 Louisiana 110,745 94,785 95,359 102,448 95,630 1967-2011 Louisiana Onshore 32,212 2012-2012 Louisiana State Offshore 5,100 2012-2012 New Mexico 96,250 92,579 94,840 91,963 90,291 1967-2011 Oklahoma 96,643 104,689 112,891 120,631 134,032 1967-2011 Texas 387,349 401,503 424,042 433,622 481,308 1967-2011 Texas Onshore 580,033 2012-2012 Texas State Offshore NA 2012-2012 Wyoming 74,234 82,922 93,796 92,777 97,588 1967-2011 Other States Alabama 19,831 17,222 17,232 19,059 17,271 1969-2011

273

Correlationship between JIC and Equivalent Fracture Strain ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury Oxidation and Capture over SCR Catalysts in Simulated Coal Combustion Flue Gas Microstructural Characterization of Fe-Mn-C Ternary Alloy under...

274

Conic systems and sublinear mappings: equivalent approaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 15, 2003 ... in mathematical programming, whereas the latter is a fundamental tool in ..... F. Cucker, editors, Handbook of Numerical Analysis, volume XI.

275

Equivalence of Convex Problem Geometry and Computational ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

June 2008. [17] C. Roos. private communication. 1999. [18] F. Rosenblatt. Principles of Neurodynamics. Spartan Books, Washington, DC, 1962. [19] P. Vaidya.

276

Global Equivalence Ratio Concept and the Formation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... levels roughly comparable to the alco- hols and ... strated that changes in the final product distribu ... calculations were those for which products of incom ...

1996-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

277

The Doctrine of Equivalents in Patent Infringement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... wrapper estoppel, and limitation of the claims to an invention as disclosed all must be considered before concluding that infringement does or does not exist.

278

On the equivalence of linear complementarity problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show that the Extended Linear Complementarity Problem (ELCP) can be recast as a standard Linear Complementarity Problem (LCP) provided that the surplus variables or the feasible set of the ELCP are bounded. Since many extensions of the LCP are special ... Keywords: Complementarity problems, Integer programming, Linear complementarity problem, Nonlinear algorithms, Optimization

B. De Schutter; W. P. M. H. Heemels; A. Bemporad

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

GEER Program & Abstracts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-3 2.3 The Protective Action Guides 2-4 2.3.1 Evacuation and Sheltering 2-5 2.3.2 Thyroid and Skin to a 5 rem Thyroid Dose Equivalent from Inhalation of Radioiodine 5-15 5-3 Dose Conversion Factors (DCF plans include procedures for issuing stable iodine to reduce thyroid dose (FE-85), this may

Watson, Craig A.

280

Lens of Eye Dose Limit Changes: Current Status of the Potential Regulatory Changes and Possible Effects on Radiation Protection Programs at Nuclear Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research suggests that the threshold for cataract formation as a result of exposure to radiation could be lower than previously considered. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is now recommending a dose limit for the lens of the eye of an average of 20 mSv (2 rem) per year, equivalent to their current recommendation for Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering reducing the lens of the eye dose limit to 50 mSv/yr ...

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Portable neutron spectrometer and dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a battery operated neutron spectrometer/dosimeter utilizing a microprocessor, a built-in tissue equivalent LET neutron detector, and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display. The apparatus calculates doses and dose rates from neutrons incident on the detector and displays a spectrum of rad or rem as a function of keV per micron of equivalent tissue and also calculates and displays accumulated dose in millirads and millirem as well as neutron dose rates in millirads per hour and millirem per hour.

Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Erkkila, Bruce H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Parameterizing random test data according to equivalence classes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We are concerned with the problem of detecting bugs in machine learning applications. In the absence of sufficient real-world data, creating suitably large data sets for testing can be a difficult task. To address this problem, we have developed an approach ... Keywords: random test data generation, software testing

Christian Murphy; Gail Kaiser; Marta Arias

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Compendium of Resource Equivalency Analyses: New Carissa Oil Spill References  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University Press. Stanford, California. Ainley, D.G., R.P. Henderson, and C.S. Strong. 1990c. Leachs Storm-Petrel and Ashy Storm-Petrel, pages 128-162 in Seabirds of the Farallon Islands (D.G. Ainley and R.J. Boekelheide, eds.). Stanford University Press. Stanford, California.

D. N. Nettleship; H. R. Carter; R. J. Boekelheide; S. H. Morrell; C. S. Strong; Pages In; S. H. Morrell; R. J. Boekelheide; Rhinoceros Auklet; Tufted Puffin; N. Nur; Marbled Murrelet; Wildlife Service; Recovery Plan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

On the Existence of Eshelby's Equivalent Ellipsoidal Inclusion Solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the "reduced" Voigt notation for linear elastic stiffnesses, Eq. (1) may be written as [(CIK - CIK)SE KM + CIM ]e M = CIM e M , (3) where all upper case indices range from 1 to 6. For more information work, but for completeness a proof is desirable. Here we show that [(CIK - CIK)SE KM + CIM ] is always

Cai, Wei

285

Passage Equivalency and Predictive Validity of Oral Reading Fluency Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a Response to Intervention (RTI) framework is examined.Measures Response to Intervention (RTI) is a comprehensiveGersten et al. , 2008). The RTI model is part of a paradigm

Checca, Christopher Jason

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

An evaluation of the equivalent fission yield vented from pike  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the fallout pattern from the Pike event. Wind data, deposited fallout, air sampling, radiation doses, and environmental/biological pathways are discussed.

1971-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

287

Why Order Matters: Turing Equivalence in Automated Systems Administration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hosts in a well-architected enterprise infrastructure are self-administered; they perform their own maintenance and upgrades. By definition, self-administered hosts execute self-modifying code. They do not behave according to simple state machine rules, ...

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 79,000 79,000 77,000 73,000 77,000 74,000 76,000 77,000 74,000 76,000 75,000 78,000 1974 79,000 72,000 78,000 73,000...

289

U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1930's 75 62 52 48 52 55 61 70 73 74 1940's 80 115 119 122 143 160 165 189 210 224 1950's 260 292 319...

290

U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1930's 75,140 62,288 51,816 48,280 52,190 55,488 61,064 70,210 73,338 73,746 1940's 79,526 115,464...

291

Using equivalence relations for corrective enforcement of security policies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a new framework of runtime security policy enforcement. Building on previous studies, we examine the enforcement power of monitors able to transform their target's execution, rather than simply accepting it if it is valid, or ... Keywords: inlined reference monitors, monitoring, program transformation, security policy enforcement

Raphal Khoury; Nadia Tawbi

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Conformal equivalence of 2D dilaton gravity models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the behavior of generic, matter-coupled, 2D dilaton gravity theories under dilaton-dependent Weyl rescalings of the metric. We show that physical observables associated with 2D black holes, such as the mass, the temperature and the flux of Hawking radiation are invariant under the action of both Weyl transformations and dilaton reparametrizations. The field theoretical and geometrical meaning of these invariances is discussed.

Mariano Cadoni

1996-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

293

Equivalent URIhttp://cleanenergysolutions.org/content/2010-vehicle...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Assistance Network Geothermal Incentives and Policies International Clean Energy Analysis Low Emission Development Strategies Oil & Gas Smart Grid Solar U.S. OpenLabs...

294

Assessing Equivalent Viscous Damping Using Piping System test Results  

SciTech Connect

The specification of damping for nuclear piping systems subject to seismic-induced motions has been the subject of many studies and much controversy. Damping estimation based on test data can be influenced by numerous factors, consequently leading to considerable scatter in damping estimates in the literature. At present, nuclear industry recommendations and nuclear regulatory guidance are not consistent on the treatment of damping for analysis of nuclear piping systems. Therefore, there is still a need to develop a more complete and consistent technical basis for specification of appropriate damping values for use in design and analysis. This paper summarizes the results of recent damping studies conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

Nie, J.; Morante, R.

2010-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

295

The equivalence between processor sharing and service in random order  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-known that the distribution of the queue length N at arrival epochs (i.e. the total number of customers present, either requirement and the number of customers seen upon arrival. Sengupta and Jagerman [26] found an alternative expression for the LST of the distribution of the sojourn time conditioned only on the number of customers

Núñez-Queija, Rudesindo

296

On the Equivalence of Two Schemes for Convective Momentum Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The GregoryKershawInness (GKI) parameterization of convective momentum transport, which has a tunable parameter C, is shown to be identical to a parameterization with no pressure gradient force and a mass flux smaller by a factor of 1 ? C. Using ...

David M. Romps

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Risk equivalent of exposure versus dose of radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a risk analysis study of low-dose irradiation and the resulting biological effects on a cell. The author describes fundamental differences between the effects of high-level exposure (HLE) and low-level exposure (LLE). He stresses that the concept of absorbed dose to an organ is not a dose but a level of effect produced by a particular number of particles. He discusses the confusion between a linear-proportional representation of dose limits and a threshold-curvilinear representation, suggesting that a LLE is a composite of both systems. (TEM)

Bond, V.P.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

299

Patent InfringementThe Doctrine of Equivalents Revisited - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exploring traditional, innovative, and revolutionary issues in the minerals, metals, and materials fields. OUR LATEST ISSUE READ JOM ON-LINE...

300

Macroencapsulation Equivalency Guidance for Classified Weapon Components and NNSSWAC Compliance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex has a surplus of classified legacy weapon components generated over the years with no direct path for disposal. The majority of the components have been held for uncertainty of future use or no identified method of sanitization or disposal. As more weapons are retired, there is an increasing need to reduce the amount of components currently in storage or on hold. A process is currently underway to disposition and dispose of the legacy/retired weapons components across the DOE complex.

Poling, J.

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

The Equivalence of Linear Programs and Zero-Sum Games  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

he noted that there was one case in which the reduction does not work. This also led .... linear program does not exist. ...... In: Handbook of game theory with eco-.

302

METHOD OF USING AND MANUFACTURING PLASTIC EQUIVALENT TO ORGANIC MATERIALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions of matter that have the radiation response of animal muscle tissue, bone, or air were prepared. These compositions are composed of specific proportions of three or more of the following constituents: polyethylene plastic, polyamide plastic, oil furnace black, silica, and calcium fluoride. (AEC)

Shonka, F.R.; Rose, J.E.; Failla, G.

1961-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

303

Equivalent number of uniform stress cycles for soil liquefaction analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. Geotech. Engrg. Div. , ASCE, 102(9), Hanks, T. C. , andJ. Geotech. Engrg. Div. , ASCE, 103(6), 549564. Arango,J. Geotech. Engrg. , ASCE, 122(11), 929936. Boore, D. M. (

Liu, Andrew H; Stewart, Jonathan P; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Moriwaki, Yoshi

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Alpha-shapes and flow shapes are homotopy equivalent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we establish a topological similarity between two apparently different shape constructors from a set of points. Shape constructors are geometric structures that transform finite point sets into continuous shapes. Due to their immense practical ...

Tamal K. Dey; Joachim Giesen; Matthias John

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

On Equivalence of Semidefinite Relaxations for Quadratic Matrix ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apr 28, 2010 ... This result is of more interest because QMP2 does not possess the same ... As illustrated in (6), Lagrangian relaxation is the dual program ...... In Information Processing In Sensor Networks, Proceedings of the third international ... Schur complements and statistics. Linear Algebra Appl., 36:187295, 1981.

306

Environmental assessment of the use of radionuclides as tracers in the enhanced recovery of oil and gas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An environmental assessment of the use of radioisotopes as interwell tracers in field flooding for the enhanced recovery of oil and natural gas was performed. A typical operation using radioisotopes for interwell tracing was analyzed from the standpoint of three stages of operation: aboveground, subsurface, and recovery and disposal. Doses to workers who handle radioactive tracers and to members of the public were estimated for normal and accidental exposure scenarios. On the basis of estimates of the total quantity of tracer radionuclides injected in a year, the annual number of projects, the average number of injections per project, and assumed values of accident frequency, the collective dose equivalent is estimated to be 1.1 man-rem/y to workers and 15 man-rem/y to members of the public. The national radiological impact of the use of radioisotopes as interwell tracers in EOR projects is estimated to be a total collective dose equivalent of <16 man-rem/y. Accidential exposures are estimated to contribute relatively little to the total. 47 references, 8 figures, 43 tables.

Ng, Y.C.; Cederwall, R.T.; Anspaugh, L.R.

1983-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

307

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Research Societies with Radiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Societies with Radiation Concerns Academy of Radiology Research American Association of Physicists in Medicine American Nuclear Society American Roentgen Ray Society American...

308

Nobel Prize in Physics 1901  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him" Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen Button Germany Button born 1845 (Lennep, Prussia), died 1923 Button CA - University of Munich,...

309

Binding sites of quinones in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers investigated by light-induced FTIR difference spectroscopy: Symmetry of the carbonyl interactions and close equivalence of the Q{sub B} vibrations in Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas viridis probed by isotope labeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The photoreduction of the secondary quinone acceptor Q{sub B} in reaction centers (RCs) of the photosynthetic bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas viridis has been investigated by light-induced FTIR difference spectroscopy of RCs reconstituted with several isotopically labeled ubiquinones. The labels used were {sup 18}O on both carbonyls and {sup 13}C either uniformly or selectively at the 1- or the 4-position, i.e., on either one of the two carbonyls. The Q{sub B}{sup {minus}}/Q{sub B} spectra of RCs reconstituted with the isotopically labeled and unlabeled quinones as well as the double differences calculated form these spectra exhibit distinct isotopic shifts for a numer of bands attributed to vibrations of Q{sub B} and Q{sub B}{sup {minus}}. The vibrational modes of the quinone in the Q{sub B} site are compared to those of ubiquinone in vitro, leading to band assignments for the C{double_bond}O and C{double_bond}C vibrations of the neutral Q{sub B} and for the C---O and C---C of the semiquinone. The C{double_bond}O frequency of each of the carbonyls of the unlabeled quinone is revealed at 1641 cm{sup {minus}1} for both species. This demonstrates symmetrical and weak hydrogen bonding of the two C{double_bond}O groups to the protein at the Q{sub B} site. In contrast, the C{double_bond}C vibrations are not equivalent for selective labeling at C{sub 1} or at C{sub 4}, although they both contribute to the {approximately}1611-cm{sup {minus}1} band in the Q{sub B}{sup {minus}}/Q{sub B} spectra of the two species. Compared to the vibrations of isolated ubiquinone, the C{double_bond}C mode of Q{sub B} does not involve displacement of the C{sub 4} carbon atom, while the motion of C{sub 1} is not hindered. Further analysis of the spectra suggests that the protein at the binding site imposes a specific constraint on the methoxy and/or the methyl group proximal to the C{sub 4} carbonyl. 49 refs., 5 figs.

Breton, J.; Berger, G.; Nabedryk, E. [SBE/DBCM and SMM/DBCM, CEA-Saclay (France)] [and others

1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

310

EXPERIENCE MONITORING FOR LOW LEVEL NEUTRON RADIATION AT THE H-CANYON AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Department of Energy contractors are required to monitor external occupational radiation exposure of an individual likely to receive an effective dose equivalent to the whole body of 0.1 rem (0.001sievert) or more in a year. For a working year of 2000 hours, this translates to a dose rate of 0.05 mrem/hr (0.5 {micro}Sv/hr). This can be a challenging requirement for neutron exposure because traditional surveys with shielded BF{sub 3} proportional counters are difficult to conduct, particularly at low dose rates. A modified survey method was used at the Savannah River Site to find low dose rates in excess of 0.05 mrem/hr. An unshielded He{sup 3} detector was used to find elevated gross slow neutron counts. Areas with high count rates on the unshielded He{sup 3} detector were further investigated with shielded BF{sub 3} proportional counters and thermoluminescent neutron dosimeters were placed in the area of interest. An office area was investigated with this method. The data initially suggested that whole body neutron dose rates to office workers could be occurring at levels significantly higher than 0.1 rem (0.001sievert). The final evaluation, however, showed that the office workers were exposed to less than 0.1 rem/yr (0.001sievert/yr) of neutron radiation.

HOGUE, MARK

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

311

Dose Reconstruction Using Computational Modeling of Handling a Particular Arsenic-73/Arsenic-74 Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A special work evolution was performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with a particular 73As/74As source but the workers extremity dosimeter did not appear to provide appropriate dosimetric information for the tasks performed. This prompted a reconstruction of the dose to the workers hands. The computer code MCNP was chosen to model the tasks that the worker performed to evaluate the potential nonuniform hand dose distribution. A model was constructed similar to the workers hands to represent the performed handling tasks. The model included the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and the palm. The dose was calculated at the 7 mg cm-2 skin depth. To comply with the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 835, the 100 cm2 area that received the highest dose must be calculated. It could be determined if the dose received by the worker exceeded any regulatory limit. The computer code VARSKIN was also used to provide results to compare with those from MCNP where applicable. The results from the MCNP calculations showed that the dose to the workers hands did not exceed the regulatory limit of 0.5 Sv (50 rem). The equivalent nonuniform dose was 0.126 Sv (12.6 rem) to the right hand and 0.082 Sv (8.2 rem) to the left hand.

Stallard, Alisha M.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

FINAL REPORT DOSES TO THE PUBLIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and thyroid--not to exceed 10 rems in 13 weeks or 30 rems per year. o Hands, forearms, feet, and ankles

313

DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update Presented at the 32nd Annual International Dosimetry and Records Symposium, June 3-6, Scottsdale, AZ  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This slide-show presents the 2012 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure, compares those data with last year and the last five years, and clarifies reporting data.

none,

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Occupational dose estimates for a monitored retrievable storage facility  

SciTech Connect

Occupational doses were estimated for radiation workers at the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. This study provides an estimate of the occupational dose based on the current MRS facility design, examines the extent that various design parameters and assumptions affect the dose estimates, and identifies the areas and activities where exposures can be reduced most effectively. Occupational doses were estimated for both the primary storage concept and the alternate storage concept. The dose estimates indicate the annual dose to all radiation workers will be below the 5 rem/yr federal dose equivalent limit. However, the estimated dose to most of the receiving and storage crew (the workers responsible for the receipt, storage, and surveillance of the spent fuel and its subsequent retrieval), to the crane maintenance technicians, and to the cold and remote maintenance technicians is above the design objective of 1 rem/yr. The highest annual dose is received by the riggers (4.7 rem) in the receiving and storage crew. An indication of the extent to which various design parameters and assumptions affect the dose estimates was obtained by changing various design-based assumptions such as work procedures, background dose rates in radiation zones, and the amount of fuel received and stored annually. The study indicated that a combination of remote operations, increased shielding, and additional personnel (for specific jobs) or changes in operating procedures will be necessary to reduce worker doses below 1.0 rem/yr. Operations that could be made at least partially remote include the removal and replacement of the tiedowns, impact limiters, and personnel barriers from the shipping casks and the removal or installation of the inner closure bolts. Reductions of the background dose rates in the receiving/shipping and the transfer/discharge areas may be accomplished with additional shielding.

Harty, R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2010, Prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, May 2012  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2010 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no NRC-licensed low-level waste disposal facilities currently in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Annual reports for 2010 were received from a total of 190 NRC licensees. The summation of reports submitted by the 190 licensees indicated that 192,424 individuals were monitored, 81,961 of whom received a measurable dose. When adjusted for transient workers who worked at more than one licensee during the year, there were actually 142,471 monitored individuals and 62,782 who received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 10,617 person-rem, which represents a 12% decrease from the 2009 value. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease in collective dose at commercial nuclear power reactors, as well as a decrease in the collective dose for most of the other categories of NRC licensees. The number of individuals receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in an average measurable dose of 0.13 rem for 2010. The average measurable dose is defined as the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) divided by the number of individuals receiving a measurable dose. In calendar year 2010, the average annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor (LWR) licensees was 83 person-rem. This represents a 14% decrease from the value reported for 2009 (96 person-rem). The decrease in collective dose for commercial nuclear power reactors was due to an 11% decrease in total outage hours in 2010. During outages, activities involving increased radiation exposure such as refueling and maintenance are performed while the reactor is not in operation. The average annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 137 personrem for 35 BWRs, and 55 person-rem for 69 pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Analyses of transient individual data indicate that 29,333 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient individuals by multiple licensees. The adjustment to account for transient individuals has been specifically noted in footnotes in the figures and tables for commercial nuclear power reactors. In 2010, the average measurable dose per individual for all licensees calculated from reported data was 0.13 rem. Although the average measurable dose per individual from data submitted by licensees was 0.13 rem, a corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose per individual of 0.17 rem.

D. E. Lewis D. A. Hagemeyer Y. U. McCormick

2012-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

316

Lab 3 -Equivalent Inertia In this problem, we will nd the equation of motion for the haptic paddle and determine the equivalent mass,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

triangle, * handle * small stand * big stand for the motor hall e ect sensor stand 0.5" cube magnet mount 0 from the string on the sector pulley to the center of rotation. rp is the radius of the motor pulley. The sector pulley handle has a mass m. There is an applied torque Tm from the motor on the motor pulley

Stanford University

317

Assessment of potential radiological population health effects from radon in liquefied petroleum gas  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) contains varying amounts of radon-222 which becomes dispersed within homes when LPG is used in unvented appliances. Radon-222 decays to alpha-emitting daughter products which are associated with increased lung cancer when inhaled and deposited in the respiratory system. The average dose equivalents to the bronchial epithelium from the use of LPG in unvented kitchen ranges and space heaters are estimated to be about 0.9 and 4.0 mrem/year, respectively. When extrapolated to the United States population at risk, the estimated tracheobronchial dose equivalents are about 20,000 and 10,000 person-rems/year for these appliances, or a total of about 30,000 person-rems/year. These doses are very small compared to other natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation. It is estimated that these low doses would result in less than one lung cancer a year for the total U.S. population. Consequently, the use of LPG containing radon-222 does not contribute significantly to the incidence of lung cancer in the United States.

Gesell, T.F.; Johnson, R.H. Jr; Bernhardt, D.E.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

New Stochastic Annual Limits on Intake for Selected Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Annual limits on intake (ALI) have historically been tabulated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (e.g., ICRP 1979, 1961) and also by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). These compilations have been rendered obsolete by more recent ICRP dosimetry methods, and, rather than provide new ALIs, the ICRP has opted instead to provide committed dose coefficients from which an ALI can be determined by a user for a specific set of conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy historically has referenced compilations of ALIs and has defined their method of calculation in its radiation protection regulation (10 CFDR 835), but has never provided a specific compilation. Under June 2007 amendments to 10 CFR 835, ALIs can be calculated by dividing an appropriate dose limit, either 5-rem (0.05 Sv) effective dose or 50 rem (0.5 Sv) equivalent dose to an individual organ or tissue, by an appropriate committed dose coefficient. When based on effective dose, the ALI is often referred to as a stochastic annual limit on intake (SALI), and when based on the individual organ or tissue equivalent limit, it has often been called a deterministic annual limit on intake (DALI).

Carbaugh, Eugene H.

2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

319

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 2011 Calendar of Upcoming...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ann. Mtg. of the American Roentgen Ray Society, Chicago, IL, USA. May 9-11, 2011 Low Dose Radiation Research Investigators' Workshop, Bethesda, MD, USA. May 16-20, 2011...

320

Assessing Potential Exposure from Truck Transport of Low-level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This study has shown that, based upon measurements from industry standard radiation detection instruments, such as the RS model RSS-131 PICs in a controlled configuration, a person may be exposed to gamma radiation above background when in close proximity to some LLW trucks. However, in approximately half (47.7 percent) the population of trucks measured in this study, a person would receive no exposure above background at a distance of 1.0 m (3.3 ft) away from a LLW truck. An additional 206 trucks had net exposures greater than zero, but equal to or less than 1 {micro}R/h. Finally, nearly 80 percent of the population of trucks (802 of 1,012) had net exposures less than or equal to 10 {micro}R/h. Although there are no shipping or exposure standards at 1.0 m (3.3 ft) distance, one relevant point of comparison is the DOT shipping standard of 10 mrem/h at 2.0 m (6.6 ft) distance. Assuming a one-to-one correspondence between Roentgens and Rems, then 903 trucks (89.2 percent of the trucks measured) were no greater than one percent of the DOT standard at 1.0 m (3.3 ft). Had the distance at which the trucks been measured increased to 2.0 m (6.6 ft), the net exposure would be even less because of the increase in distance between the truck and the receptor. However, based on the empirical data from this study, the rate of decrease may be slower than for either a point or line source as was done for previous studies (Gertz, 2001; Davis et al., 2001). The highest net exposure value at 1.0 m (3.3 ft) distance, 11.9 mR/h, came from the only truck with a value greater than 10 mR/h at 1.0 m (3.3 ft) distance.

J. Miller; D. Shafer; K. Gray; B. Church; S.Campbell; B. Holz

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Transport-theory-equivalent diffusion coefficients for node-homogenized neutron diffusion problems in CANDU lattices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Calculation of the neutron flux in a nuclear reactor core is ideally performed by solving the neutron transport equation for a detailed-geometry model using several (more)

Patel, Amin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Derivation of Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit Using Space-Phasor Concepts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The elements of space-phasor theory are discussed with application to the induction machine. The familiar derivation of resultant MMF for a three-phase winding is extended to give a definition of the current space-phasor. The ideas of space-phasor theory ...

Nicholas Zorbas; Bruce A. Neyland

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI); Habetler, Thomas G. (Snellville, GA)

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

324

On the conformal equivalence between 2D black holes and Rindler spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study a two-dimensional dilaton gravity model related by a conformal transformation of the metric to the Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger model. We find that most of the features and problems of the latter can be simply understood in terms of the classical and semiclassical dynamics of accelerated observers in two-dimensional Minkowski space.

Mariano Cadoni; Salvatore Mignemi

1995-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

325

Quantitative one-dimensional thermal-wave cavity measurements of fluid thermophysical properties through equivalence studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-F, and Eyraud C (1977) A new method for the simul- taneous determination of the size and shape of pores, the thermoporometry. Thermochim Acta 21 : 59-88. 2. Campbell GS and Shiozawa S (1992) Prediction of hydraulic

Mandelis, Andreas

326

An assessment of the measurement equivalence of rating sources in a multisource feedback system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present study used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate a series of models representing the relations among performance ratings from multiple sources across multiple performance dimensions. The results suggest that the variance in performance ratings can be attributed to three distinct sources. First, there is common variance attributable to performance dimensions or factor loadings. Second, there is variance that can be attributed to the rating source (peer, self, or supervisor). Third, there is unique variance beyond that explained by the performance dimensions and source effects. Further, these results suggest that the rating sources appear to be rating the same performance dimensions, and even tapping the performance constructs to the same extent in some cases. The source effects do account for some variance, but these effects are smaller than the performance dimensions. Additionally, the unique variance accounted for a large component of the variance associated with the performance ratings in the present study.

Sheehan, Mary Kathleen

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

On the equivalence of the max-min transportation lower bound and ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the author was a post-doc in the Dept. of ISyE at University of Wisconsin-Madison . L. Shi: Dept. of ISyE, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706,...

328

Off-Diagonal Ekpyrotic Scenarios and Equivalence of Modified, Massive and/or Einstein Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show how generic off-diagonal cosmological solutions depending, in general, on all spacetime coordinates can be constructed in massive gravity using the anholonomic frame deformation method. There are found new classes of locally anisotropic and (in) homogeneous cosmological metrics with open and closed spatial geometries. Such solutions describe the late time acceleration due to effective cosmological terms induced by nonlinear off-diagonal interactions and graviton mass. The cosmological metrics and related St\\" uckelberg fields are constructed in explicit form up to nonholonomic frame transforms of the Friedmann-Lama\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) coordinates. The solutions include matter, graviton mass and other effective sources modelling nonlinear gravitational and matter fields interactions with polarization of physical constants and deformations of metrics, which may explain certain dark energy and dark matter effects. There are stated the conditions when such configurations mimic interesting solutions in general relativity and modifications and recast the general Painlev\\' e--Gullstrand and FLRW metrics. Finally, we sketch a reconstruction procedure for a subclass of off--diagonal cosmological solutions which describe cyclic and ekpyrotic universes.

Sergiu I. Vacaru

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Lovelock gravity is equivalent to Einstein gravity coupled to form fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lovelock gravity is a class of higher-derivative gravitational theories whose linearized equations of motion have no more than two time derivatives. Here, it is shown that any Lovelock theory can be effectively described as Einstein gravity coupled to a p-form gauge field. This extends the known example of an f(R) theory of gravity, which can be described as Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field.

Brustein, Ram

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Effects of Equivalence Ratio on Species and Soot Concentrations in Premixed N-Heptane Flames  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Los Angeles, California, USA E. Seker Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir 34430, Turkey 123 Top Catal

Senkan, Selim M.

331

Modeling integrated photovoltaic-electrochemical devices using steady-state equivalent circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a framework for efficiently coupling the power output of a series-connected string of single-band-gap solar cells to an electrochemical process that produces storable fuels. We identify the fundamental efficiency ...

Winkler, Mark Thomas

332

First results from electron-photon damage equivalence studies on a generic ethylene-propylene rubber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a simulator adequacy assessment program, the relative effectiveness of electrons and photons to produce damage in a generic ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) has been investigated. The investigation was limited in extent in that a single EPR material, in three thickness, was exposed to Cobalt-60 photons and three electron beam energies. Basing material damage on changes in the EPR mechanical properties elongation and tensile strength, we observed that EPR damage was a smoothly varying function of absorbed energy and independent of irradiating particle type. EPR damage tracked equally well as a function of both incident particle energy and material front surface dose. Based on these preliminary data, we tentatively concluded that a correlation between particle, particle energy, and material damage (as measured by changes in material elongation and/or tensile strength) has been demonstrated. 14 figs.

Buckalew, W.H.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Occurrence of oil and gas in Devonian shales and equivalents in West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

During the Devonian, an epicontinental sea was present in the Appalachian basin. The Catskill Clastic Wedge was formed in the eastern part of the basin by sediments derived from land along the margin of the continent. Three facies are recognized in the Catskill Clastic Wedge: (1) a red-bed facies deposited in terrestrial and nearshore marine environments; (2) a gray shale and sandstone facies deposited in a shallow- to moderately-deep marine environment; and (3) a dark-gray shale and siltstone facies deposited in the deepest part of the epicontinental sea. Oil and natural gas are being produced from Devonian shales in the western part of West Virginia and from upper Devonian sandstones and siltstones in the north-central part of the state. It is suggested that in addition to extending known areas of gas production, that drilling for natural gas be conducted in areas underlain by organic-rich shales and thick zones of interbedded siltstone and shale in the Devonian section in central, southern, and western West Virginia. The most promising areas for exploration are those areas where fractures are associated with folds, faults, and lineaments. 60 references.

Schwietering, J. F.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Design, Construction, and Implementation of Spherical Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detectors / Special Issue on the 11th International Conference on Radiation Shielding and the 15th Topical Meeting of the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division (Part 1) / Radiation Protection

Delia Perez-Nunez; Leslie A. Braby

335

Wet Equivalent Potential Temperature and Enthalpy as Prognostic Variables in Cloud Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bulk thermodynamic consequences of nonreversible phase changes and of the precipitation process are emphasized. Two predictive quantities are proposed, either of which can be used as a prognostic thermodynamic variable, instead of temperature ...

Y. Pointin

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

K0 meson physics in the gravitation field: a constraint on the equivalence principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

K0-K0bar oscillations are extremely sensitive to the K0 and K0bar energy at rest. Even assuming m_K0=m_K0bar, the energy is not granted to be the same if gravitational effects on K0 and K0bar slightly differ. We consider various gravitation fields present and, in particular, galactic fields, which provide a negligible acceleration, but relatively large gravitational potential energy. A constraint from a possible effect of this potential energy on the kaon oscillations isfound to be |(m_g/m_i)_K0-(m_g/m_i)_K0bar| < 8 x 10^-13 atCL=90%. The derived constraint is competitive with other tests of universality of the free fall. Other applications are also discussed.

Karshenboim, Savely G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Wind parks equivalent models using system identification techniques based on nonlinear model structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper models of Wind Parks (WPs) appropriate for simulation purposes of large power systems with high wind power penetration are developed. The proposed models of the WPs are developed using system identification theory with NARX model structures. ... Keywords: modeling, system identification, wind integration, wind parks, wind turbines

F. D. Kanellos; G. J. Tsekouras; N. E. Mastorakis

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Modeling and control of a cascaded doubly-fed induction generator based on dynamical equivalent circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with the control of an autonomous cascaded doubly-fed induction generator operating in a variable speed constant frequency mode. The proposed structure is a full stand-alone generating system dedicated to isolated grids in embedded systems ... Keywords: Aircraft applications, Cascaded doubly-fed induction generator, Isolated grid, Modeling, Control, Topology analysis, Variable speed constant frequency

N. Patin; E. Monmasson; J. -P. Louis

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Correlation of External Exposure and Dose Equivalent Rates with Uranium Surface Contamination  

SciTech Connect

This report provides both calculated estimates and measured values of exposure in air and tissue dose from external penetrating radiation at a distance of 1 m from uranium contamination on surfaces at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, in support of the Y-12 Site Radiological Characterization Study. Calculated values are based on the total energy from gamma rays and X rays emitted by uranium and its shordaughters at secular equilibrium. Results of a small number of measurements are provided for comparison. Dose rate values derived here are limited to those of external penetrating radiation from distributed sources with limited surface area and from point sources.

Ashley, J.C.; Bogard, J.S.; Brown, K.S.; England, C.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Turner, J.E.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Interannual variability of monsoon precipitation and local subcloud equivalent potential temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interannual variability of monsoon precipitation is described in the context of a convective quasi-equilibrium framework. Using two reanalysis products and two global precipitation datasets, we examine linear relationships between seasonal ...

John V. Hurley; William R. Boos

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Study of Linear Equivalent Circuits of Electromechanical Systems for Turbine Generator Units.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The thesis utilizes the analogy in dynamic equations between a mechanical and an electrical system to convert the steam-turbine, micro-turbine, wind-turbine and hydro-turbine generator mechanical (more)

Tsai, Chia-Chun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Design of oversampling current steering DAC with 640MHz equivalent clock frequency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter) architecture based on the current steering method is proposed. The architecture exploits the first order sigma-delta modulator, oversampling technique, multi-bit and MASH (multi stage noise shaping) configuration. The DAC adopted MASH structure requires two current steering 6-bit D/A converters whose current references are properly scaled. The two output currents are combined at the output node to achieve the output signal. For high frequency operation, we modified sigma-delta structure to parallel four paths digital sigma-delta modulator by concerning the data stream in the conventional sigma-delta architecture. Each path has the 160MHz-clock frequency so that total output data stream can work at 640MHz-clock frequency. Since the DAC employs multi-bit solution, the dynamic matching of element technique is applied to current cells in the DAC. Rotated data weight averaging algorithm, one of the matching techniques, is used for mismatch error reduction. The DAC operates with an oversampling factor equal to 8 and 40 MHz band-width (clock frequency 640 MHz) and the possible output SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) reaches an SNR as large as 86 dB.

Choi, Yunyoung

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Comparison of C-Band Scatterometer CMOD5.N Equivalent Neutral Winds with ECMWF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes the evaluation of a C-band geophysical model function called C-band model 5.N (CMOD5.N). It is used to provide an empirical relation between backscatter as sensed by the spaceborne European Remote Sensing Satellite-2 (ERS-2)...

Hans Hersbach

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

The risk equivalent of an exposure to-, versus a dose of radiation  

SciTech Connect

The long-term potential carcinogenic effects of low-level exposure (LLE) are addressed. The principal point discussed is linear, no-threshold dose-response curve. That the linear no-threshold, or proportional relationship is widely used is seen in the way in which the values for cancer risk coefficients are expressed - in terms of new cases, per million persons exposed, per year, per unit exposure or dose. This implies that the underlying relationship is proportional, i.e., ''linear, without threshold''. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Bond, V.P.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Mobile robot path planning algorithm by equivalent conduction heat flow topology optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the path planning problem for a point robot moving in a planar environment filled with obstacles. Our approach is based on the principles of thermal conduction and structural topology optimization and rests on the observation that, ... Keywords: Conduction heat flow, Mobile robot, Path planning, Topology optimization

Jae Chun Ryu; Frank Chongwoo Park; Yoon Young Kim

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Nondestructive Evaluation: Ultrasonic Equivalency Testing of Weld Inlaid and Weld Onlaid Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) investigations in which ultrasonic data were acquired using American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, Appendix VIII qualified procedures on Performance Demonstration Initiative (PDI) 600 Series nozzle mockups containing crack-like flaws. These mockups were representative of dissimilar metal weld (DMW) safe-end-to-nozzle configurations found in the U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR) fleet. T...

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

347

Dynamic plan migration for snapshot-equivalent continuous queries in data stream systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A data stream management system executes a large number of continuous queries in parallel. As stream characteristics and query workload change over time, the plan initially installed for a continuous query may become inefficient. As a consequence, the ...

Jrgen Krmer; Yin Yang; Michael Cammert; Bernhard Seeger; Dimitris Papadias

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Estimation of Equivalent Sea Level Cosmic Ray Exposure for Low Background Experiment  

SciTech Connect

While scientists at CERN and other particle accelerators around the world explore the boundaries of high energy physics, the Majorana project investigates the other end of the spectrum with its extremely sensitive, low background, low energy detector. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR aims to detect neutrinoless double beta decay (0???), a rare theoretical process in which two neutrons decay into two protons and two electrons, without the emission of the two antineutrinos that are a product of a normal double beta decay. This process is only possible if and therefore a detection would prove the neutrino is a Majorana particle, meaning that it is its own antiparticle [Aaselth et al. 2004] . The existence of such a decay would also disprove lepton conservation and give information about the neutrino's mass.

Greene, Austen T.; Orrell, John L.

2012-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

349

Molecular discrimination of structurally equivalent Lys63-linked and linear polyubiquitin chains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: ubiquitin linkage; deubiquitinase; ubiquitin binding domain; NF-kB signalling; TAK1/IKK/NEMO/NF-kB EMBO (inhibitor of kB kinase) pathway to nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB; Adhikari et al, 2007). TAK1 has been shown leads to the activation of IKK by TAK1 and subsequent NF-kB signalling (Adhikari et al, 2007

Komander, David

350

Effect of the Fiber Equivalent Diameter on the Elastic Modulus and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of polymer composites for uses in engineering parts for automobile and building construction. In spite of ... Characterization of Graphite from PAN Aerogels.

351

Another look at general covariance and the equivalence of reference frames  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the History and Foundations of Science Utrecht University, P.O.Box 80.000 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands toward the front of their bowl with no more effort than toward the back . . . the butterflies and flies

Seevinck, Michiel

352

Verification and benchmarking of PORFLO: an equivalent porous continuum code for repository scale analysis  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to perform an assessment of prediction capabilities and features of the PORFLO code in relation to its intended use in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. This objective was to be accomplished through a code verification and benchmarking task. Results were to be documented which either support correctness of prediction capabilities or identify areas of intended application in which the code exhibits weaknesses. A test problem set consisting of 10 problems was developed. Results of PORFLO simulations of these problems were provided for use in this work. The 10 problems were designed to test the three basic computational capabilities or categories of the code. Broken down by physical process, these are heat transfer, fluid flow, and radionuclide transport. Two verification problems were included within each of these categories. They were problems designed to test basic features of PORFLO for which analytical solutions are available for use as a known comparison basis. Hence they are referred to as verification problems. Of the remaining four problems, one repository scale problem representative of intended PORFLO use within BWIP was included in each of the three basic capabilities categories. The remaining problem was a case specifically designed to test features of decay and retardation in radionuclide transport. These four problems are referred to as benchmarking problems, because results computed with an additional computer code were used as a basis for comparison. 38 figures.

Eyler, L.L.; Budden, M.J.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Equivalence of Two Approaches to Yang-Mills on Non-commutative Torus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are two notions of Yang-Mills action functional in noncommutative geometry. We show that for noncommutative n-torus both these notions agree. We also prove a structure theorem on the Hermitian structure of a finitely generated projective modules over spectrally invariant subalgebras of $C^*$-algebras.

Partha Sarathi Chakraborty; Satyajit Guin

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

354

Nano-Sim: A Step Wise Equivalent Conductance based Statistical Simulator for Nanotechnology Circuit Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New nanotechnology based devices are replacing CMOS devices to overcome CMOS technology's scaling limitations. However, many such devices exhibit non-monotonic I-V characteristics and uncertain properties which lead to the negative differential resistance ...

Bharat Sukhwani; Uday Padmanabhan; Janet M. Wang

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

The Use of Equivalent Potential Vorticity to Diagnose Regions of Conditional Symmetric Instability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conditional symmetric instability (CSI) is an important property of the atmosphere when diagnosing and predicting mesoscale bands of moderate to heavy precipitation within winter cyclones. Within regions of CSI, slantwise convection can increase ...

James T. Moore; Thomas E. Lambert

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

A study of detailed dosimetry records for a selected group of workers included in the Hanford mortality study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed dosimetry data from microfiche and microfilm in source records for the years 1944--1978 for 139 Hanford workers were examined. Information on these records was compared with computerized dose equivalent estimates used in mortality analyses. Because of difficulties in reading some early source records, and because of variation in the format of records and in algorithms for calculating whole body dose, this validation was difficult. However, apparent discrepancies in cumulative dose were less than 0.1 rem for 88% of the workers in this study, never exceeded 1.5 rem, and would be unlikely to distort conclusions of dose-response analyses. Most discrepancies occurred in early years of Hanford operations, especially 1944--46, with very few problems with dose estimates from the 1960's and 1970's. The study also provided data dosimetry practices, by calendar year, on frequency of monitoring, the number and proportion of dosimeters yielding positive results, and the magnitude of doses recorded for individual dosimeters. 7 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs.

Gilbert, E.S.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Analysis of stray radiation produced by the advanced light source (1.9 GeV synchrotron radiation source) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The yearly environmental dose equivalent likely to result at the closest site boundary from the Advanced Light Source was determined by generating multiple linear regressions. The independent variables comprised quantified accelerator operating parameters and measurements from synchronized, in-close (outside shielding prior to significant atmospheric scattering), state-of-the-art neutron remmeters and photon G-M tubes. Neutron regression models were more successful than photon models due to lower relative background radiation and redundant detectors at the site boundary. As expected, Storage Ring Beam Fill and Beam Crashes produced radiation at a higher rate than gradual Beam Decay; however, only the latter did not include zero in its 95% confidence interval. By summing for all three accelerator operating modes, a combined yearly DE of 4.3 mRem/yr with a 90% CI of (0.04-8.63) was obtained. These results fall below the DOE reporting level of 10 mRem/yr and suggest repeating the study with improved experimental conditions.

Ajemian, R.C. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

Validating the validation: the influence of liquid water distribution in clouds on the intercomparison  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of stellite radiance wavenumber spectra. Rem. Sens. Environ., 42, 51 ­ 64. Brenguier, J.-L., H. Pawlowska, L

Stoffelen, Ad

359

Preliminary Notice of Violation, Westinghouse Savannah River Company -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Westinghouse Savannah River Westinghouse Savannah River Company - EA-97-12 Preliminary Notice of Violation, Westinghouse Savannah River Company - EA-97-12 December 5, 1997 Preliminary Notice of Violation issued to Westinghouse Savannah River Company, related to an Unplanned Radioactive Material Intake at the Savannah River Site, (EA-97-12) This letter refers to the Department of Energy's (DOE) evaluation of the facts and circumstances surrounding an unplanned intake of radioactive material [ ] by a worker that resulted in the worker receiving an occupational whole body dose of [a specifed value] Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE). The intake, which exceeds the regulatory limit of 5 rems, was identified in April 1997 during a review of the worker's routine bioassay sample results. Subsequent investigation by the Westinghouse

360

Enforcement Letter  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9, 2002 9, 2002 Mr. Alan Parker [ ] Kaiser-Hill Company, L.L.C. Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site 10808 Highway 93, Unit B Golden, CO 80403-8200 Subject: Building [ ] Uptake Event of October 5, 2001 Dear Mr. Parker: This letter refers to the Department of Energy's evaluation of facts and circumstances concerning the October 2001 unplanned uptakes of radioactive material by two Radiological Control Technicians (RCT) in Building [ ]. These issues were reported into the Noncompliance Tracking System (NTS) by your staff (NTS-RFO--KHLL-[ ] 2002-0001) on February 11, 2002. One RCT received a committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) of 1.6 rem, and the remaining RCT received 240 millirem (mrem) CEDE. While these exposures do not

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Preliminary Notice of Violation, Westinghouse Savannah River Company -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

97-12 97-12 Preliminary Notice of Violation, Westinghouse Savannah River Company - EA-97-12 December 5, 1997 Preliminary Notice of Violation issued to Westinghouse Savannah River Company, related to an Unplanned Radioactive Material Intake at the Savannah River Site, (EA-97-12) This letter refers to the Department of Energy's (DOE) evaluation of the facts and circumstances surrounding an unplanned intake of radioactive material [ ] by a worker that resulted in the worker receiving an occupational whole body dose of [a specifed value] Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE). The intake, which exceeds the regulatory limit of 5 rems, was identified in April 1997 during a review of the worker's routine bioassay sample results. Subsequent investigation by the Westinghouse

362

Preliminary Notice of Violation EA 97-12  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5, 1997 5, 1997 Mr. Ambrose L. Schwallie [ ] Westinghouse Savannah River Company Building 703-A P.O. Box Aiken, SC 29802 EA 97-12 Subject: Preliminary Notice of Violation and Proposed Imposition of Civil Penalty- $93,750 (NTS-SR--WSRC-FCAN-1997-0001) Dear Mr. Schwallie: This letter refers to the Department of Energy's (DOE) evaluation of the facts and circumstances surrounding an unplanned intake of radioactive material [ ] by a worker that resulted in the worker receiving an occupational whole body dose of [a specifed value] Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE). The intake, which exceeds the regulatory limit of 5 rems, was identified in April 1997 during a review of the worker's routine bioassay sample results. Subsequent investigation by the Westinghouse

363

Worker radiation doses in the United States at the dawn of the atomic era (1940--1960)  

SciTech Connect

Radiation doses to workers at the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) sites due to external irradiation during 1940--1960 are reviewed. Categorized radiation dose data were available from AEC annual reports for some years. Annual individual radiation dose data for ten MED/AEC sites for all years were available from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR). These data are combined to produce an estimate of external collective dose equivalent to 172,000 person-rems (1720 person-Sv) for 1940--1960. During this period there were 41 overexposures, 19 criticality incidents, and 3 deaths due to acute radiation syndrome among several hundred thousand workers.

Strom, D.J.; Smith, M.H.; Swinth, K.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Pettengill, H.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Industrial safety and applied health physics. Annual report, 1979  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In connection with personnel monitoring, there were no external or internal exposures to personnel which exceeded the standards for radiation protection as defined in DOE Manual Chapter 0524. Only 55 employees received whole-body dose equivalent of one rem or greater. The highest whole-body dose equivalent to an employee was 2.8 rem. The highest internal exposure was less than one-half of a maximum permissible dose for any calendar quarter. During 1979, 57 portable health physics instruments were added to the inventory and 75 retired. The total number in service on January 1, 1979, was 977. With regards to environmental monitoring, there were no releases of gaseous waste from the Laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. There were no releases of liquid radioactive waste from the Laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. Soil samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for eleven radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Plutonium-239 content ranged from 0.01 to 0.06 pCi/g, and the uranium-235 content ranged from 0.01 to 0.05 pCi/g. Grass samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for twelve radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Plutonium-239 content ranged from 0.001 to 0.010 pCi/g, and uranium-235 content ranged from 0.001 to 0.010 pCi/g. Two radiation incidents involving radioactive materials were recorded during 1979. This compares with 14 incidents in 1978. (ERB)

Not Available

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Industrial safety and applied health physics. Annual report for 1978  

SciTech Connect

There were no external or internal exposures to personnel which exceeded the standards for radiation protection as defined in DOE Manual Chapter 0524. Only 39 employees received whole body dose equivalents of one rem or greater. The highest whole body dose equivalent to an employee was 3.3 rem. The highest internal exposure was less than 25% of a maximum permissible dose for any calendar quarter. During 1978, 23 portable instruments were added to the inventory and 228 retired. The total number in service on January 1, 1979, was 1023. There were no releases of gaseous waste or liquid radioactive waste from the laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. The average background level at the PAM stations during 1978 was 9.3 ..mu..R/hr, or 81 mR/yr. Soil samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for eleven radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Grass samples were collected and analyzed for twelve radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. During 1978, the Radiation and Safety Surveys personnel continued to assist the operating groups in keeping contamination, air concentrations, and personnel exposure levels below the established maximum permissible levels. Fourteen radiation incidents involving radioactive materials were recorded during 1978. Of the 582,000 articles of wearing apparel and 192,000 articles, such as mops, laundry bags, towels, etc., monitored during 1978 about four percent were found to be contaminated. Three lost workday cases occurred at ORNL in 1978, a frequency rate of 0.07. The Serious Injury frequency rate for 1978 was 1.40, as based on the new OSHA system for recording injuries and illness (RII). A total of 55 days were lost or charged for the three lost workday cases in 1978.

Auxier, J.A.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Reaching site closure for groundwater under multiple regulatory agencies  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater at the Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (CYAPCO) Haddam Neck Plant (HNP) has been impacted by both radionuclides and chemical constituents. Furthermore, the cleanup standards and closure requirements for HNP are regulated both by federal and state agencies. The only consistent requirement is the development of a site conceptual model and an understanding of the hydrogeologic conditions that will govern contaminant transport and identify potential receptors. The cleanup criteria to reach site closure for radionuclides is regulated by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP) Bureau of Air Management, Radiological Division. For license termination under the NRC, the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) for all media can not exceed 25 milli-Rem per year (mRem/yr) plus As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). The CTDEP has a similar requirement with the TEDE not to exceed 19 mRem/yr plus ALARA. To reach these criteria, derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) were developed for radiological exposures from three (3) media components; soil, existing groundwater and future groundwater from left-in place foundations or footings. Based on current conditions, the target dose contribution from existing and future groundwater is not to exceed 2 mRem/yr TEDE. After source (soil) remediation is complete, the NRC requires two (2) years of quarterly monitoring to demonstrate that groundwater quality meets the DCGLs and does not show an upward trend. CYAPCO's NRC License Termination Plan (LTP) specifies a minimum 18-month period of groundwater monitoring, as long as samples are collected during two spring/high water seasons, to verify the efficacy of remedial actions at HNP. In addition to the 19 mRem/yr criteria, the CTDEP also requires groundwater to be in compliance with the Remediation Standards Regulation (RSRs). There are no published criteria for radionuclides in the RSRs, however CTDEP has approved the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) as the clean up standards for individual constituents. After remediation of an identified contamination source, the RSRs require that at least one groundwater monitoring well, hydraulically down-gradient of the remediation area, be sampled to confirm that the remediation has not impacted groundwater quality. After four quarters of groundwater monitoring with results below the MCLs, additional groundwater sampling must continue for up to three years to reach site closure in accordance with the RSRs. The cleanup criteria for chemical constituents, including boron, are regulated by the USEPA under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the CTDEP Bureau of Water Protection and Land Reuse. The USEPA, however, has accepted the CTDEP RSRs as the cleanup criteria for RCRA. Therefore attainment of the CTDEP RSRs is the only set of criteria needed to reach closure, but both agencies retain oversight, interpretation, and closure authority. As stated above, under the RSRs, groundwater must be monitored following a source remediation for a minimum of four quarters. After demonstrating that the remediation was successful, then additional groundwater sampling is required for up to three additional years. However, the number of monitoring wells and frequency of sampling are not defined in the RSRs and must be negotiated with CTDEP. To successfully reach closure, the conceptual site model, groundwater transport mechanisms, and potential receptors must be defined. Once the hydrogeology is understood, a long term groundwater monitoring program can then be coordinated to meet each agencies requirement to both terminate the NRC license and reach site closure under RCRA. (authors)

Glucksberg, N. [MACTEC, Inc., Portland, ME (United States); Couture, B. [Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, East Ham (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commodity (e.g. , fuel oil for home heating; gasoline forthan does oil used for home heating (different commodity,derived from crude oil, such as home heating fuel. a) to f)

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commodity (e.g. , fuel oil for home heating; gasoline forthan does oil used for home heating (different commodity,derived from crude oil, such as home heating fuel. a) to f)

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Transient Analysis of Cold Winds on Exposed Skin: Reflections on the Assessment of Wind Chill Equivalent Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A transient analysis of the humanenvironment thermal interaction in cold and windy environments is presented. The site selected to represent this interaction is the headface, which is depicted as a hollow cylinder wherein heat is conducted in ...

Avraham Shitzer

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

These include at least: Crude oil Petroleum products (IN PRLEF S , Input commodity Crude oil TO WHICH A AND UNITSuse of (demand for) crude oil in any AFL shifts the demand

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

These include at least: Crude oil Petroleum products (IN PRLEF S , Input commodity Crude oil TO WHICH A AND UNITSuse of (demand for) crude oil in any AFL shifts the demand

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Soil Carbon Modeling (Mac Post) A. Rothamsted model carbon pools and processes. Their approximate equivalents for the EBIS sample processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil Carbon Modeling (Mac Post) A. Rothamsted model carbon pools and processes. Their approximate' soil horizon show that model improvements need to be made to capture observed soil carbon cycling and transport processes. Testing and improvement of soil carbon cycling models is a key anticipated output

373

Observed Structure of Convectively Coupled Waves as a Function of Equivalent Depth: Kelvin Waves and the MaddenJulian Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The view that convectively coupled Kelvin waves and the MaddenJulian oscillation (MJO) are distinct modes is tested by regressing data from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis against satellite outgoing longwave radiation data filtered for ...

Paul E. Roundy

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Yardstick and Ex-post Regulation by Norm Model: Empirical Equivalence, Pricing Effect, and Performance in Sweeden  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in average costs, quality of service, and network energy losses. The norm models seem to reflect the main network features, demand characteristics, and capital stocks of real utilities. However, the price of labour affects relative performance. Also... not adjusted their costs significantly in response to the incentives. Furthermore, we do not find evidence of improvement in quality of service and reduction in network energy losses although less efficient investor-owned networks seem to have improved...

Jamasb, Tooraj; Sderberg, M

375

2.6: Limiting Climate Change to 450 ppm CO2 Equivalent in the 21st Century  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The EMF 22 subgroup on Transition Scenarios explores a rich suite of potential future worlds in which climate change is limited to a variety of alternative radiative forcing levels. This paper focuses primarily on the requirements to limit radiative forcing from Kyoto gases to 2.6 W/m2. Given that we estimate year 2005 radiative forcing to be 2.4 W/m2, the 2.6 W/m2 limit creates a non-trivial constraint. Allowing radiative forcing to exceed the long-term target level provides greater latitude in achieving the goal, but implies major changes to both global energy and land-use systems in the near term as well as the long term. In addition, delay on the part of major emitting parties creates potential leakage in both energy and land-use. We estimate the challenging near-term and long-term deployment of new wind power, nuclear power and CO2 capture and storage associated with the 2.6 W/m2 limit.

Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Smith, Steven J.; Thomson, Allison M.; Wise, Marshall A.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

grass-to-ethanol plants Bioethanol plants can be designed toimpact on LCGE for bioethanol. WORKING PAPER DRAFT FORelectricity generated by bioethanol plants; and the mix of

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

grass-to-ethanol plants Bioethanol plants can be designed toimpact on LCGE for bioethanol. WORKING PAPER DRAFT FORelectricity generated by bioethanol plants; and the mix of

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

R. L. Crole: Publications and Articles [1] Roy L. Crole. -Equivalence Equalities. To appear in Theoretical Computer Science, 2012.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Computer Science, pages 221­238. Springer- Verlag, 1999. [25] R. L. Crole. Computer Systems, 1999 Semantics for In- put/Output Effects. Mathematical Structures in Computer Science, 9:125­158, 1999. [27] R/6, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Leicester, 1999. [28] R. L. Crole. Operational

Cheng, Eugenia

379

A hybrid model for particle transport and electron energy distributions in positive column electrical discharges using equivalent species transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A hybrid model for particle transport and electron energy distributions in positive column the fluid portion of the model. Transport coefficients, source functions, and energy distributions for all field has motivated a num- ber of investigations into its effect on the `electron energy distribution

Kushner, Mark

380

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

same end use) or natural gas used for power generation (samepower generation use COMMODITIES TO Input commodity Residual fuel Coal Natural gas

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

same end use) or natural gas used for power generation (samepower generation use COMMODITIES TO Input commodity Residual fuel Coal Natural gas

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

policy promoting private-sector production of diesel-like fuels from natural gaspolicies that change commodity prices directly (e.g. , a carbon tax on natural gas,

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

policy promoting private-sector production of diesel-like fuels from natural gaspolicies that change commodity prices directly (e.g. , a carbon tax on natural gas,

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of fuels through use at refinery Energy: other industrialas a process fuel by refineries) (see discussion above); i)residual fuel produced by refineries that produce mainly

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of fuels through use at refinery Energy: other industrialas a process fuel by refineries) (see discussion above); i)residual fuel produced by refineries that produce mainly

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

APPENDIX D: CO2 EQUIVALENCY FACTORS An Appendix to the Report, "A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of different biofuels can be produced, including Fisher-Tropsch liquids (FTL), dimethyl ether (DME that would be used for biofuel production. These fuels include Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL), methanol such as dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) made from lignocellulosic biomass. A relatively

Delucchi, Mark

387

Improving single slope ADC and an example implemented in FPGA with 16.7 GHz equivalent counter clook frequency  

SciTech Connect

Single slope ADC is a common building block in many ASCI or FPGA based front-end systems due to its simplicity, small silicon footprint, low noise interference and low power consumption. In single slope ADC, using a Gray code counter is a popular scheme for time digitization, in which the comparator output drives the clock (CK) port of a register to latch the bits from the Gray code counter. Unfortunately, feeding the comparator output into the CK-port causes unnecessary complexities and artificial challenges. In this case, the propagation delays of all bits from the counter to the register inputs must be matched and the counter must be a Gray code one. A simple improvement on the circuit topology, i.e., feeding the comparator output into the D-port of a register, will avoid these unnecessary challenges, eliminating the requirement of the propagation delay match of the counter bits and allowing the use of regular binary counters. This scheme not only simplifies current designs for low speeds and resolutions, but also opens possibilities for applications requiring higher speeds and resolutions. A multi-channel single slope ADC based on a low-cost FPGA device has been implemented and tested. The timing measurement bin width in this work is 60 ps, which would need a 16.7 GHz counter clock had it implemented with the conventional Gray code counter scheme. A 12-bit performance is achieved using a fully differential circuit making comparison between the input and the ramping reference, both in differential format.

Wu, Jinyuan; /Fermilab; Odeghe, John; /South Carolina State U.; Stackley, Scott; /Boston U.; Zha, Charles; /Rice U.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Application of Prony analysis to the determination of modal content and equivalent models for measured power system response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prony analysis is an emerging methodology that extends Fourier analysis by directly estimating the frequency, damping, strength, and relative phase of the modal components present in a recorded signal. This paper extends earlier work that concentrated upon power system planning applications, for stability program outputs. In this paper results are presented for modal analysis and detailed model construction based upon response data obtained through large-scale tests of the western U.S. power system. BPA's optimal modeling program, SYSFIT, is used to supplement the measurements.

Hauer, J.F. (Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (US))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Engineering and Economic Analysis of a 1300F Series USC Demonstration Plant with Natural Gas Equivalency Post-Combustion Capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The strategy for lowering the cost of CO2 capture from coal-based power plants includes raising generating efficiency. The most effective way to reduce CO2 is simply to make less of it, and generating units with higher efficiencies require less coal for each MW of output and, therefore, produce less CO2. Each 1 increase in efficiency decreases CO2 by approximately 2.5. For pulverized coal (PC) plants, this means progressing to ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions, arbitrarily defined as having temp...

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

390

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

unit shift in the natural-gas demand curve (as an example)of natural gas); b) estimate the supply and demand curveslike fuels from natural gas will shift the demand curve for

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

unit shift in the natural-gas demand curve (as an example)of natural gas); b) estimate the supply and demand curveslike fuels from natural gas will shift the demand curve for

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of generating fuels displaced by the exported electricity.generating fuels through combustion at power plant Energy: electricityelectricity generation are estimated by multiplying uncontrolled emissions by an emission-reduction factor, for each generating technology and fuel.

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of generating fuels displaced by the exported electricity.generating fuels through combustion at power plant Energy: electricityelectricity generation are estimated by multiplying uncontrolled emissions by an emission-reduction factor, for each generating technology and fuel.

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and solids produced by corn-to-ethanol plants) Coproducts ofCoproducts of the corn-to-ethanol background GHG emissionsimpact on LCGE in the corn-to-ethanol lifecycle. In the

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and solids produced by corn-to-ethanol plants) Coproducts ofCoproducts of the corn-to-ethanol background GHG emissionsimpact on LCGE in the corn-to-ethanol lifecycle. In the

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

due to changes in the price of coal brought about by the usegas, coal, electricity), one estimates the price effect ofPrice-affected commodity Energy: power generation use COMMODITIES TO Input commodity Residual fuel Coal

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

due to changes in the price of coal brought about by the usegas, coal, electricity), one estimates the price effect ofPrice-affected commodity Energy: power generation use COMMODITIES TO Input commodity Residual fuel Coal

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to crop and biomass inputs would estimate the price/emissionprice/emissions impacts in the agriculture: fertilizer use, agriculture: crop use, agriculture: biomassprice/emissions model discussed here. Note that crops and biomass

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to crop and biomass inputs would estimate the price/emissionprice/emissions impacts in the agriculture: fertilizer use, agriculture: crop use, agriculture: biomassprice/emissions model discussed here. Note that crops and biomass

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Zonal Momentum Budget of the MaddenJulian Oscillation: The Source and Strength of Equivalent Linear Damping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Linear, dissipative models with resting base states are sometimes used in theoretical studies of the MaddenJulian oscillation (MJO). Linear mechanical damping in such models ranges from nonexistent to strong, since an observational basis for its ...

Jia-Lin Lin; Minghua Zhang; Brian Mapes

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

On the Equivalence of Dual-Wavelength and Dual-Polarization Equations for Estimation of the Raindrop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For air- and spaceborne weather radars, which typically operate at frequencies of 10 GHz and above, attenuation correction is usually an essential part of any rain estimation procedure. For ground-based radars, where the maximum range within the ...

Robert Meneghini; Liang Liao

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

Hull, A.P.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

GENERAL CATALOG 20102011 20112012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from TA-55 Plutonium Facility Building (PF-4). This new waste stream is explained in detail in Section Volume Estimate on an Annual Basis ................... 81 Table 12. Average Isotopic Content of Plutonium Plutonium QA Quality Assurance R&D Research and Development R/hr Roentgen per hour RCRA Resource

California at Davis, University of

404

Draft Environmental Impact Report LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from TA-55 Plutonium Facility Building (PF-4). This new waste stream is explained in detail in Section Volume Estimate on an Annual Basis ................... 81 Table 12. Average Isotopic Content of Plutonium Plutonium QA Quality Assurance R&D Research and Development R/hr Roentgen per hour RCRA Resource

Knowles, David William

405

HSS Message, April 2007  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

through the DOE reporting systems such as CAIRS, which deals with illness and injury; ORPS, which deals with accidents and near accidents; and REMS, which monitors radiation...

406

Site environmental report for 2003, Volume 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Glossary .at the end of the Glossary to help readers understand the0.2 person- rem) (see Glossary). No regulatory standard

Pauer, Ronald

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

2012 Special Individual (SI) Reporting #11;Analysis Summary  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated the length of time (in days) between the reported monitoring End Date and the date of submission to REMS.

D. E. Hagemeyer

2012-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

408

ORISE: Worker Health Studies - Beryllium Exposure Studies and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) DOE IISP 10-Year Summary Report Resources Overview Reports Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles Human Subjects Resource Book...

409

A Basic Overview of the Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing...

410

Negative Poisson's Ratios for Extreme States of Matter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and the control of light propagation and emission with ... ReM, throughout the disk [thermal ionization and ... turbulence, but suffers a runaway cooling as ...

2001-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

411

O&M First! Resource Efficiency Managers Offer Alternative Approach...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Efficiency Managers Offer Alternative Approach to Realizing Energy Efficiency Resource Efficiency Managers, or REMs, offer federal sites a new approach to cost- effectively realize...

412

Multiobjective DC Programming with Infinite Convex Constraints ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Business Link, Singapore 117592. 3. School of ... dual problems are presented and the weak, strong and strict converse duality theo- rems are also derived.

413

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

Wahl, Linnea

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

Wahl, Linnea

2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

415

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

416

nadlailon _-_ __.... "" ",,,~~...,....-",-,,,,,,,~,,,-,.,...,._..---..-.--...--.__I~-"" EPA\\-z Risk Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and thyroid--not to exceed 10 rems in 13 weeks or 30 rems per year. o Hands, forearms, feet, and ankles to the whole body, 75 mrems to the thyroid, and 25 mrems to any other organ. To protect against the buildup

417

Analysis of radiation exposure - service personnel on Rongerik Atoll: Operation Castle - Shot Bravo. Technical report, 12 March 1985-12 June 1987  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

External and internal doses are reconstructed for the 28 American servicemen stationed on Rongerik Atoll, Marshall Islands, who were exposed to fallout on 1-2 March 1954 from Shot Bravo of Operation CASTLE. External doses are determined from limited radiation survey and film-badge information. Internal-dose commitments are derived from urinalysis data. The magnitude of the calculated activity intake suggests the principal pathways. Reconstructed film-badge doses are approximately 40 rem, with adjustments from individual activity scenarios, as available. Internal dose commitments to the thyroid and large intestine (nearly all first-year dose) provide the only significant increments to the external dose. Total doses are approximately 230 rem to the thyroid, 115 rem to the lower large intestine, 85 rem to the upper large intestine, and about 40 to 50 rem to all other organs.

Goetz, J.; Klemm, J.; Phillips, J.; Thomas, C.

1987-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

418

Latent Heating and Cooling Rates in Developing and Nondeveloping Tropical Disturbances during TCS-08: Radar-Equivalent Retrievals from Mesoscale Numerical Models and ELDORA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Latent heating and cooling rates have a critical role in predicting tropical cyclone formation and intensification. In a prior study, Park and Elsberry estimated the latent heating and cooling rates from aircraft Doppler radar [Electra Doppler ...

Myung-Sook Park; Andrew B. Penny; Russell L. Elsberry; Brian J. Billings; James D. Doyle

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Simulation of the Charge Produced by Protons Inside a Tissue Equivalent Ionization Chamber in a Mixed Neutron/Gamma Field in BNCT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detectors / Special Issue on the 11th International Conference on Radiation Shielding and the 15th Topical Meeting of the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division (Part 1) / Radiation Protection

Antoaneta Roca; Yuan-Hao Liu; Ray Moss; Finn Stecher-Rasmussen; Sander Nievaart

420

S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 7 In every adversity there lies the seed of an equivalent advantage.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Geopolymer Concrete (Envirocrete) in Pre-Cast Components and Field Construction Entergy Nuclear 60,956 Alice NSF/BoR 18,250 Erez Allouche Applications of Inorganic Polymer Concrete (Geopolymer) in Transportation

Selmic, Sandra

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Biotransformations of carboxylated aromatic compounds by the acetogen Clostridium thermoaceticum: Generation of growth-supportive CO sub 2 equivalents under CO sub 2 -limited conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clostridium thermoaceticum ATCC 39073 converted vanillate to catechol. Although carboxylated aromatic compounds which did not contain methoxyl groups were not by themselves growth supportive, protocatechuate and p-hydroxybenzoate (nonmethoxylated aromatic compounds) were converted to catechol and phenol, respectively, during carbon monoxide-dependent growth. Syringate is not subject to decarboxylation by C. thermoaceticum, and sustained growth at the expense of syringate-derived methoxyl groups was dependent on supplemental CO{sub 2}. In contrast, vanillate was growth supportive in the absence of supplemental CO{sub 2}, and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was the major {sup 14}C-labeled product during (carboxyl-{sup 14}C)vanillate-dependent growth. Furthermore, the decarboxylation of protocatechuate and p-hydroxybenzoate supported methanol- and 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene-dependent growth (CO{sub 2} is required for growth at the expense of these substrates) when supplemental CO{sub 2} was depleted from the growth medium, and the decarboxylation of protocatechuate was concomitant with improved cell yields of methanol cultures. These findings demonstrate that (i) C. thermoaceticum is competent in the decarboxylation of certain aromatic compounds and (ii) under certain conditions, decarboxylation may be integrated to the flow of carbon and energy during acetogenesis.

Hus, T.; Daniel, S.L.; Lux, M.F.; Drake, H.L. (Univ. of Mississippi, University (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

The dependence of chemistry on the inlet equivalence ratio in vortex-flame interactions [Printed LBNL report with title: The effect of stoichiometry on vortex flame interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

premixed flames," Sandia N a t i o n a l Laboratories Reporttransport properties," Sandia N a t i o n a l LaboratoriesU C Berkeley, Berkeley, C A Sandia National Laboratories,

Tonse, Shaheen R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

The dependence of chemistry on the inlet equivalence ratio in vortex-flame interactions [Printed LBNL report with title: The effect of stoichiometry on vortex flame interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

premixed flames," Sandia N a t i o n a l Laboratories Reporttransport properties," Sandia N a t i o n a l LaboratoriesU C Berkeley, Berkeley, C A Sandia National Laboratories,

Bell, John B.; Brown, Nancy J.; Day, Marcus S.; Frenklach, Michael; Grcar, Joseph F.; Tonse, Shaheen R.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Materials Reliability Program: Adequacy of Current Equivalent Margins Analysis (EMA) Guidance, Data, and Methodologies for 60+ Years of Operation (MRP-366)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50 (10 CFR 50), Appendix G, establishes general fracture toughness requirements for the reactor coolant pressure boundary and two additional requirements that are specific to the reactor vessel: minimum Charpy upper-shelf energy (USE) requirements for reactor vessel beltline materials and pressure-temperature limits and minimum temperature requirements for the reactor vessel. This report addresses the USE requirements and the remedial analyses that are ...

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

425

Engineering and Economic Analysis of a 1300F (704C) Series Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Demonstration Plant with Natural Gas Equivalency Post-Combustion Capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The strategy for lowering the cost of CO2 capture from coal-based power plants includes increasing generating efficiency. The most effective way to reduce CO2 is simply to make less of it, and generating units with higher efficiencies require less coal for each MW of outputthereby producing less CO2. Each 1% increase in efficiency decreases CO2 by approximately 2.5%. For pulverized coal (PC) plants, this means progressing to ultra-supercritical ...

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

426

The testosterone-dependent and independent transcriptional networks in the hypothalamus of Gpr54 and Kiss1 knockout male mice are not fully equivalent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Testosterone implants were manually and asep- tically prepared in the laboratory using silicone tubing (0.058 inch ID/0.077 inch OD; Dow Corning) filled with crystalline testosterone (T-1500; Sigma Aldrich, UK), and sealed with adhesive silicone type A glue [45... phase lock tube to separate out the aqueous phase through centrifugation. RNA was precipitated out of the aqueous phase with an equal volume of isopropa- nol and pelletted by centrifugation. Seventy percent ethanol was used to wash the pellet...

Prentice, Leah M; d'Anglemont de Tassigny, Xavier; McKinney, Steven; Ruiz de Algara, Teresa; Yap, Damian; Turashvili, Gulisa; Poon, Steven; Sutcliffe, Margaret; Allard, Pat; Burleigh, Angela; Fee, John; Huntsman, David G; Colledge, William H; Aparicio, Samuel

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

427

A semi-empirical representation of the temporal variation of total greenhouse gas levels expressed as equivalent levels of carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to examine the underlying longer-term trends in greenhouse gases, that are driven for example by anthropogenic emissions or climate change, it is useful to remove the recurring effects of natural cycles and ...

Cunnold, Derek

428

The dependence of chemistry on the inlet equivalence ratio in vortex-flame interactions [Printed LBNL report with title: The effect of stoichiometry on vortex flame interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of stoichiometry on vortex flame interactions [31] Pember,Rosalik, M . E . , Combust. Flame, 112(3):342-358 (1998).of stoichiometry on vortex flame interactions [15] Mueller,

Tonse, Shaheen R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

The dependence of chemistry on the inlet equivalence ratio in vortex-flame interactions [Printed LBNL report with title: The effect of stoichiometry on vortex flame interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of stoichiometry on vortex flame interactions [31] Pember,Rosalik, M . E . , Combust. Flame, 112(3):342-358 (1998).of stoichiometry on vortex flame interactions [15] Mueller,

Bell, John B.; Brown, Nancy J.; Day, Marcus S.; Frenklach, Michael; Grcar, Joseph F.; Tonse, Shaheen R.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Adapting the polycarbonate dosimeter and electrochemical etching to the microdosimetry of /sup 239/Pu in bone  

SciTech Connect

The problem of setting the maximum permissible body burden, MPBB, for /sup 239/Pu is a complex one. Recent papers have been published which favor lowering the MPBB by varying factors depending on the assumptions used. /sup 239/Pu has been shown quite clearly, on detailed autoradiograph, to concentrate on the trabecular surfaces of the endosteal face of osseous tissue. This realization led the ICRP to propose the alteration of the MPBB for /sup 239/Pu in a manner based upon microdosimetry of /sup 239/Pu in bone, i.e., determine the dose out to 10..mu..m from the bone surfaces. Unfortunately, microdosimetry fulfilling this requirement has not been available. We are working toward this objective utilizing the Lexan polycarbonate detector and our optimized electrochemical etching procedure to amplify plutonium alpha tracks. As a prerequisite to this work, we are studying three problems inherently present in the Lexan detector. They involve achieving a very low background of tracks on the foils and a high degree of reproducibility between etching batches at this background level. Thirdly, we are determining the factor by which to multiply the number of induced tracks/cm/sup 2/ (..cap alpha.. and recoil) to obtain dose equivalent (rem). In this calibration we are using a standard /sup 239/Pu source and a surface barrier detection system. The plutonium bearing bones used in the microdosimetry phase of this research are rat, dog, and human.

Stillwagon, G.B.; Su, S.J.; Morgan, K.Z.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0.88 million, the annual maintenance and surveillance cost is estimated to be about $0.095 million, and deferred decontamination is estimated to cost about $6.50 million. Therefore, passive SAFSTOR for 10 years is estimated to cost $8.33 million in nondiscounted 1981 dollars. DECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to cost about $4.59 million, with an annual cost of $0.011 million for long-term care. All of these estimates include a 25% contingency. Waste management costs for DECON, including the net cost of disposal of the solvent extraction lagoon wastes by shipping those wastes to a uranium mill for recovery of residual uranium, comprise about 38% of the total decommissioning cost. Disposal of lagoon waste at a commercial low-level waste burial ground is estimated to add $10.01 million to decommissioning costs. Safety analyses indicate that radiological and nonradiological safety impacts from decommissioning activities should be small. The 50-year committed dose equivalent to members of the public from airborne releases during normal decommissioning activities is estimated to 'Je about 4.0 man-rem. Radiation doses to the public from accidents are found to be very low for all phases of decommissioning. Occupational radiation doses from normal decommissioning operations (excluding transport operations) are estimated to be about 79 man-rem for DECON and about 80 man-rem for passive SAFSTOR with 10 years of safe storage. Doses from DECON with lagoon waste stabilization are about the same as for DECON except there is less dose resulting from transportation of radioactive waste. The number of fatalities and serious lost-time injuries not related to radiation is found to be very small for all decommissioning alternatives. Comparison of the cost estimates shows that DECON with lagoon waste stabilization is the least expensive method. However, this alternative does not allow unrestricted release of the site. The cumulative cost of maintenance and surveillance and the higher cost of deferred decontamination makes passive SAFSTOR more expensive than DECON. Seve

Elder, H. K.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Recommendations in International Commission on Radiological Protection-103 and its Potential Impacts to the Nuclear Industry Workfor ce  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nuclear power industry has significantly reduced collective exposures in the past two decades, but with the adoption of the International Council of Radiation Protection (ICRP) Publication 103, management of individual dose will become more challenging as the regulatory limit may decrease from 5 rem/year to 2 rem/year. It is anticipated that plant administrative limits will be reduced to 1-1.5 rem to ensure compliance. It is estimated that these changes could affect approximately 1,000 workers, many ...

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

433

Impact of the Revised 10 CFR 835 on the Neutron Dose Rates at LLNL  

SciTech Connect

In June 2007, 10 CFR 835 [1] was revised to include new radiation weighting factors for neutrons, updated dosimetric models, and dose terms consistent with the newer ICRP recommendations. A significant aspect of the revised 10 CFR 835 is the adoption of the recommendations outlined in ICRP-60 [2]. The recommended new quantities demand a review of much of the basic data used in protection against exposure to sources of ionizing radiation. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements has defined a number of quantities for use in personnel and area monitoring [3,4,5] including the ambient dose equivalent H*(d) to be used for area monitoring and instrument calibrations. These quantities are used in ICRP-60 and ICRP-74. This report deals only with the changes in the ambient dose equivalent and ambient dose rate equivalent for neutrons as a result of the implementation of the revised 10 CFR 835. In the report, the terms neutron dose and neutron dose rate will be used for convenience for ambient neutron dose and ambient neutron dose rate unless otherwise stated. This report provides a qualitative and quantitative estimate of how much the neutron dose rates at LLNL will change with the implementation of the revised 10 CFR 835. Neutron spectra and dose rates from selected locations at the LLNL were measured with a high resolution spectroscopic neutron dose rate system (ROSPEC) as well as with a standard neutron rem meter (a.k.a., a remball). The spectra obtained at these locations compare well with the spectra from the Radiation Calibration Laboratory's (RCL) bare californium source that is currently used to calibrate neutron dose rate instruments. The measurements obtained from the high resolution neutron spectrometer and dose meter ROSPEC and the NRD dose meter compare within the range of {+-}25%. When the new radiation weighting factors are adopted with the implementation of the revised 10 CFR 835, the measured dose rates will increase by up to 22%. The health physicists should consider this increase for any areas that have dose rates near a posting limit, such as near the 100 mrem/hr for a high radiation area, as this increase in measured dose rate may result in some changes to postings and consequent radiological controls.

Radev, R

2009-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

434

DUTCH & FLEMISH http://alumni.princeton.edu/journeys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and Rem Koolhaas. In the small, picturesque harbor of Delftshaven, visit the historic Pilgrim Fathers' Church where in 1620 a group of English Pilgrims prayed before boarding the Speedwell, bound for America

435

Final DUF6 PEIS: Volume 1: Chapter 4; Assessment Approach and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of people historically exposed to large doses of radiation, such as the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The factors used for the analysis in this PEIS were 0.0004 LCFperson-rem of...

436

Radiative Heat Transfer Analysis within Three-Dimensional Clouds Subjected to Solar and Sky Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional radiative heat transfer analysis of an arbitrary-shaped modeled cloud subjected to solar and sky irradiation has been performed. The Radiation Element Method by Ray Emission Model (REM2) was used for numerical simulation. ...

Toru Nishikawa; Shigenao Maruyama; Seigo Sakai

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

FEMP Focus: January / February 2002 Issue  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Army directly funding the REM position every year. In fact, Fort Lewis' cumulative energy cost savings since 1996 (original start of the program) amounts to about 1.9...

438

Determination of Effective Emittance and a Radiatively Equivalent Microphysical Model of Cirrus from Ground-Based and Satellite Observations during the International Cirrus Experiment: The 18 October 1989 Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground-based observations and satellite data have been compared for the 18 October 1989 case study of the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE) field campaign. They correspond to thin cirrus clouds with infrared emittances in the range 00.3. ...

G. Brogniez; J. C. Buriez; V. Giraud; F. Parol; C. Vanbauce

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

NMSU Course Name NMSU Course # NMSU Dona Ana Community College Delaware Tech Course # *NMSU reserves the right to modify these course equivalencies based on curriculum changes and program requirements.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STAT 271 ACM 031 Trigonometry and Precalculus MATH 190 ACM 032 Basic Heating, Ventilation, and Air Introduction to Literature ENGL 240 ACE 032 Intermediate Algebra MATH 120 ACM 011 College Algebra MATH 121 ACM 012 Elective MATH 100E ACM 021 Trigonometry MATH 180 ACM 022 Statistics for Engineers and Sciences

Castillo, Steven P.

440

Seagate Crystal Reports - RADCM  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Utah Utah SITE: MontRemAct PROGRAM: EM WASTE TYPE: 11e(2) Byproduct Waste OPERATIONS OFFICE: Albuquerque Operations Office % of Stream MontRemAct - 11e(2) Byproduct Waste - RRM Contaminated Soil WASTE STREAM CODE: 01096 STREAM NAME:RRM Contaminated Soil MPC NAME:Soil/Gravel TOTAL CURIES: Approved Volume : 0.000 Future Volume Avg: 0.000 Future Volume Lower Limit: Future Volume Upper Limit: 100.000 RRM Contaminated Soil Isotopes Uranium (Natural) Avg Concentration: 3.1900E+002 ppm Low Limit Concent: Upper Limit Concent:1.5000E+003 ppm Radium-226 Avg Concentration: 1.2042E+006 pCi/gal Low Limit Concent: Upper Limit Concent:4.3200E+006 pCi/gal % of Stream MontRemAct - 11e(2) Byproduct Waste - RRM Contaminated Sediment WASTE STREAM CODE: 01097 STREAM NAME:RRM Contaminated Sediment

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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441

Radiation dose reconstruction US occupation forces in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1945-1946. Final report 1 March-6 August 80  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upper limit dose estimates (internal and external) are determined for those units of the U.S. occupation forces assigned to Hiroshima or Nagasaki following the detonations of atomic weapons in those two cities. In the absence of specific maneuver and patrol data, these dose estimates are based on the maximum recorded activity levels with exposure over the entire stay period for each unit. The upper limit external dose is .03 rem for Hiroshima and .08 rem for Nagasaki. For the Nishiyama area, the upper limit is 0.63 rem. The dose from internal emitters (inhalation and ingestion) is considerably less. There is no basis for assuming that any individual in the occupation units received these upper limit doses.

McRaney, W.; McGahan, J.

1980-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

442

U.S. Department of Energy Summary of 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure (Poster)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This poster provides graphic data for 2010-2012 of collective total effective dose (TED) by site, and graphical data for 2008-2012 of components of TED, average measurable TED, percentage of collective TED above dose, collective dose and average measurable dose (1974-2012), and numbers of individuals in the DOE workforce, total number of records of monitored individuals, and number of individuals with a measurable dose. Also, there is a table of the number of individuals receiving >2 rems administrative control level and >5 rems annual limit for 2008-2012.

none,

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

443

Los Alamos National Laboratory new generation standard nuclear material storage container - the SAVY4000 design  

SciTech Connect

Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based standard involving storage of nuclear material (RD003). This RD003 requirements document has sense been updated to reflect requirements as identified with recently issued DOE M 441.1-1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual'. The new packaging manual was issued at the encouragement of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board with a clear directive for protecting the worker from exposure due to loss of containment of stored materials. The Manual specifies a detailed and all inclusive approach to achieve a high level of protection; from package design & performance requirements, design life determinations of limited life components, authorized contents evaluations, and surveillance/maintenance to ensure in use package integrity over time. Materials in scope involve those stored outside an approved engineered-contamination barrier that would result in a worker exposure of in excess of 5 rem Committed Effective Does Equivalent (CEDE). Key aspects of meeting the challenge as developed around the SAVY-3000 vented storage container design will be discussed. Design performance and acceptance criteria against the manual, bounding conditions as established that the user must ensure are met to authorize contents in the package (based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide), interface as a safety class system within the facility under the LANL plutonium facility DSA, design life determinations for limited life components, and a sense of design specific surveillance program implementation as LANL moves forward into production and use of the SAVY-3000 will all be addressed. The SAVY-3000 is intended as a work horse package for the DOE complex as a vented storage container primarily for plutonium in solid form.

Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Energy Information Handbook: Applications for Energy-Efficient Building Operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coefficients for carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxideinternational standard of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2Carbon Equivalents and Carbon Dioxide Equivalents. February

Granderson, Jessica

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

The University of Michigan College of Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;present when nuclear reactions are going on (either as an immediate result of an atomic bomb from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. These were different types of bombs, having different amounts uranium miners and radium dial painters, respectively. When doses are reported in Sieverts (or rem

Eustice, Ryan

446

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1986  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1986. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 66 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 31 person-rem to a low of 0.0007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.7 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 110 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 2 {times} 10{sup -6} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. 12 refs.

Baker, D.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1985  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commericial power reactors operating during 1985. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 61 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 73 person-rem to a low of 0.011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 200 person-rem for the 110 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/6/ mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

Baker, D.A.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1983  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1983. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 52 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 45 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 170 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk.

Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1989  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1989. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 14 person-rem to a low of 0.005 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 84 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix I design objectives.

Baker, D.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1984  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1984. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 56 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 110 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 5 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 280 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.04 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

Baker, D.A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1980. In addition doses derived from the shutdown reactors at the Three Mile Island site were included. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 40 person-rem to a low of 0.02 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 4 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 180 person-rem for the 96 million people considered at risk.

Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1982. Volume 4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1982. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 51 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 30 person-rem to a low of 0.007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 130 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -7/ mrem to a high of 0.06 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

A Smart Recording Power Analyzer Prototype Using LabVIEW and Low-Cost Data Acquisition (DAQ) in Being a Smart Renewable Monitoring System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nowadays, to indicate the quality of Thailand's existing power system including the newly-installed distributed renewable energy sources, a number of pricy power quality analyzers are being used in most areas. This article proposes an alternative of ... Keywords: Power Quality, LabVIEWTM, Data acquisition (DAQ), Total Harmonics Distortion (THD), Flickers, Smart grid, Renewable monitoring system (REMS)

Chow Chompoo-Inwai, Jade Mungkornassawakul

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Environment/Health/Safety (EHS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Radiation Protection Radiation Safety Radiation Safety Committee REMS - Radiation Exposure Monitoring System Report Accident...

455

UESC Success Stories at NAS Pensacola  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

April 2008 April 2008 NAVFAC Southeast - PWD UESC Success Stories @ NAS Pensacola - Andy Saleh, PE (REM, Sain Engineering Associates) - Alice Oberhausen (Contracting Officer, NAVFAC Pensacola) April 15, 2008 2 UESC (9 Step) Process enabled by BOAs with Gulf Power (electric) and Energy Services of Pensacola (natural gas) Project identified and / or initiated by - Billing Analysis Walkthrough Audit Tenant Request

456

Calculating excited states of molecular aggregates by the renormalized excitonic method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we apply the recently developed \\emph{ab initio} renormalized excitonic method (REM) to the excitation energy calculations of various molecular aggregates, through the extension of REM to the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Tested molecular aggregate systems include one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded water chains, ring crystals with $\\pi$-$\\pi$ stacking or van-der Waals interactions and the general aqueous systems with polar and non-polar solutes. The basis set factor as well as the effect of the exchange-correlation functionals are also investigated. The results indicate that the REM-TDDFT method with suitable basis set and exchange-correlation functionals can give good descriptions of excitation energies and excitation area for lowest electronic excitations in the molecular aggregate systems with economic computational costs. It's shown that the deviations of REM-TDDFT excitation energies from those by standard TDDFT are much less than 0.1 eV and the computational time can be r...

Ma, Yingjin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Documentation: The automated ORAD (Oil Refinery and Distribution Model) to RYMs (Refinery Yield Model) linked system  

SciTech Connect

The Refinery Evaluation Modeling System (REMS) is an analytic tool used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide insight into the domestic operations of United States refineries. REMS can be used to determine the potential impacts of changes in demands for petroleum products, crude and feedstock qualities, refinery processing capacities, foreign and domestic crude availabilities, transportation modes and costs, and government regulations. REMS is a set of linear programming models that solve for a partial equilibrium in the US refinery market by equating supply and demand while maximizing profits for US refiners. REMS consists of two models: the Refinery Yield Model (RYM), and the Oil Refinery and Distribution Model (ORAD). RYMs consists of nine separate regional models that represent the contiguous US refinery system. These nine regions are aggregates of the 13 Bureau of Mines (BOM) refinery districts. ORAD integrates the results from the individual RYMs into a transportation network which represents the US refinery market. ORAD uses the extreme point refinery representation from RYMs to solve for the optimal product prices in ORAD.

Sanders, R.P.; Kydes, A.S.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Different types of radiation can be shielded by different materials Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov #12;Answer Key 1- During an accident, a 70 kg person absorbed 1,000 Rem of x-ray radiation. How much are sitting here reading this article, electromagnetic radiation from sunlight, electric lights, power cables

459

This collection of activities is based on a weekly series of space science problems distributed to thousands of teachers during 2006-2007 school year. They were  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's Guide and Answer Key as a second page. This compact form was deemed very popular by participating in this population? Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov #12;Answer Key 1- During an accident, a 70 kg person Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov #12;1Unit Conversion Exercises Answer Key 1 . 360 milliRem per year

460

A revised electromagnetism-like mechanism for layout design of reconfigurable manufacturing system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The layout design problem is one of the most important issues for manufacturing system design and control. A revised electromagnetism-like mechanism (REM) is proposed in this paper for the layout design of reconfigurable manufacturing systems utilizing ... Keywords: Automated guided vehicle, Electromagnetism-like mechanism, Layout design, Variable neighbourhood search

Xianping Guan; Xianzhong Dai; Baijing Qiu; Jun Li

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

NOTICE TO BUILDING OCCUPANTS ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the location of Asbestos-Containing Materials (ACM), Presumed Asbestos-Containing Materials (PACM), and, where appropriate, post warning signs and label ACM and PACM. Asbestos is the term for a group of naturally and Environmental Management (REM) has analyzed hundreds of air samples for asbestos. The results demonstrate

Holland, Jeffrey

462

NIST: X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients - Table 4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Gafchromic Sensor, Tissue-Equivalent Gas, Methane Based. Gallium Arsenide, Tissue-Equivalent Gas, Propane Based. Glass ...

463

Office of Headquarters Security Operations - Headquarters Facilities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6, Equivalencies and Exemptions Describes DOE Headquarters procedures for requesting Equivalencies and Exemptions to DOE security directives...

464

Shpyrko1-011013 - Argonne National Laboratories, Materials Sicence Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shpyrko1-011013 Shpyrko1-011013 MATERIALS SCIENCE COLLOQUIUM SPEAKER: Oleg Shpyrko University of California, San Diego TITLE: "Coherent X-ray Nanovision" DATE: Thursday, January 10, 2013 TIME: 11:00 a.m. PLACE: Building 212 / A-157 Refreshments will be served at 10:45 a.m. ABSTRACT: Attempts to produce focusing x-ray optics date back to the days of Roentgen, however, it was not until the past decade that X-ray Microscopy has finally been able to achieve sub-100 nmresolution. We have used X-ray micro-diffraction in combination with X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy to investigate slow relaxation dynamics of Charge Density Wave domains in antiferromagnetic Chromium and TaS2. I will discuss similarities between dynamics in these charge- and spin-ordered condensates and dynamics

465

BEAM LINE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BEAM LINE BEAM LINE 45 W ILHELM ROENTGEN'S INITIAL DISCOVERY of X-radiation in 1895 led immediately to practical applications in medicine. Over the next few decades X rays proved to be an invaluable tool for the investigation of the micro-world of the atom and the development of the quantum theory of matter. Almost a century later, telescopes designed to detect X-radiation are indispensable for understanding the structure and evolution of the macro-world of stars, galaxies, and the Universe as a whole. The X-Ray Universe by WALLACE H. TUCKER X-ray images of the Universe are strikingly different from the usual visible-light images. 46 SUMMER 1995 did not think: I investigated." Undeterred by NASA's rejection of a proposal to search for cosmic X-radiation, Giacconi persuaded the

466

An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area  

SciTech Connect

A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

Singman, L.V.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Numbers in parenthesis are credit hours per class. Blue-highlighted courses are pre-engineering core * Required for admission into the Bioengineering Professional Program. We'll accept the combination of MTH 253 and MTH 341 as equivalent to MTH 306. CBEE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

://envs.colorado.edu Environmental Studies Internship Opportunity Form Organization: American Solar Energy Society Address: 4760Dale Miller, ENVS Internship Faculty Sponsor Phone: (303) 492-6629 Environmental Studies Program/website intern will help strengthen our social media presence and visibility for the American Solar Energy

Tullos, Desiree

468

ch_5  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HLW & FD EIS HLW & FD EIS 5-73 DOE/EIS-0287 tion dose to the nonin- volved worker and maximally exposed offsite individual and the collective dose to the population residing within 50 miles of INTEC. The radiation dose values for the var- ious alternatives were then multiplied by the dose-to-risk conversion factors, which are based on the 1993 Limitations of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation (NCRP 1993). DOE has adopted these risk fac- tors of 0.0005 and 0.0004 latent cancer fatality (LCF) for each person-rem of radiation exposure to the general public and worker popu- lation, respectively, for doses less than 20 rem. The factor for the population is slightly higher due to the presence of infants and children who are more sensitive to radiation than the adult worker population. DOE used radiation dose information provided

469

West Valley  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nuclear Facility Nuclear Facility Coalition on West Valley Nuclear Wastes PO Box 603 Springville NY 14141 WV-DigItUp@roadrunner.com Joanne Hameister CFMT (Concentrator Feed Make-up Tank) Packaged 13'x14'x19' 177.5 tons MFHT (Melter Feed Hold Tank) Packaged 13'x14'x16' 152.5 tons WIR Shipments pending to LLW facility MELTER 10'x10'x10' Packaged: 14'x13'x13' 159 tons 4,570 Curies Waste Categories High-Level Waste Based on source * Nuclear Fuel * Reprocessing * TRU Low-Level Waste Not Low Risk Complex classification based on * Nuclide inventory * Half-life(s) * Quantity * Decay products Background Radiation 1978 - average was 100 mRem per person 2011 - BRC* estimate 620 mRem per person Naturally occurring radioactive elements Additions accumulate - from fall-out,

470

West Valley  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nuclear Facility Nuclear Facility Coalition on West Valley Nuclear Wastes PO Box 603 Springville NY 14141 WV-DigItUp@roadrunner.com Joanne Hameister CFMT (Concentrator Feed Make-up Tank) Packaged 13'x14'x19' 177.5 tons MFHT (Melter Feed Hold Tank) Packaged 13'x14'x16' 152.5 tons WIR Shipments pending to LLW facility MELTER 10'x10'x10' Packaged: 14'x13'x13' 159 tons 4,570 Curies Waste Categories High-Level Waste Based on source * Nuclear Fuel * Reprocessing * TRU Low-Level Waste Not Low Risk Complex classification based on * Nuclide inventory * Half-life(s) * Quantity * Decay products Background Radiation 1978 - average was 100 mRem per person 2011 - BRC* estimate 620 mRem per person Naturally occurring radioactive elements Additions accumulate - from fall-out,

471

First Energy Ohio - New Home Builder Incentive Program (Ohio) | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

First Energy Ohio - New Home Builder Incentive Program (Ohio) First Energy Ohio - New Home Builder Incentive Program (Ohio) First Energy Ohio - New Home Builder Incentive Program (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Construction Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Maximum Rebate $1,200/home Program Info State Ohio Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount New Home: $400, plus $0.10/kWh saved annually over the reference home, as calculated by REM/Rate Ohio subsidiaries of FirstEnergy (Ohio Edison, The Illuminating Company, Toledo Edison) offer rebates for builders of new, energy efficient homes. Each newly built home is eligible for a rebate of $400, plus $0.10/kWh saved annually over the reference home, as calculated by REM/Rate. The

472

NATIONAL KAD CO. OF OHIO - HEALTH & SAFETY DIVISION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

KAD CO. OF OHIO - HEALTH & SAFETY DIVISION KAD CO. OF OHIO - HEALTH & SAFETY DIVISION NC) 1602 c ! 9 Hygionm or Medical Dapt. h 2 44 - - =.- Hour Sample Description 6 \ : ' _/ *. I I . ..$$$ +ri, I- .' i C "I. I I I I . 1 I * ,' z Analytical Cha4dA -K-F- Counting D&a: 4; 9 7.' __-__--__ ' T ..__ . . -~ -- --- ---_ . NATIONAL MAD CO. OP OHIO - HEALTH & SAFWY DIVISION N ? ,299 Industrial Hygiene or Medical D8pt. 1. H.#581kmph Nos. D8t8 Cobxted 3 +%ay Rtis Route to RHs Location Uaah-Rite CO- Type of Smpl8~nslyz8d for$m Rem&s Qlpva test at mw. Indlanapolia Sample No. Hour -- ~--- Sample Description R T Q ---~ --- -- of alovwl - 20 Lint from second iour drums of glofes __--. ~--- I - __ _____- --_. ~~.-. -- - -- __- -____-- I ___- - I Analytical Chemistry Dept. :".:: ;;::wq :;

473

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY ROCKWELL SCIENTIFIC COMPANY, FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SCIENTIFIC COMPANY, FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF SCIENTIFIC COMPANY, FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN INVENTION RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE-FC26-03NT41951; W(A)-04-009, CH-1180 The Petitioner, Rockwell Scientific Company (Rockwell), was awarded this cooperative agreement for the performance of work entitled, "Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window ." The purpose of the cooperative agreement is to develop and demonstrate an efficient reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) smart window that can be manufactured at low cost so as to render large-area REM smart window devices commercially viable. The project addresses three key requirements for commercialization: uniform switching over large areas; an effective seal for preventing intrusion of oxygen and water; and a suitable counter electrode that can be

474

Safety Around Sources of Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Keeping Exposure Low Keeping Exposure Low Working Safely Around Radioactive Contamination Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Is it safe to be around sources? Too much radiation exposure is harmful. The degree of radiation injury depends on the amount of radiation received and the time involved. In general, the higher the amount, the greater the severity of early effects (occurring within a few weeks) and the greater the possibility of late effects such as cancer. The BEIR V (Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation) Committee of the National Research Council estimates that among 100,000 people exposed to a one-time dose of 10 rem (10,000 mrem) and followed over their life span, about 790 more would die of cancer than the estimated 20,000 cancer deaths that would be expected among a non-exposed group of the same size. NOTE: 10 rem = 100 millisieverts (100 mSv).

475

Simulation-based computation of dose to humans in radiological environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Radiological Environment Modeling System (REMS) quantifies dose to humans working in radiological environments using the IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) and Deneb/ERGO simulation software. These commercially available products are augmented with custom C code to provide radiation exposure information to, and collect radiation dose information from, workcell simulations. Through the use of any radiation transport code or measured data, a radiation exposure input database may be formulated. User-specified IGRIP simulations utilize these databases to compute and accumulate dose to programmable human models operating around radiation sources. Timing, distances, shielding, and human activity may be modeled accurately in the simulations. The accumulated dose is recorded in output files, and the user is able to process and view this output. The entire REMS capability can be operated from a single graphical user interface.

Breazeal, N.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, K.R.; Watson, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vickers, D.S. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Ford, M.S. [Battelle Pantex, Amarillo, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiation Safety

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

1989 environmental monitoring report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECo) for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) operated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Other environmental compliance programs such as National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), environmental permits, environmental restoration, and waste management programs are also included. The maximum offsite dose impact from 1989 operations was 8.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mrem as a result of an unusual occurrence. The population received a collective dose of 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} person-rem from this incidence, while the same populations received 4.94 person-rem from natural background radiation. The 1989 SNL, TTR operations had no adverse impact on the general public or the environment. 18 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

Hwang, S.; Phelan, J.; Wolff, T.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; West, G.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Preclosure radiological safety analysis for the exploratory shaft facilities; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses which structures, systems, and components of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) are important to safety when the ESF is converted to become part of the operating waste repository. The assessment follows the methodology required by DOE Procedure AP-6.10Q. Failures of the converted ESF during the preclosure period have been evaluated, along with other underground accidents, to determine the potential offsite radiation doses and associated probabilities. The assessment indicates that failures of the ESF will not result in radiation doses greater than 0.5 rem at the nearest unrestricted area boundary. Furthermore, credible accidents in other underground facilities will not result in radiation doses larger than 0.5 rem, even if any structure, system, or component of the converted ESF fails at the same time. Therefore, no structure, system, or component of the converted ESF is important to safety.

Ma, C.W.; Miller, D.D.; Jardine, L.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

The steam generator changeout at Beznau-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the Beznau-1 nuclear power plant in Switzerland, the unit's two steam generators were replaced in the second quarter of 1993. The steam generator replacement portion of the outage - the period from when contractors were given access to the containment to when the steam generators were ready for hydrostatic pressure testing - was 44 days (April 12- May 26, 1993), shorter than the 46 days gained. Total length of the outage was 99 days (April 2 - July 9). Collective radiation dose received by project personnel was 110 person-rem, much less than the planned 250 person-rem. Project cost was about $50 million, including the new SGs and the replacement work, according to Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK), plant owner and operator.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN  

SciTech Connect

The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

Karam, P. A.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

480

SURFACE AREA, VOLUME, MASS, AND DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SIZED BIOMASS PARTICLES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period January 01, 2006 to June 30, 2006 which covers the fourth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize surface area, volume, mass, and density distributions for sized biomass particles. During this reporting period, Morehouse completed obtaining additional mean mass measurements for biomass particles employing the gravimetric technique measurement system that was set up in a previous reporting period. Simultaneously, REM, our subcontractor, has completed obtaining raw data for surface area, volume, and drag coefficient to mass ratio (Cd/m) information for 9 more biomass particles employing the electrodynamic balance (EDB) measurement system that was calibrated before in this project. Results of the mean mass data obtained to date are reported here, and analysis of the raw data collected by REM is in progress.

Ramanathan Sampath

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rem roentgen equivalent" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN  

SciTech Connect

The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

Karam, P. A.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

482

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1988. Volume 10  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1988. Fifty-year commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 71 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 16 person-rem to a low of 0.0011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.1 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 75 person-rem for the 150 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year).

Baker, D.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1988. Fifty-year commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 71 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 16 person-rem to a low of 0.0011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.1 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 75 person-rem for the 150 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year).

Baker, D.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Maine Yankee steam generator tube modification from a radiobiological prospective  

SciTech Connect

Maine Yankee installed permanent sleeving in the primary secondary interface tubing of their steam generators. This repair was necessary because of numerous defects approaching or exceeding technical specification requirements. This project was accomplished under budget, and for a radiation exposure of 141.974 person-rem. This paper addresses the ALARA considerations, temporary lead shielding, mockup training, radiation worker training, radiological initiatives, and lessons learned.

Heath, E.; Granados, B. [Maine Yankee, Wiscasset, MA (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

ELECTRIC CONTACT MEANS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A switch adapted to maintain electrical connections under conditions of vibration or acceleration is described. According to the invention, thc switch includes a rotatable arm carrying a conductive bar arranged to close against two contacts spaced in the same plane. The firm and continuous engagement of the conductive bar with the contacts is acheived by utilizeing a spring located betwenn the vbar and athe a rem frzme and slidable mounting the bar in channel between two arms suspendef from the arm frame.

Grear, J.W. Jr.

1959-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

486

Welding and Repair Technology Center: Evaluation of LokRing Small Bore Fittings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A line of fittings for connecting small-diameter piping and tubing is manufactured by the American LOKRING Corporation. The fitting has a proprietary, nonwelded design. The primary markets for these fittings have been petrochemical piping and refrigeration tubing. Because these fittings do not require welding, the reduction in installation time and related person-rem exposure makes this product attractive for nuclear use. However, this is a non-Code item, and there are a number of technical and quality r...

2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

487

Impact of reduced dose limits on NRC licensed activities. Major issues in the implementation of ICRP/NCRP dose limit recommendations: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes information required to estimate, at least qualitatively, the potential impacts of reducing occupational dose limits below those given in 10 CFR 20 (Revised). For this study, a questionnaire was developed and widely distributed to the radiation protection community. The resulting data together with data from existing surveys and sources were used to estimate the impact of three dose-limit options; 10 mSv yr{sup {minus}1} (1 rem yr{sup {minus}1}), 20 mSv yr{sup {minus}1} (2 rem yr{sup {minus}1}), and a combination of an annual limit of 50 mSv yr{sup {minus}1} (5 rem yr{sup {minus}1}) coupled with a cumulative limit, in rem, equal to age in years. Due to the somewhat small number of responses and the lack of data in some specific areas, a working committee of radiation protection experts from a variety of licensees was employed to ensure the exposure data were representative. The following overall conclusions were reached: (1) although 10 mSv yr{sup {minus}1} is a reasonable limit for many licensees, such a limit could be extraordinarily difficult to achieve and potentially destructive to the continued operation of some licensees, such as nuclear power, fuel fabrication, and medicine; (2) twenty mSv yr{sup {minus}1} as a limit is possible for some of these groups, but for others it would prove difficult. (3) fifty mSv yr{sup {minus}1} and age in 10s of mSv appear reasonable for all licensees, both in terms of the lifetime risk of cancer and severe genetic effects to the most highly exposed workers, and the practicality of operation.

Meinhold, C.B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1996: Twenty-ninth annual report. Volume 18  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 1996 annual reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Since there are no geologic repositories for high level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. Annual reports for 1996 were received from a total of 300 NRC licensees, of which 109 were operators of nuclear power reactors in commercial operation. Compilations of the reports submitted by the 300 licensees indicated that 138,310 individuals were monitored, 75,139 of whom received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 21,755 person-cSv (person-rem){sup 2} which represents a 13% decrease from the 1995 value. The number of workers receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in the average measurable dose of 0.29 cSv (rem) for 1996. The average measurable dose is defined to be the total collective dose (TEDE) divided by the number of workers receiving a measurable dose. These figures have been adjusted to account for transient reactor workers. Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 22,348 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1996, the average measurable dose calculated from reported was 0.24 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.29 cSv (rem).

Thomas, M.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Hagemeyer, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

The reliability of assigning individuals to cognitive states using the Mini Mental-State Examination: a population-based prospective cohort study.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; baseline interviews took place between 1989 and 1993. In this study data were used from the five centres with a standardised design: Cambridgeshire, Gwynedd, New- castle, Nottingham, and Oxford (total n = 13,004). The population under investigation... of the manuscript and revised and edited the manuscript. REM is guarantor of the analysis. MC contributed to design and revised and edited the manuscript. FEM contributed to design, advised on the analytical strategy, data acquisition, assisted obtaining funding...

Marioni, Riccardo E; Chatfield, Mark; Brayne, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E; Ageing Study, Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

490

An updated dose assessment for Rongelap Island  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have updated the radiological dose assessment for Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll using data generated from field trips to the atoll during 1986 through 1993. The data base used for this dose assessment is ten fold greater than that available for the 1982 assessment. Details of each data base are presented along with details about the methods used to calculate the dose from each exposure pathway. The doses are calculated for a resettlement date of January 1, 1995. The maximum annual effective dose is 0.26 mSv y{sup {minus}1} (26 mrem y{sup {minus}1}). The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 0.0059 Sv (0.59 rem), 0.0082 Sv (0.82 rem), and 0.0097 Sv (0.97 rem), respectively. More than 95% of these estimated doses are due to 137-Cesium ({sup 137}Cs). About 1.5% of the estimated dose is contributed by 90-Strontium ({sup 90}Sr), and about the same amount each by 239+240-Plutonium ({sup 239+240}PU), and 241-Americium ({sup 241}Am).

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years.

Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island  

SciTech Connect

Between March 28 and April 15, 1979 the collective dose resulting from the radioactivity released to the population living within a 50-mile radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant was about 2000 person-rems, less than 1% of the annual natural background level. The average dose to a person living within 5 miles of the nuclear plant was less than 10% of annual background radiation. The maximum estimated radiation dose received by any one individual in the general population (excluding the nuclear plant workers) during the accident was 70 mrem. The doses received by the general population as a result of the accident were so small that there will be no detectable additional cases of cancer, developmental abnormalities, or genetic ill-health. Three Three Mile Island nuclear workers received radiation doses of about 3 to 4 rem, exceeding maximum permissible quarterly dose of 3 rem. The major health effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect proved transien