National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for relevant biodiversity safeguards

  1. safeguards

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en NGSI Safeguards by Design http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnnissafeguardssbd

  2. safeguards

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en NGSI Safeguards by Design http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnnissafeguardssbd

  3. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  4. nuclear safeguards

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    The design projects were supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Human Capital Development (NGSI HCD) program, which works to recruit, train and retain qualified...

  5. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2010-06-01

    Today, safeguards culture can be a useful tool for measuring nonproliferation postures, but so far its impact on the international safeguards regime has been underappreciated. There is no agreed upon definition for safeguards culture nor agreement on how it should be measured. This paper argues that safeguards culture as an indicator of a country’s nonproliferation posture can be a useful tool.

  6. Nuclear Safeguards and Security Challenge:

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Safeguards and Security Challenge: The international safeguards and security system is being challenged by evolving proliferation and terrorism threats, expanding International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) responsibilities, a retiring safeguards workforce, and the need for better technologies to detect and deter proliferation, theft, and sabotage. Response: Revitalize, strengthen, and sustain U.S. and international safeguards and security capabilities through the Next Generation Safeguards

  7. safeguards and security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    0%2A en NGSI Safeguards by Design http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnnissafeguardssbd

  8. Visualizing Safeguards: Software for Conceptualizing and Communicating Safeguards Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallucci N.

    2015-07-12

    The nuclear programs of states are complex and varied, comprising a wide range of fuel cycles and facilities. Also varied are the types and terms of states’ safeguards agreements with the IAEA, each placing different limits on the inspectorate’s access to these facilities. Such nuances make it difficult to draw policy significance from the ground-level nuclear activities of states, or to attribute ground-level outcomes to the implementation of specific policies or initiatives. While acquiring a firm understanding of these relationships is critical to evaluating and formulating effective policy, doing so requires collecting and synthesizing large bodies of information. Maintaining a comprehensive working knowledge of the facilities comprising even a single state’s nuclear program poses a challenge, yet marrying this information with relevant safeguards and verification information is more challenging still. To facilitate this task, Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed a means of capturing the development, operation, and safeguards history of all the facilities comprising a state’s nuclear program in a single graphic. The resulting visualization offers a useful reference tool to policymakers and analysts alike, providing a chronology of states’ nuclear development and an easily digestible history of verification activities across their fuel cycles.

  9. The safeguards options study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R.; Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J.; Filby, E.

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  10. Designing and Operating for Safeguards: Lessons Learned From the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael

    2010-08-07

    This paper will address the lessons learned during the implementation of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) which are relevant to the issue of ‘safeguards by design’. However, those lessons are a result of a cumulative history of international safeguards experiences starting with the West Valley reprocessing plant in 1969, continuing with the Barnwell plant, and then with the implementation of international safeguards at WAK in Germany and TRP in Japan. The design and implementation of safeguards at RRP in Japan is the latest and most challenging that the IAEA has faced. This paper will discuss the work leading up to the development of a safeguards approach, the design and operating features that were introduced to improve or aid in implementing the safeguards approach, and the resulting recommendations for future facilities. It will provide an overview of how ‘safeguardability’ was introduced into RRP.

  11. Strengthening regional safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.

  12. Safeguards and Security Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-05-25

    The Order establishes roles and responsibilities for the Department of Energy Safeguards and Security Program. Cancels DOE O 470.4. Canceled by DOE O 470.4B

  13. Safeguards and Security Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1988-01-22

    To establish the policy and responsibilities for the Department of Energy safeguards and security program. Does not cancel another directive. Canceled by DOE O 5630.11A dated 12-7-92.

  14. Safeguards and Security Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-07-21

    The order establishes responsibilities and program planning and management requirements for the Safeguards and Security Program. Admin Chg 1, dated 2-15-13, supersedes DOE O 470.4B.

  15. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2009-05-27

    Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture’ needs to be addressed if the efficiency and effectiveness are to continue to be improved. This will require commitment and change at all levels, from States to facility operators. Cultural change has to come from good leadership, doing the right thing and ‘beliefs’ are not sufficient – behavior is what counts. We are optimistic that with sufficient effort and the right incentives, change can be accomplished quickly.”

  16. Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities – International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip Casey Durst; Scott DeMuth; Brent McGinnis; Michael Whitaker; James Morgan

    2010-04-01

    For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

  17. Safeguards Guidance Document for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities: International Nuclear Safeguards Requirements and Practices For Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Bean; Casey Durst

    2009-10-01

    This report is the second in a series of guidelines on international safeguards requirements and practices, prepared expressly for the designers of nuclear facilities. The first document in this series is the description of generic international nuclear safeguards requirements pertaining to all types of facilities. These requirements should be understood and considered at the earliest stages of facility design as part of a new process called “Safeguards-by-Design.” This will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards verification activities. The following summarizes the requirements for international nuclear safeguards implementation at enrichment plants, prepared under the Safeguards by Design project, and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of NA-243. The purpose of this is to provide designers of nuclear facilities around the world with a simplified set of design requirements and the most common practices for meeting them. The foundation for these requirements is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Relevant safeguards requirements are also cited from the Safeguards Criteria for inspecting enrichment plants, found in the IAEA Safeguards Manual, Part SMC-8. IAEA definitions and terms are based on the IAEA Safeguards Glossary, published in 2002. The most current specification for safeguards measurement accuracy is found in the IAEA document STR-327, “International Target Values 2000 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials,” published in 2001. For this guide to be easier for the designer to use, the requirements have been restated in plainer language per expert interpretation using the source documents noted. The safeguards agreement is fundamentally a legal document. As such, it is written in a legalese that is understood by specialists in international law and treaties, but not by most outside of this field, including designers of nuclear facilities. For this reason, many of the requirements have been simplified and restated. However, in all cases, the relevant source document and passage is noted so that readers may trace the requirement to the source. This is a helpful living guide, since some of these requirements are subject to revision over time. More importantly, the practices by which the requirements are met are continuously modernized by the IAEA and nuclear facility operators to improve not only the effectiveness of international nuclear safeguards, but also the efficiency. As these improvements are made, the following guidelines should be updated and revised accordingly.

  18. nuclear safeguards | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home nuclear safeguards nuclear safeguards Working With PNNL Mentors, Engineering Students Deliver Prototype Safeguards Fixtures Earlier this month, Washington State University...

  19. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-19

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  20. Safeguards-By-Design: Guidance and Tools for Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Schanfein; Shirley Johnson

    2012-02-01

    Effective implementation of the Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) approach can help meet the challenges of global nuclear energy growth, by designing facilities that have improved safeguardability and reduced safeguards-related life cycle costs. The ultimate goal of SBD is to implement effective and efficient safeguards that reduce the burden to both the facility operator and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Since 2008, the National Nuclear Security Administration's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's Safeguards By Design Project has initiated multiple studies and workshops with industry and regulatory stakeholders, including the IAEA, to develop relevant documents to support the implementation of SBD. These 'Good Practices Guides' describe facility and process design features that will facilitate implementation of effective nuclear material safeguards starting in the earliest phases of design through to final design. These guides, which are in their final editorial stages, start at a high level and then narrow down to specific nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as Light Water Reactors, Generation III/IV Reactors, High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors, and Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants. Most recently, NGSI has begun development of a facility safeguardability assessment toolkit to assist the designer. This paper will review the current status of these efforts, provide some examples of these documents, and show some standard IAEA Unattended Instrumentation that is permanently installed in nuclear facilities for monitoring.

  1. Safeguard Security and Awareness Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-10-02

    Provides detailed requirements and procedures to supplement DOE O 470.1, Safeguards and Security Program, Chapter IV.

  2. Safeguards and Security Program References

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-08-26

    The manual establishes definitions for terms related to the Department of Energy Safeguards and Security (S&S) Program and includes lists of references and acronyms/abbreviations applicable to S&S Program directives. Cancels the Safeguards and Security Glossary of Terms, dated 12-18-95. Current Safeguards and Security Program References can also be found at Safeguards and Security Policy Information Resource (http://pir.pnl.gov/)

  3. Facility Safeguardability Assessment Report

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    21698 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process RA Bari SJ Johnson J Hockert R Wigeland EF Wonder MD Zentner August 2012 PNNL- 21698 Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process RA Bari 1 SJ Johnson 2 J Hockert 3 R Wigeland 4 EF Wonder 5 M.D. Zentner August 2012 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 1 Brookhaven National Laboratory 2 Tucker

  4. Safeguards and Security Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-08-26

    Establishes roles and responsibilities for the Department of Energy Safeguards and Security Program. Cancels: DOE O 470.1, DOE O 471.2A, DOE O 471.4, DOE O 472.1C, DOE O 473.1, DOE O 473.2, DOE O 474.1A. Canceled by DOE O 470.4A.

  5. Safeguards and Security Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-12-29

    The Safeguards and Security Program ensures that the Department of Energy efficiently and effectively meets all its obligations to protect Special Nuclear Material, other nuclear materials, classified matter, sensitive information, government property, and the safety and security of employees, contractors, and the general public. Supersedes DOE P 470.1.

  6. Safeguards and Security Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-07-21

    To establish responsibilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Safeguards and Security (S&S) Program, and to establish program planning and management requirements for the S&S Program. Cancels DOE O 470.4A, DOE M 470.4-1, Chg. 2, and DOE O 142.1.

  7. An expanded safeguards role for the DOE safeguards analytical laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) is a Government-owned, Government-operated (GOGO) laboratory, with the mission to provide and maintain a nuclear material measurements and standards laboratory. The functional responsibilities of NBL serve as a technical response to the statutory responsibility of the Department of Energy (DOE) to assure the safeguarding of nuclear materials. In the execution of its mission, NBL carries out activities in six safeguards-related programs: measurement development, measurement evaluation, measurement services, safeguards assessment, reference and calibration materials and site-specific assistance. These program activities have been implemented by NBL for many years; their relative emphases, however, have been changed recently to address the priorities defined by the DOE Office of Safeguards and Security, Defense Programs (OSS/DP). As a consequence, NBL operations are in the ''mainstream'' of domestic safeguards activities. This expanded safeguards role for NBL is discussed in this paper.

  8. Safeguards and Security Program - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4B Admin Chg 1, Safeguards and Security Program by Marc Brooks Functional areas: Administrative Change, Safeguards, Security, and Emergency Management, Safety, Safety and Security,...

  9. Full spectrum optical safeguard

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Mark R.

    2008-12-02

    An optical safeguard device with two linear variable Fabry-Perot filters aligned relative to a light source with at least one of the filters having a nonlinear dielectric constant material such that, when a light source produces a sufficiently high intensity light, the light alters the characteristics of the nonlinear dielectric constant material to reduce the intensity of light impacting a connected optical sensor. The device can be incorporated into an imaging system on a moving platform, such as an aircraft or satellite.

  10. Biodiversity conservation and NEPA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southerland, M.T. )

    1993-01-01

    The Council of Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have recently developed new guidelines to facilitate the consideration of biodiversity in the preparation and review of environmental impact assessments. The purpose of these efforts is to facilitate the incorporation of biodiversity considerations into the ecological analyses of all federal agencies. Because federal decisions requiring environmental impact assessments under NEPA affect hundreds of millions of federal and non-federal lands and waters, improved consideration of the impacts of federal activities is essential to stemming the loss of biological diversity in the United States. The designation of ecosystems or habitats'' of concern is a useful first step identifying risks to biodiversity. After reviewing the status and trends of habitats within eight major regions of the US, the EPA guidelines identify habitats contributing to regional and global biodiversity such as remnant prairies, riparian habitats, and old-growth forests. This document also discusses how the impacts on habitats vary with the different activities of land conversion, timber harvesting, grazing, mining, and water management.

  11. Safeguards & Security | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Safeguards & Security Safeguards & Security The mission of the PPPO Safeguards and Security Program is to effectively implement the Office of Environmental Management (EM) Safeguards and Security responsibilities, obligations, and activities at the Department's Portsmouth and Paducah sites in compliance with Departmental policy. The PPPO Safeguards and Security organization is responsible for initiating, developing, and interpreting policy and procedures, and ensuring compliance with DOE

  12. Master Safeguards and Security Agreements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1988-02-03

    To establish the Department of Energy policy, requirements, responsibilities, and authorities for the development and implementation of Master Safeguards and Security Agreements (MSSA's). Does not cancel another directive. Canceled by DOE O 5630.13A

  13. Overview of enrichment plant safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swindle, D.W. Jr.; Wheeler, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship of enrichment plant safeguards to US nonproliferation objectives and to the operation and management of enrichment facilities is reviewed. During the review, the major components of both domestic and international safeguards systems for enrichment plants are discussed. In discussing domestic safeguards systems, examples of the technology currently in use to support nuclear materials accountability are described including the measurement methods, procedures and equipment used for weighing, sampling, chemical and isotopic analyses and nondestructive assay techniques. Also discussed is how the information obtained as part of the nuclear material accountancy task is useful to enrichment plant operations. International material accountancy verification and containment/surveillance concepts for enrichment plants are discussed, and the technologies presently being developed for international safeguards in enrichment plants are identified and the current development status is reported.

  14. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Safeguards and Security...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Safeguards and Security - August 2012 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Safeguards and Security - August 2012 August 2012 Evaluation to determine whether Safeguards and...

  15. Safeguards and Security Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-28

    Ensures appropriate levels of protection against unauthorized access; theft, diversion, loss of custody, or destruction of nuclear weapons, or weapons components; espionage; loss or theft of classified matter or Government property; and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security or on the health and safety of Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor employees, the public, or the environment. DOE O 470.1 Extended until 5-11-06 by DOE N 251.63, dated 5-11-05. Chg 1, Safeguards and Security Program, dated 9/28/95, extended by DOE N 251.57, dated 4/28/2004. Change 1, 5/21/96, revises Chapter IV. Cancels: DOE 5630.11B, DOE 5630.13A, DOE 5630.14A, DOE 5630.15, DOE 5630.16A, DOE 5630.17, DOE 5631.1C, DOE 5631.4A, DOE 5634.1B, DOE 5634.3, DOE 5639.3, DOE M 5632.1C-1 in part.

  16. Incorporating Biodiversity Considerations Into Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    provide background on the emerging, complex subject of biodiversity, outline some general concepts that underlie biological diversity analysis and management, describe how the ...

  17. Safeguards training course: Nuclear material safeguards for enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this course is to provide the course participants with the necessary skills to perform their inspection activities at enrichment plants. As background information, a variety of enrichment technologies will first be characterized and compared followed by a review of basic cascade, gas centrifuge, and gaseous diffusion theory. To focus on gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion technology, the major components and system of gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enrichment plants including their function in routine LEU production will be identified. The objectives of safeguards at an enrichment plant, including those agreed to in the Hexapartite Safeguards Project, will then be described. Discussions will then focus on potential diversion scenarios at both a centrifuge and diffusion enrichment facility and applicable safeguards inspection activities for detecting these scenarios. This report presents a discussion on basic separation and cascade theory, uranium hexafluoride, and detailed separation theory, including gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion.

  18. Safeguards training course: Nuclear material safeguards for enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this training course is to provide the course participants with the necessary skills to perform their inspection activities at enrichment plants. As background information, a variety of enrichment technologies will first be characterized and compared followed by a review of basic cascade, gas centrifuge, and gaseous diffusion theory. To focus on gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion technology, the major components and systems of gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enrichment plants including their function in routine LEU production will be identified. The objectives of safeguards at an enrichment plant, including those agreed to in the Hexapartite Safeguards Project, will then be described. Discussion will then focus on potential diversion scenarios at both a centrifuge and diffusion enrichment facility and applicable safeguards inspection activities for detecting these scenarios.

  19. DESIGN INFORMATION VERIFICATION FOR NUCLEAR SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Bean; Richard R. M. Metcalf; Phillip C. Durst

    2009-07-01

    A critical aspect of international safeguards activities performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the verification that facility design and construction (including upgrades and modifications) do not create opportunities for nuclear proliferation. These Design Information Verification activities require that IAEA inspectors compare current and past information about the facility to verify the operator’s declaration of proper use. The actual practice of DIV presents challenges to the inspectors due to the large amount of data generated, concerns about sensitive or proprietary data, the overall complexity of the facility, and the effort required to extract just the safeguards relevant information. Planned and anticipated facilities will (especially in the case of reprocessing plants) be ever larger and increasingly complex, thus exacerbating the challenges. This paper reports the results of a workshop held at the Idaho National Laboratory in March 2009, which considered technologies and methods to address these challenges. The use of 3D Laser Range Finding, Outdoor Visualization System, Gamma-LIDAR, and virtual facility modeling, as well as methods to handle the facility data issues (quantity, sensitivity, and accessibility and portability for the inspector) were presented. The workshop attendees drew conclusions about the use of these techniques with respect to successfully employing them in an operating environment, using a Fuel Conditioning Facility walk-through as a baseline for discussion.

  20. Process: (international) safeguards interface at the Portsmouth GCEP from the safeguards technology developer's viewpoint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tape, J.W.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Baker, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    The design of a major portion of a safeguards system for possible use by IAEA at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant is described from the viewpoint of the safeguards technology developer. The process-safeguards interface is reviewed, including safeguards, process, and operational constraints on the safeguards system. The conflicting requirements of the IAEA and the plant operator are minimized through the use of advanced technology that allows safeguards data to be acquired, analyzed, and reported in an automated, unattended mode. The proposed safeguards system will reduce the impact of the inspections on both the operator and the IAEA.

  1. Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safeguards

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-03-11

    RAOPS uses dynamic programming to make the best use of physical and economic resources in safeguarding special nuclear material.

  2. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    UNCLASSIFIED Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System CONTACT INFORMATION UPDATE REPORTING IDENTIFICATION SYMBOL (RIS) RIS: Address: Facility Name: CONTACTS Name Email:...

  3. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installations (ISFSI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trond Bjornard; Philip C. Durst

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes the requirements and best practices for implementing international nuclear safeguards at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), also known as Away-from- Reactor (AFR) storage facilities. These installations may provide wet or dry storage of spent fuel, although the safeguards guidance herein focuses on dry storage facilities. In principle, the safeguards guidance applies to both wet and dry storage. The reason for focusing on dry independent spent fuel storage installations is that this is one of the fastest growing nuclear installations worldwide. Independent spent fuel storage installations are typically outside of the safeguards nuclear material balance area (MBA) of the reactor. They may be located on the reactor site, but are generally considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the State Regulator/SSAC to be a separate facility. The need for this guidance is becoming increasingly urgent as more and more nuclear power plants move their spent fuel from resident spent fuel ponds to independent spent fuel storage installations. The safeguards requirements and best practices described herein are also relevant to the design and construction of regional independent spent fuel storage installations that nuclear power plant operators are starting to consider in the absence of a national long-term geological spent fuel repository. The following document has been prepared in support of two of the three foundational pillars for implementing Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). These are: i) defining the relevant safeguards requirements, and ii) defining the best practices for meeting the requirements. This document was prepared with the design of the latest independent dry spent fuel storage installations in mind and was prepared specifically as an aid for designers of commercial nuclear facilities to help them understand the relevant international requirements that follow from a country’s safeguards agreement with the IAEA. If these requirements are understood at the earliest stages of facility design, it will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards, and will help the IAEA implement nuclear safeguards worldwide, especially in countries building their first nuclear facilities. It is also hoped that this guidance document will promote discussion between the IAEA, State Regulator/SSAC, Project Design Team, and Facility Owner/Operator at an early stage to ensure that new ISFSIs will be effectively and efficiently safeguarded. This is intended to be a living document, since the international nuclear safeguards requirements may be subject to revision over time. More importantly, the practices by which the requirements are met are continuously modernized by the IAEA and facility operators for greater efficiency and cost effectiveness. As these improvements are made, it is recommended that the subject guidance document be updated and revised accordingly.

  4. Process Monitoring for Nuclear Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehinger, Michael H [ORNL] [ORNL; Pomeroy, George D [ORNL] [ORNL; Budlong-Sylvester, Kory W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Process Monitoring has long been used to evaluate industrial processes and operating conditions in nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. In nuclear applications there is a recognized need to demonstrate the safeguards benefits from using advanced process monitoring on spent fuel reprocessing technologies and associated facilities, as a complement to nuclear materials accounting. This can be accomplished by: defining credible diversion pathway scenarios as a sample problem; using advanced sensor and data analysis techniques to illustrate detection capabilities; and formulating 'event detection' methodologies as a means to quantify performance of the safeguards system. Over the past 30 years there have been rapid advances and improvement in the technology associated with monitoring and control of industrial processes. In the context of bulk handling facilities that process nuclear materials, modern technology can provide more timely information on the location and movement of nuclear material to help develop more effective safeguards. For international safeguards, inspection means verification of material balance data as reported by the operator through the State to the international inspectorate agency. This verification recognizes that the State may be in collusion with the operator to hide clandestine activities, potentially during abnormal process conditions with falsification of data to mask the removal. Records provided may show material is accounted for even though a removal occurred. Process monitoring can offer additional fidelity during a wide variety of operating conditions to help verify the declaration or identify possible diversions. The challenge is how to use modern technology for process monitoring and control in a proprietary operating environment subject to safeguards inspectorate or other regulatory oversight. Under the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, a range of potential safeguards applications for process monitoring are under conceptual development and evaluation. This paper reports on a study of process monitoring for a sample problem involving spent fuel reprocessing with aqueous reprocessing technologies. This includes modeling the processes in the context of a nuclear material diversion scenario and measuring the associated process chemistry. A systems-centric model is applied using actual and simulated plant data, advanced sensors, anomaly detection methods, statistical analysis and data authentication methods, to help illustrate the benefits of process monitoring applications.

  5. REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP ON NUCLEAR FACILITY DESIGN INFORMATION EXAMINATION AND VERIFICATION FOR SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Metcalf; Robert Bean

    2009-10-01

    Executive Summary The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements nuclear safeguards and verifies countries are compliant with their international nuclear safeguards agreements. One of the key provisions in the safeguards agreement is the requirement that the country provide nuclear facility design and operating information to the IAEA relevant to safeguarding the facility, and at a very early stage. , This provides the opportunity for the IAEA to verify the safeguards-relevant features of the facility and to periodically ensure that those features have not changed. The national authorities (State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material - SSAC) provide the design information for all facilities within a country to the IAEA. The design information is conveyed using the IAEA’s Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) and specifies: (1) Identification of the facility’s general character, purpose, capacity, and location; (2) Description of the facility’s layout and nuclear material form, location, and flow; (3) Description of the features relating to nuclear material accounting, containment, and surveillance; and (4) Description of existing and proposed procedures for nuclear material accounting and control, with identification of nuclear material balance areas. The DIQ is updated as required by written addendum. IAEA safeguards inspectors examine and verify this information in design information examination (DIE) and design information verification (DIV) activities to confirm that the facility has been constructed or is being operated as declared by the facility operator and national authorities, and to develop a suitable safeguards approach. Under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), the National Nuclear Security Administrations (NNSA) Office of Non-Proliferation and International Security identified the need for more effective and efficient verification of design information by the IAEA for improving international safeguards in the future. Consequently, the NNSA Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243) sponsored a team of U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory nuclear safeguards experts and technologists to conduct a workshop on methods and technologies for improving this activity, under the ASA-100 Advanced Safeguards Approaches Project. The workshop focused on reviewing and discussing the fundamental safeguards needs, and presented technology and/or methods that could potentially address those needs more effectively and efficiently. Conclusions and Recommendations for technology to enhance the performance of DIV inspections are presented by the workshop team.

  6. Reversing the Trend: Creating a Growing and Sustainable Cadre of Safeguards Experts in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockwood, Dunbar; Mathews, Caroline E.; Seward, Amy M.

    2008-07-17

    In October 2007, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Office of Non-Proliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a wide-ranging study on international safeguards issues that found, inter alia, that the human capital base in the United States must be revitalized and expanded to ensure a seamless succession from the current generation of safeguards experts. Many current safeguards experts will soon retire and a new generation of talent with capabilities that cover the full spectrum of safeguards-relevant disciplines is needed. The success of this effort will have direct bearing on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). An effective international safeguards system that responds to current and future nonproliferation challenges requires a cadre of skilled safeguards specialists. However, a number of factors have converged in recent years that have challenged the IAEA’s ability to effectively carry out its safeguards mission, e.g. flat funding, expanding responsibilities, and several ad hoc high profile investigations. In the near future, the Agency will require increased numbers of qualified staff to address the expansion and evolution of its mission and anticipated worldwide growth in nuclear energy production. Without a large-scale effort to address this requirement in the near future, the international community will have far less confidence that nuclear material in civil programs is not being diverted for nuclear weapons and the risks of nuclear proliferation will increase around the world. This paper will describe in detail NNSA’s efforts, in coordination with other federal agencies, to address the safeguards human resources challenge, focusing on the recommendations of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI).

  7. Simulation enabled safeguards assessment methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bean, Robert; Bjornard, Trond; Larson, Tom

    2007-07-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wire-frame construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed. (authors)

  8. GNEP Element:Develop Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    GNEP Element:Develop Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards GNEP Element:Develop Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards A description of GNEP development of enhanced nuclear safeguards. PDF icon GNEP Element:Develop Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards More Documents & Publications Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Develop Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Demonstrate Small-Scale Reactors The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

  9. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Metcalf

    2010-10-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  10. Modeling and Simulation for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2012-07-26

    The purpose of this talk is to give an overview of the role of modeling and simulation in Safeguards R&D and introduce you to (some of) the tools used. Some definitions are: (1) Modeling - the representation, often mathematical, of a process, concept, or operation of a system, often implemented by a computer program; (2) Simulation - the representation of the behavior or characteristics of one system through the use of another system, especially a computer program designed for the purpose; and (3) Safeguards - the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. The role of modeling and simulation are: (1) Calculate amounts of material (plant modeling); (2) Calculate signatures of nuclear material etc. (source terms); and (3) Detector performance (radiation transport and detection). Plant modeling software (e.g. FACSIM) gives the flows and amount of material stored at all parts of the process. In safeguards this allow us to calculate the expected uncertainty of the mass and evaluate the expected MUF. We can determine the measurement accuracy required to achieve a certain performance.

  11. Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards: An Introduction to Safeguards for Emerging Nuclear States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Olson, Jarrod; Mathews, Caroline E.; Solodov, Alexander; Zhernosek, Alena; Raffo-Caiado, Ana; Baldwin, George; Horak, Karl; McClelland-Kerr, John; VanSickle, Matthew; Mininni, Margot; Kovacic, Donald

    2009-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) hosted a workshop from May 4-22, 2009, on the fundamental elements of international safeguards. Entitled "A Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards," the workshop introduced post-graduate students from Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Morocco, Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia to the fundamental issues and best practices associated with international safeguards and encouraged them to explore potential career paths in safeguards. Workshops like these strengthen the international safeguards regime by promoting the development of a "safeguards culture" among young nuclear professionals within nascent nuclear countries. While this concept of safeguards culture is sometimes hard to define and even harder to measure, this paper will demonstrate that the promotion of safeguards cultures through workshops like these justifies the investment of U.S. taxpayer dollars.

  12. UNCLASSIFIED Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System CHANGE OF PROJECT NUMBER UPDATE PROJECT Project Number: Title: Date Valid: Date Deactivated: Classification Codes: Project Number:...

  13. RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICES: EFFECTIVENESS IN IMPROVING SAFEGUARDS AT GAS-CENTRIFUGE URANIUM-ENRICHMENT PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOE,J.

    2007-07-08

    Recent advances in radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs) have engendered a growing interest among international safeguards experts. Potentially, RFIDs could reduce inspection work, viz. the number of inspections, number of samples, and duration of the visits, and thus improve the efficiency and effectiveness of international safeguards. This study systematically examined the applications of RFIDs for IAEA safeguards at large gas-centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). These analyses are expected to help identify the requirements and desirable properties for RFIDs, to provide insights into which vulnerabilities matter most, and help formulate the required assurance tests. This work, specifically assesses the application of RFIDs for the ''Option 4'' safeguards approach, proposed by Bruce Moran, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), for large gas-centrifuge uranium-enrichment plants. The features of ''Option 4'' safeguards include placing RFIDs on all feed, product and tails (F/P/T) cylinders, along with WID readers in all FP/T stations and accountability scales. Other features of Moran's ''Option 4'' are Mailbox declarations, monitoring of load-cell-based weighing systems at the F/P/T stations and accountability scales, and continuous enrichment monitors. Relevant diversion paths were explored to evaluate how RFIDs improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards. Additionally, the analysis addresses the use of RFIDs in conjunction with video monitoring and neutron detectors in a perimeter-monitoring approach to show that RFIDs can help to detect unidentified cylinders.

  14. NNSA Kicks Off Next Generation Safeguards Initiative | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy ... safeguards, which protect against proliferation. "Effective nuclear safeguards are the ...

  15. Proceedings of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Safety...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proceedings of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Safety Culture Workshop Proceedings of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Safety Culture Workshop December 16,...

  16. Audit of the Department of Energy's Site Safeguards and Security...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy's Site Safeguards and Security Plans TO: The Secretary BACKGROUND: The Department's Safeguards and Security program is designed to provide appropriate, efficient, and...

  17. Optical assay technology for safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelson, M.C.; Lipert, R.J.; Murray, G.M.; Schuler, R.A.; Vera, J.; Wang, Z.M.; Weeks, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    Research conducted in the Ames Laboratory Nuclear Safeguards and Security Program during the period July 1, 1990 to September 30, 1990 is reviewed; included are reprints and preprints of papers written during this quarter. The first demonstration of isotopic selectivity in Inductively Coupled Plasma -- Laser Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (ICP-LEAFS) is reported and the application of ICP-LEAFS to U isotopic analysis is discussed. Current work in applying optical spectroscopy to the analytical determination of gas phase metal atoms is reviewed. Program administration topics are included in a separately bound Management Supplement to this report.

  18. Improving the Transparency of IAEA Safeguards Reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toomey, Christopher; Hayman, Aaron M.; Wyse, Evan T.; Odlaug, Christopher S.

    2011-07-17

    In 2008, the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI) indicated that the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) has not kept pace with the evolution of safeguards and provided the IAEA with a set of recommendations for improvement. The SIR is the primary mechanism for providing an overview of safeguards implementation in a given year and reporting on the annual safeguards findings and conclusions drawn by the Secretariat. As the IAEA transitions to State-level safeguards approaches, SIR reporting must adapt to reflect these evolutionary changes. This evolved report will better reflect the IAEA's transition to a more qualitative and information-driven approach, based upon State-as-a-whole considerations. This paper applies SAGSI's recommendations to the development of multiple models for an evolved SIR and finds that an SIR repurposed as a 'safeguards portal' could significantly enhance information delivery, clarity, and transparency. In addition, this paper finds that the 'portal concept' also appears to have value as a standardized information presentation and analysis platform for use by Country Officers, for continuity of knowledge purposes, and the IAEA Secretariat in the safeguards conclusion process. Accompanying this paper is a fully functional prototype of the 'portal' concept, built using commercial software and IAEA Annual Report data.

  19. Safeguards and Security Independent Oversight Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-12-23

    Establishes the DOE Safeguards and Security Independent Oversight Program that provides DOE and contractor managers, Congress, and other stakeholders with an independent evaluation of the effectiveness of DOE safeguards and security policy and programs, and the implementation of those policies and programs. Cancels DOE 5630.12A.

  20. Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Safeguards System Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elayat, H A; O'Connell, W J; Boyer, B D

    2006-06-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for potential U.S. use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems used in enrichment facilities. This research focuses on analyzing the effectiveness of the safeguards in protecting against the range of safeguards concerns for enrichment plants, including diversion of attractive material and unauthorized modes of use. We developed an Extend simulation model for a generic medium-sized centrifuge enrichment plant. We modeled the material flow in normal operation, plant operational upset modes, and selected diversion scenarios, for selected safeguards systems. Simulation modeling is used to analyze both authorized and unauthorized use of a plant and the flow of safeguards information. Simulation tracks the movement of materials and isotopes, identifies the signatures of unauthorized use, tracks the flow and compilation of safeguards data, and evaluates the effectiveness of the safeguards system in detecting misuse signatures. The simulation model developed could be of use to the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, enabling the IAEA to observe and draw conclusions that uranium enrichment facilities are being used only within authorized limits for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It will evaluate improved approaches to nonproliferation concerns, facilitating deployment of enhanced and cost-effective safeguards systems for an important part of the nuclear power fuel cycle.

  1. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance. (DLC)

  2. Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity March 25, 2015 Cross-cutting Sustainability Platform Review Principle Investigator: Dr. Henriette I. Jager Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2015 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review Goal Statement Addresses the following MYPP BETO goals:  Advance scientific methods and models for measuring and understanding

  3. Incorporating Biodiversity Considerations Into Environmental Impact

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Analysis Under NEPA | Department of Energy Incorporating Biodiversity Considerations Into Environmental Impact Analysis Under NEPA Incorporating Biodiversity Considerations Into Environmental Impact Analysis Under NEPA This Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) report is intended to provide background on the emerging, complex subject of biodiversity, outline some general concepts that underlie biological diversity analysis and management, describe how the issue is currently addressed in

  4. DOE/NNSA perspective safeguard by design: GEN III/III+ light water reactors and beyond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Paul Y

    2010-12-10

    An overview of key issues relevant to safeguards by design (SBD) for GEN III/IV nuclear reactors is provided. Lessons learned from construction of typical GEN III+ water reactors with respect to SBD are highlighted. Details of SBD for safeguards guidance development for GEN III/III+ light water reactors are developed and reported. This paper also identifies technical challenges to extend SBD including proliferation resistance methodologies to other GEN III/III+ reactors (except HWRs) and GEN IV reactors because of their immaturity in designs.

  5. Relevant Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Relevant Links **Light Source Facilities Around the World** Advanced Materials Research Institiute(AMRI), UNO Area Hotels Chase Suite Hotel Baton Rouge Extended Stay America Holiday Inn South Baton Rouge Marriott Residence Inns Wyndham Garden Gulf Coast Protein Crystallography Consortium Health Physics Society Institute for Micromanufacturing, LA Tech University Interactions.org - Particle Physics News and Resources International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Light Sources.org The Louisiana

  6. Office of Safeguards, Security & Emergency Preparedness | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Safeguards, Security & Emergency Preparedness Office of Safeguards, Security & Emergency Preparedness Office of Safeguards, Security & Emergency Preparedness Mission Develop and oversee the implementation of policy and guidance with respect to security and emergency management. Foster continuous improvement across the Environmental Management (EM) complex through application of Integrated Safeguards and Security Management principles. Serve as a liaison with sites and

  7. IAEA Safeguards: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santi, Peter A.; Hypes, Philip A.

    2012-06-14

    This talk will present an overview of the International Atomic Energy Agency with a specific focus on its international safeguards mission and activities. The talk will first present a brief history of the IAEA and discuss its current governing structure. It will then focus on the Safeguards Department and its role in providing assurance that nuclear materials are being used for peaceful purposes. It will then look at how the IAEA is currently evolving the way in which it executes its safeguards mission with a focus on the idea of a state-level approach.

  8. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Scott J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is intended to provide the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its safeguards obligations. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of IAEA safeguards as those safeguards evolve towards a “State-Level approach.” The Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept can facilitate the implementation of these effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards (Bjornard, et al. 2009a, 2009b; IAEA, 1998; Wonder & Hockert, 2011). This report, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, introduces a methodology intended to ensure that the diverse approaches to Safeguards by Design can be effectively integrated and consistently used to cost effectively enhance the application of international safeguards.

  9. Safeguards and Security Program, acronyms and abbereviations - DOE M

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    470.4-7 | Department of Energy Program, acronyms and abbereviations - DOE M 470.4-7 Safeguards and Security Program, acronyms and abbereviations - DOE M 470.4-7 August 26, 2005 Canceled Safeguards and Security Program acronyms and abbereviations Canceled -7 Section C Safeguards and Security Program acronyms and abbereviations PDF icon Safeguards and Security Program, acronyms and abbereviations - DOE M 470.4-7 More Documents & Publications Safeguards and Security Glossary - DOE M 470.4-7

  10. Safeguards and Security and Cyber Security RM | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Safeguards and Security and Cyber Security RM Safeguards and Security and Cyber Security RM The SSCS RM is a tool that assists the DOE federal project review teams in evaluating the technical sufficiency of the project SSCS activities at CD-0 through CD-4. PDF icon Safeguards and Security and Cyber Security RM More Documents & Publications Safeguards and Security Program, acronyms and abbereviations - DOE M 470.4-7 Safeguards and Security Glossary - DOE M 470.4-7 Standard Review Plan -

  11. FAQS Reference Guide - Safeguards and Security | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Safeguards and Security FAQS Reference Guide - Safeguards and Security This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the May 2009 edition of DOE-STD-1171-2009, Safeguards and Security Functional Area Qualification Standard. PDF icon Safeguards and Security Qualification Standard Reference Guide, October 2010 More Documents & Publications FAQS Job Task Analyses - Safeguards and Security General Technical Base DOE-STD-1171-2009 DOE-STD-1123-2009

  12. Safeguards and Security Program - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    O 470.4B, Safeguards and Security Program by Mary Gallion Functional areas: Safety, Safety and Security, Security, Work Processes, To establish responsibilities for the U.S....

  13. The Concept of Goals-Driven Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Wigeland; T Bjornard; B. Castle

    2009-02-01

    The IAEA, NRC, and DOE regulations and requirements for safeguarding nuclear material and facilities have been reviewed and each organization’s purpose, objectives, and scope are discussed in this report. Current safeguards approaches are re-examined considering technological advancements and how these developments are changing safeguards approaches used by these organizations. Additionally, the physical protection approaches required by the IAEA, NRC, and DOE were reviewed and the respective goals, objectives, and requirements are identified and summarized in this report. From these, a brief comparison is presented showing the high-level similarities among these regulatory organizations’ approaches to physical protection. The regulatory documents used in this paper have been assembled into a convenient reference library called the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Reference Library. The index of that library is included in this report, and DVDs containing the full library are available.

  14. Safeguards and Security Program Planning and Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-08-26

    Establishes program planning and management requirements for the Departments Safeguards and Security (S&S) Program. Cancels: DOE N 473.9 and DOE M 470.1-1

  15. Safeguards and Security Program Planning and Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-08-26

    The manual establishes program planning and management requirements for the Departments Safeguards and Security. Chg 1, dated 3-7-06 Cancels DOE N 473.9, DOE M 470.1-1 Chg 2.

  16. Safeguards Workforce Repatriation, Retention and Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallucci, Nicholas; Poe, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked by NA-241 to assess the transition of former IAEA employees back to the United States, investigating the rate of retention and overall smoothness of the repatriation process among returning safeguards professionals. Upon conducting several phone interviews, study authors found that the repatriation process went smoothly for the vast majority and that workforce retention was high. However, several respondents expressed irritation over the minimal extent to which their safeguards expertise had been leveraged in their current positions. This sentiment was pervasive enough to prompt a follow-on study focusing on questions relating to the utilization rather than the retention of safeguards professionals. A second, web-based survey was conducted, soliciting responses from a larger sample pool. Results suggest that the safeguards workforce may be oversaturated, and that young professionals returning to the United States from Agency positions may soon encounter difficulties finding jobs in the field.

  17. Integrated Safeguards and Security Management (ISSM) Policy

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-05-08

    The purpose of this Policy is to formalize an Integrated Safeguards and Security Management (ISSM) framework. Safeguards and security management systems provide a formal, organized process for planning, performing, assessing, and improving the secure conduct of work in accordance with risk-based protection strategies. These systems are institutionalized through Department of Energy (DOE) directives and contracts. Does not cancel other directives. Canceled by DOE P 470.1A.

  18. Safeguards and Security Program and Project Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2013-04-18

    The proposed revision to this Department of Energy Guide focuses on alignment of guidance for implementing key safeguard and security components to the DOE capital asset acquisition process with the revised DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for Acquisition of Capital Assets, the revised DOE O 470.4B, Safeguard and Security Program, and the new series of DOE Orders replacing the DOE M 470.4 series of manuals.

  19. AFCI Safeguards Enhancement Study: Technology Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Leon E.; Dougan, A.; Tobin, Stephen; Cipiti, B.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Bakel, A. J.; Bean, Robert; Grate, Jay W.; Santi, P.; Bryan, Steven; Kinlaw, M. T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Burr, Tom; Lehn, Scott A.; Tolk, K.; Chichester, David; Menlove, H.; Vo, D.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Merkle, P.; Wang, T. F.; Duran, F.; Nakae, L.; Warren, Glen A.; Friedrich, S.; Rabin, M.

    2008-12-31

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Safeguards Campaign aims to develop safeguards technologies and processes that will significantly reduce the risk of proliferation in the U.S. nuclear fuel cycle of tomorrow. The Safeguards Enhancement Study was chartered with identifying promising research and development (R&D) directions over timescales both near-term and long-term, and under safeguards oversight both domestic and international. This technology development roadmap documents recognized gaps and needs in the safeguarding of nuclear fuel cycles, and outlines corresponding performance targets for each of those needs. Drawing on the collective expertise of technologists and user-representatives, a list of over 30 technologies that have the potential to meet those needs was developed, along with brief summaries of each candidate technology. Each summary describes the potential impact of that technology, key research questions to be addressed, and prospective development milestones that could lead to a definitive viability or performance assessment. Important programmatic linkages between U.S. agencies and offices are also described, reflecting the emergence of several safeguards R&D programs in the U.S. and the reinvigoration of nuclear fuel cycles across the globe.

  20. Integration of Biodiversity into National Forestry Planning:...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiversity into National Forestry Planning: An Annotated Bibliography of Web-Based Resources, Methods, Experiences, and Case Studies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary...

  1. Safeguards and Security Technology Development Directory. FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Safeguards and Security Technology Development Directory is published annually by the Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), and is Intended to inform recipients of the full scope of the OSS R&D program. It is distributed for use by DOE headquarters personnel, DOE program offices, DOE field offices, DOE operating contractors, national laboratories, other federal agencies, and foreign governments. Chapters 1 through 7 of the Directory provide general information regarding the Technology Development Program, including the mission, program description, organizational roles and responsibilities, technology development lifecycle, requirements analysis, program formulation, the task selection process, technology development infrastructure, technology transfer activities, and current research and development tasks. These chapters are followed by a series of appendices which contain more specific information on aspects of the Program. Appendix A is a summary of major technology development accomplishments made during FY 1992. Appendix B lists S&S technology development reports issued during FY 1992 which reflect work accomplished through the OSS Technology Development Program and other relevant activities outside the Program. Finally, Appendix C summarizes the individual task statements which comprise the FY 1993 Technology Development Program.

  2. Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1989-04-01

    Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  3. Beyond Human Capital Development: Balanced Safeguards Workforce Metrics and the Next Generation Safeguards Workforce

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burbank, Roberta L.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Shergur, Jason M.; Scholz, Melissa A.; Undem, Halvor A.

    2014-03-28

    Since its establishment in 2008, the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has achieved a number of objectives under its five pillars: concepts and approaches, policy development and outreach, international nuclear safeguards engagement, technology development, and human capital development (HCD). As a result of these efforts, safeguards has become much more visible as a critical U.S. national security interest across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, limited budgets have since created challenges in a number of areas. Arguably, one of the more serious challenges involves NGSI’s ability to integrate entry-level staff into safeguards projects. Laissez fair management of this issue across the complex can lead to wasteful project implementation and endanger NGSI’s long-term sustainability. The authors provide a quantitative analysis of this problem, focusing on the demographics of the current safeguards workforce and compounding pressures to operate cost-effectively, transfer knowledge to the next generation of safeguards professionals, and sustain NGSI safeguards investments.

  4. The evolution of information-driven safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budlong-sylvester, Kory W; Pilat, Joseph F

    2010-10-14

    From the adoption of the Model Additional Protocol and integrated safeguards in the 1990s, to current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts to deal with cases of noncompliance, the question of how the Agency can best utilize all the information available to it remains of great interest and increasing importance. How might the concept of 'information-driven' safeguards (IDS) evolve in the future? The ability of the Agency to identify and resolve anomalies has always been important and has emerged as a core Agency function in recent years as the IAEA has had to deal with noncompliance in Iran and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). Future IAEA safeguards implementation should be designed with the goal of facilitating and enhancing this vital capability. In addition, the Agency should utilize all the information it possesses, including its in-house assessments and expertise, to direct its safeguards activities. At the State level, knowledge of proliferation possibilities is currently being used to guide the analytical activities of the Agency and to develop inspection plans. How far can this approach be extended? Does it apply across State boundaries? Should it dictate a larger fraction of safeguards activities? Future developments in IDS should utilize the knowledge resident within the Agency to ensure that safeguards resources flow to where they are most needed in order to address anomalies first and foremost, but also to provide greater confidence in conclusions regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear activities. The elements of such a system and related implementation issues are assessed in this paper.

  5. Safeguards and Security for Program and Project Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2013-08-15

    This Guide addresses the implementation steps for achieving safeguards and security systems that support the Department's projection objectives.

  6. ORO Office Safeguards and Security Clearance Tracking System and Visitor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control System PIA, Oak Ridge Operations Office | Department of Energy Office Safeguards and Security Clearance Tracking System and Visitor Control System PIA, Oak Ridge Operations Office ORO Office Safeguards and Security Clearance Tracking System and Visitor Control System PIA, Oak Ridge Operations Office ORO Office Safeguards and Security Clearance Tracking System and Visitor Control System PIA, Oak Ridge Operations Office PDF icon ORO Office Safeguards and Security Clearance Tracking

  7. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Electronic Safeguards Security

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System (E3S) | Department of Energy Electronic Safeguards Security System (E3S) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Electronic Safeguards Security System (E3S) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Electronic Safeguards Security System (E3S) PDF icon PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Electronic Safeguards Security System (E3S) More Documents & Publications PIA - 10th International Nuclear Graphite Specialists Meeting registration web site PIA - HSPD-12 Physical and Logical

  8. Next Generation Safeguards Initiatives at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Next Generation Safeguards Initiatives at Los Alamos National Laboratory Strengthening Human Capital for International Safeguards - 2009 * In October 2007, NNSA's Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) urged the national laboratories to create projects devoted to improving human capital and training for nuclear safeguards as part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). * To meet this need, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National

  9. Safeguards and Security Program Planning and Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-08-26

    The manual establishes program planning and management requirements for the Department’s Safeguards and Security (S&S) Program. Change 2 is a revision to Section M of both the Manual and the CRD to realign the process for establishing deviations from DOE directives containing safeguards and security requirements to reflect established Departmental policy as set forth in DOE O 251.1C. Original publication, 8-26-05; Chg 1, 3-7-06. Canceled by DOE O 470.4B

  10. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Summer Internship Program | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Next Generation Safeguards Initiative The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) launched the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to develop policies, concepts, technologies, expertise, and infrastructure necessary to sustain the international safeguards system as its mission evolves over the next 25 years. Learn More Center for Strategic Security Argonne's Center for Strategic Security (CSS) develops and implements practical

  11. Using Process Load Cell Information for IAEA Safeguards at Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughter, Mark D; Whitaker, J Michael; Howell, John

    2010-01-01

    Uranium enrichment service providers are expanding existing enrichment plants and constructing new facilities to meet demands resulting from the shutdown of gaseous diffusion plants, the completion of the U.S.-Russia highly enriched uranium downblending program, and the projected global renaissance in nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts verification inspections at safeguarded facilities to provide assurance that signatory States comply with their treaty obligations to use nuclear materials only for peaceful purposes. Continuous, unattended monitoring of load cells in UF{sub 6} feed/withdrawal stations can provide safeguards-relevant process information to make existing safeguards approaches more efficient and effective and enable novel safeguards concepts such as information-driven inspections. The IAEA has indicated that process load cell monitoring will play a central role in future safeguards approaches for large-scale gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This presentation will discuss previous work and future plans related to continuous load cell monitoring, including: (1) algorithms for automated analysis of load cell data, including filtering methods to determine significant weights and eliminate irrelevant impulses; (2) development of metrics for declaration verification and off-normal operation detection ('cylinder counting,' near-real-time mass balancing, F/P/T ratios, etc.); (3) requirements to specify what potentially sensitive data is safeguards relevant, at what point the IAEA gains on-site custody of the data, and what portion of that data can be transmitted off-site; (4) authentication, secure on-site storage, and secure transmission of load cell data; (5) data processing and remote monitoring schemes to control access to sensitive and proprietary information; (6) integration of process load cell data in a layered safeguards approach with cross-check verification; (7) process mock-ups constructed to provide simulated load cell data; (8) hardware and software implementation for process load cell data collection; (9) costs associated with unattended monitoring of load cells (for both operator and inspector) weighed against the potential benefits of having access to such data; (10) results from field tests of load cell data collection systems in operating facilities; and (11) use of unattended load cell data to increase efficiency of on-site inspection schedules and activities.

  12. In-Born Radio Frequency Identification Devices for Safeguards Use at Gas-Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward,R.; Rosenthal,M.

    2009-07-12

    Global expansion of nuclear power has made the need for improved safeguards measures at Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants (GCEPs) imperative. One technology under consideration for safeguards applications is Radio Frequency Identification Devices (RFIDs). RFIDs have the potential to increase IAEA inspector"s efficiency and effectiveness either by reducing the number of inspection visits necessary or by reducing inspection effort at those visits. This study assesses the use of RFIDs as an integral component of the "Option 4" safeguards approach developed by Bruce Moran, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), for a model GCEP [1]. A previous analysis of RFIDs was conducted by Jae Jo, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which evaluated the effectiveness of an RFID tag applied by the facility operator [2]. This paper presents a similar evaluation carried out in the framework of Jo’s paper, but it is predicated on the assumption that the RFID tag is applied by the manufacturer at the birth of the cylinder, rather than by the operator. Relevant diversion scenarios are examined to determine if RFIDs increase the effectiveness and/ or efficiency of safeguards in these scenarios. Conclusions on the benefits offered to inspectors by using in-born RFID tagging are presented.

  13. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Rick L.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This third report in the series reviews possible safeguards approaches for new fast reactors in general, and the ABR in particular. Fast-neutron spectrum reactors have been used since the early 1960s on an experimental and developmental level, generally with fertile blanket fuels to “breed” nuclear fuel such as plutonium. Whether the reactor is designed to breed plutonium, or transmute and “burn” actinides depends mainly on the design of the reactor neutron reflector and the whether the blanket fuel is “fertile” or suitable for transmutation. However, the safeguards issues are very similar, since they pertain mainly to the receipt, shipment and storage of fresh and spent plutonium and actinide-bearing “TRU”-fuel. For these reasons, the design of existing fast reactors and details concerning how they have been safeguarded were studied in developing advanced safeguards approaches for the new fast reactors. In this regard, the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II “EBR-II” at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was of interest, because it was designed as a collocated fast reactor with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication line – a design option being considered for the ABR. Similarly, the design of the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) on the Hanford Site was studied, because it was a successful prototype fast reactor that ran for two decades to evaluate fuels and the design for commercial-scale fast reactors.

  14. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1988-09-28

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Improving the Safeguardability of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; D. Hebditch; P. Peterson; M. Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities has the potential to reduce security risks and proliferation hazards while improving the synergy of major design features and raising operational efficiency, in a world where significant expansion of nuclear energy use may occur. Correspondingly, the U.S. DOE’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) includes objectives to contribute to international efforts to develop SBD, and to apply SBD in the development of new U.S. nuclear infrastructure. Here, SBD is defined as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient and cost effective integration of international safeguards and other nonproliferation barriers with national material control and accountability, physical protection, and safety objectives into the overall design process for a nuclear facility, from initial planning through design, construction and operation. The SBD process, in its simplest form, may be applied usefully today within most national regulatory environments. Development of a mature approach to implementing SBD requires work in the areas of requirements definition, design processes, technology and methodology, and institutionalization. The U.S. efforts described in this paper are supportive of SBD work for international safeguards that has recently been initiated by the IAEA with the participation of many stakeholders including member States, the IAEA, nuclear technology suppliers, nuclear utilities, and the broader international nonproliferation community.

  16. Hydropower, adaptive management, and biodiversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wieringa, M.J.; Morton, A.G.

    1996-11-01

    Adaptive management is a policy framework within which an iterative process of decision making is allowed based on the observed responses to and effectiveness of previous decisions. The use of adaptive management allows science-based research and monitoring of natural resource and ecological community responses, in conjunction with societal values and goals, to guide decisions concerning man`s activities. The adaptive management process has been proposed for application to hydropower operations at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, a situation that requires complex balancing of natural resources requirements and competing human uses. This example is representative of the general increase in public interest in the operation of hydropower facilities and possible effects on downstream natural resources and of the growing conflicts between uses and users of river-based resources. This paper describes the adaptive management process, using the Glen Canyon Dam example, and discusses ways to make the process work effectively in managing downstream natural resources and biodiversity. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  17. The new geospatial tools: global transparency enhancing safeguards verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pabian, Frank Vincent

    2010-09-16

    This paper focuses on the importance and potential role of the new, freely available, geospatial tools for enhancing IAEA safeguards and how, together with commercial satellite imagery, they can be used to promote 'all-source synergy'. As additional 'open sources', these new geospatial tools have heralded a new era of 'global transparency' and they can be used to substantially augment existing information-driven safeguards gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection of undeclared facilities, as well as support ongoing monitoring and verification of various treaty (e.g., NPT, FMCT) relevant activities and programs. As an illustration of how these new geospatial tools may be applied, an original exemplar case study provides how it is possible to derive value-added follow-up information on some recent public media reporting of a former clandestine underground plutonium production complex (now being converted to a 'Tourist Attraction' given the site's abandonment by China in the early 1980s). That open source media reporting, when combined with subsequent commentary found in various Internet-based Blogs and Wikis, led to independent verification of the reporting with additional ground truth via 'crowdsourcing' (tourist photos as found on 'social networking' venues like Google Earth's Panoramio layer and Twitter). Confirmation of the precise geospatial location of the site (along with a more complete facility characterization incorporating 3-D Modeling and visualization) was only made possible following the acquisition of higher resolution commercial satellite imagery that could be correlated with the reporting, ground photos, and an interior diagram, through original imagery analysis of the overhead imagery.

  18. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-11-09

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  19. The US Support Program Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards Information Technology, Collection, and Analysis 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tackentien,J.

    2008-06-12

    One of the United States Support Program's (USSP) priorities for 2008 is to support the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) development of an integrated and efficient safeguards information infrastructure, including reliable and maintainable information systems, and effective tools and resources to collect and analyze safeguards-relevant information. The USSP has provided funding in support of this priority for the ISIS Re-engineering Project (IRP), and for human resources support to the design and definition of the enhanced information analysis architecture project (nVision). Assistance for several other information technology efforts is provided. This paper will report on the various ongoing support measures undertaken by the USSP to support the IAEA's information technology enhancements and will provide some insights into activities that the USSP may support in the future.

  20. Trial Application of the Facility Safeguardability Assessment Process to the NuScale SMR Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Garill A.; Hockert, John; Gitau, Ernest TN; Zentner, Michael D.

    2013-01-26

    FSA is a screening process intended to focus a facility designer’s attention on the aspects of their facility or process design that would most benefit from application of SBD principles and practices. The process is meant to identify the most relevant guidance within the SBD tools for enhancing the safeguardability of the design. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, NNSA sponsored PNNL to evaluate the practical application of FSA by applying it to the NuScale small modular nuclear power plant. This report documents the application of the FSA process, presenting conclusions regarding its efficiency and robustness. It describes the NuScale safeguards design concept and presents functional "infrastructure" guidelines that were developed using the FSA process.

  1. Science and Technology Challenges for International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    The science and technology challenges for international safeguards range from cutting edge physics needs to practical technology solutions for high volume data handling and analysis issues. This paper will take a narrow look at some of the predominant challenges, which include those at high throughput commercial facilities and those in the detection of undeclared facilities. It is hoped that by highlighting these areas it can encourage a concerted effort by scientific institutions and industry to provide robust cost-effective solutions.

  2. International Nuclear Safeguards | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Safeguards | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog

  3. Safeguards and Security Functional Area Qualification Standard

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1-2009 May 2009 DOE STANDARD SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY FUNCTIONAL AREA QUALIFICATION STANDARD DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities Technical Personnel U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1171-2009 ii This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ DOE-STD-1171-2009 iii APPROVAL The Federal

  4. Implementation of Safeguards and Security Policy Panels

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    5,2008 MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION FROM URITY OFFICER AND SECURITY SUBJECT: Implementation of Safeguards and Security Policy Panels The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) recognizes the importance of well- conceived strategies and policies to support and communicate the security posture of the Department. In order for our security policies to properly reflect and enable Department of Energy corporate strategies, early and frequent communication between policy makers and end users is

  5. UNCLASSIFIED Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System CHANGE OF PROJECT NUMBER UPDATE PROJECT Project Number: Title: Date Valid: Date Deactivated: Classification Codes: Project Number: Project Title: Associated Materials: Programmatic RIS Previous Project Number(s) Status Code Allotment Code (S=Supplier, U=User) I authorize that the information listed above is for the NMMSS Program to use as part of the project number conversion process for this facility. Signature of Authorized Official Date

  6. Safeguard Requirements for Fusion Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Goldston and Alexander Glaser

    2012-08-10

    Nuclear proliferation risks from magnetic fusion energy associated with access to fissile materials can be divided into three main categories: 1) clandestine production of fissile material in an undeclared facility, 2) covert production and diversion of such material in a declared and safeguarded facility, and 3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state openly produces fissile material in violation of international agreements. The degree of risk in each of these categories is assessed, taking into account both state and non-state actors, and it is found that safeguards are required for fusion energy to be highly attractive from a non-proliferation standpoint. Specific safeguard requirements and R&D needs are outlined for each category of risk, and the technical capability of the ITER experiment, under construction, to contribute to this R&D is noted. A preliminary analysis indicates a potential legal pathway for fusion power systems to be brought under the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. "Vertical" proliferation risks associated with tritium and with the knowledge that can be gained from inertial fusion energy R&D are outlined.

  7. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Safeguards and Security -

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    August 2012 | Department of Energy Safeguards and Security - August 2012 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Safeguards and Security - August 2012 August 2012 Evaluation to determine whether Safeguards and Security at Hanford is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition. The Team conducted its review on August 23, 2012 to determine whether Mission Support Alliance, LLC is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition. PDF icon Voluntary

  8. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Safeguards and Security -

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    October 2011 | Department of Energy Safeguards and Security - October 2011 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Safeguards and Security - October 2011 October 2011 Evaluation to determine whether Safeguards and Security is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition. The Team conducted its review during September 26 - October 6, 2011 to determine whether Mission Support Alliance, LLC is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition. PDF

  9. Memorandum, Safeguards & Security Policy Panels - February 15, 2008 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Memorandum, Safeguards & Security Policy Panels - February 15, 2008 Memorandum, Safeguards & Security Policy Panels - February 15, 2008 February 15, 2008 As outlined in the attached HSS memo, dated December 3,2007, subject: Safeguards and Security Policy Panels, the HSS Office of Security Policy is establishing several new policy panels that will create new opportunities for communication and will include those current active groups that are now effectively

  10. Modeling and Simulation for Safeguards and Nonproliferation Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilligan, Kimberly V.; Kirk, Bernadette Lugue

    2015-01-01

    The Modeling and Simulation for Safeguards and Nonproliferation Workshop was held December 15–18, 2014, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This workshop was made possible by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Human Capital Development (NGSI HCD) Program. The idea of the workshop was to move beyond the tried-and-true boot camp training of nonproliferation concepts to spend several days on the unique perspective of applying modeling and simulation (M&S) solutions to safeguards challenges.

  11. Mission Support Alliance LLC Safeguards and Security Hanford August 2012

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mission Support Alliance, LLC Safeguards and Security Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program Merit Review August 23, 2012 Background: Located in Richland, Washington, the mission of Mission Support Alliance, LLC (MSA), Safeguards and Security (SAS), at Hanford is to maintain a standardized program for all Project Hanford Management contractors relating to safeguards and security functions and to physically protect special nuclear material, classified material, government property, and

  12. 2015 Safeguards and Security Directors Conference - July 14 - 16, 2015 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Safeguards and Security Directors Conference - July 14 - 16, 2015 2015 Safeguards and Security Directors Conference - July 14 - 16, 2015 April 20, 2015 - 1:20pm Addthis The 2015 Safeguards and Security Directors Conference will bring together both Federal and Contractor senior security directors and managers from across the Department of Energy and other invited government agencies. This event will address many of the significant policy updates, reorganization, and

  13. Safeguards-by-Design: Early Integration of Physical Protection and Safeguardability into Design of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Bjornard; R. Bean; S. DeMuth; P. Durst; M. Ehinger; M. Golay; D. Hebditch; J. Hockert; J. Morgan

    2009-09-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities has the potential to minimize proliferation and security risks as the use of nuclear energy expands worldwide. This paper defines a generic SBD process and its incorporation from early design phases into existing design / construction processes and develops a framework that can guide its institutionalization. SBD could be a basis for a new international norm and standard process for nuclear facility design. This work is part of the U.S. DOE’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), and is jointly sponsored by the Offices of Non-proliferation and Nuclear Energy.

  14. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Safeguards and Security...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Safeguards and Security - August 2012 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, FLUOR HANFORD SAS - February 2008 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Hanford...

  15. FAQS Reference Guide – Safeguards and Security General Technical Base

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the July 2009 edition of DOE-STD-1123-2009, Safeguards and Security General Technical Base Qualification Standard.

  16. An American Academy for Training Safeguards Inspectors - An Idea Revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip Casey Durst; Robert Bean

    2010-07-01

    In 2009, we presented the idea of an American academy for training safeguards inspectors for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), due to the declining percentage of Americans in that international organization. In this paper we assert that there is still a compelling need for this academy. While the American Safeguards Academy would be useful in preparing and pre-training American inspectors for the IAEA, it would also be useful for preparing Americans for domestic safeguards duties in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. DOE National Laboratories, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is envisioned that such an academy would train graduate and post-graduate university students, DOE National Laboratory interns, and nuclear safeguards professionals in the modern equipment, safeguards measures, and approaches currently used by the IAEA. It is also envisioned that the Academy would involve the domestic nuclear industry, which could provide use of commercial nuclear facilities for tours and demonstrations of the safeguards tools and methods in actual nuclear facilities. This would be in support of the U.S. DOE National Nuclear Security Administration’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). This training would also help American nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation professionals better understand the potential limitations of the current tools used by the IAEA and give them a foundation from which to consider even more effective and efficient safeguards measures and approaches.

  17. Safeguards and Security for Program and Project Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2013-08-15

    The Guide provides a methodology for implementing the safeguards and security requirements of DOE O 413.3B. Supersedes DOE G 413.3-3.

  18. Safeguards and Security for Program and Project Management -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Management, Property Management, Safety and Security The Guide provides a methodology for implementing the safeguards and security requirements of DOE O 413.3B....

  19. EM Headquarters Office Ensures Safeguards, Security, Emergency Preparedness

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – The Office of Safeguards, Security and Emergency Preparedness has a unique function supporting the EM mission.

  20. Safeguards and Security Oversight and Assessments Implementation Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-12-21

    This Guide identifies acceptable methods for implementing the safeguards and security provisions of DOE O 226.1A. Canceled by DOE N 251.80.

  1. Parker, J.L. 98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS, AND PHYSICAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for plutonium and americium-241 decay corrections Sampson, T.E.; Parker, J.L. 98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS, AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; AMERICIUM 241; DECAY; PLUTONIUM;...

  2. The future of IAEA safeguards: challenges and responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilat, Joseph F; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W

    2011-01-01

    For nearly two decades, the International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) has been transforming its safeguards system to address the challenges posed by undeclared nuclear programs, the associated revelation of an extensive non-State nuclear procurement network and other issues, including past limits to its verification mandate and the burden of noncompliance issues. Implementing the new measures, including those in the Additional Protocol, and integrating new and old safeguards measures, remains a work in progress. Implementation is complicated by factors including the limited teclmological tools that are available to address such issues as safeguarding bulk handling facilities, detection of undeclared facilities/activities, especially related to enrichment, etc. As this process continues, new challenges are arising, including the demands of expanding nuclear power production worldwide, so-called safeguards by design for a new generation of facilities, the possible IAEA role in a fissile material cutoff treaty and other elements of the arms control and disarmament agenda, the possible role in 'rollback' cases, etc. There is no doubt safeguards will need to evolve in the future, as they have over the last decades. In order for the evolutionary path to proceed, there will inter alia be a need to identify technological gaps, especially with respect to undeclared facilities, and ensure they are filled by adapting old safeguards technologies, by developing and introducing new and novel safeguards teclmologies and/or by developing new procedures and protocols. Safeguards will also need to respond to anticipated emerging threats and to future, unanticipated threats. This will require strategic planning and cooperation among Member States and with the Agency. This paper will address challenges to IAEA safeguards and the technological possibilities and R&D strategies needed to meet those challenges in the context of the forty-year evolution of safeguards, including the ongoing transformation of safeguards by the Agency.

  3. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A; Quiter, Brian J; Ambers, Scott D

    2011-02-04

    In nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurements, resonances are excited by an external photon beam leading to the emission of {gamma} rays with specific energies that are characteristic of the emitting isotope. The promise of NRF as a non-destructive analysis technique (NDA) in safeguards applications lies in its potential to directly quantify a specific isotope in an assay target without the need for unfolding the combined responses of several fissile isotopes as often required by other NDA methods. The use of NRF for detection of sensitive nuclear materials and other contraband has been researched in the past. In the safeguards applications considered here one has to go beyond mere detection and precisely quantify the isotopic content, a challenge that is discussed throughout this report. Basic NRF measurement methods, instrumentation, and the analytical calculation of NRF signal strengths are described in Section 2. Well understood modeling and simulation tools are needed for assessing the potential of NRF for safeguards and for designing measurement systems. All our simulations were performed with the radiation transport code MCNPX, a code that is widely used in the safeguards community. Our initial studies showed that MCNPX grossly underestimated the elastically scattered background at backwards angles due to an incorrect treatment of Rayleigh scattering. While new, corrected calculations based on ENDF form factors showed much better agreement with experimental data for the elastic scattering of photons on an uranium target, the elastic backscatter is still not rigorously treated. Photonuclear scattering processes (nuclear Thomson, Delbruck and Giant Dipole Resonance scattering), which are expected to play an important role at higher energies, are not yet included. These missing elastic scattering contributions were studied and their importance evaluated evaluated against data found in the literature as discussed in Section 3. A transmission experiment was performed in September 2009 to test and demonstrate the applicability of the method to the quantitative measurement of an isotope of interest embedded in a thick target. The experiment, data analysis, and results are described in Section 4. The broad goal of our NRF studies is to assess the potential of the technique in safeguards applications. Three examples are analyzed in Section 5: the isotopic assay of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), the measurement of {sup 235}U enrichment in UF{sub 6} cylinders, and the determination of {sup 239}Pu in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The study of NRF for the assay of SNF assemblies was supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. Department of Energy as part of a large multi-lab/university effort to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in spent nuclear fuel assemblies and to detect the diversion of pins with non-destructive assay (NDA) methods. NRF is one of 14 NDA techniques being researched. The methodology for performing and analyzing quantitative NRF measurements was developed for determining Pu mass in SNF and is extensively discussed in this report. The same methodology was applied to the assessment of NRF for the measurement of {sup 235}U enrichment and the determination of {sup 239}Pu in MOX fuel. The analysis centers on determining suitable NRF measurement methods, measurement capabilities that could be realized with currently available instrumentation, and photon source and detector requirements for achieving useful NDA capabilities.

  4. A Simple Candle Filter Safeguard Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, J.P.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.

    2002-09-18

    In order to reach the highest possible efficiencies in a coal-fired turbine-based power system, the turbine should be directly fired with the products of coal utilization. Two main designs employ these turbines: those based on pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs) and those based on integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCCs). In both designs, the suspended particulates, or dust, must be cleaned from the gas before it enters the turbine to prevent fouling and erosion of the blades. To produce the cleanest gas, barrier filters are being developed and are in commercial use. Barrier filters are composed of porous, high-temperature materials that allow the hot gas to pass but collect the dust on the surface. The three main configurations are candle, cross-flow, and tube. Both candle and tube filters have been tested extensively. They are primarily composed of coarsely porous ceramic that serves as a structural support, overlain with a thin, microporous ceramic layer o n the dirty gas side that serves as the primary filter surface. They are highly efficient at removing particulate matter from the gas stream and, because of their ceramic construction, are resistant to gas and ash corrosion. However, ceramics are brittle, and individual elements can fail, allowing the particulates to pass through the hole left by the filter element and erode the turbine. Because of the possibility of occasional filter breakage, safeguard devices (SGDs) must be employed to prevent the dust streaming through broken filters from reaching the turbine. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) safeguard device is composed of three main parts: the ceramic substrate, the adhesive coating, and the safeguard device housing. This report describes the development and laboratory testing of each of those parts as well as the bench-scale performance of both types of complete SGDs.

  5. Safeguards and Security and Cyber Security RM

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Safeguards and Security and Cyber Security Review Module March 2010 CD- -0 OFFICE O S CD-1 OF ENVIRO Standard Safeguar and Cy Rev Critical D CD-2 M ONMENTA Review Pla rds and S yber Secu view Modul Decision (CD CD March 2010 AL MANAG an (SRP) Security urity le D) Applicabili D-3 GEMENT ity CD-4 Post Ope eration Standard Review Plan, 2 nd Edition, March 2010 i FOREWORD The Standard Review Plan (SRP) 1 provides a consistent, predictable corporate review framework to ensure that issues and risks

  6. Safeguards and security status report, August 1981-January 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipley, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    From August 1981 through January 1982, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Program was involved in many activities that are described in the four parts of this report: Nuclear Facility Safeguards Support, Security Development and Support, Safeguards Technology Development, and International Support. Part 1 covers those efforts of direct assistance to the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities. This assistance varies from consultation on materials accounting problems, through development of specialized techniques and devices, to comprehensive participation in the design and implementation of advanced safeguards systems. In addition, a series of training courses in various aspects of safeguards helps make the technology more accessible to those who must apply it. Part 2 concerns a relatively new set of activities at Los Alamos aimed at the security of information and computer systems. The focus this period has been on furthering the development of the Computer Security Center, which provides the basis for encouraging and disseminating the emerging technology. Part 3 describes the development efforts that are essential to continued improvements in the practice of safeguards. Although these projects are properly classified as developmental, in every case they are directed ultimately at recognized problems that commonly occur in operating facilities. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. In addition, enrichment plant safeguards, especially those concerning the Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plant, required a significant portion of our resources. These efforts are beginning to provide substantial returns on our investment in technology transfer.

  7. Electrochemically Modulated Separation for Plutonium Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-12-31

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned "on" and "off" depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 µg Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  8. A colalborative environment for information driven safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Mark R; Michel, Kelly D

    2010-09-15

    For two decades, the IAEA has recognized the need for a comprehensive and strongly integrated Knowledge Management system to support its Information Driven Safeguards activities. In the past, plans for the development of such a system have progressed slowly due to concerns over costs and feasibility. In recent years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a knowledge management system that could serve as the basis for an IAEA Collaborative Environment (ICE). The ICE derivative knowledge management system described in this paper addresses the challenge of living in an era of information overload coupled with certain knowledge shortfalls. The paper describes and defines a system that is flexible, yet ensures coordinated and focused collaboration, broad data evaluation capabilities, architected and organized work flows, and improved communications. The paper and demonstration of ICE will utilize a hypothetical scenario to highlight the functional features that facilitate collaboration amongst and between information analysts and inspectors. The scenario will place these two groups into a simulated planning exercise for a safeguards inspection drawing upon past data acquisitions, inspection reports, analyst conclusions, and a coordinated walk-through of a 3-D model of the facility. Subsequent to the conduct of the simulated facility inspection, the detection of an anomaly and pursuit of follow up activities will illustrate the event notification, information sharing, and collaborative capabilities of the system. The use of a collaborative environment such as ICE to fulfill the complicated knowledge management demands of the Agency and facilitate the completion of annual State Evaluation Reports will also be addressed.

  9. Interactive Simulation of Nuclear Materials Safeguards and Security

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-03-14

    THIEF is an interactive computer simulation or computer game of the safeguards and security (S&S) systems of a nuclear facility. The user is placed in the role of a non-violent insider attempting to remove special nuclear material from the facility. All portions of the S&S system that are relevant to the non-violent insider threat are included. The computer operates the S&S systems and attempts to detect the loss of the nuclear material. Both the physicalmore » protection system and the materials control and accounting system are modeled. The description of the facility and its S&S systems are defined by the user with the aid of an input module. All aspects of the facility description are provided by the user. The program has a custom graphical user interface to facilitate its use by people with limited computer experience. The custom interface also allows it to run on relatively small computer systems.« less

  10. Safeguards and security progress report, January-December 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    From January to December 1985, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Program was involved in the activities described in the first four parts of this report: Safeguards Operations, Security Development and Support, Safeguards Technology Development, and International Support. Part 1 covers efforts of direct assistance to the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities. This assistance includes consultation on materials accounting problems, development and demonstration of specialized techniques and instruments, and comprehensive participation in the design and evaluation of advanced safeguards systems. In addition, a series of training courses in various aspects of safeguards makes the technology more accessible to those who must apply it. Part 2 treats activities aimed at the security of information and computer systems. Our focus this period was on continuing the activities of the Center for Computer Security, which provides the basis for encouraging and disseminating this emerging technology, and on the development and demonstration of secure computer systems. Part 3 describes the broad development efforts essential to continuing improvements in the practice of safeguards. Although these projects are properly classified as developmental, they address recognized problems that commonly occur in operating facilities. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. Enrichment plant safeguards and international safeguards for reprocessing plants required a significant portion of our resources. All of these efforts are beginning to provide substantial returns on our investment in technology transfer, not only in raising the level of safeguards effectiveness but also in our benefiting from field experiences in operating environments.

  11. Third International Meeting on Next Generation Safeguards:Safeguards-by-Design at Enrichment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Jon D.; McGinnis, Brent R; Morgan, James B; Whitaker, Michael; Lockwood, Mr. Dunbar; Shipwash, Jacqueline L

    2011-01-01

    The Third International Meeting on Next Generation Safeguards (NGS3) was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) in Washington, D.C. on 14-15 December 2010; this meeting focused on the Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) concept. There were approximately 100 participants from 13 countries, comprised of safeguards policy and technical experts from government and industry. Representatives also were present from the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), the European Atomic Energy Agency (Euratom), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The primary objective of this meeting was to exchange views and provide recommendations on implementation of the SBD concept for four specific nuclear fuel cycle facility types: gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), GEN III and GEN IV reactors, aqueous reprocessing plants, and mixed oxide fuel fabrication facilities. The general and facility-specific SBD documents generated from the four working groups, which were circulated for comment among working group participants, are intended to provide a substantive contribution to the IAEA's efforts to publish SBD guidance for these specific types of nuclear facilities in the near future. The IAEA has described the SBD concept as an approach in which 'international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning.' As part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), the DOE is working to establish SBD as a global norm through DOE laboratory studies, international workshops, engagement with industry and the IAEA, and setting an example through its use in new nuclear facilities in the United States. This paper describes the discussion topics and final recommendations of the Enrichment Facilities Working Group. The working group participants were tasked with providing recommendations for facility operators and designers, while promoting the IAEA's objectives of: (1) avoiding costly and time-consuming redesign work or retrofits of new nuclear facilities and (2) providing for more effective and efficient implementation of international safeguards.

  12. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kusumi, R.; Daures, Pascal A.; Janssens, Willem; Dickman, Deborah A.

    2010-06-16

    The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad range of subjects, including nuclear material accountancy principles, legal definitions and the regulatory base and inspection tools and techniques. This 60% core part is given by representatives from regulatory bodies (The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Directorate General for Nuclear Energy and Transport), industry (AREVA, British Nuclear Group), and research (Stockholm University, Hamburg University, Joint Research Centre-Institute of Transuranic Elements, and Joint Research Centre-Institute for the Protection of the Citizen). The remaining part is completed with topical lectures addressed by invited lecturers, such as from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the IAEA addressing topics of physical protection, illicit trafficking, the Iraq case study, exercises, including satellite imagery interpretation etc. With this structure of a stable core plus a variable set of invited lectures, the course will remain sustainable and up-to-date. A syllabus provides the students a homogeneous set of information material in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation matters at the European and international level. In this way, the ESARDA TKMWG aims to contribute to a two-fold scientific-technical and political-juridical education and training.

  13. Safeguards and security progress report, January-December 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    From January to December 1984, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Program was involved in the activities described in the first four parts of this report: Nuclear Facility Support, Security Development and Support, Safeguards Technology Development, and International Safeguards. Part 1 covers efforts of direct assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensee facilities. Part 2 treats activities aimed at the security of information and computer systems. was Part 3 describes the broad development efforts essential to continuing improvements in the practice of safeguards. Although these projects are properly classified as developmental, they address recognized problems that commonly occur in operating facilities. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. Enrichment plant safeguards, especially those concerning the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant, required a significant portion of our resources. These efforts are beginning to provide substantial returns on our investment in technology transfer, not only in raising the level of safeguards effectiveness but also in benefiting from field experiences in operating environments.

  14. Safeguards and security progress report, January-December 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.B.

    1984-09-01

    From January to December 1983, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Program was involved in the activities described in the first four parts of this report: Nuclear Facility Support, Security Development and Support, Safeguards Technology Development, and International Safeguards. Part 1 covers efforts of direct assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensee facilities. This assistance includes consultation on materials accounting problems, development of specialized techniques and instruments, and comprehensive participation in the design and implementation of advanced safeguards systems. In addition, a series of training courses in various aspects of safeguards makes the technology more accessible to those who must apply it. Part 2 treats activities aimed at the security of information and computer systems. Our focus this peiod was on continuing the activities of the Computer Security Center, which provides the basis for encouraging and disseminating this emerging technology, and on the development and demonstration of secure computer systems. Part 3 describes the broad development efforts essential to continuing improvements in the practice of safeguards. Although these projects are properly classified as developmental, they address recognized problems that commonly occur in operating facilities. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. Enrichment plant safeguards, especially those concerning the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant, required a significant portion of our resources. These efforts are beginning to provide substantial returns on our investment in technology transfer, not only in raising the level of safeguards effectiveness but also in our benefiting from field experiences in operating environments.

  15. Apparatus for safeguarding a radiological source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M

    2014-10-07

    A tamper detector is provided for safeguarding a radiological source that is moved into and out of a storage location through an access porthole for storage and use. The radiological source is presumed to have an associated shipping container approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for transporting the radiological source. The tamper detector typically includes a network of sealed tubing that spans at least a portion of the access porthole. There is an opening in the network of sealed tubing that is large enough for passage therethrough of the radiological source and small enough to prevent passage therethrough of the associated shipping cask. Generally a gas source connector is provided for establishing a gas pressure in the network of sealed tubing, and a pressure drop sensor is provided for detecting a drop in the gas pressure below a preset value.

  16. Safeguards optimization tool for the advanced fuel cycle facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMuth, Scott; Thomas, Kenneth; Dixon, Eleanor

    2007-07-01

    The planned Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF) is intended to support the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) by demonstrating separation and fuel fabrication processes required to support an Advanced Burner Reactor. Advanced safeguards will be based on new world standards for the prevention of nuclear materials proliferation. Safeguarding nuclear facilities includes inventory accountancy, process monitoring, and containment and surveillance. An effort has been undertaken to optimize selection of technology for advanced safeguards accountancy, by way of using the Standard Error in the Inventory Difference (SEID) as a basis for cost/benefit analyses. (authors)

  17. Safeguards Approaches for Black Box Processes or Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz-Marcano, Helly; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Miller, Erin; Wylie, Joann

    2013-09-25

    The objective of this study is to determine whether a safeguards approach can be developed for “black box” processes or facilities. These are facilities where a State or operator may limit IAEA access to specific processes or portions of a facility; in other cases, the IAEA may be prohibited access to the entire facility. The determination of whether a black box process or facility is safeguardable is dependent upon the details of the process type, design, and layout; the specific limitations on inspector access; and the restrictions placed upon the design information that can be provided to the IAEA. This analysis identified the necessary conditions for safeguardability of black box processes and facilities.

  18. FY 2008 Next Generation Safeguards Initiative International Safeguards Education and Training Pilot Progerams Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreicer, M; Anzelon, G; Essner, J; Dougan, A; Doyle, J; Boyer, B; Hypes, P; Sokova, E; Wehling, F

    2008-10-17

    Key component of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) launched by the National Nuclear Security Administration is the development of human capital to meet present and future challenges to the safeguards regime. An effective university-level education in safeguards and related disciplines is an essential element in a layered strategy to rebuild the safeguards human resource capacity. Two pilot programs at university level, involving 44 students, were initiated and implemented in spring-summer 2008 and linked to hands-on internships at LANL or LLNL. During the internships, students worked on specific safeguards-related projects with a designated Laboratory Mentor to provide broader exposure to nuclear materials management and information analytical techniques. The Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management pilot program was a collaboration between the Texas A&M University (TAMU), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It included a 16-lecture course held during a summer internship program. The instructors for the course were from LANL together with TAMU faculty and LLNL experts. The LANL-based course was shared with the students spending their internship at LLNL via video conference. A week-long table-top (or hands-on) exercise on was also conducted at LANL. The student population was a mix of 28 students from a 12 universities participating in a variety of summer internship programs held at LANL and LLNL. A large portion of the students were TAMU students participating in the NGSI pilot. The International Nuclear Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis pilot program was implemented at the Monterey Institute for International Studies (MIIS) in cooperation with LLNL. It included a two-week intensive course consisting of 20 lectures and two exercises. MIIS, LLNL, and speakers from other U.S. national laboratories (LANL, BNL) delivered lectures for the audience of 16 students. The majority of students were senior classmen or new master's degree graduates from MIIS specializing in nonproliferation policy studies. Other university/organizations represented: University of California in LA, Stanford University, and the IAEA. Four of the students that completed this intensive course participated in a 2-month internship at LLNL. The conclusions of the two pilot courses and internships was a NGSI Summer Student Symposium, held at LLNL, where 20 students participated in LLNL facility tours and poster sessions. The Poster sessions were designed to provide a forum for sharing the results of their summer projects and providing experience in presenting their work to a varied audience of students, faculty and laboratory staff. The success of bringing together the students from the technical and policy pilots was notable and will factor into the planning for the continued refinement of their two pilot efforts in the coming years.

  19. Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Report on BNLs Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Human Capital Development Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pepper S. E.

    2014-10-10

    Brookhaven National Laboratory’s (BNL’s) Nonproliferation and National Security Department contributes to the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nonproliferation and International Security Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) through university engagement, safeguards internships, safeguards courses, professional development, recruitment, and other activities aimed at ensuring the next generation of international safeguards professionals is adequately prepared to support the U.S. safeguards mission. This report is a summary of BNL s work under the NGSI program in Fiscal Year 2014.

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - Implementation of IAEA safeguards_Peter Habighorst [Compatibility Mode]

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Implementation of IAEA Safeguards in the U.S. Peter Habighorst, MC&A Branch Chief U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Background 2 1957 Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) 1970 INFCIRC/66 Safeguards Model INFCIRC/153 Comprehensive Safeguards Model 1965 1972 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 1945 INFCIRC/540 Additional Protocol Model 1997 1953 Atoms for Peace The NPT requires NNWS to accept full-scope safeguards and to conclude a comprehensive safeguards agreement with the IAEA Information

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - Implementation of IAEA safeguards_Peter...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Implementation of IAEA Safeguards in the U.S. Peter Habighorst, MC&A Branch Chief U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Background 2 1957 Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) 1970 INFCIRC66...

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - IAEA Safeguards Reporting Requirements...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    IAEA Safeguards Reporting Requirements for U.S. Facilities Peter Habighorst, MC&A Branch Chief U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission IAEA Nuclear Material Reporting to the IAEA...

  3. Electrical Safety Investment Safeguards Employees at Large Idaho Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    IDAHO FALLS, Idaho – The Idaho Site’s main cleanup contractor is using a $1.8 million DOE investment to safeguard employees from the threat of second- and third-degree electrical arc flash burns.

  4. Development of Pattern Recognition Options for Combining Safeguards Subsystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burr, Thomas L.; Hamada, Michael S.

    2012-08-24

    This talk reviews project progress in combining process monitoring data and nuclear material accounting data to improve the over nuclear safeguards system. Focus on 2 subsystems: (1) nuclear materials accounting (NMA); and (2) process monitoring (PM).

  5. Computer safeguards system for the IAEA inspectors at GCEP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, A.L.; Harris, P.W.; Fienning, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Safeguards Data System (SDS), which is being developed to provide improved safeguards for the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant at Portsmouth, Ohio, is described. The SDS is an automated, integrated computer data acquisition and data management system. It is designed to operate in a continuous unattended mode to provide attributes measurements, summary materials accounting data, and on-site data analysis capability to the IAEA inspectors at the GCEP facility.

  6. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Inaugural Conference | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Inaugural Conference Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Inaugural Conference September 12, 2008 - 3:20pm Addthis Remarks as Prepared for Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman Thank you, Ken, and all of you for that generous welcome. It is good to see so many of you here today for this discussion of a topic I consider to be among the most important in the Energy Department's portfolio. The U.S. Department of Energy has the responsibility for

  7. FAQS Job Task Analyses - Safeguards and Security | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Security FAQS Job Task Analyses - Safeguards and Security FAQS Job Task Analyses are performed on the Function Area Qualification Standards. The FAQS Job Task Analyses consists of: Developing a comprehensive list of tasks that define the job such as the duties and responsibilities which include determining their levels of importance and frequency. Identifying and evaluating competencies. Last step is evaluating linkage between job tasks and competencies. PDF icon FAQS JTA - Safeguards and

  8. Deterring Nuclear Proliferation: The Importance of IAEA Safeguards: A TEXTBOOK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Gallini, L.; Krass, A.; Kratzer, M.; Sanborn, J.; Ward, B.; Wulf, N. A.

    2012-03-13

    Nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation are among the most pressing challenges to international peace and security that we face today. Iran and Syria remain in non-compliance with the safeguards requirements of the NPT, and the nuclear ambitions of North Korea remain unchecked. Despite these challenges, the NPT remains a cornerstone of the nuclear non-proliferation regime, and the safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under the NPT play a critical role in deterring nuclear proliferation.How do they work? Where did they come from? And what is their future? This book answers these questions. Anyone studying the field of nuclear non-proliferation will benefit from reading this book, and for anyone entering the field, the book will enable them to get a running start. Part I describes the foundations of the international safeguards system: its origins in the 1930s - when new discoveries in physics made it clear immediately that nuclear energy held both peril and promise - through the entry into force in 1970 of the NPT, which codified the role of IAEA safeguards as a means to verify states NPT commitments not to acquire nuclear weapons. Part II describes the NPT safeguards system, which is based on a model safeguards agreement developed specifically for the NPT, The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which has been published by the IAEA as INFCIRC/153. Part III describes events, especially in South Africa, the DPRK, and Iraq in the early 1990s, that triggered a transformation in the way in which safeguards were conceptualized and implemented.

  9. Lessons Learned in International Safeguards - Implementation of Safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehinger, Michael H; Johnson, Shirley

    2010-02-01

    The focus of this report is lessons learned at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). However, the subject of lessons learned for application of international safeguards at reprocessing plants includes a cumulative history of inspections starting at the West Valley (New York, U.S.A.) reprocessing plant in 1969 and proceeding through all of the efforts over the years. The RRP is the latest and most challenging application the International Atomic Energy Agency has faced. In many ways the challenges have remained the same, timely inspection and evaluation with limited inspector resources, with the continuing realization that planning and preparations can never start early enough in the life cycle of a facility. Lessons learned over the years have involved the challenges of using ongoing advances in technology and dealing with facilities with increased throughput and continuous operation. This report will begin with a review of historical developments and lessons learned. This will provide a basis for a discussion of the experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of international safeguards at RRP.

  10. Global change and the value of biodiversity for new product research. Final project report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, R.D.; Sedjo, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    A number of biologists believe that human activities are causing species extinctions at alarming rates. The only precedents, they claim, are to be found in the mass extinctions associated with a handful of apocalyptic volcanic eruptions and/or meteorite strikes distributed over geological time scales. Slowing the rates of greenhouse gas emissions, natural habitat destruction, and other factors that are believed to be inducing modem extinctions could be very expensive, however. It is natural to ask, then, what is the value of preserving biodiversity. One (although admittedly, among many) argument frequently made is that biodiversity is a source of new industrial, agricultural, and, particularly, pharmaceutical products. Natural organisms, it is argued, are great repositories of genetic information. Wild species, in their struggle to capture prey, escape predators, resist infection, and enhance reproductive success have evolved chemical mechanisms more elaborate and inventive than those synthetic chemists can now create. If these chemical mechanisms could be adapted and refined for human use, they could be of great value. There has, therefore, been considerable interest among natural scientists and conservation advocates in {open_quotes}biodiversity prospecting{close_quotes} the search for new commercial products among naturally occurring organisms-as both a mechanism and an argument for preserving biodiversity. In recent years economists and others have attempted to estimate the value of biodiversity for use in new product development. These studies vary considerably in their data, methods, and estimates. The Simpson, Sedjo and Reid and Polasky and Solow papers differ from previous work in that they focus on what is arguably the economically relevant issue: what is the value of biodiversity on the margin.

  11. LABORATORY DEMONSTRATION OF A MULTISENSOR UNATTENDED CYLINDER VERIFICATION STATION FOR URANIUM ENRICHMENT PLANT SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, David I; Rowland, Kelly L; Smith, Sheriden; Miller, Karen A.; Flynn, Eric B.

    2014-01-10

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of the diversion of a significant quantity of nuclear materials, and safeguarding uranium enrichment plants is especially important in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. The IAEA’s proposed Unattended Cylinder Verification Station (UCVS) for UF6 cylinder verification would combine the operator’s accountancy scale with a nondestructive assay system such as the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) and cylinder identification and surveillance systems. In this project, we built a laboratory-scale UCVS and demonstrated its capabilities using mock UF6 cylinders. We developed a signal processing algorithm to automate the data collection and processing from four continuous, unattended sensors. The laboratory demonstration of the system showed that the software could successfully identify cylinders, snip sensor data at the appropriate points in time, determine the relevant characteristics of the cylinder contents, check for consistency among sensors, and output the cylinder data to a file. This paper describes the equipment, algorithm and software development, laboratory demonstration, and recommendations for a full-scale UCVS.

  12. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durst, Philip C.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Boyer, Brian; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This second report in a series of three reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication processes to be deployed at AFCF – specifically, the ceramic TRU (MOX) fuel fabrication line and the metallic (pyroprocessing) line. The most common TRU fuel has been fuel composed of mixed plutonium and uranium dioxide, referred to as “MOX”. However, under the Advanced Fuel Cycle projects custom-made fuels with higher contents of neptunium, americium, and curium may also be produced to evaluate if these “minor actinides” can be effectively burned and transmuted through irradiation in the ABR. A third and final report in this series will evaluate and review the advanced safeguards approach options for the ABR. In reviewing and developing the advanced safeguards approach for the new TRU fuel fabrication processes envisioned for AFCF, the existing international (IAEA) safeguards approach at the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) and the conceptual approach planned for the new J-MOX facility in Japan have been considered as a starting point of reference. The pyro-metallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication process at EBR-II near Idaho Falls also provided insight for safeguarding the additional metallic pyroprocessing fuel fabrication line planned for AFCF.

  13. Proceedings of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Safety Culture Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    NUREG/CP-0183, Proceedings of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Safety Culture Workshop, June 12, 2003 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Washington, DC 20555-0001.

  14. "Order Module--DOE O 470.4B, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY PROGRAM...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    "Order Module--DOE O 470.4B, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY PROGRAM, DOE O 471.6, INFORMATION SECURITY, DOE O 473.3 "Order Module--DOE O 470.4B, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY PROGRAM, DOE O...

  15. End user needs for enhanced IAEA Safeguards Information Management Capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badalamente, R.; Anzelon, G.; Deland, S.; Whiteson, R.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is undertaking a program for strengthening its safeguards on the recognition that safeguards must give assurance not only of the non-diversion of declared material or that declared facilities are not being misused, but also of the absence of any undeclared nuclear activities in States which have signed comprehensive safeguards agreements with the Agency. The IAEA has determined that the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and the creation of confidence in the continuing peaceful use of declared material and facilities is largely dependent on more information being made available to the Agency and on the capability of the Agency to make more effective use of this additional information, as well as existing information.

  16. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control.

  17. Integrated safeguards & security for material protection, accounting, and control.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2009-10-01

    Traditional safeguards and security design for fuel cycle facilities is done separately and after the facility design is near completion. This can result in higher costs due to retrofits and redundant use of data. Future facilities will incorporate safeguards and security early in the design process and integrate the systems to make better use of plant data and strengthen both systems. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the integration of materials control and accounting (MC&A) measurements with physical security design for a nuclear reprocessing plant. Locations throughout the plant where data overlap occurs or where MC&A data could be a benefit were identified. This mapping is presented along with the methodology for including the additional data in existing probabilistic assessments to evaluate safeguards and security systems designs.

  18. Boron-10 Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-10-01

    The shortage of 3He has triggered the search for effective alternative neutron detection technologies for national security applications, including international nuclear safeguards. Any alternative neutron detection technology must satisfy two basic criteria: it must meet a neutron detection efficiency requirement, and it must be insensitive to gamma-ray interference at a prescribed level while still meeting the neutron detection requirement. For nuclear safeguards, a system must perform measurements in the field with a prescribed precision in a specified time. This paper describes an effort to design, model and test an alternatives-based neutron coincidence counter for nuclear safeguards applications. The technology chosen for use in an alternatives-based uranium neutron coincidence collar was boron-lined proportional counters. Extensive modeling was performed of various system configurations and comparisons were made to measurements on a commercial prototype boron-10 based uranium neutron coincidence collar.

  19. Nuclear safeguards research and development. Program status report, October 1980-January 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, C.N.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents the status of the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development Program pursued by the Energy, Chemistry-Materials Science, and Operational Security/Safeguards Divisions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics include nondestructive assay technology development and applications, international safeguards systems. Also discussed are training courses, technology transfer, analytical chemistry methods for fissionable materials safeguards, the Department of Energy Computer Security Technical Center, and operational security.

  20. An Inspector's Assessment of the New Model Safeguards Approach for Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-07-31

    This conference paper assesses the changes that are being made to the Model Safeguards Approach for Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants.

  1. U.S. and Tunisia to Cooperate on Nuclear Safeguards, Nonproliferation...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Tunisia to Cooperate on Nuclear Safeguards, Nonproliferation and Peaceful Nuclear Energy Infrastructure | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr...

  2. Application of the sources code in nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beddingfield, D. H.

    2002-01-01

    The Sources Code System provides a greatly expanded calculational capacity in the field of nuclear safeguards. It is becoming more common that we are called upon to perform assays on materials for which no standards exist. These materials tend to be mixtures of nuclear materials and low-Z compounds (spent fuels in a variety of matrices, in-process compounds such as UF6, MOX with varying water content). We will present soma applications of the Sources Code and discuss the application calculated (a,n) source terms in neutron coincidence counting for nuclear safeguards.

  3. Continuous remote unattended monitoring for safeguards data collection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosterbuer, S.F.; Halbig, J.K.; Harker, W.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Painter, J.A.; Stewart, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    To meet increased inspection requirements, unattended and remote monitoring systems have been developed and installed in several large facilities to perform safeguards functions. These unattended monitoring systems are based on instruments originally developed for traditional safeguards and the domestic nuclear industry to nondestructively assay nuclear materials. Through specialized measurement procedures, these instruments have been adapted to be unattended monitors. This paper defines the parts of these unattended monitoring systems, describes the systems that have been installed in the field and their status, and discusses future trends for unattended systems.

  4. INSTITUTIONALIZING SAFEGUARDS-BY-DESIGN: HIGH-LEVEL FRAMEWORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trond Bjornard PhD; Joseph Alexander; Robert Bean; Brian Castle; Scott DeMuth, Ph.D.; Phillip Durst; Michael Ehinger; Prof. Michael Golay, Ph.D.; Kevin Hase, Ph.D.; David J. Hebditch, DPhil; John Hockert, Ph.D.; Bruce Meppen; James Morgan; Jerry Phillips, Ph.D., PE

    2009-02-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities can reduce proliferation risks. A multi-laboratory team was sponsored in Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 to define a SBD process and determine how it could be incorporated into existing facility design and construction processes. The possibility to significantly influence major design features, such as process selection and plant layout, largely ends with the conceptual design step. Therefore SBD’s principal focus must be on the early inclusion of safeguards requirements and the early identification of beneficial design features. The result could help form the basis for a new international norm for integrating safeguards into facility design. This is an interim report describing progress and project status as of the end of FY08. In this effort, SBD is defined as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient, and cost-effective integration of international and national safeguards, physical security, and other nonproliferation objectives into the overall design process for a nuclear facility. A key objective is to ensure that security and nonproliferation issues are considered when weighing facility design alternatives. Central to the work completed in FY08 was a study in which a SBD process was developed in the context of the current DOE facility acquisition process. The DOE study enabled the development of a “SBD design loop” that is suitable for use in any facility design process. It is a graded, iterative process that incorporates safeguards concerns throughout the conceptual, preliminary and final design processes. Additionally, a set of proposed design principles for SBD was developed. A “Generic SBD Process” was then developed. Key features of the process include the initiation of safeguards design activities in the pre-conceptual planning phase, early incorporation of safeguards requirements into the project requirements, early appointment of an SBD team, and participation in facility design options analysis in the conceptual design phase to enhance intrinsic features, among others. The SBD process is unlikely to be broadly applied in the absence of formal requirements to do so, or compelling evidence of its value. Neither exists today. A formal instrument to require the application of SBD is needed and would vary according to both the national and regulatory environment. Several possible approaches to implementation of the requirements within the DOE framework are explored in this report. Finally, there are numerous barriers to the implementation of SBD, including the lack of a strong safeguards culture, intellectual property concerns, the sensitive nature of safeguards information, and the potentially divergent or conflicting interests of participants in the process. In terms of SBD implementation in the United States, there are no commercial nuclear facilities that are under IAEA safeguards. Efforts to institutionalize SBD must address these issues. Specific work in FY09 could focus on the following: finalizing the proposed SBD process for use by DOE and performing a pilot application on a DOE project in the planning phase; developing regulatory options for mandating SBD; further development of safeguards-related design guidance, principles and requirements; development of a specific SBD process tailored to the NRC environment; and development of an engagement strategy for the IAEA and other international partners.

  5. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Analysis of Probability of Detection of Plausible Diversion Scenarios at Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants Using Advanced Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hase, Kevin R.; Hawkins Erpenbeck, Heather; Boyer, Brian D.

    2012-07-10

    Over the last decade, efforts by the safeguards community, including inspectorates, governments, operators and owners of centrifuge facilities, have given rise to new possibilities for safeguards approaches in enrichment plants. Many of these efforts have involved development of new instrumentation to measure uranium mass and uranium-235 enrichment and inspection schemes using unannounced and random site inspections. We have chosen select diversion scenarios and put together a reasonable system of safeguards equipment and safeguards approaches and analyzed the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed safeguards approach by predicting the probability of detection of diversion in the chosen safeguards approaches. We analyzed the effect of redundancy in instrumentation, cross verification of operator instrumentation by inspector instrumentation, and the effects of failures or anomalous readings on verification data. Armed with these esults we were able to quantify the technical cost benefit of the addition of certain instrument suites and show the promise of these new systems.

  6. Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System Reporting and Data Submission

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-02-10

    The manual provides clear and detailed instructions and procedures for documenting and reporting data submissions for nuclear materials transactions, inventories, and material balances to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). Cancels DOE 5633.3B. Canceled by DOE M 474.1-2A.

  7. Long-term proliferation and safeguards issues in future technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keisch, B.; Auerbach, C.; Fainberg, A.; Fiarman, S.; Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Lemley, J.R.; O'Brien, J.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose of the task was to assess the effect of potential new technologies, nuclear and non-nuclear, on safeguards needs and non-proliferation policies, and to explore possible solutions to some of the problems envisaged. Eight subdivisions were considered: New Enrichment Technologies; Non-Aqueous Reprocessing Technologies; Fusion; Accelerator-Driven Reactor Systems; New Reactor Types; Heavy Water and Deuterium; Long-Term Storage of Spent Fuel; and Other Future Technologies (Non-Nuclear). For each of these subdivisions, a careful review of the current world-wide effort in the field provided a means of subjectively estimating the viability and qualitative probability of fruition of promising technologies. Technologies for which safeguards and non-proliferation requirements have been thoroughly considered by others were not restudied here (e.g., the Fast Breeder Reactor). The time scale considered was 5 to 40 years for possible initial demonstration although, in some cases, a somewhat optimistic viewpoint was embraced. Conventional nuclear-material safeguards are only part of the overall non-proliferation regime. Other aspects are international agreements, export controls on sensitive technologies, classification of information, intelligence gathering, and diplomatic initiatives. The focus here is on safeguards, export controls, and classification.

  8. Safeguards Agreement and Protocol with the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-01-07

    To ensure that DOE complies with the Agreement Between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States, the Protocol to the Agreement, and the subsidiary arrangements to the Agreement. Canceled by DOE O 142.2A. Cancels DOE 1270.2B.

  9. Project Report on Development of a Safeguards Approach for Pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Bean

    2010-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has undertaken an effort to develop a standard safeguards approach for international commercial pyroprocessing facilities. This report details progress for the fiscal year 2010 effort. A component by component diversion pathway analysis has been performed, and has led to insight on the mitigation needs and equipment development needed for a valid safeguards approach. The effort to develop an in-hot cell detection capability led to the digital cloud chamber, and more importantly, the significant potential scientific breakthrough of the inverse spectroscopy algorithm, including the ability to identify energy and spatial location of gamma ray emitting sources with a single, non-complex, stationary radiation detector system. Curium measurements were performed on historical and current samples at the FCF to attempt to determine the utility of using gross neutron counting for accountancy measurements. A solid cost estimate of equipment installation at FCF has been developed to guide proposals and cost allocations to use FCF as a test bed for safeguards measurement demonstrations. A combined MATLAB and MCNPX model has been developed to perform detector placement calculations around the electrorefiner. Early harvesting has occurred wherein the project team has been requested to provide pyroprocessing technology and safeguards short courses.

  10. NNSA Next Generation Safeguards Initiative | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Next Generation Safeguards Initiative | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply

  11. Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Management & Safeguards System | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs

  12. PNNL hosts NNSA early-career safeguards professionals | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration NNSA early-career safeguards professionals | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo

  13. General Davis kicks the tires on a Safeguards Transporter | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration Davis kicks the tires on a Safeguards Transporter | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press

  14. NNSA Administrator D'Agostino's Safeguards Conference Travel Blog |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration D'Agostino's Safeguards Conference Travel Blog | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters

  15. Safeguards Issues at Nuclear Reactors and Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, Brian D

    2012-08-15

    The Agency's safeguards technical objective is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection.

  16. Presented at the Second International Meeting on Next Generation Safeguards

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration Second International Meeting on Next Generation Safeguards | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets

  17. The Little Biodiversity Finance Book | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    global biodiversity and ecosystem services. To address these gaps we aim to build on the work of this study and encourage you to send us your feedback so that we can continue to...

  18. Biodiversity Research Institute Mid-Atlantic Baseline Study Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carried out by the Biodiversity Research Institute (BRI) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Technology Office and other partners, the goal of the Mid-Atlantic Baseline...

  19. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog. Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auerbach, C.

    1985-04-01

    This catalog contains entries on new developments and on items listed in BNL 51450, which have either been carried over unchanged or been updated. More than 70 entries were deleted because of either obsolescence, insufficient interest in terms of safeguards, or lack of documentable development activities in recent years. Some old listings as well as new material was consolidated into more generic entries. As in the earlier document, the emphasis is on devices and instruments that are either in field use at this time or under active development. A few items such as NDA reference materials, instrument vans and certain shipping containers are included because they are important adjuncts to optimum utilization of safeguards instrumentation. This catalog does not include devices for physical protection. As was the case with its predecessor, most of the material in this catalog originated in the US and Canada; a few contributions came from member states of the European Community.

  20. Developing the digital safeguard that protects the National Spherical Torus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment-Upgrade at PPPL | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Developing the digital safeguard that protects the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade at PPPL By John Greenwald February 22, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Members of the team that developed the DCPS, from left: Gretchen Zimmer, Kevin Lamb, Greg Tchillingarian, Paul Sichta, John Lawson, Tim Stevenson, Stefan Gerhardt and Roman Rozenblat. Not shown: Vince Mastrocola, John Dong, Gary Gibilisco. (Photo by

  1. Developing the digital safeguard that protects the National Spherical Torus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment-Upgrade at PPPL | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Developing the digital safeguard that protects the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade at PPPL By John Greenwald February 22, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Members of the team that developed the DCPS, from left: Gretchen Zimmer, Kevin Lamb, Greg Tchillingarian, Paul Sichta, John Lawson, Tim Stevenson, Stefan Gerhardt and Roman Rozenblat. Not shown: Vince Mastrocola, John Dong, Gary Gibilisco. (Photo by

  2. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henzlova, Daniela; Kouzes, R.; McElroy, R.; Peerani, P.; Aspinall, M.; Baird, K.; Bakel, A.; Borella, M.; Bourne, M.; Bourva, L.; Cave, F.; Chandra, R.; Chernikova, D.; Croft, S.; Dermody, G.; Dougan, A.; Ely, J.; Fanchini, E.; Finocchiaro, P.; Gavron, Victor; Kureta, M.; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Ishiyama, K.; Lee, T.; Martin, Ch.; McKinny, K.; Menlove, Howard Olsen; Orton, Ch.; Pappalardo, A.; Pedersen, B.; Peranteau, D.; Plenteda, R.; Pozzi, S.; Schear, M.; Seya, M.; Siciliano, E.; Stave, S.; Sun, L.; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Tagziria, H.; Vaccaro, S.; Takamine, J.; Weber, A. -L.; Yamaguchi, T.; Zhu, H.

    2015-12-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency {IAEA}, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3He-alternative technologies.

  3. Protection and Control of Safeguards and Security Interests

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1994-07-15

    To establish policy, responsibilities, and authorities for the protection and control of safeguards and security interests. Cancels DOE O 5632.1B, DOE O 5632.2A, DOE O 5632.5, DOE O 5632.6, DOE O 5632.9A, DOE O 5632.11, DOE O 5635.1A, DOE O 5635.2B, DOE O 5635.3. Canceled by DOE O 473.1

  4. NGSI Safeguards by Design | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NGSI Safeguards by Design | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working

  5. Safeguards and Security General Technical Base Qualification Standard

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    23-2009 July 2009 DOE STANDARD SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY GENERAL TECHNICAL BASE QUALIFICATION STANDARD DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities Technical Personnel U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1123-2009 ii This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ DOE-STD-1123-2009 iii APPROVAL The

  6. FAQS Job Task Analyses - Safeguards and Security General Technical Base |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Security General Technical Base FAQS Job Task Analyses - Safeguards and Security General Technical Base FAQS Job Task Analyses are performed on the Function Area Qualification Standards. The FAQS Job Task Analyses consists of: Developing a comprehensive list of tasks that define the job such as the duties and responsibilities which include determining their levels of importance and frequency. Identifying and evaluating competencies. Last step is evaluating linkage

  7. Safeguards Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSI)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    1) May 2012 Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installations Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installations (ISFSI) Philip Casey Durst (INL Consultant) DISCLAIMER This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,

  8. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    UNCLASSIFIED Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System CONTACT INFORMATION UPDATE REPORTING IDENTIFICATION SYMBOL (RIS) RIS: Address: Facility Name: CONTACTS Name Email: Phone/Fax Name Email: Phone/Fax Name Email: Phone/Fax Name Email: Phone/Fax Return Via Mail To: U.S Department Of Energy ATTN: NMMSS Staff NA-73, GTN 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585-1290 Return Via Fax To: 301-903-1998 Return Via E-Mail To: NMMSS@nnsa.doe.gov

  9. Safeguards & Security (S&S) Program | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Safeguards & Security (S&S) Program Operations Program Management (OPM) OPM Home About Science Laboratories Infrastructure (SLI) Program Safeguards & Security (S&S) Program Sustainability Contact Information Operations Program Management U.S. Department of Energy SC-33/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-8429 F: (301) 903-7047 More Information » Safeguards & Security (S&S) Program Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page

  10. Overview of the US Department of Energy Master Safeguards and Security Agreement program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billings, M.P.; Duncan, M.R.; Craig, J.R.

    1988-06-01

    The Master Safeguards and Security Agreement establishes a contract between the US Department of Energy-Headquarters and a US Department of Energy regional Operations Office regarding protection strategies, protection system performance, and acceptability of risks for US Department of Energy Safeguards and Security interests at a facility or site. An approved Master Safeguards and Security Agreement defines the protection system performance baseline for evaluations, inspections, and audits, and can introduce exceptions to US Department of Energy orders. Responsibilities and authorities for development and approval of a Master Safeguards and Security Agreement are outlined in US Department of Energy Order 5630.13, ''Master Safeguards and Security Agreement'' and US Department of Energy Order 5630.xx, ''Safeguards and Security Planning Program'' (draft). To date, 14 Master Safeguards and Security Agreements have been approved by the US Department of Energy-Headquarters and about 34 are in preparation or review. A total of approximately 50 are anticipated before completion of the program. The Master Safeguards and Security agreement program has been positively received by both the US Department of Energy-Headquarters and the US Department of Energy Operations Offices, because it provides visibility as to the effectiveness of Safeguards and Security protection systems and affords a sensible foundation for security planning based on risk. 6 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Safeguards and Security Glossary - DOE M 470.4-7 | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in most dictionaries have been intentionally omitted from the Glossary. Although a Manual including the Safeguards and Security Glossary would be considered a requirements...

  12. Defining the needs for gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Ianakiev, Kiril; Marlow, Johnna B

    2010-04-05

    Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared UF{sub 6} containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. In verifying declared LEU production, the inspectors also take samples for off-site destructive assay (DA) which provide accurate data, with 0.1% to 0.5% measurement uncertainty, on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, taking samples of UF{sub 6} for off-site analysis is a much more labor and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of results and interruptions to the continuity of knowledge (CofK) of the samples during their storage and transit. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems such as process monitoring and possible on-site analysis of DA samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements and provide more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also introduce examples advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation.

  13. Nuclear Safeguards Considerations For The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip Casey Durst; David Beddingfield; Brian Boyer; Robert Bean; Michael Collins; Michael Ehinger; David Hanks; David L. Moses; Lee Refalo

    2009-10-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been considered since the 1940s, and have been constructed and demonstrated in the United Kingdom (Dragon), United States (Peach Bottom and Fort Saint Vrain), Japan (HTTR), Germany (AVR and THTR-300), and have been the subject of conceptual studies in Russia (VGM). The attraction to these reactors is that they can use a variety of reactor fuels, including abundant thorium, which upon reprocessing of the spent fuel can produce fissile U-233. Hence, they could extend the stocks of available uranium, provided the fuel is reprocessed. Another attractive attribute is that HTRs typically operate at a much higher temperature than conventional light water reactors (LWRs), because of the use of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coated (TRISO) fuel particles embedded in ceramic graphite. Rather than simply discharge most of the unused heat from the working fluid in the power plant to the environment, engineers have been designing reactors for 40 years to recover this heat and make it available for district heating or chemical conversion plants. Demonstrating high-temperature nuclear energy conversion was the purpose behind Fort Saint Vrain in the United States, THTR-300 in Germany, HTTR in Japan, and HTR-10 and HTR-PM, being built in China. This resulted in nuclear reactors at least 30% or more thermodynamically efficient than conventional LWRs, especially if the waste heat can be effectively utilized in chemical processing plants. A modern variant of high temperature reactors is the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Originally developed in the United States and Germany, it is now being redesigned and marketed by the Republic of South Africa and China. The team examined historical high temperature and high temperature gas reactors (HTR and HTGR) and reviewed safeguards considerations for this reactor. The following is a preliminary report on this topic prepared under the ASA-100 Advanced Safeguards Project in support of the NNSA Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI).

  14. Safeguards applied to the design of recovery processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawke, A.C. )

    1988-01-01

    A project to redesign and modify portions of the Rocky Flats plutonium reprocessing facility is currently underway. Essential to the project is a design concept using modular construction methods to allow actual processing to occur concomitant with ongoing process operations. Although the design concept must be and is responsive to numerous Department of Energy and Rockwell requirements governing the design and operation of plutonium process systems, the purpose of this paper is to singularly focus on and review those safeguards requirements, concerns, and criteria which must be addressed in recovery processing design to ensure the protection and accountability of Special Nuclear Materials.

  15. Safeguards Guidance for Prismatic Fueled High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5) August 2012 Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) with Prismatic Fuel INL/CON-12-26130 Revision 0 Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Prismatic Fuel Philip Casey Durst (INL Consultant) August 2012 DISCLAIMER This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes

  16. Notice of Intent to Develop an Information Sharing and Safeguarding Program Notice

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-08-07

    This memorandum provides justification for establishing a Directive that sets forth requirements and responsibilities for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Information Sharing and Safeguarding (ISS) Program for the responsible sharing and safeguarding of Agency information to enhance national security, protect the safety of the American people, and encourage sustained collaboration between Federal, state, local, tribal, territorial, private sector, and foreign partners,

  17. Improving Transparency in the Reporting of Safeguards Implementation: FY11 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toomey, Christopher; Odlaug, Christopher S.; Wyse, Evan T.

    2011-09-30

    In 2008, the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI) indicated that the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) has not kept pace with the evolution of safeguards and provided the IAEA with a set of recommendations for improvement. The SIR is the primary mechanism for providing an overview of safeguards implementation in a given year and reporting on the annual safeguards findings and conclusions drawn by the Secretariat. As the IAEA transitions to State-level safeguards approaches, SIR reporting must adapt to reflect these evolutionary changes. This evolved report will better reflect the IAEA's transition to a more qualitative and information-driven approach, based upon State-as-a-whole considerations. This paper applies SAGSI's recommendations to the development of multiple models for an evolved SIR and finds that an SIR repurposed as a 'safeguards portal' could significantly enhance information delivery, clarity, and transparency. In addition, this paper finds that the 'portal concept' also appears to have value as a standardized information presentation and analysis platform for use by Country Officers, for continuity of knowledge purposes, and the IAEA Secretariat in the safeguards conclusion process. Accompanying this paper is a fully functional prototype of the 'portal' concept, built using commercial software and IAEA Annual Report data and available for viewing at http://safeguardsportal.pnnl.gov.

  18. Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation Support | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation Support New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) NBL Home About Programs Certified Reference Materials Program Measurement Evaluation Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation Support Measurement Services Measurement Development Training Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) Training NEPA Documents News Safety Data Sheets (SDS) for New Brunswick Laboratory Certified Reference Materials (CRM) Contact Information New Brunswick Laboratory U.S. Department

  19. A parameter study to optimizing scintillator characteristics for increased sensitivity in nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards, and security based applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shy, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    A parameter study to optimizing scintillator characteristics for increased sensitivity in nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards, and security based applications

  20. Evolution of Safeguards over Time: Past, Present, and Projected Facilities, Material, and Budget

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollar, Lenka; Mathews, Caroline E.

    2009-07-01

    This study examines the past trends and evolution of safeguards over time and projects growth through 2030. The report documents the amount of nuclear material and facilities under safeguards from 1970 until present, along with the corresponding budget. Estimates for the future amount of facilities and material under safeguards are made according to non-nuclear-weapons states’ (NNWS) plans to build more nuclear capacity and sustain current nuclear infrastructure. Since nuclear energy is seen as a clean and economic option for base load electric power, many countries are seeking to either expand their current nuclear infrastructure, or introduce nuclear power. In order to feed new nuclear power plants and sustain existing ones, more nuclear facilities will need to be built, and thus more nuclear material will be introduced into the safeguards system. The projections in this study conclude that a zero real growth scenario for the IAEA safeguards budget will result in large resource gaps in the near future.

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative: Human Capital Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilligan, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a comprehensive review of the current and potential future challenges facing the international safeguards system. The review examined: trends and events that have an effect on the mission of international safeguards; the implications of expanding and evolving mission requirements of the legal authorities and institutions that serve as the foundation of the international safeguards system; and, the technological, financial, and human resources required for effective safeguards implementation. The review’s findings and recommendations were summarized in the report International Safeguards: Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century (October 2007). The executive summary is available at the following link: http://nnsa.energy.gov/sites/default/files/nnsa/inlinefiles/NGSI_Report.pdf.

  2. Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

  3. The New Brunswick Laboratory Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cacic, C.G.; Trahey, N.M.; Zook, A.C.

    1987-07-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) has been tasked by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) to assess and evaluate the adequacy of measurement technology as applied to materials accounting in DOE nuclear facilities. The Safeguards Measurement Evaluation (SME) Program was developed as a means to monitor and evaluate the quality and effectiveness of accounting measurements by site, material balance area (MBA), or unit process. Phase I of the SME Program, initiated during 1985, involved evaluation of the primary accountability measurement methods at six DOE Defense Programs facilities: Savannah River Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Y-12 Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Rockwell Hanford Operations, and NBL. Samples of uranyl nitrate solution, dried plutonium nitrates, and plutonium oxides were shipped to the participants for assay and isotopic abundance measurements. Resulting data are presented and evaluated as indicators of current state-of-the-practice accountability measurement methodology, deficiencies in materials accounting practices, and areas for possible assistance in upgrading measurement capabilities. Continuing expansion of the SME Program to include materials which are representative of specific accountability measurement points within the DOE complex is discussed.

  4. Assessing Lanthanum-Bromide Detectors for Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gariazzo, Claudio Andres; Saavedra, Steven F; Smith, Steven E; Solodov, Alexander A

    2008-01-01

    Major detector technologies currently being used for gamma-ray spectroscopy in safeguards applications include systems based on sodium iodide (NaI), cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT), cadmium-telluride (CdTe), and high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystals. Recently, a new scintillation detector based on a lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) crystal has become commercially available. The declared benefits of this new detector technology include higher resolution and improved efficiency compared with similarly configured NaI-based systems. Both detector systems offer the advantage of room-temperature operation. This paper describes the results of a study assessing the safeguards applicability and advantages for isotopic and quantitative analyses of uranium using the LaBr3-based detector, as well as an investigation into the general operating characteristics of the LaBr3-based detector. The results are compared with those from a widely used NaI-based detector system (Canberra's Inspector-1000 multichannel analyzer) operated under similar environmental conditions and hardware configuration, using commercially available software packages (NaIGEM and Genie-2000).

  5. New Measures to Safeguard Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, Jr., James; Garner, James R; Whitaker, Michael; Lockwood, Dunbar; Gilligan, Kimberly V; Younkin, James R; Hooper, David A; Henkel, James J; Krichinsky, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    As Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants (GCEPs) increase in separative work unit (SWU) capacity, the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) model safeguards approach needs to be strengthened. New measures to increase the effectiveness of the safeguards approach are being investigated that will be mutually beneficial to the facility operators and the IAEA. One of the key concepts being studied for application at future GCEPs is embracing joint use equipment for process monitoring of load cells at feed and withdrawal (F/W) stations. A mock F/W system was built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to generate and collect F/W data from an analogous system. The ORNL system has been used to collect data representing several realistic normal process and off-normal (including diversion) scenarios. Emphasis is placed on the novelty of the analysis of data from the sensors as well as the ability to build information out of raw data, which facilitates a more effective and efficient verification process. This paper will provide a progress report on recent accomplishments and next steps.

  6. Safeguards and security by design (SSBD) for the domestic threat - theft and sabotage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demuth, Scott F; Mullen, Mark

    2011-10-05

    Safeguards by Design (SBD) is receiving significant interest with respect to international safeguards objectives. However, less attention has been focused on the equally important topic of domestic Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD), which addresses requirements such as those of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the United States. While international safeguards are concerned with detecting State diversion of nuclear material from peaceful to nuclear explosives purposes, domestic Material Protection, Control and Accounting measures (MPC&A) are focused on non-State theft and sabotage. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has described the Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept as an approach in which 'international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning.' This same concept is equally applicable to SSBD for domestic requirements. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a project through its Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and more specifically its Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, to develop a domestic SSBD discipline and methodology in parallel with similar efforts sponsored by the DOE Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the IAEA for international safeguards. This activity includes the participation of industry (through DOE-sponsored contracts) and DOE National Laboratories. This paper will identify the key domestic safeguards and security requirements (i.e. MC&A and physical protection) and explain how and why Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) is important and beneficial for the design of future US nuclear energy systems.

  7. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation: Report to the NNSA DOE Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pepper, Susan E.; Pickett, Chris A.; Queirolo, Al; Bachner, Katherine M.; Worrall, Louise G.

    2015-04-07

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) convened a workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. Safeguards instrumentation software must be sustained in a changing environment to ensure existing instruments can continue to perform as designed, with improved security. The approaches to the development and maintenance of instrument software used in the past may not be the best model for the future and, therefore, the organizers’ goal was to investigate these past approaches and to determine an optimal path forward. The purpose of this report is to provide input for the DOE NNSA Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) and other stakeholders that can be utilized when making decisions related to the development and maintenance of software used in the implementation of international nuclear safeguards. For example, this guidance can be used when determining whether to fund the development, upgrade, or replacement of a particular software product. The report identifies the challenges related to sustaining software, and makes recommendations for addressing these challenges, supported by summaries and detailed notes from the workshop discussions. In addition the authors provide a set of recommendations for institutionalizing software sustainability practices in the safeguards community. The term “software sustainability” was defined for this workshop as ensuring that safeguards instrument software and algorithm functionality can be maintained efficiently throughout the instrument lifecycle, without interruption and providing the ability to continue to improve that software as needs arise.

  8. Termination of Safeguards for Accountable Nuclear Materials at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Holzemer; Alan Carvo

    2012-04-01

    Termination of safeguards ends requirements of Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) and thereby removes the safeguards basis for applying physical protection requirements for theft and diversion of nuclear material, providing termination requirements are met as described. Department of Energy (DOE) M 470.4 6 (Nuclear Material Control and Accountability [8/26/05]) stipulates: 1. Section A, Chapter I (1)( q) (1): Safeguards can be terminated on nuclear materials provided the following conditions are met: (a) 'If the material is special nuclear material (SNM) or protected as SNM, it must be attractiveness level E and have a measured value.' (b) 'The material has been determined by DOE line management to be of no programmatic value to DOE.' (c) 'The material is transferred to the control of a waste management organization where the material is accounted for and protected in accordance with waste management regulations. The material must not be collocated with other accountable nuclear materials.' Requirements for safeguards termination depend on the safeguards attractiveness levels of the material. For attractiveness level E, approval has been granted from the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) to Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) Safeguards and Security (S&S). In some cases, it may be necessary to dispose of nuclear materials of attractiveness level D or higher. Termination of safeguards for such materials must be approved by the Departmental Element (this is the DOE Headquarters Office of Nuclear Energy) after consultation with the Office of Security.

  9. Next Generations Safeguards Initiative: The Life of a Cylinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, James B; White-Horton, Jessica L

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nonproliferation and International Security's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has begun a program based on a five-year plan to investigate the concept of a global monitoring scheme that uniquely identifies uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders and their locations throughout the life cycle. A key initial activity in the NGSI program is to understand and document the 'life of a UF6 cylinder' from cradle to grave. This document describes the life of a UF6 cylinder and includes cylinder manufacture and procurement processes as well as cylinder-handling and operational practices at conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, and depleted UF6 conversion facilities. The NGSI multiple-laboratory team is using this document as a building block for subsequent tasks in the five-year plan, including development of the functional requirements for cylinder-tagging and tracking devices.

  10. The uranium cylinder assay system for enrichment plant safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karen A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Marlow, Johnna B; Menlove, Howard O; Rael, Carlos D; Iwamoto, Tomonori; Tamura, Takayuki; Aiuchi, Syun

    2010-01-01

    Safeguarding sensitive fuel cycle technology such as uranium enrichment is a critical component in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. A useful tool for the nuclear materials accountancy of such a plant would be an instrument that measured the uranium content of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS) was designed for Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) for use in the Rokkasho Enrichment Plant in Japan for this purpose. It uses total neutron counting to determine uranium mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders given a known enrichment. This paper describes the design of UCAS, which includes features to allow for unattended operation. It can be used on 30B and 48Y cylinders to measure depleted, natural, and enriched uranium. It can also be used to assess the amount of uranium in decommissioned equipment and waste containers. Experimental measurements have been carried out in the laboratory and these are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo modeling results.

  11. Performance, Market and Manufacturing Constraints relevant to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market and Manufacturing Constraints relevant to the Industrialization of Thermoelectric Devices Performance, Market and Manufacturing Constraints relevant to the...

  12. Strengthened IAEA Safeguards-Imagery Analysis: Geospatial Tools for Nonproliferation Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pabian, Frank V

    2012-08-14

    This slide presentation focuses on the growing role and importance of imagery analysis for IAEA safeguards applications and how commercial satellite imagery, together with the newly available geospatial tools, can be used to promote 'all-source synergy.' As additional sources of openly available information, satellite imagery in conjunction with the geospatial tools can be used to significantly augment and enhance existing information gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection and assessment of nonproliferation relevant activities, facilities, and programs. Foremost of the geospatial tools are the 'Digital Virtual Globes' (i.e., GoogleEarth, Virtual Earth, etc.) that are far better than previously used simple 2-D plan-view line drawings for visualization of known and suspected facilities of interest which can be critical to: (1) Site familiarization and true geospatial context awareness; (2) Pre-inspection planning; (3) Onsite orientation and navigation; (4) Post-inspection reporting; (5) Site monitoring over time for changes; (6) Verification of states site declarations and for input to State Evaluation reports; and (7) A common basis for discussions among all interested parties (Member States). Additionally, as an 'open-source', such virtual globes can also provide a new, essentially free, means to conduct broad area search for undeclared nuclear sites and activities - either alleged through open source leads; identified on internet BLOGS and WIKI Layers, with input from a 'free' cadre of global browsers and/or by knowledgeable local citizens (a.k.a.: 'crowdsourcing'), that can include ground photos and maps; or by other initiatives based on existing information and in-house country knowledge. They also provide a means to acquire ground photography taken by locals, hobbyists, and tourists of the surrounding locales that can be useful in identifying and discriminating between relevant and non-relevant facilities and their associated infrastructure. The digital globes also provide highly accurate terrain mapping for better geospatial context and allow detailed 3-D perspectives of all sites or areas of interest. 3-D modeling software (i.e., Google's SketchUp6 newly available in 2007) when used in conjunction with these digital globes can significantly enhance individual building characterization and visualization (including interiors), allowing for better assessments including walk-arounds or fly-arounds and perhaps better decision making on multiple levels (e.g., the best placement for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) video monitoring cameras).

  13. Evaluation of a Business Case for Safeguards by Design in Nuclear Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Seward, Amy M.; Lewis, Valerie A.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-12-01

    Safeguards by Design (SbD) is a well-known paradigm for consideration and incorporation of safeguards approaches and associated design features early in the nuclear facility development process. This paradigm has been developed as part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), and has been accepted as beneficial in many discussions and papers on NGSI or specific technologies under development within NGSI. The Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security funded the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to examine the business case justification of SbD for nuclear power reactors. Ultimately, the implementation of SbD will rely on the designers of nuclear facilities. Therefore, it is important to assess the incentives which will lead designers to adopt SbD as a standard practice for nuclear facility design. This report details the extent to which designers will have compelling economic incentives to adopt SbD.

  14. Feasibility Study of Implementing a Mobile Collaborative Information Platform for International Safeguards Inspections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Doehle, Joel R.; Toomey, Christopher M.

    2014-09-30

    In response to the growing pervasiveness of mobile technologies such as tablets and smartphones, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories have been exploring the potential use of these platforms for international safeguards activities. Specifically of interest are information systems (software, and accompanying servers and architecture) deployed on mobile devices to increase the situational awareness and productivity of an IAEA safeguards inspector in the field, while simultaneously reducing paperwork and pack weight of safeguards equipment. Exploratory development in this area has been met with skepticism regarding the ability to overcome technology deployment challenges for IAEA safeguards equipment. This report documents research conducted to identify potential challenges for the deployment of a mobile collaborative information system to the IAEA, and proposes strategies to mitigate those challenges.

  15. Processing large sensor data sets for safeguards : the knowledge generation system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Maikel A.; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Matthews, Robert F.

    2012-04-01

    Modern nuclear facilities, such as reprocessing plants, present inspectors with significant challenges due in part to the sheer amount of equipment that must be safeguarded. The Sandia-developed and patented Knowledge Generation system was designed to automatically analyze large amounts of safeguards data to identify anomalous events of interest by comparing sensor readings with those expected from a process of interest and operator declarations. This paper describes a demonstration of the Knowledge Generation system using simulated accountability tank sensor data to represent part of a reprocessing plant. The demonstration indicated that Knowledge Generation has the potential to address several problems critical to the future of safeguards. It could be extended to facilitate remote inspections and trigger random inspections. Knowledge Generation could analyze data to establish trust hierarchies, to facilitate safeguards use of operator-owned sensors.

  16. US statutes of general interest to safeguards and security officers. Revision 12/95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwell, J.J.; Ruger, C.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document is one of a three volume set. This document, BNL 52202, it titled, ``US Statutes of General Interest to Safeguards and Security Officers``, and is intended for use by officers.

  17. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Pebble Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip Casey Durst; Mark Schanfein

    2012-08-01

    The following is a guidance document from a series prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), to assist facility designers and operators in implementing international Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). SBD has two main objectives: (1) to avoid costly and time consuming redesign work or retrofits of new nuclear fuel cycle facilities and (2) to make the implementation of international safeguards more effective and efficient at such facilities. In the long term, the attainment of these goals would save industry and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) time, money, and resources and be mutually beneficial. This particular safeguards guidance document focuses on pebble fuel high temperature gas reactors (HTGR). The purpose of the IAEA safeguards system is to provide credible assurance to the international community that nuclear material and other specified items are not diverted from peaceful nuclear uses. The safeguards system consists of the IAEA’s statutory authority to establish safeguards; safeguards rights and obligations in safeguards agreements and additional protocols; and technical measures implemented pursuant to those agreements. Of foremost importance is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the IAEA, concluded pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). According to a 1992 IAEA Board of Governors decision, countries must: notify the IAEA of a decision to construct a new nuclear facility as soon as such decision is taken; provide design information on such facilities as the designs develop; and provide detailed design information based on construction plans at least 180 days prior to the start of construction, and on "as-built" designs at least 180 days before the first receipt of nuclear material. Ultimately, the design information will be captured in an IAEA Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ), prepared by the facility operator, typically with the support of the facility designer. The IAEA will verify design information over the life of the project. This design information is an important IAEA safeguards tool. Since the main interlocutor with the IAEA in each country is the State Regulatory Authority/SSAC (or Regional Regulatory Authority, e.g. EURATOM), the responsibility for conveying this design information to the IAEA falls to the State Regulatory Authority/SSAC.

  18. DOE to Provide Nearly $8 Million to Safeguard the Nation's Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks | Department of Energy to Provide Nearly $8 Million to Safeguard the Nation's Energy Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks DOE to Provide Nearly $8 Million to Safeguard the Nation's Energy Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Kevin M. Kolevar today announced five projects that have been selected for negotiation of awards of up to $7.9 million in DOE funding to

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - IAEA Safeguards Reporting Requirements for U.S. Facilities_Peter Habighorst

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    IAEA Safeguards Reporting Requirements for U.S. Facilities Peter Habighorst, MC&A Branch Chief U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission IAEA Nuclear Material Reporting to the IAEA BACKGROUND - Overview of Governing Requirements Reporting Requirements  IAEA Information Circular (INFCIRC)/207, Notification to the Agency of Exports and Imports of Nuclear Material, July 1974  IAEA INFCIRC/288, Agreement between the United States of America and the Agency for Safeguards in the United States,

  20. Gas centrifuge enrichment plants inspection frequency and remote monitoring issues for advanced safeguards implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Ianakiev, Kiril D; Reimold, Benjamin A; Ward, Steven L; Howell, John

    2010-09-13

    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect high enriched uranium (BEU) production with adequate probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared cylinders of uranium hexafluoride that are used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of how possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive analysis (DA) of samples could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We have also studied a few advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation and the level of performance needed from these systems to provide more effective safeguards. The analysis also considers how short notice random inspections, unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear material when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems. We also explore the effects of system failures and operator tampering on meeting safeguards goals for quantity and timeliness and the measures needed to recover from such failures and anomalies.

  1. Enhanced AFCI Sampling, Analysis, and Safeguards Technology Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Svoboda

    2009-09-01

    The focus of this study includes the investigation of sampling technologies used in industry and their potential application to nuclear fuel processing. The goal is to identify innovative sampling methods using state of the art techniques that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements. Sampling and analysis of nuclear fuel recycling plant processes is required both to monitor the operations and ensure Safeguards and Security goals are met. In addition, environmental regulations lead to additional samples and analysis to meet licensing requirements. The volume of samples taken by conventional means, can restrain productivity while results samples are analyzed, require process holding tanks that are sized to meet analytical issues rather than process issues (and that create a larger facility footprint), or, in some cases, simply overwhelm analytical laboratory capabilities. These issues only grow when process flowsheets propose new separations systems and new byproduct material for transmutation purposes. Novel means of streamlining both sampling and analysis are being evaluated to increase the efficiency while meeting all requirements for information. This report addresses just a part of the effort to develop and study novel methods by focusing on the sampling and analysis of aqueous samples for metallic elements. It presents an overview of the sampling requirements, including frequency, sensitivity, accuracy, and programmatic drivers, to demonstrate the magnitude of the task. The sampling and analysis system needed for metallic element measurements is then discussed, and novel options being applied to other industrial analytical needs are presented. Inductively coupled mass spectrometry instruments are the most versatile for metallic element analyses and are thus chosen as the focus for the study. Candidate novel means of process sampling, as well as modifications that are necessary to couple such instruments to introduce these samples, are discussed. A suggested path forward based on an automated microchip capillary based sampling system interfaced to the analysis spectrometer is presented. The ability to obtain micro liter volume samples coupled with remote automated means of sample tracking and transport to the instrument would greatly improve analytical efficiency while reducing both personnel exposure and radioactive waste. Application of this sampling technique to new types of mass spectrometers for selective elemental isotopic analysis could also provide significant improvements in safeguards and security analyses.

  2. Application of Telepresence Technologies to Nuclear Material Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, M.C.; Rome, J.A.

    1999-09-20

    Implementation of remote monitoring systems has become a priority area for the International Atomic Energy Agency and other international inspection regimes. For the past three years, DOE2000 has been the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) initiative to develop innovative applications to exploit the capabilities of broadband networks and media integration. The aim is to enhance scientific collaboration by merging computing and communications technologies. These Internet-based telepresence technologies could be easily extended to provide remote monitoring and control for confidence building and transparency systems at nuclear facilities around the world. One of the original DOE2000 projects, the Materials Microcharacterization Collaboratory is an interactive virtual laboratory, linking seven DOE user facilities located across the US. At these facilities, external collaborators have access to scientists, data, and instrumentation, all of which are available to varying degrees using the Internet. Remote operation of the instruments varies between passive (observational) to active (direct control), in many cases requiring no software at the remote site beyond a Web browser. Live video streams are continuously available on the Web so that participants can see what is happening at a particular location. An X.509 certificate system provides strong authentication, The hardware and software are commercially available and are easily adaptable to safeguards applications.

  3. PROCESS MONITORING FOR SAFEGUARDS VIA EVENT GENERATION, INTEGRATION, AND INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humberto E. Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2010-07-01

    There is a recognized safeguards benefit from using process monitoring (PM) on nuclear facilities to complement nuclear materials accountancy. We introduce a model-based approach for PM in which the assessment regarding the state of the monitored system is conducted at a system-centric level. The proposed architecture integrates both time-driven and event-driven data integration and analysis for decision-making. While the time-driven layers of the proposed architecture encompass more traditional PM methods based on time series data and analysis, the event-driven layers encompass operation monitoring methods based on discrete event data integration and analysis. By integrating process- and operation-related information and methodologies within an unified modeling and monitoring framework that includes not only current but also past plant behaviors, the task of anomaly detection is greatly improved because this decision-making approach can benefit from not only known time-series relationships among measured signals but also from known event sequence relationships among generated events. Building from the proposed system-centric PM architecture, we briefly introduce methods that can be used to implement its different components. The application of the proposed approach is then demonstrated via simulation experiments.

  4. Alternative materials to cadmium for neutron absorbers in safeguards applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; West, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is increasingly difficult to use in safeguards applications because of rising cost and increased safety regulations. This work examines the properties of two materials produced by Ceradyne, inc. that present alternatives to cadmium for neutron shielding. The first is an aluminum metal doped with boron and the second is a boron carbide powder, compressed into a ceramic. Both are enriched in the {sup 10}B isotope. Two sheets of boron doped aluminum (1.1 mm and 5.2mm thick) and one sheet of boron carbide (8.5mm thick) were provided by Ceradyne for testing. An experiment was designed to test the neutron absorption capabilities of these three sheets against two different thicknesses of cadmium (0.6mm and 1.6mm thick). The thinner piece of aluminum boron alloy (1.1mm) performed as well as the cadmium pieces at absorbing neutrons. The thicker aluminum-boron plate provided more shielding than the cadmium sheets and the boron carbide performed best by a relatively large margin. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code modeling of the experiment was performed to provide validaLed computational tools for predicting the behavior of systems in which these materials may be incorporated as alternatives to cadmium. MCNPX calculations predict that approximately 0.17mm of the boron carbide is equivalent to 0.6mm of cadmium. There are drawbacks to these materials that need to be noted when considering using them as replacements for cadmium. Notably, they may need to be thicker than cadmium, and are not malleable, requiring machining to fit any curved forms.

  5. Evaluation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Analytical Laboratory quality assurance program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pietri, C.E.; Bracey, J.T.

    1985-02-01

    Destructive analysis is used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through its Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) to verify, in part, the inventory of nuclear materials at nuclear facilities. The reliability and quality of these meassurements must be assured in a systematic manner. The Division of Safeguards Evaluation, IAEA, required assistance in developing and implementing the quality assurance measures for the analytical procedures used in the destructive analysis of these safeguards samples. To meet these needs an ISPO POTAS Task D.53 was instituted in which consultants would review with IAEA staff the procedures used (or proposed) at SAL for the destructive analysis of safeguards samples and the statistical evaluation of the resulting measurement data at Headquarters. The procedures included analytical methods, qualtiy control measures, and the treatment of data from these activities. Based on this review, modifications to the system, if required, would be recommended which would provide routine assurance to management that these procedures are functioning properly to achieve safeguards objectives. In the course of this review, the sample handling procedures, measurement control activities, analytical methods, reference materials, calibration procedures, statistical analysis of data, and data management system were studied and evaluated. The degree to which SAL (as a total system) achieved laboratory quality assurance was assessed by comparison to accepted standards of quality assurance. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Lessons Learned from the Development of an Example Precision Information Environment for International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Henry, Michael J.; Burtner, IV, E. R.; Doehle, J. R.; Hampton, S. D.; La Mothe, R. R.; Nordquist, P. L.; Zarzhitsky, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is interested in increasing capabilities of IAEA safeguards inspectors to access information that would improve their situational awareness on the job. A mobile information platform could potentially provide access to information, analytics, and technical and logistical support to inspectors in the field, as well as providing regular updates to analysts at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna or at satellite offices. To demonstrate the potential capability of such a system, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) implemented a number of example capabilities within a PNNL-developed precision information environment (PIE), and using a tablet as a mobile information platform. PNNL’s safeguards proof-of-concept PIE intends to; demonstrate novel applications of mobile information platforms to international safeguards use cases; demonstrate proof-of-principle capability implementation; and provide “vision” for capabilities that could be implemented. This report documents the lessons learned from this two-year development activity for the Precision Information Environment for International Safeguards (PIE-IS), describing the developed capabilities, technical challenges, and considerations for future development, so that developers working to develop a similar system for the IAEA or other safeguards agencies might benefit from our work.

  7. Coupling a transient solvent extraction module with the separations and safeguards performance model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePaoli, David W.; Birdwell, Joseph F.; Gauld, Ian C.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; de Almeida, Valmor F.

    2009-10-01

    A number of codes have been developed in the past for safeguards analysis, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM), developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  8. Behavior of 241Am in fast reactor systems - a safeguards perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beddingfield, David H; Lafleur, Adrienne M

    2009-01-01

    Advanced fuel-cycle developments around the world currently under development are exploring the possibility of disposing of {sup 241}Am from spent fuel recycle processes by burning this material in fast reactors. For safeguards practitioners, this approach could potentially complicate both fresh- and spent-fuel safeguards measurements. The increased ({alpha},n) production in oxide fuels from the {sup 241}Am increases the uncertainty in coincidence assay of Pu in MOX assemblies and will require additional information to make use of totals-based neutron assay of these assemblies. We have studied the behavior of {sup 241}Am-bearing MOX fuel in the fast reactor system and the effect on neutron and gamma-ray source-terms for safeguards measurements. In this paper, we will present the results of simulations of the behavior of {sup 241}Am in a fast breeder reactor system. Because of the increased use of MOX fuel in thermal reactors and advances in fuel-cycle designs aimed at americium disposal in fast reactors, we have undertaken a brief study of the behavior of americium in these systems to better understand the safeguards impacts of these new approaches. In this paper we will examine the behavior of {sup 241}Am in a variety of nuclear systems to provide insight into the safeguards implications of proposed Am disposition schemes.

  9. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 4, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, rough December 31, 1995. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels.

  10. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), January 1, 1990--December 31, 1996, Vol. 2, Rev. 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 2, Rev. 5, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1996. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of Bomb-related, Intrusion, Missing and/or Allegedly Stolen, Transportation-related, Tampering/Vandalism, Arson, Firearms, Radiological Sabotage, Nonradiological Sabotage, and Miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels.

  11. Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program nuclear materials measurement data: Phase 1: Final report, 1985 through 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cacic, C.G.

    1988-08-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory has been tasked by the US Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security to assess and evaluate the adequacy of measurement technology as applied to materials accounting in US Department of Energy nuclear facilities. The Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program was developed as a means to monitor and evaluate the quality and effectiveness of accounting measurements by site, material balance area, or unit process. Phase 1 of the Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program, initiated during 1985, involved evaluation of the primary accountability measurement methods at six US Department of Energy Defense Programs facilities. Resulting data are presented and evaluated as indicators of current state-of-the-practice accountability measurement methodology, deficiencies in materials accounting practices, and areas for possible assistance in upgrading measurement capabilities. 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Safeguards on uranium ore concentrate? the impact of modern mining and milling process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Increased purity in uranium ore concentrate not only raises the question as to whether Safeguards should be applied to the entirety of uranium conversion facilities, but also as to whether some degree of coverage should be moved back to uranium ore concentrate production at uranium mining and milling facilities. This paper looks at uranium ore concentrate production across the globe and explores the extent to which increased purity is evident and the underlying reasons. Potential issues this increase in purity raises for IAEA's strategy on the Starting Point of Safeguards are also discussed.

  13. Implementation of IAEA safeguards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacomini, J.J.; Finleon, C.A.; Larsen, R.K.; Lucas, M.; Langner, D.

    1995-07-01

    When President Clinton spoke to the United Nations General Assembly in September 1993, he offered to place US excess defense nuclear material under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, before the next Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) Extension Conference. This set in motion a flurry of activities at three DOE facilities, including Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site). With general guidance from DOE Headquarters, the facility selected a suitable storage area, identified appropriate materials, and acquired the necessary instrumentation to implement full-scale IAEA safeguards on excess plutonium oxide.

  14. Safeguards & Security | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Safeguards & Security Integrated Support Center (ISC) ISC Home About Services Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Privacy Act NEPA Documents Contact Information Integrated Support Center Roxanne Purucker U.S. Department of Energy 9800 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 P: (630) 252-2110 Don F. Thress, Jr. U.S. Department of Energy 200 Administration Road Oak Ridge, TN 37830 P: (865) 576-4444 Services Safeguards & Security Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Security and Emergency

  15. Integrated Safeguards and Security Management Self-Assessment 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunford, Dan; Ramsey, Dwayne

    2005-04-01

    In 2002 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory deployed the first Integrated Safeguards and Security Management (ISSM) Self-Assessment process, designed to measure the effect of the Laboratory's ISSM efforts. This process was recognized by DOE as a best practice and model program for self-assessment and training. In 2004, the second Self-Assessment was launched. The cornerstone of this process was an employee survey that was designed to meet several objectives: (1) Ensure that Laboratory assets are protected. (2) Provide a measurement of the Laboratory's current security status that can be compared against the 2002 Self-Assessment baseline. (3) Educate all Laboratory staff about security responsibilities, tools, and practices. (4) Provide security staff with feedback on the effectiveness of security programs. (5) Provide line management with the information they need to make informed decisions about security. This 2004 Self Assessment process began in July 2004 with every employee receiving an information packet and instructions for completing the ISSM survey. The Laboratory-wide survey contained questions designed to measure awareness and conformance to policy and best practices. The survey response was excellent--90% of Berkeley Lab employees completed the questionnaire. ISSM liaisons from each division followed up on the initial survey results with individual employees to improve awareness and resolve ambiguities uncovered by the questionnaire. As with the 2002 survey, the Self-Assessment produced immediate positive results for the ISSM program and revealed opportunities for longer-term corrective actions. Results of the questionnaire provided information for organizational profiles and an institutional summary. The overall level of security protection and awareness was very high--often above 90%. Post-survey work by the ISSM liaisons and line management consistently led to improved awareness and metrics, as shown by a comparison of profiles at the end of phase one (August 6, 2004) and phase two (November 1, 2004). The Self-Assessment confirmed that classified information is not held or processed at Berkeley Lab. The survey results also identified areas where increased employee knowledge and awareness of Laboratory policy would be beneficial, the two most prominent being password usage and wireless network service. Line management will be able to determine additional corrective actions based on the results of the Self-Assessment. Future assessments will raise the ratings bar for some existing program elements and add new elements to stimulate further improvements in Laboratory security.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADHESIVE CANDLE FILTER SAFEGUARD DEVICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John P. Hurley; Ann K. Henderson; Jan W. Nowok; Michael L. Swanson

    2002-01-01

    In order to reach the highest possible efficiencies in a coal-fired turbine-based power system, the turbine should be directly fired with the products of coal conversion. Two main types of systems employ these turbines: those based on pressurized fluidized-bed combustors and those based on integrated gasification combined cycles. In both systems, suspended particulates must be cleaned from the gas stream before it enters the turbine so as to prevent fouling and erosion of the turbine blades. To produce the cleanest gas, barrier filters are being developed and are in use in several facilities. Barrier filters are composed of porous, high-temperature materials that allow the hot gas to pass but collect the particulates on the surface. The three main configurations of the barrier filters are candle, cross-flow, and tube filters. Both candle and tube filters have been tested extensively. They are composed of coarsely porous ceramic that serves as a structural support, overlain with a thin, microporous ceramic layer on the dirty gas side that serves as the primary filter surface. They are highly efficient at removing particulate matter from the gas stream and, because of their ceramic construction, are resistant to gas and ash corrosion. However, ceramics are brittle and individual elements can fail, allowing particulates to pass through the hole left by the filter element and erode the turbine. Preventing all failure of individual ceramic filter elements is not possible at the present state of development of the technology. Therefore, safeguard devices (SGDs) must be employed to prevent the particulates streaming through occasional broken filters from reaching the turbine. However, the SGD must allow for the free passage of gas when it is not activated. Upon breaking of a filter, the SGD must either mechanically close or quickly plug with filter dust to prevent additional dust from reaching the turbine. Production of a dependable rapidly closing autonomous mechanical device at high temperatures in a dusty gas stream is difficult because of problems with materials corrosion, dust leakage, and detection of filter failure. Therefore, the Energy & Environmental Research Center is using its knowledge of the factors that make filter dust sticky at gas filtration temperatures to make a simple and inexpensive SGD that employs an adhesive yet thermodynamically stable coating on a highly porous ceramic substrate. The SGDs are placed on top of individual candle filters at the filtered gas exit. Upon failure of the filter, the dirty gas flows through the SGD where the adhesive surface rapidly and permanently traps dust particles, causing the device to plug and prevent the dust from reaching the turbine.

  17. Initial Evaluation of a New Electromechanical Cooler for Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, RL

    2002-10-21

    The use of liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) constitutes the current state of the art in cryogenic cooling for high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, which are widely used for {gamma}-ray and characteristic X-ray spectroscopy because of their excellent energy discrimination. Use of LN{sub 2} requires a liquid nitrogen supply, cumbersome storage tanks and plumbing, and the frequent attention of personnel to be sure that nitrogen levels are sufficient to maintain the detectors at a sufficiently low operating temperature. Safety hazards also are associated with the use of LN{sub 2}, both because of the potential for severe frostbite on exposure to skin and because it displaces ambient oxygen when it evaporates in closed spaces. Existing electromechanical coolers have, until now, been more expensive to procure and maintain than LN{sub 2} systems. Performance and reliability have also been serious issues because of microphonic degradation of photon energy peak resolution and cooler failures due to compressor oil becoming entrained in the refrigerant. This report describes the results of tests of a new HPGe detector cooling technology, the PerkinElmer ORTEC{reg_sign} Products X-Cooler{trademark} that, according to the manufacturer, significantly reduces the lifetime cost of the cooling system without degradation of the output signal. The manufacturer claims to have overcome cost, performance and reliability problems of older-generation electromechanical coolers, but the product has no significant history of use, and this project is the first independent evaluation of its performance for Total cost savings for the DOE and other agencies that use HPGe systems extensively for safeguards monitoring is expected to be quite significant if the new electromechanical cooler technology is shown to be reliable and if performance characteristics indicate its usefulness for this application. The technology also promises to make HPGe monitoring, characterization and detection available for unattended or covert operation and in remote or inaccessible locations where the unavailability of LN{sub 2} and signal degradation from existing mechanical coolers prevent its use at the present time.

  18. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pepper S. E.; .; Worrall, L.; Pickett, C.; Bachner, K.; Queirolo, A.

    2014-08-08

    The U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, the U.S. Department of State, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized a a workshop on the subject of ”Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation.” The workshop was held at the Vienna International Centre in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. The workshop participants included software and hardware experts from national laboratories, industry, government, and IAEA member states who were specially selected by the workshop organizers based on their experience with software that is developed for the control and operation of safeguards instrumentation. The workshop included presentations, to orient the participants to the IAEA Department of Safeguards software activities related to instrumentation data collection and processing, and case studies that were designed to inspire discussion of software development, use, maintenance, and upgrades in breakout sessions and to result in recommendations for effective software practices and management. This report summarizes the results of the workshop.

  19. The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards - Destructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffheins,B.

    2008-07-13

    The U.S. Support Program (USSP) to IAEA Safeguards priority of destructive analysis is aimed at strengthening the IAEA's ability to use destructive analysis as a safeguards tool. IAEA inspectors bring back nuclear and environmental samples from inspections, which are first cataloged by the IAEA and then analyzed by a network of laboratories located in many Member States and the IAEA's own Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Historically, the USSP was instrumental in introducing environmental sampling techniques to the IAEA in order to enhance its understanding of material processing activities conducted at nuclear facilities. The USSP has also worked with the IAEA to improve understanding of measurement uncertainty and measurement quality, incorporate new and improved analytical methods, and purchase analytical and computer equipment. Recent activities include a temporary increase in analysis of environmental samples using secondary ion mass spectrometry and provision of a cost-free expert to restore secondary ion mass spectroscopy laboratory functionality and to modernize the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Information System.

  20. Analysis of the effectiveness of gas centrifuge enrichment plants advanced safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, Brian David; Erpenbeck, Heather H; Miller, Karen A; Swinjoe, Martyn T; Ianakiev, Kiril D; Marlow, Johnna B

    2010-01-01

    Current safeguards approaches used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low-enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect highly enriched uranium (HEU) production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and 235U enrichment of declared UF6 containers used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive assay (DA) of samples that could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements. These improvements could reduce the difference between the operator's and inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We also explore how a few advanced safeguards systems could be assembled for unattended operation. The analysis will focus on how unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections (IDS) can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear materials when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems.

  1. NNSA Signs Memorandum with Kuwait to Increase Cooperation on Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-09-01

    On June 23, 2010, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation on nuclear safeguards and other nonproliferation topics with the Kuwait National Nuclear Energy Committee (KNNEC). NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino and KNNEC's Secretary General, Dr. Ahmad Bishara, signed the memorandum at a ceremony at U.S. Department of Energy headquarters in Washington.

  2. Manual for Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System Reporting and Data Submission

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-08-19

    The manual provides detailed instructions for documenting and reporting data submissions for nuclear materials transactions, inventories, and material balances to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). Cancels DOE M 474.1-2. Canceled by DOE M 470.4-6.

  3. Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) through a Common Global Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badwan, Faris M.; Demuth, Scott Francis; Miller, Michael Conrad; Pshakin, Gennady

    2015-02-23

    Small Modular Reactors (SMR) with power levels significantly less than the currently standard 1000 to 1600-MWe reactors have been proposed as a potential game changer for future nuclear power. SMRs may offer a simpler, more standardized, and safer modular design by using factory built and easily transportable components. Additionally, SMRs may be more easily built and operated in isolated locations, and may require smaller initial capital investment and shorter construction times. Because many SMRs designs are still conceptual and consequently not yet fixed, designers have a unique opportunity to incorporate updated design basis threats, emergency preparedness requirements, and then fully integrate safety, physical security, and safeguards/material control and accounting (MC&A) designs. Integrating safety, physical security, and safeguards is often referred to as integrating the 3Ss, and early consideration of safeguards and security in the design is often referred to as safeguards and security by design (SSBD). This paper describes U.S./Russian collaborative efforts toward developing an internationally accepted common approach for implementing SSBD/3Ss for SMRs based upon domestic requirements, and international guidance and requirements. These collaborative efforts originated with the Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security working group established under the U.S.-Russia Bilateral Presidential Commission during the 2009 Presidential Summit. Initial efforts have focused on review of U.S. and Russian domestic requirements for Security and MC&A, IAEA guidance for security and MC&A, and IAEA requirements for international safeguards. Additionally, example SMR design features that can enhance proliferation resistance and physical security have been collected from past work and reported here. The development of a U.S./Russian common approach for SSBD/3Ss should aid the designer of SMRs located anywhere in the world. More specifically, the application of this approach may lead to more proliferation resistant and physically secure design features for SMRs.

  4. "Order Module--DOE O 470.4B, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY PROGRAM, DOE O 471.6,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    INFORMATION SECURITY, DOE O 473.3 | Department of Energy "Order Module--DOE O 470.4B, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY PROGRAM, DOE O 471.6, INFORMATION SECURITY, DOE O 473.3 "Order Module--DOE O 470.4B, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY PROGRAM, DOE O 471.6, INFORMATION SECURITY, DOE O 473.3 The familiar level of this module is divided into four sections. In the first section, we will discuss the DOE security programs and design basis threat included in DOE O 470.4B, Safeguards and Security Program.

  5. Terminating Safeguards on Excess Special Nuclear Material: Defense TRU Waste Clean-up and Nonproliferation - 12426

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, Timothy; Nelson, Roger

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) manages defense nuclear material that has been determined to be excess to programmatic needs and declared waste. When these wastes contain plutonium, they almost always meet the definition of defense transuranic (TRU) waste and are thus eligible for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The DOE operates the WIPP in a manner that physical protections for attractiveness level D or higher special nuclear material (SNM) are not the normal operating condition. Therefore, there is currently a requirement to terminate safeguards before disposal of these wastes at the WIPP. Presented are the processes used to terminate safeguards, lessons learned during the termination process, and how these approaches might be useful for future defense TRU waste needing safeguards termination prior to shipment and disposal at the WIPP. Also described is a new criticality control container, which will increase the amount of fissile material that can be loaded per container, and how it will save significant taxpayer dollars. Retrieval, compliant packaging and shipment of retrievably stored legacy TRU waste has dominated disposal operations at WIPP since it began operations 12 years ago. But because most of this legacy waste has successfully been emplaced in WIPP, the TRU waste clean-up focus is turning to newly-generated TRU materials. A major component will be transuranic SNM, currently managed in safeguards-protected vaults around the weapons complex. As DOE and NNSA continue to consolidate and shrink the weapons complex footprint, it is expected that significant quantities of transuranic SNM will be declared surplus to the nation's needs. Safeguards termination of SNM varies due to the wide range of attractiveness level of the potential material that may be directly discarded as waste. To enhance the efficiency of shipping waste with high TRU fissile content to WIPP, DOE designed an over-pack container, similar to the pipe component, called the criticality control over-pack, which will significantly enhance the efficiency of disposal. Hundreds of shipments of transuranic SNM, suitably packaged to meet WIPP waste acceptance criteria and with safeguards terminated have been successfully emplaced at WIPP (primarily from the Rocky Flats site clean-up) since WIPP opened. DOE expects that thousands more may eventually result from SNM consolidation efforts throughout the weapons complex. (authors)

  6. Microsoft Word - Final Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System Users Guide 2 4-3-13.docx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards Users Guide National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nuclear Materials Integration Office of Nuclear Materials Integration Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) Users Guide-Rev. 2.0 Prepared by: Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nuclear Materials Integration - NA-73 April 2013 Xavier Ascanio Office of Nuclear Materials Integration Nuclear Materials Management and 73 NMMSS User Guide 2.0 April

  7. Safeguard By Design Lessons Learned from DOE Experience Integrating Safety into Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hockert, John; Burbank, Roberta L.

    2010-04-13

    This paper identifies the lessons to be learned for the institutionalization of Safeguards by Design (SBD) from the Department of Energy (DOE) experience developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189-2008, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. The experience is valuable because of the similarity of the challenges of integrating safety and safeguards into the design process. The paper reviews the content and development of DOE-STD-1189-2008 from its initial concept in January 2006 to its issuance in March 2008. Lessons learned are identified in the areas of the development and structure of requirements for the SBD process; the target audience for SBD requirements and guidance, the need for a graded approach to SBD, and a possible strategy for development and implementation of SBD within DOE.

  8. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory: Developing Our Human Capital FY2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, Rebecca S.; Hawkins Erpenbeck, Heather

    2015-10-13

    This report documents the accomplishments of the Safeguards HCD Fiscal Year 2015 (FY15) Project Work Plan, highlighting LANL’s work as well as the accomplishments of our NGSI-sponsored students, graduate and postdoctoral fellows, and mid-career professionals during this past year. While fiscal year 2015 has been a year of transition in the Human Capital Development area for LANL, we are working to revitalize our efforts to promote and develop Human Capital in Safeguards and Non-proliferation and are looking forward to implementing new initiatives in the coming fiscal year and continuing to transition the knowledge of staff who have been on assignment at IAEA and Headquarters to improve our support to HCD.

  9. New Prototype Safeguards Technology Offers Improved Confidence and Automation for Uranium Enrichment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brim, Cornelia P.

    2013-04-01

    An important requirement for the international safeguards community is the ability to determine the enrichment level of uranium in gas centrifuge enrichment plants and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. This is essential to ensure that countries with nuclear nonproliferation commitments, such as States Party to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, are adhering to their obligations. However, current technologies to verify the uranium enrichment level in gas centrifuge enrichment plants or nuclear fuel fabrication facilities are technically challenging and resource-intensive. NNSA’s Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) supports the development, testing, and evaluation of future systems that will strengthen and sustain U.S. safeguards and security capabilities—in this case, by automating the monitoring of uranium enrichment in the entire inventory of a fuel fabrication facility. One such system is HEVA—hybrid enrichment verification array. This prototype was developed to provide an automated, nondestructive assay verification technology for uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders at enrichment plants.

  10. Safeguarding Nuclear Fuel Processing | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Safeguarding Nuclear Fuel Processing Laboratory Policy (LP) LP Home About Laboratory Appraisal Process Laboratory Planning Process Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Frequently Asked Questions Impact Legislative History Program Contacts Management & Operating (M&O) Contracts Technology Transfer Work for Others Contact Information Laboratory Policy U.S. Department of Energy SC-32/Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5447 F: (202)

  11. Voluntary Offer Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol with the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-12-15

    The Order defines requirements for Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States, the Protocol to the Agreement, the Additional Protocol to the Agreement, and the Subsidiary Arrangements to the Agreement and Additional Protocol. Cancels DOE O 142.2. Admin Chg 1, 6-27-13.

  12. Safeguards and Security Survey and Self-Assessment Planning, Conduct, and Reporting

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1217-2016 February 2016 DOE STANDARD SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY SURVEY AND SELF-ASSESSMENT PLANNING, CONDUCT, AND REPORTING U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585 AREA SANS DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1217-2016 ii This Page Intentionally Left Blank DOE-STD-1217-2016 iii TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD........................................................................................................................... vi 1.

  13. Plutonium Measurements with a Fast-Neutron Multiplicity Counter for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer L. Dolan; Marek Flaska; Alexis Poitrasson-Riviere; Andreas Enqvist; Paolo Peerani; David L. Chichester; Sara A. Pozzi

    2014-11-01

    Measurements were performed at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy to field test a fast-neutron multiplicity counter developed at the University of Michigan. The measurements allowed the illustration of the system’s photon discrimination abilities, efficiency when measuring neutron multiplicity, ability to characterize 240Pueff mass, and performance relative to a currently deployed neutron coincidence counter. This work is motivated by the need to replace and improve upon 3He neutron detection systems for nuclear safeguards applications.

  14. Voluntary Offer Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol with the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-12-15

    The Order defines requirements for Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States, the Protocol to the Agreement, the Additional Protocol to the Agreement, and the Subsidiary Arrangements to the Agreement and Additional Protocol. Supersedes DOE O 142.2. Admin Chg 1, dated 6-27-13, Supersedes DOE O 142.1A. Certified 12-3-14.

  15. DOE-STD-1171-2003; Safeguards and Security Functional Area Standard

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE-STD-1171-2003 December 2003 DOE STANDARD SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY FUNCTIONAL AREA STANDARD DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities Technical Personnel U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1171-2003 This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800)

  16. Next GeNeratioN SafeGuardS iNitiative

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Next GeNeratioN SafeGuardS iNitiative 2 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor Battelle Memorial Institute, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use

  17. Commission. The Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) 2014 Annual Users

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    April 2014 NMMSS News is sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) 2014 Annual Users Training Meeting will be held May 12-15, 2014, in Denver, Colorado. NMMSS is the U.S. Government's official information system containing current and historical accounting data and other related nuclear material information collected from both government and commercial nuclear facilities. The data serve a critical

  18. Under-sodium viewing technology for improvement of fast-reactor safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beddingfield, David H; Gerhart, Jeremy J; Kawakubo, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    The current safeguards approach for fast reactors relies exclusively on maintenance of continuity of knowledge to track the movement of fuel assemblies through these facilities. The remote handling of fuel assemblies, the visual opacity of the liquid metal coolant. and the chemical reactivity of sodium all combine and result in significant limitations on the available options to verify fuel assembly identification numbers or the integrity of these assemblies. These limitations also serve to frustrate attempts to restore the continuity-of-knowledge in instances where the information is under a variety of scenarios. The technology of ultrasonic under-sodium viewing offers new options to the safeguards community for recovering continuity-of-knowledge and applying more traditional item accountancy to fast reactor facilities. We have performed a literature review to investigate the development of under-sodium viewing technologies. In this paper we will summarize our findings and report the state of development of this technology and we will present possible applications to the fast reactor system to improve the existing safeguards approach at these reactors and in future fast reactors.

  19. 3S (Safeguards, Security, Safety) based pyroprocessing facility safety evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, J.H.; Choung, W.M.; You, G.S.; Moon, S.I.; Park, S.H.; Kim, H.D.

    2013-07-01

    The big advantage of pyroprocessing for the management of spent fuels against the conventional reprocessing technologies lies in its proliferation resistance since the pure plutonium cannot be separated from the spent fuel. The extracted materials can be directly used as metal fuel in a fast reactor, and pyroprocessing reduces drastically the volume and heat load of the spent fuel. KAERI has implemented the SBD (Safeguards-By-Design) concept in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The goal of SBD is to integrate international safeguards into the entire facility design process since the very beginning of the design phase. This paper presents a safety evaluation plan using a conceptual design of a reference pyroprocessing facility, in which 3S (Safeguards, Security, Safety)-By-Design (3SBD) concept is integrated from early conceptual design phase. The purpose of this paper is to establish an advanced pyroprocessing hot cell facility design concept based on 3SBD for the successful realization of pyroprocessing technology with enhanced safety and proliferation resistance.

  20. Global Survey of the Concepts and Understanding of the Interfaces Between Nuclear Safety, Security, and Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovacic, Don N.; Stewart, Scott; Erickson, Alexa R.; Ford, Kerrie D.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-15

    There is increasing global discourse on how the elements of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards can be most effectively implemented in nuclear power programs. While each element is separate and unique, they must nevertheless all be addressed in a country’s laws and implemented via regulations and in facility operations. This topic is of particular interest to countries that are currently developing the infrastructure to support nuclear power programs. These countries want to better understand what is required by these elements and how they can manage the interfaces between them and take advantages of any synergies that may exist. They need practical examples and guidance in this area in order to develop better organizational strategies and technical capacities. This could simplify their legal, regulatory, and management structures and avoid inefficient approaches and costly mistakes that may not be apparent to them at this early stage of development. From the perspective of IAEA International Safeguards, supporting Member States in exploring such interfaces and synergies provides a benefit to them because it acknowledges that domestic safeguards in a country do not exist in a vacuum. Instead, it relies on a strong State System of Accounting and Control that is in turn dependent on a capable and independent regulatory body as well as a competent operator and technical staff. These organizations must account for and control nuclear material, communicate effectively, and manage and transmit complete and correct information to the IAEA in a timely manner. This, while in most cases also being responsible for the safety and security of their facilities. Seeking efficiencies in this process benefits international safeguards and nonproliferation. This paper will present the results of a global survey of current and anticipated approaches and practices by countries and organizations with current or future nuclear power programs on how they are implementing, or planning to implement, safety, security, and safeguards in their programs. The idea is to capture current knowledge and thinking on this topic and to identify common themes in organizations and management. It will also document the most commonly held ideas and perception (and misperceptions) of what it means to manage interfaces and take advantage of synergies for operating nuclear facilities and those that are building their infrastructures. It is desired that the results of this paper will inform the current discourse on this topic with some quantitative data and identify any general trends in understanding.

  1. Gamma-Ray Library and Uncertainty Analysis: Passively Emitted Gamma Rays Used in Safeguards Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, W

    2009-09-18

    Non-destructive gamma-ray analysis is a fundamental part of nuclear safeguards, including nuclear energy safeguards technology. Developing safeguards capabilities for nuclear energy will certainly benefit from the advanced use of gamma-ray spectroscopy as well as the ability to model various reactor scenarios. There is currently a wide variety of nuclear data that could be used in computer modeling and gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis. The data can be discrepant (with varying uncertainties), and it may difficult for a modeler or software developer to determine the best nuclear data set for a particular situation. To use gamma-ray spectroscopy to determine the relative isotopic composition of nuclear materials, the gamma-ray energies and the branching ratios or intensities of the gamma-rays emitted from the nuclides in the material must be well known. A variety of computer simulation codes will be used during the development of the nuclear energy safeguards, and, to compare the results of various codes, it will be essential to have all the {gamma}-ray libraries agree. Assessing our nuclear data needs allows us to create a prioritized list of desired measurements, and provides uncertainties for energies and especially for branching intensities. Of interest are actinides, fission products, and activation products, and most particularly mixtures of all of these radioactive isotopes, including mixtures of actinides and other products. Recent work includes the development of new detectors with increased energy resolution, and studies of gamma-rays and their lines used in simulation codes. Because new detectors are being developed, there is an increased need for well known nuclear data for radioactive isotopes of some elements. Safeguards technology should take advantage of all types of gamma-ray detectors, including new super cooled detectors, germanium detectors and cadmium zinc telluride detectors. Mixed isotopes, particularly mixed actinides found in nuclear reactor streams can be especially challenging to identify. The super cooled detectors have a marked improvement in energy resolution, allowing the possibility of deconvolution of mixtures of gamma rays that was unavailable with high purity germanium detectors. Isotopic analysis codes require libraries of gamma rays. In certain situations, isotope identification can be made in the field, sometimes with a short turnaround time, depending on the choice of detector and software analysis package. Sodium iodide and high purity germanium detectors have been successfully used in field scenarios. The newer super cooled detectors offer dramatically increased resolution, but they have lower efficiency and so can require longer collection times. The different peak shapes require software development for the specific detector type and field application. Libraries can be tailored to specific scenarios; by eliminating isotopes that are certainly not present, the analysis time may be shortened and the accuracy may be increased. The intent of this project was to create one accurate library of gamma rays emitted from isotopes of interest to be used as a reliable reference in safeguards work. All simulation and spectroscopy analysis codes can draw upon this best library to improve accuracy and cross-code consistency. Modeling codes may include MCNP and COG. Gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis codes may include MGA, MGAU, U235 and FRAM. The intent is to give developers and users the tools to use in nuclear energy safeguards work. In this project, the library created was limited to a selection of actinide isotopes of immediate interest to reactor technology. These isotopes included {sup 234-238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238-242}Pu, {sup 241,243}Am and {sup 244}Cm. These isotopes were examined, and the best of gamma-ray data, including line energies and relative strengths were selected.

  2. Evaluating Safeguards Benefits of Process Monitoring as compared with Nuclear Material Accountancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Reed Carlson

    2014-07-01

    This paper illustrates potential safeguards benefits that process monitoring (PM) may have as a diversion deterrent and as a complementary safeguards measure to nuclear material accountancy (NMA). This benefit is illustrated by quantifying the standard deviation associated with detecting a considered material diversion scenario using either an NMA-based method or a PM-based approach. To illustrate the benefits of PM for effective safeguards, we consider a reprocessing facility. We assume that the diversion of interest for detection manifests itself as a loss of Pu caused by abnormally operating a dissolver for an extended period to accomplish protracted diversion (or misdirection) of Pu to a retained (unconditioned) waste stream. For detecting the occurrence of this diversion (which involves anomalous operation of the dissolver), we consider two different data evaluation and integration (DEI) approaches, one based on NMA and the other based on PM. The approach based on PM does not directly do mass balance calculations, but rather monitors for the possible occurrence of anomaly patterns related to potential loss of nuclear material. It is thus assumed that the loss of a given mass amount of nuclear material can be directly associated with the execution of proliferation-driven activities that trigger the occurrence of an anomaly pattern consisting of series of events or signatures occurring at different unit operations and time instances. By effectively assessing these events over time and space, the PM-based DEI approach tries to infer whether this specific pattern of events has occurred and how many times within a given time period. To evaluate the goodness of PM, the 3 Sigma of the estimated mass loss is computed under both DEI approaches as function of the number of input batches processed. Simulation results are discussed.

  3. Safeguarding a NWS International Enrichment Center as an Enriched Uranium Store

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2008-03-31

    The operational and regulatory singularities of a multilateral facility designed to provide enriched uranium to a consortium of members may engender a new sub-category of safeguard criteria for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper introduces the contingency of monitoring such a facility as a uranium storage center with cylinders containing low-enriched uranium (LEU) as the principal, and perhaps only, material open to verification. Accountancy and verification techniques will be proffered together with disparate means for maintaining continuity of knowledge (CoK) on verified stock.

  4. All Other Editions Are Obsolete U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY SURVEY REPORT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4.1 (05-94) All Other Editions Are Obsolete U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY SURVEY REPORT OMB Control No. 1910-1800 1. Survey Type: 3. Facility Name: 4. A. Facility Code: B. RIS Code: 5. Survey Date(s): 8. Previous Survey Date(s): 6. Findings: 9. Unresolved Findings: 7. Composite Rating: 10. Previous Rating: 11. Ratings: Rate Each Item: S = SATISFACTORY M = MARGINAL U = UNSATISFACTORY DNA = DOES NOT APPLY A) PROGRAM MANAGEMENT Program Management and Administration Program

  5. Integrated safeguards and security for the INEL Special Isotope Separation Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, G.F.; Zack, N.R.

    1990-06-12

    This paper describes the approach that was taken in developing safeguards and security design criteria to be used for the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) Production Plant. The US Department of Energy has postponed the construction of the SIS Production Plant that was to be built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site located near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The SIS Plant planned to isotopically enrich plutonium utilizing the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc. as a prime contractor to the DOE Idaho Operations Office, was to operate the Plant.

  6. Near Real-Time Nondestructive Active Inspection Technologies Utilizing Delayed Y-Rays and Neutrons for Advanced Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, Alan

    2015-02-12

    In this two year project, the research team investigated how delayed Îł-rays from short-lived fission fragments detected in the short interval between irradiating pulses can be exploited for advanced safeguards technologies. This program contained experimental and modeling efforts. The experimental effort measured the emitted spectra, time histories and correlations of the delayed Îł-rays from aqueous solutions and solid targets containing fissionable isotopes. The modeling effort first developed and benchmarked a hybrid Monte Carlo simulation technique based on these experiments. The benchmarked simulations were then extended to other safeguards scenarios, allowing comparisons to other advanced safeguards technologies and to investigate combined techniques. Ultimately, the experiments demonstrated the possible utility of actively induced delayed g-ray spectroscopy for fissionable material assay.

  7. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demuth, Scott Francis; Sprinkle, James K.

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  8. Manual for Implementation of the Voluntary Offer Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol with the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-06-12

    This Manual provides detailed information for implementing the requirements of DOE O 142.2A, dated 12-15-06; the Agreement Between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Application of Safeguards in the United States; the Original Protocol to the Agreement; the Additional Protocol to the Agreement signed by the United States and the IAEA on June 12, 1998; and the Interagency Procedures for the Implementation of the U.S.-IAEA Safeguards Agreement. No cancellation. Admin Chg 1, 6-27-13

  9. Manual for Implementation of the Voluntary Offer Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol with the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-06-12

    This Manual provides detailed information for implementing the requirements of DOE O 142.2A, dated 12-15-06; the Agreement Between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Application of Safeguards in the United States; the Original Protocol to the Agreement; the Additional Protocol to the Agreement signed by the United States and the IAEA on June 12, 1998; and the Interagency Procedures for the Implementation of the U.S.-IAEA Safeguards Agreement. No cancellation. Admin Chg 1, dated 6-27-13, supersedes DOE M 142.2-1. Certified 12-3-14.

  10. Laboratory quality assurance and its role in the safeguards analytical laboratory evaluation (SALE) program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delvin, W. L.; Pietri, C. E.

    1981-07-01

    Since the late 1960's, strong emphasis has been given to quality assurance in the nuclear industry, particularly to that part involved in nuclear reactors. This emphasis has had impact on the analytical chemistry laboratory because of the importance of analytical measurements in the certification and acceptance of materials used in the fabrication and construction of reactor components. Laboratory quality assurance, in which the principles of quality assurance are applied to laboratory operations, has a significant role to play in processing, fabrication, and construction programs of the nuclear industry. That role impacts not only process control and material certification, but also safeguards and nuclear materials accountability. The implementation of laboratory quality assurance is done through a program plan that specifies how the principles of quality assurance are to be applied. Laboratory quality assurance identifies weaknesses and deficiencies in laboratory operations and provides confidence in the reliability of laboratory results. Such confidence in laboratory measurements is essential to the proper evaluation of laboratories participating in the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (SALE) Program.

  11. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Containment and Surveillance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz,R.A.

    2008-06-13

    The United States Support Program (USSP) priority for containment and surveillance (US) focuses on maintaining or improving the reliability and cost-effectiveness of C/S systems for IAEA safeguards, expanding the number of systems that are unattended and remotely monitored, and developing verification methods that help streamline the on-site inspection process. Existing IAEA C/S systems have evolved to become complex, integrated systems, which may include active seals, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments, video cameras, and other sensors. These systems operate autonomously. They send analytical data to IAEA headquarters where it can be reviewed. These systems present challenges to the goals of improved system performance, standardization, reliability, maintainability, documentation, and cost effectiveness. One critical lesson from past experiences is the need for cooperation and common objectives among the IAEA, the developer, and the facility operator, to create a successful, cost effective system. Recent USSP C/S activities include Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant safeguard systems, production of a new shift register, numerous vulnerability assessments of C/S systems, a conduit monitoring system which identifies tampering of IAEA conduit deployed in the field, fiber optic seal upgrades, unattended monitoring system software upgrades, next generation surveillance system which will upgrade existing camera systems, and support of the IAEA's development of the universal nondestructive assay data acquisition platform.

  12. AUTHENTICATED SENSOR INTERFACE DEVICE FOR JOINT USE SAFEGUARDS APPLICATIONS - CONCEPTS AND CHALLENGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poland, R.; Drayer, R.; Wilson, J.

    2013-08-12

    This paper will discuss the key features of the Authenticated Sensor Interface Device that collectively provide the ability to share data among a number of parties while ensuring the authentication of data and protecting both the operator’s and the IAEA’s interests. The paper will also discuss the development of the prototype, the initial testing with an accountancy scale, and future plans and challenges to implementation into the joint use and remote monitoring applications. As nuclear fuel cycle technology becomes more prevalent throughout the world and the capacity of plants increases, limited resources of the IAEA are being stretched near a breaking point. A strategy is to increase efficiency in safeguards monitoring using “joint use” equipment that will provide the facility operator process data while also providing the IAEA key safeguards data. The data, however, must be authenticated and validated to ensure the data have not been tampered with. The Authenticated Sensor Interface Device provides the capability to share data and can be a valuable component in the IAEA’s ability to collect accountancy data from scales in Uranium conversion and enrichment plants, as well as nuclear fuel fabrication plants. Likewise, the Authenticated Sensor Interface Device can be configured to accept a diverse array of input signals, ranging from analog voltage, to current, to digital interfaces and more. These modular capabilities provide the ability to collect authenticated, joint-use, data streams from various process monitoring sensors.

  13. BN-350 unattended safeguards system current status and initial fuel movement data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Richard Brady; Browne, Michael C; Parker, Robert F; Ingegneri, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    The Unattended and Remote Monitoring (UNARM) system at the BN-350 fast breeder reactor facility in Aktau, Kazakhstan continues to provide safeguards monitoring data as the spent fuel disposition project transitions from wet fuel storage to dry storage casks. Qualitative data from the initial cask loading procedures has been released by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and is presented here for the first time. The BN-350 fast breeder reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan, operated as a plutonium-producing facility from 1973 W1til 1999. Kazakhstan signed the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) in February 1994, and shortly afterwards the IAEA began safeguarding the reactor facility and its nuclear material. Slnce the cessation of reactor operations ten years ago, the chief proliferation concern has been the spent fuel assemblies stored in the pond on-site. By 2002, all fuel assemblies in wet storage had been repackaged into proliferation-resistant canisters. From the beginning, the IAEA's safeguards campaign at the BN-350 included a constant unattended sensor presence in the form of UNARM which monitors nuclear material activities at the facility in the absence of inspector presence. The UNARM equipment at the BN-350 was designed to be modular and extensible, allowing the system to adapt as the safeguards requirements change. This has been particularly important at the BN-350 due to the prolonged wet storage phase of the project. The primary function of the BN-350 UNARM system is to provide the IAEA with an independent, radiation-centric Containment and Surveillance (C&S) layer in addition to the standard seals and video systems. The UNARM system has provided continuous Continuity of Knowledge (COK) data for the BN-350's nuclear material storage areas in order to ensure the validity of the attended measurements during the lifetime of the project. The first of these attended measurements was characterization of the spent fuel assemblies. This characterization utilized the Spent Fuel Coincidence Counter (SFCC) instrument [ref] to measure neutron multiplicity and calculate Pu mass. These calculated masses were then compared to modeling simulation of the assemblies as well as declarations from the facility in order to baseline the amount of material under IAEA safeguards [ref]. Once the baseline was established, bundles of four or six assemblies were repackaged into proliferati n-resistant canisters. This provided an additional physical barrier to material diversion and provided further protection by choosing assemblies for each canister so that the overall dose rate met self-protection requirements. Each of the canisters were then characterized using a similar technique to the SFCC, but with the Spent Fuel Attribute Monitor (SPAM) instnunent (ref). The data from these measurements were then used to calculate an attribute proportional to the total Pu mass in each canister. This attribute was then compared to the know Pu mass of each assembly in order to verify the accuracy of SPAM. In the event that COK is lost, the SPAM detector remains positioned to reverify Pu content of individual canisters without requiring the canister to be opened.

  14. Safeguards Transporter

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Hernandez, Squad Commander; General Davis; Isaiah Bullock, Senior Federal Agent; Mark Jackson, OST Acting Deputy Assistant Deputy Administrator; Fred Roberts, Deputy Director...

  15. MHK Reference Model: Relevance to Computer Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diana Bull Sandia National Laboratories July 9 th , 2012 SAND Number: 2012-5508P MHK Reference Model: Relevance to Computer Simulation Reference Model Partners Oregon State University /NNMREC University of Washington St. Anthony Falls Laboratory-UMinn Florida Atlantic University / SNMREC Cardinal Engineering WEC Design Operational Waves Profile Design of WEC--Performance Structural Design of WEC PTO Design Survival Waves Structural Design of WEC--Survivability Brake Design Anchor and Mooring

  16. Integrated Process Monitoring based on Systems of Sensors for Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards Sensitivity and Robustness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-07-01

    This paper illustrates safeguards benefits that process monitoring (PM) can have as a diversion deterrent and as a complementary safeguards measure to nuclear material accountancy (NMA). In order to infer the possible existence of proliferation-driven activities, the objective of NMA-based methods is often to statistically evaluate materials unaccounted for (MUF) computed by solving a given mass balance equation related to a material balance area (MBA) at every material balance period (MBP), a particular objective for a PM-based approach may be to statistically infer and evaluate anomalies unaccounted for (AUF) that may have occurred within a MBP. Although possibly being indicative of proliferation-driven activities, the detection and tracking of anomaly patterns is not trivial because some executed events may be unobservable or unreliably observed as others. The proposed similarity between NMA- and PM-based approaches is important as performance metrics utilized for evaluating NMA-based methods, such as detection probability (DP) and false alarm probability (FAP), can also be applied for assessing PM-based safeguards solutions. To this end, AUF count estimates can be translated into significant quantity (SQ) equivalents that may have been diverted within a given MBP. A diversion alarm is reported if this mass estimate is greater than or equal to the selected value for alarm level (AL), appropriately chosen to optimize DP and FAP based on the particular characteristics of the monitored MBA, the sensors utilized, and the data processing method employed for integrating and analyzing collected measurements. To illustrate the application of the proposed PM approach, a protracted diversion of Pu in a waste stream was selected based on incomplete fuel dissolution in a dissolver unit operation, as this diversion scenario is considered to be problematic for detection using NMA-based methods alone. Results demonstrate benefits of conducting PM under a system-centric strategy that utilizes data collected from a system of sensors and that effectively exploits known characterizations of sensors and facility operations in order to significantly improve anomaly detection, reduce false alarm, and enhance assessment robustness under unreliable partial sensor information.

  17. Influence of Mechanical Properties Relevant to Standoff Deflection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of Mechanical Properties Relevant to Standoff Deflection of Hazardous Asteroids Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Mechanical Properties Relevant to...

  18. Probabilistic risk analysis toward cost-effective 3S (safety, safeguards, security) implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Mochiji, Toshiro

    2014-09-30

    Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) has been introduced for several decades in safety and nuclear advanced countries have already used this methodology in their own regulatory systems. However, PRA has not been developed in safeguards and security so far because of inherent difficulties in intentional and malicious acts. In this paper, probabilistic proliferation and risk analysis based on random process is applied to hypothetical reprocessing process and physical protection system in nuclear reactor with the Markov model that was originally developed by the Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection Working Group (PRPPWG) in Generation IV International Framework (GIF). Through the challenge to quantify the security risk with a frequency in this model, integrated risk notion among 3S to pursue the cost-effective installation of those countermeasures is discussed in a heroic manner.

  19. Integrated Information Technology Framework for Analysis of Data from Enrichment Plants to Support the Safeguards Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, Clifton T.; Thurman, David A.; Jorgensen, Bruce V.

    2008-07-15

    ABSTRACT Many examples of software architectures exist that support process monitoring and analysis applications which could be applied to enrichment plants in a fashion that supports the Safeguards Mission. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed mature solutions that will provide the framework to support online statistical analysis of enrichment plans and the entire nuclear fuel cycle. Most recently, PNNL has developed a refined architecture and supporting tools that address many of the common problems analysis and modeling environments experience: pipelining, handling large data volumes, and real-time performance. We propose the architecture and tools may be successfully used in furthering the goals of nuclear material control and accountability as both an aid to processing plant owners and as comprehensive monitoring for oversight teams.

  20. Baseline and optional bench-scale testing of a chemical candle filter safeguard device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, J.P.; Swanson, M.L.

    2000-11-01

    This project was undertaken by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and test the feasibility of a hot-gas filter safeguard device (SGD) to prevent the release of dust in the event of candle filter failure under both pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) (oxidizing) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (reducing) operating conditions. The SGD must use existing filter system seals, gaskets, fixtures, and assemblies as much as possible. It must also activate quickly when a candle filter has failed, preferably preventing dust concentrations downstream of the SGD from exceeding 1 ppmw. In addition, the SGD must be able to operate in an inactive mode with minimal pressure drop, and its operation cannot be affected by repeated backpulse cleaning events of up to 3 psia and 1/2 second in duration.

  1. International and national security applications of cryogenic detectors - mostly nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabin, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    As with science, so with security - in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma ray, neutron, and alpha particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invi sible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

  2. Safeguards and Security FY 1996 Program Plan: WBS 6.6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, F.D.

    1995-08-01

    The Safeguards and Security (SAS) Program is based upon integrity, competence and innovation in the protection of the public and Hanford resources through: (1) outstanding assistance, oversight, education, and counsel to their customers to ensure the protection of the public, site personnel, assets, and information; (2) value-added and cost-effective solutions to Hanford issues; and (3) risk management techniques to ensure effective asset protection, site accessibility, and the flexibility to adapt to changing customer needs. This plan is divided into two parts: overview and SAS WBS (work breakdown structure) dictionary sheets. The overview is divided into vision and mission, goals and objectives, assumptions and priorities, milestones, and a summary. The SAS WBS dictionary sheets are divided into department overhead, general and administrative, sitewide support, Hanford patrol, traffic safety, and locksmith services.

  3. Considerations for Possible Light Impact of Spent Nuclear Fuel for Safeguards Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian K. Castle; Kelly D. Ellis

    2012-09-01

    This effort is designed to be a preliminary study to determine the appropriateness of lightly contacting SNF with zirconium-based cladding, in wet storage, for the purpose of taking safeguards measurements. Contact will likely consist of an initial impact followed by a light tensile load on the exterior surface of the SNF cladding. In the past, concerns have been raised that contacting SNF cladding could result in a loss of long-term mechanical integrity due to crack initiation, uncontrolled crack propagation, and a mechanical exfoliation of the protective oxide layer. The mechanical integrity concerns are addressed with an analytic model that evaluates the threshold impact limits for degraded, but undamaged SNF cladding. Aqueous corrosion concerns, associated with exfoliation of the protective oxide layer, are addressed with a qualitative argument, focusing on the possible corrosion mechanisms of zirconium-based cladding.

  4. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Information Circular INFCIRC/288/Add.1 Date: 9 March 2009 General Distribution Original: English Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America 1. The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America 1 is reproduced in

  5. FEMO, A FLOW AND ENRICHMENT MONITOR FOR VERIFYING COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS REQUIREMENTS AT A GAS CENTRIFUGE ENRICHMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunning, John E; Laughter, Mark D; March-Leuba, Jose A

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries have received construction licenses or are contemplating the construction of large-capacity gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The capability to independently verify nuclear material flows is a key component of international safeguards approaches, and the IAEA does not currently have an approved method to continuously monitor the mass flow of 235U in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas streams. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating the development of a flow and enrichment monitor, or FEMO, based on an existing blend-down monitoring system (BDMS). The BDMS was designed to continuously monitor both 235U mass flow and enrichment of UF6 streams at the low pressures similar to those which exists at GCEPs. BDMSs have been installed at three sites-the first unit has operated successfully in an unattended environment for approximately 10 years. To be acceptable to GCEP operators, it is essential that the instrument be installed and maintained without interrupting operations. A means to continuously verify flow as is proposed by FEMO will likely be needed to monitor safeguards at large-capacity plants. This will enable the safeguards effectiveness that currently exists at smaller plants to be maintained at the larger facilities and also has the potential to reduce labor costs associated with inspections at current and future plants. This paper describes the FEMO design requirements, operating capabilities, and development work required before field demonstration.

  6. Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA): A Nondestructive Assay Technique for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Plutonium Assay Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

    2010-12-01

    This is an end-of-year report for a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The first-year goals for this project were modest and included: 1) developing a zero-order MCNP model for the NRTA technique, simulating data results presented in the literature, 2) completing a preliminary set of studies investigating important design and performance characteristics for the NRTA measurement technique, and 3) documentation of this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes a nine month period of work.

  7. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L

    2015-01-01

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most of which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.

  8. AUTOMATED PROCESS MONITORING: APPLYING PROVEN AUTOMATION TECHNIQUES TO INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS NEEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Hara, Matthew J.; Durst, Philip C.; Grate, Jay W.; Devol, Timothy A.; Egorov, Oleg; Clements, John P.

    2008-07-13

    Identification and quantification of specific alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in complex liquid matrices is highly challenging, and is typically accomplished through laborious wet chemical sample preparation and separations followed by analysis using a variety of detection methodologies (e.g., liquid scintillation, gas proportional counting, alpha energy analysis, mass spectrometry). Analytical results may take days or weeks to report. Chains of custody and sample security measures may also complicate or slow the analytical process. When an industrial process-scale plant requires the monitoring of specific radionuclides as an indication of the composition of its feed stream or of plant performance, radiochemical measurements must be fast, accurate, and reliable. Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have assembled a fully automated prototype Process Monitor instrument capable of a variety of tasks: automated sampling directly from a feed stream, sample digestion / analyte redox adjustment, chemical separations, radiochemical detection and data analysis / reporting. The system is compact, its components are fluidically inter-linked, and analytical results could be immediately transmitted to on- or off-site locations. The development of a rapid radiochemical Process Monitor for 99Tc in Hanford tank waste processing streams, capable of performing several measurements per hour, will be discussed in detail. More recently, the automated platform was modified to perform measurements of 90Sr in Hanford tank waste stimulant. The system exemplifies how automation could be integrated into reprocessing facilities to support international nuclear safeguards needs.

  9. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Munley, John T.; Nelson, Danny A.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-17

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids, producing a small atomic uranium vapor plume. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. LAARS has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for U-235. The sample is scanned and assayed point-by-point at rates reaching 1 million measurements/hour, enabling LAARS to detect and analyze uranium in trace samples. The spectrometer is assembled using primarily commercially available components and features a compact design and automated analysis.Two specific gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) applications of the spectrometer are currently under development: 1) LAARS-Environmental Sampling (ES), which collects and analyzes aerosol particles for GCEP misuse detection and 2) LAARS-Destructive Assay (DA), which enables onsite enrichment DA sample collection and analysis for protracted diversion detection. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in GCEP safeguards verification.

  10. Nucifer: A small electron-antineutrino detector for fundamental and safeguard studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letourneau, A.; Bui, V. M.; Fallot, M.; Giot, L.; Martino, J.; Porta, A.; Varignon, C.; Yermia, F.

    2011-07-01

    The Nucifer detector will be deployed in the next few months at the Osiris research reactor in France. Nucifer is a 1-ton Gd-doped liquid scintillator detector devoted to reactor antineutrino studies. It will be installed 7 m away from the compact core of the Osiris reactor. The design of such small volume detector has been focused on high detection efficiency and good background rejection. Over the last decades, our understanding of the neutrino properties has been improved and allows today the possibility to apply the detection of antineutrinos to automatic and to non intrusively survey nuclear power plant. This has triggered the interest of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which is interested by developing new safeguard techniques for next generation reactors. The sensitivity of such technique has to be proved and demonstrated. On the other hand there is still some issues in our understanding of the neutrino properties as the observed deficit in the antineutrino rate at short distances (< 100 m) that can not be explained by oscillations in the 3-flavors neutrino model. If a global systematic error is rejected, such anomaly opens the door to new physic that can be assessed with small detectors placed close to the core. Here we review the Nucifer detector in this context and the tests we are performing. (authors)

  11. Advances Towards Readily Deployable Antineutrino Detectors for Reactor Monitoring and Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowden, N S; Bernstein, A; Dazeley, S; Lund, J; Reyna, D; Sadler, L; Svoboda, R

    2008-06-05

    Nuclear reactors have served as the neutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Our LLNL/SNL collaboration has demonstrated that such antineutrino based monitoring is feasible using a relatively small cubic meter scale detector at tens of meters standoff from a commercial PWR. With little or no burden on the plant operator we have been able to remotely and automatically monitor the reactor operational status (on/off), power level, and fuel burnup. Recently, we have investigated several technology paths that could allow such devices to be more readily deployed in the field. In particular, we have developed and fielded two new detectors; a low cost, non- flammable water based design; and a robust solid-state design based upon plastic scintillator. Here we will describe the tradeoffs inherent in these designs, and present results from their field deployments.

  12. Interim Update: Global Automotive Power Electronics R&D Relevant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interim Update: Global Automotive Power Electronics R&D Relevant To DOE 2015 and 2020 Cost Targets Interim Update: Global Automotive Power Electronics R&D Relevant To DOE 2015 and ...

  13. EERE QC Workshop: Overview of Relevant Processes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Relevant Processes EERE QC Workshop: Overview of Relevant Processes Overview of relevant QC process by Michael Ulsh, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, at the EERE QC Workshop held December 9-10, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. PDF icon EERE QC Workshop: Overview of Relevant Processes More Documents & Publications EERE QC Workshop: Overview of Quality Control Techniques EERE Quality Control Workshop Agenda DOE's Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies

  14. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory library of bacterial and archaeal proteomic biodiversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Samuel H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Overall, Christopher C.; Kiebel, Gary R.; Degan, Michael G.; Gibbons, Bryson C.; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-08-18

    This dataset deposition announces the submission to public repositories of the PNNL Biodiversity Library, a large collection of global proteomics data for 112 bacterial and archaeal organisms. The data comprises 35,162 tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) datasets from ~10 years of research. All data has been searched, annotated and organized in a consistent manner to promote reuse by the community. Protein identifications were cross-referenced with KEGG functional annotations which allows for pathway oriented investigation. We present the data as a freely available community resource. A variety of data re-use options are described for computational modeling, proteomics assay design and bioengineering. Instrument data and analysis files are available at ProteomeXchange via the MassIVE partner repository under the identifiers PXD001860 and MSV000079053.

  15. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory library of bacterial and archaeal proteomic biodiversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Payne, Samuel H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Overall, Christopher C.; Kiebel, Gary R.; Degan, Michael G.; Gibbons, Bryson C.; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lipton, Mary S.; et al

    2015-08-18

    This dataset deposition announces the submission to public repositories of the PNNL Biodiversity Library, a large collection of global proteomics data for 112 bacterial and archaeal organisms. The data comprises 35,162 tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) datasets from ~10 years of research. All data has been searched, annotated and organized in a consistent manner to promote reuse by the community. Protein identifications were cross-referenced with KEGG functional annotations which allows for pathway oriented investigation. We present the data as a freely available community resource. A variety of data re-use options are described for computational modeling, proteomics assay design and bioengineering. Instrumentmore » data and analysis files are available at ProteomeXchange via the MassIVE partner repository under the identifiers PXD001860 and MSV000079053.« less

  16. Advances toward a transportable antineutrino detector system for reactor monitoring and safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyna, D.; Bernstein, A.; Lund, J.; Kiff, S.; Cabrera-Palmer, B.; Bowden, N. S.; Dazeley, S.; Keefer, G.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the neutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Our SNL/LLNL collaboration has demonstrated that such antineutrino based monitoring is feasible using a relatively small cubic meter scale liquid scintillator detector at tens of meters standoff from a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). With little or no burden on the plant operator we have been able to remotely and automatically monitor the reactor operational status (on/off), power level, and fuel burnup. The initial detector was deployed in an underground gallery that lies directly under the containment dome of an operating PWR. The gallery is 25 meters from the reactor core center, is rarely accessed by plant personnel, and provides a muon-screening effect of some 20-30 meters of water equivalent earth and concrete overburden. Unfortunately, many reactor facilities do not contain an equivalent underground location. We have therefore attempted to construct a complete detector system which would be capable of operating in an aboveground location and could be transported to a reactor facility with relative ease. A standard 6-meter shipping container was used as our transportable laboratory - containing active and passive shielding components, the antineutrino detector and all electronics, as well as climate control systems. This aboveground system was deployed and tested at the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) in southern California in 2010 and early 2011. We will first present an overview of the initial demonstrations of our below ground detector. Then we will describe the aboveground system and the technological developments of the two antineutrino detectors that were deployed. Finally, some preliminary results of our aboveground test will be shown. (authors)

  17. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Overview and Policy Context of UF6 Cylinder Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, Brian D; Whitaker, J. Michael; White-Horton, Jessica L.; Durbin, Karyn R.

    2012-07-12

    Thousands of cylinders containing uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) move around the world from conversion plants to enrichment plants to fuel fabrication plants, and their contents could be very useful to a country intent on diverting uranium for clandestine use. Each of these large cylinders can contain close to a significant quantity of natural uranium (48Y cylinder) or low-enriched uranium (LEU) (30B cylinder) defined as 75 kg {sup 235}U which can be further clandestinely enriched to produce 1.5 to 2 significant quantities of high enriched uranium (HEU) within weeks or months depending on the scale of the clandestine facility. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) kicked off a 5-year plan in April 2011 to investigate the concept of a unique identification system for UF{sub 6} cylinders and potentially to develop a cylinder tracking system that could be used by facility operators and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The goal is to design an integrated solution beneficial to both industry and inspectorates that would improve cylinder operations at the facilities and provide enhanced capabilities to deter and detect both diversion of low-enriched uranium and undeclared enriched uranium production. The 5-year plan consists of six separate incremental tasks: (1) define the problem and establish the requirements for a unique identification (UID) and monitoring system; (2) develop a concept of operations for the identification and monitoring system; (3) determine cylinder monitoring devices and technology; (4) develop a registry database to support proof-of-concept demonstration; (5) integrate that system for the demonstration; and (6) demonstrate proof-of-concept. Throughout NNSA's performance of the tasks outlined in this program, the multi-laboratory team emphasizes that extensive engagement with industry stakeholders, regulatory authorities and inspectorates is essential to its success.

  18. Modeling of UF{sub 6} enrichment with gas centrifuges for nuclear safeguards activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercurio, G.; Peerani, P.; Richir, P.; Janssens, W.; Eklund, G.

    2012-09-26

    The physical modeling of uranium isotopes ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U) separation process by centrifugation of is a key aspect for predicting the nuclear fuel enrichment plant performances under surveillance by the Nuclear Safeguards Authorities. In this paper are illustrated some aspects of the modeling of fast centrifuges for UF{sub 6} gas enrichment and of a typical cascade enrichment plant with the Theoretical Centrifuge and Cascade Simulator (TCCS). The background theory for reproducing the flow field characteristics of a centrifuge is derived from the work of Cohen where the separation parameters are calculated using the solution of a differential enrichment equation. In our case we chose to solve the hydrodynamic equations for the motion of a compressible fluid in a centrifugal field using the Berman - Olander vertical velocity radial distribution and the solution was obtained using the Matlab software tool. The importance of a correct estimation of the centrifuge separation parameters at different flow regimes, lies in the possibility to estimate in a reliable way the U enrichment plant performances, once the separation external parameters are set (feed flow rate and feed, product and tails assays). Using the separation parameters of a single centrifuge allow to determine the performances of an entire cascade and, for this purpose; the software Simulink was used. The outputs of the calculation are the concentrations (assays) and the flow rates of the enriched (product) and depleted (tails) gas mixture. These models represent a valid additional tool, in order to verify the compliance of the U enrichment plant operator declarations with the 'on site' inspectors' measurements.

  19. Safeguards Options for Natural Uranium Conversion Facilities ? A Collaborative Effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Begovich, John M; Ferrada, Juan J

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) agreed on a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of an NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. The study, completed in early 2007, identified potential safeguards measures and evaluated their effectiveness and impacts on operations. In addition, advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was framed by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Before this policy, only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and, therefore, subject to AEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, and the IAEA. This paper highlights the findings of this joint collaborative effort and identifies technical measures to strengthen international safeguards in NUCPs.

  20. Implications of Export/Import Reporting Requirements in the United States - International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killinger, Mark H.; Benjamin, Eugene L.; McNair, Gary W.

    2001-02-20

    The United States has signed but not ratified the US/IAEA Safeguards Additional Protocol. If ratified, the Additional Protocol will require the US to report to the IAEA certain nuclear-related exports and imports to the IAEA. This document identifies and assesses the issues associated with the US making those reports. For example, some regulatory changes appear to be necessary. The document also attempts to predict the impact on the DOE Complex by assessing the historical flow of exports and imports that would be reportable if the Additional Protocol were in force.

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - Effective Use of the Safeguards Management Software (SAMS)_John Ballard [Compatibility Mode]

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Effective Use of the Safeguards Management Software (SAMS) John Ballard - NMMSS SAMS 2 What is SAMS? 3 Facility based version of the NMMSS software Functionality and look of the system are similar to NMMSS Benefits to Users Provides NMMSS user the ability to perform edit checks - Minimize errors Input transactions, material balance report, and inventory data - Simplifies reporting 4 Benefits to Users Enables NMMSS analyst to assist the user in real time while preparing facility

  2. Quark-gluon correlation functions relevant to single transverse spin

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    asymmetries (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Quark-gluon correlation functions relevant to single transverse spin asymmetries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quark-gluon correlation functions relevant to single transverse spin asymmetries We investigate the relative size of various twist-3 quark-gluon correlation functions relevant to single transverse spin asymmetries (SSAs) in a quark-diquark model of the nucleon. We calculate the quark-gluon correlation function T{sub

  3. Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous Liquid-Air Interfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically...

  4. Theoretical/Computational Tools for Energy-Relevant Catalysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TheoreticalComputational Tools for Energy-Relevant Catalysis FWPProject Description: Project Leader(s): James Evans, Mark Gordon Principal Investigators: James Evans, Mark Gordon...

  5. Toward a Fieldable Atomic Mass Spectrometer for Safeguards Applications: Sample Preparation and Ionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barinaga, Charles J.; Hager, George J.; Hart, Garret L.; Koppenaal, David W.; Marcus, R. Kenneth; Jones, Sarah MH; Manard, Benjamin T.

    2014-10-31

    The International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA’s) long-term research and development plan calls for the development of new methods to detect misuse at nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as reprocessing and enrichment plants. At enrichment plants, for example, the IAEA’s contemporary safeguards approaches are based on a combination of routine and random inspections that include collection of UF6 samples from in-process material and selected cylinders for subsequent analyses. These analyses include destructive analysis (DA) in a laboratory (typically by mass spectrometry [MS]) for isotopic characterization, and environmental sampling (ES) for subsequent laboratory elemental and isotopic analysis (also both typically by MS). One area of new method development includes moving this kind of isotope ratio analytical capability for DA and ES activities into the field. Some of the reasons for these developments include timeliness of results, avoidance of hazardous material shipments, and guidance for additional sample collecting. However, this capability does not already exist for several reasons, such as that most lab-based chemical and instrumental methods rely on laboratory infrastructure (highly trained staff, power, space, hazardous material handling, etc.) and require significant amounts of consumables (power, compressed gases, etc.). In addition, there are no currently available, fieldable instruments for atomic or isotope ratio analysis. To address these issues, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and collaborator, Clemson University, are studying key areas that limit the fieldability of isotope ratio mass spectrometry for atomic ions: sample preparation and ionization, and reducing the physical size of a fieldable mass spectrometer. PNNL is seeking simple and robust techniques that could be effectively used by inspectors who may have no expertise in analytical MS. In this report, we present and describe the preliminary findings for three candidate techniques: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS, liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD), and laser ablation/ionization (LAI) MS at atmospheric pressure. Potential performance metrics for these techniques will be presented, including detectability, response, isotope ratio accuracy and precision, and ease of use.

  6. Ultra-secure RF Tags for Safeguards and Security - SBIR Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Twogood, Richard E

    2015-01-27

    This is the Final Report for the DOE Phase II SBIR project “Ultra-secure RF Tags for Safeguards and Security.” The topics covered herein include technical progress made, progress against the planned milestones and deliverables, project outcomes (results, collaborations, intellectual property, etc.), and a discussion on future expectations of deployment and impacts of the results of this work. In brief, all planned work for the project was successfully completed, on or ahead of schedule and on budget. The major accomplishment was the successful development of a very advanced passive ultra-secure RFID tag system with combined security features unmatched by any commercially available ones. These tags have high-level dynamic encrypted authentication, a novel tamper-proofing mechanism, system software including graphical user interfaces and networking, and integration with a fiber-optic seal mechanism. This is all accomplished passively (with no battery) by incorporating sophisticated hardware in the tag which harvests the energy from the RFID readers that are interrogating the tag. Based on initial feedback (and deployments) at DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), it is anticipated these tags and their offspring will meet DOE and international community needs for highly secure RFID systems. Beyond the accomplishment of those original objectives for the ultra-secure RF tags, major new spin-off thrusts from the original work were identified and successfully pursued with the cognizance of the DOE sponsor office. In particular, new classes of less sophisticated RFID tags were developed whose lineage derives from the core R&D thrusts of this SBIR. These RF “tag variants” have some, but not necessarily all, of the advanced characteristics described above and can therefore be less expensive and meet far wider markets. With customer pull from the DOE and its national laboratories, new RFID tags and systems (including custom readers and software) for government needs in asset management and tracking were developed. These were tested at a national laboratory and other government facilities, and resulted in immediate procurement actions by the government and deployment of these new systems. Thus, commercialization of the results of this Phase II DOE SBIR was already underway before the end of the SBIR itself. More importantly, operations involving asset management at selected DoE and government sites are already being impacted favorably and could have much broader impacts in the near future.

  7. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-01

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids producing a small plume containing uranium atoms. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for uranium. It is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. High speed sample scanning and pinpoint characterization allow measurements on millions of particles/hour to detect and analyze the enrichment of trace uranium in samples. The spectrometer is assembled using commercially available components at comparatively low cost, and features a compact and low power design. Future designs can be engineered for reliable, autonomous deployment within an industrial plant environment. Two specific applications of the spectrometer are under development: 1) automated unattended aerosol sampling and analysis and 2) on-site small sample destructive assay measurement. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) safeguards verification. The aerosol measurement instrument, LAARS-environmental sampling (ES), collects aerosol particles from the plant environment in a purpose-built rotating drum impactor and then uses LAARS-ES to quickly scan the surface of the impactor to measure the enrichments of the captured particles. The current approach to plant misuse detection involves swipe sampling and offsite analysis. Though this approach is very robust it generally requires several months to obtain results from a given sample collection. The destructive assay instrument, LAARS-destructive assay (DA), uses a simple purpose-built fixture with a sampling planchet to collect adsorbed UF6 gas from a cylinder valve or from a process line tap or pigtail. A portable LAARS-DA instrument scans the microgram quantity of uranium collected on the planchet and the assay of the uranium is measured to ~0.15% relative precision. Currently, destructive assay samples for bias defect measurements are collected in small sample cylinders for offsite mass spectrometry measurement.

  8. Hell and High Water: Practice-Relevant Adaptation Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, Richard H.; Meehl, G.; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Smith, J. B.; Arnold, J. R.; Arnott, J. C.; Behar, D.; Brasseur, Guy P.; Broomell, S. B.; Busalacchi, Antonio; Dessai, S.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Edmonds, James A.; Furlow, J.; Goddard, L.; Hartmann, Holly; Hurrell, Jim; Katzenberger, J. W.; Liverman, D. M.; Mote, Phil; Moser, S. C.; Kumar, A.; Pulwarty, Roger; Seyller, E. A.; Turner, B.L.; Washington, Warren M.; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2013-11-08

    Recent extreme weather such as Hurricane Sandy and the 2012 drought demonstrate the vulnerability of the United States to climate extremes in the present and point to the potential for increased future damages under a changing climate. They also provide lessons for reducing harm and realizing any potential benefits. Preparedness measures – also referred to as adaptation – can cost-effectively increase resilience today and in the future. The upfront costs will be more than offset by reductions in property damage, lives and livelihoods lost, and expensive post-disaster recovery processes. While others have addressed use of science for adaptation in specific sectors including biodiversity (Heller and Zavaleta, 2009) and freshwater ecosystem management (Wilby et al., 2010), or by simply taking a more pragmatic approach to adaptation under uncertainty (Hallegatte, 2009), here the authors make the case that a new, comprehensive approach is needed to create and use science to inform adaptations with applicable and sound knowledge (Kerr et al., 2011).

  9. Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian M.; Xue, Kai; Yang, Yunfeng; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; McGrath, Steve; Storkey, Jonathan; et al

    2015-04-07

    Spatial scaling is a critical issue in ecology, but how anthropogenic activities like fertilization affect spatial scaling is poorly understood, especially for microbial communities. Here, we determined the effects of long-term fertilization on the spatial scaling of microbial functional diversity and its relationships to plant diversity in the 150-year-old Park Grass Experiment, the oldest continuous grassland experiment in the world. Nested samples were taken from plots with contrasting inorganic fertilization regimes, and community DNAs were analyzed using the GeoChip-based functional gene array. The slopes of microbial gene-area relationships (GARs) and plant species-area relationships (SARs) were estimated in a plot receivingmore » nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and a control plot without fertilization. Our results indicated that long-term inorganic fertilization significantly increased both microbial GARs and plant SARs. Microbial spatial turnover rates (i.e., z values) were less than 0.1 and were significantly higher in the fertilized plot (0.0583) than in the control plot (0.0449) (P < 0.0001). The z values also varied significantly with different functional genes involved in carbon (C), N, P, and sulfur (S) cycling and with various phylogenetic groups (archaea, bacteria, and fungi). Similarly, the plant SARs increased significantly (P < 0.0001), from 0.225 in the control plot to 0.419 in the fertilized plot. Soil fertilization, plant diversity, and spatial distance had roughly equal contributions in shaping the microbial functional community structure, while soil geochemical variables contributed less. Results indicated that long-term agricultural practice could alter the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity. Determining the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity and its response to human activities is important but challenging in microbial ecology. Most studies to date are based on different sites that may not be truly comparable or on short-term perturbations, and hence, the results observed could represent transient responses. This study examined the spatial patterns of microbial communities in response to different fertilization regimes at the Rothamsted Research Experimental Station, which has become an invaluable resource for ecologists, environmentalists, and soil scientists. The current study is the first showing that long-term fertilization has dramatic impacts on the spatial scaling of microbial communities. In addition, by identifying the spatial patterns in response to long-term fertilization and their underlying mechanisms, the study makes fundamental contributions to predictive understanding of microbial biogeography.« less

  10. Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian M.; Xue, Kai; Yang, Yunfeng; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; McGrath, Steve; Storkey, Jonathan; Hirsch, Penny R.; Sun, Bo; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-04-07

    Spatial scaling is a critical issue in ecology, but how anthropogenic activities like fertilization affect spatial scaling is poorly understood, especially for microbial communities. Here, we determined the effects of long-term fertilization on the spatial scaling of microbial functional diversity and its relationships to plant diversity in the 150-year-old Park Grass Experiment, the oldest continuous grassland experiment in the world. Nested samples were taken from plots with contrasting inorganic fertilization regimes, and community DNAs were analyzed using the GeoChip-based functional gene array. The slopes of microbial gene-area relationships (GARs) and plant species-area relationships (SARs) were estimated in a plot receiving nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and a control plot without fertilization. Our results indicated that long-term inorganic fertilization significantly increased both microbial GARs and plant SARs. Microbial spatial turnover rates (i.e., z values) were less than 0.1 and were significantly higher in the fertilized plot (0.0583) than in the control plot (0.0449) (P < 0.0001). The z values also varied significantly with different functional genes involved in carbon (C), N, P, and sulfur (S) cycling and with various phylogenetic groups (archaea, bacteria, and fungi). Similarly, the plant SARs increased significantly (P < 0.0001), from 0.225 in the control plot to 0.419 in the fertilized plot. Soil fertilization, plant diversity, and spatial distance had roughly equal contributions in shaping the microbial functional community structure, while soil geochemical variables contributed less. Results indicated that long-term agricultural practice could alter the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity. Determining the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity and its response to human activities is important but challenging in microbial ecology. Most studies to date are based on different sites that may not be truly comparable or on short-term perturbations, and hence, the results observed could represent transient responses. This study examined the spatial patterns of microbial communities in response to different fertilization regimes at the Rothamsted Research Experimental Station, which has become an invaluable resource for ecologists, environmentalists, and soil scientists. The current study is the first showing that long-term fertilization has dramatic impacts on the spatial scaling of microbial communities. In addition, by identifying the spatial patterns in response to long-term fertilization and their underlying mechanisms, the study makes fundamental contributions to predictive understanding of microbial biogeography.

  11. DOE/DHS INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY PROGRAMS: A MODEL FOR USE IN NUCLEAR FACILITY SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Many critical infrastructure sectors have been investigating cyber security issues for several years especially with the help of two primary government programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program have both implemented activities aimed at securing the industrial control systems that operate the North American electric grid along with several other critical infrastructure sectors (ICS). These programs have spent the last seven years working with industry including asset owners, educational institutions, standards and regulating bodies, and control system vendors. The programs common mission is to provide outreach, identification of cyber vulnerabilities to ICS and mitigation strategies to enhance security postures. The success of these programs indicates that a similar approach can be successfully translated into other sectors including nuclear operations, safeguards, and security. The industry regulating bodies have included cyber security requirements and in some cases, have incorporated sets of standards with penalties for non-compliance such as the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Critical Infrastructure Protection standards. These DOE and DHS programs that address security improvements by both suppliers and end users provide an excellent model for nuclear facility personnel concerned with safeguards and security cyber vulnerabilities and countermeasures. It is not a stretch to imagine complete surreptitious collapse of protection against the removal of nuclear material or even initiation of a criticality event as witnessed at Three Mile Island or Chernobyl in a nuclear ICS inadequately protected against the cyber threat.

  12. An Assessment of the Attractiveness of Material Associated with a MOX Fuel Cycle from a Safeguards Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bathke, Charles G; Wallace, Richard K; Ireland, John R; Johnson, M W; Hase, Kevin R; Jarvinen, Gordon D; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B; Sleaford, Brad W; Collins, Brian A; Robel, Martin; Bradley, Keith S; Prichard, Andrew W; Smith, Brian W

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an extension to earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) and alternate nuclear materials (ANM) associated with the PUREX, UREX, coextraction, THOREX, and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study extends the figure of merit (FOM) for evaluating attractiveness to cover a broad range of proliferant State and sub-national group capabilities. This study also considers those materials that will be recycled and burned, possibly multiple times, in LWRs [e.g., plutonium in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel]. The primary conclusion of this study is that all fissile material needs to be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a State and provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by sub-national groups; no 'silver bullet' has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. This series of studies has been performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The expanded methodology and updated findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security are discussed.

  13. Biodiversity Monitoring Using NGS Approaches on Unusual Substrates (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Tom Gilbert of the Natural History Museum of Denmark on "Biodiversity monitoring using NGS approaches on unusual substrates" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  14. Relevance of the second law of thermodynamics to energy conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the potential relevance of the use of analytical tools based on the Second Law of thermodynamics to existing federal programs for energy conservation in the industrial, transportation, buildings, and utility sectors in the US. (LCL)

  15. Evolution of twist-3 multiparton correlation functions relevant...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We calculate evolution kernels relevant to the gluonic pole contributions to the asymmetry at the order of alphasub s. We find that all evolution kernels are infrared safe as ...

  16. Land and Resource Management Issues Relevant to Deploying In...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Land and Resource Management Issues Relevant to Deploying In-Situ Thermal Technologies Utah is home to oil shale resources containing roughly 1.3 trillion barrels of oil ...

  17. UV-Vis Spectroscopy as a Tool for Safeguards; Instrumentation installation and fundamental data collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Krebs, John F.; Hebden, Andrew S.

    2015-09-20

    Two spectrophotometric process monitors, one optimized for high concentration (approximately 10 g/L) and one for trace levels (approximately 10 ppm),were developed at Argonne and installed at the SRS H-Canyon facility for field testing. These systems were built of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components utilizing a custom, facility-specific hardware interface. The systems directly provide a qualitative measurement of process chemistry (i.e. valence state). With appropriate calibrations the systems could provide quantitative data. Laboratory tests were performed to determine the spectrophotometric molar absorptivity coefficients for relevant actinide and transition metals of interest.

  18. Influence of Mechanical Properties Relevant to Standoff Deflection of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hazardous Asteroids (Conference) | SciTech Connect Influence of Mechanical Properties Relevant to Standoff Deflection of Hazardous Asteroids Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Mechanical Properties Relevant to Standoff Deflection of Hazardous Asteroids Authors: Lomov, I ; Herbold, E B ; Antoun, T H ; Miller, P Publication Date: 2012-06-04 OSTI Identifier: 1077193 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-559642 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource

  19. Experimental demonstration of fusion-relevant conditions in magnetized

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    liner inertial fusion (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Experimental demonstration of fusion-relevant conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion « Prev Next » Title: Experimental demonstration of fusion-relevant conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion This Letter presents results from the first fully integrated experiments testing the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S.A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)], in which a cylinder of deuterium gas with a preimposed

  20. Evolution of twist-3 multiparton correlation functions relevant to single

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transverse-spin asymmetry (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Evolution of twist-3 multiparton correlation functions relevant to single transverse-spin asymmetry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evolution of twist-3 multiparton correlation functions relevant to single transverse-spin asymmetry We construct two sets of twist-3 correlation functions that are responsible for generating the novel single transverse-spin asymmetry in the QCD collinear factorization approach. We derive

  1. Center for Gas Separations Relevant to Clean Energy Technologies (CGS) |

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Gas Separations Relevant to Clean Energy Technologies (CGS) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Center for Gas Separations Relevant to Clean Energy Technologies (CGS) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page CGS Header Director Jeffrey Long Lead Institution University of California, Berkeley Year Established 2009 Mission

  2. Theoretical and experimental studies of electrified interfaces relevant to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    energy storage. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Theoretical and experimental studies of electrified interfaces relevant to energy storage. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theoretical and experimental studies of electrified interfaces relevant to energy storage. Advances in technology for electrochemical energy storage require increased understanding of electrolyte/electrode interfaces, including the electric double layer structure, and processes involved in

  3. Theoretical and experimental studies of electrified interfaces relevant to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    energy storage. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Theoretical and experimental studies of electrified interfaces relevant to energy storage. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theoretical and experimental studies of electrified interfaces relevant to energy storage. Ă— You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public

  4. American Indian Policy and Relevant DOE and Executive Orders | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy Tribal Programs » American Indian Policy and Relevant DOE and Executive Orders American Indian Policy and Relevant DOE and Executive Orders Over the course of American history, the Federal government's relationship with Indian Tribes has been defined and modified by treaties, executive orders, court decisions, specific legislation passed by Congress, and regulations. Important rights were guaranteed to Tribes by treaty, with many of these rights still enforceable today. Case law,

  5. Hybrid statistical testing for nuclear material accounting data and/or process monitoring data in nuclear safeguards

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Ticknor, Larry; Sprinkle, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of nuclear safeguards is to ensure that special nuclear material is used for peaceful purposes. Historically, nuclear material accounting (NMA) has provided the quantitative basis for monitoring for nuclear material loss or diversion, and process monitoring (PM) data is collected by the operator to monitor the process. PM data typically support NMA in various ways, often by providing a basis to estimate some of the in-process nuclear material inventory. We develop options for combining PM residuals and NMA residuals (residual = measurement - prediction), using a hybrid of period-driven and data-driven hypothesis testing. The modified statistical tests canmore » be used on time series of NMA residuals (the NMA residual is the familiar material balance), or on a combination of PM and NMA residuals. The PM residuals can be generated on a fixed time schedule or as events occur.« less

  6. Hybrid statistical testing for nuclear material accounting data and/or process monitoring data in nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Ticknor, Larry; Sprinkle, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of nuclear safeguards is to ensure that special nuclear material is used for peaceful purposes. Historically, nuclear material accounting (NMA) has provided the quantitative basis for monitoring for nuclear material loss or diversion, and process monitoring (PM) data is collected by the operator to monitor the process. PM data typically support NMA in various ways, often by providing a basis to estimate some of the in-process nuclear material inventory. We develop options for combining PM residuals and NMA residuals (residual = measurement - prediction), using a hybrid of period-driven and data-driven hypothesis testing. The modified statistical tests can be used on time series of NMA residuals (the NMA residual is the familiar material balance), or on a combination of PM and NMA residuals. The PM residuals can be generated on a fixed time schedule or as events occur.

  7. Racing with Relevance: Green Racing Redefines Sustainable Motorsports |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Racing with Relevance: Green Racing Redefines Sustainable Motorsports Racing with Relevance: Green Racing Redefines Sustainable Motorsports October 16, 2014 - 7:40pm Addthis Known as the “race within the race,” the Green Racing initiative’s Green Challenge Award recognizes the teams and manufacturers of the TUDOR United SportsCar Championship that go the farthest and fastest with the smallest environmental footprint. | Photo credit: Rick Gillam. Known as

  8. Nuclear Safety Information Agreement Between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On December 15, Matt Moury, Associate Under Secretary, Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS DOE) and EHSS Office of Nuclear Safety staff met with the NRC Executive Director for Operations, the Deputy Executive Director for Operations, and the Director, Office of Nuclear Materials Safety and Safeguards to sign a nuclear safety information exchange agreement between NRC Office of Nuclear Materials Safety and Safeguards and the Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security.

  9. A feasibility study for the application of radiation monitoring for international safeguards at an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.C.; Adams, E.L.; Li, T.K.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1994-09-01

    The authors evaluated the feasibility of using radiation monitoring for international safeguards at an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) uranium enrichment facility. Techniques employing neutron and gamma-ray detection were investigated and evaluated to determine their applicability for detecting highly enriched uranium. This task is complicated because classified information must not be revealed in the inspection activity. Within this constraint, the authors concluded that (1) neutron methods will not be a viable option for measurements at the separator module, (2) gamma-ray measurements at the separator module are possible but cannot be adequately verified, and (3) neutron and gamma-ray approaches are suitable for measurements of feed, product, and tails. If international safeguards are applied at an AVLIS facility, neutron and gamma-ray instruments will need to be designed and optimized.

  10. Status of the United States-Russian Federation safeguards, transparency and irreversibility (STI) initiative for nuclear arms reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czajkowski, A.F.; Bieniawski, A.J.; Percival, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    The US-Russian Federation initiative to provide safeguards, transparency, and irreversibility (STI) of nuclear arms reductions has been emphasized by several Presidential Joint Summit Statements as well as various agreements between the two parties. Beginning with the US and Russian Federation agreement in March, 1994, to host reciprocal inspections to confirm the stockpiles of plutonium removed from nuclear weapons, the US and Russia have been negotiating an STI regime to increase the transparency and irreversibility of nuclear arms reduction. In December, 1994, the US presented a paper to the Russian Federation proposing a regime of specific transparency measures to provide broader transparency and irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions. Presently the US considers STI to consist of the following measures: (1) agreement for cooperation (AFC); (2) stockpile data exchange agreement (SDEA); (3) mutual reciprocal inspections (MRI); (4) spot checks to confirm data exchanges (SC); and (5) limited Chain of Custody of Warheads Being Dismantled (LCC). The US and Russian have begun negotiations, which are in various stages of progress, on the first three of these measures. This paper will present a brief historical background of STI and discuss the transparency measures including the status of negotiation for each of the measures.

  11. Emergency preparedness source term development for the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards-Licensed Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, S.L.; Mishima, J.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Lindsey, C.G.

    1984-08-01

    In order to establish requirements for emergency preparedness plans at facilities licensed by the Office of Nuclear Materials Safety and Safeguards, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) needs to develop source terms (the amount of material made airborne) in accidents. These source terms are used to estimate the potential public doses from the events, which, in turn, will be used to judge whether emergency preparedness plans are needed for a particular type of facility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is providing the NRC with source terms by developing several accident scenarios for eleven types of fuel cycle and by-product operations. Several scenarios are developed for each operation, leading to the identification of the maximum release considered for emergency preparedness planning (MREPP) scenario. The MREPP scenarios postulated were of three types: fire, tornado, and criticality. Fire was significant at oxide fuel fabrication, UF/sub 6/ production, radiopharmaceutical manufacturing, radiopharmacy, sealed source manufacturing, waste warehousing, and university research and development facilities. Tornadoes were MREPP events for uranium mills and plutonium contaminated facilities, and criticalities were significant at nonoxide fuel fabrication and nuclear research and development facilities. Techniques for adjusting the MREPP release to different facilities are also described.

  12. Shock-ignition relevant experiments with planar targets on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S. X.; Anderson, K. S.; Boehly, T. R.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Theobald, W.; Lafon, M.; Nora, R.; Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 ; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623; Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Physics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 ; Casner, A.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G.

    2014-02-15

    We report on laser-driven, strong-shock generation and hot-electron production in planar targets in the presence of a pre-plasma at shock-ignition (SI) relevant laser and pre-plasma conditions. 2-D simulations reproduce the shock dynamics well, indicating ablator shocks of up to 75 Mbar have been generated. We observe hot-electron temperatures of ?70?keV at intensities of 1.4?×?10{sup 15}?W/cm{sup 2} with multiple overlapping beams driving the two-plasmon decay instability. When extrapolated to SI-relevant intensities of ?10{sup 16}?W/cm{sup 2}, the hot electron temperature will likely exceed 100?keV, suggesting that tightly focused beams without overlap are better suited for launching the ignitor shock.

  13. The administrative record: What constitutes a relevant NEPA document?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, C.; Every, D.V.

    1997-08-01

    Neither the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) nor the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations for implementing NEPA address the contents of an administrative record (AR). The AR typically contains the documents and information used in the development of NEPA documents and supports the decisions defined in them. The AR also should include all records pertaining to public comments and all records demonstrating the project`s efforts to involve the public. This paper will attempt to establish comprehensive guidelines to be used in assembling an AR in support of a NEPA document. While the AR is created to support an agency`s decisions, its main purpose is to demonstrate that an agency has adhered to NEPA`s procedural requirements. The CEQ requires that relevant environmental documents, comments and responses be part of the record in formal rulemaking or adjudicatory proceedings. Other Federal agency NEPA implementing procedures generally do not provide additional guidance on the contents of an AR. The CEQ and DOE guidelines make reference to the inclusion of relevant NEPA documents. The guidelines established in this paper will aid the NEPA practitioner in determining what constitutes a relevant NEPA document.

  14. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G.

    2010-04-15

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  15. Attachment L-2a Relevant Corporate Experience Form

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    [Submit in Volume II, TAB 1] DE-SOL-0008449 Attachment L-2a Relevant Corporate Experience Form 1) Experience Submission Number: (Start with 1 and number consecutively) 2). Name and Address of Offeror or Team Member 3. Complete Name/Title of Contract and Location/Address of project/contract 3. Project Owner Name and Address 4. Contract Number and Type of Contract 5. Date of Contract Award 6. Date Work Commenced 7. Date Work Ended 8. Initial Contract Price/Cost and Fee 9. Final Amount

  16. Feasibility Study on the Use of On-line Multivariate Statistical Process Control for Safeguards Applications in Natural Uranium Conversion Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the feasibility of using on-line multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) for safeguards applications in natural uranium conversion plants. Multivariate statistical process control is commonly used throughout industry for the detection of faults. For safeguards applications in uranium conversion plants, faults could include the diversion of intermediate products such as uranium dioxide, uranium tetrafluoride, and uranium hexafluoride. This study was limited to a 100 metric ton of uranium (MTU) per year natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP) using the wet solvent extraction method for the purification of uranium ore concentrate. A key component in the multivariate statistical methodology is the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) approach for the analysis of data, development of the base case model, and evaluation of future operations. The PCA approach was implemented through the use of singular value decomposition of the data matrix where the data matrix represents normal operation of the plant. Component mole balances were used to model each of the process units in the NUCP. However, this approach could be applied to any data set. The monitoring framework developed in this research could be used to determine whether or not a diversion of material has occurred at an NUCP as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system. This approach can be used to identify the key monitoring locations, as well as locations where monitoring is unimportant. Detection limits at the key monitoring locations can also be established using this technique. Several faulty scenarios were developed to test the monitoring framework after the base case or normal operating conditions of the PCA model were established. In all of the scenarios, the monitoring framework was able to detect the fault. Overall this study was successful at meeting the stated objective.

  17. A Mock UF6 Feed and Withdrawal System for Testing Safeguards Monitoring Systems and Strategies Intended for Nuclear Fuel Enrichment and Processing Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krichinsky, Alan M; Bates, Bruce E; Chesser, Joel B; Koo, Sinsze; Whitaker, J Michael

    2009-12-01

    This report describes an engineering-scale, mock UF6 feed and withdrawal (F&W) system, its operation, and its intended uses. This system has been assembled to provide a test bed for evaluating and demonstrating new methodologies that can be used in remote, unattended, continuous monitoring of nuclear material process operations. These measures are being investigated to provide independent inspectors improved assurance that operations are being conducted within declared parameters, and to increase the overall effectiveness of safeguarding nuclear material. Testing applicable technologies on a mock F&W system, which uses water as a surrogate for UF6, enables thorough and cost-effective investigation of hardware, software, and operational strategies before their direct installation in an industrial nuclear material processing environment. Electronic scales used for continuous load-cell monitoring also are described as part of the basic mock F&W system description. Continuous monitoring components on the mock F&W system are linked to a data aggregation computer by a local network, which also is depicted. Data collection and storage systems are described only briefly in this report. The mock UF{sub 6} F&W system is economical to operate. It uses a simple process involving only a surge tank between feed tanks and product and withdrawal (or waste) tanks. The system uses water as the transfer fluid, thereby avoiding the use of hazardous UF{sub 6}. The system is not tethered to an operating industrial process involving nuclear materials, thereby allowing scenarios (e.g., material diversion) that cannot be conducted otherwise. These features facilitate conducting experiments that yield meaningful results with a minimum of expenditure and quick turnaround time. Technologies demonstrated on the engineering-scale system lead to field trials (described briefly in this report) for determining implementation issues and performance of the monitoring technologies under plant operating conditions. The ultimate use of technologies tested on the engineering-scale test bed is to work with safeguards agencies to install them in operating plants (e.g., enrichment and fuel processing plants), thereby promoting new safeguards measures with minimal impact to operating plants. In addition, this system is useful in identifying features for new plants that can be incorporated as part of 'safeguards by design,' in which load cells and other monitoring technologies are specified to provide outputs for automated monitoring and inspector evaluation.

  18. Polyatomic interferences on high precision uranium isotope ratio measurements by MC-ICP-MS: Applications to environmental sampling for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollington, Anthony D.; Kinman, William S.; Hanson, Susan K.; Steiner, Robert E.

    2015-09-04

    Modern mass spectrometry and separation techniques have made measurement of major uranium isotope ratios a routine task; however accurate and precise measurement of the minor uranium isotopes remains a challenge as sample size decreases. One particular challenge is the presence of isobaric interferences and their impact on the accuracy of minor isotope 234U and 236U measurements. Furthermore, we present techniques used for routine U isotopic analysis of environmental nuclear safeguards samples and evaluate polyatomic interferences that negatively impact accuracy as well as methods to mitigate their impacts.

  19. Polyatomic interferences on high precision uranium isotope ratio measurements by MC-ICP-MS: Applications to environmental sampling for nuclear safeguards

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pollington, Anthony D.; Kinman, William S.; Hanson, Susan K.; Steiner, Robert E.

    2015-09-04

    Modern mass spectrometry and separation techniques have made measurement of major uranium isotope ratios a routine task; however accurate and precise measurement of the minor uranium isotopes remains a challenge as sample size decreases. One particular challenge is the presence of isobaric interferences and their impact on the accuracy of minor isotope 234U and 236U measurements. Furthermore, we present techniques used for routine U isotopic analysis of environmental nuclear safeguards samples and evaluate polyatomic interferences that negatively impact accuracy as well as methods to mitigate their impacts.

  20. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-02-13

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  1. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Dooley, S; Westbrook, C K

    2008-05-29

    Detailed kinetic models of pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels are nowadays widely used in the design of internal combustion engines and these models are effectively applied to help meet the increasingly stringent environmental and energetic standards. In previous studies by the combustion community, such models not only contributed to the understanding of pure component combustion, but also provided a deeper insight into the combustion behavior of complex mixtures. One of the major challenges in this field is now the definition and the development of appropriate surrogate models able to mimic the actual features of real fuels. Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. Aside the most commonly used surrogates containing iso-octane and n-heptane only, the so called Primary Reference Fuels (PRF), new mixtures have recently been suggested to extend the reference components in surrogate mixtures to also include alkenes and aromatics. It is generally agreed that, including representative species for all the main classes of hydrocarbons which can be found in real fuels, it is possible to reproduce very effectively in a wide range of operating conditions not just the auto-ignition propensity of gasoline or Diesel fuels, but also their physical properties and their combustion residuals [1]. In this work, the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation is computationally examined. The attention is focused on the autoignition of iso-octane, hexene and their mixtures. Some important issues relevant to the experimental and modeling investigation of such fuels are discussed with the help of rapid compression machine data and calculations. Following the model validation, the behavior of mixtures is discussed on the basis of computational results.

  2. INFCIRC/288 - The Text of the Agreement of 18 November 1977 Between the United States of America and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ичгоо INF -//f£#-lNFClRC/288 . , . . _ . December 1981 International Atomic Energy Agency GENERAL D i s t r . INFORMATION CIRCULAR O r i g i n a l : ENGLISH THE TEXT OF THE AGREEMENT OF 18 NOVEMBER 1977 BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE AGENCY FOR THE APPLICATION OF SAFEGUARDS IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 1. The text [l] of the Agreement of 18 November 1977 and of the Protocol thereto between the United States of America and the Agency for the appli- cation of safeguards in

  3. Evaluation of MC&A Effectiveness and Its Contribution to the Safeguarding Of Nuclear Material with Assurance Assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlegel, Steven C.

    2007-07-10

    Safeguards and Security within the DOE complex has struggled with integrating MC&A and Physical Security together in a single model. Attempts were made to incorporate MC&A elements that provide detection into vulnerability assessments. While this approach has met with some success, it does not fully address the different contributions that each make to nuclear material protection. Protection measures that rely on the lack of alarms to imply all nuclear material is still present, in the correct location, and intended use are limited due to their passive nature. A highly effective system may provide confidence that all nuclear material is still present, but it does not provide assurance that it is there. MC&A, through active measures that confirm or verify the actual presence of nuclear material, provides assurance that all of the nuclear material is controlled and accounted for. This paper presents a model that combines the detection and assessment functions from vulnerability assessments with assurance activities provided by MC&A to provide an integrated model that can be used for evaluation of current systems, evaluation of system changes, and monitoring assurance in real time based upon operational activities. 1.0 OVERVIEW Material control and accounting (MC&A) and physical security provide complementary measures that can effectively protect nuclear material against the threats of theft, diversion, and sabotage. Tools have been introduced to evaluate and quantify the effectiveness of different protective measures and schemes, but the ability to fully model the contribution of MC&A to protection effectiveness has been limited. This is due, in part, by not fully recognizing that the two areas contribute differently, but not independently, to protection effectiveness. Physical protection provides detection, assessment, interruption, neutralization, and deterrence against a threat. Except for deterrence, mathematical models have been developed to quantify the contributions of the other elements to obtain an effectiveness value. MC&A helps contribute to this model by providing some detection capabilities and providing assessment under some circumstances to ensure all of the nuclear material is still present as documented. A strong program provides great confidence that nuclear material remains in the location and amounts documented in the nuclear material accounting system. Physical protection is not perfect, however, necessitating MC&A contribution.

  4. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and byproduct yield) were explored. In Chapter 5, the reaction of ozone with permethrin, a residual insecticide used in aircraft cabins, to form phosgene is investigated. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene at low levels, and chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated cabin materials. It was determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in the aircraft cabin, is not likely to exceed the relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines.

  5. Behavior of nanoceria in biologically-relevant environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Amit; Das, Soumen; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Self, William; Baer, Donald R.; Sayle, Dean C.; Seal, Sudipta

    2014-09-08

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have gained a considerable attention in biological research due to their anti-oxidant like behaviour and regenerative nature. The current literature on CNPs reports many successful attempts on harnessing the beneficial therapeutic properties in biology. However studies have also shown toxicity effect with some types of CNPs. This review discusses issues associated with the behaviours of CNPs in biological systems and identifies key knowledge gaps. We explore how salient physicochemical properties (size, surface chemistry, surface stabilizers) contribute to the potential positive and negative aspects of nanoceria in biological systems. Based on variations of results reported in the literature, important issues need to be addressed. Are we really studying the same particles with slight variations in size and physicochemical properties or do the particles being examined have fundamentally different behaviours? Are the variations observed in the result of differences in the initial properties of the particles or the results of downstream effects that emerge as the particles are prepared for specific studies and they interact with biological or other environmental moieties? How should particles be appropriately prepared for relevant environmental/toxicology/safety studies? It is useful to recognize that nanoparticles encompass some of the same complexities and variability associated with biological components

  6. Safeguards and Security Briefing

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Rail Shipment Via Inter-Modal Transfer IMT Cask Status 0 3 6 9 12 15 FMF YM En Route Generator Transportation Operations Center * IMT intermodal transfer facility * FMFfleet...

  7. Safeguards and Security Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-28

    Ensures appropriate levels of protection against unauthorized access; theft, diversion, loss of custody, or destruction of nuclear weapons, or weapons components; espionage; loss or theft of classified matter or Government property; and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security or on the health and safety of Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor employees, the public, or the environment. DOE N 251.40, dated 5/3/01, extends this directive until 12/31/01. Cancels DOE 5630.11B, DOE 5630.13A, DOE 5630.14A, DOE 5630.15, DOE 5630.16A, DOE 5630.17, DOE 5631.1C, DOE 5631.4A, DOE 5634.1B, DOE 5634.3, DOE 5639.3, and Chapter IX of DOE M 5632.1C-1

  8. Annual Report FY2013-- A Kinematically Complete, Interdisciplinary, and Co-Institutional Measurement of the 19F(?,n) Cross-section for Nuclear Safeguards Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, William A; Smith, Michael Scott; Clement, Ryan; Tan, Wanpeng; Stech, Ed; Cizewski, J A; Febbraro, Michael; Madurga Flores, Miguel

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this proposal is to enable neutron detection for precision Non-Destructive Assays (NDAs) of actinide-fluoride samples. Neutrons are continuously generated from a UFx matrix in a container or sample as a result of the interaction of alpha particles from uranium-decay ? particles with fluorine nuclei in the matrix. Neutrons from 19F(?,n)22Na were once considered a poorly characterized background for assays of UFx samples via 238U spontaneous fission neutron detection [SMI2010B]. However, the yield of decay-?-driven neutrons is critical for 234,235U LEU and HEU assays, as it can used to determine both the total amount of uranium and the enrichment [BER2010]. This approach can be extremely valuable in a variety of safeguard applications, such as cylinder monitoring in underground uranium storage facilities, nuclear criticality safety studies, nuclear materials accounting, and other nonproliferation applications. The success of neutron-based assays critically depends on an accurate knowledge of the cross section of the (?,n) reaction that generates the neutrons. The 40% uncertainty in the 19F(?,n)22Na cross section currently limits the precision of such assays, and has been identified as a key factor in preventing accurate enrichment determinations [CRO2003]. The need for higher quality cross section data for (?,n) reactions has been a recurring conclusion in reviews of the nuclear data needs to support safeguards. The overarching goal of this project is to enable neutron detection to be used for precision Non- Destructive Assays (NDAs) of actinide-fluoride samples. This will significantly advance safeguards verification at existing declared facilities, nuclear materials accounting, process control, nuclear criticality safety monitoring, and a variety of other nonproliferation applications. To reach this goal, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rutgers University (RU), and the University of Notre Dame (UND), will focus on three specific items: (1) making a precision (better than 10 %) determination of the absolute cross section of the 19F(?,n)22Na reaction as a function of energy; (2) determining the spectrum of neutrons and ?-rays emitted from 19F(?,n)22Na over an energy range pertinent to NDA; and (3) performing simulations with this new cross section to extract the neutron yield (neutrons/gram/second) and resulting neutron- and gamma ray-spectra when ? particles interact with fluorine nuclei in actinide samples, to aid in the design and reduce uncertainty of future NDA measurements and simulations.

  9. Sustaining International CBRN Centers of Excellence with a Focus on Nuclear Security and Safeguards: Initial Scoping Session London, 23-24 September 2013 SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Roger G.; Frazar, Sarah L.

    2013-12-12

    This report provides a summary-level description of the key information, observations, ideas, and recommendations expressed during the subject meeting. The report is organized to correspond to the meeting agenda provided in Appendix 1 and includes references to several of the participants listed in Appendix 2 .The meeting venue was Lloyd’s Register in the City of London. Lloyd’s Register graciously accommodated the request of The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) with whom it works on various safeguards activities commissioned by NNSA. PNNL and NNSA also shared the goal of the meeting/study with the United Kingdom (UK) Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) and the Department of Energy and Climate Change with whom they coordinated the participant list.

  10. An improved characterization method for international accountancy measurements of fresh and irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel: helping achieve continual monitoring and safeguards through the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Louise G; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Tobin, S. J.; Boyer, B. D.; Menlove, H. O.; Schear, M. A.; Worrall, Andrew

    2010-11-24

    Nuclear fuel accountancy measurements are conducted at several points through the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure continuity of knowledge (CofK) of special nuclear material (SNM). Non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements are performed on fresh fuel (prior to irradiation in a reactor) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) post-irradiation. We have developed a fuel assembly characterization system, based on the novel concept of 'neutron fingerprinting' with multiplicity signatures to ensure detailed CofK of nuclear fuel through the entire fuel cycle. The neutron fingerprint in this case is determined by the measurement of the various correlated neutron signatures, specific to fuel isotopic composition, and therefore offers greater sensitivity to variations in fissile content among fuel assemblies than other techniques such as gross neutron counting. This neutron fingerprint could be measured at the point of fuel dispatch (e.g. from a fuel fabrication plant prior to irradiation, or from a reactor site post-irradiation), monitored during transportation of the fuel assembly, and measured at a subsequent receiving site (e.g. at the reactor site prior to irradiation, or reprocessing facility post-irradiation); this would confirm that no unexpected changes to the fuel composition or amount have taken place during transportation and/or reactor operations. Changes may indicate an attempt to divert material for example. Here, we present the current state of the practice of fuel measurements for both fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and SNF (both MOX and uranium dioxide). This is presented in the framework of international safeguards perspectives from the US and UK. We also postulate as to how the neutron fingerprinting concept could lead to improved fuel characterization (both fresh MOX and SNF) resulting in: (a) assured CofK of fuel across the nuclear fuel cycle, (b) improved detection of SNM diversion, and (c) greater confidence in safeguards of SNF transportation.

  11. An improved characterization method for international accountancy measurements of fresh and irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel: helping achieve continual monitoring and safeguards through the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Louise G; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Tobin, S. J.; Menlove, H. O.; Schear, M. A.; Worrall, Andrew

    2011-01-13

    Nuclear fuel accountancy measurements are conducted at several points through the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure continuity of knowledge (CofK) of special nuclear material (SNM). Non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements are performed on fresh fuel (prior to irradiation in a reactor) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) post-irradiation. We have developed a fuel assembly characterization system, based on the novel concept of 'neutron fingerprinting' with multiplicity signatures to ensure detailed CofK of nuclear fuel through the entire fuel cycle. The neutron fingerprint in this case is determined by the measurement of the various correlated neutron signatures, specific to fuel isotopic composition, and therefore offers greater sensitivity to variations in fissile content among fuel assemblies than other techniques such as gross neutron counting. This neutron fingerprint could be measured at the point of fuel dispatch (e.g. from a fuel fabrication plant prior to irradiation, or from a reactor site post-irradiation), monitored during transportation of the fuel assembly, and measured at a subsequent receiving site (e.g. at the reactor site prior to irradiation, or reprocessing facility post-irradiation); this would confirm that no unexpected changes to the fuel composition or amount have taken place during transportation and/ or reactor operations. Changes may indicate an attempt to divert material for example. Here, we present the current state of the practice of fuel measurements for both fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and SNF (both MOX and uranium dioxide). This is presented in the framework of international safeguards perspectives from the US and UK. We also postulate as to how the neutron fingerprinting concept could lead to improved fuel characterization (both fresh MOX and SNF) resulting in: (a) assured CofK of fuel across the nuclear fuel cycle, (b) improved detection of SNM diversion, and (c) greater confidence in safeguards of SNF transportation.

  12. REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING STREAM-DISK

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IMPACT IN INTERACTING BINARIES (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING STREAM-DISK IMPACT IN INTERACTING BINARIES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING STREAM-DISK IMPACT IN INTERACTING BINARIES We present the first results from high-energy-density laboratory astrophysics experiments that explore the hydrodynamic and radiative properties of a reverse shock relevant

  13. Cory Simon | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    industrially relevant mixture of xenon and krypton. EFRC Publications Simon, Cory M.; Mercado, Rocio; Schnell, Sondre; Smit, Berend; and Haranczyk, Maciej. What Are the Best...

  14. REVIEW OF THE NEGOTIATION OF THE MODEL PROTOCOL ADDITIONAL TO THE AGREEMENT(S) BETWEEN STATE(S) AND THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY FOR THE APPLICATION OF SAFEGUARDS,INFCIRC/540 (Corrected) VOLUME I/III SETTING THE STAGE: 1991-1996.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Saum-Manning, L.; Houck, F.; Anzelon, G.

    2010-01-01

    Events in Iraq at the beginning of the 1990s demonstrated that the safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) needed to be improved. It had failed, after all, to detect Iraq's clandestine nuclear weapon program even though some of Iraq's's activities had been pursued at inspected facilities in buildings adjacent to ones being inspected by the IAEA. Although there were aspects of the implementation of safeguards where the IAEA needed to improve, the primary limitations were considered to be part of the safeguards system itself. That system was based on the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty of 1970, to which Iraq was a party, and implemented on the basis of a model NPT safeguards agreement, published by the IAEA 1972 as INFCIRC/153 (corrected). The agreement calls for states to accept and for the IAEA to apply safeguards to all nuclear material in the state. Iraq was a party to such an agreement, but it violated the agreement by concealing nuclear material and other nuclear activities from the IAEA. Although the IAEA was inspecting in Iraq, it was hindered by aspects of the agreement that essentially limited its access to points in declared facilities and provided the IAEA with little information about nuclear activities anywhere else in Iraq. As a result, a major review of the NPT safeguards system was initiated by its Director General and Member States with the objective of finding the best means to enable the IAEA to detect both diversions from declared stocks and any undeclared nuclear material or activities in the state. Significant improvements that could be made within existing legal authority were taken quickly, most importantly a change in 1992 in how and when and what design information would be reported to the IAEA. During 1991-1996, the IAEA pursued intensive study, legal and technical analysis, and field trials and held numerous consultations with Member States. The Board of Governors discussed the issue of strengthening safeguards at almost all of its meeting.

  15. Evaluation of alkali concentration in conditions relevant to oxygen/natural

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas glass furnaces by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Evaluation of alkali concentration in conditions relevant to oxygen/natural gas glass furnaces by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of alkali concentration in conditions relevant to oxygen/natural gas glass furnaces by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. A number of industrial combustion systems are adopting oxygen-enhanced firing

  16. Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel Particulate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Traps | Department of Energy Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel Particulate Traps Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel Particulate Traps Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_vanderwal.pdf More Documents &

  17. Program of technical assistance to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons - lessons learned from the U.S. program of technical assistance to IAEA safeguards. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency is sponsoring a technical study of the requirements of a vehicle to meet the OPCW`s future needs for enhanced chemical weapons verification capabilities. This report provides information about the proven mechanisms by which the U.S. provided both short- and long-term assistance to the IAEA to enhance its verification capabilities. Much of the technical assistance has generic application to international organizations verifying compliance with disarmament treaties or conventions. In addition, some of the equipment developed by the U.S. under the existing arrangements can be applied in the verification of other disarmament treaties or conventions. U.S. technical assistance to IAEA safeguards outside of the IAEA`s regular budget proved to be necessary. The U.S. technical assistance was successful in improving the effectiveness of IAEA safeguards for its most urgent responsibilities and in providing the technical elements for increased IAEA {open_quotes}readiness{close_quotes} for the postponed responsibilities deemed important for U.S. policy objectives. Much of the technical assistance was directed to generic subjects and helped to achieve a system of international verification. It is expected that the capabilities of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to verify a state`s compliance with the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} will require improvements. This report presents 18 important lessons learned from the experience of the IAEA and the U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), organized into three tiers. Each lesson is presented in the report in the context of the difficulty, need and history in which the lesson was learned. Only the most important points are recapitulated in this executive summary.

  18. Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at Non-Hanford Sites and Relevance to Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-02-01

    Seven sites where Pu release to the environment has raised significant environmental concerns have been reviewed. A summary of the most significant hydrologic and geochemical features, contaminant release events and transport processes relevant to Pu migration at the seven sites is presented.

  19. Nuclear structure relevant to neutrinoless double beta decay candidate {sup 130}Te and other recent results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kay, B. P. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-12-30

    We have undertaken a series of single-nucleon and pair transfer reaction measurements to help constrain calculations of the nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay. In this talk, a short overview of measurements relevant to the {sup 130}Te?{sup 130}Xe system is given. Brief mention is made of other recent and forthcoming results.

  20. Complete Genome Sequences for 35 Biothreat Assay-Relevant Bacillus Species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Davenport, Karen W.; Jaissle, James; Frey, Kenneth G.; Ladner, Jason T.; Broomall, Stacey M.; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Bruce, David C.; Gibbons, Henry S.; et al

    2015-04-30

    In 2011, the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) International released a list of Bacillus strains relevant to biothreat molecular detection assays. Presented in this document are the complete and annotated genome assemblies for the 15 strains listed on the inclusivity panel, as well as the 20 strains listed on the exclusivity panel.

  1. Giulia Galli | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies | Blandine Jerome Giulia Galli Previous Next List Giulia Galli Giulia Galli Professor of Chemistry University of California, Davis Email: gagailli [at] ucdavis.edu Phone: 530-754-9554 http://angstrom.ucdavis.edu/ Research Interests: Quantum simulations of systems and processes relevant to condensed matter physics, physical chemistry, materials and nano- science

  2. Perspectives on Changing Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Durbin, Karyn R.; Van Duzer, Andrew

    2005-12-01

    The importance of culture in the nuclear field has become widely recognized. In the wake of the 9-11 attacks in the United States, and terrorist attacks worldwide, the international community has become interested in strengthening nuclear security culture for much of the same reasons that it became interested in strengthening the nuclear safety culture in the 1980’s. The accidents that occurred at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl led to a realization that nuclear operations in one country can directly affect other countries. The accidents also led to the realization that technology alone cannot guarantee safety and that the human element has a key role to play in the safety operation of nuclear power plans.

  3. Safeguarding wetland on Laboratory property

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wetland on Laboratory property Protecting our environment August 1, 2013 The wetlands in Sandia Canyon on Lab property provide a home to a large amount of wildlife. Work...

  4. safeguards | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home /

  5. Systematic Assessment of Neutron and Gamma Backgrounds Relevant to Operational Modeling and Detection Technology Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archer, Daniel E.; Hornback, Donald Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Nicholson, Andrew D.; Patton, Bruce W.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a two year effort to systematically assess neutron and gamma backgrounds relevant to operational modeling and detection technology implementation. The first year effort focused on reviewing the origins of background sources and their impact on measured rates in operational scenarios of interest. The second year has focused on the assessment of detector and algorithm performance as they pertain to operational requirements against the various background sources and background levels.

  6. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety in Transport Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid

  7. Jeffrey Neaton | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies | Blandine Jerome Jeffrey Neaton Previous Next List AMS 0246 Jeff Neaton Director, Molecular Foundry & Senior Faculty Scientist, Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Email: jbneaton [at] lbl.gov Phone: 510-486-4527 EFRC research: Within the CGS, the Neaton group is developing novel electronic structure methods relevant to the study of MOFs and their interaction with gas molecules. EFRC publications: Lee, Jason S.; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Britt,

  8. Jeffrey Reimer | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies | Blandine Jerome Reimer Previous Next List HewlittAugust2013 Jeffrey Reimer Department Chair, Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Email: reimer [at] berkeley.edu Phone: 510-642-8011 EFRC research: Within the CGS, the Reimer group is developing novel NMR techniques relevant to the study of solid sorbents and the behavior of gas molecules inside them. EFRC publications: Braun, Efrem; Chen, Joseph J.; Schnell, Sondre K.; Lin,

  9. Allison Dzubak | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies | Blandine Jerome Allison Dzubak Previous Next List Dzubak Allison Dzubak Formerly: PhD Student, Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities BA in Chemistry, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities MS in Chemistry, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities EFRC research: The use of molecular simulations can be a powerful tool for predicting the adsorption/absorption properties of CO2 that are relevant for carbon capture. The predictive limitation of MC or MD simulations

  10. Biologically Relevant Mechanism For Catalytic Removal of Superoxide by Simple Manganese Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnese K.; Cabelli D.; Gralla, E.B.; Valentine, J.S.

    2012-05-01

    Nonenzymatic manganese was first shown to provide protection against superoxide toxicity in vivo in 1981, but the chemical mechanism responsible for this protection subsequently became controversial due to conflicting reports concerning the ability of Mn to catalyze superoxide disproportionation in vitro. In a recent communication, we reported that low concentrations of a simple Mn phosphate salt under physiologically relevant conditions will indeed catalyze superoxide disproportionation in vitro. We report now that two of the four Mn complexes that are expected to be most abundant in vivo, Mn phosphate and Mn carbonate, can catalyze superoxide disproportionation at physiologically relevant concentrations and pH, whereas Mn pyrophosphate and citrate complexes cannot. Additionally, the chemical mechanisms of these reactions have been studied in detail, and the rates of reactions of the catalytic removal of superoxide by Mn phosphate and carbonate have been modeled. Physiologically relevant concentrations of these compounds were found to be sufficient to mimic an effective concentration of enzymatic superoxide dismutase found in vivo. This mechanism provides a likely explanation as to how Mn combats superoxide stress in cellular systems.

  11. REVIEW OF THE NEGOTIATION OF THE MODEL PROTOCOL ADDITIONAL TO THE AGREEMENT(S) BETWEEN STATE(S) AND THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY FOR THE APPLICATION OF SAFEGUARDS, INFCIRC/540 (Corrected) VOLUME II/III IAEA COMMITTEE 24, Major Issues Underlying the Model Additional Protocol (1996-1997).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Saum-Manning, L.; Houck, F.

    2010-01-01

    Volume I of this Review traces the origins of the Model Additional Protocol. It covers the period from 1991, when events in Iraq triggered an intensive review of the safeguards system, until 1996, when the IAEA Board of Governors established Committee 24 to negotiate a new protocol to safeguards agreement. The period from 1991-1996 set the stage for this negotiation and shaped its outcome in important ways. During this 5-year period, many proposals for strengthening safeguards were suggested and reviewed. Some proposals were dropped, for example, the suggestion by the IAEA Secretariat to verify certain imports, and others were refined. A rough consensus was established about the directions in which the international community wanted to go, and this was reflected in the draft of an additional protocol that was submitted to the IAEA Board of Governors on May 6, 1996 in document GOV/2863, Strengthening the Effectiveness and Improving the Efficiency of the Safeguards System - Proposals For Implementation Under Complementary Legal Authority, A Report by the Director General. This document ended with a recommendation that, 'the Board, through an appropriate mechanism, finalize the required legal instrument taking as a basis the draft protocol proposed by the Secretariat and the explanation of the measures contained in this document.'

  12. Final Report: Laser-Material Interactions Relevant to Analytic Spectroscopy of Wide Band Gap Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickinson, J. T.

    2014-04-05

    We summarize our studies aimed at developing an understanding of the underlying physics and chemistry in terms of laser materials interactions relevant to laser-based sampling and chemical analysis of wide bandgap materials. This work focused on the determination of mechanisms for the emission of electrons, ions, atoms, and molecules from laser irradiation of surfaces. We determined the important role of defects on these emissions, the thermal, chemical, and physical interactions responsible for matrix effects and mass-dependent transport/detection. This work supported development of new techniques and technology for the determination of trace elements contained such as nuclear waste materials.

  13. Zoey Herm | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Blandine Jerome Zoey Herm Previous Next List Herm Zoey Herm Formerly: Ph. D. Candidate, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley Presently: Postdoctoral Fellow, ETH Zurich, Switzerland Email: zoey.herm [at] usys.ethz.ch BA in Chemistry, Macalester College EFRC research: CO2/H2 separation is relevant to pre-combustion CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. In this process coal or natural gas are combusted to produce H2, which can be used to produce electricity. The

  14. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for Hispanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montellano, B.O. de

    1996-11-14

    This report describes later stages of a program to develop culturally relevant science and math programs for Hispanic students. Part of this effort was follow-up with 17 teachers who participated in early stages of the program. Response was not very good. Included with the report is a first draft effort for curriculum materials which could be used as is in such a teaching effort. Several of the participating teachers were invited to a writing workshop, where lesson plans were drafted, and critiqued and following rework are listed in this publication. Further work needs to be completed and is ongoing.

  15. Conceptual Framework to Enable Early Warning of Relevant Phenomena (Emerging Phenomena and Big Data)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlicher, Bob G; Abercrombie, Robert K; Hively, Lee M

    2013-01-01

    Graphs are commonly used to represent natural and man-made dynamic systems such as food webs, economic and social networks, gene regulation, and the internet. We describe a conceptual framework to enable early warning of relevant phenomena that is based on an artificial time-based, evolving network graph that can give rise to one or more recognizable structures. We propose to quantify the dynamics using the method of delays through Takens Theorem to produce another graph we call the Phase Graph. The Phase Graph enables us to quantify changes of the system that form a topology in phase space. Our proposed method is unique because it is based on dynamic system analysis that incorporates Takens Theorem, Graph Theory, and Franzosi-Pettini (F-P) theorem about topology and phase transitions. The F-P Theorem states that the necessary condition for phase transition is a change in the topology. By detecting a change in the topology that we represent as a set of M-order Phase Graphs, we conclude a corresponding change in the phase of the system. The onset of this phase change enables early warning of emerging relevant phenomena.

  16. Catalog of CERCLA applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) - fact sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Section 121(d) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), requires attainment of federal and state applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). Subpart E, Section 300.400(g) {open_quotes}Identification of applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements{close_quotes} of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)(55 FR 8666, March 8, 1990) describes the process for attaining ARARs. The purpose of this catalog is to provide DOE Program Offices and Field Organizations with all of the {open_quotes}Quick Reference Fact Sheets{close_quotes} on attaining ARARS. These fact sheets provide overviews of ARARs for CERCLA cleanup actions pertinent to DOE environmental restoration activities. All of the fact sheets in this catalog were prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency`s Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Fact sheets 1-7 discuss land disposal restrictions (LDRs) and their applicability. LDRs may pertain to a number of CERCLA response actions at DOE facilities. Fact Sheets 8-13 are based on the CERCLA Compliance with Other Laws Manual: Parts I and II and provide an overview of many other CERCLA ARARs. Overview of ARARs-Focus on ARAR Waivers (fact sheet 11), provides a good introduction to ARARS. The last two fact sheets, 14 and 15, are periodic reports that describe additional fact sheets and clarify issues.

  17. Diagnosing laser-preheated magnetized plasmas relevant to magnetized liner inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Sefkow, Adam B.; Nagayama, Taisuke N.; Wei, Mingsheng; Campbell, Edward Michael; Fiksel, Gennady; Chang, Po -Yu; Davies, Jonathan R.; Barnak, Daniel H.; Glebov, Vladimir Y.; Fitzsimmons, Paul; Fooks, Julie; Blue, Brent E.

    2015-12-22

    In this paper, we present a platform on the OMEGA EP Laser Facility that creates and diagnoses the conditions present during the preheat stage of the MAGnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept. Experiments were conducted using 9 kJ of 3? (355 nm) light to heat an underdense deuterium gas (electron density: 2.5 × 1020 cm-3 = 0.025 of critical density) magnetized with a 10 T axial field. Results show that the deuterium plasma reached a peak electron temperature of 670 ± 140 eV, diagnosed using streaked spectroscopy of an argon dopant. The results demonstrate that plasmas relevant to the preheat stage of MagLIF can be produced at multiple laser facilities, thereby enabling more rapid progress in understanding magnetized preheat. Results are compared with magneto-radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, and plans for future experiments are described.

  18. Diagnosing laser-preheated magnetized plasmas relevant to magnetized liner inertial fusion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Sefkow, Adam B.; Nagayama, Taisuke N.; Wei, Mingsheng; Campbell, Edward Michael; Fiksel, Gennady; Chang, Po -Yu; Davies, Jonathan R.; Barnak, Daniel H.; Glebov, Vladimir Y.; et al

    2015-12-22

    In this paper, we present a platform on the OMEGA EP Laser Facility that creates and diagnoses the conditions present during the preheat stage of the MAGnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept. Experiments were conducted using 9 kJ of 3ω (355 nm) light to heat an underdense deuterium gas (electron density: 2.5 × 1020 cm-3 = 0.025 of critical density) magnetized with a 10 T axial field. Results show that the deuterium plasma reached a peak electron temperature of 670 ± 140 eV, diagnosed using streaked spectroscopy of an argon dopant. The results demonstrate that plasmas relevant to the preheatmore » stage of MagLIF can be produced at multiple laser facilities, thereby enabling more rapid progress in understanding magnetized preheat. Results are compared with magneto-radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, and plans for future experiments are described.« less

  19. Elastic Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Molecules Relevant to Plasma Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, J.-S.; Song, M.-Y.; Kato, H.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Cho, H.

    2010-09-15

    Absolute electron-impact cross sections for molecular targets, including their radicals, are important in developing plasma reactors and testing various plasma processing gases. Low-energy electron collision data for these gases are sparse and only the limited cross section data are available. In this report, elastic cross sections for electron-polyatomic molecule collisions are compiled and reviewed for 17 molecules relevant to plasma processing. Elastic cross sections are essential for the absolute scale conversion of inelastic cross sections, as well as for testing computational methods. Data are collected and reviewed for elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections and, for each molecule, the recommended values of the cross section are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2010.

  20. Connecting Organic Aerosol Climate-Relevant Properties to Chemical Mechanisms of Sources and Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Joel

    2015-01-26

    The research conducted on this project aimed to improve our understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere, and how the properties of the SOA impact climate through its size, phase state, and optical properties. The goal of this project was to demonstrate that the use of molecular composition information to mechanistically connect source apportionment and climate properties can improve the physical basis for simulation of SOA formation and properties in climate models. The research involved developing and improving methods to provide online measurements of the molecular composition of SOA under atmospherically relevant conditions and to apply this technology to controlled simulation chamber experiments and field measurements. The science we have completed with the methodology will impact the simulation of aerosol particles in climate models.

  1. Beta-decay spectroscopy relevant to the r-process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, Shunji; Collaboration: RIBF Decay Collaboration

    2012-11-12

    A scientific program of beta-decay spectroscopy relevant to r-process nucleosynthesis has been started using high intensity U-beam at the RIBF. The first results of {beta}-decay half-lives of very neutron-rich Kr to Tc nuclides, all of which lie close to the r-process path, suggest a systematic enhancement of the the {beta}-decay rates of the Zr and Nb isotopes around A110 with respect to the predictions of the deformed quasiparticle-random-phase-approximation model (FRDM + QRPA). An impact of the results on the astrophysical r-process is discussed together with the future perspective of the {beta}-decay spectroscopy with the EURICA.

  2. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for hispanics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montellano, B.O. de

    1996-11-14

    This progress report summarizes results of a teacher workshop. A letter sent to 17 teachers who had participated in the workshop requested a report of any activities undertaken and copies of lesson plans and materials developed. Only nine responses were received, and not all of them demonstrated a satisfactory level of activity. Teachers who submitted materials showing the most promise were invited to participate in the Summer Writing Workshop. A partial first draft of a companion volume for the teacher`s manual was written which provides a rationale for culturally relevant science and presents the cultural and scientific background needed. The outline of the book is presented in Appendix 1. Appendix 2 is a sample chapter from the book.

  3. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for Hispanics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz de Montellano, B.

    1996-11-14

    As planned a letter was sent out to 17 teachers who had participated in a Summer 1994 workshop on ``Culturally Relevant Science for Hispanics`` at Michigan State. These teachers were supposed to have spent the intervening time developing lesson plans and curricula. The letter requested a report of any activities undertaken and copies of lesson plans and materials developed by February 1996 with a stipend of $400 for satisfactory reports. It was a disappointment to only get 9 responses and not all of them demonstrating a satisfactory level of activity. Diana Marinez, Dean of Science at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi, who is the other developer of this curriculum and the author reviewed the submitted materials and chose those showing the most promise to be invited to participate in the Summer Writing Workshop. Spring of 1996 and particularly in May--June, the author wrote a partial first draft of a companion volume for the teacher`s manual which would provide a rationale for doing culturally relevant science, present the cultural and the scientific background that teachers would need in order to be able to teach. One of the goals of this curriculum is that it should be off-the-shelf ready to teach and that teachers would not have to do extra research to encourage its adoption. The outline of the book is appendix 1. The Writing Workshop was held at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi from July 14 to July 27, 1996. Participating teachers chose topics that they were interested in developing and wrote first drafts. These were distributed to all participants and critiqued by the workshop directors before being rewritten. Some teachers were more productive than others depending on their science background. In total an impressive number of lesson plans were written. These lesson plans are listed in Appendix 3. Appendix 4 is a sample lesson. Work still needs to be done on both the source book and the teachers` manual.

  4. DOE SBIR Phase II Final Report: Distributed Relevance Ranking in Heterogeneous Document Collections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abe Lederman

    2007-01-08

    This report contains the comprehensive summary of the work performed on the SBIR Phase II project (“Distributed Relevance Ranking in Heterogeneous Document Collections”) at Deep Web Technologies (http://www.deepwebtech.com). We have successfully completed all of the tasks defined in our SBIR Proposal work plan (See Table 1 - Phase II Tasks Status). The project was completed on schedule and we have successfully deployed an initial production release of the software architecture at DOE-OSTI for the Science.gov Alliance's search portal (http://www.science.gov). We have implemented a set of grid services that supports the extraction, filtering, aggregation, and presentation of search results from numerous heterogeneous document collections. Illustration 3 depicts the services required to perform QuickRank™ filtering of content as defined in our architecture documentation. Functionality that has been implemented is indicated by the services highlighted in green. We have successfully tested our implementation in a multi-node grid deployment both within the Deep Web Technologies offices, and in a heterogeneous geographically distributed grid environment. We have performed a series of load tests in which we successfully simulated 100 concurrent users submitting search requests to the system. This testing was performed on deployments of one, two, and three node grids with services distributed in a number of different configurations. The preliminary results from these tests indicate that our architecture will scale well across multi-node grid deployments, but more work will be needed, beyond the scope of this project, to perform testing and experimentation to determine scalability and resiliency requirements. We are pleased to report that a production quality version (1.4) of the science.gov Alliance's search portal based on our grid architecture was released in June of 2006. This demonstration portal is currently available at http://science.gov/search30 . The portal allows the user to select from a number of collections grouped by category and enter a query expression (See Illustration 1 - Science.gov 3.0 Search Page). After the user clicks “search” a results page is displayed that provides a list of results from the selected collections ordered by relevance based on the query expression the user provided. Our grid based solution to deep web search and document ranking has already gained attention within DOE, other Government Agencies and a fortune 50 company. We are committed to the continued development of grid based solutions to large scale data access, filtering, and presentation problems within the domain of Information Retrieval and the more general categories of content management, data mining and data analysis.

  5. Coupling of Nuclear Waste Form Corrosion and Radionuclide Transports in Presence of Relevant Repository Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Nathalie A.; Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2015-09-30

    Assessments of waste form and disposal options start with the degradation of the waste forms and consequent mobilization of radionuclides. Long-term static tests, single-pass flow-through tests, and the pressurized unsaturated flow test are often employed to study the durability of potential waste forms and to help create models that predict their durability throughout the lifespan of the disposal site. These tests involve the corrosion of the material in the presence of various leachants, with different experimental designs yielding desired information about the behavior of the material. Though these tests have proved instrumental in elucidating various mechanisms responsible for material corrosion, the chemical environment to which the material is subject is often not representative of a potential radioactive waste repository where factors such as pH and leachant composition will be controlled by the near-field environment. Near-field materials include, but are not limited to, the original engineered barriers, their resulting corrosion products, backfill materials, and the natural host rock. For an accurate performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository, realistic waste corrosion experimental data ought to be modeled to allow for a better understanding of waste form corrosion mechanisms and the effect of immediate geochemical environment on these mechanisms. Additionally, the migration of radionuclides in the resulting chemical environment during and after waste form corrosion must be quantified and mechanisms responsible for migrations understood. The goal of this research was to understand the mechanisms responsible for waste form corrosion in the presence of relevant repository sediments to allow for accurate radionuclide migration quantifications. The rationale for this work is that a better understanding of waste form corrosion in relevant systems will enable increased reliance on waste form performance in repository environments and potentially decrease the need for expensive engineered barriers.Our current work aims are 1) quantifying and understanding the processes associated with glass alteration in contact with Fe-bearing materials; 2) quantifying and understanding the processes associated with glass alteration in presence of MgO (example of engineered barrier used in WIPP); 3) identifying glass alteration suppressants and the processes involved to reach glass alteration suppression; 4) quantifying and understanding the processes associated with Saltstone and Cast Stone (SRS and Hanford cementitious waste forms) in various representative groundwaters; 5) investigating positron annihilation as a new tool for the study of glass alteration; and 6) quantifying and understanding the processes associated with glass alteration under gamma irradiation.

  6. Selected, annotated bibliography of studies relevant to the isolation of nuclear wastes. [705 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, L.K.; Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Faust, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 705 references represents the first in a series to be published by the Ecological Sciences Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to nuclear waste isolation. Most references discuss deep geologic disposal, with fewer studies of deep seabed disposal; space disposal is also included. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1954 to 1980. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Envirnmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Repository Design and Engineering; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for author(s), keywords, subject category, title, geographic location, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, and publication description.

  7. Survey of Field Programmable Gate Array Design Guides and Experience Relevant to Nuclear Power Plant Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobrek, Miljko; Bouldin, Don; Holcomb, David Eugene; Killough, Stephen M; Smith, Stephen Fulton; Ward, Christina D

    2007-09-01

    From a safety perspective, it is difficult to assess the correctness of FPGA devices without extensive documentation, tools, and review procedures. NUREG/CR-6463, "Review Guidelines on Software Languages for Use in Nuclear Power Plant Safety Systems," provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on auditing of programs for safety systems written in ten high-level languages. A uniform framework for the formulation and discussion of language-specific programming guidelines was employed. Comparable guidelines based on a similar framework are needed for FPGA-based systems. The first task involves evaluation of regulatory experience gained by other countries and other agencies, and those captured in existing standards, to identify regulatory approaches that can be adopted by NRC. If existing regulations do not provide a sufficient regulatory basis for adopting relevant regulatory approaches that are uncovered, ORNL will identify the gaps. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented.

  8. Advancing sustainable bioenergy: Evolving stakeholder interests and the relevance of research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy L [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Raleigh, North Carolina; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M [University of Minnesota; Dodder, Rebecca [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Hilliard, Michael R [ORNL; Kaplan, Ozge [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Miller, C. Andy [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2013-01-01

    The sustainability of future bioenergy production rests on more than continual improvements in its environmental, economic, and social impacts. The emergence of new biomass feedstocks, an expanding array of conversion pathways, and expected increases in overall bioenergy production are connecting diverse technical, social, and policy communities. These stakeholder groups have different and potentially conflicting values and cultures, and therefore different goals and decision making processes. Our aim is to discuss the implications of this diversity for bioenergy researchers. The paper begins with a discussion of bioenergy stakeholder groups and their varied interests, and illustrates how this diversity complicates efforts to define and promote sustainable bioenergy production. We then discuss what this diversity means for research practice. Researchers, we note, should be aware of stakeholder values, information needs, and the factors affecting stakeholder decision making if the knowledge they generate is to reach its widest potential use. We point out how stakeholder participation in research can increase the relevance of its products, and argue that stakeholder values should inform research questions and the choice of analytical assumptions. Finally, we make the case that additional natural science and technical research alone will not advance sustainable bioenergy production, and that important research gaps relate to understanding stakeholder decision making and the need, from a broader social science perspective, to develop processes to identify and accommodate different value systems. While sustainability requires more than improved scientific and technical understanding, the need to understand stakeholder values and manage diversity presents important research opportunities.

  9. Gamma-ray spectrometric determination of UF/sub 6/ assay with 1 percent precision for international safeguards. Part 1: product and feed in 1S and 2S sample cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricci, E.

    1981-06-15

    The method is based on counting the 186-keV gamma rays emitted by /sup 235/U using a Pb-collimated Ge(Li) detector. Measurements of fifty UF/sub 6/ product and feed cylinders reveal the following precisions and counting times: Product - 2S, 0.98% (600 s); Feed - 2S, 0.48% (2500 s); Product - 1S, 0.62% (1000 s); Feed - 1S, 0.73% (3000 s). A 1% precision is desired for variables - attributes verification measurements of /sup 235/U assay in UF/sub 6/ sample cylinders for safeguards inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Statistically, these measurements stand between fine, high-precision (or variables) measurements and gross, low-precision (or attributes) ones. Because of their intermediate precisions, the variables-attributes measurements may not require analysis of all samples, and this could result in significant savings of IAEA inspector time. Although the precision of the above results is satisfactory, the average relative differences between gamma-ray and mass-spectrometric determinations for the last two sets of measurements (1S cylinders) have positive biases.

  10. Transport of fluorescently labeled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated granular media at environmentally relevant concentrations of surfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dengjun; Su, Chuming; Liu, Chongxuan; Zhou, Dongmei

    2014-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHAP) is being used to remediate soils and aquifers contaminated with metals and radionuclides; however, the mobility of nHAP is still poorly understood in subsurface granular environments. In this study, transport and retention kinetics of alizarin red S (ARS)-labeled nHAP were investigated in water-saturated quartz sand at low concentrations of surfactants: sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS, an anionic surfactant, 0–50 mg L–1) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, a cationic surfactant, 0–5 mg L–1). Both surfactants were found to have a marked effect on the electrokinetic properties of ARS-nHAP and, consequently, on their transport and retention behaviors. Transport of nanoparticles (NPs) increased significantly with increasing SDBS concentration, largely because of enhanced colloidal stability and reduced aggregate size arising from enhanced electrostatic, osmotic, and elastic-steric repulsions between ARS-nHAP and sand grains. Conversely, transport decreased significantly in the presence of increasing CTAB concentrations due to reduced surface charge and consequential enhanced aggregation of the NPs. Osmotic and elastic-steric repulsions played only a minor role in enhancing the colloidal stability of ARS-nHAP in the presence of CTAB. Retention profiles of ARS-nHAP exhibited hyperexponential-shapes (decreasing rates of retention with increasing distance) for all conditions tested, and became more pronounced as CTAB concentration increased. The phenomenon was attributed to the aggregation and ripening of ARS-nHAP in the presence of surfactants, particularly CTAB. Overall, the present study suggests that surfactants at environmentally relevant concentrations may be an important consideration in employing nHAP for engineered in-situ remediation of certain metals and radionuclides in contaminated soils and aquifers.

  11. Stability of SiC-Matrix Microencapsulated Fuel Constituents at Relevant LWR Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrani, Kurt A; Katoh, Yutai; Leonard, Keith J; Perez-Bergquist, Alex G; Silva, Chinthaka M; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses certain key feasibility issues facing the application of SiC-matrix microencapsulated fuels for light water reactor application. Issues addressed are the irradiation stability of the SiC-based nano-powder ceramic matrix under LWR-relevant irradiation conditions, the presence or extent of reaction of the SiC matrix with zirconium-based cladding, the stability of the inner and outer pyrolytic graphite layers of the microencapsulated (TRISO) particle at this uncharacteristically low irradiation temperature, and the state of the particle-matrix interface following irradiation which could possibly effect thermal transport. In the process of determining these feasibility issues microstructural evolution and change in dimension and thermal conductivity was studied. As a general finding the SiC matrix was found to be quite stable with behavior similar to that of CVD SiC. In magnitude the irradiation-induced swelling of the matrix material was slightly higher and irradiation-degraded thermal conductivity was slightly lower as compared to CVD SiC. No significant reaction of this SiC-based nano-powder ceramic matrix material with Zircaloy was observed. Irradiation of the TRISO in the 320-360 C range to a maximum dose of 7.7 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) did not have significant negative impact on the constituent layers of the TRISO fuel. At the highest dose studied layer structure and interface integrity remained essentially unchanged with good apparent thermal transport through the microsphere to the surrounding matrix.

  12. Investigations on caesium-free alternatives for H{sup ?} formation at ion source relevant parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurutz, U.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-08

    Negative hydrogen ions are efficiently produced in ion sources by the application of caesium. Due to a thereby induced lowering of the work function of a converter surface a direct conversion of impinging hydrogen atoms and positive ions into negative ions is maintained. However, due to the complex caesium chemistry and dynamics a long-term behaviour is inherent for the application of caesium that affects the stability and reliability of negative ion sources. To overcome these drawbacks caesium-free alternatives for efficient negative ion formation are investigated at the flexible laboratory setup HOMER (HOMogenous Electron cyclotron Resonance plasma). By the usage of a meshed grid the tandem principle is applied allowing for investigations on material induced negative ion formation under plasma parameters relevant for ion source operation. The effect of different sample materials on the ratio of the negative ion density to the electron density n{sub H{sup ?}} /n{sub e} is compared to the effect of a stainless steel reference sample and investigated by means of laser photodetachment in a pressure range from 0.3 to 3?Pa. For the stainless steel sample no surface induced effect on the negative ion density is present and the measured negative ion densities are resulting from pure volume formation and destruction processes. In a first step the dependency of n{sub H{sup ?}} /n{sub e} on the sample distance has been investigated for a caesiated stainless steel sample. At a distance of 0.5?cm at 0.3?Pa the density ratio is 3 times enhanced compared to the reference sample confirming the surface production of negative ions. In contrast for the caesium-free material samples, tantalum and tungsten, the same dependency on pressure and distance n{sub H{sup ?}} /n{sub e} like for the stainless steel reference sample were obtained within the error margins: A density ratio of around 14.5% is measured at 4.5?cm sample distance and 0.3?Pa, linearly decreasing with decreasing distance to 7% at 1.5?cm. Thus, tantalum and tungsten do not significantly affect the negative ion density. First measurements conducted with LaB{sub 6} as well as with two types of diamond like carbon (DLC) n{sub H{sup ?}} /n{sub e} of about 15% at 1?Pa were measured, which is comparable to the density ratio obtained for the stainless steel reference sample. At HOMER a surface induced enhancement of n{sub H{sup ?}} is only observed when it exceeds the volume formation of H{sup ?} which is also realistic for negative hydrogen ion sources.

  13. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30

    The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in be

  14. Working Group on Social Internet Data Mining and Analytics for Nuclear Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Bahran, Rian Mustafa; McMath, Garrett Earl

    2015-10-14

    We examined publicly accessible Wikipedia access logs to determine if safeguard relevant events would be evident through increases in visits to articles related to that event.

  15. SAFEGUARD AND SECURE CONTROL VERIFY POLICY

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... the entity responsible for running INSA, throughout the design of the physical protection test bed at the facility and development of the training curriculum now being offered. ...

  16. FAQS Qualification Card – Safeguards and Security

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A key element for the Department’s Technical Qualification Programs is a set of common Functional Area Qualification Standards (FAQS) and associated Job Task Analyses (JTA). These standards are developed for various functional areas of responsibility in the Department, including oversight of safety management programs identified as hazard controls in Documented Safety Analyses (DSA).

  17. EM Headquarters Office Ensures Safeguards, Security, Emergency...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... EM Lays Out Details of Proposed Reorganization Statement from Deputy Secretary of Energy Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall after Visiting the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

  18. Nuclear Safeguards | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy ... site link , and the emergence of new proliferation threats from both state and non-state ...

  19. S-227_Safeguard-Security_CX.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  20. NNSA Next Generation Safeguards Initiative | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    This Site Budget IG Web Policy Privacy No Fear Act Accessibility FOIA Sitemap Federal Government The White House DOE.gov USA.gov Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA...

  1. Safeguards Transporter | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure...

  2. Safeguards and Security Program - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ensures appropriate levels of protection against unauthorized access; theft, diversion, loss of custody, or destruction of nuclear weapons, or weapons components;...

  3. World Bank Safeguard Policies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics: Policiesdeployment programs Resource Type: Guidemanual, Training materials, Lessons learnedbest practices Website: web.worldbank.orgWBSITEEXTERNALPROJECTS...

  4. Safeguards and Security Inspection and Assessment Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-06-23

    Cancels DOE O 5630.12. Parargaph 7c(6), 7c(7), 7c(8)(a), and 7g (8)(f) are canceled by DOE O 231.1 dated 9-30-1995.

  5. SAFEGUARD AND SECURE CONTROL VERIFY POLICY

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Spring 2014 National Nuclear Security Administration ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF NIS Observes Final Shipment of LEU from Russian Weapons HEU BY GREG DWYER A s NIS experts watched, the final 40 cylinders of low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) crossed the rail of the Atlantic Navigator at the Port of Saint Petersburg, Russia on December 14, 2013. These cylinders were the last of nearly 10,000 LEU cylinders delivered over the past Elementary! A Nuclear

  6. SAFEGUARD AND SECURE CONTROL VERIFY POLICY

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Summer 2014 National Nuclear Security Administration ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF NIS Helps Republic of Korea Realize Commitment to Establish Center of Excellence BY ELAINE SPECHT D uring the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, the Republic of Korea (ROK) committed to developing a Center of Excellence (COE) dedicated to nonproliferation and nuclear security training. In February 2014, the ROK officially opened the International Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security Academy (INSA), and Kasia Mendelsohn,

  7. Safeguards & Security | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    & Security | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA

  8. safeguards and security | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and security | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog

  9. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Electronic Safeguards...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications PIA - 10th International Nuclear Graphite Specialists Meeting registration web site PIA - HSPD-12 Physical and Logical Access System PIA - Savannah ...

  10. Integrating Safeguards, Security, & Emergency Services at CNS...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    manager with developing an integration plan for his or her group then guided and assisted them in surmounting obstacles as they worked through their plans. Brian Deorocki...

  11. SAFEGUARD AND SECURE CONTROL VERIFY POLICY

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Spring 2014 National Nuclear Security Administration ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF NIS Observes Final Shipment of LEU from Russian Weapons HEU BY GREG DWYER A s NIS experts watched, ...

  12. SAFEGUARD AND SECURE CONTROL VERIFY POLICY

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    a five-day workshop aimed at strengthening the ability of countries to ensure that civilian nuclear material is not being used for the illicit manufacture of nuclear weapons. ...

  13. Safeguards and Security Program - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    classified matter, sensitive information, government property, and the safety and security of employees, contractors, and the general public. Supersedes DOE P 470.1....

  14. Safeguards Transporter | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Transporter | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog

  15. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  16. Review of recent experimental and modeling progress in the lower hybrid range of frequencies at ITER relevant parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonoli, Paul T.

    2014-06-15

    Progress in experiment and simulation capability in the lower hybrid range of frequencies at ITER relevant parameters is reviewed. Use of LH power in reactor devices is motivated in terms of its potential for efficient off-axis current profile control. Recent improvements in simulation capability including the development of full-wave field solvers, inclusion of the scrape off layer (SOL) in wave propagation codes, the use of coupled ray tracing/full-wave/3D (r v{sub ?}, v{sub //}) Fokker Planck models, and the inclusion of wave scattering as well as nonlinear broadening effects in ray tracing / Fokker Planck codes are discussed. Experimental and modeling results are reviewed which are aimed at understanding the spectral gap problem in LH current drive (LHCD) and the density limit that has been observed and mitigated in LHCD experiments. Physics mechanisms that could be operative in these experiments are discussed, including toroidally induced variations in the parallel wavenumber, nonlinear broadening of the pump wave, scattering of LH waves from density fluctuations in the SOL, and spectral broadening at the plasma edge via full-wave effects.

  17. Review of recent experimental and modeling progress in the lower hybrid range of frequencies at ITER relevant parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonoli, Paul T.

    2014-02-12

    Progress in experiment and simulation capability in the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF) at ITER relevant parameters is reviewed. Use of LH power in reactor devices is motivated in terms of its potential for efficient off-axis current profile control. Recent improvements in simulation capability including the development of full-wave field solvers, inclusion of the scrape off layer (SOL) in wave propagation codes, the use of coupled ray tracing / full-wave / 3D (r v{sub ?}, v{sub ?}) Fokker Planck models, and the inclusion of nonlinear broadening effects in ray tracing / Fokker Planck codes are discussed. Experimental and modeling results are reviewed which are aimed at understanding the spectral gap problem in LH current drive (LHCD) and the density limit that has been observed in LHCD experiments. Physics mechanisms that could be operative in these experiments are discussed, including toroidally induced variations in the parallel wavenumber, nonlinear broadening of the pump wave, scattering of LH waves from density fluctuations in the SOL, and spectral broadening at the plasma edge via full-wave effects.

  18. Climate, Community and Biodiversity Project Design Standards...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics: Implementation, Co-benefits assessment, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Guidemanual Website: www.climate-standards.orgstandardspdfccbstandardssecondeditiond...

  19. Natural resources management activity and biodiversity maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, M.B.

    1993-05-01

    Activities in coordinating land use for the Savannah River Site public lands during the period of July 1, 1992 to June 30, 1993 are reported.

  20. Biodiversity | Savannah River National Environmental Park

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and in recent decades several new species have been described from SRS streams and wetlands. The SRS also provides habitat for a number of sensitive species, including wood...

  1. The Exiguobacterium genus: biodiversity and biogeography (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laboratory (ORNL) Sponsoring Org: SC USDOE - Office of Science (SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; BACTERIA; DNA; ...

  2. Toxicogenomic outcomes predictive of forestomach carcinogenesis following exposure to benzo(a)pyrene: Relevance to human cancer risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labib, Sarah Guo, Charles H. Williams, Andrew Yauk, Carole L. White, Paul A. Halappanavar, Sabina

    2013-12-01

    Forestomach tumors are observed in mice exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, the relevance of this data to humans is controversial because humans lack a forestomach. We hypothesize that an understanding of early molecular changes after exposure to a carcinogen in the forestomach will provide mode-of-action information to evaluate the applicability of forestomach cancers to human cancer risk assessment. In the present study we exposed mice to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental carcinogen commonly associated with tumors of the rodent forestomach. Toxicogenomic tools were used to profile gene expression response in the forestomach. Adult Muta™Mouse males were orally exposed to 25, 50, and 75 mg BaP/kg-body-weight/day for 28 consecutive days. The forestomach was collected three days post-exposure. DNA microarrays, real-time RT-qPCR arrays, and protein analyses were employed to characterize responses in the forestomach. Microarray results showed altered expression of 414 genes across all treatment groups (± 1.5 fold; false discovery rate adjusted P ? 0.05). Significant downregulation of genes associated with phase II xenobiotic metabolism and increased expression of genes implicated in antigen processing and presentation, immune response, chemotaxis, and keratinocyte differentiation were observed in treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. A systematic comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the forestomach from the present study to differentially expressed genes identified in human diseases including human gastrointestinal tract cancers using the NextBio Human Disease Atlas showed significant commonalities between the two models. Our results provide molecular evidence supporting the use of the mouse forestomach model to evaluate chemically-induced gastrointestinal carcinogenesis in humans. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene-mediated transcriptomic response in the forestomach was examined. • The immunoproteosome subunits and MHC class I pathway were the most affected. • Keratinocyte differentiation associated gene expression changes were dose-dependent. • Molecular similarities exist between cancers of the forestomach and human stomach.

  3. Executive summary of major NuMI lessons learned: a review of relevant meetings of Fermilab's DUSEL Beamline Working Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Mike; Appel, Jeffrey A.; Bogert, Dixon; Childress, Sam; Cossairt, Don; Griffing, William; Grossman, Nancy; Harding, David; Hylen, Jim; Kuchler, Vic; Laughton, Chris; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley

    2009-05-01

    We have gained tremendous experience with the NuMI Project on what was a new level of neutrino beams from a high power proton source. We expect to build on that experience for any new long baseline neutrino beam. In particular, we have learned about some things which have worked well and/or where the experience is fairly directly applicable to the next project (e.g., similar civil construction issues including: tunneling, service buildings, outfitting, and potential claims/legal issues). Some things might be done very differently (e.g., decay pipe, windows, target, beam dump, and precision of power supply control/monitoring). The NuMI experience does lead to identification of critical items for any future such project, and what issues it will be important to address. The DUSEL Beamline Working Group established at Fermilab has been meeting weekly to collect and discuss information from that NuMI experience. This document attempts to assemble much of that information in one place. In this Executive Summary, we group relevant discussion of some of the major issues and lessons learned under seven categories: (1) Differences Between the NuMI Project and Any Next Project; (2) The Process of Starting Up the Project; (3) Decision and Review Processes; (4) ES&H: Environment, Safety, and Health; (5) Local Community Buy-In; (6) Transition from Project Status to Operation; and (7) Some Lessons on Technical Elements. We concentrate here on internal project management issues, including technical areas that require special attention. We cannot ignore, however, two major external management problems that plagued the NuMI project. The first problem was the top-down imposition of an unrealistic combination of scope, cost, and schedule. This situation was partially corrected by a rebaselining. However, the full, desirable scope was never achievable. The second problem was a crippling shortage of resources. Critical early design work could not be done in a timely fashion, leading to schedule delays, inefficiencies, and corrective actions. The Working Group discussions emphasized that early planning and up-front appreciation of the problems ahead are very important for minimizing the cost and for the greatest success of any such project. Perhaps part of the project approval process should re-enforce this need. The cost of all this up-front work is now reflected in the DOE cost of any project we do. If we are being held to an upper limit on the project cost, the only thing available for compromise is the eventual project scope.

  4. Plutonium chemistry under conditions relevant for WIPP performance assessment. Review of experimental results and recommendations for future work

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oversby, Virginia M.

    2000-09-30

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located at a depth of 650 m in bedded salt at a site approximately 40 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, was constructed by the US Department of Energy for the disposal of transuranic wastes arising from defense-related activities. The disposal site is regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). During the process leading to certification of the site for initial emplacement of waste, EEG and their contractors reviewed the DOE Compliance Certification Application (CCA) and raised a number of issues. This report reviews the issues related to the chemistry of plutonium as it will affect the potential for release of radioactivity under WIPP conditions. Emphasis is placed on conditions appropriate for the Human Intrusion scenario(s), since human intrusion has the largest potential for releasing radioactivity to the environment under WIPP conditions. The most significant issues that need to be addressed in relation to plutonium chemistry under WIPP conditions are (1) the effects of heterogeneity in the repository on Pu concentrations in brines introduced under the human intrusion scenario, (2) the redox state of Pu in solution and potential for plutonium in solid phases to have a different redox state from that in the solution phase, (3) the effect of organic ligands on the solubility of Pu in WIPP-relevant brines, and (4) the effects of TRU waste characteristics in determining the solubility of Pu. These issues are reviewed with respect to the treatment they received in the DOE CCA, DOE’s response to EEG’s comments on the CCA, and EPA’s response to those comments as reflected in the final EPA rule that led to the opening of the WIPP. Experimental results obtained in DOE’s Actinide Source-Term Test Program (STTP) during the last two years are reviewed and interpreted in the light of other developments in the field of Pu solution chemistry. This analysis is used as the basis for a conceptual model for Pu behavior under WIPP conditions. This report identifies three issues that can be addressed as part of the five-year re-certification cycles mandated by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (U.S. Congress, 1996, *8.(f)(1)) and implemented in the EPA Final Rule (U.S. EPA, 1998a). First, the impact of organic ligands on the complexation of a system with multiple cations could be delineated by some simple experiments with Th (IV), citrate,EDTA, Ca2+ and one or more transition metals. An experiment with Pu (IV) could be designed to determine the lability of Pu oxidation states in the presence of organic ligands. Second, the issue of using analogs for Pu could be addressed with appropriate experiments using U and Pu at redox conditions in the range anticipated at the WIPP. Attention to the published experimental results of U and Pu could make a considerable contribution to this effort. Third, the issue of uncertainty in calculated actinide solubility can be resolved with experimental data for Pu (IV) compounds of appropriate compositions. The report also recommends starting by constructing a data base for U and Pu using the published, peer-reviewed OECD/NEA U and Pu data bases.

  5. Theoretical studies of nonadiabatic and spin-forbidden processes: Investigations of the reactions and spectroscopy of radical species relevant to combustion reactions and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarkony, D.R.

    1993-12-01

    This research program focusses on studies of spin-forbidden and electronically nonadiabatic processes involving radical species relevant to combustion reactions and combustion diagnostics. To study the electronic structure aspects of these processes a unique and powerful system of electronic structure programs, developed over the past nine years, the BROOKLYN codes, is employed. These programs enable the authors to address questions basic to the understanding of elementary combustion processes not tractable using more standard quantum chemistry codes.

  6. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A. )

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms applicable'' and relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  7. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A.

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  8. Investigating the Nexus of Climate, Energy, Water, and Land at Decision-Relevant Scales: The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraucunas, Ian P.; Clarke, Leon E.; Dirks, James A.; Hathaway, John E.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Huang, Maoyi; Jin, Chunlian; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C.W.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Hongyi; Moss, Richard H.; Peterson, Marty J.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.; Thomson, Allison M.; Voisin, Nathalie; West, Tristram O.

    2015-04-01

    The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA) is an innovative modeling system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to simulate interactions among natural and human systems at scales relevant to regional decision making. PRIMA brings together state-of-the-art models of regional climate, hydrology, agriculture, socioeconomics, and energy systems using a flexible coupling approach. The platform can be customized to inform a variety of complex questions and decisions, such as the integrated evaluation of mitigation and adaptation options across a range of sectors. Research into stakeholder decision support needs underpins the platform's application to regional issues, including uncertainty characterization. Ongoing numerical experiments are yielding new insights into the interactions among human and natural systems on regional scales with an initial focus on the energy-land-water nexus in the upper U.S. Midwest. This paper focuses on PRIMA’s functional capabilities and describes some lessons learned to date about integrated regional modeling.

  9. A long-term three dimensional liver co-culture system for improved prediction of clinically relevant drug-induced hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostadinova, Radina; Boess, Franziska; Suter, Laura; Weiser, Thomas; Singer, Thomas; Roth, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the major cause for liver failure and post-marketing drug withdrawals. Due to species-specific differences in hepatocellular function, animal experiments to assess potential liabilities of drug candidates can predict hepatotoxicity in humans only to a certain extent. In addition to animal experimentation, primary hepatocytes from rat or human are widely used for pre-clinical safety assessment. However, as many toxic responses in vivo are mediated by a complex interplay among different cell types and often require chronic drug exposures, the predictive performance of hepatocytes is very limited. Here, we established and characterized human and rat in vitro three-dimensional (3D) liver co-culture systems containing primary parenchymal and non-parenchymal hepatic cells. Our data demonstrate that cells cultured on a 3D scaffold have a preserved composition of hepatocytes, stellate, Kupffer and endothelial cells and maintain liver function for up to 3 months, as measured by the production of albumin, fibrinogen, transferrin and urea. Additionally, 3D liver co-cultures maintain cytochrome P450 inducibility, form bile canaliculi-like structures and respond to inflammatory stimuli. Upon incubation with selected hepatotoxicants including drugs which have been shown to induce idiosyncratic toxicity, we demonstrated that this model better detected in vivo drug-induced toxicity, including species-specific drug effects, when compared to monolayer hepatocyte cultures. In conclusion, our results underline the importance of more complex and long lasting in vitro cell culture models that contain all liver cell types and allow repeated drug-treatments for detection of in vivo-relevant adverse drug effects. - Highlights: ? 3D liver co-cultures maintain liver specific functions for up to three months. ? Activities of Cytochrome P450s remain drug- inducible accross three months. ? 3D liver co-cultures recapitulate drug-induced liver toxicity observed in vivo. ? 3D liver co-cultures can detect species-specific drug toxicity observed in vivo. ? This in vitro model may improve assessment of human relevance of preclinical findings.

  10. Methods for Assessing the Impact of Fog Oil Smoke on Availability, Palatability, & Food Quality of Relevant Life Stages of Insects for Threatened and Endangered Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driver, Crystal J.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Rogers, Lee E.

    2007-04-01

    A methodology for quantifying population dynamics and food source value of insect fauna in areas subjected to fog oil smoke was developed. Our approach employed an environmentally controlled re-circulating wind tunnel outfitted with a high-heat vaporization and re-condensation fog oil generator that has been shown to produce aerosols of comparable chemistry and droplet-size distribution as those of field releases of the smoke. This method provides reproducible exposures of insects under realistic climatic and environmental conditions to fog oil aerosols that duplicate chemical and droplet-size characteristics of field releases of the smoke. The responses measured take into account reduction in food sources due to death and to changes in availability of relevant life stages of insects that form the prey base for the listed Threatened and Endangered Species. The influence of key environmental factors, wind speed and canopy structure on these responses were characterized. Data generated using this method was used to develop response functions related to particle size, concentration, wind speed, and canopy structure that will allow military personnel to assess and manage impacts to endangered species from fog oil smoke used in military training.

  11. ORO Office Safeguards and Security Clearance Tracking System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Occupational Medicine - Assistant PIA, Idaho National Laboratory ORO Verification of Employment Tracking System(VETS) PIA, Oak ridge Operations Office ...

  12. Microsoft Word - Final Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. ...

  13. Mock Nuclear Processing Facility-Safeguards Training Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, Philip; Hasty, Tim; Johns, Rissell; Baum, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    This document outlines specific training requirements in the topical areas of Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and Physical Protection(PP) which are to be used as technical input for designing a mock Integrated Security Facility (ISF) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The overall project objective for these requirements is to enhance the ability to deliver training on Material Protection Control and Accounting (MC&A) concepts regarding hazardous material such as irradiated materials with respect to bulk processing facilities.

  14. Delegation of Authority for Safeguards and Security (EM) - DOE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Effective Date: Apr 09, 2010 Re-delegation Allowed: No Authorities: DOE O 151.1C, DOE O 470.2B Related History Related to: DOE O 470.2B, Independent Oversight and...

  15. Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (SALE) 1979 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    The data in this report indicate that reliability of measurements is probably more closely associated with the methods of measurement employed by the laboratories than with any other factor. However, since other laboratories use, with success, the same methods that show some diversity in laboratory means with success, it must be concluded that factors relating to measurement control within a given laboratory may be responsible for inaccurate or imprecise results. The relatively small quantity of data reported for the analysis of plutonium-bearing materials does not permit an in-depth evaluation of measurement performance. The data demonstrate that random and systematic errors associated with uranium measurements are within acceptable limits and that measurement performance in the analysis of low enriched uranium can be considered as good to excellent. The measurement performance related to plutonium-bearing materials appears to be acceptable based on the limited data available. However, developmental activities designed to improve plutonium measurement technology should be expedited.

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - Effective Use of the Safeguards Management...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    reporting 4 Benefits to Users Enables NMMSS analyst to assist the user in real time while preparing facility submittal Enables direct export of XML files for ...

  17. Developing the digital safeguard that protects the National Spherical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    designed the real-time computer and software system for the DCPS. (Photo by Elle StarkmanPPPL Office of Communications) Keith Erickson designed the real-time computer and ...

  18. Mission Support Alliance LLC Safeguards and Security Hanford...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    disseminates regular safety reminders. SAS uses the MSA, Case Management Desk Instruction, OSH-2; Rev 5, dated March 10, 2010, to guide the weekly Classification Committee...

  19. FAQS Job Task Analyses - Safeguards and Security General Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Security General Technical Base FAQS Job Task Analyses are performed on the Function Area Qualification Standards. The FAQS Job Task Analyses consists of: Developing a...

  20. Advances in passive neutron instruments for safeguards use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C.; Stewart, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    Passive neutron and other nondestructive assay techniques have been used extensively by the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify plutonium metal, powder, mixed oxide, pellets, rods, assemblies, scrap, and liquids. Normally, the coincidence counting rate is used to measure the {sup 240}Pu-effective mass and gamma-ray spectrometry or mass spectrometry is used to verify the plutonium isotopic ratios. During the past few years, the passive neutron detectors have been installed in plants and operated in the unattended/continuous mode. These radiation data with time continuity have made it possible to use the totals counting rate to monitor the movement of nuclear material. Monte Carlo computer codes have been used to optimize the detector designs for specific applications. The inventory sample counter (INVS-III) has been designed to have a higher efficiency (43%) and a larger uniform counting volume than the original INVS. Data analyses techniques have been developed, including the ``known alpha`` and ``known multiplication`` methods that depend on the sample. For scrap and other impure or poorly characterized samples, we have developed multiplicity counting, initially implemented in the plutonium scrap multiplicity counter. For large waste containers such as 200-L drums, we have developed the add-a-source technique to give accurate corrections for the waste-matrix materials. This paper summarizes recent developments in the design and application of passive neutron assay systems.

  1. Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System Working Group...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    subgroup per year at the Annual NMMSS Users Training Meeting to share accomplishments, lessons learned, best practices, emerging issues and technological approaches. B. Reports...

  2. Fissile Flow and Enrichment Monitor for GCEP Advanced Safeguards Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    March-Leuba, Jose A; Uckan, Taner

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data that demonstrate a concept for a {sup 235}U flow and enrichment monitor (FEMO) based on passive measurements of process equipment in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The primary goal of the FEMO is to prevent, without using pipe penetrations or active interrogation with external sources, the production and diversion of undeclared nuclear material. This FEMO concept utilizes: (1) calibrated measurements of {sup 235}U density in cascade headers, and (2) measurements of pump inlet pressure and volumetric flow rate, which are correlated to the electrical power consumed by the GCEP pumps that transport UF{sub 6} from the cascade to the condensation cylinders. The {sup 235}U density is measured by counting 186 keV emissions using a NaI gamma detector located upstream of the pump. The pump inlet pressure and volumetric flow rate are determined using a correlation that is a function of the measured pump operational parameters (e.g., electric power consumption and rotational frequency) and the pumping configuration. The concept has been demonstrated in a low-pressure flow loop at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. Hexapartite safeguards project team 3: material accounting and control questionnaire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1981-06-16

    Information provided in this report reflects the current design and operating procedures for the GCEP. However, since the installation is currently under construction, facility design and operating procedures discussed in this report are subject to change. Where applicable, the responses are based on material control and accounting practices of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's (GDP) operating contractor (Goodyear Atomic Corporation). These practices meet US Department of Energy (DOE) standards and are assumed to be the reference practices for the GCEP. This report covers data collection and record keeping actions of the operator.

  4. Nuclear Materials Safeguards and Security Upgrade Project | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response ...

  5. Manual for Protection and Control of Safeguards and Security Interests

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-04-10

    This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 5632.1C, which establishes policy for the protection and control of special nuclear material, Vital Equipment, classified matter, Departmental property and facilities, and unclassifed irradiated reactor fuel in transit. Chapter XI canceled by DOE O 470.1. Chapter III, paragraphs 1, 2, and 4 through 9 canceled by DOE O 471.2. DOE M 473.1-1 cancels the rest of this directive.

  6. Safeguards and Security appointments made | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a student and then working in areas of IT including desktop support, server support, and cyber security program as a P&S staff member. He is also pursuing a Ph.D. degree in...

  7. FAQS Qualification Card – Safeguards and Security General Technical Base

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A key element for the Department’s Technical Qualification Programs is a set of common Functional Area Qualification Standards (FAQS) and associated Job Task Analyses (JTA). These standards are developed for various functional areas of responsibility in the Department, including oversight of safety management programs identified as hazard controls in Documented Safety Analyses (DSA).

  8. Office of Security and Emergency Operations Office of Safeguards...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Orlando, Florida-May 23-25, 2006 Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy & the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NM M SS NM M SS NM M SS NM M SS Federal Information System...

  9. SSTARS - Safeguards and Security Tracking, Analysis and Reporting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Fact Sheet (821 KB) Technology Marketing Summary SSTARS is a feature-rich system for issues management and enhanced...

  10. ORO Office Safeguards and Security Clearance Tracking System...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    System PIA, Oak Ridge Operations Office More Documents & Publications Occupational Medicine - Assistant PIA, Idaho National Laboratory ORO Verification of Employment Tracking...

  11. Innovative cement helps DOE safeguard nuclear facilities | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provide a viable shield from gamma rays but fail to insulate neutrons. Poor neutron shielding can lead to disastrous consequences: When neutron-irradiating nuclear materials are...

  12. Safeguards and Security for Program and Project Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-11-15

    This Guide provides approaches for implementing security provisions within the functional areas contained in DOE O 413.3A, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. Canceled by DOE G 413.3-3A.

  13. Nuclear Materials Safeguards and Security Upgrade Project Completed Under

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Budget | National Nuclear Security Administration Completed Under Budget | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases

  14. Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System Newsletter December 2009 Newsletter

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2010 NMMSS Users Meeting Plans for the 2010 NMMSS Users Meeting have begun. Information on the hotel and city for the meeting are expected to be finalized soon. In order to make the meeting as productive as possible, we would like your input concerning topics for presentation and roundtable discussions. In addition, we are looking for industry representatives to present talks and participate in roundtable discussions on topics which you feel would be useful to other NMMSS users. Please email

  15. Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System October 2009 Newsletter

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2010 NMMSS Users Meeting Plans for the 2010 NMMSS Users Meeting have begun. Information on the hotel and city for the meeting are expected to be finalized in December. In order to make the meeting as productive as possible, we would like your input concerning topics for presentation and roundtable discussions. In addition, we are looking for industry representatives to present talks and participate in roundtable discussions on topics which you feel would be useful to other NMMSS users. Please

  16. Nuclear Materials Safeguards and Security Upgrade Project | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our

  17. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) dependent expression of biologically relevant IL-2 receptors: uncoupling of anti-T3 induced receptor expression with cyclosporin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gitter, A.B.D.; Labus, J.M.; Butler, L.D.

    1986-03-01

    Human peripheral blood T cell expression of IL-2 receptors (IL-2R), detected by both immunocytofluorometry and /sup 125/I-IL-2 binding, was studied using lymphocytes stimulated with monoclonal anti-T3 antibodies (Leu-4, OKT3). Lymphocytes, isolated from healthy individuals, were prescreened and classified as Leu-4 responders or non-responders according to 72 h /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation experiments. Leu-4 non-responder lymphocytes, though capable of normal IL-2R expression and IL-2 secretion when cultured with OKT3 (IgG2a), expressed little to no IL-2R nor secreted IL-2 when stimulated with Leu-4 (IgG1). In addition, the amount of IL-2 secreted by Leu-4 stimulated, Leu-4 responder cells, was one-third- to one-fifth of that detected when OKT3 was used as the stimulant. The addition of recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2) to a Leu-4 stimulated, Leu-4 non-responder lymphocyte culture, resulted in the expression of IL-2R and cellular proliferation, indicating that IL-2 upregulated its biologically relevant receptor. As expected, cyclosporin-A (CSA) inhibited the secretion of IL-2 and subsequent proliferation of Leu-4 stimulated, Leu-4 responder cells. Unexpectedly, however, the expression of IL-2R was also blocked. Exogenous rIL-2 partially reversed the effect of CSA on IL-2R expression and proliferation. The results indicate that IL-2 may provide an additional, required signal for optimal IL-2R expression.

  18. Progress report on the results of testing advanced conceptual design metal barrier materials under relevant environmental conditions for a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCright, R.D.; Halsey, W.G.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1987-12-01

    This report discusses the performance of candidate metallic materials envisioned for fabricating waste package containers for long-term disposal at a possible geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Candidate materials include austenitic iron-base to nickel-base alloy (AISI 304L, AISI 316L, and Alloy 825), high-purity copper (CDA 102), and copper-base alloys (CDA 613 and CDA 715). Possible degradation modes affecting these container materials are identified in the context of anticipated environmental conditions at the repository site. Low-temperature oxidation is the dominant degradation mode over most of the time period of concern (minimum of 300 yr to a maximum of 1000 yr after repository closure), but various forms of aqueous corrosion will occur when water infiltrates into the near-package environment. The results of three years of experimental work in different repository-relevant environments are presented. Much of the work was performed in water taken from Well J-13, located near the repository, and some of the experiments included gamma irradiation of the water or vapor environment. The influence of metallurgical effects on the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the material is reviewed; these effects result from container fabrication, welding, and long-term aging at moderately elevated temperatures in the repository. The report indicates the need for mechanisms to understand the physical/chemical reactions that determine the nature and rate of the different degradation modes, and the subsequent need for models based on these mechanisms for projecting the long-term performance of the container from comparatively short-term laboratory data. 91 refs., 17 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource assessment Resource Type: Publications, Guidemanual Website: eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eulibrarymapsbiodiversityatlasDocumentsBio UN Region: "Western & Eastern Europe"...

  20. Biodiversity Research Institute Mid-Atlantic Baseline Study Webinar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and temporal patterns of wildlife distribution and abundance. Presented by Kate Williams, Wildlife and Renewable Energy Program Director at BRI, this webinar will last...

  1. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda, Report of a Roundtable Convened to Consider Foundational Research Relevant to Subsurface Technology and Engineering RD&D

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda DOE Roundtable Report May 22, 2015 Germantown, MD 1 Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda Report of a Roundtable Convened to Consider Foundational Research Relevant to Subsurface Technology and Engineering RD&D May 22, 2015 Germantown, MD Organizing Committee Laura J. Pyrak-Nolte (Chair), Purdue University Donald

  2. Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2008-11-01

    ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

  3. Property:EZFeed/Relevant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tennessee Solar Institute - Solar Installation Grant Program (Tennessee) Tennessee Solar Panel Installation Specialty and Solar Thermal-Geothermal Licensing (Tennessee)...

  4. Prioritizing Acquisition Pathways in the State Level Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Chantell L.; Budlong-Sylvester, Kory; Pilat, Joseph F.

    2012-06-27

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards has launched a project to further develop the State-level concept for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of safeguards activities. In order to further evolve the safeguards system an emphasis is placed on integrating inspection-related activities and the State evaluation process to draw safeguards conclusions in the most efficient way. The credible implementation of acquisition pathway analysis is central to the success of the IAEA's State-level concept. NNSA's Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is sponsoring Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to produce a study that will examine the use of acquisition pathway analysis in: (1) Developing a State-specific, State-level approach (SLA) and Annual Implementation Plan (AIP); (2) Maximizing the utility of the physical model; and (3) Supporting resource allocation decisions through a pathway prioritization. To deal with the challenge of developing an effective and efficient SLA, this study looks at: (1) Prioritizing proliferation pathways based on an assessment of a State's capabilities and assumed proliferation strategies; and (2) Relevant State behavior (e.g., transparency, cooperation, etc.) while avoiding subjective judgments about States themselves. The study makes use of case studies and concrete examples in order to illustrate how new concepts and approaches will be implemented, and how they may differ from more traditional safeguards approaches.

  5. CRITICAL REVIEW OF N, N{sup +}, N{sup +} {sub 2}, N{sup ++}, And N{sup ++} {sub 2} MAIN PRODUCTION PROCESSES AND REACTIONS OF RELEVANCE TO TITAN'S ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutuit, Odile; Thissen, Roland; Vuitton, Veronique; Canosa, Andre; Picard, Sebastien Le; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Ascenzi, Daniela; Tosi, Paolo; Franceschi, Pietro; Price, Stephen D.; Lavvas, Panayotis

    2013-02-15

    This paper is a detailed critical review of the production processes and reactions of N, N{sup +}, N{sup +} {sub 2}, N{sup ++}, and N{sup ++} {sub 2} of relevance to Titan's atmosphere. The review includes neutral, ion-molecule, and recombination reactions. The review covers all possible active nitrogen species under Titan's atmospheric conditions, specifically N{sub 2} (A {sup 3}{Sigma}{sup +} {sub u}), N ({sup 4} S), N ({sup 2} D), N ({sup 2} P), N{sup +} {sub 2}, N{sup +} ({sup 3} P), N{sup +} ({sup 1} D), N{sup ++} {sub 2}, and N{sup ++} species, and includes a critical survey of the reactions of N, N{sup +}, N{sup +} {sub 2}, N{sup ++}, and N{sup ++} {sub 2} with N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8} and the deuterated hydrocarbon analogs, as well as the recombination reactions of N{sup +} {sub 2}, N{sup +}, N{sup ++} {sub 2}, and N{sup ++}. Production processes, lifetimes, and quenching by collisions with N{sub 2} of all reactant species are reviewed. The N ({sup 4} S) state is reactive with radicals and its reactions with CH{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 3}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 5} are reviewed. Metastable states N{sub 2} (A {sup 3}{Sigma}{sup +} {sub u}), N ({sup 2} D), and N ({sup 2} P) are either reactive or quenched by collisions with the target molecules reviewed. The reactions of N{sup +} ({sup 1} D) have similar rate constants as N{sup +} ({sup 3} P), but the product branching ratios differ significantly. Temperature effects and the role of the kinetic energy content of reactants are investigated. In all cases, experimental uncertainties of laboratory data are reported or estimated. Recommended values with uncertainties, or estimated values when no data are available, are given for rate constants and product branching ratios at 300 K and at the atmospheric temperature range of Titan (150-200 K for neutral reactions and 150 K for ion reactions).

  6. Notice of Intent to Revise DOE P 470.1A, Safeguards and Security Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-08-06

    The proposed revision of this directive will realign this policy to create an integrated security enterprise that effectively protects the Department's assets to institute enterprise-wide solutions to common challenges across the complex.

  7. Notice of Intent to Revise DOE O 470.4B, Safeguards and Security Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-08-06

    The directive is proposed for revision to reflect the establishment by the Secretary of Energy of the Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (AU), and the Office of Security Officer positions and the Security Committee. The responsibilities section of the Order will be revised to include the Chief Security Officers and the Security Committee and to better reflect current Departmental structure.

  8. Homeland security: safeguarding America's future with energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) presents this 10th annual report following the one-year anniversary of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. This event has had profound impacts on all segments of American society, not the least of which is this country’s energy sector. Long before September 11, a number of energy issues grabbed the nation’s attention, including opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil and natural gas exploration, the power crisis in California, nationwide natural gas and gasoline price increases, and the administration’s May 2001 National Energy Policy. However, the events of September 11 refocused attention on the prominent role energy plays in the country’s homeland security. For the most part, the energy aspects of homeland security have focused on the physical security of critical energy emergency planning and energy infrastructure, such as power plants, refineries, and power and fuel transmission systems. While STEAB recognizes the importance of protecting our existing energy infrastructure, this should not be the sole focus of homeland security as it relates to energy.

  9. ENHANCED SAFEGUARDS: THE ROLE OF SMART FUNCTIONAL COATINGS FOR TAMPER INDICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendez-Torres, A.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Brinkman, K.; Krementz, D.

    2012-02-24

    This work investigates the synthesis of smart functional coatings (SFC) using chemical solution deposition methods. Chemical solution deposition methods have recently received attention in the materials research community due to several unique advantages that include low temperature processing, high homogeneity of final products, the ability to fabricate materials with controlled surface properties and pore structures, and the ease of dopant incorporation in controlled concentrations. The optical properties of thin films were investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Raman, SEM and EDS, with the aim of developing a protective transparent coating for a ceramic surface as a first line of defense for tamper indication. The signature produced by the addition of rare earth dopants will be employed as an additional tamper indicating feature. The integration of SFC's as part of a broader verification system such as an electronic seals can provide additional functionality and defense in depth. SFC's can improve the timeliness of detection by providing a robust, in-situ verifiable tamper indication framework.

  10. Time-Domain Reflectometry for Tamper Indication in Unattended Monitoring Systems for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Smith, Leon E.; Moore, David E.; Sheen, David M.; Conrad, Ryan C.

    2014-12-17

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) continues to expand its use of unattended, remotely monitored measurement systems. An increasing number of systems and an expanding family of instruments create challenges in terms of deployment efficiency and the implementation of data authentication measures. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) leads a collaboration that is exploring various tamper-indicating (TI) measures that could help to address some of the long-standing detector and data-transmission authentication challenges with IAEA’s unattended systems. PNNL is investigating the viability of active time-domain reflectometry (TDR) along two parallel but interconnected paths: (1) swept-frequency TDR as the highly flexible, laboratory gold standard to which field-deployable options can be compared, and (2) a low-cost commercially available spread-spectrum TDR technology as one option for field implementation. This report describes PNNL’s progress and preliminary findings from the first year of the study, and describes the path forward.

  11. Safeguards instrumentation for continuous unattended monitoring in plutonium fuel fabrication plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Miller, M.C.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.

    1993-06-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been developed for use in an automated mixed oxide fabrication facility. Unique features have been developed for the NDA systems to accommodate robotic sample handling and remote operation. In addition, the systems have been designed to obtain International Atomic Energy Agency inspection data without the need for an inspector at the facility at the time of the measurements. The equipment is being designed to operate continuously in an unattended mode with data storage for periods of up to one month. The design, performance characteristics, and authentication of the NDA systems are described. The data related to reliability, precision, and accuracy are presented.

  12. Developments in the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Engineering Degree Program at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boiko, Vladimir I.; Demyanyuk, Dmitry G.; Silaev, Maxim E.; Duncan, Cristen L.; Heinberg, Cynthia L.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.

    2009-10-06

    Over the last six years, Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) has developed a 5˝ year engineering degree program in the field of Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A). In 2009 the first students graduated with this new degree. There were 25 job offers from nuclear fuel cycle enterprises of Russia and Kazakhstan for 17 graduates of the program. Due to the rather wide selection of workplaces, all graduates have obtained positions at nuclear enterprises. The program was developed within the Applied Physics and Engineering Department (APED). The laboratory and methodological base has been created taking into consideration the experience of the similar program at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI). However, the TPU program has some distinguishing features such as the inclusion of special courses pertaining to fuel enrichment and reprocessing. During the last two years, three MPC&A laboratories have been established at APED. This was made possible due to several factors such as establishment of the State innovative educational program at TPU, assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the financial support of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority and some Russian private companies. All three of the MPC&A laboratories are part of the Innovative Educational Center “Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation,” which deals with many topics including research activities, development of new curricula for experts training and retraining, and training of master’s students. In 2008, TPU developed a relationship with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which was familiarized with APED’s current resources and activities. The IAEA has shown interest in creation of a master’s degree educational program in the field of nuclear security at TPU. A future objective is to acquaint nuclear fuel cycle enterprises with new APED capabilities and involve the enterprises in the scientific and educational projects implemented through the Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation Center. This paper describes the development of the MPC&A engineering degree program and future goals of TPU in the field of nonproliferation education.

  13. DOE to Provide Nearly $8 Million to Safeguard the Nation's Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These projects will integrate controls systems, which encompass vast networks of interconnected electronic devices that are essential in monitoring and controlling the production ...

  14. ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGE TO DOE O 470.4B, Safeguards and Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or impending changes in the organizational structure or ownership, including any acquisitions, mergers, or divestitures; and (6) any other issues that could have a bearing on...

  15. Feasibility/alternatives study for the planned replacement of Nuclear Material Safeguards System (NMSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, K.C.; Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-04

    This document is a study which describes the NMSS replacement alternatives and provides recommended solutions. It also describes a NMSS Paradox prototype.

  16. DOE to Provide Nearly $8 Million to Safeguard the Nation's Energy Infrastructure from Cyber Attacks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Kevin M. Kolevar today announced five projects that have been selected for...

  17. Shared Investment by NIS and National Labs Develops Cutting-Edge Safeguards Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Williams, Laura S.

    2012-04-01

    This article, regarding a new technology for detecting undeclared enrichment at gas centrifuge enrichment plants, was written for the DOE/NNSA NA-24 Highlights, a newsletter intended for public release.

  18. DOE to Provide Nearly $8 Million to Safeguard the Nation's Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and demonstrate an effective integrated monitoring solution to process control systems. Digital Bond, Inc. of Sunrise, FL - selected for an award of up to 1.1 million from ...

  19. A compilation of reports of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. 1994 annual. Volume 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    This compilation contains 30 ACRS reports submitted to the Commission, or to the Executive Director for Operations, during calendar year 1994. It also includes a report to the Congress on the NRC Safety Research Program. All reports have been made available to the public through the NRC Public Document Room and the U.S. Library of Congress. The reports are categorized by the most appropriate generic subject area and by chronological order within subject area.

  20. A compilation of reports of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards: 1995 annual. Volume 17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    This compilation contains 44 ACRS reports submitted to the Commission, or to the Executive Director for Operations, during calendar year 1995. It also includes a report to the Congress on the NRC Safety Research Program. All reports have been made available to the public through the NRC Public Document Room and the US Library of Congress. The reports are divided into two groups: Part 1: ACRS Reports on Project Reviews, and Part 2: ACRS Reports on Generic Subjects. Part 1 contains ACRS reports by project name and by chronological order within project name. Part 2 categorizes the reports by the most appropriate generic subject area and by chronological order within subject area.

  1. DOE to Provide Nearly $8 Million to Safeguard the Nation's Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy disruptions due to cyber incidents on control systems. SRI International of Menlo Park, CA - selected for an award of up to 1.8 million from DOE (total DOEindustry shared...

  2. Towards a tactical nuclear weapons treaty? Is There a Role of IAEA Tools of Safeguards?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, Emily C.; Rowberry, Ariana N.; Fearey, Bryan L.

    2012-07-12

    In recent years, there is growing interest in formal negotiations on non-strategic or tactical nuclear weapons. With the negotiations of New START, there has been much speculation that a tactical nuclear weapons treaty should be included in the follow on to New START. This paper examines the current policy environment related to tactical weapons and some of the issues surrounding the definition of tactical nuclear weapons. We then map out the steps that would need to be taken in order to begin discussions on a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. These steps will review the potential role of the IAEA in verification of a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. Specifically, does IAEA involvement in various arms control treaties serve as a useful roadmap on how to overcome some of the issues pertaining to a tactical nuclear weapons treaty?

  3. Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian M.; Xue, Kai; Yang, Yunfeng; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; McGrath, Steve; Storkey, Jonathan; et al

    2015-04-07

    Spatial scaling is a critical issue in ecology, but how anthropogenic activities like fertilization affect spatial scaling is poorly understood, especially for microbial communities. Here, we determined the effects of long-term fertilization on the spatial scaling of microbial functional diversity and its relationships to plant diversity in the 150-year-old Park Grass Experiment, the oldest continuous grassland experiment in the world. Nested samples were taken from plots with contrasting inorganic fertilization regimes, and community DNAs were analyzed using the GeoChip-based functional gene array. The slopes of microbial gene-area relationships (GARs) and plant species-area relationships (SARs) were estimated in a plot receivingmore »nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and a control plot without fertilization. Our results indicated that long-term inorganic fertilization significantly increased both microbial GARs and plant SARs. Microbial spatial turnover rates (i.e., z values) were less than 0.1 and were significantly higher in the fertilized plot (0.0583) than in the control plot (0.0449) (P z values also varied significantly with different functional genes involved in carbon (C), N, P, and sulfur (S) cycling and with various phylogenetic groups (archaea, bacteria, and fungi). Similarly, the plant SARs increased significantly (P « less

  4. Natural resources management activities and biodiversity maintenance. Progress report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, M.B.

    1994-05-01

    This progress report briefly outlines activities at the Crackerneck Wildlife Management Area. Thirty-nine days were spent administering hunts with 1524 people participating. Biological data was collected on 89 deer, 6 turkeys, 8 feral hogs, 40 ducks of two species, 24 bobwhite, 3 rabbits, 2 gray squirrels, and 313 fish of 8 species. Public relations, maintenance and hunt preparation activities are summarized as well.

  5. Natural resources management activity and biodiversity maintenance. Progress report, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, M.B.

    1993-05-01

    Activities in coordinating land use for the Savannah River Site public lands during the period of July 1, 1992 to June 30, 1993 are reported.

  6. Baseline for Climate Change: Modeling Watershed Aquatic Biodiversity Relative to Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurakis, Eugene G

    2010-10-01

    Objectives of the two-year study were to (1) establish baselines for fish and macroinvertebrate community structures in two mid-Atlantic lower Piedmont watersheds (Quantico Creek, a pristine forest watershed; and Cameron Run, an urban watershed, Virginia) that can be used to monitor changes relative to the impacts related to climate change in the future; (2) create mathematical expressions to model fish species richness and diversity, and macroinvertebrate taxa and macroinvertebrate functional feeding group taxa richness and diversity that can serve as a baseline for future comparisons in these and other watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region; and (3) heighten people’s awareness, knowledge and understanding of climate change and impacts on watersheds in a laboratory experience and interactive exhibits, through internship opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, a week-long teacher workshop, and a website about climate change and watersheds. Mathematical expressions modeled fish and macroinvertebrate richness and diversity accurately well during most of the six thermal seasons where sample sizes were robust. Additionally, hydrologic models provide the basis for estimating flows under varying meteorological conditions and landscape changes. Continuations of long-term studies are requisite for accurately teasing local human influences (e.g. urbanization and watershed alteration) from global anthropogenic impacts (e.g. climate change) on watersheds. Effective and skillful translations (e.g. annual potential exposure of 750,000 people to our inquiry-based laboratory activities and interactive exhibits in Virginia) of results of scientific investigations are valuable ways of communicating information to the general public to enhance their understanding of climate change and its effects in watersheds.

  7. Forestry herbicide influences on biodiversity and wildlife habitats in Southern forests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karl V.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In the southern United States, herbicide use continues to increase for timber management in commercial pine (Pinus spp.) plantations, for modifying wildlife habitats, and for invasive plant control. Several studies have reported that single applications of forestry herbicides at stand initiation have minor and temporary impacts on plant communities and wildlife habitat conditions, with some reports of enhanced habitat conditions for both game and nongame species. Due to the high resiliency of floral communities, plant species richness and diversity rebound rapidly after single herbicide treatments, with short- and long-term compositional shifts according to the selectivity and efficacy of the herbicide used. Recently, however, a shift to the Southeast in North American timber supplies has resulted in increased forest management intensity. Current site-preparation techniques rely on herbicide combinations, often coupled with mechanical treatments and >1 years of post-planting applications to enhance the spectrum and duration of vegetation control. This near-total control of associated vegetation at establishment and more rapid pine canopy closure, coupled with shortened and repeated rotations, likely will affect plant diversity and wildlife habitat quality. Development of mitigation methods at the stand and landscape levels will be required to minimize vegetative and wildlife impacts while allowing continued improvement in pine productivity. More uncertain are long-term impacts of increasing invasive plant occupation and the projected increase in herbicide use that will be needed to reverse this worsening situation. In addition, the potential of herbicides to meet wildlife management objectives in areas where traditional techniques have high social costs (e.g., prescribed fire) should be fully explored.

  8. Forestry herbicide influences on biodiversity and wildlife habitat in Southern forests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karl V.; Miller, James, H.

    2004-07-01

    Abstract In the southern United States, herbicide use continues to increase for timber management in commercial pine (Pinus spp.) plantations, for modifying wildlife habitats, and for invasive plant control. Several studies have reported that single applications of forestry herbicides at stand initiation have minor and temporary impacts on plant communities and wildlife habitat conditions, with some reports of enhanced habitat conditions for both game and nongame species. Due to the high resiliency of floral communities, plant species richness and diversity rebound rapidly after single herbicide treatments, with short- and long-term compositional shifts according to the selectivity and efficacy of the herbicide used. Recently, however, a shift to the Southeast in North American timber supplies has resulted in increased forest management intensity. Current site-preparation techniques rely on herbicide combinations, often coupled with mechanical treatments and >1 years of post-planting applications to enhance the spectrum and duration of vegetation control. This near-total control of associated vegetation at establishment and more rapid pine canopy closure, coupled with shortened and repeated rotations, likely will affect plant diversity and wildlife habitat quality. Development of mitigation methods at the stand and landscape levels will be required to minimize vegetative and wildlife impacts while allowing continued improvement in pine productivity. More uncertain are long-term impacts of increasing invasive plant occupation and the projected increase in herbicide use that will be needed to reverse this worsening situation. In addition, the potential of herbicides to meet wildlife management objectives in areas where traditional techniques have high social costs (e.g., prescribed fire) should be fully explored.

  9. DOE/NNSA Participates in the 12th IAEA Symposium on International...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... in nuclear nonproliferation and safeguards, new trends in the application of statistical methods for safeguards, challenges in spent fuel verification, and safeguards by design. ...

  10. REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States) CEA-DAM-DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France) Department of Scientific ...

  11. Michael Tsapatsis | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Michael Tsapatsis Previous Next List tsapatsis Michael Tsapatsis Professor of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Email: tsapa001 at...

  12. Jeffrey Reimer | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Previous Next List HewlittAugust2013 Jeffrey Reimer Department Chair, Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Email: reimer at...

  13. Laura Gagliardi | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laura Gagliardi Previous Next List Laura Gagliardi Laura Gagliardi Professor of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Email: gagliard at umn.edu Phone: 612-625-8299...

  14. Experimental Characterization | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experimental Characterization Previous Next List CraigBrown Craig Brown Jeff Kortright Jeffrey Kortright Queen Wendy Queen HewlittAugust2013 Jeffrey Reimer Simon Teat Simon Teat...

  15. CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND RELEVANCE TO THE DOE COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, H.; Langton, C.; Flach, G.; Kosson, D.

    2010-11-15

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) was initiated to reduce risk and uncertainties in the performance assessments that directly impact U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) environmental cleanup and closure programs. The CBP is supported by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) and has been specifically addressing the following critical EM program needs: (i) the long-term performance of cementitious barriers and materials in nuclear waste disposal facilities and (ii) increased understanding of contaminant transport behavior within cementitious barrier systems to support the development and deployment of adequate closure technologies. To accomplish this, the CBP has two initiatives: (1) an experimental initiative to increase understanding of changes in cementitious materials over long times (> 1000 years) over changing conditions and (2) a modeling initiative to enhance and integrate a set of computational tools validated by laboratory and field experimental data to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. In FY10, the CBP developed the initial phase of an integrated modeling tool that would serve as a screening tool which could help in making decisions concerning disposal and tank closure. The CBP experimental programs are underway to validate this tool and provide increased understanding of how CM changes over time and under changing conditions. These initial CBP products that will eventually be enhanced are anticipated to reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the DOE assessment process. These tools have application to low activity waste forms, high level waste tank closure, D&D and entombment of major nuclear facilities, landfill waste acceptance criteria, and in-situ grouting and immobilization of vadose zone contamination. This paper summarizes the recent work provided by the CBP to support DOE operations and regulatory compliance and the accomplishments over the past 2 years. Impacts of this work include: (1) a forum for DOE-NRC technical exchange, (2) material characterization to support PA predictions, (3) reducing uncertainty in PA predictions, (4) establishing base case performance to improve PA predictions, and (5) improving understanding and quantification of moisture and contaminant transport used in PAs. Additional CBP accomplishments include: sponsorship of a national test bed workshop to obtain collaboration in establishing the path forward in obtaining actual data to support future predictions on cementitious barrier performance evaluations, and participation in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Cooperative Research Project on the use of cementitious barriers for low-level radioactive waste treatment and disposal.

  16. Maciej Haranczyk | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    materials for carbon capture, Energy Environ. Sci., (2014). 10.1039C4EE02636E Holden, Daniel; Jelfs, Kim E.; Trewin, Abbie; Willock, David J.; Haranczyk, Maciej; and Cooper,...

  17. Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Environmentally Relevant Oxygenated PAHs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knecht, Andrea; Goodale, Britton; Truong, Lisa; Simonich, Michael; Swanson, Annika; Matzke, Melissa M.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants in urban air, dust and in the soil of most industrial coal gassification, coal burning, coke production and wood preservation sites (Howsam and Jones 1998). It is widely recognized that PAHs pose risks to human health,having been associated with increased risks of systemic inflammation (Delfino et al. 2010), cardiopulmonary mortality (Lee et al. 2011; Lewtas 2007) and lung cancer mortality (Grant 2009; Hoshuyama et al. 2006). The potential risks may be especially acute for the developing fetus and infant where PAH exposures have been linked to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, in-utero mortality and lower intelligence (Dejmek et al. 1999; Dejmek et al. 2000; Perera et al. 1999; Perera et al. 2009; Perera et al. 2006; Perera et al. 1998; Wu et al. 2010). Despite the more than two decades of intensive study devoted to parent PAHs, they are only part of the hazard spectrum from PAH contamination.

  18. Relevance of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to energy conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Use of the Second (2nd) Law of Thermodynamic concepts in energy system analysis is assessed. The basic advantage of using the 2nd law and availability concepts is that, while the First Law of Thermodynamics considers all energy quantities with equal weight, the 2nd law (and the entropy concept) distinguishes a grade or quality of the energy being considered as well as quantity. From this distinction flow two important considerations: (1) the losses at each point in a system can be assessed and measured in units that are directly proportional to input or purchased fuel energy; and (2) the minimum energy required to perform a given function or process is ascertainable as well as the maximum energy available from a given source. These considerations represent valuable analysis tools and compel consideration of the 2nd law in the analysis of energy systems. The use of 2nd law concepts is certainly not new or neglected. Practitioners in the energy field make implicit use of these ideas in the design and operation of most contemporary energy systems. The question is addressed here of whether explicit use of these ideas can provide any new or overlooked benefits in the design, operation, and reporting of energy using systems. To address the explicit use of 2nd law concepts, three areas of concern were chosen: energy monitoring; process and system design and modification; and component design and modification.

  19. Comparative developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant oxygenated PAHs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knecht, Andrea L.; Goodale, Britton C.; Truong, Lisa; Simonich, Michael T.; Swanson, Annika J.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2013-09-01

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are byproducts of combustion and photo-oxidation of parent PAHs. OPAHs are widely present in the environment and pose an unknown hazard to human health. The developing zebrafish was used to evaluate a structurally diverse set of 38 OPAHs for malformation induction, gene expression changes and mitochondrial function. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) to a dilution series of 38 different OPAHs and evaluated for 22 developmental endpoints. AHR activation was determined via CYP1A immunohistochemistry. Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PHEQ), 1,9-benz-10-anthrone (BEZO), xanthone (XAN), benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (7,12-B[a]AQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-ANTQ) were evaluated for transcriptional responses at 48 hpf, prior to the onset of malformations. qRT-PCR was conducted for a number of oxidative stress genes, including the glutathione transferase(gst), glutathione peroxidase(gpx), and superoxide dismutase(sod) families. Bioenergetics was assayed to measure in vivo oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in 26 hpf embryos exposed to OPAHs. Hierarchical clustering of the structure-activity outcomes indicated that the most toxic of the OPAHs contained adjacent diones on 6-carbon moieties or terminal, para-diones on multi-ring structures. 5-carbon moieties with adjacent diones were among the least toxic OPAHs while the toxicity of multi-ring structures with more centralized para-diones varied considerably. 9,10-PHEQ, BEZO, 7,12-B[a]AQ, and XAN exposures increased expression of several oxidative stress related genes and decreased oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measurement of mitochondrial respiration. Comprehensive in vivo characterization of 38 structurally diverse OPAHs indicated differential AHR dependency and a prominent role for oxidative stress in the toxicity mechanisms. - Highlights: • OPAHs are byproducts of combustion present in the environment. • OPAHs pose a largely unknown hazard to human health. • We assayed the developmental toxicology of 39 different OPAHs in zebrafish. • The most toxic OPAHs contained adjacent diones or terminal, para-diones. • AHR dependency varied among OPAHs, and oxidative stress influenced their toxicology.

  20. Property:Relevant Project Publications | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Final License Application P 12611 Detailed Inflow Measurements for Kinetic Hydropower Systems in a Tidal Strait Hydrodynamic Analysis of Kinetic Hydropower Arrays NYSERDA RITE...