National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for releases sulfur compounds

  1. Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, William E. (Manassas, VA)

    1992-01-01

    A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

  2. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Stegen, Gary E. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  3. Portable instrument and method for detecting reduced sulfur compounds in a gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, J.S.; Kelly, T.J.; Tanner, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    A portable real time instrument for detecting concentrations in the part per billion range of reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas. Ozonized air or oxygen and reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas stream react to produce chemiluminescence in a reaction chamber and the emitted light is filtered and observed by a photomultiplier to detect reduced sulfur compounds. Selective response to individual sulfur compounds is achieved by varying reaction chamber temperature and ozone and sample gas flows, and by the use of either air or oxygen as the ozone source gas.

  4. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ? The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ? Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ? Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup ?1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  5. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    set limits on the sulfur content of allowable fuels (1.0% by weight, dry basis) for combustion, as well as for the heat input of any fuel burning equipment (250,000 Btuhour)....

  6. Nonflame, source-induced sulfur fluorescence detector for sulfur-containing compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gage, D.R.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-12-01

    Results of some preliminary investigations of the fluorescence spectra of S/sub 2/ and the non-flame production of S/sub 2/ from sulfur-containing molecules are reported. Passage of the gas to be analyzed through a catalyst-oven containing a plug of NiO/sub 2//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst containing 10 wt% NiO/sub 2/ and heated to 400/sup 0/C resulted in conversion of H/sub 2/S to S/sub 2/ and elemental sulfur. The S/sub 2/ was detected by measurement of its fluorescence bands at 260 and 310nm, and elemental sulfur condensed on the cool parts of the apparatus. However, determination of sulfur-content of gas mixtures with the apparatus described herein were not as repeatable as desired, and the work is being continued on various facets of the non-flame system with work being directed toward the evaluation of different catalysts, catalyst temperature, design of a smaller detector geometry utilizing a pulsed-light excitation source, a windowless cell, and optical filters instead of monochromators to select the S/sub 2/ excitation and emission wavelengths. (BLM)

  7. Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Fu, Wujun [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  8. A solvent system to provide selective removal of sulfur compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, R.L.; Bacon, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Energy costs and SRU inefficiencies resulting from utilization of low strength MEA technology induced a large refinery to convert to MDEA. One of the seven product streams being treated required extremely low carbonyl sulfide in the treated product. This required careful consideration in making the decision to convert. However, the conclusions were that the advantages outweighed the disadvantages. When the initial converted operations verified a need to improve the carbonyl sulfide removal, GAS/SPEC Tech Service produced an innovative solution which allowed for efficient operation at acceptable COS specification, lower energy utilization, reduced solvent losses, and improved sulfur recovery unit operation.

  9. The South Karelia Air Pollution Study. The effects of malodorous sulfur compounds from pulp mills on respiratory and other symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaakkola, J.J.; Vilkka, V.; Marttila, O.; Jaeppinen, P.H.; Haahtela, T. )

    1990-12-01

    The paper mills in South Karelia, the southeast part of Finland, are responsible for releasing a substantial amount of malodorous sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and methyl sulfides ((CH3)2S and (CH3)2S2), into ambient air. In the most polluted residential area the annual mean concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are estimated to be 8 and 2 to 5 micrograms/m3 and the highest daily average concentration 100 and 50 micrograms/m3. The annual mean and highest daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are very low. We studied the effects of malodorous sulfur compounds on eye, nasal and respiratory symptoms, and headache in adults. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire was distributed in February 1987 and responded to by 488 adults living in a severely (n = 198), a moderately (n = 204), and a nonpolluted community (n = 86). This included questions about occurrence of the symptoms of interest during the previous 4 wk and 12 months and individual, behavioral, and other environmental determinants of the symptoms. The response rate was 83%. The odds ratios (OR) for symptoms experienced often or constantly in severely versus nonpolluted and moderately versus nonpolluted communities were estimated in logistic regression analysis controlling potential confounders. The odds ratios for eye (moderate exposure OR 11.70, Cl95% 2.33 to 58.65; severe exposure OR 11.78, Cl95% 2.35 to 59.09) and nasal symptoms (OR 2.01, Cl95% 0.97 to 4.15; OR 2.19, Cl95% 1.06 to 4.55) and cough (OR 1.89, Cl95% 0.61 to 5.86; OR 3.06, Cl95% 1.02 to 9.29) during the previous 12 months were increased, with a dose-response pattern.

  10. Study on removal of organic sulfur compound by modified activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Huiling; Li Chunhu; Guo Hanxian [Taiyuan Univ. of Technology (China). Research Inst. for Chemical Engineering of Coal

    1997-12-31

    With the price of coal increasing in China, more and more small and medium scale chemical plants are turning to high sulfur coal as the raw material in order to cut cost. However, the major drawback is that the lifetime of the ammonia synthesis catalyst is then reduced greatly because of the high concentration of the sulfur compounds in the synthesis gas, especially organic sulfur, usually CS{sub 2} and COS. The effects of water vapor and experimental temperature on removal of organic sulfur compounds by using a modified activated carbon were studied in this paper. It was found that water vapor had a negative effect on removal of carbon disulfide by activated carbon impregnated with organic amine. The use of activated carbon impregnated with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for removal of carbonyl sulfide was also investigated over the temperature range 30--60, the results show a favorable temperature (40) existing for carbonyl sulfide removal. Fixed-bed breakthrough curves for the adsorbent bed were also offered in this paper.

  11. Update on sulfur compound distribution in NGL: Plant test data GPA Section A committee, plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harryman, J.M. [Shell Oil Co., Houston, TX (United States); Smith, B. [Texaco E and P Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The mystery of why sulfur compounds could never be balanced from analyses of the product streams of NGL fractionation towers was solved by analyzing the data collected during testing completed by GPA Technical Section A in November and December of 1993 at Texaco`s Eunice, New Mexico fractionation plant. Decomposition of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) to form methyl mercaptan within the towers is the cause of the sulfur balance discrepancies explained in the paper. The results of testing were reported to the 1994 convention, but at the time, a few weeks after completion of testing, the chemistry was not understood, i.e., what is the source of the hydrogen required to complete the formation of methyl mercaptan. This paper is an update of the previous paper and it includes the DMDS decomposition chemistry. It is essentially the body of a report completed in early 1995, excluding the Appendix of data. The 66-page Appendix may be obtained from the GPA, Tulsa.

  12. Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2004-06-01

    A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

  13. Additive for lubricants and hydrocarbon fuels comprising reaction products of olefins, sulfur, hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen containing polymeric compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horodysky, A.G.; Law, D.A.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for making an additive for lubricant compositions comprising co-reacting: a monoolefin selected from the group consisting of butenes, propenes, pentenes, and mixtures of two or more thereof; sulfur; hydrogen sulfide; polymeric nitrogen-containing compound selected from the group consisting of succinimides, amides, imides, polyoxyazoline polymers and alkyl imidazoline compounds; and a catalytic amount of an amine selected from the group consisting of polyethylene amines and hydroxyl-containing amines; at a temperature between about 130/sup 0/C and about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure of about 0 psig to about 900 psig, the reactants being reacted in a molar ratio of olefin, polymeric nitrogen-containing compound, and hydrogen sulfide to sulfur of 2 to 0.5, 0.001 to 0.4, and 0.5 to 0.7, respectively, and the concentration of amine being between 0.5 and 10 percent of the total weight of reactants.

  14. The south Karelia air pollution study: Effects of low-level expsoure to malodorous sulfur compounds on symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partti-Pellinen, K.; Marttila, O.; Vilkka, V.; Jaakkola, J.J. |

    1996-07-01

    Exposure to very low levels of ambient-air malodorous sulfur compounds and their effect on eye irritation, respiratory-tract symptoms, and central nervous system symptoms in adults were assessed. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire (response rate = 77%) was distributed during March and April 1992 to adults (n = 336) who lived in a neighborhood that contained a pulp mill and in a nonpolluted reference community (n = 380). In the exposed community, the measured annual mean concentrations of total reduced sulfur compounds and sulfur dioxide measured in two stations were 2 to 3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. In the reference community, the annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide was 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The residents of the community near the pulp mill reported an excess of cough, respiratory infections, and headache during the previous 4 wk, as well as during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for headache was increased significantly in the exposed community, compared with the reference area: the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 1.83 (95% confidence interval [95% Cl] = 1.06-3.15) during the previous 4 wk and 1.70 (95% Cl = 1.05-2.73) during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for cough was also increased during the preceding 12 mo (aOR = 1.64, 95% Cl = 1.01-2.64). These results indicated that adverse health effects of malodorous sulfur compounds occur at lower concentrations than reported previously. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Feasibility of recoil enhanced tritium release from fusion blankets containing solid lithium compounds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmrose, Donald Edwin

    1986-01-01

    FEASIBILITY OF RECOIL ENHANCED TRITIUM RELEASE FROM FUSION BLANXETS CONTAINING SOLID LITHIUM COMPOUNDS A Thesis by DONALD EDWIN PALMROSE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering 1986 DONALD EDIJIi4 PAL;lROSE ALL RIGHTS RESERVED FEASIBILITY OF RECOIL ENHANCED TRITIUM RELEASE FROM FUSION BLANKETS CONTAINING SOLID LITHIUM COMPOUNDS A Thesis...

  16. Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

  17. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  18. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  19. Uses of lunar sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Pettit, D.R.; Heiken, G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical and biochemical properties. Although low in abundance on the Moon (/approximately/0.1% in mare soils), sulfur is surface-correlated and relatively extractable. Co-production of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10% of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Sulfur recovery process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hise, R.E.; Cook, W.J.

    1991-06-04

    This paper describes a method for recovering sulfur from a process feed stream mixture of gases comprising sulfur-containing compounds including hydrogen sulfide using the Claus reaction to convert sulfur-containing compounds to elemental sulfur and crystallization to separate sulfur-containing compounds from a tail gas of the Claus reaction for further processing as a recycle stream. It comprises: providing a Claus feed stream containing a stoichiometric excess of hydrogen sulfide, the Claus feed stream including the process feed stream and the recycles stream; introducing the Claus feed stream and an oxidizing agent into a sulfur recovery unit for converting sulfur-containing compounds in the Claus feed stream to elemental sulfur; withdrawing the tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit; separating water from the tail gas to producing a dehydrated tail gas; separating sulfur-containing compounds including carbonyl sulfide from the dehydrated tail gas as an excluded material by crystallization and withdrawing an excluded material-enriched output from the crystallization to produce the recycle stream; and combining the recycle stream with the process feed stream to produce the Claus feed stream.

  1. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  2. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  3. Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verkade, John G. (Ames, IA); Mohan, Thyagarajan (Ames, IA); Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA)

    1995-01-01

    A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

  4. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

    1983-08-11

    A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  5. NATIONAL PRESS RELEASE I PARIS I 30 AUGUST 2013 Brown algae contain phlorotannins, aromatic (phenolic) compounds that are unique in the plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canet, Léonie

    NATIONAL PRESS RELEASE I PARIS I 30 AUGUST 2013 Brown algae contain phlorotannins, aromatic elucidated the key step in the production of these compounds in Ectocarpus siliculosus, a small brown alga phlorotannins from brown algae for use in industry was a complex process, and the biosynthesis pathways

  6. More Economical Sulfur Removal for Fuel Processing Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    crude oil it is present in sulfur-containing organic compounds which are converted into hydrocarbons and H 2 S during the removal process (hydrodesulfurization). In both cases,...

  7. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  8. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  9. Mitigation of Sulfur Effects on a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst by Sorbate Reapplication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Lean NOx trap catalysis has demonstrated the ability to reduce NOx emissions from lean natural gas reciprocating engines by >90%. The technology operates in a cyclic fashion where NOx is trapped on the catalyst during lean operation and released and reduced to N2 under rich exhaust conditions; the rich cleansing operation of the cycle is referred to as "regeneration" since the catalyst is reactivated for more NOx trapping. Natural gas combusted over partial oxidation catalysts in the exhaust can be used to obtain the rich exhaust conditions necessary for catalyst regeneration. Thus, the lean NOx trap technology is well suited for lean natural gas engine applications. One potential limitation of the lean NOx trap technology is sulfur poisoning. Sulfur compounds directly bond to the NOx trapping sites of the catalyst and render them ineffective; over time, the sulfur poisoning leads to degradation in overall NOx reduction performance. In order to mitigate the effects of sulfur poisoning, a process has been developed to restore catalyst activity after sulfur poisoning has occurred. The process is an aqueous-based wash process that removes the poisoned sorbate component of the catalyst. A new sorbate component is reapplied after removal of the poisoned sorbate. The process is low cost and does not involve reapplication of precious metal components of the catalyst. Experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the washing process on a lean 8.3-liter natural gas engine on a dynamometer platform. The catalyst was rapidly sulfur poisoned with bottled SO2 gas; then, the catalyst sorbate was washed and reapplied and performance was re-evaluated. Results show that the sorbate reapplication process is effective at restoring lost performance due to sulfur poisoning. Specific details relative to the implementation of the process for large stationary natural gas engines will be discussed.

  10. A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOx̳ automotive catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Hairong

    2005-01-01

    Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

  11. Optimization of synthesis process of thermally-responsive poly-n-isopropylacrylamide nanoparticles for controlled release of antimicrobial hydrophobic compounds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Laura; Gomes, Carmen

    2014-10-29

    and formulation parameters on the size of nanoparticles based on block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(N- isopropylacrylamide) with and without hydrolytically sensitive groups Biomaterials 25 2409–18 [6] Fan L et al 2008 Novel super p...-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) nanoparticles J. Nanopart. Res. 11 1375–82 [17] Zhang X Z, Wu D Q and Chu C C 2004 Synthesis, characterization and controlled drug release of thermosensitive IPN-PNIPAAm hydrogels Biomaterials 25 3793–805 [18] Zhang X, Wu D Q...

  12. Doped carbon-sulfur species nanocomposite cathode for Li--S batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Donghai; Xu, Tianren; Song, Jiangxuan

    2015-12-29

    We report a heteroatom-doped carbon framework that acts both as conductive network and polysulfide immobilizer for lithium-sulfur cathodes. The doped carbon forms chemical bonding with elemental sulfur and/or sulfur compound. This can significantly inhibit the diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte, leading to high capacity retention and high coulombic efficiency.

  13. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  14. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  15. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Hu, Zhicheng (Somerville, MA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  16. PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE Ecole Centrale Paris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paragios, Nikos

    PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE Ecole. _________________________________________________________________________________ Press contacts : Ecole Centrale Paris Politecnico de Milano

  17. An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, K E

    2008-02-07

    This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

  18. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

    1987-10-07

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

  19. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narain, Nand K. (Bethel Park, PA); Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA); Smith, Dennis N. (Herminie, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

  20. Biogenic sulfur source strengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.; Bamesberger, W.L.

    1981-12-01

    Conclusions are presented from a 4-yr field measurement study of biogenic sulfur gas emissions from soils, and some water and vegetated surfaces, at 35 locales in the eastern and southeastern United States. More than one soil order was examined whenever possible to increase the data base obtained from the 11 major soil orders comprising the study area. Data analysis and emission model development were based upon an (80 x 80)-km/sup 2/ grid system. The measured sulfur fluxes, adjusted for the annual mean temperature for each sampling locale, weigted by the percentage of each soil order within each grid, and averaged for each of the east-west grid tiers from 47/sup 0/N to 25/sup 0/N latitude, showed an exponential north-to-south increase in total sulfur gas flux. Our model predits an additional increase of nearly 25-fold in sulfur flux between 25/sup 0/N and the equator.

  1. 2005 ORNL Press Releases | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 2005 ORNL Press Releases 1-10 of 113 Results Prev 12345 Next Operation cleaner fuels OAK RIDGE, Tenn., Dec. 28, 2005 - Ships powered with low-sulfur diesel fuels may have cleaner...

  2. Carbon-Sulfur Bond Cleavage of Methyl-Substituted Thiophenes with Iridium(III)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    polluting sulfur compounds are removed during the hydroprocessing of crude oil. Unrefined petroleum contains of a hydrogen acceptor, the thiophene was desulfurized (eq 2).4 Also, in the heterogeneous CoMo system it has

  3. SULFUR REMOVAL FROM PIPE LINE NATURAL GAS FUEL: APPLICATION TO FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2003-11-21

    Pipeline natural gas is being considered as the fuel of choice for utilization in fuel cell-based distributed generation systems because of its abundant supply and the existing supply infrastructure (1). For effective utilization in fuel cells, pipeline gas requires efficient removal of sulfur impurities (naturally occurring sulfur compounds or sulfur bearing odorants) to prevent the electrical performance degradation of the fuel cell system. Sulfur odorants such as thiols and sulfides are added to pipeline natural gas and to LPG to ensure safe handling during transportation and utilization. The odorants allow the detection of minute gas line leaks, thereby minimizing the potential for explosions or fires.

  4. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  5. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  6. Stratospheric sulfur oxidation kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayne, J.T.; Worsnop, D.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Oxidation of SO2 to H2SO4 in the atmosphere is believed to involve the reaction of SO3 with water. It is commonly assumed that this is an important step leading to homogeneous nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol particles. Heterogeneous chemistry on sulfuric acid aerosols regulate much of the ozone photochemistry in the lower stratosphere and are also believed to have significant effect on the climate. Understanding aerosol loading requires a detailed knowledge of the stratospheric sulfur budget, including its oxidation kinetics. Here we present results of a laboratory project studying a key step in the oxidation process, the homogeneous reaction between SO3 and H2O vapor. Kinetic measurements are performed in a high-pressure turbulent fast-flow reactor (fabricated at MIT) which minimizes heterogeneous loss of SO3 on reactorwalls. The rate of decay of SO3 and the appearance of H2SO4 is monitored in the presence of excess water vapor. Gas phase reactants and products are detected via an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer which is coupled to the exit of the flow reactor. Sulfuric acid nucleation studies can also be performed using the turbulent flow reactor. Initial measurements using a particle detector (based on Mie scattering) showed that aerosol formation and particle size distribution are controlled by varying the SO3/H2O gas ratio and the reactor temperature. Results for the reaction SO3J+ H2O show a second order dependence in water vapor density and a strong negative temperature dependence. The results, measured in the range -30C to +95C, imply that an SO3.H2O adduct and/or a water dimer species is likely involved in the reaction mechanism. Results of recent theoretical calculations on the SO3 + H2O system also support the finding that two water molecules are involved. Implications for the gas phase production of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere will be discussed.

  7. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Karra, Srinivasa Rao (Columbia, MO); Berning, Douglas E. (Columbia, MO); Smith, C. Jeffrey (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

    1999-01-01

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand.

  8. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  9. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  10. Evaluation of Sulfur in Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-04-01

    This project will define the options and costs at different scales of technology that can be used to remove sulfur from syngas.

  11. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Jozewicz, Wojciech (Chapel Hill, NC)

    1989-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accorda The government may own certain rights in the present invention pursuant to EPA Cooperative Agreement CR 81-1531.

  12. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  13. Insertion of Elemental Sulfur and SO2 into the Metal-Hydride and Metal-Carbon Bonds of Platinum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    and other alkyl and aryl compounds, followed by insertion of sulfur-bearing species to syn- thesize sulfur-bearing or main- group metals.2,3 A second resonance is seen in the 31P NMR spectrum at 67.02 (JPtP ) 1811 Hz

  14. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  15. PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE EcoleCentraleParis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paragios, Nikos

    PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE Ecole,ChristianFontanelhasalwayscultivatedhisteachingactivities,atthe ÉcoleMilitaire(NationalService),theUniversityInstituteofTechnologyforThermalEngineeringat #12;PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE EcoleCentraleParisVilled'Avray(7

  16. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue-gas-desulfurization sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In field studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by the University of Washington (1978) and the University of Idaho (1979), 13 gas samples from sludge storage sites at coal-burning power plants were analyzed by wall-coated open-tube cryogenic capillary-column gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame-photometric detector. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were identified in varying concentrations and ratios in the emissions from both operating sludge ponds and landfills and from FGD sludge surfaces that had been stored in the open for 3-32 mo or longer. Other sulfur compounds, probably propanethiols, were found in emissions from some sludges. Chemical ''stabilization/fixation'' sulfate-sulfite ratio, sludge water content, and temperature were the most significant variables controlling sulfur gas production. The average sulfur emissions from each of the 13 FGD storage sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 g/sq m/yr sulfur.

  17. Catalyst added to Claus furnace reduces sulfur losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luinstra, E.A.; d'Haene, P.E. (Shell Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada). Oakville Research Centre)

    1989-07-01

    Several substances effectively catalyze the reduction of carbon disulfide in Claus gas streams at Claus reaction furnace conditions (about 1,000{sup 0}C). Some conversion of carbonyl sulfide also occurs. Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well-known problem compounds that reduce sulfur recovery efficiency in many sulfur recovery plants. Installation of a suitable catalytic material in the reaction furnace promises significant improvement of Claus plant efficiency, and prolonged life of the catalytic converters. Almost every Claus sulfur recovery plant makes some carbon disulfide (CS/sub 2/) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) in the reaction furnace, and in many of these plants, these compounds constitute a significant problem. CS/sub 2/ and COS often comprise more than 50% of sulfur losses in the tail gas. This article reexamines the issue of CS/sub 2/ and COS in the Claus plant. The relative importance of these two troublesome components is explored with data accumulated from Shell Canada Claus plants. The authors discuss which factors tend to produce these components. Then a method for reducing CS/sub 2/ and COS virtually at the source will be introduced.

  18. Glass surface deactivants for sulfur-containing gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Gluck, S.J.

    1980-10-01

    In gas chromatographic technique for measuring reduced sulfur-containing gases in biogenic air fluxes, the major problem seemed to be the irreversible adsorption of the polar sulfur compounds on the glass surfaces of the cryogenic sampling traps. This article discusses the comparative degrees of Pyrex glass surface passivation for over 25 chemical deactivants and their related pretreatment procedures. Since H/sub 2/S was discovered to be the sulfur compound with a consistently lower recovery efficiency than COS, CH/sub 3/SH, CH/sub 3/SCH, CS/sub 2/ or CH/sub 3/SSCH/sub 3/, the percent recovery for H/sub 2/S was employed as the indicator of effectiveness for the various deactivation treatments. Tables are presented summarizing the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for chlorosilane deactivants and for the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for different pyrex surface pretreatments with an octadecyltrialkoxysilane deactivation. The general conclusion of this investigation is that the relative degree of passivation for glass surfaces by present deactivation techniques is dependent on the types of analyzed compounds and the nature of the glass surface.

  19. Sulfur-Free Selective Pulping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimmel, D. R.; Bozell, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    an increase in pulping rate and yields, which translates to less energy required per ton of product. Less sulfur means a simplified process, lower odor emissions, and a decrease requirement for bleaching chemicals, meaning less organics being discharged...

  20. Temperature-dependent oxygen release, intercalation behaviour and catalytic properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.xNb{sub 2}O{sub 5} compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boerrnert, Carina; Zosel, Jens; Polte, Annette; Wenzel, Roswitha; Guth, Ulrich; Langbein, Hubert

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependent oxygen loss and uptake of V{sub 2,38}Nb{sub 10,7}O{sub 32,7} in N{sub 2} (p(O{sub 2}) = 4 x 10{sup -5} bar) and IR spectra of gas mixtures after the reactor with V{sub 2,38}Nb{sub 10,7}O{sub 32,7} (A = 16.1 m{sup 2}/g) and propane. Highlights: {yields} V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.xNb{sub 2}O{sub 5} complex oxide compounds as catalysts. {yields} The (V, Nb){sub 2}O{sub 5} phases are able to a reversible release and uptake of oxygen without a structural variation. {yields} Metastable (V, Nb){sub 2}O{sub 5} phases are able to catalyse the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and propene. {yields} Thermodynamically stable VNb{sub 9}O{sub 25} phase shows no measurable catalytic activity. -- Abstract: In order to investigate the catalytic properties, V{sub 2,38}Nb{sub 10,7}O{sub 32,7}, VNb{sub 9}O{sub 25} and solid solutions of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in TT-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} were prepared by thermal decomposition of freeze-dried oxalate precursors. The samples were characterised by X-ray diffraction and surface area determination. The crystalline samples are capable of the intercalation of sodium and lithium ions from solution. Above a temperature of about 500 {sup o}C, in dependence on the oxygen partial pressure a reversible release and uptake of oxygen without a structural variation takes place. The catalytic properties have been evaluated for the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane and propene. There are only small differences in the catalytic activity of the different crystalline samples. Because of the relative high starting temperature, a selective catalytic oxidation of propane to propene is hardly observed.

  1. Adsorbed sulfur-gas methods for both near-surface exploration and downhole logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Barinaga, C.J.; Dolenc, M.R.; Farwell, G.H.

    1986-08-01

    The use of sulfur-containing gases in petroleum exploration is supported by (1) the idea that sulfur may play a role in petroleum genesis, (2) the corresponding existence of sulfur-containing compounds in petroleum and the potential for vertical migration of the low-molecular-weight sulfur species from these reservoirs, (3) the production of H/sub 2/S by anaerobic microorganism populations that develop in the subsurface areas overlying petroleum reservoirs due to the concomitant supply of hydrocarbon nutrients, (4) the recent discovery of near-surface accumulations of pyrite and marcasite as the source of induction potential anomalies over certain fields, and (5) the strong adsorptive affinities of sulfur gases to solid surfaces, which enhance both the concentration and localization of such sulfur-expressed anomalies. During the past 3 years, numerous near-surface soil samples and well cuttings from the Utah-Wyoming Overthrust belt have been analyzed for adsorbed sulfur-gas content by two novel analytical techniques: thermal desorption/metal foil collection/flash desorption/sulfur-selective detection (TD/MFC/FD/SSD) and thermal desorption/cryogenic preconcentration/high-resolution-gas chromatography/optimized-flame photometry (TD/CP/HRGC/OFP).

  2. Method to improve lubricity of low-sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    2004-08-31

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  3. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method of preparing graphene-sulfur...

  4. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  5. On the Origin of Sulfur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nils Ryde; David L. Lambert

    2005-10-05

    We present our work on the halo evolution of sulfur, based on observations of the S I lines around 9220 A for ten stars for which the S abundance was obtained previously from much weaker S I lines at 8694 A. We cannot confirm the rise and the high [S/Fe] abundances for low [Fe/H], as claimed in the literature from analysis of the 8694 A lines. The reasons for claims of an increase in [S/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H] are probably twofold: uncertainties in the measurements of the weak 8694 A lines, and systematic errors in metallicity determinations from Fe I lines. The near-infrared sulfur triplet at 9212.9, 9228.1, and 9237.5 A are preferred for an abundance analysis of sulfur for metal-poor stars. Our work was presented in full by Ryde & Lambert (2004).

  6. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Donnals, G.L.; Cao, J.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Shao, D. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1992-10-01

    Four replicate experiments of pyrolysis with quadrupole gas analyzer and ion selective electrode were conducted to monitor the release of chlorine and sulfur from a high-chlorine Illinois coal IBC-109 (0.42% chlorine on dry basis). The chlorine in coal is released solely as HCl, and the HCl release profile shows a broad peak between 250{degree}C and 600{degree}C with a maximum at 445{degree}C. In contrast, the sulfur release profile shows three peaks; the sulfur released around 370{degree}C may be derived from a labile (possibly aliphatic) component of organic sulfur, the main peak at 475{degree}C corresponds to the release of the main component (thiophenic) of organic sulfur, and the third peak at 600{degree} results from the decomposition of pyrite. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is the major sulfur species under an oxidizing condition in the combustion gas; additional gaseous sulfur species (COS and H{sub 2}S) are observed when the atmosphere is changed to a reducing condition. Sodium and chlorine contents in char residues determined by neutron activation analysis showed that 98% of chlorine in coal was volatilized during pyrolysis to 800{degree}C, and all the sodium is retained in the chars. The thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy experiments were carried out to characterize gaseous species during pyrolysis of four Illinois coals (IBC-103, -105, -106, and -109). Gas evolution profiles of sulfur (H{sub 2}S, S0{sub 2}, and COS), chlorine (HCl), and nitrogen (NH{sub 3} and HCN) species were determined. Similar release profiles of HCl and NH{sub 3} supported an interpretation that chlorine and nitrogen are closely associated in coal. COS may be formed by reaction of CO with H{sub 2}S in the gas phase.

  7. PRESS RELEASE for immediate release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    PRESS RELEASE for immediate release contact : Shelby Graham sesnon@ucsc.edu 8314592314 work by performance artist Guillermo GómezPeña and book artist Felicia Rice of Moving Parts Press

  8. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Buchanan, D.H. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States); Stucki, J.W. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The purposes of this project are: to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE process developed by the Midwest Ore Processing Co. (MWOPC), to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for evaluation of the PCE process, and to develop a dechlorination procedure to remove excess PCE from the PCE-treated coal. The objectives for the second year are: to verify the possible effects of PCE treatment on coal-derived FeS{sub 2}, FeSO{sub 4}, and Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} on ASTM coal analysis, to investigate the behavior of sulfur during oxidation and PCE desulfurization using the isotopically signatured coal sample, to investigate the effects of conditions and/or reagents on the oxidation of the organic-sulfur-model compounds, to evaluate the extended oxidation condition on the organic sulfur removal by PCE desulfurization, and to study other innovative pretreatment processes for the removal of organic sulfur from coal under mild conditions.

  9. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key parts—a positive and negative electrode and an electrolyte—that exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a battery’s chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

  10. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-22

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  11. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID)

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  12. Safety considerations for the use of sulfur in sulfur-modified pavement materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Carolyn Yuriko

    1980-01-01

    Liquid Sulfur Page v111 ix 33 33 35 IV Symptoms of Poisoning . First Aid SULFUR IN THE PAVING INDUSTRY General Sand-Asphalt-Sulfur Pavements (SAS) ', , Sulfur-Extended Asphalt Pavements (SEA) Sulfur Concrete EVALUATION OF RISKS AND SAFETY... RECOMMENDATIONS General Stationary Sources Mobile Sources Maintenance 40 41 43 43 44 45 46 Hot-Mix Recycling VI EMISSIONS MONITORING METHODS General Area Monitoring - Continuous Samplina Short Term Sampling (" Grab" Sampling) Personnel Monitoring...

  13. Natural sulfur flux from the Gulf of Mexico: dimethyl sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and sulfur dioxide. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valin, C.C.; Luria, M.; Wellman, D.L.; Gunter, R.L.; Pueschel, R.F.

    1987-06-01

    Atmospheric measurements of natural sulfur compounds were performed over the northern Gulf of Mexico during the late summer months of 1984. Air samples were collected with an instrumented aircraft at elevations of 30-3500 m, during both day and night. Most air samples were representative of the clean maritime atmosphere, although some were from continental contaminated air during periods of offshore flow at the coastline. In all samples, carbonyl sulfide concentrations were within the range of 400-500 pptv. Conversely, the dimethyl sulfide concentrations showed significant variability: during clean atmospheric conditions the average of all measurements was 27 pptv, whereas under polluted conditions the average was 7 pptv. Measureable quantities of dimethyl sulfide (>5 pptv) were not observed above the boundary layer. The average sulfur dioxide concentration measured in the marine (clean) atmosphere was 215 pptv, which is consistent with the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide being its major source.

  14. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  15. NONEQUILIBRIUM SULFUR CAPTURE & RETENTION IN AN AIR COOLED SLAGGING COAL COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert Zauderer

    2003-04-21

    Calcium oxide injected in a slagging combustor reacts with the sulfur from coal combustion to form sulfur-bearing particles. The reacted particles impact and melt in the liquid slag layer on the combustor wall by the centrifugal force of the swirling combustion gases. Due to the low solubility of sulfur in slag, it must be rapidly drained from the combustor to limit sulfur gas re-evolution. Prior analyses and laboratory scale data indicated that for Coal Tech's 20 MMBtu/hour, air-cooled, slagging coal combustor slag mass flow rates in excess of 400 lb/hr should limit sulfur re-evolution. The objective of this 42-month project was to validate this sulfur-in-slag model in a group of combustor tests. A total of 36 days of testing on the combustor were completed during the period of performance of this project. This was more that double the 16 test days that were required in the original work statement. The extra tests were made possible by cost saving innovations that were made in the operation of the combustor test facility and in additional investment of Coal Tech resources in the test effort. The original project plan called for two groups of tests. The first group of tests involved the injection of calcium sulfate particles in the form of gypsum or plaster of Paris with the coal into the 20 MMBtu/hour-combustor. The second group of tests consisted of the entire two-step process, in which lime or limestone is co-injected with coal and reacts with the sulfur gas released during combustion to form calcium sulfate particles that impact and dissolve in the slag layer. Since this sulfur capture process has been validated in numerous prior tests in this combustor, the primary effort in the present project was on achieving the high slag flow rates needed to retain the sulfur in the slag.

  16. On the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide by carbon monoxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst: A study by XPS and TPR/MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, N.T.; Fang, M. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center] [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center

    1998-10-25

    Both the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed reaction, coupled with mass spectrometry (TPR/MS), are used to study the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst. It was found that the lattice sulfur of the oxysulfide is released and reacts with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide when the oxysulfide is heated. The oxysulfide is postulated to form sulfur vacancies at a temperature lower than that for the formation of carbonyl sulfide and atomic sulfur is released in the process. The atomic sulfur can either enter the gas phase and leave the oxysulfide catalyst or react with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide.

  17. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

  18. Biogenic sulfur emissions in the SURE region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of biogenic sulfur emissions from the northeastern United States - defined as the EPRI Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) study area. Initial laboratory efforts developed and validated a portable sulfur sampling system and a sensitive, gas chromatographic analytical detection system. Twenty-one separate sites were visited in 1977 to obtain a representative sulfur emission sampling of soil orders, suborders, and wetlands. The procedure determined the quantity of sulfur added to sulfur-free sweep air by the soil flux as the clean air was blown through the dynamic enclosure set over the selected sampling area. This study represents the first systematic sampling for biogenic sulfur over such a wide range of soils and such a large land area. The major impacts upon the measured sulfur flux were found to include soil orders, temperature, sunlight intensity, tidal effects along coastal areas. A mathematical model was developed for biogenic sulfur emissions which related these field variables to the mean seasonal and annual ambient temperatures regimes for each SURE grid and the percentage of each soil order within each grid. This model showed that at least 53,500 metric tons (MT) of biogenic sulfur are emitted from the SURE land surfaces and approximately 10,000 MT are emitted from the oceanic fraction of the SURE grids. This equates to a land sulfur flux of nearly 0.02 gram of sulfur per square meter per yr, or about 0.6% of the reported anthropogenic emissions withn the SURE study area. Based upon these data and the summertime Bermuda high clockwise circulation of maritime air across Florida and the Gulf Coast states northward through the SURE area, the total land biogenic sulfur emission contribution to the SURE area atmospheric sulfur burden might approach 1 to 2.5% of the anthropogenic.

  19. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  20. Identification of sulfur heterocycles in coal liquids and shale oils. Technical progress report, August 1, 1980-May 1, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M. L.; Castle, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur heterocycle separation scheme which was described in the last progress report was evaluated for quantitative recovery of individual components. The results indicate that recoveries can range from 10% to approx. 30% depending on the structure of the compound. During this period, 23 unsubstituted sulfur-containing heterocyclic ring systems were synthesized in oder to confirm GC/MS identifications and for biological testing. The four possible 3-ring heterocycles and the thirteen possible 4-ring heterocycles were tested for mutagenic activity in the histidine reversion (Ames assay) system. One of the 3-ring isomers, naphtho(1,2-b)-thiophene, and six of the 4-ring isomers induced mutations in Salmonella test strains. One of these compounds, phenanthro(3,4-b)thiophene, displayed approximately the same mutagenic activity as benzo(a)pyrene. A two-step adsorption chromatographic procedure was developed in order to fractionate synthetic fuels into various chemical-type classes for studying the relative concentrations and mutagenic activities of the various types. An SRC-II Heavy Distillate was fractionated into aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocycles, indoles and carbazoles, azaarenes, and amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It was found that the amino-PAH fraction contained most of the mutagenic activity. A survey was made for compounds containing both nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms in their structures. A number of these compounds were detected by GC using nitrogen- and sulfur-selective detection.

  1. Contribution of isotopologue self-shielding to sulfur mass-independent fractionation during sulfur dioxide photolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, J. R.

    Signatures of sulfur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) are observed for sulfur minerals in Archean rocks, and for modern stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSA) deposited in polar ice. Ultraviolet light photolysis of ...

  2. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  3. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct laboratory experiments to clarify the mechanism of boiler corrosion, which may lead to solving the corrosion problem associated with the utilization of Illinois' high-sulfur and high-chlorine coal. The kinetics of the release of sulfur and chlorine species during coal combustion is being determined in the laboratories using temperature-programmed pyrolysis coupled with quadrupole gas analysis (QGA) and thermogravimetric analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Samples of boiler deposits and ashes from different locations in boilers using Illinois coal will be analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions to understand the relations among deposit compositions, coal compositions, and the gaseous species in combustion gases. The relationship between the level of chlorine in Illinois coal and boiler corrosion will be studied by experiments with simulated combustion gases under combustion conditions. Reduction of sulfur and chloride concentrations in the flue gas using additives will also be evaluated.

  4. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  5. Microbial Architecture of Environmental Sulfur Processes: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    potential impacts on water quality, including acid generation in acid mine drainage (AMD) environments, 2009. Accepted July 9, 2009. Microbial oxidation of sulfur-rich mining waste materials drives acid mine drainage (AMD) and affects the global sulfur biogeochemical cycle. The generation of AMD is a complex

  6. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  7. Hydroxymethyl phosphine compounds for use as diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, K.V.; Karra, S.R.; Berning, D.E.; Smith, C.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.

    1999-01-05

    A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises at least one functionalized hydroxyalkyl phosphine donor group and one or more sulfur or nitrogen donor and a metal combined with the ligand. 21 figs.

  8. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

    1995-01-24

    A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

  9. News Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxideUser Work Featured onNews Releases

  10. News Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesofPublications64 2.251OptimizedOxygen: Poison toNearReleases

  11. FINAL RELEASE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesofExtrans - PermeationGovernment |RoboticFIB7,6,RELEASE

  12. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF CARBON DISULFIDE-OXYGEN ICES: TOWARD THE FORMATION OF SULFUR-BEARING MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    The formation of sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices was investigated during the irradiation of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2})-oxygen (O{sub 2}) ices with energetic electrons at 12 K. The irradiation-induced chemical processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe the newly formed products quantitatively. The sulfur-bearing molecules produced during the irradiation were sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Formations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were observed as well. To fit the temporal evolution of the newly formed products and to elucidate the underlying reaction pathways, kinetic reaction schemes were developed and numerical sets of rate constants were derived. Our studies suggest that carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) can be easily transformed to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) via reactions with suprathermal atomic oxygen (O), which can be released from oxygen-containing precursors such as water (H{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and/or methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) upon interaction with ionizing radiation. This investigation corroborates that carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are the dominant sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices.

  13. PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE The Ecole Centrale Paris at Paris-Saclay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paragios, Nikos

    PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE The Ecole Centrale Paris at Paris ___________________________________________________ _____________________________ Press Contact: Etienne DAGES-DESGRANGES @: etienne.dages-desgranges@ecp.fr Tel: 01 41 13 14 74 / 06 14

  14. Photodissociation spectroscopy of the carbonyl sulfide ion with momentum analysis of the sulfur product ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A Nuclide 12-90-G mass spectrometer was modified for use as a photofragment momentum spectrometer. The resultant apparatus was capable of obtaining both absolute cross sections for photodissociation with respect to wavelength and relative cross sections for photodissociation with respect to kinetic energy release. The kinetic energy release for the photodissociation reaction of the nitrous oxide cation (leading to the production of the nitric oxide cation and the nitrogen atom), was studied at 3080.4 [angstrom], 3371.3 [angstrom], and 3381.4 [angstrom]. When a nitrogen atom was produced in the [sup 4]S state, the nitric oxide cation was found to be formed predominantly with 5 to 7 quanta of vibrational energy. Nitrogen atoms were formed preferentially in the [sup 2]D state when it was energetically feasible at 3371.3 [angstrom] and 3080.4 [angstrom]. The kinetic energy release for the photodissociation reaction of the carbonyl sulfide cation (leading to the production of carbon monoxide and a sulfur cation), was studied at 2822.2 [angstrom], 2921.8 [angstrom], 2991.0 [angstrom], 2991.9 [angstrom], 3080.4 [angstrom], 3104.3 [angstrom], 3127.9 [angstrom], 3184.9 [angstrom], 3351.8 [angstrom], 3371.3 [angstrom], and 3393.0 [angstrom]. When sulfur cations were produced in the [sup 4]S state, the carbon monoxide products were formed predominantly with 5 to 7 quanta of vibrational energy. Sulfur cations were formed preferentially in the [sup 2]D state from hot bands at 3351.8 [angstrom], 3080.4 [angstrom], and 2991.9 [angstrom]. Sulfur cations were also produced in the [sup 2]D state at 2921.8 [angstrom] and 2822.2 [angstrom], where it was energetically feasible from the ground state of carbonyl sulfide cations.

  15. Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer membrane PEM electrolyzer has been investigated as a viable system for the electrolysis step of the electrolyzer and membranes developed to limit SO2 crossover. © 2009 The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10

  16. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NO{sub x} control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  17. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-07-03

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

  18. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NOX control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  19. Airborne measurements of total sulfur gases during NASA global tropospheric experiment/chemical instrumentation test and evaluation 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; MacTaggart, D.L.; Chatham, W.H.

    1995-04-20

    A metal foil collection/flash desorption/flame photometric detection (MFC/FD/FPD) technique was used by investigators from the University of Idaho (UI) to measure ambient total sulfur gas concentrations from an aircraft platform during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (GTE/CITE 3) program. The MFC/FD/FPD technique allowed rapid quantitation of tropospheric background air masses using sample integration times of 1-3 min with little or no gap between measurements. The rapid and continual sampling nature of this technique yielded data covering approximately 75% of the entire CITE 3 program`s air track. Ambient air measurement data obtained during northern hemisphere (NH) flights often exhibited relatively high total sulfur gas values (up to 19 ppb) and an extremely high degree of sample heterogeneity, especially in coastal locations. Data from southern hemisphere (SH) flights typically exhibited relatively low total sulfur gas concentrations and a low degree of sample heterogeneity. A bimodal interhemispheric total sulfur gas gradient was observed using data obtained during transit flights between the two CITE 3 program ground bases. Comparisons were made of UI total sulfur gas measurements with composite sulfur gas values generated using speciated sulfur gas measurements from other CITE 3 participants. Only a relatively small number of overlap periods for comparison were obtained from all the available CITE 3 data because of large differences in measurement integration times and lack of synchronization of sample start/stop times for the various investigators. These effects were compounded with extreme sample heterogeneity in the NH and the speed at which the aircraft traversed the air masses being sampled. Comparison of NH UI total with composite sulfur gas values showed excellent correlation and linear curve fit, indicating substantial qualitative agreement. 20 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric; Pan, Huilin; Lv, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Z. D.; Liaw, Bor Y.; Yu, Xiqian; et al

    2015-01-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge processes follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials and the electrochemical characteristics of the cell, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-Smore »cell are driving each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new perspectives to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.« less

  1. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zheng, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pan, Huilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lv, Dongping [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zuo, Pengjian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Honghao [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liaw, Bor Y. [School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, (United States); Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, Ji-Guang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xiao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge processes follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials and the electrochemical characteristics of the cell, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-S cell are driving each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new perspectives to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.

  2. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric D.; Pan, Huilin; Lu, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Zhiqun; Liaw, Bor Yann; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2014-12-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge process follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-S cell are driven each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new insights to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.

  3. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from a subbituminous coal by electron-transfer process with K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dipu Borah [Pragjyotika J College, Titabar (India). Department of Chemistry

    2006-02-01

    The desulfurization reaction involving direct electron transfer from potassium ferrocyanide, K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}), successfully removed organic sulfur from a subbituminous coal. The temperature variation of desulfurization revealed that increase of temperature enhanced the level of sulfur removal. Moreover, the desulfurization reaction was found to be dependent on the concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}). Gradual increase in the concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at higher concentration the variation was not significant. The removal of organic sulfur from unoxidized coal slightly increased with reduced particle size. Desulfurization from oxidized coals (prepared by aerial oxidation) revealed a higher level of sulfur removal in comparison to unoxidized coal. Highest desulfurization of 36.4 wt % was obtained at 90{sup o}C and 0.1 M concentration of K{sub 4}(Fe(CN){sub 6}) in the 100-mesh size oxidized coal prepared at 200{sup o}C. Model sulfur compound study revealed that aliphatic types of sulfur compounds are primarily responsible for desulfurization. Because of higher stability, thiophene and condensed thiophene-type of compounds perhaps remained unaffected by the electron-transfer agent. Infrared study revealed the formation of oxidized sulfur compounds (sulfoxide, sulfone, sulfonic acid, etc.) in the oxidized coals. The desulfurization reaction in different systems is well-represented by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Application of the transition state theory indicated that the desulfurization reaction proceeds with the absorption of heat (endothermic reaction) and is nonspontaneous in nature. 53 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. Technical report, September 1--November 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to conduct laboratory experiments to clarify the mechanism of boiler corrosion, which may lead to solving the corrosion problem associated with the utilization of Illinois` high-sulfur and high-chlorine coal. The kinetics of the release of sulfur and chlorine species during coal combustion is being determined in the laboratories using temperature-programmed pyrolysis coupled with quadrupole gas analysis (QGA) and thermogravimetric analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Samples of boiler deposits and ashes from different locations in boilers using Illinois coal will be analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions to understand the relations among deposit compositions, coal compositions, and the gaseous species in combustion gases. The relationship between the level of chlorine in Illinois coal and boiler corrosion will be studied by experiments with simulated combustion gases under combustion conditions. Reduction of sulfur and chloride concentrations in the flue gas using additives will also be evaluated.

  5. PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE Herv Biausser, Director of the Ecole Centrale Paris,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paragios, Nikos

    PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE / PRESS RELEASE Hervé Biausser, Director of the Ecole announced on April 2, 2013 through a press release, the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research has. ___________________________________________________________________________________ Press Contact: Ecole Centrale Paris Supélec Mr. Etienne DAGES-DESGRANGES Ms. Mariane DUBIEZ Telephone

  6. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  7. Multiple-sulfur isotope effects during photolysis of carbonyl sulfide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Ying

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine sulfur isotope effects during ultraviolet photolysis of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) to carbon monoxide (CO) and elemental sulfur (S[superscript 0]). The OCS gas at 3.7 to 501 ...

  8. EPA Diesel Rule and the Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-08

    The VT program collaborated with industry stakeholders and the EPA (in an effort initiated in 1998 called Diesel Emission Control – Sulfur Effects study, otherwise known as DECSE) to quantify the effects of fuel sulfur on emission control technologies.

  9. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Quarterly report, October - December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-12-01

    The objectives of this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the effect of S0{sub 2} on the formation of chlorine during combustion processes was examined. To simulate the conditions used in the AFBC system, experiments were conducted in a quartz tube in an electrically heated furnace. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from this study was GC/MS. The evolved gas was trapped by an absorbent and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The preliminary results indicate an inhibiting effect of S0{sub 2} on the Deacon Reaction. Secondly, information on the evolution of chlorine, sulfur and organic compounds from coals 95031 and 95011 were studied with the AFBC system. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Chang, John C. S. (Cary, NC)

    1991-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

  11. Mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation during photochemistry of sulfur dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehill, Andrew (Andrew Richard)

    2015-01-01

    Mass-independent sulfur isotope signatures are observed in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic sedimentary sulfate and sulfide minerals, and provide the most robust constraints on early atmospheric oxygen levels. Smaller ...

  12. Policy Analysis Changing Trends in Sulfur Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, New York, and Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto in Asia where the pressing environ- mental problems of urban pollution, acid deposition, and climate change are intimately linked to sulfur (1). Over the last 25 years the primary energy demand in Asia has

  13. On the galactic chemical evolution of sulfur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Ryde; D. L. Lambert

    2003-12-02

    Sulfur abundances have been determined for ten stars to resolve a debate in the literature on the Galactic chemical evolution of sulfur in the halo phase of the Milky Way. Our analysis is based on observations of the S I lines at 9212.9, 9228.1, and 9237.5 A for stars for which the S abundance was obtained previously from much weaker S I lines at 8694.0 and 8694.6 A. In contrast to the previous results showing [S/Fe] to rise steadily with decreasing [Fe/H], our results show that [S/Fe] is approximately constant for metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < -1) at [S/Fe] = +0.3. Thus, sulfur behaves in a similar way to the other alpha elements, with an approximately constant [S/Fe] for metallicities lower than [Fe/H] = -1. We suggest that the reason for the earlier claims of a rise of [S/Fe] is partly due to the use of the weak S I 8694.0 and 8694.6 A lines and partly uncertainties in the determination of the metallicity when using Fe I lines. The S I 9212.9, 9228.1, and 9237.5 A lines are preferred for an abundance analysis of sulfur for metal-poor stars.

  14. COS-forming reaction between CO and sulfur: A high-temperature intrinsic kinetics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karan, K.; Mehrotra, A.K.; Behie, L.A. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering] [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    1998-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide is formed in the front end (i.e., the reaction furnace and the waste heat boiler) of Claus plants which are commonly used to recover sulfur from acid gases. Moreover, COS along with CS{sub 2}, are recognized as the problematic sulfur compounds that contribute significantly to plant sulfur emissions. Further, there is limited kinetic information on the important reaction for the formation of these two compounds. Now, it is well-known that one of the important COS-forming reactions is that between CO and sulfur. In this laboratory, the authors conducted an experimental study to measure the intrinsic kinetics of this homogeneous gas-phase reaction in the temperature range of 600--1150 C and over a residence time of 0.5--2.0 s. The overall reaction was found to be second order with a reaction rate constant k{sub f} = (3.18 {+-} 0.36) {times} 10{sup 5} exp[{minus}(6700 {+-} 108 K)/T] m{sup 3}/(kmol{center_dot}s). In addition, a kinetic model was developed to account for both the COS formation and the COS decomposition reactions. And, finally, for the reverse reaction, the COS decomposition reaction rate constant (k{sub r}) was regressed to match the equilibrium data of experiments at high temperatures giving a second-order reaction rate constant as k{sub r} = (2.18 {+-} 1.12) {times} 10{sup 9} exp[{minus}(21630 {+-} 160 K)/T] m{sup 3}/(kmol{center_dot}s).

  15. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    09 Press Release Archive Recent Releases Beams are Back in the Large Hadron Collider 112009 Fermilab seeks nominations for new Community Advisory Board to assist in future...

  16. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.

    1991-01-01

    A pre-combustion coal desulfurization process at 120{degree}C using perchloroethylene (PCE) to remove up to 70% of the organic sulfur has been developed by the Midwest Ore Processing Co. (MWOPC). However, this process has not yet proven to be as successful with Illinois coals as it has for Ohio and Indiana coals. The organic sulfur removal has been achieved only with highly oxidized Illinois coals containing high sulfatic sulfur. A logical explanation for this observation is vital to successful process optimization for the use of Illinois coals. In addition, the high levels of organic sulfur removals observed by the MWOPC may be due to certain errors involved in the ASTM data interpretation; this needs verification. For example, elemental sulfur extracted by the PCE may be derived from pyrite oxidation during coal pre-oxidation, but it may be interpreted as organic sulfur removed by the PCE using ASTM analysis. The goals of this research are: (1) to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE desulfurization process reported by the MWOPC, (2) to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for the PCE process evaluation, and (3) to determine the suitability of Illinois coals for use in the PCE desulfurization process. This project involves the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Eastern Illinois University (EIU), the University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign (UI-UC), and the University of Kentucky, Lexington (UK). This is the first year of a two-year project.

  17. Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert B. (Allentown, PA); Hegarty, William P. (State College, PA); Studer, David W. (Wescosville, PA); Tirados, Edward J. (Easton, PA)

    1995-01-01

    An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

  18. Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

    2014-04-29

    A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

  19. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  20. Fuel-rich sulfur capture in a combustion environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.; Kirchgessner, D.A.; Drehmel, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of a refactory-lined, natural gas furnace to study the fuel-rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel-rich sulfur species hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide were monitored in a nearly continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equiped with a flame photometric detector and an automatic system that sampled every 30 seconds. Below the fuel-rich zone, 25% excess air was added, and the ultimate fuel-lean capture was simultaneously measured using a continuous sulfur dioxide monitor. Under fuel-rich conditions, high levels of sulfur capture were obtained, and calcium utilization increased with sulfur concentration. The ultimate lean capture was found to be weakly dependent on sulfur concentration and independent of the sulfur capture level obtained in the fuel-rich zone.

  1. Heat Release Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supporting Technical Document for the Radiological Release Accident Investigation Report (Phase II Report)

  2. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-02-29

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coals with refuse derived fuels were two-fold. First, the effects of different experimental parameters such as temperature, flow rates and reaction times on the formation of chlorinated organic compounds were studied using the tubular furnace as a reactor followed by GC/MS analysis. Secondly, the effect of fuel/air ratio on the flue gas composition and combustion efficiency were studied with the AFBC system.

  3. Tellurium-Containing Conjugated Materials for Solar Cells: From Sulfur to Tellurium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park Y. S.; Kale, T.; Wu, Q.; Ocko, B.M.; Black, C.T., Grubbs, R.B.

    2013-04-03

    A series of diketopyrrolopyrrole(DPP)-based small molecules have been synthesized by palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions. Electron-donating moieties (benzothiophene, benzoselenophene, and benzotellurophene) are bridged by an electron-withdrawing DPP unit to generate donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) type molecules. We observe red-shifts in absorption spectra of these compounds by varying heteroatoms from sulfur to tellurium. In bulk heterojunction solar cells with [6,6]phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as acceptor, we obtain power conversion efficiencies of 2.4% (benzothiophene), 4.1% (benzoselenophene), and 3.0% (benzotellurophene), respectively.

  4. Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-03-01

    Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

  5. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA)

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(OF.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1)n].sub.1-k M.sub.k, [(FO.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1.5).sub.n ].sub.1-k M.sub.k, or [Ln.sub.x Zr.sub.1-x O.sub.2-0.5x ].sub.1-k M.sub.k wherein FO.sub.2 is a fluorite-type oxide; RO represents an alkaline earth oxide; RO.sub.1.5 is a Group IIIB or rare earth oxide; Ln is a rare earth element having an atomic number from 57 to 65 or mixtures thereof; M is a transition metal or a mixture of transition metals; n is a number having a value from 0.0 to 0.35; k is a number having a value from 0.0 to about 0.5; and x is a number having a value from about 0.45 to about 0.55.

  6. Method and apparatus for converting and removing organosulfur and other oxidizable compounds from distillate fuels, and compositions obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Alessandro, Robert N. (Spanish Fort, AL); Tarabocchia, John (Parsippany, NJ); Jones, Jerald Andrew (Frankfurt am Main, DE); Bonde, Steven E. (West Richard, WA); Leininger, Stefan (Langenselbold, DE)

    2010-10-26

    The present disclosure is directed to a multi-stage system and a process utilizing said system with the design of reducing the sulfur-content in a liquid comprising hydrocarbons and organosulfur compounds. The process comprising at least one of the following states: (1) an oxidation stage; (2) an extraction state; (3) a raffinate washing stage; (4) a raffinate polishing stage; (5) a solvent recovery stage; (6) a solvent purification stage; and (7) a hydrocarbon recovery stage. The process for removing sulfur-containing hydrocarbons from gas oil, which comprises oxidizing gas oil comprising hydrocarbons and organosulfur compounds to obtain a product gas oil.

  7. XAFS Model Compound Library

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Newville, Matthew

    The XAFS Model Compound Library contains XAFS data on model compounds. The term "model" compounds refers to compounds of homogeneous and well-known crystallographic or molecular structure. Each data file in this library has an associated atoms.inp file that can be converted to a feff.inp file using the program ATOMS. (See the related Searchable Atoms.inp Archive at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/adb/) This Library exists because XAFS data on model compounds is useful for several reasons, including comparing to unknown data for "fingerprinting" and testing calculations and analysis methods. The collection here is currently limited, but is growing. The focus to date has been on inorganic compounds and minerals of interest to the geochemical community. [Copied, with editing, from http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/ModelLib/

  8. Sulfur control in ion-conducting membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Richards, Robin Edward; Brengel, David Douglas; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2003-08-05

    A method for controlling the sulfur dioxide partial pressure in a pressurized, heated, oxygen-containing gas mixture which is contacted with an ion-conducting metallic oxide membrane which permeates oxygen ions. The sulfur dioxide partial pressure in the oxygen-depleted non-permeate gas from the membrane module is maintained below a critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure, p.sub.SO2 *, to protect the membrane material from reacting with sulfur dioxide and reducing the oxygen flux of the membrane. Each ion-conducting metallic oxide material has a characteristic critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure which is useful in determining the required level of sulfur removal from the feed gas and/or from the fuel gas used in a direct-fired feed gas heater.

  9. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  10. Partially fluorinated ionic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, legal representative, Amy Qi (Hockessin, DE); Yang, Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE)

    2008-11-25

    Partially fluorinated ionic compounds are prepared. They are useful in the preparation of partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic.

  11. Astatinated organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milius, R.A.; Lambrecht, R.M.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1989-05-02

    Methods and kits for incorporating a radioactive astatine isotope (particularly [sup 211]At) into an organic compound by electrophilic astatodestannylation of organostannanes. 3 figs.

  12. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    630840-3351 December 8, 1997 For immediate release Attached and below is the joint press release from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and CERN,...

  13. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FERMILAB PRESS RELEASE September 2, 1997 For immediate release CONTACT Judy Jackson, 630840-3351 (Fermilab) jjackson@fnal.gov 97-06 FERMILAB TO HOST SITE'S FORMER FARMERS BATAVIA,...

  14. Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

  15. WASEDA UNIVERSITY Press Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasahara, Hironori

    WASEDA UNIVERSITY Press Release --IT 12 3 *1 *2 OSCAR API ver. 2.0 OSCAR API C Fortran OSCAR -- API.0) #12;WASEDA UNIVERSITY Press Release SuperH ARM FR-V V850 SPARC Intel AMD IBM Power OS Linux AIX://www.kasahara.cs.waseda.ac.jp/ *1 *2 *3 LWOS Light Weight OS #12;WASEDA UNIVERSITY Press Release #12;WASEDA UNIVERSITY Press Release

  16. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddalena, Randy

    2012-01-01

    sulfide (H 2 S), carbonyl sulfide (OCS), sulfur dioxide (SOof hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, methyl mercaptan,associated with the carbonyl sulfide that typically had very

  17. Organo-sulfur molecules enable iron-based battery electrodes to meet the challenges of large-scale electrical energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, B; Malkhandi, S; Manohar, AK; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2014-07-03

    Rechargeable iron-air and nickel-iron batteries are attractive as sustainable and inexpensive solutions for large-scale electrical energy storage because of the global abundance and eco-friendliness of iron, and the robustness of iron-based batteries to extended cycling. Despite these advantages, the commercial use of iron-based batteries has been limited by their low charging efficiency. This limitation arises from the iron electrodes evolving hydrogen extensively during charging. The total suppression of hydrogen evolution has been a significant challenge. We have found that organo-sulfur compounds with various structural motifs (linear and cyclic thiols, dithiols, thioethers and aromatic thiols) when added in milli-molar concentration to the aqueous alkaline electrolyte, reduce the hydrogen evolution rate by 90%. These organo-sulfur compounds form strongly adsorbed layers on the iron electrode and block the electrochemical process of hydrogen evolution. The charge-transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance of the iron/electrolyte interface confirm that the extent of suppression of hydrogen evolution depends on the degree of surface coverage and the molecular structure of the organo-sulfur compound. An unanticipated electrochemical effect of the adsorption of organo-sulfur molecules is "de-passivation" that allows the iron electrode to be discharged at high current values. The strongly adsorbed organo-sulfur compounds were also found to resist electro-oxidation even at the positive electrode potentials at which oxygen evolution can occur. Through testing on practical rechargeable battery electrodes we have verified the substantial improvements to the efficiency during charging and the increased capability to discharge at high rates. We expect these performance advances to enable the design of efficient, inexpensive and eco-friendly iron-based batteries for large-scale electrical energy storage.

  18. Evaluation of metallic foils for preconcentration of sulfur-containing gases with subsequent flash desorption/flame photometric detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagel, R.A.; Farwell, S.O.

    1986-05-01

    Ag, Ni, Pd, Pt, Rh, and W foils were examined for their collective efficiencies toward seven sulfur-containing gases, i.e., H/sub 2/S, CH/sub 3/SH, CH/sub 3/SCH/sub 3/, CH/sub 3/SSCH/sub 3/, CS/sub 2/, COS, and SO/sub 2/. Low- and sub-part-per-billion (v/v) concentrations of these individual sulfur gases in air were drawn through a fluorocarbon resin cell containing a mounted 30-mm x 7-mm x 0.025-mm metal foil. The preconcentrated species were then thermally desorbed by a controlled pulse of current through the foil. The desorbed sample plug was swept in precleaned zero air from the fluorocarbon resin cell to a flame photometric detector. Sampling flow rate, ambient temperature, sample humidity, and common oxidants were examined for their effects on the collection efficiencies of these sulfur compounds on platinum and palladium foils. Analytical characteristics of this metal foil collection/flash desorption/flame photometric detector (MFC/FD/FPD) technique include a sulfur gas detectability of less than 50 pptr (parts per trillion) (v/v), a response repeatability of at least 95%, and field portable collection cells and instrumentation. The results are discussed both in terms of potential analytical applications of MFC/FD/FPD and in terms of their relationship to characterized models of gas adsorption on solid surfaces. 33 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-04-02

    A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

  20. An Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications TraditionalWith PropaneNaturalTestAn Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur An

  1. Using ISC & GIS to predict sulfur deposition from coal-fired power plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to determine if atmospheric sources have the potential of contributing significantly to the sulfur content of grazed forage. Sulfur deposition resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions from coal- fired power...

  2. Nonequilibrium sulfur capture and retention in an air cooled slagging coal combustor. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zauderer, B.

    1996-09-01

    The primary project objective is to determine the degree of sulfur retention in slag in a full scale cyclone coal combustor. This non-equilibrium process is a key step in the capture and retention of sulfur released during coal combustion by the interaction with calcium based sorbent particles. By encapsulating the sulfur bearing calcium particles in slag, the need for landfilling of this waste is eliminated. This objective will be implemented through a series of up to 20 one day tests carried out in a 20 MMBtu/hr air cooled, slagging combustor-boiler installation located in Philadelphia, PA. The project will consist of two tasks. Task 1 consists of the experiments conducted in the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor, and task 2 will consist of analysis of this data. All the operating procedures for this effort have been developed in the 7 years of operation of this combustor.

  3. LEAK: A source term generator for evaluating release rates from leaking vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clinton, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    An interactive computer code for estimating the rate of release of any one of several materials from a leaking tank or broken pipe leading from a tank is presented. It is generally assumed that the material in the tank is liquid. Materials included in the data base are acetonitrile, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, chlorine, chlorine trifluoride, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, nitric acid, nitrogen tetroxide, sodium hydroxide, sulfur hexafluoride, sulfuric acid, and uranium hexafluoride. Materials that exist only as liquid and/or vapor over expected ranges of temperature and pressure can easily be added to the data base file. The Fortran source code for LEAK and the data file are included with this report.

  4. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01

    removal from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Environ.Speciation in a 100-MW Coal-Fired Boiler with Low-NOxControl Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants, DOE/NETL

  5. Terrestrial-Atmospheric Exchange of Reduced Sulfur Compounds in Natural Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whelan, Mary Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    simultaneous  production  and  consumption   fluxes  of  measured  annual  production  and  consumption  of  COS  1).    The  production  and  consumption  of  H 2 S  is  

  6. Nondestructive volumetric 3-D chemical mapping of nickel-sulfur compounds at the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris W. M.; Chu Y.; Nelson, G.J.; Kiss, A.M.; Izzo Jr, J.R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, M.; Wang, S.; Chiu W.K.S.

    2012-04-04

    Nano-structures of nickel (Ni) and nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) materials were studied and mapped in 3D with high-resolution x-ray nanotomography combined with full field XANES spectroscopy. This method for characterizing these phases in complex microstructures is an important new analytical imaging technique, applicable to a wide range of nanoscale and mesoscale electrochemical systems.

  7. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01

    Coal-fired power generating plants contribute approximatelynumber of coal-fired generating plants (1-3). The mercury is

  8. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01

    0 removal in the presence of fly ash or powdered activatedash,24mg only (adsorption) Fly ash, 24 mg only (adsorption)Fly ash,24mg;[SCl2],24ppm Fly ash, Flyash,24mg; 24 mg; [SCl

  9. Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneja, Viney P.

    concentrations ranged from 72 to 631 ppb. Seasonal dimethyl sulfide (DMS; CH3SCH3) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS the DMS and DMDS overall average emissions rates, determined as 0.017 g dayÀ1 AUÀ1 and 0.036 g dayÀ1 AUÀ1 of magnitude higher than the overall average DMS (0.12 mg mÀ2 minÀ1 ) and DMDS (0.09 mg mÀ2 minÀ1 ) lagoon

  10. Oxygen addition to sulfur of metal thiolates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soma, Takako

    1996-01-01

    chemistry. The oxidation reactions of metal thiolates by hydrogen peroxide, molecular oxygen, dioxiranes, and peracids have been reviewed. The compounds resulting from oxidation and oxygenation of nickel thiolate complexes have been isolated, separated...

  11. Quantifying Individual Potential Contributions of the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Quantifying Individual Potential Contributions of the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer John A. Staser for the hybrid sulfur electrolyzer is controlled mainly by water transport in the cell. Water is required electrolyzer performance and operation. Experimental The experimental setup was the same as that described

  12. Sulfur removal from diesel fuel-contaminated methanol.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. H. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Chemical Engineering

    2002-03-01

    Methanol is considered to be a potential on-board fuel for fuel cell-powered vehicles. In current distribution systems for liquid fuels used in the transportation sector, commodity methanol can occasionally become contaminated with the sulfur in diesel fuel or gasoline. This sulfur would poison the catalytic materials used in fuel reformers for fuel cells. We tested the removal of this sulfur by means of ten activated carbons (AC) that are commercially available. Tests were conducted with methanol doped with 1 vol.% grade D-2 diesel fuel containing 0.29% sulfur, which was present essentially as 33-35 wt.% benzothiophenes (BTs) and 65-67 wt.% dibenzothiophenes (DBT). In general, coconut shell-based carbons activated by high-temperature steam were more effective at sulfur removal than coal-based carbons. Equilibrium sorption data showed linear increase in sulfur capture with the increase of sulfur concentration in methanol. Both types of carbons had similar breakthrough characteristics, with the dynamic sorption capacity of each being about one-third of its equilibrium sorption capacity. Results of this study suggest that a fixed-bed sorber of granular AC can be used, such as in refueling stations, for the removal of sulfur in diesel fuel-contaminated methanol.

  13. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  14. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  15. Synthesis of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} with different sulfur content by conventional high temperature solid state solvothermal route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solanki, S. I., E-mail: patelishverb@yahoo.com; Patel, I. B., E-mail: patelishverb@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat-395007 (India); Shah, N. M. [Physics Department, A.N. Shah Science College, Kamrej-394185 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Bismuth sulfide (Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}) is a binary chalcogenide compound material belonging to V-VI group of semiconductors. Because of its direct band gap of 1.3 eV and high figure of merit (ZT) value, it is widely used as a thermo electronic-cooling material based on the Peltier effect. The electrical and optical property of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} material is strongly dependent on stoichiometric composition, defect chemistry and structure. In this study, we have synthesized Bi{sub 2}S{sub x} (x = 3.15, 3.30, 3.45) compound material with different sulfur content by conventional high temperature solid state solvothermal reaction of bismuth and sulfur. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analysis of synthesized compound materials were carried out to observe crystallinity, surface morphology and composition of elements in the compound. The optical analysis revealed that energy band gap decreases with increase of sulfur content.

  16. Heart testing compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

    1983-06-29

    The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  17. Heart testing compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-01-01

    The compound 15-(p-[.sup.125 I]-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  18. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 September 24, 2003 For immediate release Press Contact: Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab, 630-840-3351 Fermilab offers behind-the-scenes tour on Sunday, October 5 Registration...

  19. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 For immediate release September 14, 2004 Press Contact: Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab, 630-840-3351 Fermilab Offers Tours of Antimatter Production Site, October 3 and 24 BATAVIA,...

  20. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 May 29, 2003 For immediate release Press Contact: Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab, 630-840-3351 Fermilab scientists talk about ghost-particles on Sunday, June 8 BATAVIA,...

  1. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 October 21, 2003 For immediate release Press Contact: Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab, 630-840-3351 Fermilab offers tour of antimatter production site on November 2 Registration...

  2. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    upon request, in any matter of science or technology, according to an Academy press release. Fermilab is a Department of Energy National Laboratory dedicated to frontier...

  3. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California, USA: Ron Kolb, + 1 510 486 7586, rrkolb@lbl.gov -30- Return to Current Press Releases last modified 3222006...

  4. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    06 March 13, 2002 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Press Contacts Nancy Lanning, Fermilab, 630-840-5588 Judy Treend, Fermilab, (630) 840 3351 Fermilab offers guided tours. Visitors interested...

  5. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3-20 September 29, 2003 For immediate release Press Contact: Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab, 630-840-3351 Volunteers welcome at Fermilab's Prairie Harvest on October 4 Registration...

  6. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    01-26 September 13, 2001 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Press Contacts Judy Treend, Fermilab, (630) 840 3351 Fermilab Cancels Arts Series Opening Night Events, Saturday, September 15....

  7. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    13 August 14, 2002 For immediate release Press Contact: Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab Public Affairs, 630-840-3351 Mike Perricone, Fermilab Public Affairs, 630-840-5678 Fermilab...

  8. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    email mikep@fnal.gov For Immediate Release NRELs John Turner Explores The Sustainable Hydrogen Economy in Energy Colloquium Presentation at Fermilab on Wednesday, July 6;...

  9. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sdahl@fnal.gov For Immediate Release Children's Science Adventures at Fermilab Offer Summer Fun - and Learning, Too BATAVIA, Illinois-Summertime is a bright season of...

  10. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    email bland@fnal.gov For Immediate Release Fermilab Colloquium Series Offers Free Public Talks on World Energy Situation Beginning Wednesday, April 13 BATAVIA,...

  11. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    26, 1999 For immediate release PRESS ADVISORY: SIGN UP FOR COVERAGE OF MAIN INJECTOR DEDICATION ON TUESDAY, JUNE 1; RICHARDSON, HASTERT TO SPEAK Batavia, Ill.Secretary of...

  12. Henry`s law solubilities and Setchenow coefficients for biogenic reduced sulfur species obtained from gas-liquid uptake measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Bruyn, W.J.; Swartz, E.; Hu, J.H. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)] [and others] [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); and others

    1995-04-20

    Biogenically produced reduced sulfur compounds, including dimethylsulfide (DMS, CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}SH), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS), are a major source of sulfur in the marine atmosphere. This source is estimated to contribute 25-40% of global sulfur emissions. These species and their oxidation products, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO{sub 2}), and methane sulfonic acid (MSA), dominate the production of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere. The multiphase chemical processes for these species must be understood in order to study the evolving role of combustion-produced sulfur oxides over the oceans. Using a newly developed bubble column apparatus, a series of aqueous phase uptake studies have been completed for the reduced sulfur species DMS, H{sub 2}S, CS{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}SH, and OCS. Aqueous phase uptake has been studied as a function of temperature (278-298 K), pH (1-14), H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration (0-1 M), NaCl concentration (0-5 M), and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration (0-4 M). The Henry`s law coefficients for CH{sub 3}SH and CS{sub 2} were determined for the first time, as were the Setchenow coefficients for all the species studied. 33 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Performance and cost models for the direct sulfur recovery process. Task 1 Topical report, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, H.C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, R.B. [Carneigie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop performance and cost models of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP is an emerging technology for sulfur recovery from advanced power generation technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. In IGCC systems, sulfur present in the coal is captured by gas cleanup technologies to avoid creating emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulfur that is separated from the coal gas stream must be collected. Leading options for dealing with the sulfur include byproduct recovery as either sulfur or sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a preferred byproduct, because it is easier to handle and therefore does not depend as strongly upon the location of potential customers as is the case for sulfuric acid. This report describes the need for new sulfur recovery technologies.

  14. Device for collecting chemical compounds and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jill R.; Groenewold, Gary S.; Rae, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from the fixed surfaces so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  15. The influence of flowable sulfur on controlled-release of NPK fertilizers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tammakrut, Somkid

    1983-01-01

    Committee: Dr. W. B. Anderson The effect of various flowable S coatings (0, 1, 2, 4, or 2X + 0. 5X acrylic) on urea, DAP (diammonium phosphate), and KNO fertilizers was investigated. The N and K leaching properties as well as N loss due to volatilization...-S suspen- sion) on P availability. Approximately 70%%d of applied N was leached as urea-N form, while the amount equivalent to 4X of applied K was leached due to K reten- tion by the soil CEC. The similarity between coatings for nutrient loss...

  16. Amphiphilic Surface Modification of Hollow Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Cycle Life of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Sulfur Batteries Guangyuan Zheng, Qianfan Zhang, Judy J. Cha, Yuan Yang, Weiyang Li, Zhi Wei Seh, and Yi lithium sulfur batteries, due to their high specific energy and relatively low cost. Despite recent progress in addressing the various problems of sulfur cathodes, lithium sulfur batteries still exhibit

  17. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

    2013-08-13

    A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  18. Coal-firing sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report {number_sign}7, [April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping, Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-05-31

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the organic compounds tentatively identified as combustion products in the previous report were confirmed by comparing retention times with pure samples. Secondly, a reduced amount of unburned carbon in the fly ash and an oxygen concentration at about 3--6% in the flue gases were achieved by the addition of removable heat exchange tubes in the AFBC system.

  19. Physiology of multiple sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Min Sub

    2012-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) utilizes sulfate as an electron acceptor and produces sulfide that is depleted in heavy isotopes of sulfur relative to starting sulfate. The fractionation of S-isotopes is commonly used ...

  20. Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury Capture by Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J.

    2007-09-15

    Recent field tests of mercury removal with activated carbon injection (ACI) have revealed that mercury capture is limited in flue gases containing high concentrations of sulfur oxides (SOx). In order to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of SOx on ACI, mercury capture was tested under varying conditions of SO2 and SO3 concentrations using a packed bed reactor and simulated flue gas (SFG). The final mercury content of the activated carbons is independent of the SO2 concentration in the SFG, but the presence of SO3 inhibits mercury capture even at the lowest concentration tested (20 ppm). The mercury removal capacity decreases as the sulfur content of the used activated carbons increases from 1 to 10%. In one extreme case, an activated carbon with 10% sulfur, prepared by H2SO4 impregnation, shows almost no mercury capacity. The results suggest that mercury and sulfur oxides are in competition for the same binding sites on the carbon surface.

  1. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  2. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  3. Carbonyl sulfide: potential agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graedel, T.E.; Kammlott, G.W.; Franey, J.P.

    1981-05-08

    Laboratory exposure experiments demonstrate that carbonyl sulfide in wet air corrodes copper at 22/sup 0/C at a rate that is approximately linear with total exposure (the product of exposure time and carbonyl sulfide concentration). The corrosion rate is similar to that of hydrogen sulfide, a widely recognized corrodant. The much greater average atmospheric abundance of carbonyl sulfide compared with that of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide suggests that carbonyl sulfide may be a major agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion.

  4. Ultra Low Sulfur Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batey, John E.; McDonald, Roger

    2015-09-30

    This Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and has successfully quantified the environmental and economic benefits of switching to ULS (15 PPM sulfur) heating oil. It advances a prior field study of Low Sulfur (500 ppm sulfur) heating oil funded by NYSERDA and laboratory research conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Canadian researchers. The sulfur oxide and particulate matter (PM) emissions are greatly reduced as are boiler cleaning costs through extending cleaning intervals. Both the sulfur oxide and PM emission rates are directly related to the fuel oil sulfur content. The sulfur oxide and PM emission rates approach near-zero levels by switching heating equipment to ULS fuel oil, and these emissions become comparable to heating equipment fired by natural gas. This demonstration project included an in-depth review and analysis of service records for both the ULS and control groups to determine any difference in the service needs for the two groups. The detailed service records for both groups were collected and analyzed and the results were entered into two spreadsheets that enabled a quantitative side-by-side comparison of equipment service for the entire duration of the ULS test project. The service frequency for the ULS and control group were very similar and did indicate increased service frequency for the ULS group. In fact, the service frequency with the ULS group was slightly less (7.5 percent) than the control group. The only exception was that three burner fuel pump required replacement for the ULS group and none were required for the control group.

  5. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    04-07 May 13, 2004 For immediate release Press Contact: Elizabeth Clements, Fermilab Public Affairs, 630-840-3351 Katie Yurkewicz, Fermilab Public Affairs, 630-840-3351 Fermilab's...

  6. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-20 September 25, 2006 For immediate release Press Contact: Mike Perricone, Fermilab Public Affairs, 630-840-3351 Fermilab receives 5.5 million for role in Open Science Grid NSF...

  7. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-14 May 9, 2006 For immediate release Press Contact: Nancy Lanning, 630-840-5588 Siri Steiner, 630-840-3351 Fermilab's Prairie Quadrat Program Allows "Citizen Scientists" to Track...

  8. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-11 April 11, 2006 For immediate release Press Contact: Siri Steiner, 630-840-3351 Fermilab Offers Tours of Antimatter Production Site, April 23 and May 21 BATAVIA,...

  9. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 April 17, 2003 For immediate release Press Contact: Elizabeth Clements, Fermilab Public Affairs, 630-840-3351 Fermilab Hosts Virtual Ask-a-Scientist on May 6, 2003 BATAVIA, Ill....

  10. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5-26 September 26, 2005 Press Contacts: Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab Public Affairs, 630-840-3351, kurtr@fnal.gov For Immediate Release Volunteers Welcome at Fermilab's Prairie...

  11. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    03-01 For Immediate Release February 10, 2003 PRESS CONTACTS Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab, 630-840-3351 Fermilab offers special tours of CDF experiment on February 23 Scientists at...

  12. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    02-01 January 15, 2002 For immediate release Press contact: Kurt Riesselmann, 630-840-3351 ; kurtr@fnal.gov Fermilab Resumes "Ask a Scientist" Program on January 19 Program now...

  13. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 October 30, 2003 For immediate release Press Contact: Elizabeth Clements, Fermilab Public Affairs, 630-840-3351 Fermilab Hosts Virtual Ask-a-Scientist on November 18, 2003...

  14. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    04-02 February 26, 2004 For immediate release Press Contact: Elizabeth Clements, Fermilab Public Affairs, 630-840-3351 Fermilab Hosts Virtual Ask-a-Scientist on March 31, 2004...

  15. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Press Room: 970-923-8313 FAX: 970-923-8324 01-04S July 5, 2001 Media contact: Mike Perricone, Fermilab Public Affairs at Snowmass, 970-923-8313 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Dr. Ronen Mir...

  16. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-21 October 4, 2006 Press Contacts: Siri Steiner, Fermilab Public Affairs, 630-840-6733, siri@fnal.gov For Immediate Release Volunteers Welcome at Fermilab's Prairie Harvest on...

  17. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2-11 July 31, 2002 For immediate release Press Contact: Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab Public Affairs, 630-840-3351 Mike Perricone, Fermilab Public Affairs, 630-840-5678 Fermilab...

  18. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    02-23 October 10, 2002 For immediate release Press Contact: Kurt Riesselmann 630-840-3351 Visitors again welcome at Fermilab's Ask-a-Scientist program Batavia - With site-access...

  19. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 June 4, 2002 For immediate release Press Contact: Judy Treend 630-840-3351 Nancy Lanning, Fermilab 630-840-5588 Fermilab offers guided tours during summer time Visitors...

  20. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    03 For Immediate Release February 20, 2003 PRESS CONTACTS Elizabeth Clements, Fermilab, 630-840-3351 Fermilab Hosts Virtual Ask-a-Scientist on March 12, 2003 BATAVIA, Ill. - The...

  1. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 April 24, 2003 For immediate release Press Contact: Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab, 630-840-3351 Fermilab offers tours on Sunday, May 4 BATAVIA, Ill.--Scientists at the Department of...

  2. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    01-28 November 7, 2001 For immediate release Press contact: Judy Jackson (630-840-3351; jjackson@fnal.gov High resolution graphics at www.fnal.govpubpresspassimages...

  3. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jim Beaty, Soudan Laboratory, 218-753-6611 99-12 July 12, 1999 For immediate release PRESS ADVISORY: ARRANGE TO ATTEND (UNDER)GROUNDBREAKING FOR NUMI NEUTRINO DETECTOR HALL ON...

  4. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11 July 25, 2003 For immediate release Press Contact: Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab, 630-840-3351 Fermilab invites public to science tour on Sunday, August 3 Registration required by...

  5. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    02-24 October 22, 2002 For immediate release Press Contacts: Mike Perricone, Fermilab Office of Public Affairs Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab Office of Public Affairs 630-840-3351...

  6. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    02-16 September 12, 2002 For immediate release Press Contact: Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab Public Affairs, 630-840-3351 Mike Perricone, Fermilab Public Affairs, 630-840-3351 Photos...

  7. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    release MiniBooNE opens the box Results from Fermilab experiment resolve long-standing neutrino question BATAVIA, Illinois-Scientists of the MiniBooNE1 experiment at the...

  8. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE September 25, 1995 News media contact: 95 - 10 Donald Sena (708) 840-5678 (Note to Editors: Please publish the following notice as a public service...

  9. SAND20096226 Unlimited Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plimpton, Steve

    SAND2009­6226 Unlimited Release Printed October 2009 Crossing the Mesoscale No-Man's Land via method and its variants are powerful tools for modeling materials at the mesoscale, meaning at length

  10. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sharon Butler, 630-840-5681 98-4 June 10, 1998 For immediate release Valuable Copper Parts Presumed Stolen From Fermilab About 23,000 worth of customized copper parts are...

  11. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7-19 Oct. 15, 2007 Media Contact: Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab Office of Communication, 630-840-3351, kurtr@fnal.gov For immediate release Fermilab environmental program receives...

  12. FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Thursday, April 17, 2014 BPA: Joel Scruggs, jlscruggs@bpa.gov, 503-230-5511 OREGON BEST: Johanna Brickman, jo.brickman@oregonbest.org, 503-725-9641 BPA,...

  13. An electrochemical Claus process for sulfur recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujare, N.U.; Tsai, K.J.; Sammuells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Aurora, IL (US))

    1989-12-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of H{sub 2}S to give sulfur and water was achieved at 900{degrees}C using fuel cells possessing the general configuration where anode electrocatalysts experimentally investigated for promoting the subject oxidation reaction included WS{sub 2} and the thiospinels CuNi{sub 2}S{sub 4}, CuCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}, CuFe{sub 2}S{sub 4}, and NiFe{sub 2}S{sub 4}. The predominant oxidizable electroactive species present in the fuel cell anode compartment was suggested to be hydrogen originating from the initial thermal dissociation of H{sub 2}S (H{sub 2}S {r reversible} H{sub 2} + 1/2 S{sub 2}) at fuel cell operating temperatures. Rapid anode kinetics were found for the anodic reaction with the empirical trend for exchange currents (i{sub o}) per geometric area being found to be NiFe{sub 2}S{sub 4}{gt}WS{sub 2}{gt}CuCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}{gt}CuFe{sub 2}S{sub 4}{approx equal}NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}{gt}CuNi{sub 2}S{sub 4}.

  14. Rad-Release

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  15. Rad-Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  16. Evaluation of innovative volatile organic compound and hazardous air-pollutant-control technologies for U. S. Air Force paint spray booths. Final report, Aug 88-Aug 89

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritts, D.H.; Garretson, C.; Hyde, C.; Lorelli, J.; Wolbach, C.D.

    1990-10-01

    Significant quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants are released into the atmosphere during USAF maintenance operations. Painting operations conducted in paint spray booths are major sources of these pollutants. Solvent based epoxy primers and solvent-based polyurethane coatings are typically used by the Air Force for painting aircraft and associated equipment. Solvents used in these paints include methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), toluene, lacquer thinner, and other solvents involved in painting and component cleaning. In this report, carbon paper adsorption/catalytic incineration (CPACI) and fluidized-bed catalytic incineration (FBCI) were evaluated as control technologies to destroy VOC emissions from paint spray booths. Simultaneous testing of pilot-scale units was performed to evaluate the technical performance of both technologies. Results showed that each technology maintained greater than 99 percent Destruction and Removal Efficiencies (DREs). Particulate emissions from both pilot-scale units were less than 0.08 grains/dry standard cubic foot. Emissions of the criteria pollutants--sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide--were also below general regulatory standards for incinerators. Economic evaluations were based on a compilation of manufacturer-supplied data and energy consuption data gathered during the pilot scale testing. CPACM and FBCI technologies are less expensive than standard VOC control technologies when net present costs for a 15-year equipment life are compared.

  17. Method and apparatus for measuring properties of a compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meng, Ling Jian

    2013-10-22

    A system that incorporates teachings of the present disclosure may include, for example, an apparatus having a collimator having at least one aperture and a fluorescence detector. The collimator can be positioned next to a compound. The compound can emit fluorescence X-rays when impacted by an X-ray beam generated by an X-ray source. The collimator can absorb at least a first portion of the fluorescence X-rays emitted by the compound and release at least a second portion of the fluorescence X-rays at the at least one aperture. The second portion of the fluorescence X-rays released by the at least one aperture have known directional information based on a position of the collimator. The fluorescence detector can detect the second portion of the fluorescence X-rays released by the at least one aperture. A three-dimensional (3-D) rendering of an elemental distribution of the compound can be determined from the fluorescence X-rays detected and the directional information. Additional embodiments are disclosed.

  18. Multicylinder compound engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1990-10-23

    This patent describes a compound, rotary-reciprocal engine. It comprises: a two-cycle reciprocator having cylinders, each cylinder having at least one piston arranged for reciprocation in the cylinder in a cycled operation with a timed air input to the cylinder and a timed exhaust from the cylinder; a compressed air intake and combustion gas exit in each cylinder of the reciprocator; fuel injection means for injecting fuel into the cylinders at appropriate times in the cycled operation; and, a rotocharger.

  19. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Donnals, G.L.; Cao, J.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Shao, D. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The goal of this project is to study the evolution of gaseous sulfur and chlorine species during temperature-controlled pyrolysis and combustion and their effect on boiler corrosion. We have been developing two techniques for determining the gas evolution profiles of sulfur and chlorine during coal pyrolysis and combustion. First, using a pyrolysis-combustion system in combination with a quadrupole gas analyzer, the evolution of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in combustion gas during temperature-programmed coal pyrolysis-combustion was monitored. When the atmosphere of the combustion chamber was changed to a reducing condition, gaseous COS and H{sub 2}S were also detected in the combustion gas. Detection of hydrogen chloride by QGA has been improved by using a larger-diameter (75 {mu}m) capillary tubing. The HC1 evolution profile during the pyrolysis of coal IBC-109 was determined by QGA and by a chloride ion selective electrode for quantitative purposes. Second, the technique of thermogravimetry (TG) in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to characterize gaseous species during coal pyrolysis. Gas evolution profiles of sulfur (SO{sub 2} and COS), chlorine (HC1), and nitrogen (NH{sub 3} and HCN) species were determined for coal IBC-109. Similar release profiles of HCI and NH{sub 3} supported an interpretation that chlorine gnd nitrogen are closely associated in coal. COS may be formed by reaction of CO with H{sub 2}S in the gas phase. A mass balance study of chlorine evolution from coal IBC-109 in a TG-FTIR experiment was completed; the chloride dissolved in solutions was determined by an ion chromatographic technique.

  20. Systems and methods for solar energy storage, transportation, and conversion utilizing photochemically active organometallic isomeric compounds and solid-state catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vollhardt, K. Peter C.; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arunava; Meier, Steven

    2015-02-10

    A system for converting solar energy to chemical energy, and, subsequently, to thermal energy includes a light-harvesting station, a storage station, and a thermal energy release station. The system may include additional stations for converting the released thermal energy to other energy forms, e.g., to electrical energy and mechanical work. At the light-harvesting station, a photochemically active first organometallic compound, e.g., a fulvalenyl diruthenium complex, is exposed to light and is photochemically converted to a second, higher-energy organometallic compound, which is then transported to a storage station. At the storage station, the high-energy organometallic compound is stored for a desired time and/or is transported to a desired location for thermal energy release. At the thermal energy release station, the high-energy organometallic compound is catalytically converted back to the photochemically active organometallic compound by an exothermic process, while the released thermal energy is captured for subsequent use.

  1. STEP Utility Data Release Form

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    STEP Utility Data Release Form, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  2. Complex Compound Chemical Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.; Langeliers, J.; Horn, G.

    1987-01-01

    Complex-compound solid-vapor fluid pairs can be used in heat of reaction heat pumps for temperature amplifier (TA) as well as heat amplifier (HA) cycle configurations. This report describes the conceptual hardware design for complex compound...

  3. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 1, [September--November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1994-11-30

    This project is being coordinated with an ongoing project at Western Kentucky University that is being supported by the Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program through the Tennessee Valley Authority. Fluidized bed combustion tests will be performed on municipal solid waste blended with high-sulfur and high-chlorine coals in a laboratory scale combustor. The purpose of the tests is to evaluate combustion performance, the extent of the inorganic acid gases (HCl and SO{sub x}) and chlorinated organic compound formation, the effect of chlorine species on SO{sub 2} removal with a sorbent, and the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organic compounds from MSW for a range of bed temperatures, excess air levels, MSW/coal ratios, and S/Cl ratios. Flue gas samples will be collected and analyzed at three locations: free board, cyclone inlet, and cyclone outlet. Analytical methods used will include ion chromatography, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry. Waste stream ash samples will be collected from the cyclone catch and analyzed for unburned carbon, chlorine, chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated phenols, dioxins, furans, and metal content. Major, minor, and trace elements in the ash will be determined by x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Accomplishments for the first quarter are presented.

  4. Weigh options for meeting future gasoline sulfur specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, T.E.

    1997-03-01

    The most frequently mentioned methods for reducing pool gasoline sulfur to the 50-ppm range are FCC feed hydrotreating and desulfurization of heavy cat naptha (HCN). Of these, cat feed hydrotreating (CFH) is preferred because of the compelling economics of improved FCC gasoline yield. Also, the additional C{sub 3}/C{sub 4} olefin yield opens up the possibility of additional production of sulfur-free alkylate and oxygenate. In addition to the obvious yield benefits, the ability to upgrade lower quality, higher sulfur stocks for inclusion in the FCC charge slate, while lowering flue gas SO{sub x} emissions, is also advantageous to the refiner. However, depending o the level of FCC feed sulfur and the severity of hydrotreating used, it may not be possible to meet 50-ppm sulfur in the gasoline pool. Two possible solutions to this problem are to use: (1) a very severe cat feed hydrotreating operation (i.e., 98%-plus desulfurization), (2) partial conversion hydrocracking.

  5. LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

    2005-06-01

    This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important red

  6. Gas phase reaction of sulfur trioxide with water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, C.E.; Molina, M.J.; Jayne, J.T.; Meads, R.F.; Worsnop, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Sulfur trioxide (SO3) has long been known to react with water to produce sulfuric acid (H2S04). It has been commonly assumed that the gas phase reaction in the Earth`s atmosphere between SO3 and water vapor to produce sulfuric acid vapor is an important step in the production of sulfuric acid aerosol particles. The kinetics of the gas phase reaction of SO3 with water vapor have previously been studied by Castleman and co-workers, Wang et al and Reiner and Arnold. Each of these studies was carried out in a flow reactor, with the first two studies performed at low pressure (1-10 Torr) and the latter from approx. 30 to 260 Torr. Each of these studies measured SO3 decays over a range of H2O vapor levels, obtaining data consistent with interpreting the reaction of gaseous SO3 and H2O as a bimolecular process. It is not clear why previous experimental studies failed to observe a nonlinear dependence of SO3 consumption on water vapor concentration. It is probable that sufficient water dimer exists in much of the Earth`s atmosphere to allow dimer reactions to participate in sulfuric acid vapor formation.

  7. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  8. Titanium alkoxide compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-08-14

    A titanium alkoxide composition is provided, as represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.5N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2).sub.2. As prepared, the compound is a crystalline substance with a hexavalent titanium atom bonded to two OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2 groups and two OC.sub.6H.sub.5N groups with a theoretical molecular weight of 480.38, comprising 60.01% C, 5.04% H and 11.66% N.

  9. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kahl, S.B.; Koo, M.S.

    1992-09-22

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  10. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kahl, Stephen B. (Portola Valley, CA); Koo, Myoung-Seo (San Francisco, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  11. Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha (Aurora, IL); Meyer, Howard S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA); Leppin, Dennis (Chicago, IL); Wangerow, James R. (Medinah, IL)

    2012-08-14

    A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

  12. Quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil via passive sampling : polyethylene sampler design and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, David G. (David Gannon)

    2015-01-01

    The potential for the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to our natural environment is pervasive. However, the ability to accurately measure and predict VOC soil vapor concentrations is still limited. A polyethylene ...

  13. The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Qian

    2012-01-01

    S breakthrough time and sulfur capture capacity increased asspace velocity on H 2 S on sulfur capture capacity for H 2 Sbased on the optimal sulfur capture capacity under CE-CERT

  14. Preliminary Investigation of Sulfur Loading in Hanford LAW Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Buchmiller, William C.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2004-04-01

    A preliminary estimate was developed for loading limits for high-sulfur low-activity waste (LAW) feeds that will be vitrified into borosilicate glass at the Hanford Site in the waste-cleanup effort. Previous studies reported in the literature were consulted to provide a basis for the estimate. The examination of previous studies led to questions about sulfur loading in Hanford LAW glass, and scoping tests were performed to help answer these questions. These results of these tests indicated that a formulation approach developed by Vienna and colleagues shows promise for maximizing LAW loading in glass. However, there is a clear need for follow-on work. The potential for significantly lowering the amount of LAW glass produced at Hanford (after the initial phase of processing) because of higher sulfur tolerances may outweigh the cost and effort required to perform the necessary testing.

  15. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

  16. Ultrafine calcium aerosol: Generation and use as a sorbent for sulfur in coal combustion. Volume 1, Experimental work: Final report, August 1, 1988--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, M.K.; Nahar, N.U.; Stewart, G.D.; Prudich, M.E. [comps.] [Ohio Coal Research Center, Athens, OH (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Studies conducted at Ohio University and elsewhere have demonstrated that ultrafine aerosols, which have the highest surface area per unit mass, have enhanced potential to efficiently remove sulfur dioxide form combustion gases. Therefore it is proposed to generate a very fine aerosol calcium-rich sorbent (or similar aerosols) for gas conditioning. The aerosol will be generated by vaporization of the sorbent compound and subsequent homogeneous nucleation. In experimental studies liquids as well as solids will be converted into ultrafine aerosols by using suitable aerosol generator. The aerosol generator could be a simple bubbler or a flame spray jet using powders of calcium ``Compounds. Studies will then be carried out, to determine the dynamics of sulfur dioxide capture by the ultrafine aerosol. The primary objective of this research was to generate fine aerosols and to use them for coal combustion SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} gas removal purposes. From the background study on the dry scrubbing system, it can be concluded that the most important experimental parameters are addition ratio, reactor temperature, residence time, total inlet flow rate and inlet SO{sub 2} concentration. Addition ratio is the inlet molar ratio of calcium to sulfur. Before any experimentation, it was necessary to decide and investigate the values of each of the parameters. Each of these parameters were investigated individually and the effects on SO{sub 2} removal were determined.

  17. Public Relations Press Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ould Ahmedou, Mohameden

    Public Relations Department Page1/2 Press Release Big fish: From 5 to 150 cm in 37 million years Karl Guido Rijkhoek Director Antje Karbe Press Officer Phone +49 7071 29-76788 +49 7071 29-76789 Fax for Human Evolution and Palaeoecology (currently away on expedition) madelaine.boehme@senckenberg.de Press

  18. Press Release Corporate Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reggelin, Michael

    Page: 1/2 Press Release Corporate Communications Karolinenplatz 5 D-64289 Darmstadt Germany Your.ch@pvw.tu- darmstadt.de Internet: http://www.tu- darmstadt.de/presse e-mail: presse@tu-darmstadt.de Winner. Press contact: Dr. Miriam Ronzoni Tel.: +49-(0)152­266­04064 e-mail: ronzoni@soz.uni-frankfurt.de PR

  19. Press Releases Technical Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    Press Room Press Releases Technical Library Visual Assets Media Contacts Home > Press Room > News News & Discoveries Articles >> Press Room Website Feedback Login | Contact Information | Site Map the foundry how to buy invest in TQNT press room careers mobile devices networks defense & aerospace

  20. Electrifying Vehicles Early Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrifying Vehicles Early Release Insights from the Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Study #12;1 The Canadian Plug-in Electric Vehicle Study May 25 2015 Electric-mobility may be a key component-in electric vehicles will involve meaningful shifts in social and technical systems. This report considers

  1. Direct sulfur recovery during sorbent regeneration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S.G.; Little, R.C. [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The objective of this research project was to improve the direct elemental sulfur yields that occur during the regeneration of SO{sub 2}-saturated MgO-vermiculite sorbents (MagSorbents) by examining three approaches or strategies. The three approaches were regeneration-gas recycle, high-pressure regeneration, and catalytic reduction of the SO{sub 2} gas using a new catalyst developed by Research Triangle Institute (RTI). Prior to the project, Sorbent Technologies Corporation (Sorbtech) had developed a sorbent-regeneration process that yielded directly a pure elemental sulfur product. In the process, typically about 25 to 35 percent of the liberated S0{sub 2} was converted directly to elemental sulfur. The goal of this project was to achieve a conversion rate of over 90 percent. Good success was attained in the project. About 90 percent or more conversion was achieved with two of the approaches that were examined, regeneration-gas recycle and use of the RTI catalyst. Of these approaches, regeneration-gas recycle gave the best results (essentially 100 percent conversion in some cases). In the regeneration-gas recycle approach, saturated sorbent is simply heated to about 750{degree}C in a reducing gas (methane) atmosphere. During heating, a gas containing elemental sulfur, water vapor, H{sub 2}S, S0{sub 2}, and C0{sub 2} is evolved. The elemental sulfur and water vapor in the gas stream are condensed and removed, and the remaining gas is recycled back through the sorbent bed. After several recycles, the S0{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S completely disappear from the gas stream, and the stream contains only elemental sulfur, water vapor and C0{sub 2}.

  2. Supercritical thermodynamics of sulfur and nitrogen species. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    Significant opportunity exists for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology to coal processing, both for pretreatment of high sulfur coals, as well as liquefaction and treatment of coal liquids. Supercritical fluids are attractive solvents for a variety of coal processing applications because of their unusual solvating and mass transfer properties. Solubility studies have been carried out for a number of model coal and coal-liquid compounds, primarily in pure supercritical fluids. We have extended this database of model coal compound equilibria using modern techniques that have the advantage of being much more rapid than traditional techniques. Cosolvent effects on solubility have also been investigated over a variety of solvent properties. In addition, specific molecular interactions have been investigated through spectroscopic techniques. The resulting data has been used to develop a physical-chemical equation of state (EOS) model of SCF solutions with meaningful parameters. This equation of state model has been used to predict solubility behavior, which will permit the design and tailoring of SCF cosolvent systems for specific coal processing applications.

  3. Improving fractionation lowers butane sulfur level at Saudi gas plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harruff, L.G.; Martinie, G.D.; Rahman, A. [Saudi Arabian Oil Co., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-10-12

    Increasing the debutanizer reflux/feed ratio to improve fractionation at an eastern Saudi Arabian NGL plant reduced high sulfur in the butane product. The sulfur resulted from dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contamination in the feed stream from an offshore crude-oil reservoir in the northern Arabian Gulf. The contamination is limited to two northeastern offshore gas-oil separation plants operated by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) and, therefore, cannot be transported to facilities outside the Eastern Province. Two technically acceptable solutions for removing this contaminant were investigated: 13X molecular-sieve adsorption of the DMS and increased fractionation efficiency. The latter would force DMS into the debutanizer bottoms.

  4. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-05-18

    A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  5. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  6. Structural insight into the assembly of iron-sulfur clusters and their function in radical generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vey, Jessica L. (Jessica Lynn)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis addresses two emerging areas in the study of iron-sulfur cluster biochemistry: bioassembly of iron-sulfur clusters, and their involvement in initiation of radical chemistry. The structure of a cysteine desulfurase ...

  7. KINETICS AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, R.

    2012-01-01

    AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDEmechanism for the catalytic oxidation of in an aqueous sus1ECHANISf 1 1 FOR TilE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

  8. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish (Pittsford, NY); Haltiner, Jr., Karl J (Fairport, NY); Weissman, Jeffrey G. (West Henrietta, NY)

    2012-03-06

    A system for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack, having a reformer adapted to reform a hydrocarbon fuel stream containing sulfur contaminants, thereby providing a reformate stream having sulfur; a sulfur trap fluidly coupled downstream of the reformer for removing sulfur from the reformate stream, thereby providing a desulfurized reformate stream; and a metering device in fluid communication with the reformate stream upstream of the sulfur trap and with the desulfurized reformate stream downstream of the sulfur trap. The metering device is adapted to bypass a portion of the reformate stream to mix with the desulfurized reformate stream, thereby producing a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  9. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus process also allow for use of the methane/H{sub 2}S separation unit as a Claus tail gas treating unit by recycling the CNG Claus tail gas stream. This allows for virtually 100 percent sulfur recovery efficiency (virtually zero SO{sub 2} emissions) by recycling the sulfur laden tail gas to extinction. The use of the tail gas recycle scheme also deemphasizes the conventional requirement in Claus units to have high unit conversion efficiency and thereby make the operation much less affected by process upsets and feed gas composition changes. The development of these technologies has been ongoing for many years and both the CFZ and the TPC processes have been demonstrated at large pilot plant scales. On the other hand, prior to this project, the CNG Claus process had not been proven at any scale. Therefore, the primary objective of this portion of the program was to design, build and operate a pilot scale CNG Claus unit and demonstrate the required fundamental reaction chemistry and also demonstrate the viability of a reasonably sized working unit.

  10. A. Paytan and E.T. Gray Chapter 9 Sulfur Isotope Stratigraphy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    A. Paytan and E.T. Gray Chapter 9 Sulfur Isotope Stratigraphy Abstract: The sulfur isotopic.4. Measurement and Materials for Sulfur Isotope Stratigraphy 171 9.4.1. Isotope Analyses 171 9.4.2. Materials. The features in the record can also be used to correlate between stratigraphic sections and sequences

  11. The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India* A.L. Ganesan of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India A. L. Ganesan1, A. Chatterjee2, R. G-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluo- ride (SF6) from Darjeeling

  12. Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    sulfur diesel fuel is less expensive due to reduced taxes and as such may be prone to illegal use in on-road November 2005; published online 18 January 2006 A remote sensor for measuring on-road vehicles passing of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

  13. Paper 2008-01-0434 Effects of Sulfur Level and Anisotropy of Sulfide Inclusions on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatemi, Ali

    to fatigue strength, the high sulfur material had up to 25% lower fatigue strength than the ultra low sulfur, monotonic tensile and CVN impact behavior of SAE 4140 steel with high (0.077% S), low (0.012% S) and ultra low (0.004% S) sulfur contents at two hardness levels (40 HRC and 50 HRC). The longitudinally oriented

  14. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  15. Surface acoustic wave sensors/gas chromatography; and Low quality natural gas sulfur removal and recovery CNG Claus sulfur recovery process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klint, B.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-12-01

    This topical report consists of the two titled projects. Surface Acoustic Wave/Gas Chromatography (SAW/GC) provides a cost-effective system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Model 4100 can be used in a field screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds. This capability will allow a project manager to make immediate decisions and to avoid the long delays and high costs associated with analysis by off-site analytical laboratories. The Model 4100 is currently under evaluation by the California Environmental Protection Agency Technology Certification Program. Initial certification focuses upon the following organics: cis-dichloroethylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and o-xylene. In the second study the CNG Claus process is being evaluated for conversion and recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, especially found in low quality natural gas. This report describes the design, construction and operation of a pilot scale plant built to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated CNG Claus process.

  16. Required Information Release Stephen Chong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, Stephen

    Required Information Release Stephen Chong School of Engineering and Applied Sciences Harvard re- quirement to release information. Such requirements are an important part of a system's information security requirements. Current information-flow control techniques are able to reason about

  17. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2004-11-02

    The disclosure is directed to sorbent compositions for removing reduced sulfur species (e.g., H.sub.2 S, COS and CS.sub.2) a feed stream. The sorbent is formed from a multi-phase composition including a zinc titanate phase and a zinc oxide-aluminate phase. The sorbent composition is substantially free of unreacted alumina.

  18. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  19. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1996-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

  20. Hydroprocessing key issue in low-sulfur' era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-26

    Refiners gave heavy attention to hydroprocessing operations at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association annual question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology. Among the topics covered were diesel color, blending to meet diesel sulfur specs, and ammonia injection in hydrocracking units. The panelists also related their experiences with increasing vacuum gas oil conversion in hydrocracking operations. These discussions are reproduced here.

  1. Sulfur controls edge closer in acid-rain debate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-10-04

    The role of airborne sulfur emissions from midwestern and southern coal-fired power plants in exacerbating the acid rain problem is discussed. This problem is discussed from the standpoint of legislation, compliance costs, scrubber performance and cost, and chemistry of acid rains.

  2. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  3. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M; Lytle, J.M.; Ruch, R.R.; Kruse, C.W.; Chaven, C.; Hackley, K.C.; Hughes, R.E.; Harvey, R.D.; Frost, J.K. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Buchanan, D.H. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States); Stucki, J.W. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Huffman, G.; Huggins, F.E. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-09-01

    A pre-combustion coal desulfurization process at 120{degree}C using perchloroethylene (PCE) to remove up to 70% of the organic sulfur has been developed by the Midwest Ore Processing Co. (MWOPC). However, this process has not yet proven to be as successful with Illinois coals as it has for Ohio and Indiana coals. In addition, the high levels of organic sulfur removals observed by the MWOPC may be due to certain errors involved in the ASTM data interpretation; this needs verification. For example, elemental sulfur extracted by the PCE may be derived from pyrite oxidation during coal preoxidation, but it may be interpreted as organic sulfur removed by the PCE using ASTM analysis. The purposes of this research are to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE desulfurization process reported by the MWOPC and to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for the PCE process evaluation.

  4. ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION WITH SULFUR RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.W. ROBERTS; J.W. PORTZER; S.C. KOZUP; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-05-31

    Engineering evaluations and economic comparisons of two hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) processes with elemental sulfur recovery, being developed by Research Triangle Institute, are presented. In the first process, known as the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), the SO{sub 2} tail gas from air regeneration of zinc-based HGD sorbent is catalytically reduced to elemental sulfur with high selectivity using a small slipstream of coal gas. DSRP is a highly efficient first-generation process, promising sulfur recoveries as high as 99% in a single reaction stage. In the second process, known as the Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP), the zinc-based HGD sorbent is modified with iron so that the iron portion of the sorbent can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} . This is followed by air regeneration to fully regenerate the sorbent and provide the required SO{sub 2} for iron regeneration. This second-generation process uses less coal gas than DSRP. Commercial embodiments of both processes were developed. Process simulations with mass and energy balances were conducted using ASPEN Plus. Results show that AHGP is a more complex process to operate and may require more labor cost than the DSRP. Also capital costs for the AHGP are higher than those for the DSRP. However, annual operating costs for the AHGP appear to be considerably less than those for the DSRP with a potential break-even point between the two processes after just 2 years of operation for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using 3 to 5 wt% sulfur coal. Thus, despite its complexity, the potential savings with the AHGP encourage further development and scaleup of this advanced process.

  5. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    wong, bunsen

    2014-11-20

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  6. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  7. Date of issue: Wednesday 22 April 2009 ...PRESS RELEASE... PRESS RELEASE... PRESS RELEASE...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    St Andrews, University of

    Date of issue: Wednesday 22 April 2009 ...PRESS RELEASE... PRESS RELEASE... PRESS RELEASE... ST INFORMATION VISIT: http://www.cs.st-andrews.ac.uk NOTE TO PICTURE EDITORS: IMAGES ARE AVAILABLE FROM THE PRESS OFFICE ­ CONTACTS BELOW. Issued by the Press Office, University of St Andrews Contact Gayle Cook, Senior

  8. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

  9. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  10. All News Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  11. Originally Released: August 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  12. Originally Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  13. Originally Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  14. Originally Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  15. Originally Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthrough 1996)Barrels) LiquidsDecadeThousandAugust14.121212

  16. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  17. Released: October 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  18. Released: October 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  19. Released: April 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2. CensusA8.2

  20. Released: August 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2. CensusA8.25

  1. Released: August 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2. CensusA8.25RSE

  2. Released: August 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.

  3. Released: December 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.4 Percent of5894

  4. Released: December 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.4 Percent

  5. Released: December 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.4 Percent6

  6. Released: December 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.4 Percent6"

  7. Released: December 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.4

  8. Released: December 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.49 Percent of

  9. Released: February 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.49 Percent of1

  10. Released: February 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.49 Percent of12

  11. Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.49 Percent of121

  12. Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.49 Percent

  13. Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.49 Percent1

  14. Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.49 Percent12

  15. Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.49 Percent121

  16. Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.49 Percent1212

  17. Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.49 Percent12121

  18. Released: July 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.49 Percent121212

  19. Released: July 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  20. Released: July 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.492 Capability

  1. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.492 Capability.

  2. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.492

  3. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.4929. Number of

  4. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  5. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.4929. Number

  6. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.4929. Number.

  7. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.4929. Number.0.

  8. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  9. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.4929.4. Percent

  10. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.4929.4.

  11. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  12. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  13. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  14. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report JuneA2.4929.4.6.8.9.2.

  15. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  16. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  17. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  18. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of7

  19. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of75 Percent

  20. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of75 Percent6

  1. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of75 Percent67

  2. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of75

  3. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of759 Percent

  4. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of759 Percent2

  5. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of759

  6. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of7597.1

  7. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of7597.10

  8. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of7597.102

  9. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of7597.1026

  10. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of7597.10267

  11. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of7597.102678

  12. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of7597.102678

  13. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent of7597.1026780

  14. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent

  15. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent3 Average

  16. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent3 Average5

  17. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent3 Average57

  18. Released: June 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent3 Average579

  19. Released: June 20109

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent3

  20. Released: March 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent33 Relative

  1. Released: March 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent33 Relative5

  2. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent33 Relative51

  3. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent33 Relative512

  4. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent33 Relative5123

  5. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent33

  6. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent335

  7. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent3356

  8. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent33562 First Use

  9. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent33562 First

  10. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent33562 First5

  11. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent33562 First51

  12. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent33562 First512

  13. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent33562 First5123

  14. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent33562

  15. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent335625 Selected

  16. Released: March 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent335625

  17. Released: May 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent3356253.6

  18. Released: May 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent3356253.67.1

  19. Released: May 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent3356253.67.10

  20. Released: May 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent3356253.67.102

  1. Released: May 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6 Percent3356253.67.1023

  2. Released: May 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report6

  3. Released: May 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report65 Average Prices of

  4. Released: May 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report65 Average Prices of7

  5. Released: May 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report65 Average Prices of79

  6. Released: November 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report65 Average Prices

  7. Released: November 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report65 Average Prices1.3

  8. Released: November 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report65 Average Prices1.32.3

  9. Released: November 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report65 Average

  10. Released: November 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report65 Average4.3

  11. Released: November 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report65 Average4.32

  12. Released: October 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report65 Average4.322 Relative

  13. Released: October 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report65 Average4.322

  14. Released: October 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7Cubicthroughthe PriceThousandaCapacity Report65 Average4.3222

  15. Released: October 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  17. Released: October 2009

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  18. Released: October 2009

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  19. Released: October 2009

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  20. 2010 News Releases | NREL

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  3. OREM Press Releases

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  12. Integrated Process Configuration for High-Temperature Sulfur Mitigation during Biomass Conversion via Indirect Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta. A.; Cheah, S.; Bain, R.; Feik, C.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Phillips, S.

    2012-06-20

    Sulfur present in biomass often causes catalyst deactivation during downstream operations after gasification. Early removal of sulfur from the syngas stream post-gasification is possible via process rearrangements and can be beneficial for maintaining a low-sulfur environment for all downstream operations. High-temperature sulfur sorbents have superior performance and capacity under drier syngas conditions. The reconfigured process discussed in this paper is comprised of indirect biomass gasification using dry recycled gas from downstream operations, which produces a drier syngas stream and, consequently, more-efficient sulfur removal at high temperatures using regenerable sorbents. A combination of experimental results from NREL's fluidizable Ni-based reforming catalyst, fluidizable Mn-based sulfur sorbent, and process modeling information show that using a coupled process of dry gasification with high-temperature sulfur removal can improve the performance of Ni-based reforming catalysts significantly.

  13. Low temperature pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of calcium compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

    1988-01-01

    A coal pyrolysis technique or process is described in which particulate coal is pyrolyzed in the presence of about 5 to 21 wt. % of a calcium compound selected from calcium oxide, calcined (hydrate) dolomite, or calcined calcium hydrate to produce a high quality hydrocarbon liquid and a combustible product gas which are characterized by low sulfur content. The pyrolysis is achieved by heating the coal-calcium compound mixture at a relatively slow rate at a temperature of about 450.degree. to 700.degree. C. over a duration of about 10 to 60 minutes in a fixed or moving bed reactor. The gas exhibits an increased yield in hydrogen and C.sub.1 -C.sub.8 hydrocarbons and a reduction in H.sub.2 S over gas obtainable by pyrolyzing cola without the calcium compound. The liquid product obtained is of a sufficient quality to permit its use directly as a fuel and has a reduced sulfur and oxygen content which inhibits polymerization during storage.

  14. Reduction of erythema in hairless guinea pigs after cutaneous sulfur mustard vapor exposure by pretreatment with niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yourick, J.J.; Dawson, J.S.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Erythema is the initial symptom that occurs after sulfur mustard (HD) cutaneous exposure. The time course of HD-induced erythema is similar to that observed after UV irradiation, which can be reduced by indomethacin. Sulfur mustard lethality is decreased by using promethazine, which is an antihistamine. Niacinamide can reduce microvesication after HD vapor exposure in hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. The present study examines the effect of the combined administration of niacinamide, indomethacin and promethazine used alone or in all possible combinations on the degree of erythema and histopathologic skin damage after HD exposure in HGP. Niacinamide (750 mg kg%`, i.p.), promethazine (12.5 mg kg%1, i.m.) or indomethacin (4 mg kg%1, p.o.) used singly or in combination was given as a 30-min pretreatment before an 8-min HD vapor cup skin exposure. Using a combination pretreatment of niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin, erythema was reduced at 4 (91%) and 6 (55%) h, but not 24 h after HD. The incidence of histopathological skin changes (microvesicles, follicular involvement, epidermal necrosis, intracellular edema and pustular epidermatitis) 24 h after HD was not reduced. This study indicates that HD (induced erythema) may result from several different mechanisms, including inflammation, histamine release and DNA damage. It is suggested that two phases of inflammation may occur: an early phase sensitive to antihistamines and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a late phase of extensive cell damage that was not sensitive to these drug pretreatments.

  15. DOE Releases Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Releases Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process (RMP) Guideline DOE Releases Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process (RMP) Guideline May...

  16. High Permeability Ternary Palladium Alloy Membranes with Improved Sulfur and Halide Tolerances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Coulter

    2010-12-31

    The project team consisting of Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), TDA Research, and IdaTech LLC was focused on developing a robust, poison-tolerant, hydrogen selective free standing membrane to produce clean hydrogen. The project completed on schedule and on budget with SwRI, GT, CSM, TDA and IdaTech all operating independently and concurrently. GT has developed a robust platform for performing extensive DFT calculations for H in bulk palladium (Pd), binary alloys, and ternary alloys of Pd. Binary alloys investigated included Pd96M4 where M = Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Tl, Pb, Bi, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu. They have also performed a series of calculations on Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Ag{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Au{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Ni{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Pt{sub 4}, and Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Y{sub 4}. SwRI deposited and released over 160 foils of binary and ternary Pd alloys. There was considerable work on characterizing and improving the durability of the deposited foils using new alloy compositions, post annealing and ion bombardment. The 10 and 25 {micro}m thick films were sent to CSM, TDA and IdaTech for characterization and permeation testing. CSM conducted over 60 pure gas permeation tests with SwRI binary and ternary alloy membranes. To date the PdAu and PdAuPt membranes have exhibited the best performance at temperatures in the range of 423-773 C and their performance correlates well with the predictions from GT. TDA completed testing under the Department of Energy (DOE) WGS conditions on over 16 membranes. Of particular interest are the PdAuPt alloys that exhibited only a 20% drop in flux when sulfur was added to the gas mixture and the flux was completely recovered when the sulfur flow was stopped. IdaTech tested binary and ternary membranes on a simulated flue gas stream and experienced significant difficulty in mounting and testing the sputter deposited membranes. IdaTech was able to successfully test PdAu and PdAuPt membranes and saw similar sulfur tolerance to what TDA found. The Program met all the deliverables on schedule and on budget. Over ten presentations at national and international conferences were made, four papers were published (two in progress) in technical journals, and three students (2 at GT and 1 at CSM) completed their doctorates using results generated during the course of the program. The three major findings of program were; (1) the DFT modeling was verified as a predictive tool for the permeability of Pd based ternary alloys, (2) while magnetron sputtering is useful in precisely fabricating binary and ternary alloys, the mechanical durability of membranes fabricated using this technique are inferior compared to cold rolled membranes and this preparation method is currently not ready for industrial environments, (3) based on both modeling and experimental verification in pure gas and mixed gas environments PdAu and PdAuPt alloys were found to have the combination of the highest permeability and tolerance to sulfur.

  17. Direct observation of the redistribution of sulfur and polysufides in Li-S batteries during first cycle by in situ X-Ray fluorescence microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiquian [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pan, Huilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Richland, WA (United States); Zhou, Yongning [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Northrup, Paul [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xiao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Richland, WA (United States); Bak, Seongmin [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Liu, Mingzhao [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nam, Kyung-Wan [Dongguk University-Seoul, Department of Energy and Materials Engineering, (Republic of Korea); Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Dept. of Chemistry, MA (United States); Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Richland, WA (United States); Wu, Tianpin [Argonne National Laboratory, X-ray Science Division, Lemont, IL (United States); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-03-25

    The demands on low cost and high energy density rechargeable batteries for both transportation and large-scale stationary energy storage are stimulating more and more research toward new battery systems. Since sulfur is an earth-abundant material with low cost, research on the high energy density Li–S batteries (2600 W h kg?¹) are getting more and more attention. The reactions between sulfur and lithium during charge–discharge cycling are quite complicated, going through multiple electron transfer process associated with chemical and electrochemical equilibrium between long- and short-chain polysulfide Li?Sx intermediates (1 < x ? 8). It is reported that the long-chain polysulfides can be dissolved into electrolyte with aprotic organic solvents and migrated to the Li anode side. This so-called “shuttle effect” is believed to be the main reason for capacity loss and low columbic efficiency of the Li–S batteries. In the past few years, a great deal of efforts have been made on how to overcome the problem of polysulfide dissolution through new sulfur electrode construction and cell designs, as well as the modification of the electrolyte. Although it has been reported by several publications that some Li–S cells can sustain more than a thousand cycles based on the thin film electrode configurations, the long-term cycling stability is still one of the major barriers for the real application of Li–S batteries. More in-depth studies on the fundamental understanding of the sulfur reaction mechanism and interactions among the different polysulfide species, the electrolyte and the electrodes are still greatly needed. Various in situ techniques have been developed and applied to study the mechanism of the sulfur chemistry in Li–S batteries during electrochemical cycling, such as transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The applications of these characterization techniques have demonstrated their power in probing the structure changes, morphology evolutions, and coordination of sulfur and polysulfides with the electrolyte in Li–S cells, providing complementary information to each other thus enhancing the understanding in Li–S battery systems. In this communication, in situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy was combined with XAS to directly probe the morphology changes of Li–S batteries during first cycle. The morphology changes of the sulfur electrode and the redistribution of sulfur and polysulfides were monitored in real time through the XRF images, while the changes of the sulfur containing compounds were characterized through the XAS spectra simultaneously. In contrast to other studies using ex situ or single characterization technique as reported in the literatures, the in situ technique used in this work has the unique feature of probing the Li–S cell under operating conditions, as well as the combination of XRF imaging with spectroscopy data. By doing this, the morphology evolution and redistribution of specific sulfur particles during cycling can be tracked and identified at certain locations in a real time. In addition, this technique allows us to select the field-of-view (FOV) area from micrometer to centimeter size, providing the capability to study the Li–S reactions not just at the material level, but also at the electrode level. This is very important for both understanding Li–S chemistry and designing effective strategies for Li–S batteries.

  18. Direct observation of the redistribution of sulfur and polysufides in Li-S batteries during first cycle by in situ X-Ray fluorescence microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiquian; Pan, Huilin; Zhou, Yongning; Northrup, Paul; Xiao, Jie; Bak, Seongmin; Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Qu, Deyang; Liu, Jun; et al

    2015-03-25

    The demands on low cost and high energy density rechargeable batteries for both transportation and large-scale stationary energy storage are stimulating more and more research toward new battery systems. Since sulfur is an earth-abundant material with low cost, research on the high energy density Li–S batteries (2600 W h kg?¹) are getting more and more attention. The reactions between sulfur and lithium during charge–discharge cycling are quite complicated, going through multiple electron transfer process associated with chemical and electrochemical equilibrium between long- and short-chain polysulfide Li?Sx intermediates (1 more »be dissolved into electrolyte with aprotic organic solvents and migrated to the Li anode side. This so-called “shuttle effect” is believed to be the main reason for capacity loss and low columbic efficiency of the Li–S batteries. In the past few years, a great deal of efforts have been made on how to overcome the problem of polysulfide dissolution through new sulfur electrode construction and cell designs, as well as the modification of the electrolyte. Although it has been reported by several publications that some Li–S cells can sustain more than a thousand cycles based on the thin film electrode configurations, the long-term cycling stability is still one of the major barriers for the real application of Li–S batteries. More in-depth studies on the fundamental understanding of the sulfur reaction mechanism and interactions among the different polysulfide species, the electrolyte and the electrodes are still greatly needed. Various in situ techniques have been developed and applied to study the mechanism of the sulfur chemistry in Li–S batteries during electrochemical cycling, such as transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The applications of these characterization techniques have demonstrated their power in probing the structure changes, morphology evolutions, and coordination of sulfur and polysulfides with the electrolyte in Li–S cells, providing complementary information to each other thus enhancing the understanding in Li–S battery systems. In this communication, in situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy was combined with XAS to directly probe the morphology changes of Li–S batteries during first cycle. The morphology changes of the sulfur electrode and the redistribution of sulfur and polysulfides were monitored in real time through the XRF images, while the changes of the sulfur containing compounds were characterized through the XAS spectra simultaneously. In contrast to other studies using ex situ or single characterization technique as reported in the literatures, the in situ technique used in this work has the unique feature of probing the Li–S cell under operating conditions, as well as the combination of XRF imaging with spectroscopy data. By doing this, the morphology evolution and redistribution of specific sulfur particles during cycling can be tracked and identified at certain locations in a real time. In addition, this technique allows us to select the field-of-view (FOV) area from micrometer to centimeter size, providing the capability to study the Li–S reactions not just at the material level, but also at the electrode level. This is very important for both understanding Li–S chemistry and designing effective strategies for Li–S batteries.« less

  19. Method of making sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO) [Boulder, CO; Lusk, Mark (Golden, CO) [Golden, CO; Thoen, Paul (Littleton, CO) [Littleton, CO

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports. Also disclosed are methods of making these membranes via sequential electroless plating techniques, wherein the method of making the membrane includes decomposing any organic ligands present on the substrate, reducing the palladium crystallites on the substrate to reduced palladium crystallites, depositing a film of palladium metal on the substrate and then depositing a second, gold film on the palladium film. These two metal films are then annealed at a temperature between about 200.degree. C. and about 1200.degree. C. to form a sulfur-resistant, composite PdAu alloy membrane.

  20. Modeling sulfur dioxide capture in a pulverized coal combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, R.B.; Yavuzkurt, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The formation and capture of sulfur dioxide in a pulverized coal combustor is investigated. A two-dimensional, steady, axisymmetric code, PCGC-2 (Pulverized Coal Gasification and Combustion-two Dimensional), originally developed at Brigham Young University, has been used to simulate combustion of the pulverized coal. This paper represents part of a project to investigate simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration in combustor effluents. Results from the code have been compared to experimental data obtained from MTCI`s (Manufacturing Technology and Conversion International) test pulse combustor, which generates sound pressure levels of {approximately}180 dB. The overall goal behind the pulse combustor program at MTCI is to develop combustors for stationary gas turbines that use relatively inexpensive coal-based fuels. This study attempts to model the capture of sulfur dioxide when injected into a pulse combustor firing micronized coal. While this work does not presume to model the complex gas flow-field generated by the pulsating flow, the effects of the acoustic field are expressed by increased heat and mass transfer to the particles (coal/sorbent) in question. A comprehensive calcination-sintering-sulfation model for single particles was used to model the capture of sulfur dioxide by limestone sorbent. Processes controlling sulfation are external heat and mass transfer, pore diffusion, diffusion through the product layer of CaSO{sub 4}, sintering, and calcination. The model was incorporated into the PCGC-2 program. Comparisons of exit concentrations of SO{sub 2} showed a fairly good agreement (within {approximately}10 percent) with the experimental results from MTCI.

  1. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

  2. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1995-08-22

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired. 5 figs.

  3. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, Michael S. (New Ellenton, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  4. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  5. Sibley station low-sulfur coal conversion program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rupinskas, R.L. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Rembold, D.F. [Missouri Public Service, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1995-03-01

    After embarking on an upgrade project in 1986 that was designed to allow efficient and reliable operation of its coal-fired Sibley station through 2010, Missouri Public Service (MPS) faced the uncertainty of impending acid-rain legislation. To protect its investment in the Sibley Rebuild Program, the utility evaluated compliance options based on the emerging legislation and concluded that switching to low-sulfur coal offered the least-cost compliance approach. Compared to installing a scrubber, switching to a low-sulfur coal was also more straightforward, although not without challenges and complications. This paper reviews the Sibley low-sulfur coal conversion program. At Sibley, fuel switching was chosen only after numerous internal and external studies; it withstood late challenges from natural gas and allowance trading. Switching demanded additional equipment to blend Power River Basin coals and other coals, and demanded additional and upgraded protective equipment in the areas of fire protection, dust collection, and explosion prevention. In the year since the coal conversion project was completed the facility has operated reliably, the economic benefits of the lower cost Powder River Basin coals have been realized, and the station has also met the requirements of both phases of the acid rain legislation. Fuel switching at Sibley required a team approach and careful analysis. The coal conversion project also required attention and dedication by team members in order to minimize fuel costs while maintaining optimum plant efficiency and availability.

  6. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  7. How to Obtain Reproducible Results for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jianming; Lu, Dongping; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The basic requirements for getting reliable Li-S battery data have been discussed in this work. Unlike Li-ion batteries, electrolyte-rich environment significantly affects the cycling stability of Li-S batteries prepared and tested under the same conditions. The reason has been assigned to the different concentrations of polysulfide-containing electrolytes in the cells, which have profound influences on both sulfur cathode and lithium anode. At optimized S/E ratio of 50 g L-1, a good balance among electrolyte viscosity, wetting ability, diffusion rate dissolved polysulfide and nucleation/growth of short-chain Li2S/Li2S2 has been built along with largely reduced contamination on the lithium anode side. Accordingly, good cyclability, high reversible capacity and Coulombic efficiency are achieved in Li-S cell with controlled S/E ratio without any additive. Other factors such as sulfur content in the composite and sulfur loading on the electrode also need careful concern in Li-S system in order to generate reproducible results and gauge the various methods used to improve Li-S battery technology.

  8. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  9. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and the electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.

  10. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  11. Press Pass - Press Release Archive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Sloan Digital Sky Survey press releases Science News from Department of Energy national laboratories Return to...

  12. Press Pass - Press Release Archive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 LHC Press Release - 120897 Fermilab's Science Center to Open of First Saturdays - 112197 U.S. Department of Energy and Fermilab Invite Public to Informational Meeting...

  13. Media Contacts: For Immediate Release:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plateau Remediation Company (509) 376-1297, DeeMillikin@rl.gov **Photo Release** Helicopter Removes Aging Truck From Steep Rattlesnake Ravine RICHLAND, WASH. - A Sikorsky S-64...

  14. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility ofmore »the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.« less

  15. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Zhang, Xuran [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Li, Chao [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; McKinnon, Meaghan E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sadok, Rachel G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Qu, Deyu [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Lee, Hung-Sui [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-11-01

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  16. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  17. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  18. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  19. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

  20. Advanced product recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Third quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed form the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its industry and commercialization advisor, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner, Tufts, plans to develop and scale-up an advanced, byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, catalytic process for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, they have planned a structured program including: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and utility review. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning.

  1. Production of low-sulfur binder pitch from high-sulfur Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this project is to produce electrode binder pitch with sulfur content below 0.6 wt% from high-sulfur Illinois coal mild gasification liquids. In this project, two approaches to sulfur reduction are being explored in conjunction with thermocracking: (1) the use of conventionally cleaned coal with low ({approximately}1%) sulfur as a mild gasification feedstock, and (2) direct biodesulfurization of the liquids prior to thermocracking. In Case 1, the crude pitch is being produced by mild gasification of IBC-109 coal in an existing IGT bench-scale reactor, followed by distillation of the scrubbing solvent and light-to-middle oils to isolate the crude pitch. In Case 2, the crude pitch for biodesulfurization is the same material previously studied, which was obtained from Illinois No. 6 coal tests conducted in the IGT mild gasification PRU in 1990. Biodesulfurization is to be performed by contacting the pitch with Rhodococcus Rhodochrous either as live cultures or in the form of concentrated biocatalyst. Following preparation of the crude pitches, pitch upgrading experiments are to be conducted in a continuous flash thermocracker (FTC) constructed in previous ICCI-sponsored studies. The finished pitch is then characterized for physical and chemical properties (density, softening point, QI, TI, coking value, and elemental composition), and compared to typical specifications for binder pitches. This quarter, 45 kg of IBC-109 coal was obtained and sized to 40 x 80 mesh for mild gasification. Laboratory experiments were conducted to identify means of dispersing or emulsifying pitch in water to render is accessible to biocatalysts, and exploratory desulfurization tests on one-gram pitch samples were begun.

  2. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  3. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

  4. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  5. Effects of weathering on coal and its sulfur constituents in refuse piles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, L.A.; Berggren, D.J.; Hughes, R.E.

    1984-12-01

    The rejects from coal mining and processing operations are intensively weathered in refuse piles. The effects of weathering on coal and and its associated sulfur-containing compounds are economically and environmentally significant. Chemical and x-ray diffraction analyses of material from abandoned mined lands, collected for a study of historic long-wall mines in Illinois, showed that most pyrite in weathered samples is converted to gypsum, jarosite, and minor alunite. There were only small reductions in the trace element concentrations of these samples. Coal readily takes up oxygen from air. Coal-oxygen complexes produced by oxygen adsorption or peroxide formation are very unstable, and the oxygen can be removed as oxygen gas, CO/sub 2/, or H/sub 2/O upon heating and evacuation. Heating coal under partial vacuum decreases its surface charge. The decrease in surface charge increases with heating time and temperature. This suggests that the adverse effect of exposure to air may be partially reversed, with a corresponding gain in the efficiency of the coal recovery processes.

  6. University Art Museum PRESS RELEASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    University Art Museum PRESS RELEASE 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222 PH: 518-442-4038 FX: 518-442-5075 www.albany.edu/museum For Immediate Release April 9, 2015 Master of Fine Arts Thesis Exhibition Opens at University Art Museum On view May 1 through 17, 2015 Opening Reception: Friday, May 8, 5

  7. MEDIA RELEASE Marriott Library Contacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Dale H.

    MEDIA RELEASE Marriott Library Contacts: -- Heidi Brett, public relations specialist, Marriott Library, heidi.brett@utah.edu , 801-661-6764 -- Luise Poulton, rare books manager, Luise.c.thompson@utah.edu , 801-581- 8046 Downloadable Images: http://unews.utah.edu/news releases/lewis-carrolls-childrens-classics-on-display-at-marriott-library

  8. ZINC CHLORIDE-CATALYZED REACTIONS OF OXYGEN- AND SULFUR-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WITH MODEL STRUCTURES IN COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobley, David Paul

    2013-01-01

    H. H. , ed. , "Chemistry of Coal Utilization", Suppl. Vol. ,H. H. , ed. , "Chemistry of Coal Utilization", Suppl. Vol. ,Internat. Conf. Bituminous Coal, 3d Con£. , 2, 35 (1932);

  9. ZINC CHLORIDE-CATALYZED REACTIONS OF OXYGEN- AND SULFUR-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WITH MODEL STRUCTURES IN COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobley, David Paul

    2013-01-01

    Co. , "Zinc Halide Hydrocracking Process for Distillatewith Zinc Chloride", Hydrocracking u. S. Dept. of Interior

  10. Spatial and diel variability in the emissions of some biogenic sulfur compounds from a Florida Spartinaalterniflora coastal zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1987-01-01

    CS,)and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) to include the elfects offlow chambers. DMS. CS2 and DMDS were trapped on Teflonlimits for DMS, CSz. DMDS and H,S of 0.01. 0.03,0.06 and

  11. ZINC CHLORIDE-CATALYZED REACTIONS OF OXYGEN- AND SULFUR-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WITH MODEL STRUCTURES IN COAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobley, David Paul

    2013-01-01

    interest in conversion of coal to liquid fuels. In order tothe conversion of coal to liquid products are not wellE. A. , "Coal Liquefaction in Inorganic- Organic Liquid

  12. Towards Heavy Fermions in Europium Intermetallic Compounds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Europium Intermetallic Compounds Print For decades, intermetallic compounds of rare-earth metals have been favorite systems of the research community studying strong electron...

  13. Process for production of a borohydride compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chin, Arthur Achhing; Jain, Puja; Linehan, Suzanne; Lipiecki, Francis Joseph; Maroldo, Stephen Gerard; November, Samuel J; Yamamoto, John Hiroshi

    2013-02-19

    A process for production of a borohydride compound. The process comprises combining a compound comprising boron and oxygen with an adduct of alane.

  14. Compatibilization/Compounding Evaluation of Recovered Polymers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CompatibilizationCompounding Evaluation of Recovered Polymers CompatibilizationCompounding Evaluation of Recovered Polymers Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  15. Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Gasoline Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to pollution when the fuel is burned. Beginning in 2004, standards were set on the amount of...

  16. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

  17. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

  18. Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Christensen, Del Scot (Friendswood, TX)

    2009-12-15

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. Sulfur may be introduced into one or more wellbores located inside a perimeter of a treatment area in the formation having a permeability of at least 0.1 darcy. At least some of the sulfur is allowed to move towards portions of the formation cooler than the melting point of sulfur to solidify the sulfur in the formation to form the barrier.

  19. A Long-Life, High-Rate Lithium/Sulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Life, High-Rate LithiumSulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach to Enhancing Cell Performance Min-Kyu Song, , Yuegang Zhang,* ,, and Elton J. Cairns* ,, The...

  20. Status of Heavy Vehicle Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Test Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Sverdrup

    1999-06-07

    DECSE test program is well under way to providing data on effects of sulfur levels in diesel fuel on performance of emission control technologies.

  1. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Buchanan, D.H. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States)] [and others

    1992-12-31

    The purposes of this Testing and Materials (ASTM) forms of sulfur analysis. The purposes of this research are to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE desulfurization process and to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for the PCE process evaluation. Problem that limits commercial application of the PCE process is the high chlorine content in the PCE-treated coals. Hence, to develop a dechlorination procedure to remove excess PCE from the PCE-treated coal is an additional goal of this investigation. MWOPC`s results have been repeated on fresh IBC-104 coal. Oxidation of coals was found to affect subsequent PCE desulfurization. Elemental sulfur is more amenable to removal by PCE. Ohio 5/6 coal appears to produce elemental sulfur more readily than Illinois coal during oxidation. Data from X-Ray Diffraction spectroscopy indicate that sulfate in the oxidized Illinois IBC-104 coal is mainly in gypsum form, whereas, sulfate in oxidized Ohio 5/6 sample is mainly in szomolnokite form. These data suggest that the oxidation reaction for Ohio 5/6 coal might occur under catalytic conditions which readily convert pyrite to produce FeSO{sub 4} and elemental sulfur. The higher elemental sulfur content in that coal results in higher ASTM organic sulfur removal by PCE extraction. From mass balance calculation, 96% of the total sulfur and greater than 95% of total iron were accounted for during our PCE tests with both long-term ambient-oxidized IBC-104 coal and ambient-oxidized Ohio 516 coal.

  2. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

  3. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  4. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) |(Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent:lithium-sulfur

  5. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies could provide an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. This analysis, however, does not take credit for the additional barrier and establishes only the total release fractions for bare unconfined intact commercial SNF assemblies, which may be conservatively applied to confined intact commercial I SNF assemblies.

  6. Study of organic compounds evolved during the co-firing of coal and refuse derived fuel using TG/MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puroshothama, Shobha; Lu, R.; Yang, Xiaodong

    1996-10-01

    The evolution of organic compounds during the combustion of carbonaceous fuel coupled with solid waste disposal and limited landfill space has been a cause for concern. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuel seems an attractive alternative technique to tackle the dual problem of controlling SO{sub x} emissions as well as those of the chlorinated organic toxins. The TG serves to emulate the conditions of the fluidized bed combustor and the MS serves as the detector for evolved gases. This versatile combination is used to study the decomposition pathway as well as predict the conditions at which various compounds are formed and may serve as a means of reducing the formation of these chlorinated organic compounds.

  7. ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

    2003-04-01

    Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

  8. PRESS RELEASE 26 May 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRESS RELEASE 26 May 2010 The UK Film Council and BSI, together with representatives from different Press Office Tel: +44 (0)20 8996 6330 (24 hours) Email: pressoffice@bsigroup.com About BSI Group BSI

  9. MEDIA RELEASE 17 May 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    heating systems known as District Energy (DE) Systems generate heat at a centralMEDIA RELEASE 17 May 2012 District Energy heating an effective way for BC communities to reduce greenhouse gases? Centralized

  10. PRESS RELEASE 2 February 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRESS RELEASE 2 February 2010 Replica house flooded by 196,000 gallons of water to test flood extensive hydraulic laboratory at Wallingford. To streamline the test procedures, HR Wallingford have

  11. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | [TITLE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Press Release PDF Click to read answers to FAQ about the Higgs boson. Med Res | Hi Res | EPS After more than 10 years of gathering and analyzing data produced by the U.S....

  12. # Title Authors Release of gas phase species from the photolysis of thin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Poster # Title Authors 1 Release of gas phase species from the photolysis of thin water films compounds measured in the lower troposphere around the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site (Gulf of Mexico.C., and Wennberg P.O. 9 A field-deployable, chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer: application

  13. Crystal structure studies on sulfur oxygenase reductase from Acidianus tengchongensis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Mei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen Zhiwei [State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang Pingfeng; Pan Xiaowei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiang Chengying [State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); An Xiaomin [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu Shuangjiang [State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Chang Wenrui [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: wrchang@sun5.ibp.ac.cn

    2008-05-09

    Sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR) simultaneously catalyzes oxidation and reduction of elemental sulfur to produce sulfite, thiosulfate, and sulfide in the presence of molecular oxygen. In this study, crystal structures of wild type and mutants of SOR from Acidianus tengchongensis (SOR-AT) in two different crystal forms were determined and it was observed that 24 identical SOR monomers form a hollow sphere. Within the icosatetramer sphere, the tetramer and trimer channels were proposed as the paths for the substrate and products, respectively. Moreover, a comparison of SOR-AT with SOR-AA (SOR from Acidianus ambivalens) structures showed that significant differences existed at the active site. Firstly, Cys31 is not persulfurated in SOR-AT structures. Secondly, the iron atom is five-coordinated rather than six-coordinated, since one of the water molecules ligated to the iron atom in the SOR-AA structure is lost. Consequently, the binding sites of substrates and a hypothetical catalytic process of SOR were proposed.

  14. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivas, Girish (Thornton, CO); Bai, Chuansheng (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  15. Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, E.

    The oxidation of SO[subscript 2] to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to ...

  16. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the previous report (April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002). During the current period, there was no technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed. The project period of performance was extended to allow the conduct of testing of another SO{sub 3} control technology, the sodium bisulfite injection process. However, these additional tests have not yet been conducted.

  17. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

  18. THE FERNALD DOSIMETRY RECONSTRUCTION Task 1: Identification of Release Points

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fires, spills, and UF6 leaks and releases. The Stack Release Points and Other Release Points are located

  19. Mechanistic Studies on the Formation of Trifluoromethyl Sulfur Pentafluoride, SF5CF3sa Greenhouse Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistic Studies on the Formation of Trifluoromethyl Sulfur Pentafluoride, SF5CF3sa Greenhouse that a source for this potentially dangerous greenhouse gas might be the recombination of SF5(X2A1) and CF3(X2A1 the strongest greenhouse gas trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3) with a radiative force of 0.59 W m-2

  20. Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefohn, A.S.; Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B.; Brimblecombe, P.

    1996-07-19

    Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

  1. Understanding the Role of Different Conductive Polymers in Improving the Nanostructured Sulfur Cathode Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    structural configurations of conductive polymer-sulfur composites employed in previous studies. In this workUnderstanding the Role of Different Conductive Polymers in Improving the Nanostructured Sulfur for the confinement of lithium polysulfides. However, the roles of different conductive polymers

  2. In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries Johanna Information ABSTRACT: Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for high not well understood. In this Article, these changes in Li-S batteries are studied in operando by X

  3. High-performance hollow sulfur nanostructured battery cathode through a scalable, room temperature,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    capacity of 849 and 610 mAh/g at 2C and 4C, respectively. lithium sulfur battery | energy storage | long energy storage (1­4). To achieve a quantum leap in the batteries specific energy density, new electrodeHigh-performance hollow sulfur nanostructured battery cathode through a scalable, room temperature

  4. Surface Science 415 (1998) 2936 Structural studies of sulfur-passivated GaAs (100)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yanchao

    1998-01-01

    . Keywords: Atomic force microscopy; Gallium arsenide; Low-energy electron diffraction; Roughness; SulfurSurface Science 415 (1998) 29­36 Structural studies of sulfur-passivated GaAs (100) surfaces Abstract We present the results of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED

  5. Sulfur surface chemistry on the platinum gate of a silicon carbide based hydrogen sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobin, Roger G.

    Sulfur surface chemistry on the platinum gate of a silicon carbide based hydrogen sensor Yung Ho September 2007 We have investigated the effects of sulfur contamination on a Pt-gate silicon carbide based monitoring, solid-oxide fuel cells, and coal gasification, require operation at much higher temperatures than

  6. Memory-Assisted Exciton Diffusion in the Chlorosome Light-Harvesting Antenna of Green Sulfur Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikin, Semion

    Memory-Assisted Exciton Diffusion in the Chlorosome Light- Harvesting Antenna of Green Sulfur of bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) enclosed by a lipid monolayer.1-4 They can capture light and transfer it in a form. In green sulfur bacteria, light energy absorbed by the rolls is transferred via a baseplate9 to the Fenna

  7. The sulfur content of volcanic gases on Mars Fabrice Gaillard, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The sulfur content of volcanic gases on Mars Fabrice Gaillard, a and Bruno Scaillet1, a a CNRS sulfur contents of the martian regolith and lack of detection of extensive carbonate deposits suggest that the latest geological events that shaped the landscapes of Mars were dominated by acidic waters possibly

  8. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.

    1991-12-31

    A pre-combustion coal desulfurization process at 120{degree}C using perchloroethylene (PCE) to remove up to 70% of the organic sulfur has been developed by the Midwest Ore Processing Co. (MWOPC). However, this process has not yet proven to be as successful with Illinois coals as it has for Ohio and Indiana coals. The organic sulfur removal has been achieved only with highly oxidized Illinois coals containing high sulfatic sulfur. A logical explanation for this observation is vital to successful process optimization for the use of Illinois coals. In addition, the high levels of organic sulfur removals observed by the MWOPC may be due to certain errors involved in the ASTM data interpretation; this needs verification. For example, elemental sulfur extracted by the PCE may be derived from pyrite oxidation during coal pre-oxidation, but it may be interpreted as organic sulfur removed by the PCE using ASTM analysis. The goals of this research are: (1) to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE desulfurization process reported by the MWOPC, (2) to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for the PCE process evaluation, and (3) to determine the suitability of Illinois coals for use in the PCE desulfurization process. This project involves the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Eastern Illinois University (EIU), the University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign (UI-UC), and the University of Kentucky, Lexington (UK). This is the first year of a two-year project.

  9. Press Releases | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Labs Press Release Oct 7, 2015 NNSA Provides Tajikistan Specialized Vehicles to Transport Radiological Materials Press Release Oct 7, 2015 DOENNSA's Nonproliferation Experts...

  10. The Energy Department's Geothermal Technologies Office Releases...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Energy Department's Geothermal Technologies Office Releases 2013 Annual Report The Energy Department's Geothermal Technologies Office Releases 2013 Annual Report February 7,...

  11. WIPP Radiological Release Report Phase 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Phase 1 Radiological Release Event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on February 14, 2014 April 2014 Radiological Release Event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Radiological...

  12. Webinar: Algal Biofuels Consortium Releases Groundbreaking Research...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Algal Biofuels Consortium Releases Groundbreaking Research Results Webinar: Algal Biofuels Consortium Releases Groundbreaking Research Results Dr. Jose Olivares of Los Alamos...

  13. Nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of hood performance evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guffey, Eric J. (Eric Jemison)

    2011-01-01

    The ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method is the standard test for laboratory hood containment performance. Sulfur hexafluoride is specified as the gas most suitable for this test and is most commonly used. Sulfur hexafluoride use has ...

  14. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes by Desulfovibrio vulgaris mutants lacking hydrogenases or type I tetraheme cytochrome c[subscript 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Min Sub

    The sulfur isotope effect produced by sulfate reducing microbes is commonly used to trace biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon in aquatic and sedimentary environments. To test the contribution of intracellular coupling ...

  15. Effect of Prussian blue on organic sulfur of coal in aqueous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from coal samples with ferric hexacyanoferrate (II), Fe{sub 4} (Fe(CN){sub 6}), as the desulfurization agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the coal samples has been investigated. The temperature and stirring time are the most important parameters for the level of desulfurization of organic sulfur. Removal of organic sulfur content increased continuously with increasing temperature from 298 to 368 K. The organic sulfur removal rate sharply increases from 10 min to 30 min stirring time. After 30 min, it reaches a value of plateau. Particle size between -100 mesh and -200 mesh slightly affects the amount of organic sulfur removal. Gradual increase in the concentration of ferric hexacyanoferrate (II) raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  16. Sulfur dioxide capture in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churney, K.L.; Buckley, T.J. . Center for Chemical Technology)

    1990-06-01

    Chlorine and sulfur mass balance studies have been carried out in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal in the NIST multikilogram capacity batch combustor. The catalytic effect of manganese dioxide on the trapping of sulfur dioxide by lime was examined. Under our conditions, only 4% of the chlorine was trapped in the ash and no effect of manganese dioxide was observed. Between 42 and 14% of the total sulfur was trapped in the ash, depending upon the lime concentration. The effect of manganese dioxide on sulfur capture was not detectable. The temperature of the ash was estimated to be near 1200{degrees}C, which was in agreement with that calculated from sulfur dioxide capture thermodynamics. 10 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Three Packets of Minerals of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikhail M. Labushev

    2013-03-20

    The concepts of alpha- and beta-packets of the periodic table of chemical elements and chemical compounds are defined. The first of the 47 minerals alpha-packets is composed. In it all minerals are arranged in increasing Iav index of proportionality of atomic weights of composing chemical elements, the same way as chemical elements are located in increasing atomic weights in the Periodic table. The packet includes 93 known minerals and two compounds - N2O5 and CO2 - being actually minerals. Beta-packet of oxides and hydroxides minerals includes 88 known minerals and five chemical compounds - N2O5, CO2, CO, SO3 and SO2. Two minerals of the packet have not been determined yet. Besides, beta-packet of minerals with sulfur, selenium or arsenic is composed, with one mineral not defined yet. The results of the calculations can be used for further development of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds and their properties investigation.

  18. Three Packets of Minerals of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labushev, Mikhail M

    2013-01-01

    The concepts of alpha- and beta-packets of the periodic table of chemical elements and chemical compounds are defined. The first of the 47 minerals alpha-packets is composed. In it all minerals are arranged in increasing Iav index of proportionality of atomic weights of composing chemical elements, the same way as chemical elements are located in increasing atomic weights in the Periodic table. The packet includes 93 known minerals and two compounds - N2O5 and CO2 - being actually minerals. Beta-packet of oxides and hydroxides minerals includes 88 known minerals and five chemical compounds - N2O5, CO2, CO, SO3 and SO2. Two minerals of the packet have not been determined yet. Besides, beta-packet of minerals with sulfur, selenium or arsenic is composed, with one mineral not defined yet. The results of the calculations can be used for further development of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds and their properties investigation.

  19. Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Storage-Reduction Cu/K2Ti2O5 Qiang Wang,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Storage-Reduction Cu/K2Ti2O5 Catalyst Qiang Wang,*, Jiahua NOx through the NOx storage-reduction (NSR) process. However, its NSR performance in the presence of sulfur has not been investigated. In this article, the sulfur poisoning of the NOx storage-reduction

  20. Methanol Reaction with Sulfuric Acid: A Vibrational Spectroscopic Study Lisa L. Van Loon and Heather C. Allen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methanol Reaction with Sulfuric Acid: A Vibrational Spectroscopic Study Lisa L. Van Loon 43210 ReceiVed: May 27, 2004; In Final Form: August 19, 2004 The reaction between methanol and sulfuric peak in the 800 cm-1 region, not present in either the neat methanol or concentrated sulfuric acid

  1. Population, Economy and Energy Use’s Influence on Sulfur Emissions in the United States Since 1900 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, J. K.; Husar, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    and the transition from coal to less sulfur intensive fuels have reduced sulfur emissions. The net effect of all drivers has been moderate growth in sulfur emissions from 1900 to present. Since 1973, increased energy efficiency and the shift from an industrial to a...

  2. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Robert P. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Weller, Thomas E. [Univ. College of London (United Kingdom); Howard, Christopher A. [Univ. College of London (United Kingdom); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Univ. College of London (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark [Univ. College of London (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC? and YbC? in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  3. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  4. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  5. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  6. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX)

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  7. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  8. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  9. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Dean, Mark P. M.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-02-26

    This study examines the field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds which has a history dating back to the 1960s. This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC? and YbC? in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic statesmore »and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.« less

  10. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  11. Removal of sulfur contaminants in methanol for fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Kumar, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sederquist, R. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherm and breakthrough data were used to assess feasibility of developing a granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorber for use as a sulfur removal subsystem in transportation fuel cell systems. Results suggest that an on-board GAC adsorber may not be attractive due to size and weight constraints. However, it may be feasible to install this GAC adsorber at methanol distribution stations, where space and weight are not a critical concern. Preliminary economic analysis indicated that the GAC adsorber concept will be attractive if the spent AC can be regenerated for reuse. These preliminary analyses were made on basis of very limited breakthrough data obtained from the bench-scale testing. Optimization on dynamic testing parameters and study on regeneration of spent AC are needed.

  12. Phosphate Glasses for Vitrification of Waste with High Sulfur Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Cassingham, Nathan J.

    2002-10-31

    The low solubility of sulfate in silicate-based glasses, approximately 1 mass% as SO3, limits the loading of high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) containing high concentrations of sulfur. Based on crucible melting studies, we have shown that the phosphate glasses may incorporate more than 5 mass% SO3; hence, the waste loading can be increased until another constraint is met, such as glass durability. A high-sulfate HLW glass has been formulated and tested to demonstrate the advantages of phosphate glasses. The effect of waste loading on the chemical durability of quenched and slow-cooled phosphate glasses was determined using the Product Consistency Test.

  13. Method of forming and starting a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paquette, David G. (Costa Mesa, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method of forming a sodium sulfur battery and of starting the reactive capability of that battery when heated to a temperature suitable for battery operation is disclosed. An anodic reaction zone is constructed in a manner that sodium is hermetically sealed therein, part of the hermetic seal including fusible material which closes up openings through the container of the anodic reaction zone. The hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is assembled under normal atmospheric conditions with a suitable cathodic reaction zone and a cation-permeable barrier. When the entire battery is heated to an operational temperature, the fusible material of the hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is fused, thereby allowing molten sodium to flow from the anodic reaction zone into reactive engagement with the cation-permeable barrier.

  14. Waste Form Release Calculations for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.; McGrail, B PETER.

    2005-07-26

    A set of reactive chemical transport calculations was conducted with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM) code to evaluate the long-term performance of a representative low-activity waste glass in a shallow subsurface disposal system located on the Hanford Site. Two-dimensional simulations were run until the waste form release rates reached a quasi-stationary-state, usually after 2,000 to 4,000 yr. The primary difference between the waste form release simulations for the 2001 ILAW PA, and the simulations described herein, is the number of different materials considered. Whereas the previous PA considered only LAWABP1 glass, the current PA also describes radionuclide release from three different WTP glasses (LAWA44, LAWB45 and LAWC22), two different bulk vitrification glasses (6-tank composite and S-109), and three different grout waste forms (containing Silver Iodide, Barium Iodide and Barium Iodate). All WTP and bulk vitrification glasses perform well. However, the radionuclide release from the salt in the cast refractory surrounding the bulk vitrification waste packages is 2 to 170 times higher than the glass release rate, depending on the water recharge rate. Iodine-129 release from grouted waste forms is highly sensitive to the solubility of the iodine compound contained in the grout. The normalized iodine release rate from grout containing barium iodate is a factor of 10 higher than what the normalized release rate would be if the iodine were contained in LAWA44 glass.

  15. Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

    2008-07-31

    Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

  16. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Cheng; Tsang, M B; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear energy released by splitting Uranium and Thorium isotopes into two, three, four, up to eight fragments with nearly equal size are studied. We found that the energy released come from equally splitting the $^{235,238}$U and $^{230,232}$Th nuclei into to three fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model is employed to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for the excited nuclei. Weighing the the probability distributions of fragments multiplicity at different excitation energies for the $^{238}$U nucleus, we found that an excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u is optimal for the $^{235}$U, $^{238}$U, $^{230}$Th and $^{232}$Th nuclei to release nuclear energy of about 0.7-0.75 MeV/u.

  17. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng Li; S. R. Souza; M. B. Tsang; Feng-Shou Zhang

    2015-05-18

    Nuclear energy released by splitting Uranium and Thorium isotopes into two, three, four, up to eight fragments with nearly equal size are studied. We found that the energy released come from equally splitting the $^{235,238}$U and $^{230,232}$Th nuclei into to three fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model is employed to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for the excited nuclei. Weighing the the probability distributions of fragments multiplicity at different excitation energies for the $^{238}$U nucleus, we found that an excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u is optimal for the $^{235}$U, $^{238}$U, $^{230}$Th and $^{232}$Th nuclei to release nuclear energy of about 0.7-0.75 MeV/u.

  18. Sulfur Partitioning During Vitrification of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste: Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darab, John G.; Graham, Dennis D.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Russell, Renee L.; Smith, Harry D.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.

    2001-07-31

    The sodium bearing tank waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains high concentrations of sulfur (roughly 5 mass% of SO3 on a nonvolatile oxide basis). The amount of sulfur that can be feed to the melter will ultimately determine the loading of SBW in glass produced by the baseline (low-temperature, joule-heated, liquid-fed, ceramic-lined) melter. The amount of sulfur which can be fed to the melter is determined by several major factors including: the tolerance of the melter for an immiscible salt layer accumulation, the solubility of sulfur in the glass melt, the fraction of sulfur removed to the off-gas, and the incorporation of sulfur into the glass up to it?s solubility limit. This report summarizes the current status of testing aimed at determining the impacts of key chemical and physical parameters on the partitioning of sulfur between the glass, a molten salt, and the off-gas.

  19. Hyperpolarizable compounds and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Therien, Michael J. (Philadelphia, PA); DiMagno, Stephen G. (Lincoln, NE)

    1998-01-01

    Substituted compounds having relatively large molecular first order hyperpolarizabilities are provided, along with devices and materials containing them. In general, the compounds bear electron-donating and electron-withdrawing chemical substituents on a polyheterocyclic core.

  20. Hyperpolarizable compounds and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Therien, M.J.; DiMagno, S.G.

    1998-07-21

    Substituted compounds having relatively large molecular first order hyperpolarizabilities are provided, along with devices and materials containing them. In general, the compounds bear electron-donating and electron-withdrawing chemical substituents on a polyheterocyclic core. 13 figs.