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Sample records for relativistic heavy ion

  1. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  2. COMMISSIONING OF THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TRBOJEVIC,D.; AHRENS,L.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN,M.; BAI,M.; CAMERON,P.; CARDONA,J.; CONNOLLY,R.; ET AL; TSOUPAS,N.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.

    2001-06-18

    This report describes in detail steps performed in bringing the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) from the commissioning into the operational stage when collisions between 60 bunches of fully striped gold ions, were routinely provided. Corrections of the few power supplies connections by the beam measurements are described. Beam lifetime improvements at injection, along the acceleration are shown. The beam diagnostic results; like Schottky detector, beam profile monitor, beam position monitors, tune meter and others, are shown [1].

  3. Femtoscopy in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa, M; Pratt, S; Soltz, R A; Wiedemann, U

    2005-07-29

    Analyses of two-particle correlations have provided the chief means for determining spatio-temporal characteristics of relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss the theoretical formalism behind these studies and the experimental methods used in carrying them out. Recent results from RHIC are put into context in a systematic review of correlation measurements performed over the past two decades. The current understanding of these results are discussed in terms of model comparisons and overall trends.

  4. Parton equilibration in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biro, T.S.; van Doorn, E.; Mueller, B.; Thoma, M.H.; Wang, X. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen, D-6300 Giessen Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 )

    1993-09-01

    We investigate the processes leading to phase-space equilibration of parton distributions in nuclear interactions at collider energies. We derive a set of rate equations describing the chemical equilibration of gluons and quarks including medium effects on the relevant QCD transport coefficients, and discuss their consequences for parton equilibration in heavy ion collisions.

  5. (3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: (3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions ...

  6. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) physics overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruan, L.J.; Ruan, L.; n /a

    2010-02-08

    The results from data taken during the last several years at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be reviewed in the paper. Several selected topics that further our understanding of constituent quark scaling, jet quenching and color screening effect of heavy quarkonia in the hot dense medium will be presented. Detector upgrades will further probe the properties of Quark Gluon Plasma. Future measurements with upgraded detectors will be presented. The discovery perspectives from future measurements will also be discussed.

  7. Final Report for Project ``Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    collisions'' (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Final Report for Project ``Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions'' Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report for Project ``Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions'' In the course of this project the Ohio State University group led by the PI, Professor Ulrich Heinz, developed a comprehensive theoretical picture of the dynamical evolution of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions and of the numerous

  8. Modeling and Analysis of Ultra-Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, Steffen A

    2008-06-02

    This document contains the final report for DOE grant DE-FG02-03ER41239: Modeling and Analysis of Ultra-Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

  9. Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities User Facilities Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Project Development Isotope Program Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown

  10. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; White, S.

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  11. Observation of snake resonances at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Alessi, J.; et al

    2010-09-27

    The Siberian snakes are powerful tools in preserving polarization in high energy accelerators has been demonstrated at the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, polarization is preserved during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV. However, the Siberian snakes also introduce a new set of depolarization resonances, i.e. snake resonances as first discovered by Lee and Tepikian. The intrinsic spin resonances above 100 GeV are about a factor of two stronger than those below 100 GeV which raises the challenge to preserve the polarization up to 250 GeV. In 2009, polarized protons collided for the first time at the RHIC design store energy of 250 GeV. This paper presents the experimental measurements of snake resonances at RHIC. The plan for avoiding these resonances is also presented.

  12. Charmonium production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Taesoo; Han, Kyong Chol; Ko, Che Ming

    2011-09-15

    Using the two-component model that includes charmonium production from both initial nucleon-nucleon hard scattering and regeneration in the produced quark-gluon plasma, we study J/{psi} production in heavy-ion collisions at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and Large Hadron Collider (LHC). For the expansion dynamics of produced hot dense matter, we use a schematic viscous hydrodynamic model with the specific shear viscosity in the quark-gluon plasma and the hadronic matter taken, respectively, to be two and ten times the lower bound of 1/4{pi} suggested by the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. For the initial dissociation and the subsequent thermal decay of charmonia in the hot dense matter, we use the screened Cornell potential to describe the properties of charmonia and perturbative QCD to calculate their dissociation cross sections. Including regeneration of charmonia in the quark-gluon plasma via a kinetic equation with in-medium chamonium decay widths, we obtain a good description of measured J/{psi} nuclear modification factors in Pb + Pb collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=1.73 GeV at SPS and in Au + Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV at RHIC. A reasonable description of the measured nuclear modification factor of high transverse momenta J/{psi} in Pb + Pb collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV at LHC is also obtained.

  13. Triangularity and dipole asymmetry in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teaney, Derek; Yan Li

    2011-06-15

    We introduce a cumulant expansion to parametrize possible initial conditions in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We show that the cumulant expansion converges and that it can systematically reproduce the results of Glauber type initial conditions. At third order in the gradient expansion the cumulants characterize the triangularity and the dipole asymmetry of the initial entropy distribution. We show that for midperipheral collisions the orientation angle of the dipole asymmetry {psi}{sub 1,3} has a 20% preference out of plane. This leads to a small net v{sub 1} out of plane. In peripheral and midcentral collisions the orientation angles {psi}{sub 1,3} and {psi}{sub 3,3} are strongly correlated, but this correlation disappears towards central collisions. We study the ideal hydrodynamic response to these cumulants and determine the associated v{sub 1}/{epsilon}{sub 1} and v{sub 3}/{epsilon}{sub 3} for a massless ideal gas equation of state. The space time development of v{sub 1} and v{sub 3} is clarified with figures. These figures show that v{sub 1} and v{sub 3} develop toward the edge of the nucleus, and consequently the final spectra are more sensitive to the viscous dynamics of freezeout. The hydrodynamic calculations for v{sub 3} are provisionally compared to Alver and Roland fit of STAR inclusive two-particle correlation functions. Finally, we propose to measure the v{sub 1} associated with the dipole asymmetry and the correlations between {psi}{sub 1,3} and {psi}{sub 3,3} by measuring a two-particle correlation with respect to the participant plane . The hydrodynamic prediction for this correlation function is several times larger than a correlation currently measured by the STAR collaboration . This experimental measurement would provide

  14. Measurements of {phi} meson production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the BNL relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Krueger, K.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Illinois; Kent State Univ.; Panjab Univ.; Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre; Kent State Univ.; Particle Physics Lab.; STAR Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    We present results for the measurement of {phi} meson production via its charged kaon decay channel {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} in Au+Au collisions at {radical}S{sub NN} = 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV, and in p+p and d+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV from the STAR experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The midrapidity (|y| < 0.5) {phi} meson transverse momentum (p{sub T}) spectra in central Au+Au collisions are found to be well described by a single exponential distribution. On the other hand, the p{sub T} spectra from p+p, d+Au, and peripheral Au+Au collisions show power-law tails at intermediate and high p{sub T} and are described better by Levy distributions. The constant {phi}/K{sup -} yield ratio vs beam species, collision centrality, and colliding energy is in contradiction with expectations from models having kaon coalescence as the dominant mechanism for {phi} production at RHIC. The {Omega}/{phi} yield ratio as a function of p{sub T} is consistent with a model based on the recombination of thermal s quarks up to p{sub T} {approx} 4 GeV/c, but disagrees at higher transverse momenta. The measured nuclear modification factor, R{sub dAu}, for the {phi} meson increases above unity at intermediate p{sub T}, similar to that for pions and protons, while R{sub AA} is suppressed due to the energy loss effect in central Au+Au collisions. Number of constituent quark scaling of both R{sub cp} and v{sub 2} for the {phi} meson with respect to other hadrons in Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV at intermediate p{sub T} is observed. These observations support quark coalescence as being the dominant mechanism of hadronization in the intermediate p{sub T} region at RHIC.

  15. Measurements of {phi} meson production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelev, B. I.; Barannikova, O.; Betts, R. R.; Callner, J.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Iordanova, A.; Suarez, M. C.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Bhati, A. K.; Kumar, L.; Pruthi, N. K.; Ahammed, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Mazumdar, M. R. Dutta; Ganti, M. S.; Ghosh, P.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T. K.

    2009-06-15

    We present results for the measurement of {phi} meson production via its charged kaon decay channel {phi}{yields}K{sup +}K{sup -} in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=62.4,130, and 200 GeV, and in p+p and d+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV from the STAR experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The midrapidity (|y|<0.5) {phi} meson transverse momentum (p{sub T}) spectra in central Au+Au collisions are found to be well described by a single exponential distribution. On the other hand, the p{sub T} spectra from p+p, d+Au, and peripheral Au+Au collisions show power-law tails at intermediate and high p{sub T} and are described better by Levy distributions. The constant {phi}/K{sup -} yield ratio vs beam species, collision centrality, and colliding energy is in contradiction with expectations from models having kaon coalescence as the dominant mechanism for {phi} production at RHIC. The {omega}/{phi} yield ratio as a function of p{sub T} is consistent with a model based on the recombination of thermal s quarks up to p{sub T}{approx}4 GeV/c, but disagrees at higher transverse momenta. The measured nuclear modification factor, R{sub dAu}, for the {phi} meson increases above unity at intermediate p{sub T}, similar to that for pions and protons, while R{sub AA} is suppressed due to the energy loss effect in central Au+Au collisions. Number of constituent quark scaling of both R{sub cp} and v{sub 2} for the {phi} meson with respect to other hadrons in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV at intermediate p{sub T} is observed. These observations support quark coalescence as being the dominant mechanism of hadronization in the intermediate p{sub T} region at RHIC.

  16. Multi Module Modeling of Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magas, V. K.; Csernai, L. P.; Keranen, A.; Manninen, J.; Strottman, D. D.

    2002-01-01

    Multi Module Model is required for the realistic and detailed description of an ultrarelativistic heavy ion reaction. We are working in the framework of such a model: initial stages are described by Effective String Rope Model with expanding final streaks; hydrodynamical approach is used for the intermediate stages. This paper is mainly devoted to Third Module - the one dealing with Freeze Out (FO). Two possibilities are discussed in details: (A) freeze out at the constant time hypersurface, where the statistical production model is used to describe post FO particle species; and (B) simultaneous hadronization and freeze out from supercooled QGP. For the last case the ALCOR-like algorithm for calculation of the post FO particle species is presented, due to the fact that these do not have time to reach chemical equilibrium.

  17. Production of photons in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jean -Francois Paquet; Denicol, Gabriel S.; Shen, Chun; Luzum, Matthew; Schenke, Bjorn; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2016-04-18

    In this work it is shown that the use of a hydrodynamical model of heavy-ion collisions which incorporates recent developments, together with updated photon emission rates, greatly improves agreement with both ALICE and PHENIX measurements of direct photons, supporting the idea that thermal photons are the dominant source of direct photon momentum anisotropy. The event-by-event hydrodynamical model uses the impact parameter dependent Glasma model (IP-Glasma) initial states and includes, for the first time, both shear and bulk viscosities, along with second-order couplings between the two viscosities. Furthermore, the effect of both shear and bulk viscosities on the photon rates ismore » studied, and those transport coefficients are shown to have measurable consequences on the photon momentum anisotropy.« less

  18. Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

    2010-01-08

    To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

  19. Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

    2009-06-09

    To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

  20. Final Report for Project ``Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich W. Heinz

    2012-11-09

    In the course of this project the Ohio State University group led by the PI, Professor Ulrich Heinz, developed a comprehensive theoretical picture of the dynamical evolution of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions and of the numerous experimental observables that can be used to diagnose the evolving and short-lived hot and dense fireball created in such collisions. Starting from a qualitative understanding of the main features based on earlier research during the last decade of the twentieth century on collisions at lower energies, the group exploited newly developed theoretical tools and the stream of new high-quality data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory (which started operations in the summer of the year 2000) to arrive at an increasingly quantitative description of the experimentally observed phenomena. Work done at Ohio State University (OSU) was instrumental in the discovery during the years 2001-2003 that quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in nuclear collisions at RHIC behaves like an almost perfect liquid with minimal viscosity. The tool of relativistic fluid dynamics for viscous liquids developed at OSU in the years 2005-2007 opened the possibility to quantitatively determine the value of the QGP viscosity empirically from experimental measurements of the collective flow patterns established in the collisions. A first quantitative extraction of the QGP shear viscosity, with controlled theoretical uncertainty estimates, was achieved during the last year of this project in 2010. OSU has paved the way for a transition of the field of relativistic heavy-ion physics from a qualitative discovery stage to a new stage of quantitative precision in the description of quark-gluon plasma properties. To gain confidence in the precision of our theoretical understanding of quark-gluon plasma dynamics, one must test it on a large set of experimentally measured observables. This achievement report demonstrates that we have, at

  1. Fourth workshop on experiments and detectors for a relativistic heavy ion collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fatyga, M.; Moskowitz, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: physics at RHIC; flavor flow from quark-gluon plasma; space-time quark-gluon cascade; jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions; parton distributions in hard nuclear collisions; experimental working groups, two-arm electron/photon spectrometer collaboration; total and elastic pp cross sections; a 4{pi} tracking TPC magnetic spectrometer; hadron spectroscopy; efficiency and background simulations for J/{psi} detection in the RHIC dimuon experiment; the collision regions beam crossing geometries; Monte Carlo simulations of interactions and detectors; proton-nucleus interactions; the physics of strong electromagnetic fields in collisions of relativistic heavy ions; a real time expert system for experimental high energy/nuclear physics; the development of silicon multiplicity detectors; a pad readout detector for CRID/tracking; RHIC TPC R D progress and goals; development of analog memories for RHIC detector front-end electronic systems; calorimeter/absorber optimization for a RHIC dimuon experiment; construction of a highly segmented high resolution TOF system; progress report on a fast, particle-identifying trigger based on ring-imaging and highly integrated electronics for a TPC detector.

  2. Quark-gluon plasma in the early Universe and in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greco, V.

    2014-05-09

    We briefly give an elementary introduction to the expansion of the Early Universe till when the phase transition of the quark-gluon plasma to a hadronic matter takes place. Then we describe some main element of the study of QGP by mean of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions (uRHIC's)

  3. Relativistic heavy ion physics. Progress report, November 15, 1992--November 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.

    1993-11-01

    This is a progress report for the period May 1992 through April 1993. The first section, entitled ``Purpose and Trends, gives background on the recent trends in the research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled ``Physics Research Progress``, is divided into four parts: participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator; joining E864 at the AGS accelerator and the role in that experiment; progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation highlight of this endeavor is an experiment carried out with the {sup 197}Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1992; progress in completion of the nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks, and contributed talks is given.

  4. Constraining the viscous freeze-out distribution function with data obtained at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luzum, Matthew; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the form of the viscous correction to the equilibrium distribution function in the context of a Cooper-Frye freeze-out prescription for viscous hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic heavy ion collisions. The standard quadratic ansatz used by all groups for the case of shear viscosity is found to be disfavored by experimental data for v{sub 4}/(v{sub 2}){sup 2} at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and is unlikely to be correct for the hadron resonance gas present at freeze-out. Instead, data for v{sub 2}(p{sub t}) along with v{sub 4}/(v{sub 2}){sup 2} favor a momentum dependence between linear and quadratic.

  5. Operational head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Altinbas, Z.; Costanzo, M.; Hock, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T. A.; et al

    2015-12-23

    Head-on beam-beam compensation has been implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in order to increase the luminosity delivered to the experiments. We discuss the principle of combining a lattice for resonance driving term compensation and an electron lens for tune spread compensation. We describe the electron lens technology and its operational use. As of this date the implemented compensation scheme approximately doubled the peak and average luminosities.

  6. (3+1)D hydrodynamic simulation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenke, Bjoern; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2010-07-15

    We present music, an implementation of the Kurganov-Tadmor algorithm for relativistic 3+1 dimensional fluid dynamics in heavy-ion collision scenarios. This Riemann-solver-free, second-order, high-resolution scheme is characterized by a very small numerical viscosity and its ability to treat shocks and discontinuities very well. We also incorporate a sophisticated algorithm for the determination of the freeze-out surface using a three dimensional triangulation of the hypersurface. Implementing a recent lattice based equation of state, we compute p{sub T}-spectra and pseudorapidity distributions for Au+Au collisions at sq root(s)=200 GeV and present results for the anisotropic flow coefficients v{sub 2} and v{sub 4} as a function of both p{sub T} and pseudorapidity eta. We were able to determine v{sub 4} with high numerical precision, finding that it does not strongly depend on the choice of initial condition or equation of state.

  7. Two-photon interactions with nuclear breakup in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltz, Anthony J.; Gorbunov, Yuri; Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2009-10-15

    Highly charged relativistic heavy ions have high cross sections for two-photon interactions. The photon flux is high enough that two-photon interactions may be accompanied by additional photonuclear interactions. Except for the shared impact parameter, these interactions are independent. Additional interactions like mutual Coulomb excitation are of experimental interest, because the neutrons from the nuclear dissociation provide a simple, relatively unbiased trigger. We calculate the cross sections, rapidity, mass, and transverse momentum (p{sub T}) distributions for exclusive {gamma}{gamma} production of mesons and lepton pairs and for {gamma}{gamma} reactions accompanied by mutual Coulomb dissociation. The cross sections for {gamma}{gamma} interactions accompanied by multiple neutron emission (XnXn) and single-neutron emission (1n1n) are about 1/10 and 1/100 of that for the unaccompanied {gamma}{gamma} interactions. We discuss the accuracy with which these cross sections may be calculated. The typical p{sub T} of {gamma}{gamma} final states is several times smaller than for comparable coherent photonuclear interactions, so p{sub T} may be an effective tool for separating the two classes of interactions.

  8. Two-Photon Interactions with Nuclear Breakup in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltz, Anthony J.; Gorbunov, Yuri; R Klein, Spencer; Nystrand, Joakim

    2010-07-07

    Highly charged relativistic heavy ions have high cross-sections for two-photon interactions. The photon flux is high enough that two-photon interactions may be accompanied by additional photonuclear interactions. Except for the shared impact parameter, these interactions are independent. Additional interactions like mutual Coulomb excitation are of experimental interest, since the neutrons from the nuclear dissociation provide a simple, relatively unbiased trigger. We calculate the cross sections, rapidity, mass and transverse momentum (p{sub T}) distributions for exclusive {gamma}{gamma} production of mesons and lepton pairs, and for {gamma}{gamma} reactions accompanied by mutual Coulomb dissociation. The cross-sections for {gamma}{gamma} interactions accompanied by multiple neutron emission (XnXn) and single neutron emission (1n1n) are about 1/10 and 1/100 of that for the unaccompanied {gamma}{gamma} interactions. We discuss the accuracy with which these cross-sections may be calculated. The typical p{sub T} of {gamma}{gamma} final states is several times smaller than for comparable coherent photonuclear interactions, so p{sub T} may be an effective tool for separating the two classes of interactions.

  9. Optics measurement and correction during beam acceleration in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.

    2014-09-09

    To minimize operational complexities, setup of collisions in high energy circular colliders typically involves acceleration with near constant β-functions followed by application of strong focusing quadrupoles at the interaction points (IPs) for the final beta-squeeze. At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam acceleration and optics squeeze are performed simultaneously. In the past, beam optics correction at RHIC has taken place at injection and at final energy with some interpolation of corrections into the acceleration cycle. Recent measurements of the beam optics during acceleration and squeeze have evidenced significant beta-beats which if corrected could minimize undesirable emittance dilutions and maximize the spin polarization of polarized proton beams by avoidance of higher-order multipole fields sampled by particles within the bunch. In this report the methodology now operational at RHIC for beam optics corrections during acceleration with simultaneous beta-squeeze will be presented together with measurements which conclusively demonstrate the superior beam control. As a valuable by-product, the corrections have minimized the beta-beat at the profile monitors so reducing the dominant error in and providing more precise measurements of the evolution of the beam emittances during acceleration.

  10. Dynamical heavy-quark recombination and the nonphotonic single-electron puzzle at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Magnin, J.; Montano, Luis Manuel; Sanchez, G. Toledo

    2009-12-15

    We show that the single, nonphotonic electron nuclear modification factor R{sub AA}{sup e} is affected by the thermal enhancement of the heavy-baryon-to-heavy-meson ratio in relativistic heavy-ion collisions with respect to proton-proton collisions. We make use of the dynamical quark recombination model to compute such a ratio and show that this produces a sizable suppression factor for R{sub AA}{sup e} at intermediate transverse momenta. We argue that this suppression factor needs to be considered, in addition to the energy loss contribution, in calculations of R{sub AA}{sup e}.

  11. Strangeness signals in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remsberg, L.P.

    1992-11-01

    The experimental data on strange meson and strange baryon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions are reviewed.

  12. Strangeness signals in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remsberg, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental data on strange meson and strange baryon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions are reviewed.

  13. Time evolution of the luminosity of colliding heavy-ion beams in BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce, R.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Jowett, J.M.; Fischer, W.

    2010-09-07

    We have studied the time evolution of the heavy ion luminosity and bunch intensities in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), at BNL, and in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN. First, we present measurements from a large number of RHIC stores (from Run 7), colliding 100 GeV/nucleon {sup 197}Au{sup 79}+ beams without stochastic cooling. These are compared with two different calculation methods. The first is a simulation based on multi-particle tracking taking into account collisions, intrabeam scattering, radiation damping, and synchrotron and betatron motion. In the second, faster, method, a system of ordinary differential equations with terms describing the corresponding effects on emittances and bunch populations is solved numerically. Results of the tracking method agree very well with the RHIC data. With the faster method, significant discrepancies are found since the losses of particles diffusing out of the RF bucket due to intrabeam scattering are not modeled accurately enough. Finally, we use both methods to make predictions of the time evolution of the future {sup 208}Pb+{sup 82+} beams in the LHC at injection and collision energy. For this machine, the two methods agree well.

  14. Bulk matter evolution and extraction of jet transport parameters in heavy-ion collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xiaofang; Greiner, Carsten; Wang Enke; Wang Xinnian; Xu Zhe

    2010-06-15

    Within the picture of jet quenching induced by multiple parton scattering and gluon bremsstrahlung, medium modification of parton fragmentation functions and therefore the suppression of large transverse-momentum hadron spectra are controlled by both the value and the space-time profile of the jet transport parameter along the jet propagation path. Experimental data on single-hadron suppression in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energy are analyzed within the higher-twist (HT) approach to the medium-modified fragmentation functions and the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD parton model. Assuming that the jet transport parameter q is proportional to the particle number density in both quark gluon plasma (QGP) and hadronic phase, experimental data on jet quenching in deeply inelastic scattering off nuclear targets can provide guidance on q{sub h} in the hot hadronic matter. One can then study the dependence of the extracted initial value of jet-quenching parameter q{sub 0} at initial time tau{sub 0} on the bulk medium evolution. Effects of transverse expansion, radial flow, phase transition, and nonequilibrium evolution are examined. The extracted values are found to vary from q{sub 0}tau{sub 0}=0.54 GeV{sup 2} in the (1+3)d ideal hydrodynamic model to 0.96 GeV{sup 2} in a cascade model, with the main differences coming from the initial nonequilibrium evolution and the later hadronic evolution. The overall contribution to jet quenching from the hadronic phase, about 22%-44%, is found to be significant. Therefore, a realistic description of the early nonequilibrium parton evolution and later hadronic interaction will be critical for accurate extraction of the jet transport parameter in the strongly interacting QGP phase in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  15. J/{psi} production and elliptic flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Taesoo; Xu Jun; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng

    2011-01-15

    Using the two-component model for charmonium production, which includes contributions from both initial hard nucleon-nucleon scattering and from regeneration in the quark-gluon plasma, we study the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} and elliptic flow v{sub 2} of J/{psi} in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. For the expansion dynamics of produced hot, dense matter, we introduce a schematic fireball model with its transverse acceleration determined from the pressure gradient inside the fireball and azimuthally anisotropic expansion parametrized to reproduce measured v{sub 2} of light hadrons. We assume that light hadrons freeze out at the temperature of 120 MeV while charmonia freeze out at 160 MeV, similar to the kinetic and chemical freeze-out temperatures in the statistical model, respectively. For the properties of charmonia in the quark-gluon plasma, we use the screening mass between their charm and anticharm quarks and their dissociation cross sections given by the perturbative quantum chromodynamical (pQCD) calculations in the leading order and up to the next-to-leading order, respectively. For the relaxation time of charm and anticharm quarks in the quark-gluon plasma, we also use the one calculated in the leading-order pQCD. Modeling the effect of higher-order corrections in pQCD by introducing multiplicative factors to the dissociation cross sections of charmonia and the elastic scattering cross sections of charm and anticharm quarks, we find that this effect is small for the R{sub AA} of J/{psi} as they suppress the number of initially produced J/{psi} but enhance the number of regenerated ones. The higher-order corrections increase, however, the v{sub 2} of J/{psi}. Our results suggest that the v{sub 2} of J/{psi} can play an important role in discriminating between J/{psi} production from initial hard collisions and from regeneration in the quark-gluon plasma.

  16. Event-shape fluctuations and flow correlations in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jia, Jiangyong

    2014-12-01

    I review recent measurements of a large set of flow observables associated with event-shape fluctuations and collective expansion in heavy ion collisions. First, these flow observables are classified and experiment methods are introduced. The experimental results for each type of observables are then presented and compared to theoretical calculations. A coherent picture of initial condition and collective flow based on linear and non-linear hydrodynamic responses is derived, which qualitatively describe most experimental results. I discuss new types of fluctuation measurements that can further our understanding of the event-shape fluctuations and collective expansion dynamics.

  17. The Smallest Drops of the Hottest Matter? New Investigations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (493rd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickles, Anne

    2014-03-19

    Pool sharks at the billiards hall know that sometimes you aim to rocket the cue ball for a head-on collision, and other times, a mere glance will do. Physicists need to know more than a thing or two about collision geometry too, as they sift through data from the billions of ions that smash together at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Determining whether ions crash head-on or just glance is crucial for the physicists analyzing data to study quark-gluon plasmathe ultra-hot, "perfect" liquid of quarks and gluons that existed more than 13 billion years ago, before the first protons and neutrons formed. For these physicists, collision geometry data provides insights about quark-gluon plasma's extremely low viscosity and other unusual properties, which are essential for understanding more about the "strong force" that holds together the nucleus, protons, and neutrons of every atom in the universe. Dr. Sickles explains how physicists use data collected at house-sized detectors like PHENIX and STAR to determine what happens before, during, and after individual particle collisions among billions at RHIC. She also explains how the ability to collide different "species" of nuclei at RHICincluding protons and gold ions today and possibly more with a proposed future electron-ion collider upgrade (eRHIC)enables physicists to probe deeper into the mysteries of quark-gluon plasma and the strong force.

  18. Effects of momentum conservation and flow on angular correlations observed in experiments at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Scott; Schlichting, Soeren; Gavin, Sean

    2011-08-15

    Correlations of azimuthal angles observed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider have gained great attention due to the prospect of identifying fluctuations of parity-odd regions in the field sector of QCD. Whereas the observable of interest related to parity fluctuations involves subtracting opposite-sign from same-sign correlations, the STAR collaboration reported the same-sign and opposite-sign correlations separately. It is shown here how momentum conservation combined with collective elliptic flow contributes significantly to this class of correlations, although not to the difference between the opposite- and same-sign observables. The effects are modeled with a crude simulation of a pion gas. Although the simulation reproduces the scale of the correlation, the centrality dependence is found to be sufficiently different in character to suggest additional considerations beyond those present in the pion gas simulation presented here.

  19. Early anisotropic hydrodynamics and thermalization and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss puzzles in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Florkowski, Wojciech

    2010-08-15

    We address the problem of whether the early thermalization and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) puzzles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions may be solved by the assumption that the early dynamics of the produced matter is locally anisotropic. The hybrid model describing the purely transverse hydrodynamic evolution followed by the perfect-fluid hydrodynamic stage is constructed. The transition from the transverse to perfect-fluid hydrodynamics is described by the Landau matching conditions applied at a fixed proper time {tau}{sub tr}. The global fit to the RHIC data reproduces the soft hadronic observables (the pion, kaon, and the proton spectra, the pion and kaon elliptic flow, and the pion HBT radii) with the accuracy of about 20%. These results indicate that the assumption of the very fast thermalization may be relaxed. In addition, the presented model suggests that a large part of the inconsistencies between the theoretical and experimental HBT results may be removed.

  20. Jet energy loss, photon production, and photon-hadron correlations at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin Guangyou; Ruppert, Joerg; Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong; Moore, Guy D.

    2009-11-15

    Jet energy loss, photon production, and photon-hadron correlations are studied together at high transverse momentum in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energies. The modification of hard jets traversing a hot and dense nuclear medium is evaluated by consistently taking into account induced gluon radiation and elastic collisions. The production of high-transverse-momentum photons in Au+Au collisions at RHIC is calculated by incorporating a complete set of photon-production channels. Comparison with experimental photon production and photon-hadron correlation data is performed, using a (3+1)-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic description of the thermalized medium created in these collisions. Our results demonstrate that the interaction between the hard jets and the soft medium is important for the study of photon production and of photon-hadron correlation at RHIC.

  1. A tale of tails: Photon rates and flow in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McLerran, Larry; Schenke, Björn

    2016-02-01

    We consider the possibility that quark and gluon distributions in the medium created in high energy heavy ion collisions may be modified by a power law tail at energies much higher than the temperature. We parametrize such a tail by Tsallis distributions with an exponent motivated by phenomenology. These distributions are characterized by an effective temperature scale that we assume to evolve in time like the temperature for thermal distributions. We find that including such a tail increases the rates for photon production and significantly delays the emission times for photons of a fixed energy. Finally, we argue that thesemore » effects should modify photon yields and flow patterns in a way that will help the agreement of theoretical calculations with data from LHC and RHIC experiments.« less

  2. Relativistic heavy ion research. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State Univ. , Detroit, Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Experimental work is reported on the following topics: transverse energy production in 10.7-GeV/c/u Au on Au collisions; first results on delta ray production and charged particle multiplicities with the Au beam at 10.7 GeV/c/A; preliminary studies on the feasibility of flow measurement with the E814 participant calorimeter; preliminary results from the E877 telescope; and low-p[sub t] baryon distribution in Si+Al, Pb collisions at the AGS. Then the status of the Hadronic Calorimeter project of AGS Experiment E864 (ECOS--Exotic Composite Object Spectrometer) is reviewed. Next, the same is done for work of the STAR RHIC collaboration (Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) project evolution and development in FY92, SVT software results from 1992, SVT instrumentation, FY93 SVT pion test beam). The instrumentation section deals with the design and installation of a target rapidity telescope for BNL experiment 814/877 and a repair scheme for the E814/E877 participant calorimeter. Finally, the theory part addresses bosonic kinetics: thermalization of mesons and the pion p[sub perpendicular] spectrum in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions and non-equilibrium properties of hadronic mixtures.

  3. Relativistic heavy ion research. Annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Experimental work is reported on the following topics: transverse energy production in 10.7-GeV/c/u Au on Au collisions; first results on delta ray production and charged particle multiplicities with the Au beam at 10.7 GeV/c/A; preliminary studies on the feasibility of flow measurement with the E814 participant calorimeter; preliminary results from the E877 telescope; and low-p{sub t} baryon distribution in Si+Al, Pb collisions at the AGS. Then the status of the Hadronic Calorimeter project of AGS Experiment E864 (ECOS--Exotic Composite Object Spectrometer) is reviewed. Next, the same is done for work of the STAR RHIC collaboration (Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) project evolution and development in FY92, SVT software results from 1992, SVT instrumentation, FY93 SVT pion test beam). The instrumentation section deals with the design and installation of a target rapidity telescope for BNL experiment 814/877 and a repair scheme for the E814/E877 participant calorimeter. Finally, the theory part addresses bosonic kinetics: thermalization of mesons and the pion p{sub perpendicular} spectrum in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions and non-equilibrium properties of hadronic mixtures.

  4. Vector meson production in coherent hadronic interactions: Update on predictions for energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncalves, V. P.; Machado, M. V. T.

    2011-07-15

    In this Rapid Communication we update our predictions for the photoproduction of vector mesons in coherent pp and AA collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies using the color dipole approach and the Color Glass Condensate formalism. In particular, we present our predictions for the first run of the LHC at half energy and for the rapidity dependence of the ratio between the J/{Psi} and {rho} cross sections at RHIC energies.

  5. Charge conservation at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and contributions to local parity violation observables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlichting, Soeren; Pratt, Scott

    2011-01-15

    Relativistic heavy ion collisions provide laboratory environments from which one can study the creation of a novel state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma. The existence of such a state is postulated to alter the mechanism and evolution of charge production, which then becomes manifest in charge correlations. We study the separation of balancing charges at kinetic freeze-out by analyzing recent results on balancing charge correlations for Au + Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV. We find that in central collisions, the spatial points from which balancing charges are emitted are characterized by smaller relative angles. These results are consistent with the expectation that charge production occurred later in the collision, as would be expected for delayed hadronization. An alternative explanation would be that the charges were produced early, perhaps with a different mechanism where the charge production mechanism was altered from string breaking which tends to separate the charges in relative rapidity. The alternative explanation would also rely on the diffusion of charges being small. In addition we calculate the contributions from charge-balance correlations to STAR's local parity violation observable. We find that local charge conservation, when combined with elliptic flow, explains the bulk of STAR's measurement.

  6. Photoproduction of {rho}{sup 0} mesons in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncalves, V. P.; Machado, M. V. T.

    2009-11-15

    We investigate the photoproduction of {rho} mesons in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies in the dipole approach and within two phenomenological models based on the color glass condensate (CGC) formalism. We estimate the integrated cross section and rapidity distribution for meson production and compare our predictions with the data from the STAR Collaboration. In particular, we demonstrate that the total cross section at RHIC is strongly dependent on the energy behavior of the dipole-target cross section at low energies, which is not well determined in the dipole approach. In contrast, the predictions at midrapidities at RHIC and in the full rapidity at LHC are under theoretical control and can be used to test QCD dynamics at high energies.

  7. PHENIX Conceptual Design Report. An experiment to be performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagamiya, Shoji; Aronson, Samuel H.; Young, Glenn R.; Paffrath, Leo

    1993-01-29

    The PHENIX Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the detector design of the PHENIX experiment for Day-1 operation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The CDR presents the physics capabilities, technical details, cost estimate, construction schedule, funding profile, management structure, and possible upgrade paths of the PHENIX experiment. The primary goals of the PHENIX experiment are to detect the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and to measure its properties. Many of the potential signatures for the QGP are measured as a function of a well-defined common variable to see if any or all of these signatures show a simultaneous anomaly due to the formation of the QGP. In addition, basic quantum chromodynamics phenomena, collision dynamics, and thermodynamic features of the initial states of the collision are studied. To achieve these goals, the PHENIX experiment measures lepton pairs (dielectrons and dimuons) to study various properties of vector mesons, such as the mass, the width, and the degree of yield suppression due to the formation of the QGP. The effect of thermal radiation on the continuum is studied in different regions of rapidity and mass. The e{mu} coincidence is measured to study charm production, and aids in understanding the shape of the continuum dilepton spectrum. Photons are measured to study direct emission of single photons and to study {pi}{sup 0} and {eta} production. Charged hadrons are identified to study the spectrum shape, production of antinuclei, the {phi} meson (via K{sup +}K{sup {minus}} decay), jets, and two-boson correlations. The measurements are made down to small cross sections to allow the study of high p{sub T} spectra, and J/{psi} and {Upsilon} production. The PHENIX collaboration consists of over 300 scientists, engineers, and graduate students from 43 institutions in 10 countries. This large international collaboration is supported by US resources and significant foreign resources.

  8. v{sub 4} from ideal and viscous hydrodynamic simulations of nuclear collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luzum, Matthew; Gombeaud, Clement; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2010-05-15

    We compute v{sub 4}/(v{sub 2}){sup 2} in ideal and viscous hydrodynamics. We investigate its sensitivity to details of the hydrodynamic model and compare the results to experimental data from the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Whereas v{sub 2} has a significant sensitivity only to initial eccentricity and viscosity while being insensitive to freeze-out temperature, we find that v{sub 4}/(v{sub 2}){sup 2} is quite insensitive to initial eccentricity. On the other hand, it can still be sensitive to shear viscosity in addition to freeze-out temperature, although viscous effects do not universally increase v{sub 4}/(v{sub 2}){sup 2} as originally predicted. Consistent with data, we find no dependence on particle species. We also make a prediction for v{sub 4}/(v{sub 2}){sup 2} in heavy ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  9. Summary of heavy ion theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavin, S.

    1994-09-01

    Can we study hot QCD using nuclear collisions? Can we learn about metallic hydrogen from the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter? The answer to both questions may surprise you! I summarize progress in relativistic heavy ion theory reported at DPF `94 in the parallel sessions.

  10. Conservation laws and multiplicity evolution of spectra at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chajecki, Zbigniew; Lisa, Mike

    2009-03-15

    Transverse momentum distributions in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions carry considerable information about the dynamics of the hot system produced. Direct comparison with the same spectra from p+p collisions has proved invaluable in identifying novel features associated with the larger system, in particular, the 'jet quenching' at high momentum and the apparently much stronger collective flow dominating the spectral shape at low momentum. We point out possible hazards of ignoring conservation laws in the comparison of high- and low-multiplicity final states. We argue that the effects of energy and momentum conservation actually dominate many of the observed systematics, and that p+p collisions may be much more similar to heavy ion collisions than generally thought.

  11. A new scheme of causal viscous hydrodynamics for relativistic heavy-ion collisions: A Riemann solver for quarkgluon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akamatsu, Yukinao; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Nonaka, Chiho; Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 ; Takamoto, Makoto; Max-Planck-Institut fr Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, 69029 Heidelberg

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a state-of-the-art algorithm for solving the relativistic viscous hydrodynamics equation with the QCD equation of state. The numerical method is based on the second-order Godunov method and has less numerical dissipation, which is crucial in describing of quarkgluon plasma in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We apply the algorithm to several numerical test problems such as sound wave propagation, shock tube and blast wave problems. In sound wave propagation, the intrinsic numerical viscosity is measured and its explicit expression is shown, which is the second-order of spatial resolution both in the presence and absence of physical viscosity. The expression of the numerical viscosity can be used to determine the maximum cell size in order to accurately measure the effect of physical viscosity in the numerical simulation.

  12. Strange quark suppression and strange hadron production in pp collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long Haiyan; Feng Shengqin; Zhou Daimei; Yan Yuliang; Ma Hailiang; Sa Benhao

    2011-09-15

    The parton and hadron cascade model PACIAE based on PYTHIA is utilized to systematically investigate strange particle production in pp collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Globally speaking, the PACIAE results of the strange particle rapidity density at midrapidity and the transverse momentum distribution are better than those of PYTHIA (default) in comparison with STAR and ALICE experimental data. This may represent the importance of the parton and hadron rescatterings, as well as the reduction mechanism of strange quark suppression, added in the PACIAE model. The K/{pi} ratios as a function of reaction energy in pp collisions from CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) to LHC energies are also analyzed in this paper.

  13. Medium-modified jets and initial state fluctuations as sources of charge correlations measured at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, Hannah; Bass, Steffen A.; Renk, Thorsten

    2011-01-15

    We investigate the contribution of medium-modified jets and initial state fluctuations to the asymmetry in charged-particle production with respect to the reaction plane. This asymmetry has been suggested as a compelling signature for the chiral magnetic effect in QCD and makes the study of conventional scenarios for the creation of such charged-particle multiplicity fluctuations a timely endeavor. The different path-length combinations of jets through the medium in noncentral heavy ion collisions result in finite correlations of like and different charged particles emitted in the different hemispheres. Our calculation is based on the combination of jet events from Yet another Jet Energy-Loss Model (YaJEM) and a bulk-medium evolution. It is found that the jet production probabilities are too small to observe this effect. The influence of initial state fluctuations on this observable is explored by using an event-by-event (3+1)-dimensional hybrid approach that is based on Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) with an ideal hydrodynamic evolution. In this calculation, momentum conservation and elliptic flow are explicitly taken into account. The asymmetries in the initial state are translated to a final state momentum asymmetry by the hydrodynamic flow profile. Dependent on the size of the initial state fluctuations, the resulting charged-particle asymmetries are in qualitative agreement with the preliminary STAR (solenoid tracker at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) results. The multiparticle correlation as proposed by the PHENIX Collaboration can, in principle, be used to disentangle the different contributions, however, in practice, is affected substantially by the procedure to subtract trivial resonance decay contributions.

  14. Azimuthally sensitive femtoscopy in hydrodynamics with statistical hadronization from the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider to the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisiel, Adam; Broniowski, Wojciech; Florkowski, Wojciech; Chojnacki, Mikolaj

    2009-01-15

    Azimuthally sensitive femtoscopy for heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is explored within the approach consisting of the hydrodynamics of perfect fluid followed by statistical hadronization. It is found that for the RHIC initial conditions, employing the Gaussian shape of the initial energy density, the very same framework that reproduces the standard soft observables [including the transverse-momentum spectra, the elliptic flow, and the azimuthally averaged Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) radii] leads to a proper description of the azimuthally sensitive femtoscopic observables; we find that the azimuthal variation of the side and out HBT radii as well as out-side cross term are very well reproduced for all centralities. Concerning the dependence of the femtoscopic parameters on k{sub T} we find that it is very well reproduced. The model is then extrapolated to the LHC energy. We predict the overall moderate growth of the HBT radii and the decrease of their azimuthal oscillations. Such effects are naturally caused by longer evolution times. In addition, we discuss in detail the space-time patterns of particle emission. We show that they are quite complex and argue that the overall shape seen by the femtoscopic methods cannot be easily disentangled on the basis of simple-minded arguments.

  15. THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER (RHIC) CRYOGENIC SYSTEM AT BNL: REVIEW OF THE MODIFICATIONS AND UPGRADES SINCE 2002 AND PLANNED IMPROVEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    THAN,Y.R.; TUOZZOLO, J.; SIDI-YAKHLEF, A.; GANNI, V.; KNUDSEN, P.; ARENIUS, D.

    2007-07-16

    Brookhaven National Laboratory continues its multi-year program to improve the operational efficiency, reliability, and stability of the cryogenic system which also resulted in improved beam availability of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This paper summarizes the work and changes made after each phase over the past four years to the present, as well as proposed future improvements. Power usage dropped from an initial 9.4 MW to the present 5.1 MW and is expected to drop below 5 MW after the completion of the remaining proposed improvements. The work proceeded in phases by balancing the Collider's schedule of operation, time required for the modifications and budget constraints. The main changes include process control, compressor oil removal and management, elimination of the use of cold compressors and two liquid helium storage tanks, insulation of the third liquid helium storage tank, compressor bypass flow reduction and the addition of a load turbine (Joule-Thompson expander) with associated heat exchangers at the cold end of the plant. Also, liquid helium pumps used for forced circulation of the sub-cooled helium through the magnet loops were eliminated by an accelerator supply flow reconfiguration. Planned future upgrades include the resizing of expanders 5 and 6 to increase their efficiencies.

  16. Kaon and pion femtoscopy at the highest energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in a hydrokinetic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpenko, Iu. A.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.

    2010-05-15

    The hydrokinetic approach that incorporates hydrodynamic expansion of the systems formed in A+A collisions and their dynamical decoupling is applied to restore the initial conditions and space-time picture of the matter evolution in central Au+Au collisions at the top Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energy. The analysis is based on the detailed reproduction of the pion and kaon momentum spectra and femtoscopic data in whole interval of the transverse momenta studied by both the STAR and the PHENIX collaborations. The fitting procedure utilizes the two parameters: the maximal energy density at supposed thermalization time 1 fm/c and the strength of the prethermal flows developed to this time. The quark-gluon plasma and hadronic gas is supposed to be in complete local equilibrium above the chemical freeze-out temperature T{sub ch}=165 MeV with the equation of states (EoS) at high temperatures as in the lattice QCD. Below T{sub ch} the EoS in the expanding and gradually decoupling fluid depends on the composition of the hadron-resonance gas at each space-time point and accounts for decays of resonances into the nonequilibrated medium. A good description of the pion and kaon transverse momentum spectra and interferometry radii is reached at both used initial energy density profiles motivated by the Glauber and color glass condensate models, however, at different initial energy densities. The discussion as for the approximate pion and kaon m{sub T} scaling for the interferometry radii is based on a comparison of the emission functions for these particles.

  17. Breaking of the number-of-constituent-quark scaling for identified-particle elliptic flow as a signal of phase change in low-energy data taken at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, J.; Jin, F.; Zhang, S.; Chen, J. H.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Ma, G. L.; Zhong, C.

    2009-06-15

    We argue that measurements of identified-particle elliptic flow in a wide energy range could shed light on the possible phase change in high-energy heavy ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). When the hadronization process is dominated by quark coalescence, the number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ) scaling for the identified-particle elliptic flow can serve as a probe for studying the strong interacting partonic matter. In the upcoming RHIC low-energy runs, the NCQ scaling behavior may be broken because of the change of the effective degrees of freedom of the hot dense matter, which corresponds to the transition from the dominant partonic phase to the dominant hadronic phase. A multiphase transport model is used to present the dependence of NCQ scaling behavior on the different hadronization mechanisms.

  18. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  19. SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS Experimental Determination of the Symmetry Energy of a Low Density Nuclear Gas ......II-1 S. ...

  20. Characterizing Heavy Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Ion Reactions in the 1980's Is there Treasure at the end of the Rainbow? & What happens and how do different modes compete? John Schiffer One of the three research areas for ATLAS, as stated in a 1984 document to Congress: Are there some new marvelous symmetries, hidden in resonances in heavier nuclei, beyond 12 C+ 12 C and its immediate vicinity? (s.c. linac work, pre-ATLAS) Other attempts to chase the rainbow 180 o elastic scattering of 12 C on 40 Ca shows structure Fusion of 16 O on

  1. Significant in-medium {eta}{sup '} mass reduction in {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vertesi, R.; Sziklai, J.; Csoergo, T.

    2011-05-15

    In high-energy heavy ion collisions a hot and dense medium is formed, where the U{sub A}(1) or chiral symmetry may temporarily be restored. As a consequence, the mass of the {eta}{sup '}(958) mesons may be reduced to its quark model value, and the abundance of {eta}{sup '} mesons at low p{sub T} may be enhanced by more than a factor of 10. The intercept parameter {lambda}{sub *} of the charged pion Bose Einstein correlations provides a sensitive observable of the possibly enhanced {eta}{sup '} abundance. We have analyzed {lambda}{sub *}(m{sub T}) data from {radical}(s{sub N{sub N}})=200 GeV central Au+Au reactions measured at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), using extensive Monte Carlo simulations based on six popular models for hadronic multiplicities. Based on the combined STAR and PHENIX data set, and on various systematic investigations of resonance multiplicities and model parameters, we conclude that in {radical}(s{sub N{sub N}})=200 GeV central Au+Au reactions the mass of the {eta}{sup '} meson is reduced by {Delta}m{sub {eta}}{sup '*}>200 MeV, at the 99.9% confidence level in the considered model class. Such a significant {eta}{sup '} mass modification may indicate the restoration of the U{sub A}(1) symmetry in a hot and dense hadronic matter and the return of the ninth ''prodigal'' Goldstone boson. A similar analysis of NA44 S+Pb data at top CERN Super Proton Synchroton (SPS) energies showed no significant in-medium {eta}{sup '} mass modification.

  2. Centrality-dependent direct photon p{sub t} spectra in Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Fuming; Zhu Yan; Hirano, Tetsufumi; Werner, Klaus

    2009-01-15

    We calculate the centrality dependence of transverse momentum (p{sub t}) spectra for direct photons in Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV, based on a realistic data-constrained (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamic description of the expanding hot and dense matter, a reasonable treatment of the propagation of partons and their energy loss in the fluid, and a systematic study of the main sources of direct photons. The resultant p{sub t} spectra agree with recent PHENIX data in a broad p{sub t} range. The competition among the different direct photon sources is investigated at various centralities. Parton energy loss in the plasma is considered for photons from fragmentation and jet-photon conversion, which causes about 40% decrease in the total contribution. In the high p{sub t} region, the observed R{sub AA} of photons is centrality independent at the accuracy of 5% based on a realistic treatment of energy loss. We also link the different behavior of R{sub AA} for central and peripheral collisions, in the low p{sub t} region, to the fact that the plasma in central collisions is hotter than that in peripheral ones.

  3. Heavy ion fusion--Using heavy ions to make electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-03-15

    The idea of using nuclear fusion as a source of commercial electrical power has been pursued worldwide since the 1950s. Two approaches, using magnetic and inertial confinement of the reactants, are under study. This paper describes the difference between the two approaches, and discusses in more detail the heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion concept. A multibeam induction linear accelerator would be used to bring {approx}100 heavy ion beams to a few GeV. The beams would then heat and compress a target of solid D-T. This approach is unique among fusion concepts in its ability to protect the reaction chamber wall from neutrons and debris.

  4. Tomography of quark gluon plasma at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gossiaux, P. B.; Bierkandt, R.; Aichelin, J.

    2009-04-15

    Using the recently published model [Gossiaux and Aichelin, Phys. Rev. C 78, 014904 (2008)] for the collisional energy loss of heavy quarks in a quark gluon plasma (QGP), based on perturbative QCD (pQCD) with a running coupling constant, we study the interaction between heavy quarks and plasma particles in detail. We discuss correlations between the simultaneously produced c and c quarks, study how central collisions can be experimentally selected, predict observable correlations, and extend our model to the energy domain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We finally compare the predictions of our model with that of other approaches such as anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT)

  5. Production, formation, and transport of high-brightness atomic hydrogen beam studies for the relativistic heavy ion collider polarized source upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolmogorov, A. Stupishin, N.; Atoian, G.; Ritter, J.; Zelenski, A.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk

    2014-02-15

    The RHIC polarized H{sup ?} ion source had been successfully upgraded to higher intensity and polarization by using a very high brightness fast atomic beam source developed at BINP, Novosibirsk. In this source the proton beam is extracted by a four-grid multi-aperture ion optical system and neutralized in the H{sub 2} gas cell downstream from the grids. The proton beam is extracted from plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of ?0.2 eV which is formed by plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. The multi-hole grids are spherically shaped to produce geometrical beam focusing. Proton beam formation and transport of atomic beam were experimentally studied at test bench.

  6. Relativistic calculations of isotope shifts in highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tupitsyn, I.I.; Shabaev, V.M.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Soria Orts, R.; Ullrich, J.; Draganic, I.

    2003-08-01

    The isotope shifts of forbidden transitions in Be- and B-like argon ions are calculated. It is shown that only using the relativistic recoil operator can provide a proper evaluation of the mass isotope shift, which strongly dominates over the field isotope shift for the ions under consideration. Comparing the isotope shifts calculated with the current experimental uncertainties indicates very good perspectives for a first test of the relativistic theory of the recoil effect in middle-Z ions.

  7. Physics at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1990-08-01

    This introductory talk contains a brief discussion of future experiments at RHIC related to physics of superdense matter. In particular, we consider the relation between space-time picture of the collision and spectra of the observed secondaries. We discuss where one should look for QGP signals and for possible manifestation of the phase transition. We pay more attention to a rather new topic: hadron modification in the gas phase, which is interesting by itself as a collective phenomenon, and also as a precursor indicating what happens with hadrons near the phase transition. We briefly review current understanding of the photon physics, dilepton production, charm and strangeness and J/{psi} suppression. At the end we try to classify all possible experiments. 47 refs., 3 figs.

  8. APEX heavy-ion counters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercer, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    A large solid-angle array of low-pressure multi-wire proportional counters (LPMWPC) forms part of the APEX apparatus. Eight three-element trapezoidal counters provide 360{degrees} coverage in {phi} and 20{degrees} - 70{degrees} coverage in {phi}. Angle information is obtained from a transmission-line delay cathode ({phi}) and from the segmentation ({phi}). Time-of-flight information is obtained from the anode signals. These quantities are used to extract the center-of-mass scattering angle, reaction Q value, and masses of the scattered heavy ions. Design and performance of the counters will be discussed.

  9. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-09-01

    The progress of the field of Heavy Ion Fusion has been documented in the proceedings of the series of International Symposia that, in recent years, have occurred every second year. The latest of these conferences was hosted by Gesellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (GSI) in Darmstadt, West Germany, June 28-30, 1988. For this report, a few highlights from the conference are selected, stressing experimental progress and prospects for future advances. A little extra time is devoted to report on the developments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is the center for most of the HIFAR program. The Director of the HIFAR program at LBL is Denis Keefe, who presented the HIF report at the last two of the meetings in this series, and in whose place the author is appearing now. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armesto, N; Borghini, N; Jeon, S; Wiedemann, U A; Abreu, S; Akkelin, V; Alam, J; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonuv, D; Arleo, F; Armesto, N; Arsene, I C; Barnafoldi, G G; Barrette, J; Bauchle, B; Becattini, F; Betz, B; Bleicher, M; Bluhm, M; Boer, D; Bopp, F W; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Busza, W; Cacciari, M; Capella, A; Casalderrey-Solana, J; Chatterjee, R; Chen, L; Cleymans, J; Cole, B A; delValle, Z C; Csernai, L P; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; de Deus, J D; Ding, H; Djordjevic, M; Drescher, H; Dremin, I M; Dumitru, A; El, A; Engel, R; d'Enterria, D; Eskola, K J; Fai, G; Ferreiro, E G; Fries, R J; Frodermann, E; Fujii, H; Gale, C; Gelis, F; Goncalves, V P; Greco, V; Gyulassy, M; van Hees, H; Heinz, U; Honkanen, H; Horowitz, W A; Iancu, E; Ingelman, G; Jalilian-Marian, J; Jeon, S; Kaidalov, A B; Kampfer, B; Kang, Z; Karpenko, I A; Kestin, G; Kharzeev, D; Ko, C M; Koch, B; Kopeliovich, B; Kozlov, M; Kraus, I; Kuznetsova, I; Lee, S H; Lednicky, R; Letessier, J; Levin, E; Li, B; Lin, Z; Liu, H; Liu, W; Loizides, C; Lokhtin, I P; Machado, M T; Malinina, L V; Managadze, A M; Mangano, M L; Mannarelli, M; Manuel, C; Martinez, G; Milhano, J G; Mocsy, A; Molnar, D; Nardi, M; Nayak, J K; Niemi, H; Oeschler, H; Ollitrault, J; Paic, G; Pajares, C; Pantuev, V S; Papp, G; Peressounko, D; Petreczky, P; Petrushanko, S V; Piccinini, F; Pierog, T; Pirner, H J; Porteboeuf, S; Potashnikova, I; Qin, G Y; Qiu, J; Rafelski, J; Rajagopal, K; Ranft, J; Rapp, R; Rasanen, S S; Rathsman, J; Rau, P; Redlich, K; Renk, T; Rezaeian, A H; Rischke, D; Roesler, S; Ruppert, J; Ruuskanen, P V; Salgado, C A; Sapeta, S; Sarcevic, I; Sarkar, S; Sarycheva, L I; Schmidt, I; Shoski, A I; Sinha, B; Sinyukov, Y M; Snigirev, A M; Srivastava, D K; Stachel, J; Stasto, A; Stocker, H; Teplov, C Y; Thews, R L; Torrieri, G; Pop, V T; Triantafyllopoulos, D N; Tuchin, K L; Turbide, S; Tywoniuk, K; Utermann, A; Venugopalan, R; Vitev, I; Vogt, R; Wang, E; Wang, X N; Werner, K; Wessels, E; Wheaton, S; Wicks, S; Wiedemann, U A; Wolschin, G; Xiao, B; Xu, Z; Yasui, S; Zabrodin, E; Zapp, K; Zhang, B

    2008-02-25

    In August 2006, the CERN Theory Unit announced to restructure its visitor program and to create a 'CERN Theory Institute', where 1-3 month long specific programs can take place. The first such Institute was held from 14 May to 10 June 2007, focusing on 'Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC - Last Call for Predictions'. It brought together close to 100 scientists working on the theory of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The aim of this workshop was to review and document the status of expectations and predictions for the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider LHC before its start. LHC will explore heavy ion collisions at {approx} 30 times higher center of mass energy than explored previously at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC. So, on the one hand, the charge of this workshop provided a natural forum for the exchange of the most recent ideas, and allowed to monitor how the understanding of heavy ion collisions has evolved in recent years with the data from RHIC, and with the preparation of the LHC experimental program. On the other hand, the workshop aimed at a documentation which helps to distinguish pre- from post-dictions. An analogous documentation of the 'Last Call for Predictions' [1] was prepared prior to the start of the heavy-ion program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC, and it proved useful in the subsequent discussion and interpretation of RHIC data. The present write-up is the documentation of predictions for the LHC heavy ion program, received or presented during the CERN TH Institute. The set-up of the CERN TH Institute allowed us to aim for the wide-most coverage of predictions. There were more than 100 presentations and discussions during the workshop. Moreover, those unable to attend could still participate by submitting predictions in written form during the workshop. This followed the spirit that everybody interested in making a prediction had the right to be heard. To arrive at a concise document, we required that

  11. Selected experimental results from heavy-ion collisions at LHC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Singh, Ranbir; Kumar, Lokesh; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2013-01-01

    We reviewmore » a subset of experimental results from the heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facility at CERN. Excellent consistency is observed across all the experiments at the LHC (at center of mass energysNN=2.76 TeV) for the measurements such as charged particle multiplicity density, azimuthal anisotropy coefficients, and nuclear modification factor of charged hadrons. Comparison to similar measurements from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at lower energy (sNN=200 GeV) suggests that the system formed at LHC has a higher energy density and larger system size and lives for a longer time. These measurements are compared to model calculations to obtain physical insights on the properties of matter created at the RHIC and LHC.« less

  12. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams ...

  13. Preliminary heavy ion results on the Zynq ARM (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Preliminary heavy ion results on the Zynq ARM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary heavy ion results on the Zynq ARM Authors: Quinn, Heather ...

  14. Solenoid transport for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Edward

    2004-06-15

    Solenoid transport of high current, heavy ion beams is considered for several stages of a heavy ion fusion driver. In general this option is more efficient than magnetic quadrupole transport at sufficiently low kinetic energy and/or large e/m, and for this reason it has been employed in electron induction linacs. Ideally an ion beam would be transported in a state of Brillouin flow, i.e. cold in the transverse plane and spinning at one half the cyclotron frequency. The design of appropriate solenoids and the equilibrium and stability of transported ion beams are discussed. An outline of application to a fusion driver is also presented.

  15. Heavy-quark production in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions within a partonic transport model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uphoff, Jan; Fochler, Oliver; Greiner, Carsten; Xu Zhe

    2010-10-15

    The production and space-time evolution of charm and bottom quarks in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are investigated with the partonic transport model BAMPS (Boltzmann approach of multiparton scatterings). Heavy quarks, produced in primary hard parton scatterings during nucleon-nucleon collisions, are sampled using the Monte Carlo event generator pythia or the leading-order minijet model in conjunction with the Glauber model, revealing a strong sensitivity on the parton distribution functions, scales, and heavy-quark mass. In a comprehensive study exploring different charm masses, K factors, and possible initial gluon conditions, secondary production and the evolution of heavy quarks are examined within a fully dynamic BAMPS simulation for central heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Although charm production in the quark-gluon plasma can be neglected at RHIC, it is significant at LHC but very sensitive to the initial conditions and the charm mass. Bottom production in the quark-gluon plasma, however, is negligible both at RHIC and LHC.

  16. SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for heavy element production...II-1 P. K.Sahu, J. B. Natowitz, R. Wada, K. Hagel, T. Materna, Z. Chen, L. Qin, M. Barbui,...

  17. Multistage ion acceleration in finite overdense target with a relativistic laser pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Ujjwal [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2013-07-15

    Multistage ion acceleration has been analytically and computationally studied in the relativistic regime. For non-relativistic piston velocities, this phenomenon has been described before. But, as we go to relativistic piston velocities, the non-relativistic results hold no more. We have presented a fully relativistic calculation for second stage ion velocities and energies. To verify our calculations, we performed a fully relativistic 1D3V particle in cell simulations using the code LPIC++. It has been found that the relativistic calculations matched very well with the simulation results. Also, it has been seen that at relativistic piston velocities, the non-relativistic results differed by a significant margin. The feasibility of this process has been further established by three dimensional particle in cell simulations.

  18. Synchrotrons for heavy ions: Bevalac experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grunder, H.A.; Gough, R.A.; Alonso, J.R.

    1980-10-01

    The Bevalac should be viewed not as a model of accelerator hardware - a modern heavy ion complex will look quite different, but as a model for an operating versatile multifaceted, multiuser heavy ion facility. Of value to the planning of a new accelerator such as MARIA is the knowledge of operating modes peculiar to heavy ions and specific hardware requirements to carry out its mission with the mandated flexibility and reliability. This paper starts with a discussion of parameters and machine characteristics most suitable for medical and nuclear science applications. It then covers experience in interleaving these two research programs, and finally, concentrates on accelerator configuratin questions; injectors, repetition rate, vacuum systems and cost criteria which will be relevant to the design of MARIA.

  19. Resonance of relativistic electrons with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denton, R. E.; Jordanova, V. K.; Bortnik, J.

    2015-06-29

    Relativistic electrons have been thought to more easily resonate with electromagnetic ion cyclotron EMIC waves if the total density is large. We show that, for a particular EMIC mode, this dependence is weak due to the dependence of the wave frequency and wave vector on the density. A significant increase in relativistic electron minimum resonant energy might occur for the H band EMIC mode only for small density, but no changes in parameters significantly decrease the minimum resonant energy from a nominal value. The minimum resonant energy depends most strongly on the thermal velocity associated with the field line motion of the hot ring current protons that drive the instability. High density due to a plasmasphere or plasmaspheric plume could possibly lead to lower minimum resonance energy by causing the He band EMIC mode to be dominant. We demonstrate these points using parameters from a ring current simulation.

  20. Resonance of relativistic electrons with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Denton, R. E.; Jordanova, V. K.; Bortnik, J.

    2015-06-29

    Relativistic electrons have been thought to more easily resonate with electromagnetic ion cyclotron EMIC waves if the total density is large. We show that, for a particular EMIC mode, this dependence is weak due to the dependence of the wave frequency and wave vector on the density. A significant increase in relativistic electron minimum resonant energy might occur for the H band EMIC mode only for small density, but no changes in parameters significantly decrease the minimum resonant energy from a nominal value. The minimum resonant energy depends most strongly on the thermal velocity associated with the field line motionmore » of the hot ring current protons that drive the instability. High density due to a plasmasphere or plasmaspheric plume could possibly lead to lower minimum resonance energy by causing the He band EMIC mode to be dominant. We demonstrate these points using parameters from a ring current simulation.« less

  1. Heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and RHIC II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frawley, A D; Ullrich, T; Vogt, R

    2008-03-30

    In the initial years of operation, experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have identified a new form of matter formed in nuclei-nuclei collisions at energy densities more than 100 times that of a cold atomic nucleus. Measurements and comparison with relativistic hydrodynamic models indicate that the matter thermalizes in an unexpectedly short time, has an energy density at least 15 times larger than needed for color deconfinement, has a temperature about twice the critical temperature predicted by lattice QCD, and appears to exhibit collective motion with ideal hydrodynamic properties--a 'perfect liquid' that appears to flow with a near-zero viscosity to entropy ratio--lower than any previously observed fluid and perhaps close to a universal lower bound. However, a fundamental understanding of the medium seen in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC does not yet exist. The most important scientific challenge for the field in the next decade is the quantitative exploration of the new state of nuclear matter. That will require new data that will, in turn, require enhanced capabilities of the RHIC detectors and accelerator. In this report we discuss the scientific opportunities for an upgraded RHIC facility --RHIC II--in conjunction with improved capabilities of the two large RHIC detectors, PHENIX and STAR. We focus solely on heavy flavor probes. Their production rates are calculable using the well-established techniques of perturbative QCD and their sizable interactions with the hot QCD medium provide unique and sensitive measurements of its crucial properties making them one of the key diagnostic tools available to us.

  2. Relativistic description of pair production of doubly heavy baryons in e{sup +}e{sup −} annihilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martynenko, A. P.; Trunin, A. M.

    2015-05-15

    Relativistic corrections in the pair production of S-wave doubly heavy diquarks in electron-positron annihilation were calculated on the basis of perturbative QCD and the quark model. The relativistic corrections to the wave functions for quark bound states were taken into account with the aid of the Breit potential in QCD. Relativistic effects change substantially the nonrelativistic cross sections for pair diquark production. The yield of pairs of (ccq) doubly heavy baryons at B factories was estimated.

  3. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Mueller; L. Grisham; I. Kaganovich; R. L. Watson; V. Horvat; K. E. Zaharakis; Y. Peng

    2002-06-25

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters.

  4. Thermoacoustic imaging using heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claytor, T.N.; Tesmer, J.R.; Deemer, B.C.; Murphy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Ion beams have been used for surface modification, semiconductor device fabrication and for material analysis, which makes ion-material interactions of significant importance. Ion implantation will produce new compositions near the surface by ion mixing or directly by implanting desired ions. Ions exchange their energy to the host material as they travel into the material by several different processes. High energy ions ionize the host atoms before atomic collisions transfer the remaining momentum and stop the incident ion. As they penetrate the surface, the low energy ions ionize the host atoms, but also have a significantly large momentum transfer mechanism near the surface of the material. This leads to atoms, groups of atoms and electrons being ejected from the surface, which is the momentum transfer process of sputtering. This talk addresses the acoustic waves generated during ion implantation using modulated heavy ion beams. The mechanisms for elastic wave generation during ion implantation, in the regimes where sputtering is significant and where implantation is dominant and sputtering is negligible, has been studied. The role of momentum transfer and thermal energy production during ion implantation was compared to laser generated elastic waves in an opaque solid as a reference, since laser generated ultrasound has been extensively studied and is fairly well understood. The thermoelastic response dominated in both high and low ion energy regimes since, apparently, more energy is lost to thermal heat producing mechanisms than momentum transfer processes. The signal magnitude was found to vary almost linearly with incident energy as in the laser thermoelastic regime. The time delays for longitudinal and shear waves-were characteristic of those expected for a purely thermal heating source. The ion beams are intrinsically less sensitive to the albedo of the surface.

  5. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  6. Dynamical limitations to heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    In spite of the many attempts to synthesize superheavy elements in recent years, these efforts have not yet been successful. Recent improved theoretical models of heavy-ion fusion reactions suggest that the formation of super-heavy elements is hindered by the dynamics of the process. Several recent experiments lend support to these theories. The necessity of an excess radial velocity (extra push) over the Coulomb barrier in order to induce fusion is observed experimentally as predicted by the theory. So is a new reaction mechanism, called quasi-fission which tend to exhaust the part of the reaction cross section, which would otherwise lead to fusion. The present study shows that the angular distribution of fragments from quasi-fission processes are very sensitive to the occurrence of this reaction mechanism. A slight modification of one parameter in the theory demanded by the observation of quasi-fission for lighter projectiles via the angular distributions, has the consequence of posing even more-stringent limitations on heavy-ion-fusion reactions. This reduces even further the possibility for synthesizing and identifying superheavy elements in heavy-ion-fusion reactions.

  7. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  8. Study of heavy-ion collisions in the PHENIX experiment: Survey of the most recent results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riabov, V. G. Samsonov, V. M.

    2011-03-15

    The first experimental results obtained at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) over the period between 2000 and 2005 are indicative of the production of dense and hot partonic matter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Investigations performed in recent years make it possible to extend the list of measured signatures and to study their dependence on the greater number of variables. The most recent results obtained in the PHENIX experiment by studying proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions are surveyed. Particular attention is given to studying the properties of the initial state, dynamical evolution of the product medium, and its response to the propagation of high-energy partons through it. The aforementioned effects are studied via measuring the properties of identified hadrons and leptons over a broad region of transverse momenta at various rapidities.

  9. Initial eccentricity in deformed {sup 197}Au+{sup 197}Au and {sup 238}U+{sup 238}U collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filip, Peter; Lednicky, Richard; Masui, Hiroshi; Xu Nu

    2009-11-15

    Initial eccentricity and eccentricity fluctuations of the interaction volume created in relativistic collisions of deformed {sup 197}Au and {sup 238}U nuclei are studied using optical and Monte Carlo (MC) Glauber simulations. It is found that the nonsphericity noticeably influences the average eccentricity in central collisions, and eccentricity fluctuations are enhanced from deformation. Quantitative results are obtained for Au+Au and U+U collisions at energy {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV.

  10. Commissioning of the EBIS-based heavy ion preinjector at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Binello, S.; Hoff, L.; Kondo, K.; Lambiase, R.; LoDestro, V.; Mapes, M.; McNerney, A.; Morris, J.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.I.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Smart, L.; Snydstrup, L.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Schempp, A.; Ratzinger, U.; Kanesue, T.

    2010-09-12

    The status is presented of the commissioning of a new heavy ion preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This preinjector uses an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), and an RFQ and IH Linac, both operating at 100.625 MHz, to produce 2 MeV/u ions of any species for use, after further acceleration, at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Among the increased capabilities provided by this preinjector are the ability to produce ions of any species, and the ability to switch between multiple species in 1 second, to simultaneously meet the needs of both science programs. For initial setup, helium beam from EBIS was injected and circulated in the Booster synchrotron. Following this, accelerated Au{sup 32+} and Fe{sup 20+} beams were transported to the Booster injection point, fulfilling DOE requirements for project completion.

  11. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility: Users handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auble, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this handbook is to provide information for those who plan to carry out research programs at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator systems and experimental apparatus available are described. The mechanism for obtaining accelerator time and the responsibilities of those users who are granted accelerator time are described. The names and phone numbers of ORNL personnel to call for information about specific areas are given. (LEW)

  12. A Radiographic Technique With Heavy Ion Microbeams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muscio, J.; Somacal, H.; Burlon, A. A.; Debray, M. E.; Valda, A. A.; Kreiner, A. J.; Kesque, J. M.; Minsky, D. M.

    2007-02-12

    In this work, we introduce a new technique to perform densitometric and multielemental analysis of samples at the same time using a simple detector with heavy ion micro-beams. It consists in the simultaneous analysis of X-rays induced in the sample and in a secondary target arranged behind the specimen. The X-rays originated in the secondary target are attenuated when crossing the specimen producing a radiographic image with a monochromatic source.

  13. Ground state heavy baryon production in a relativistic quark-diquark model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomshi Nobary, M. A.; Sepahvand, R.

    2007-12-01

    We use current-current interaction to calculate the fragmentation functions to describe the production of spin-1/2, spin-1/2{sup '}, and spin-3/2 baryons with massive constituents in a relativistic quark-diquark model. Our results are in their analytic forms and are applicable for singly, doubly, and triply heavy baryons. We discuss the production of {omega}{sub bbc}, {omega}{sub bcc}, and {omega}{sub ccc} baryons in some detail. The results are satisfactorily compared with those obtained for triply heavy baryons calculated in a perturbative regime within reasonable values of the parameters involved.

  14. Heavy Ion Reaction Modeling for Hadrontherapy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Enghardt, W.; Gadioli, E.; Mairani, A.; Parodi, K.; Sommerer, F.

    2007-10-26

    A comprehensive and reliable description of nucleus-nucleus interactions represents a crucial need in different interdisciplinary fields. In particular, hadrontherapy monitoring by means of in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) requires, in addition to measuring, the capability of calculating the activity of {beta}{sup +}-decaying nuclei produced in the irradiated tissue. For this purpose, in view of treatment monitoring at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy (HIT) facility, the transport and interaction Monte Carlo code FLUKA is a promising candidate. It is provided with the description of heavy ion reactions at intermediate and low energies by two specific event generators. In-beam PET experiments performed at GSI for a few beam-target combinations have been simulated and first comparisons between the measured and calculated {beta}{sup +}-activity are available.

  15. B*Bπ coupling using relativistic heavy quarks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Flynn, J. M.; Fritzsch, P.; Kawanai, T.; Lehner, C.; Samways, B.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Van de Water, R. S.; Witzel, O.

    2016-01-27

    We report on a calculation of the B*Bπ coupling in lattice QCD. The strong matrix element (Bπ|B*) is directly related to the leading order low-energy constant in heavy meson chiral perturbation theory (HMΧPT) for B mesons. We carry out our calculation directly at the b-quark mass using a non-perturbatively tuned clover action that controls discretization effects of order |p→a| and (ma)n for all n. Our analysis is performed on RBC/UKQCD gauge configurations using domain-wall fermions and the Iwasaki gauge action at two lattice spacings of a–1 = 1.729(25) GeV, a–1 = 2.281 (28) GeV, and unitary pion masses down tomore » 290 MeV. We achieve good statistical precision and control all systematic uncertainties, giving a final result for the HMΧPT coupling gb = 0.56(3)stat(7)sys in the continuum and at the physical light-quark masses. Furthermore, this is the first calculation performed directly at the physical b-quark mass and lies in the region one would expect from carrying out an interpolation between previous results at the charm mass and at the static point.« less

  16. The B*Bπ coupling using relativistic heavy quarks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flynn, J. M.; Fritzsch, P.; Kawanai, T.; Lehner, C.; Samways, B.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Van de Water, R. S.; Witzel, O.

    2015-06-23

    We report on a calculation of the B*Bπ coupling in lattice QCD. The strong matrix element (Bπ|B*) is directly related to the leading order low-energy constant in heavy meson chiral perturbation theory (HMΧPT) for B mesons. We carry out our calculation directly at the b-quark mass using a non-perturbatively tuned clover action that controls discretization effects of order |pa| and (ma)n for all n. Our analysis is performed on RBC/UKQCD gauge configurations using domain-wall fermions and the Iwasaki gauge action at two lattice spacings of a–1 = 1.729(25) GeV, a–1 = 2.281 (28) GeV, and unitary pion masses down to 290 MeV. We achieve good statistical precision and control all systematic uncertainties, giving a final result for the HMΧPT coupling gb = 0.56(3)stat(7)sys in the continuum and at the physical light-quark masses. Furthermore, this is the first calculation performed directly at the physical b-quark mass and lies in the region one would expect from carrying out an interpolation between previous results at the charm mass and at the static point.

  17. B*Bπ coupling using relativistic heavy quarks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Flynn, J. M.; Fritzsch, P.; Kawanai, T.; Lehner, C.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Samways, B.; Van de Water, R. S.; Witzel, O.

    2016-01-27

    Here, we report on a calculation of the B*Bπ coupling in three-flavor lattice QCD. This coupling, defined from the strong-interaction matrix element , is related to the leading order low-energy constant in heavy meson chiral perturbation theory. We carry out our calculation directly at the b-quark mass using a nonperturbatively tuned clover action that controls discretization effects of order |more » $$\\vec{p}$$a| and (ma)n for all n. Our analysis is performed on RBC/UKQCD gauge configurations using domain-wall fermions and the Iwasaki gauge action at two lattice spacings of a-1=1.729(25) GeV, a-1=2.281(28) GeV, and unitary pion masses down to 290 MeV. We achieve good statistical precision and control all systematic uncertainties, giving a final result for the coupling gb=0.56(3)stat(7)sys in the continuum and at the physical light-quark masses. Moreover, this is the first calculation performed directly at the physical b-quark mass and lies in the region one would expect from carrying out an interpolation between previous results at the charm mass and at the static point.« less

  18. Heavy-ion Accelerators for Testing Microelectronic Components...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Applicationinstrumentation: Use of heavy-ion accelerators for testing microelectronic components for space radiation effects Developed ...

  19. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory Python in a Parallel Environment Dave Grote - LLNL & LBNL NUG2013 User Day Wednesday, February 15, 2013 Slide 2 The Heavy Ion Fusion ...

  20. Can CP violation be observed in heavy-ion collisions?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khriplovich, I. B. Rudenko, A. S.

    2012-09-15

    We demonstrate that, at least at present, there is no convincing way to detect CP violation in heavy-ion collisions.

  1. Gated beam imager for heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahle, Larry; Hopkins, Harvey S.

    1998-12-10

    As part of the work building a small heavy-ion induction accelerator ring, or recirculator, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a diagnostic device measuring the four-dimensional transverse phase space of the beam in just a single pulse has been developed. This device, the Gated Beam Imager (GBI), consists of a thin plate filled with an array of 100-micron diameter holes and uses a Micro Channel Plate (MCP), a phosphor screen, and a CCD camera to image the beam particles that pass through the holes after they have drifted for a short distance. By time gating the MCP, the time evolution of the beam can also be measured, with each time step requiring a new pulse.

  2. Gated beam imager for heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahle, L.; Hopkins, H.S.

    1998-12-01

    As part of the work building a small heavy-ion induction accelerator ring, or recirculator, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a diagnostic device measuring the four-dimensional transverse phase space of the beam in just a single pulse has been developed. This device, the Gated Beam Imager (GBI), consists of a thin plate filled with an array of 100-micron diameter holes and uses a Micro Channel Plate (MCP), a phosphor screen, and a CCD camera to image the beam particles that pass through the holes after they have drifted for a short distance. By time gating the MCP, the time evolution of the beam can also be measured, with each time step requiring a new pulse. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Rapidity dependence in holographic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilke van der Schee; Schenke, Bjorn

    2015-12-11

    We present an attempt to closely mimic the initial stage of heavy ion collisions within holography, assuming a decoupling of longitudinal and transverse dynamics in the very early stage. We subsequently evolve the obtained initial state using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations and compare results with experimental data. We present results for charged hadron pseudorapidity spectra and directed and elliptic flow as functions of pseudorapidity for √sNN = 200GeV Au-Au and 2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. As a result, the directed flow interestingly turns out to be quite sensitive to the viscosity. The results can explain qualitative features of the collisions, but the rapidity spectra in our current model is narrower than the experimental data.

  4. Rapidity dependence in holographic heavy ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wilke van der Schee; Schenke, Bjorn

    2015-12-11

    We present an attempt to closely mimic the initial stage of heavy ion collisions within holography, assuming a decoupling of longitudinal and transverse dynamics in the very early stage. We subsequently evolve the obtained initial state using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations and compare results with experimental data. We present results for charged hadron pseudorapidity spectra and directed and elliptic flow as functions of pseudorapidity for √sNN = 200GeV Au-Au and 2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. As a result, the directed flow interestingly turns out to be quite sensitive to the viscosity. The results can explain qualitative features of the collisions, but the rapiditymore » spectra in our current model is narrower than the experimental data.« less

  5. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS) IBA Table (HTML) | IBA Table (135KB GIF) | IBA Table (1.2MB PDF) | IBA Table (33MB TIF) | Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS) | Virtual Lab Tour (6MB) Description of Technique: HIBS is used to detect ultra-trace levels of heavy impurities on the surface of a Si wafer. HIBS has advantages over TXRF, including: Improved sensitivity for most elements Quantifying composition without standards Measurement on rough surfaces. HIBS is accomplished by

  6. Evolution of collectivity as a signal of quark gluon plasma formation in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Payal; Alam, Jan-e; Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2011-08-15

    A measurement for studying the mass dependence of dilepton interferometry in relativistic heavy-ion collision experiments as a tool to characterize the quark gluon phase is proposed. In calculations involving dileptons, we show that the mass dependence of radii extracted from the virtual photon (dilepton) interferometry provide access to the development of collective flow with time. It is argued that the nonmonotonic variation of Hanbury Brown-Twiss radii with invariant mass of the lepton pairs signals the formation of quark gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions. Our proposal of experimentally measuring the ratio, R{sub out}/R{sub side} for dileptons can be used to estimate the average lifetimes of the partonic as well as the hadronic phases.

  7. Nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries equation for soliton propagation in relativistic electron-positron-ion plasma with thermal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeed, R.; Shah, Asif; Noaman-ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2010-10-15

    The nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic solitons in relativistic electron-positron-ion plasma comprising of Boltzmannian electrons, positrons, and relativistic thermal ions has been examined. The Korteweg-de Vries equation has been derived by reductive perturbation technique. The effect of various plasma parameters on amplitude and structure of solitary wave is investigated. The pert graphical view of the results has been presented for illustration. It is observed that increase in the relativistic streaming factor causes the soliton amplitude to thrive and its width shrinks. The soliton amplitude and width decline as the ion to electron temperature ratio is increased. The increase in positron concentration results in reduction of soliton amplitude. The soliton amplitude enhances as the electron to positron temperature ratio is increased. Our results may have relevance in the understanding of astrophysical plasmas.

  8. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  9. Propagation of solitary waves in relativistic electron-positron-ion plasmas with kappa distributed electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Asif; Mahmood, S.; Haque, Q.

    2011-11-15

    Electrostatic ion acoustic solitary waves are studied in a plasma system comprising of relativistic ions, kappa distributed electrons, and positrons. The increase in the relativistic streaming factor and positron and electron kappa parameters cause the soliton amplitude to thrive. However, the soliton amplitude diminishes as the positron concentration is increased in the system. Our results are general and may be helpful, in understanding nonlinear phenomena in the presence of kappa distibuted electrons, positrons, and relativistically streaming ions.

  10. Constraining the equation of state of superhadronic matter from heavy-ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pratt, Scott; Sorensen, Paul; Sangaline, Evan; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-19

    The equation of state of QCD matter for temperatures near and above the quark-hadron transition (~165 MeV) is inferred within a Bayesian framework through the comparison of data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and from the Large Hadron Collider to theoretical models. State-of-the-art statistical techniques are applied to simultaneously analyze multiple classes of observables while varying 14 independent model parameters. Thus, the resulting posterior distribution over possible equations of state is consistent with results from lattice gauge theory.

  11. Triangularity and dipole asymmetry in relativistic heavy ion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly Accessible Full Text ...

  12. Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publication Date: 2011-12-02 OSTI Identifier: 1098343 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review C Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 84; ...

  13. Production of photons in relativistic heavy-ion collisions (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GrantContract Number: AC02-05CH11231; SC0012704 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review C Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 93; Journal ...

  14. MARTINI: An event generator for relativistic heavy-ion collisions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Its main components are a time-evolution model for the soft background, PYTHIA 8.1, and the McGill-Arnold, Moore, and Yaffe (AMY) parton-evolution scheme, including radiative as ...

  15. Triangularity and dipole asymmetry in relativistic heavy ion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Finally, we propose to measure the vsub 1 associated with the dipole asymmetry and the correlations between psisub 1,3 and psisub 3,3 by measuring a two-particle ...

  16. Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly Accessible Full Text ...

  17. Production of photons in relativistic heavy-ion collisions (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly Accessible Full Text This ...

  18. Benchmarking of Neutron Production of Heavy-Ion Transport Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remec, Igor; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Accurate prediction of radiation fields generated by heavy ion interactions is important in medical applications, space missions, and in design and operation of rare isotope research facilities. In recent years, several well-established computer codes in widespread use for particle and radiation transport calculations have been equipped with the capability to simulate heavy ion transport and interactions. To assess and validate these capabilities, we performed simulations of a series of benchmark-quality heavy ion experiments with the computer codes FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS. We focus on the comparisons of secondary neutron production. Results are encouraging; however, further improvements in models and codes and additional benchmarking are required.

  19. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. ); Bangerter, R.O. ); Bock, R. ); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. )

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  20. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  1. RELATIVISTIC POSITRON-ELECTRON-ION SHEAR FLOWS AND APPLICATION TO GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Edison; Fu, Wen; Smith, Ian; Roustazadeh, Parisa [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Boettcher, Markus, E-mail: liang@rice.edu [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)

    2013-12-20

    We present particle-in-cell simulation results of relativistic shear flows for hybrid positron-electron-ion plasmas and compare to those for pure e {sup +} e {sup } and pure e {sup } ion plasmas. Among the three types of relativistic shear flows, we find that only hybrid shear flow is able to energize the electrons to form a high-energy spectral peak plus a hard power law tail. Such electron spectra are needed to model the observational properties of gamma-ray bursts.

  2. A new luminescence beam profile monitor for intense proton and heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang,T.; Bellavia, S.; Connolly, R.; Gassner, D.; Makdisi, Y.; Russo, T.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2008-10-01

    A new luminescence beam profile monitor is realized in the polarized hydrogen gas jet target at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. In addition to the spin polarization of the proton beam being routinely measured by the hydrogen gas jet, the luminescence produced by beam-hydrogen excitation leads to a strong Balmer series lines emission. A selected hydrogen Balmer line is spectrally filtered and imaged to produce the transverse RHIC proton beam shape with unprecedented details on the RHIC beam profile. Alternatively, when the passage of the high energy RHIC gold ion beam excited only the residual gas molecules in the beam path, sufficient ion beam induced luminescence is produced and the transverse gold ion beam profile is obtained. The measured transverse beam sizes and the calculated emittances provide an independent confirmation of the RHIC beam characteristics and to verify the emittance conservation along the RHIC accelerator. This optical beam diagnostic technique by making use of the beam induced fluorescence from injected or residual gas offers a truly noninvasive particle beam characterization, and provides a visual observation of proton and heavy ion beams. Combined with a longitudinal bunch measurement system, a 3-dimensional spatial particle beam profile can be reconstructed tomographically.

  3. RHIC performance for FY2011 Au+Au heavy ion run

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, G.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gardner, C.J.; Gassner, D.M.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.F.; Jamilkowski, J.P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.S.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Mapes, M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.J.; Minty, M.G.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Polizzo, S.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Sandberg, J.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; VanKuik, B.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-09-04

    Following the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 (Run-10) Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Au+Au run, RHIC experiment upgrades sought to improve detector capabilities. In turn, accelerator improvements were made to improve the luminosity available to the experiments for this run (Run-11). These improvements included: a redesign of the stochastic cooling systems for improved reliability; a relocation of 'common' RF cavities to alleviate intensity limits due to beam loading; and an improved usage of feedback systems to control orbit, tune and coupling during energy ramps as well as while colliding at top energy. We present an overview of changes to the Collider and review the performance of the collider with respect to instantaneous and integrated luminosity goals. At the conclusion of the FY 2011 polarized proton run, preparations for heavy ion run proceeded on April 18, with Au+Au collisions continuing through June 28. Our standard operations at 100 GeV/nucleon beam energy was bracketed by two shorter periods of collisions at lower energies (9.8 and 13.5 GeV/nucleon), continuing a previously established program of low and medium energy runs. Table 1 summarizes our history of heavy ion operations at RHIC.

  4. The Shape and Flow of Heavy Ion Collisions (490th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenke, Bjoern

    2014-12-18

    The sun can’t do it, but colossal machines like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven Lab and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Europe sure can. Quarks and gluons make up protons and neutrons found in the nucleus of every atom in the universe. At heavy ion colliders like RHIC and the LHC, scientists can create matter more than 100,000 times hotter than the center of the sun—so hot that protons and neutrons melt into a plasma of quarks and gluons. The particle collisions and emerging quark-gluon plasma hold keys to understanding how these fundamental particles interact with each other, which helps explain how everything is held together—from atomic nuclei to human beings to the biggest stars—how all matter has mass, and what the universe looked like microseconds after the Big Bang. Dr. Schenke discusses theory that details the shape and structure of heavy ion collisions. He will also explain how this theory and data from experiments at RHIC and the LHC are being used to determine properties of the quark-gluon plasma.

  5. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  6. Heavy-ion Fusion Reactions with Neutron-rich Radioactive Ion Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy-ion Fusion Reactions with Neutron-rich Radioactive Ion Beams A. Wakhle National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA The predicted shell closures forming the 'island of stability' [1-2] are beyond the reach of stable beams [3]. This dictates that future efforts towards the synthesis of super-heavy elements (SHEs) [4] must utilize neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The low intensities of RIBs puts this goal beyond the

  7. Dirac Equation and Quantum Relativistic Effects in a Single Trapped Ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamata, L.; Leon, J.; Schaetz, T.; Solano, E.

    2007-06-22

    We present a method of simulating the Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions for a free spin-1/2 particle in a single trapped ion. The Dirac bispinor is represented by four ionic internal states, and position and momentum of the Dirac particle are associated with the respective ionic variables. We show also how to simulate the simplified 1+1 case, requiring the manipulation of only two internal levels and one motional degree of freedom. Moreover, we study relevant quantum-relativistic effects, like the Zitterbewegung and Klein's paradox, the transition from massless to massive fermions, and the relativistic and nonrelativistic limits, via the tuning of controllable experimental parameters.

  8. Inferring Magnetospheric Heavy Ion Density using EMIC Waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Hyomin; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to infer heavy ion concentration ratios from EMIC wave observations that result from ionion hybrid (IIH) resonance. A key feature of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is the concentration of wave energy in a field-aligned resonant mode that exhibits linear polarization. This mode converted wave is localized at the location where the frequency of a compressional wave driver matches the IIH resonance condition, which depends sensitively on the heavy ion concentration. This dependence makes it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio. In this letter, we evaluate the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and field-aligned wave numbers using a dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentrations, it only occurs for a limited range of field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  9. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Sandeep K. [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Goloubinoff, Pierre [Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Christen, Philipp [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: christen@bioc.uzh.ch

    2008-07-25

    Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC{sub 50} in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far.

  10. New heavy-ion-fusion accelerator research program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1983-05-01

    This paper will briefly summarize the concepts of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), especially those aspects that are important to its potential for generating electrical power. It will also note highlights of the various HIF programs throughout the world. Especially significant is that the US Department of Energy (DOE) plans a program, beginning in 1984, aimed at determining the feasibility of using heavy ion accelerators as drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The new program concentrates on the aspects of accelerator design that are important to ICF, and for this reason is called HIF Accelerator Research.

  11. 2014-2015 SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isospin equilibration in Fermi-energy heavy-ion nuclear collisions L.W. May, P. Cammarata, L. Heilborn, Z. Kohley, A. McIntosh, M. Youngs, A. Zarrella, and S.J. Yennello N/Z transport within a deformed nuclear system A. Jedele, A.B. McIntosh, L. Heilborn, M. Youngs, A. Zarrella, E. McCleskey, L.W. May, and S.J. Yennello Exploring the limits of the thermodynamic model of heavy-ion collisions with respect to particle ratios M. Youngs, A.B. McIntosh, L. Heilborn, A. Jedele, L.W. May, E. McCleskey,

  12. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop entitled Hydrodynamics in Heavy Ion Collisions and QCD Equation of State (Volume 88)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsch,F.; Kharzeev, D.; Molnar, K.; Petreczky, P.; Teaney, D.

    2008-04-21

    The interpretation of relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies with thermal concepts is largely based on the relative success of ideal (nondissipative) hydrodynamics. This approach can describe basic observables at RHIC, such as particle spectra and momentum anisotropies, fairly well. On the other hand, recent theoretical efforts indicate that dissipation can play a significant role. Ideally viscous hydrodynamic simulations would extract, if not only the equation of state, but also transport coefficients from RHIC data. There has been a lot of progress with solving relativistic viscous hydrodynamics. There are already large uncertainties in ideal hydrodynamics calculations, e.g., uncertainties associated with initial conditions, freezeout, and the simplified equations of state typically utilized. One of the most sensitive observables to the equation of state is the baryon momentum anisotropy, which is also affected by freezeout assumptions. Up-to-date results from lattice quantum chromodynamics on the transition temperature and equation of state with realistic quark masses are currently available. However, these have not yet been incorporated into the hydrodynamic calculations. Therefore, the RBRC workshop 'Hydrodynamics in Heavy Ion Collisions and QCD Equation of State' aimed at getting a better understanding of the theoretical frameworks for dissipation and near-equilibrium dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. The topics discussed during the workshop included techniques to solve the dynamical equations and examine the role of initial conditions and decoupling, as well as the role of the equation of state and transport coefficients in current simulations.

  13. Preliminary result of rapid solenoid for controlling heavy-ion beam parameters of laser ion source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Okamura, M.; Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Kanesue, T.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.

    2015-03-13

    To realize a heavy ion inertial fusion driver, we have studied a possibility of laser ion source (LIS). A LIS can provide high current high brightness heavy ion beams, however it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters. To overcome the issue, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The rapid ramping magnetic field could enhance limited time slice of the current and simultaneously the beam emittance changed accordingly. This approach may also useful to realize an ion source for HIF power plant.

  14. 2009 SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    search for super heavy elements using alternative mechanisms J. B. Natowitz, R. Wada, K. Hagel, T. Materna, Z. Chen, L. Qin, P. K. Sahu, G. Souliotis, G. Chubaryan, M. Barbui, S. Moretto, D. Fabris, M. Lunardon, M. Morando, G. Nebbia, S. Pesente, V. Rizzi, G. Viesti, V. Bocci, A. Andrighetto, M. Cinausero, G. Prete, Z. Majka, A. Wieloch, S. Kowalski,F. D. Bechetti, T. W. O'Donnell, and H. Griffin Calibration of the 40Ca + 40Ca data taken on NIMROD-ISiS array C. Bottosso, J. B. Natowitz, K.

  15. Heavy ion collisions and the pre-equilibrium exciton model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betak, E.

    2012-10-20

    We present a feasible way to apply the pre-equilibrium exciton model in its masterequation formulation to heavy-ion induced reactions including spin variables. Emission of nucleons, {gamma}'s and also light clusters is included in our model.

  16. Entropy and hadrochemical composition in heavy ion collision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biro, T.; Barz, H.W.; Lukacs, B.; Zimanyi, J.

    1983-06-01

    The composite particle production in a heavy ion collision is calculated in the framework of a hadrochemical model. A critical comparison is performed between the produced entropy and the observables. The entropy production during the hadrochemical processes is found to be negligible.

  17. Photon and dilepton production in high energy heavy ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sakaguchi, Takao

    2015-05-07

    The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high energy heavy ion collisions, obtained particularly at RHIC and LHC are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the physics learned from the results.

  18. Means for obtaining a metal ion beam from a heavy-ion cyclotron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-08-01

    A description is given of a modification to a cyclotron ion source used in producing a high intensity metal ion beam. A small amount of an inert support gas maintains the usual plasma arc, except that it is necessary for the support gas to have a heavy mass, e.g., xenon or krypton as opposed to neon. A plate, fabricated from the metal (or anything that can be sputtered) to be ionized, is mounted on the back wall of the ion source arc chamber and is bombarded by returning energetic low-charged gas ions that fail to cross the initial accelerating gap between the ion source and the accelerating electrode. Some of the atoms that are dislodged from the plate by the returning gas ions become ionized and are extracted as a useful beam of heavy ions. (auth)

  19. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  20. Heavy-ion excitation of rare-gas excimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, A.; Koerner, H.J.; Kroetz, W.; Ribitzki, G.; Murnick, D.E.; Matthias, E.; Kienle, P.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.

    1987-07-15

    Beams of high-energy heavy ions (Ar and U) from the UNILAC accelerator have been used to excite rare gases at pressures near 1 bar. The dominant spectroscopic feature observed in Ar, Kr, and Xe gases was molecular excimer emission at the second excimer continuum at 130, 150, and 170 nm, respectively. The excimer radiation was studied as a function of time (with respect to the excitation pulse), ion-beam current, pressure, and excitation density. The efficiency of excimer production from heavy-ion-beam energy was found to be several percent. Details of spectral shape, especially the ratio of first-to-second continuum emission, were found to depend on pressure and exciting beam type.

  1. Progress on the LBL ECR heavy ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, D.J.; Jongen, Y.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    The LBL ECR ion source, which began test operation in January 1984, has already produced a variety of high charge state heavy ion beams of sufficient intensity for cyclotron operation, although actual use must wait for completion of the beam transport system. The source has produced 40 ..mu..A of O/sup 6 +/, 2 ..mu..A of O/sup 7 +/, 40 ..mu..A of Ar/sup 8 +/, and 0.20 ..mu..A of Ar/sup 12 +/. The source development has centered on optimizing source performance with modifications and parameter tuning. Future plans include construction of an SmCo/sub 5/ octupole structure, and testing of solid feed techniques. The construction of the beam transport line and calculations on center region geometry for heavy ion axial injection into the 88-Inch Cyclotron are also underway.

  2. Heavy element effects in the diagonal Born–Oppenheimer correction within a relativistic spin-free Hamiltonian

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Imafuku, Yuji; Abe, Minori; Schmidt, Michael W.; Hada, Masahiko

    2016-03-22

    Methodologies beyond the Born–Oppenheimer (BO) approximation are nowadays important to explain high precision spectroscopic measurements. Most previous evaluations of the BO correction are, however, focused on light-element molecules and based on a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian, so no information about the BO approximation (BOA) breakdown in heavy-element molecules is available. The present work is the first to investigate the BOA breakdown for the entire periodic table, by considering scalar relativistic effects in the Diagonal BO correction (DBOC). In closed shell atoms, the relativistic EDBOC scales as Z1.25 and the nonrelativistic EDBOC scales as Z1.17, where Z is the atomic number. Hence, wemore » found that EDBOC becomes larger in heavy element atoms and molecules, and the relativistic EDBOC increases faster than nonrelativistic EDBOC. We have further investigated the DBOC effects on properties such as potential energy curves, spectroscopic parameters, and various energetic properties. The DBOC effects for these properties are mostly affected by the lightest atom in the molecule. Furthermore, in X2 or XAt molecule (X = H, Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) the effect of DBOC systematically decreases when X becomes heavier but in HX molecules, the effect of DBOC seems relatively similar among all the molecules.« less

  3. Fate of the initial state perturbations in heavy ion collisions. II. Glauber fluctuations and sounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staig, Pilar; Shuryak, Edward

    2011-09-15

    Heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are well described by the (nearly ideal) hydrodynamics for average events. In the present paper we study initial state fluctuations appearing on an event-by-event basis and the propagation of perturbations induced by them. We found that (i) fluctuations of several of the lowest harmonics have comparable magnitudes and (ii) that at least all odd harmonics are correlated in phase, (iii) thus indicating the local nature of fluctuations. We argue that such local perturbations should be the source of the ''tiny bang,'' a pulse of sound propagating from it. We identify its two fundamental scales as (i) the ''sound horizon'' (analogous to the absolute ruler in cosmic microwave background and galaxy distributions) and (ii) the ''viscous horizon'' separating damped and undamped harmonics. We then qualitatively describe how one can determine them from the data and thus determine two fundamental parameters of the matter: the (average) speed of sound and viscosity. The rest of the paper explains how one can study mutual coherence of various harmonics. For that, one should go beyond the two-particle correlations to three (or more) particles. Mutual coherence is important for the picture of propagating sound waves.

  4. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A.; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolatedmore » point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Furthermore, inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.« less

  5. The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab

    2010-01-08

    Brookhaven National Lab has successfully developed a new pre-injector system, called the Electron Beam Ion Source, for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory science programs. The first of several planned improvemen

  6. Time-of-flight heavy ion backscattering spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, J.A.; Banks, J.C.; Doyle, B.L.

    1993-08-01

    A new time-of-flight (TOF) ion detection system for Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS) is described. Examples are also given of the use of the system for measuring low-level contamination on Si wafers. Currently, the TOF-HBIS system has a sensitivity of 1 {times} 10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2} for the heaviest of surface impurity atoms and a mass resolution capable of separating Fe from Cu. The sensitivity is expected to improve by an additional order of magnitude on a industrial TOF-HIBS system being constructed for SEMATECH.

  7. The heavy ion beam diagnostic for the tokamak ISTTOK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, J.A.C.; Malaquias, A.; Praxedes, A.; Toledo, W. van; Varandas, C.A.F. )

    1994-08-01

    In this paper the authors describe the heavy ion beam diagnostic for the tokamak ISTTOK, which has been designed to determine the temporal evolution of the plasma density, poloidal magnetic field and plasma potential profiles. This diagnostic makes use of a new type of high density caesium plasma source, a multiple cell detector and a fast data acquisition system. The authors describe the numerical code for trajectory and beam attenuation simulations, a method for the experimental determination of the poloidal field profile, the ion gun and the detection, control and data acquisition systems. Calibration tests and the first experimental results are presented.

  8. Calculation of cross sections for binary reactions between heavy ion projectiles and heavy actinide targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D.C.; Hoffman, M.M.

    1990-11-01

    The computer program, described in this report, is identified as PWAVED5. It was developed to calculate cross sections for nucleon transfer reactions in low energy heavy ion bombardments. The objective was to calculate cross sections that agree with experimental results for ions of different charge and mass and to develop a predictive capability. It was undertaken because previous heavy ion calculations, for which programs were readily available, appeared to focus primarily on reactions resulting in compound nucleus formation and were not particularly applicable to calculations of binary reaction cross sections at low interaction energies. There are to principal areas in which this computation differs from several other partial wave calculations of heavy-ion reaction cross sections. First, this program is designed specifically to calculate cross sections for nucleon exchange interactions and to exclude interactions that are expected to result in fusion of the two nuclei. A second major difference in this calculation is the use of a statistical distribution to assign the total interaction cross section to individual final mass states.

  9. Heavy-ion Accelerators for Testing Microelectronic Components at LBNL |

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Heavy-ion Accelerators for Testing Microelectronic Components at LBNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy

  10. LHC INTERACTION REGION CORRECTION IN HEAVY ION OPERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PTITSIN,V.; FISCHER,W.; WEI,J.

    1999-09-07

    In heavy ion operation the LHC interaction region at IP2 will have a low-{beta} optics for collisions. The dynamic aperture is therefore sensitive to magnetic field errors in the interaction region quadrupoles and dipoles. The authors investigate the effect of the magnetic field errors on the dynamic aperture and evaluate the effectiveness of local interaction region correctors. The dynamic aperture and the tune space are computed for different crossing angles.

  11. Production of 14 MeV neutrons by heavy ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brugger, Robert M.; Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a neutron generator and a method for the production of 14 MeV neutrons. Heavy ions are accelerated to impinge upon a target mixture of deuterium and tritium to produce recoil atoms of deuterium and tritium. These recoil atoms have a sufficient energy such that they interact with other atoms of tritium or deuterium in the target mixture to produce approximately 14 MeV neutrons.

  12. Modeling Chamber Transport for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, W M; Niller, D A C; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Welch, D R; Rose, D V; Olson, C L

    2002-08-02

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  13. Modeling chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2002-10-01

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  14. How much do heavy quarks thermalize in a heavy ion collision?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Guy D.; Teaney, Derek

    2005-06-01

    We investigate the thermalization of charm quarks in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. To this end, we calculate the diffusion coefficient in the perturbative quark gluon plasma and relate it to collisional energy loss and momentum broadening. We then use these transport properties to formulate a Langevin model for the evolution of the heavy quark spectrum in the hot medium. The model is strictly valid in the nonrelativistic limit and for all velocities {gamma}v<{alpha}s{sup -1/2} to leading logarithm in T/m{sub D}. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equation can be solved analytically for a Bjorken expansion and the solution gives a simple estimate for the medium modifications of the heavy quark spectrum as a function of the diffusion coefficient. Finally we solve the Langevin equations numerically in a hydrodynamic simulation of the heavy-ion reaction. The results of this simulation are the medium modifications of the charm spectrum R{sub AA} and the expected elliptic flow v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) as a function of the diffusion coefficient.

  15. The "ripples" on relativistically expanding fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Shuzhe; Liao, Jinfeng; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2014-12-29

    Recent studies have shown that fluctuations of various types play important roles in the evolution of the fireball created in relativistic heavy ion collisions and bear many phenomenological consequences for experimental observables. The bulk dynamics of the fireball is well described by relativistic hydrodynamic expansion and the fluctuations on top of such expanding background can be studied within the linearized hydrodynamic framework. In this paper we present complete and analytic sound wave solutions on top of both Bjorken flow and Hubble flow backgrounds.

  16. Heavy-ion irradiation induced diamond formation in carbonaceous materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daulton, T. L.

    1999-01-08

    The basic mechanisms of metastable phase formation produced under highly non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions within high-energy particle tracks are investigated. In particular, the possible formation of diamond by heavy-ion irradiation of graphite at ambient temperature is examined. This work was motivated, in part, by earlier studies which discovered nanometer-grain polycrystalline diamond aggregates of submicron-size in uranium-rich carbonaceous mineral assemblages of Precambrian age. It was proposed that the radioactive decay of uranium formed diamond in the fission particle tracks produced in the carbonaceous minerals. To test the hypothesis that nanodiamonds can form by ion irradiation, fine-grain polycrystalline graphite sheets were irradiated with 400 MeV Kr ions. The ion irradiated graphite (and unirradiated graphite control) were then subjected to acid dissolution treatments to remove the graphite and isolate any diamonds that were produced. The acid residues were then characterized by analytical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The acid residues of the ion-irradiated graphite were found to contain ppm concentrations of nanodiamonds, suggesting that ion irradiation of bulk graphite at ambient temperature can produce diamond.

  17. A fully relativistic approach for calculating atomic data for highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hong Lin; Fontes, Christopher J; Sampson, Douglas H

    2009-01-01

    We present a review of our fully relativistic approach to calculating atomic data for highly charged ions, highlighting a research effort that spans twenty years. Detailed discussions of both theoretical and numerical techniques are provided. Our basic approach is expected to provide accurate results for ions that range from approximately half ionized to fully stripped. Options for improving the accuracy and range of validity of this approach are also discussed. In developing numerical methods for calculating data within this framework, considerable emphasis is placed on techniques that are robust and efficient. A variety of fundamental processes are considered including: photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation, electron-impact ionization, autoionization, electron capture, photoionization and photorecombination. Resonance contributions to a variety of these processes are also considered, including discussions of autoionization, electron capture and dielectronic recombination. Ample numerical examples are provided in order to illustrate the approach and to demonstrate its usefulness in providing data for large-scale plasma modeling.

  18. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  19. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-08-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  20. Progress on the Los Alamos heavy-ion injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D.C.; Riepe, K.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Heavy-ion fusion using an induction linac requires injection of multiple high-current beams from a pulsed electrostatic accelerator at as high a voltage as practical. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a 16-beam, 2-MeV, pulsed electrostatic accelerator for Al/sup +/ ions. The ion source will use a pulsed metal vapor arc plasma. A biased grid will control plasma flux into the ion extraction region. This source has achieved a normalized emittance of epsilon/sub n/ < 3.10/sup -7/..pi..-m-rad with Al/sup +/ ions. An 800 kV Marx prototype with a laser fired diverter is being assembled. The ceramic accelerating column sections have been brazed and leak tested. Voltage hold off on a brazed sample was more than doubled by selective removal of the Ticusil braze fillet extending along the ceramic. A scaled test module held 250 kV for 50 ..mu..s, giving confidence that the full module can hold 175 kV per section. The pressure vessel should be received in June 1986. High-voltage testing of a 1 MV column will begin by early 1987.

  1. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1999-02-16

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  2. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1999-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  3. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1998-07-21

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high (n,f) reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  4. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1998-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  5. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.

  6. An Updated Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S S; Meier, W R; Abbott, R B; Barnard, J J; Brown, t; Callahan, D A; Heitzenroeder, P; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Pemberton, S J; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Sabbi, G -L; Sharp, W M; Welch, D R

    2002-12-16

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant.

  7. An Updated Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W R; Yu, S S; Abbott, R P; Barnard, J J; Brown, T; Callahan, D A; Heitzenroeder, P; Latkowski, J F; Logan B G; Pemberton, S J; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Sabbi, G-L; Sharp, W M; Welch, D R

    2002-11-12

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant.

  8. An updated point design for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.S.; Meier, W.R.; Abbott, R.P.; Barnard, J.J.; Brown, T.; Callahan, D.A.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Pemberton, S.J.; Peterson, P.F.; Rose, D.V.; Sabbi, G-L.; Sharp, W.M.; Welch, D.R.

    2002-11-01

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant.

  9. Inertial Fusion Driven by Intense Heavy-Ion Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS * W. M. Sharp # , A. Friedman, D. P. Grote, J. J. Barnard, R. H. Cohen, M. A. Dorf, S. M. Lund, L. J. Perkins, M. R. Terry, LLNL, Livermore, CA, USA B. G. Logan, F. M. Bieniosek, A. Faltens, E. Henestroza, J.-Y. Jung, J. W. Kwan, E. P. Lee, S. M. Lidia, P. A. Ni, L. L. Reginato, P. K. Roy, P. A. Seidl, J. H. Takakuwa, J.-L. Vay, W. L. Waldron, LBNL, Berkeley, CA, USA R. C. Davidson, E. P. Gilson, I. D. Kaganovich, H. Qin, E. Startsev, PPPL,

  10. The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    2000-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established a new, larger inertial fusion energy program. To manage program growth, we have developed a new inertial fusion energy research and we have established a Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion. There has been significant technical progress. Improvements in target design have reduced the predicted energy requirements by approximately a factor of two. There have also been important experiments on chamber dynamics and other inertial fusion technologies. The accelerator program has completed a number of small-scale experiments. Experiments with driver-scale beams are being designed -- including experiments with driver-scale ion sources and injectors. Finally we are developing the technologies needed to build a major research facility known as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)

  11. Modeling heavy ion ionization energy loss at low and intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakhno, I.L.; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    The needs of contemporary accelerator and space projects led to significant efforts made to include description of heavy ion interactions with matter in general-purpose Monte Carlo codes. This paper deals with an updated model of heavy ion ionization energy loss developed previously for the MARS code. The model agrees well with experimental data for various projectiles and targets including super-heavy ions in low-Z media.

  12. Transport rates and momentum isotropization of gluon matter in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2007-08-15

    To describe momentum isotropization of gluon matter produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the transport rate of gluon drift and the transport collision rates of elastic (gg{r_reversible}gg) as well as inelastic (gg{r_reversible}ggg) perturbative quantum chromodynamics- (pQCD) scattering processes are introduced and calculated within the kinetic parton cascade Boltzmann approach of multiparton scatterings (BAMPS), which simulates the space-time evolution of partons. We define isotropization as the development of an anisotropic system as it reaches isotropy. The inverse of the introduced total transport rate gives the correct time scale of the momentum isotropization. The contributions of the various scattering processes to the momentum isotropization can be separated into the transport collision rates. In contrast to the transport cross section, the transport collision rate has an indirect but correctly implemented relationship with the collision-angle distribution. Based on the calculated transport collision rates from BAMPS for central Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies, we show that pQCD gg{r_reversible}ggg bremsstrahlung processes isotropize the momentum five times more efficiently than elastic scatterings. The large efficiency of the bremsstrahlung stems mainly from its large momentum deflection. Due to kinematics, 2{yields}N (N>2) production processes allow more particles to become isotropic in momentum space and thus kinetically equilibrate more quickly than their back reactions or elastic scatterings. We also show that the relaxation time in the relaxation time approximation, which is often used, is strongly momentum dependent and thus cannot serve as a global quantity that describes kinetic equilibration.

  13. Revisiting heavy ion collisions under the influence of strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paoli, M. G. de; Menezes, D. P.

    2013-05-06

    The quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase refers to matter where quarks and gluons are believed to be deconfined and it probably takes place at temperatures of the order of 150 to 170 MeV. In large colliders around the world (RHIC/BNL, ALICE/CERN, GSI, etc), physicists are trying to convert hadronic matter at these order of temperatures into QGP by looking at non-central heavy ion collisions. Possible experiments towards this search are Au-Au collisions at RHIC/BNL and Pb-Pb collisions at SPS/CERN, where the hadron abundances and particle ratios are used in order to determine the temperature and baryonic chemical potential of the possibly present hadronic matter-QGP phase transition. The magnetic fields involved in heavy-ion collisions, although time dependent and short-lived, can reach intensities higher than the ones considered in magnetars, around 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} Gauss. In fact, the densities related to the chemical potentials obtained within the relativistic models framework developed in previous works are very low (of the order of 10{sup -3} fm{sup -3}). At these densities the nuclear interactions are indeed very small and this fact made us consider the possibility of free Fermi and Boson gases under the unfluence of strong magnetic fields. We investigate the effects of magnetic fields of the order of 10{sup 18}, 10{sup 19} and 10{sup 20} G through a {chi}{sup 2} fit to some data sets of the STAR experiment. Our results shown that a field of the order of 10{sup 19} G can produce a much better fit to the experimental data than the calculations without magnetic fields.

  14. Jet and electromagnetic tomography (JET) of extreme phases of matter in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinz, Ulrich

    2015-08-31

    The Ohio State University (OSU) group contributed to the deliverables of the JET Collaboration three major products: 1. The code package iEBE-VISHNU for modeling the dynamical evolution of the soft medium created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, from its creation all the way to final freeze-out using a hybrid approach that interfaces a free-streaming partonic pre-equilbrium stage with a (2+1)-dimensional viscous relativistic fluid dynamical stage for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase and the microscopic hadron cascade UrQMD for the hadronic rescattering and freeze-out stage. Except for UrQMD, all dynamical evolution components and interfaces were developed at OSU and tested and implemented in collaboration with the Duke University group. 2. An electromagnetic radiation module for the calculation of thermal photon emission from the QGP and hadron resonance gas stages of a heavy-ion collision, with emission rates that have been corrected for viscous effects in the expanding medium consistent with the bulk evolution. The electromagnetic radiation module was developed under OSU leadership in collaboration with the McGill group and has been integrated in the iEBE-VISHNU code package. 3. An interface between the Monte Carlo jet shower evolution and hadronization codes developed by the Wayne State University (WSU), McGill and Texas A&M groups and the iEBE-VISHNU bulk evolution code, for performing jet quenching and jet shape modification studies in a realistically modeled evolving medium that was tuned to measured soft hadron data. Building on work performed at OSU for the theoretical framework used to describe the interaction of jets with the medium, initial work on the jet shower Monte Carlo was started at OSU and moved to WSU when OSU Visiting Assistant Professor Abhijit Majumder accepted a tenure track faculty position at WSU in September 2011. The jet-hydro interface was developed at OSU and WSU and tested and implemented in collaboration with the McGill, Texas

  15. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Yun Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

    2014-02-15

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 ?*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam was got when work gas was CH{sub 4} while about 262 e?A of C{sup 5+} ion beam was obtained when work gas was C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  16. SYSTEMATIC STUDIES OF HEAVY ION COLLISIONS TO SEARCH FOR QUARK-GLUON PLASMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuqiang Wang

    2007-11-29

    This is the final technical report for DOE Outstanding Junior Investigator (OJI) Award, 'Systematic Studies of Heavy Ion Collisions to Search for Quark-Gluon Plasma', grant DE-FG02-02ER41219, Principal Investigator (PI) Fuqiang Wang. The research under the grant was divided into two phases. The first concentrated on systematic studies of soft hadron production at low transverse momentum (p{sub T}), in particular the production of (anti-)baryon and strangeness in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies. The second concentrated on measurements of di-hadron and multi-hadron jet-correlations and investigations of medium response to jets. The research was conducted at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL with the Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) experiment. The total grant is $214,000. The grant established a PC farm solely used for this research. The PC farm consists of 8 nodes with a total of 16 CPUs and 3 disk servers of total 2 TB shared storage. The current balance of the grant is $19,985. The positive balance is because an initial purchase of $22,600 for the PC farm came out of the PI's start-up fund due to the lateness of the award. The PC farm is an integral part of the Purdue Physics Department's computer cluster. The grant supported two Ph.D. graduate students. Levente Molnar was supported from July 2002 to December 2003, and worked on soft hadron production. His thesis title is Systematics of Identified Particle Production in pp, d-Au and Au-Au Collisions at RHIC Energies. He graduated in 2006 and now is a Postdoctoral fellow at INFN Sezione di Bari, Italy working on the ALICE experiment at the LHC. Jason Ulery was supported from January 2004 to July 2007. His thesis title is Two- and Three-Particle Jet-Like Correlations. He defended his thesis in October 2007 and is moving to Frankfurt University, Germany to work on the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The research by this grant resulted in 7 journal publications (2 PRL, 1 PLB, 1 PRC, 2 submitted and

  17. Dispersion and interaction of waveguide modes in a relativistic electron beam with ion-channel guiding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maraghechi, Borna; Maraghechi, Behrouz

    2008-07-15

    A theory for the high-frequency eigenmodes of a cylindrical metallic waveguide partially filled with a relativistic electron beam and guided by an ion channel is presented. Equations that permit calculation of dispersion curves for five families of wave modes are derived. The dependence of the frequencies and the dispersion curves of azimuthally asymmetric modes on the ratio of the beam radius a to the waveguide radius R are studied in detail. The coupling of the dispersion curves of different modes is studied and illustrated for the partially filled waveguide. It was found that, in their course of interaction, HE modes cannot displace the betatron modes in a completely filled waveguide, which is different from the case of a magnetized electron beam. Physical and analytical explanations are presented for this difference.

  18. Evaluation of Negative-Ion-Beam Driver Concepts for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisham, Larry R.

    2003-03-15

    The feasibility of producing and using atomically neutral heavy ion beams produced from negative ions as drivers for an inertial confinement fusion reactor is evaluated. Bromine and iodine appear to be the most attractive elements for the driver beams. Fluorine and chlorine appear to be the most appropriate feedstocks for initial tests of extractable negative-ion current densities. With regard to ion sources, photodetachment neutralizers, and vacuum requirements for accelerators and beam transport, this approach appears feasible within existing technology, and the vacuum requirements are essentially identical to those for positive-ion drivers except in the target chamber. The principal constraint is that this approach requires harder vacuums in the target chamber than do space-charge-neutralized positive-ion drivers. With realistic (but perhaps pessimistic) estimates of the total ionization cross section, limiting the ionization of a neutral beam to <5% while traversing a 3-m path would require a chamber pressure of no more than 1.3 x 10{sup -5} torr. However, it appears that substantial improvements in the beam spot size on target might be achieved at pressures a factor of 10 or more higher than this. Alternatively, even at still higher chamber pressures that would strongly ionize atomically neutral beams, the negative-ion approach may still have significant appeal, since it precludes the possibly challenging problem of electron contamination of a positive-ion beam during acceleration, drift compression, and focusing.

  19. Evaluation of Negative-Ion-Beam Driver Concepts for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry R. Grisham

    2002-01-14

    We evaluate the feasibility of producing and using atomically neutral heavy ion beams produced from negative ions as drivers for an inertial confinement fusion reactor. Bromine and iodine appear to be the most attractive elements for the driver beams. Fluorine and chlorine appear to be the most appropriate feedstocks for initial tests of extractable negative ion current densities. With regards to ion sources, photodetachment neutralizers, and vacuum requirements for accelerators and beam transport, this approach appears feasible within existing technology, and the vacuum requirements are essentially identical to those for positive ion drivers except in the target chamber. The principal constraint is that this approach requires harder vacuums in the target chamber than do space-charge-neutralized positive ion drivers. With realistic (but perhaps pessimistic) estimates of the total ionization cross section, limiting the ionization of a neutral beam to less than 5% while traversing a four -meter path would require a chamber pressure of no more than 5 x 10{sup -5} torr. Alternatively, even at chamber pressures that are too high to allow propagation of atomically neutral beams, the negative ion approach may still have appeal, since it precludes the possibly serious problem of electron contamination of a positive ion beam during acceleration, drift compression, and focusing.

  20. Simulations of ion acceleration at non-relativistic shocks. I. Acceleration efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprioli, D.; Spitkovsky, A.

    2014-03-10

    We use two-dimensional and three-dimensional hybrid (kinetic ions-fluid electrons) simulations to investigate particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification at non-relativistic astrophysical shocks. We show that diffusive shock acceleration operates for quasi-parallel configurations (i.e., when the background magnetic field is almost aligned with the shock normal) and, for large sonic and Alfvnic Mach numbers, produces universal power-law spectra ?p {sup 4}, where p is the particle momentum. The maximum energy of accelerated ions increases with time, and it is only limited by finite box size and run time. Acceleration is mainly efficient for parallel and quasi-parallel strong shocks, where 10%-20% of the bulk kinetic energy can be converted to energetic particles and becomes ineffective for quasi-perpendicular shocks. Also, the generation of magnetic turbulence correlates with efficient ion acceleration and vanishes for quasi-perpendicular configurations. At very oblique shocks, ions can be accelerated via shock drift acceleration, but they only gain a factor of a few in momentum and their maximum energy does not increase with time. These findings are consistent with the degree of polarization and the morphology of the radio and X-ray synchrotron emission observed, for instance, in the remnant of SN 1006. We also discuss the transition from thermal to non-thermal particles in the ion spectrum (supra-thermal region) and we identify two dynamical signatures peculiar of efficient particle acceleration, namely, the formation of an upstream precursor and the alteration of standard shock jump conditions.

  1. Nonlinear Langmuir structures: Soliton and shock in a rotating weakly relativistic electron-positron magnetoplasma with stationary positive ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Labany, S. K.; Moslem, W. M.; El-Awady, E. I.

    2010-06-15

    Theoretical and numerical studies are performed for nonlinear Langmuir structures (soliton and shock) in a rotating weakly relativistic electron-positron magnetoplasma with background stationary positive ions. For this purpose, the reductive perturbation technique is employed to the weakly relativistic hydrodynamical electrons/positrons fluid equations and Poisson equation, obtaining extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation. The latter has been solved analytically. The features of the nonlinear excitations and their propagation conditions are investigated numerically. Our finding could elucidate the nonlinear electrostatic structures that propagate in astrophysical plasma situations where rotating, magnetized plasma can exist; such as polar cups region of pulsars, around active galactic nuclei, neutron stars, and white dwarfs.

  2. Time-of-flight detector for heavy ion backscattering spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, J.A.; Banks, J.C.; Doyle, B.L.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year laboratory directed research and development project to explore advanced concepts in Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS), undertaken with the goal of extending the sensitivity of this relatively new technique to levels unattainable by any other existing trace element surface analysis. Improvements in sensitivity are required for the application of HIBS to contamination control in the microelectronics industry. Tools with sensitivity approaching 10{sup 8} atoms/cm{sup 2} are expected to be essential for enabling advanced IC production by the year 2000. During the project the authors developed a new analysis chamber with channeling goniometer and a prototype time-of-flight detector with a demonstrated sensitivity of {approximately} 5 {times} 10{sup 8} atoms/cm{sup 2} for Au on Si and {approximately} 5 {times} 10{sup 10} for Fe, and sufficient mass resolution to separate contributions from Fe and Cu.

  3. Beam imaging diagnostics for heavy ion beam fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Prost, L.; Ghiorso, W.

    2003-05-01

    We are developing techniques for imaging beams in heavy-ion beam fusion experiments in the HIF-VNL in 2 to 4 transverse dimensions. The beams in current experiments range in energy from 50 keV to 2 MeV, with beam current densities from <10 to 200 mA/cm{sup 2}, and pulse lengths of 4 to 20 {micro}s. The beam energy will range up to 10 MeV in near-future beam experiments. The imaging techniques, based on kapton films and optical scintillators, complement and, in some cases, may replace mechanical slit scanners. The kapton film images represent a time-integrated image on the film exposed to the beam. The optical scintillator utilizes glass and ceramic scintillator material imaged by a fast, image-intensified CCD-based camera. We will discuss the techniques, results, and plans for implementation of the diagnostics on the beam experiments.

  4. Heavy ion induction linac drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.P.; Hovingh, J.

    1988-10-01

    Intense beams of high energy heavy ions (e.g., 10 GeV Hg) are an attractive option for an ICF driver because of their favorable energy deposition characteristics. The accelerator systems to produce the beams at the required power level are a development from existing technologies of the induction linac, rf linac/storage ring, and synchrotron. The high repetition rate of the accelerator systems, and the high efficiency which can be realized at high current make this approach especially suitable for commercial ICF. The present report gives a summary of the main features of the induction linac driver system, which is the approach now pursued in the USA. The main subsystems, consisting of injector, multiple beam accelerator at low and high energy, transport and pulse compression lines, and final focus are described. Scale relations are given for the current limits and other features of these subsystems. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion: Summary Report of the Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidl, P.A.; Barnard, J.J.

    2011-04-29

    The Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May 23-26, 2011. The workshop began with plenary sessions to review the state of the art in HIF (heavy ion fusion), followed by parallel working groups, and concluded with a plenary session to review the results. There were five working groups: IFE (inertial fusion energy) targets, RF approach to HIF, induction accelerator approach to HIF, chamber and driver interface, ion sources and injectors.

  6. From many body wee partons dynamics to perfect fluid: a standard model for heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venugopalan, R.

    2010-07-22

    We discuss a standard model of heavy ion collisions that has emerged both from experimental results of the RHIC program and associated theoretical developments. We comment briefly on the impact of early results of the LHC program on this picture. We consider how this standard model of heavy ion collisions could be solidified or falsified in future experiments at RHIC, the LHC and a future Electro-Ion Collider.

  7. Recent U.S. advances in ion-beam-driven high energy densityphysics and heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Coleman, J.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy,P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Sharp, W.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, Qin H.; Sefkow, A.B.; Startsev,E.A.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.

    2006-07-05

    During the past two years, significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy ion fusion science program in longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter, beam acceleration, high brightness beam transport; and advanced theory and numerical simulations. Innovations in longitudinal compression of intense ion beams by > 50 X propagating through background plasma enable initial beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin within the next two years. They are assessing how these new techniques might apply to heavy ion fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy.

  8. Initial conditions dependency in heavy-quarks suppression in ultra-relativistic collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Alarcon do Passo Suaide, Alexandre

    2013-05-06

    Heavy quark suppression in central Au+Au collisions is expected to be smaller than that of light quarks. However experimental data suggest that they are evenly suppressed. We propose considering fluctuations in the medium as they may lead to high-density regions which in turn can cause a considerable quark suppression at the early stages of the collision evolution. To analyse the overall effect of these fluctuations we perform computer simulations of charm and bottom propagating through the quark-gluon plasma and obtain estimates of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA}. This quantity gives us information about the heavy quark suppression that can be compared to published experimental data from the STAR experiment.

  9. Atomic nuclei decay modes by spontaneous emission of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M.; Sndulescu, A.; Greiner, W.

    1985-08-01

    The great majority of the known nuclides with Z>40, including the so-called stable nuclides, are metastable with respect to several modes of spontaneous superasymmetric splitting. A model extended from the fission theory of alpha decay allows one to estimate the lifetimes and the branching ratios relative to the alpha decay for these natural radioactivities. From a huge amount of systematic calculations it is concluded that the process should proceed with maximum intensity in the trans-lead nuclei, where the minimum lifetime is obtained from parent-emitted heavy ion combinations leading to a magic (/sup 208/Pb) or almost magic daughter nucleus. More than 140 nuclides with atomic number smaller than 25 are possible candidates to be emitted from heavy nuclei, with half-lives in the range of 10/sup 10/--10/sup 30/ s: /sup 5/He, /sup 8en-dash10/Be, /sup 11,12/B, /sup 12en-dash16/C, /sup 13en-dash17/N, /sup 15en-dash22/O, /sup 18en-dash23/F, /sup 20en-dash26/Ne, /sup 23en-dash28/Na, /sup 23en-dash30/Mg, /sup 27en-dash32/Al, /sup 28en-dash36/Si, /sup 31en-dash39/P, /sup 32en-dash42/S, /sup 35en-dash45/Cl, /sup 37en-dash47/Ar, /sup 40en-dash49/ K, . .Ca, /sup 44en-dash53/ Sc, /sup 46en-dash53/Ti, /sup 48en-dash54/V, and /sup 49en-dash55/ Cr. The shell structure and the pairing effects are clearly manifested in these new decay modes.

  10. Scaling of elliptic flow, recombination, and sequential freeze-out of hadrons in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Min; Rapp, Ralf; Fries, Rainer J.

    2010-09-15

    The scaling properties of elliptic flow of hadrons produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are investigated at low transverse momenta, p{sub T} < or approx. 2 GeV. Utilizing empirical parametrizations of a thermalized fireball with collective-flow fields, the resonance recombination model (RRM) is employed to describe hadronization via quark coalescence at the hadronization transition. We reconfirm that RRM converts equilibrium quark distribution functions into equilibrated hadron spectra including the effects of space-momentum correlations on elliptic flow. This provides the basis for a controlled extraction of quark distributions of the bulk matter at hadronization from spectra of multistrange hadrons which are beligeved to decouple close to the critical temperature. The resulting elliptic flow from empirical fits at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider exhibits transverse kinetic-energy and valence-quark scaling. Utilizing the well-established concept of sequential freeze-out, the scaling at low momenta extends to bulk hadrons ({pi}, K, p) at thermal freeze-out, albeit with different source parameters compared to chemical freeze-out. Elliptic-flow scaling is thus compatible with both equilibrium hydrodynamics and quark recombination.

  11. Sub-micron resolution of localized ion beam induced charge reduction in silicon detectors damaged by heavy ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auden, Elizabeth C.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Bielejec, Edward; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Abraham, John B. S.; Doyle, Barney L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, displacement damage reduces ion beam induced charge (IBIC) through Shockley-Read-Hall recombination. Closely spaced pulses of 200 keV Si++ ions focused in a 40 nm beam spot are used to create damage cascades within 0.25 μm2 areas. Damaged areas are detected through contrast in IBIC signals generated with focused ion beams of 200 keV Si++ ions and 60 keV Li+ ions. IBIC signal reduction can be resolved over sub-micron regions of a silicon detector damaged by as few as 1000 heavy ions.

  12. Sub-micron resolution of localized ion beam induced charge reduction in silicon detectors damaged by heavy ions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Auden, Elizabeth C.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Bielejec, Edward; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Abraham, John B. S.; Doyle, Barney L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, displacement damage reduces ion beam induced charge (IBIC) through Shockley-Read-Hall recombination. Closely spaced pulses of 200 keV Si++ ions focused in a 40 nm beam spot are used to create damage cascades within 0.25 μm2 areas. Damaged areas are detected through contrast in IBIC signals generated with focused ion beams of 200 keV Si++ ions and 60 keV Li+ ions. IBIC signal reduction can be resolved over sub-micron regions of a silicon detector damaged by as few as 1000 heavy ions.

  13. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisham, L. R.; Kwan, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  14. A lower cost development path for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1993-05-19

    If two features of the inertial fusion process are exploited successfully, they can lead to significantly lower costs for demonstrating the feasibility of commercial electric power production from this source of energy. First, fusion capsule ignition and burn physics is independent of reaction chamber size and hydrodynamically-equivalent capsules can be designed to perform at small yield, exactly as they do at large yield. This means that an integrated test of all power plant components and feasibility tests of various reaction chamber concepts can be done at much smaller sizes (about 1--2 m first wall radius) and much lower powers (tens of MWs) than magnetic fusion development facilities such as ITER. Second, the driver, which is the most expensive component of currently conceived IFE development facilities, can be used to support more than one experiment target chamber/reactor (simultaneously and/or sequentially). These two factors lead to lower development facility costs, modular facilities, and the planning flexibility to spread costs over time or do several things in parallel and thus shorten the total time needed for development of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). In this paper the authors describe the general feature of a heavy ion fusion development plan that takes advantage of upgradable accelerators and the ability to test chambers and reactor systems at small scale in order to reduce development time and costs.

  15. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1985-September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The heavy ion accelerator is profiled. Energy losses, currents, kinetic energy, beam optics, pulse models and mechanical tolerances are included in the discussion. In addition, computational efforts and an energy analyzer are described. 37 refs., 27 figs. (WRF)

  16. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Yale Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator - CT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    05 Yale Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator - CT 05 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Yale Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator (CT.05) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: New Haven , Connecticut CT.05-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CT.05-3 Site Operations: Research and development with solvents. CT.05-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination remote based on limited amount of materials handled CT.05-3 Radioactive Materials

  17. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; et al.

    2005-09-19

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers.

  18. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1989--September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This report contains the following topics on heavy ion fusion: MBE-4 drifting beam quadrupole operating range; transverse emittance growth in MBE-4; an improved ion source for MBE-4; drifting beam studies on MBE-4; 2-MV injector; improvements in lifetime of the C{sup +} source; injector control system; Maxwell spark gap test update; ILSE cosine 2{theta} quadrupole magnet development; electrostatic quadrupole prototype development activity; induction accelerator cell development; effect of a spread in beamlet currents on longitudinal stability; and heavy ion linac driver analysis.

  19. Direct Drive Heavy-Ion-Beam Inertial Fusion at High Coupling Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B. Grant; Logan, B. Grant; Perkins, L.J.; Barnard, J.J.

    2007-06-25

    Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry and Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability are discussed for spherical heavy-ion-beam-driven targets with and without hohlraums. Efficient coupling of heavy ion beams to compress direct-drive inertial fusion targets without hohlraums is found to require ion range increasing several-fold during the drive pulse. One-dimensional implosion calculations using the LASNEX ICF target physics code shows the ion range increasing four-fold during the drive pulse to keep ion energy deposition following closely behind the imploding ablation front, resulting in high coupling efficiencies (shell kinetic energy/incident beam energy of 16 to 18%). Ways to increase beam ion range while mitigating Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed for future work.

  20. Swift heavy ion irradiation of Pt nanocrystals: I. shape transformation and dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giulian, R.; Araujo, L.L.; Kluth, P.; Sprouster, D.J.; Schnohr, C.S.; Byrne, A.P.; Ridgway, M.C. (ANU)

    2014-09-24

    We report on the effects of swift heavy ion irradiation of embedded Pt nanocrystals (NCs), which change from spheres to prolate spheroids to rods upon irradiation. Using a broad range of ion irradiation energies and NC mean sizes we demonstrate that the elongation and dissolution processes are energy and size dependent, attaining comparable levels of shape transformation and dissolution upon a given energy density deposited in the matrix. The NC shape transformation remains operative despite discontinuous ion tracks in the matrix and exhibits a constant threshold size for elongation. In contrast, for ion irradiations in which the ion tracks are continuous, the threshold size for elongation is clearly energy dependent.

  1. Review of target studies for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.D.; Mark, J.W.K.; Pan, Y.L.

    1986-10-24

    We present an updated set of gain curves for radiation driven ion beam targets. The improved target performance calculated with nuclear spin polarized fuel will also be discussed. We discuss the conditions required for efficient conversion to x-rays of ion beam energy. These requirements are compared with those obtained for lasers. Recent results on symmetry requirements for direct drive ion beam targets are presented.

  2. Effects of Heavy Ions on ULF Wave Resonances Near the Equatorial Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.-H.Lee, J.R. Johnson, K. Kim and K.-S.Kim

    2008-11-20

    Pc1-2 ULF waves are strongly associated with the presence of various ions in the magnetosphere. We investigate the role of heavy ion resonances in nonuniform plasmas near the equatorial region. By adopting the invariant imbedding method, the coupled plasma wave equations are solved in an exact manner to calculate the resonant absorption at the ion-ion hybrid resonance. Our results show that irreversible mode conversion occurs at the resonance, which absorbs the fast wave energy. It is found that waves near the resonances appear with linear polarization, and their amplitude and frequency are sensitive to the properties of the heavy ion plasma composition. We examine how these resonances occur for various H+ - He+ populations in detail by performing an accurate calculation of the mode conversion effciency. Because the multi-ion hybrid resonance locations in cold plasmas are determined by simple parameters such as the fraction of the ion number density of each species and the magnetic field, we suggest that it is possible to monitor heavy ion composition by examining the peak frequencies of linearly polarized wave events in either electric field or magnetic field spectral data.

  3. Proceedings of the 8th high energy heavy ion study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.W.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    This was the eighth in a series of conferences jointly sponsored by the Nuclear Science Division of LBL and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in West Germany. Sixty papers on current research at both relativistic and intermediate energies are included in this report. Topics covered consisted of: Equation of State of Nuclear Matter, Pion and High Energy Gamma Emission, Theory of Multifragmentation, Intermediate Energies, Fragmentation, Atomic Physics, Nuclear Structure, Electromagnetic Processes, and New Facilities planned for SIS-ESR. The latest design parameters of the Bevalac Upgrade Proposal were reviewed for the user community. Also, the design of a new electronic 4..pi.. detector, a time projection chamber which would be placed at the HISS facility, was presented.

  4. The Multi-Purpose Detector for NICA heavy-Ion Collider at JINR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogachevsky, O. V.

    2012-05-15

    The Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) is designed to study heavy-ion collisions at the Nuclotron-based heavy Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) at JINR, Dubna. Its main components located inside a superconducting solenoid are a tracking system composed of a silicon microstrip vertex detector followed by a large volume time-projection chamber, a time-of-flight system for particle identification and a barrel electromagnetic calorimeter. A zero degree hadron calorimeter is designed specifically to measure the energy of spectators. In this paper, all parts of the apparatus are described and their tracking and particle identification parameters are discussed in some detail.

  5. Selected Topics in the Physics of Heavy Ion Collisions (1/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    In these lectures, I discuss some classes of measurements accessible in heavy ion collisions at the LHC. How can these observables be measured, to what extent can they be calculated, and what do they tell us about the dense mesoscopic system created during the collision? In the first lecture, I shall focus in particular on measurements that constrain the spatio-temporal picture of the collisions and that measure centrality, orientations and extensions. In the subsequent lectures, I then discuss on how classes of measurements allow one to characterize collective phenomena, and to what extent these measurements can constrain the properties of matter produced in heavy ion collisions.

  6. Fluctuations driven isotropization of the quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akkelin, S. V.

    2008-07-15

    Averaged over ensemble of initial conditions kinetic transport equations of weakly coupled systems of quarks and gluons are derived. These equations account for the correlators of fluctuations of particles and classical gluon fields. The isotropization of particle momenta by field fluctuations at the early prethermal stage of matter evolution in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions is discussed. Our results can be useful for understanding under what conditions isotropization of the quark-gluon plasma in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions can be reached within phenomenologically observed time scales.

  7. Doorway state expansion approach to coupled channels problems and application to heavy ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breitschaft, A. M.S.; Canto, L. F.; Schechter, H.; Hussein, M. S.; Moniz, Ernest J.

    1994-08-01

    The doorway expansion method is extended to coupled channels problems in low energy heavy ion collisions. As a test, it is applied to an exactly soluble model and the convergence problem is discussed. The method is then applied to heavy ion elastic scattering due to the optical potential and to a simple coupled channels problem. In both cases very good convergence is reached with six doorway states. The calculation with a single doorway is shown to be much better than the DWBA. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. SAFETY ENGINEERING FOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER AT THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MUSOLINO,S.V.

    1999-11-14

    THERE ARE ONLY A FEW OTHER HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE ACCELERATORS LIKE RHIC IN THE WORLD. THEREFORE, THE DESIGNERS OF THE MACHINE DO NOT ALWAYS HAVE CONSENSUS DESIGN STANDARDS AND REGULATORY GUIDANCE AVAILABLE TO ESTABLISH THE ENGINEERING PARAMETERS FOR SAFETY. SOME OF THE AREAS WHERE STANDARDS ARE NOT AVAILABLE RELATE TO THE CRYOGENIC SYSTEM, CONTAINMENT OF LARGE VOLUMES OF FLAMMABLE GAS IN FRAGILE VESSELS IN THE EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND MITIGATION OF A DESIGN BASIS ACCIDENT WITH A STORED PARTICLE BEAM. UNIQUE BUT EQUIVALENT SAFETY ENGINEERING MUST BE DETERMINED. SPECIAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR PROMPT RADIATION WERE DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR THE DESIGN OF RADIATION SHIELDING.

  9. System-Size Independence of Directed Flow Measured at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelev, B. I.; Barannikova, O.; Betts, R. R.; Callner, J.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Iordanova, A.; Suarez, M. C.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Bhati, A. K.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, L.; Pruthi, N. K.; Ahammed, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dutta Mazumdar, M. R.; Ganti, M. S.; Ghosh, P.; Mohanty, B.

    2008-12-19

    We measure directed flow (v{sub 1}) for charged particles in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 and 62.4 GeV, as a function of pseudorapidity ({eta}), transverse momentum (p{sub t}), and collision centrality, based on data from the STAR experiment. We find that the directed flow depends on the incident energy but, contrary to all available model implementations, not on the size of the colliding system at a given centrality. We extend the validity of the limiting fragmentation concept to v{sub 1} in different collision systems, and investigate possible explanations for the observed sign change in v{sub 1}(p{sub t})

  10. Correlations between jet-quenching observables at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, J.; Horowitz, W.; Liao, J.

    2011-10-01

    Focusing on four types of correlation plots, R{sub AA} versus v{sub 2}, R{sub AA} versus I{sub AA}, I{sub AA} versus v{sub 2}{sup I{sub AA}}, and v{sub 2} versus v{sub 2}{sup I{sub AA}}, we demonstrate how the centrality dependence of correlations between multiple jet quenching observables provide valuable insight into the energy loss mechanism in a quark-gluon plasma. In particular, we find that a qualitative energy loss model gives a good description of R{sub AA} versus v{sub 2} only when we take {Delta}E-I{sup 3} and a medium geometry generated by a model of the color glass condensate. This same {Delta}E-I{sup 3} model also qualitatively describes the trigger p{sub T} dependence of R{sub AA} versus I{sub AA} data and makes novel predictions for the centrality dependence for this R{sub AA} versus I{sub AA} correlation. Current data suggest, albeit with extremely large uncertainty, that v{sub 2}{sup I{sub AA}} >> v{sub 2}, a correlation that is difficult to reproduce in current energy loss models.

  11. Indications of Conical Emission of Charged Hadrons at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelev, B. I.; Barannikova, O.; Betts, R. R.; Callner, J.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Iordanova, A.; Suarez, M. C.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Bhati, A. K.; Kumar, L.; Pruthi, N. K.; Ahammed, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dutta Mazumdar, M. R.; Ganti, M. S.; Ghosh, P.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T. K.

    2009-02-06

    Three-particle azimuthal correlation measurements with a high transverse momentum trigger particle are reported for pp, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV by the STAR experiment. Dijet structures are observed in pp, d+Au and peripheral Au+Au collisions. An additional structure is observed in central Au+Au data, signaling conical emission of correlated charged hadrons. The conical emission angle is found to be {theta}=1.37{+-}0.02(stat){sub -0.07}{sup +0.06}(syst), independent of p{sub perpendicular}.

  12. Correlations between jet-quenching observables at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia Jiangyong; Horowitz, W. A.; Liao Jinfeng

    2011-09-15

    Focusing on four types of correlation plots, R{sub AA} versus v{sub 2}, R{sub AA} versus I{sub AA}, I{sub AA} versus v{sub 2}{sup I{sub AA}}, and v{sub 2} versus v{sub 2}{sup I{sub AA}}, we demonstrate how the centrality dependence of correlations between multiple jet quenching observables provide valuable insight into the energy loss mechanism in a quark-gluon plasma. In particular, we find that a qualitative energy loss model gives a good description of R{sub AA} versus v{sub 2} only when we take {Delta}E{approx}l{sup 3} and a medium geometry generated by a model of the color glass condensate. This same {Delta}E{approx}l{sup 3} model also qualitatively describes the trigger p{sub T} dependence of R{sub AA} versus I{sub AA} data and makes novel predictions for the centrality dependence for this R{sub AA} versus I{sub AA} correlation. Current data suggest, albeit with extremely large uncertainty, that v{sub 2}{sup I{sub AA}}>>v{sub 2}, a correlation that is difficult to reproduce in current energy loss models.

  13. Indications of conical emission of charged hadrons at the BNL relativistic heavy ion collider.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Krueger, K.; Spinka, H. M.; Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Illinois; Panjab Univ.; Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre; Kent State Univ.; Particle Physic Lab.; STAR Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Three-particle azimuthal correlation measurements with a high transverse momentum trigger particle are reported for pp, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV by the STAR experiment. Dijet structures are observed in pp, d+Au and peripheral Au+Au collisions. An additional structure is observed in central Au+Au data, signaling conical emission of correlated charged hadrons. The conical emission angle is found to be {theta} = 1.37 {+-} 0.02(stat){sub -0.07}{sup +0.06} (syst), independent of p.

  14. Indications of Conical Emission of Charged Hadrons at the BNL Relativistic HeavyIon Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAR Coll

    2009-02-09

    Three-particle azimuthal correlation measurements with a high transverse momentum trigger particle are reported for pp, d + Au, and Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV by the STAR experiment. Dijet structures are observed in pp, d + Au and peripheral Au + Au collisions. An additional structure is observed in central Au + Au data, signaling conical emission of correlated charged hadrons. The conical emission angle is found to be {theta} = 1.37 {+-} 0.02(stat){sub -0.07}{sup +0.06}(syst), independent of p{sub {perpendicular}}.

  15. Applications of the LAHET simulation code to relativistic heavy ion detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, L.S.; Gavron, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Los Alamos High Energy Transport (LAHET) simulation code has been applied to test beam data from the lead/scintillator Participant Calorimeter of BNL AGS experiment E814. The LAHET code treats hadronic interactions with the LANL version of the Oak Ridge code HETC. LAHET has now been expanded to handle hadrons with kinetic energies greater than 5 GeV with the FLUKA code, while HETC is used exclusively below 2.0 GeV. FLUKA is phased in linearly between 2.0 and 5.0 GeV. Transport of electrons and photons is done with EGS4, and an interface to the Los Alamos HMCNP3B library based code is provided to analyze neutrons with kinetic energies less than 20 MeV. Excellent agreement is found between the test data and simulation, and results for 2.46 GeV/c protons and pions are illustrated in this article.

  16. Applications of the LAHET simulation code to relativistic heavy ion detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, L.S.; Gavron, A.

    1991-12-31

    The Los Alamos High Energy Transport (LAHET) simulation code has been applied to test beam data from the lead/scintillator Participant Calorimeter of BNL AGS experiment E814. The LAHET code treats hadronic interactions with the LANL version of the Oak Ridge code HETC. LAHET has now been expanded to handle hadrons with kinetic energies greater than 5 GeV with the FLUKA code, while HETC is used exclusively below 2.0 GeV. FLUKA is phased in linearly between 2.0 and 5.0 GeV. Transport of electrons and photons is done with EGS4, and an interface to the Los Alamos HMCNP3B library based code is provided to analyze neutrons with kinetic energies less than 20 MeV. Excellent agreement is found between the test data and simulation, and results for 2.46 GeV/c protons and pions are illustrated in this article.

  17. Estimation of Heavy Ion Densities From Linearly Polarized EMIC Waves At Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-02-24

    Linearly polarized EMIC waves are expected to concentrate at the location where their wave frequency satisfies the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance condition as the result of a mode conversion process. In this letter, we evaluate absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance in the Earth geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of helium and azimuthal and field-aligned wave numbers in dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentration, it only occurs for a limited range of azimuthal and field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Our results suggest that, at L = 6.6, linearly polarized EMIC waves can be generated via mode conversion from the compressional waves near the crossover frequency. Consequently, the heavy ion concentration ratio can be estimated from observations of externally generated EMIC waves that have polarization.

  18. Beam charge and current neutralization of high-charge-state heavy ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B.G.; Callahan, D.A.

    1997-10-29

    High-charge-state heavy-ions may reduce the accelerator voltage and cost of heavy-ion inertial fusion drivers, if ways can be found to neutralize the space charge of the highly charged beam ions as they are focused to a target in a fusion chamber. Using 2-D Particle-In- Cell simulations, we have evaluated the effectiveness of two different methods of beam neutralization: (1) by redistribution of beam charge in a larger diameter, preformed plasma in the chamber, and (2), by introducing a cold-electron-emitting source within the beam channel at the beam entrance into the chamber. We find the latter method to be much more effective for high-charge-state ions.

  19. Ion cascade acceleration from the interaction of a relativistic femtosecond laser pulse with a narrow thin target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Feng; Xu Han; Tian Youwei; Yu Wei; Lu Peixiang; Li Ruxin

    2006-07-15

    Particle-in-cell simulations are performed to study the acceleration of ions due to the interaction of a relativistic femtosecond laser pulse with a narrow thin target. The numerical results show that ions can be accelerated in a cascade by two electrostatic fields if the width of the target is smaller than the laser beam waist. The first field is formed in front of the target by the central part of the laser beam, which pushes the electron layer inward. The major part of the abaxial laser energy propagates along the edges to the rear side of the target and pulls out some hot electrons from the edges of the target, which form another electrostatic field at the rear side of the target. The ions from the front surface are accelerated stepwise by these two electrostatic fields to high energies at the rear side of the target. The simulations show that the largest ion energy gain for a narrow target is about four times higher than in the case of a wide target.

  20. Cascade Problems in Some Atomic Lifetime Measurements at a Heavy-Ion Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabert, E; Hoffmann, J; Krantz, C; Wolf, A; Ishikawa, Y; Santana, J

    2008-10-09

    Lifetimes of 3s{sup 2}3p{sup k} ground configuration levels of Al-, Si-, P-, and S-like ions of Be, Co, and Ni have been measured at a heavy-ion storage ring. Some of the observed decay curves show strong evidence of cascade repopulation from specific 3d levels that feature lifetimes in the same multi-millisecond range as the levels of the ground configuration.

  1. Design and characterization of a neutralized-transport experiment for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Greenway, W.G.; Logan, B.G.; MacGill, R.A.; Shuman, D.B.; Vanecek, D.L.; Waldron, W.L.; Sharp, W.M.; Houck, T.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Sefkow, A.B.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2004-03-14

    In heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the fusion chamber to hit millimeter-sized spots on the target. Effective plasma neutralization of intense ion beams in this final transport is essential for a heavy-ion fusion power plant to be economically competitive. The physics of neutralized drift has been studied extensively with particle-in-cell simulations. To provide quantitative comparisons of theoretical predictions with experiment, the Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX). The experiment consists of three main sections, each with its own physics issues. The injector is designed to generate a very high-brightness, space-charge-dominated potassium beam while still allowing variable perveance by a beam aperturing technique. The magnetic-focusing section, consisting of four pulsed magnetic quadrupoles, permits the study of beam tuning, as well as the effects of phase space dilution due to higher-order nonlinear fields. In the final section, the converging ion beam exiting the magnetic section is transported through a drift region with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we discuss the design and characterization of the three sections in detail and present initial results from the experiment.

  2. 2011-2012 SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A search for super heavy elements using a catcher foil M. Barbui, K. Schmidt, J.B. Natowitz, H. Zheng, K. Hagel, A. Bonasera and M. Barbino Probing clusterization in 40Ca + 40Ca reactions K. Schmidt, M. Barbui, J. B. Natowitz, K. Hagel, A. Bonasera, G. Giuliani, M. Rodrigues, R. Wada, M. Huang, C. Botosso, G. Liu, G. Viesti, S. Moretto, G. Prete, S. Pesente, D. Fabris, Y. El Masri, T. Keutgen, S. Kowalski, and A. Kumar Yield of D-D and D-3He fusion reactions produced by the interaction of

  3. 2011-2012 SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors influencing residue cross section in 48Ca-induced reactions D. A. Mayorov, T. A. Werke, M. C. Alfonso, M. E. Bennett, and C. M. Folden III Characterization of a gas stopper for heavy element chemistry studies M. C. Alfonso, D. A. Mayorov, T. A. Werke, and C. M. Folden III Fabrication of lanthanide targets for nuclear reaction studies D. A. Mayorov, T. A. Werke, M. E. Bennett, and C. M. Folden III Excitation functions of 45Sc-induced reactions: towards future superheavy element synthesis

  4. Heavy ion beam induced charge transfer in Ar-Cs mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murnick, D.E.; Gernhauser, R.; Ulrich, A.; Krotz, W.; Wieser, J.

    1993-12-01

    In situ production of target ions in cold, dense matter by heavy ion collisions and subsequent selective charge transfer may provide an effective pumping scheme for heavy ion beam pumped lasers. Charge transfer from cesium atoms to doubly charged argon ions was used for selective population of 4d-levels in Ar II. The argon ions were produced in an argon-cesium gas target by a pulsed beam of 100 MeV {sup 32}S{sup 8+} ions from the Munich Tandem van de Graaff accelerator. The ion beam of 12 {times} 10{sup 6} ions/pulse had a pulse width of 2 ns and a repetition rate of 32 kHz. The argon pressure was typically 250 mbar. The cesium partial pressure was adjusted by heating the gas target, including a cesium reservoir, to temperatures between 250 and 500{degrees}C. Time resolved wavelength spectra showed large intensity increases corresponding to 4d {sup 4}D and 4d {sup 4}F to 4p transitions in Ar II in the ultraviolet wavelength region between 300 and 400 nm. This is interpreted as a resonant charge transfer of outer electrons of cesium to 4d levels in Ar II in Cs{sup 0} + Ar{sup 2+} collisions.

  5. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirruccello, M.C.; Tobias, C.A.

    1980-11-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980. (KRM)

  6. Relativistic effects on plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad

    2014-07-15

    The expansion of electron-ion plasma is studied through a fully relativistic multi-fluids plasma model which includes thermal pressure, ambipolar electrostatic potential, and internal energy conversion. Numerical investigation, based on quasi-neutral assumption, is performed for three different regimes: nonrelativistic, weakly relativistic, and relativistic. Ions' front in weakly relativistic regime exhibits spiky structure associated with a break-down of quasi-neutrality at the expanding front. In the relativistic regime, ion velocity is found to reach a saturation limit which occurs at earlier stages of the expansion. This limit is enhanced by higher electron velocity.

  7. Physics perspectives of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chang, Ning-bo; Cao, ShanShan; Chen, Bao-yi; Chen, Shi-yong; Chen, Zhen-yu; Ding, Heng-Tong; He, Min; Liu, Zhi-quan; Pang, Long-gang; Qin, Guang-you; et al

    2016-01-15

    We expect heavy-ion collisions at very high colliding energies to produce a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest temperature obtainable in a laboratory setting. Experimental studies of these reactions can provide an unprecedented range of information on properties of the QGP at high temperatures. We also report theoretical investigations of the physics perspectives of heavy-ion collisions at a future high-energy collider. These include initial parton production, collective expansion of the dense medium, jet quenching, heavy-quark transport, dissociation and regeneration of quarkonia, photon and dilepton production. Here, we illustrate the potential of future experimental studies of the initial particle production andmore » formation of QGP at the highest temperature to provide constraints on properties of strongly interaction matter.« less

  8. {gamma} spectroscopy around doubly magic {sup 48}Ca by heavy-ion transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leoni, Silvia

    2012-10-20

    {gamma} spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei around {sup 48}Ca is performed by the heavy-ion transfer reaction {sup 48}Ca on {sup 64}Ni at 282 MeV, with the PRISMA-CLARA setup at Legnaro Laboratory. Angular distributions, polarizations and lifetimes analysis probe spin and parities of several excited states, shading lights on their configuration. In the one neutron transfer channels, {sup 49}Ca and {sup 47}Ca, states arising by coupling a single particle to the 3{sup -} phonon of {sup 48}Ca are observed, showing the robustness of nuclear collectivity in rather light systems. The work demonstrates the feasibility of complete in-beam {gamma}-spectroscopy with heavy-ion transfer reactions and provides a method that can be further exploited in the future with heavy targets and radioactive beams.

  9. Experimental measurement of the 4-d transverse phase space map of a heavy ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, H S

    1997-12-01

    The development and employment of a new diagnostic instrument for characterizing intense, heavy ion beams is reported on. This instrument, the ''Gated Beam Imager'' or ''GBI'' was designed for use on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Heavy Ion Fusion Project's ''Small Recirculator'', an integrated, scaled physics experiment and engineering development project for studying the transport and control of intense heavy ion beams as inertial fusion drivers in the production of electric power. The GBI allows rapid measurement and calculation of a heavy ion beam's characteristics to include all the first and second moments of the transverse phase space distribution, transverse emittance, envelope parameters and beam centroid. The GBI, with appropriate gating produces a time history of the beam resulting in a 4-D phase-space and time ''map'' of the beam. A unique capability of the GBI over existing diagnostic instruments is its ability to measure the ''cross'' moments between the two transverse orthogonal directions. Non-zero ''cross'' moments in the alternating gradient lattice of the Small Recirculator are indicative of focusing element rotational misalignments contributing to beam emittance growth. This emittance growth, while having the same effect on the ability to focus a beam as emittance growth caused by non-linear effects, is in principle removable by an appropriate number of focusing elements. The instrument uses the pepperpot method of introducing a plate with many pinholes into the beam and observing the images of the resulting beamlets as they interact with a detector after an appropriate drift distance. In order to produce adequate optical signal and repeatability, the detector was chosen to be a microchannel plate (MCP) with a phosphor readout screen. The heavy ions in the pepperpot beamlets are stopped in the MCP's thin front metal anode and the resulting secondary electron signal is amplified and proximity-focused onto the phosphor while maintaining

  10. Angular anisotropy of characteristic x-radiation and auger electrons during the resonance coherent excitation of relativistic ions under planar channeling conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balashov, V. V. Sokolik, A. A.; Stysin, A. V.

    2008-07-15

    The results of new experiments on the resonance coherent excitation of relativistic highly charged ions under planar channeling conditions are analyzed by a method of the generalized master equation for the density matrix of ions. The results of calculations pertaining to the angular anisotropy of characteristic electromagnetic radiation, to the survival fraction of ions as a function of the trajectory of their motion in the channel, and to the excitation of autoionizing states of helium-like ions under the double resonance coherent excitation are in close agreement with measurement data. New experiments are proposed.

  11. Relativistic Many-body Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory Calculations of the Energy Levels and Transition Probabilities in Na- to P-like Xe Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2007-03-27

    Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations have been performed on Xe{sup 43+}-Xe{sup 39+} ions, resulting in energy levels, electric dipole transition probabilities, and level lifetimes. The second-order many-body perturbation theory calculation of energy levels included mass shifts, frequency-dependent Breit correction and Lamb shifts. The calculated transition energies and E1 transition rates are used to present synthetic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet range for some of the Xe ions.

  12. Heavy-ion transfer reactions at large internuclear distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montanari, D.; Corradi, L.; Szilner, S.; Pollarolo, G.; Fioretto, E.; Stefanini, A. M.; Farnea, E.; Michelagnoli, C.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Ur, C. A.; Courtin, S.; Goasduff, A.; Haas, F.; Mijatovic, T.; Soic, N.; Grebosz, J.

    2012-10-20

    The transfer reaction for the {sup 116}Sn+{sup 60}Ni system has been studied using the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer at different bombarding energies from above to well below the Coulomb barrier. The experiment has been done in inverse kinematics and light target-like ions have been detected with PRISMA placed at very forward angles. Good mass, nuclear charge and kinetic energy resolutions have been achieved. Sufficient statistics has been accumulated to extract angular distributions for different bombarding energies have been extracted and the response function of the spectrometer has been studied to correct for the aberration due to the transport of the ions in PRISMA. The comparison between the present case and the previously measured {sup 96}Zr+{sup 40}Ca system, superfluid and near closed shells nuclei, respectively, should significantly improve our understanding of nucleon-nucleon correlation properties in multinucleon transfer processes.

  13. Kinetic temperatures of heavy ions in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bochsler, P.; Geiss, J.; Joos, R.

    1990-11-01

    From a refined analysis of 4 years of data of the ion composition instrument on board ISEE 3 we find that in the overwhelming majority of observations kinetic temperatures of ions are approximately proportional to their masses. The logarithmic average for T(/sup 4/He/sup + +/) is 5.363; for T(O/sup 6 +/) and T(O/sup 7 +/) it is 5.978 and 6.000, respectively, corresponding to T(O)/T(He) = 4.2. For we find 6.52, corresponding to T(Fe)/T(He) = 14. The correlation coefficients between oxygen and helium kinetic temperatures are high (approx.0.78 or above), whereas for the correlation log T(Fe) versus log T(He) we find a value of only 0.44 due to the large measurement uncertainties of T(He). Significant deviations from the mass/temperature proportionality are found at occasions of cool and dense solar wind flow when Coulomb collisions succeed to equilibrate kinetic temperatures of different ions species.

  14. B-meson decay constants from 2+1-flavor lattice QCD with domain-wall light quarks and relativistic heavy quarks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christ, Norman H.; Flynn, Jonathan M.; Izubuchi, Taku; Kawanai, Taichi; Lehner, Christoph; Soni, Amarjit; Van de Water, Ruth S.; Witzel, Oliver

    2015-03-10

    We calculate the B-meson decay constants fB, fBs, and their ratio in unquenched lattice QCD using domain-wall light quarks and relativistic b-quarks. We use gauge-field ensembles generated by the RBC and UKQCD collaborations using the domain-wall fermion action and Iwasaki gauge action with three flavors of light dynamical quarks. We analyze data at two lattice spacings of a ≈ 0.11, 0.086 fm with unitary pion masses as light as Mπ ≈ 290 MeV; this enables us to control the extrapolation to the physical light-quark masses and continuum. For the b-quarks we use the anisotropic clover action with the relativistic heavy-quark interpretation, such that discretization errors from the heavy-quark action are of the same size as from the light-quark sector. We renormalize the lattice heavy-light axial-vector current using a mostly nonperturbative method in which we compute the bulk of the matching factor nonperturbatively, with a small correction, that is close to unity, in lattice perturbation theory. We also improve the lattice heavy-light current through O(αsa). We extrapolate our results to the physical light-quark masses and continuum using SU(2) heavy-meson chiral perturbation theory, and provide a complete systematic error budget. We obtain fB0 = 196.2(15.7) MeV, fB+ = 195.4(15.8) MeV, fBs = 235.4(12.2) MeV, fBs/fB0 = 1.193(59), and fBs/fB+ = 1.220(82), where the errors are statistical and total systematic added in quadrature. In addition, these results are in good agreement with other published results and provide an important independent cross check of other three-flavor determinations of B-meson decay constants using staggered light quarks.

  15. Reorientation of the crystalline planes in confined single crystal nickel nanorods induced by heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, Abha; Tyagi, Pawan K.; Rai, Padmnabh; Misra, D. S.; Ghatak, Jay; Satyam, P. V.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2006-08-28

    In a recent letter Tyagi et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253110 (2005)] have reported the special orientation of nickel planes inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with respect to the tube axis. Heavy ion irradiation has been performed with 1.5 MeV Au{sup 2+} and 100 MeV Au{sup 7+} ions on these nickel filled MWCNTs at fluences ranging from 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Ion-induced modifications have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The diffraction pattern and the lattice imaging showed the presence of ion-induced planar defects on the tube walls and completely amorphized encapsulated nickel nanorods. The results are discussed in terms of thermal spike model.

  16. Efficient quasi-monoenergetic ion beams from laser-driven relativistic plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palaniyappan, Sasi; Huang, Chengkun; Gautier, Donald C.; Hamilton, Christopher E.; Santiago, Miguel A.; Kreuzer, Christian; Sefkow, Adam B.; Shah, Rahul C.; Fernández, Juan C.

    2015-12-11

    Table-top laser–plasma ion accelerators have many exciting applications, many of which require ion beams with simultaneous narrow energy spread and high conversion efficiency. However, achieving these requirements has been elusive. We report the experimental demonstration of laser-driven ion beams with narrow energy spread and energies up to 18 MeV per nucleon and ~5% conversion efficiency (that is 4 J out of 80-J laser). Using computer simulations we identify a self-organizing scheme that reduces the ion energy spread after the laser exits the plasma through persisting self-generated plasma electric (~1012 V m-1) and magnetic (~104 T) fields. Furthermore, these results contribute to the development of next generation compact accelerators suitable for many applications such as isochoric heating for ion-fast ignition and producing warm dense matter for basic science.

  17. Efficient quasi-monoenergetic ion beams from laser-driven relativistic plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Palaniyappan, Sasi; Huang, Chengkun; Gautier, Donald C.; Hamilton, Christopher E.; Santiago, Miguel A.; Kreuzer, Christian; Sefkow, Adam B.; Shah, Rahul C.; Fernández, Juan C.

    2015-12-11

    Table-top laser–plasma ion accelerators have many exciting applications, many of which require ion beams with simultaneous narrow energy spread and high conversion efficiency. However, achieving these requirements has been elusive. We report the experimental demonstration of laser-driven ion beams with narrow energy spread and energies up to 18 MeV per nucleon and ~5% conversion efficiency (that is 4 J out of 80-J laser). Using computer simulations we identify a self-organizing scheme that reduces the ion energy spread after the laser exits the plasma through persisting self-generated plasma electric (~1012 V m-1) and magnetic (~104 T) fields. Furthermore, these results contributemore » to the development of next generation compact accelerators suitable for many applications such as isochoric heating for ion-fast ignition and producing warm dense matter for basic science.« less

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF THE PARAMETERS IN THE RHIC SINGLE CRYSTAL HEAVY ION COLLIMATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BIRYUKOV,V.M.; CHESNOKOV,Y.A.; KOTOV,V.I.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; STEVENS,A.

    1999-03-29

    In the framework of the project to design and test a collimation system prototype using bent channeling crystal for cleaning of the RHIC heavy ion beam halo, we have studied the optimal length and bending angle of a silicon (110) single crystal proposed to be a primary element situated upstream of the traditional heavy amorphous collimator. Besides the matters of the channeling and collimation efficiency, we also looked into the impact the crystal may have on the non-channeled particles that go on circulating in the ring, so as to reduce the momentum offset of the particles scattered of the crystal.

  19. “Ripples” on a relativistically expanding fluid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shi, Shuzhe; Liao, Jinfeng; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2014-12-29

    Recent studies have shown that fluctuations of various types play important roles in the evolution of the fireball created in relativistic heavy ion collisions and bear many phenomenological consequences for experimental observables. In addition, the bulk dynamics of the fireball is well described by relativistic hydrodynamic expansion and the fluctuations on top of such expanding background can be studied within the linearized hydrodynamic framework. In this paper we present complete and analytic sound wave solutions on top of both Bjorken flow and Hubble flow backgrounds.

  20. The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Davidson, R.C.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Lindl, J.D.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.

    2000-10-03

    Inertial fusion energy research has enjoyed increased interest and funding. This has allowed expanded programs in target design, target fabrication, fusion chamber research, target injection and tracking, and accelerator research. The target design effort examines ways to minimize the beam power and energy and increase the allowable focal spot size while preserving target gain. Chamber research for heavy ion fusion emphasizes the use of thick liquid walls to serve as the coolant, breed tritium, and protect the structural wall from neutrons, photons, and other target products. Several small facilities are now operating to model fluid chamber dynamics. A facility to study target injection and tracking has been built and a second facility is being designed. Improved economics is an important goal of the accelerator research. The accelerator research is also directed toward the design of an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE is being designed to accelerate ions to >100 MeV, enabling experiments in beam dynamics, focusing, and target physics. Activities leading to the IRE include ion source development and a High Current Experiment (HCX) designed to transport and accelerate a single beam of ions with a beam current of approximately 1 A, the initial current required for each beam of a fusion driver. In terms of theory, the program is developing a source-to-target numerical simulation capability. The goal of the entire program is to enable an informed decision about the promise of heavy ion fusion in about a decade.

  1. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  2. Polydopamine-mediated surface-functionalization of graphene oxide for heavy metal ions removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Zhihui; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Liu, Xia; Jin, Jian

    2015-04-15

    By utilizing polydopamine (PD) nano-thick interlayer as mediator, polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes with abundant amine groups were grafted onto the surface of PD coated graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction and produced a PEI–PD/GO composite nanosheets. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions as compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. The adsorption capacities for Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} are up to 87, 106, 197, and 110 mg/g, respectively. To further make the GO based composite operable, PEI–PD/RGO aerogel was prepared through hydrothermal and achieved a high surface area up to 373 m{sup 2}/g. Although the adsorption capacity of PEI–PD/RGO aerogel for heavy metal ions decreases a little as compared to PEI–PD/GO composite dispersion (38, 32, 95, 113 mg/g corresponding to Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Hg{sup 2+}, respectively), it could be recycled several times in a simple way by releasing adsorbed metal ions, indicating its potential application for cleaning wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes were grafted onto the surface of graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction between the PEI and polydopamine interlayer coated on GO surface. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. - Highlights: • We prepared polyethylenimine grafted polydopamine-mediated graphene oxide composites. • Introduction of PD layer increases metal ions adsorption capacity. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel exhibited a superior adsorption performance. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel can be recycled several times in a simple way.

  3. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on bare and coated ZnS quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, S. Hussain, A.M.P.; Ahmed, G.A.; Singh, F.; Avasthi, D.K.; Choudhury, A.

    2008-12-01

    The present study compares structural and optical modifications of bare and silica (SiO{sub 2}) coated ZnS quantum dots under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. Bare and silica coated ZnS quantum dots were prepared following an inexpensive chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the dielectric host matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the samples show the formation of almost spherical ZnS quantum dots. The UV-Vis absorption spectra reveal blue shift relative to bulk material in absorption energy while photoluminescence (PL) spectra suggests that surface state and near band edge emissions are dominating in case of bare and coated samples, respectively. Swift heavy ion irradiation of the samples was carried out with 160 MeV Ni{sup 12+} ion beam with fluences 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. Size enhancement of bare quantum dots after irradiation has been indicated in XRD and TEM analysis of the samples which has also been supported by optical absorption spectra. However similar investigations on irradiated coated quantum dots revealed little change in quantum dot size and emission. The present study thus shows that the coated ZnS quantum dots are stable upon SHI irradiation compared to the bare one.

  4. Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Enabling the next generation of intense particle accelerators Contact Juan Fernandez (505) 667-6575 Email Short-pulse ion acceleration The Trident facility is a world-class performer in the area of ion acceleration from laser-solid target interactions. Trident has demonstrated over 100 MeV protons at intensities of 8x1020 W/cm2 with efficiencies approaching 5%. These intense relativistic interactions can be diagnosed

  5. Design study of electron cyclotron resonance-ion plasma accelerator for heavy ion cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inoue, T. Sugimoto, S.; Sasai, K.; Hattori, T.

    2014-02-15

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Ion Plasma Accelerator (ECR-IPAC) device, which theoretically can accelerate multiple charged ions to several hundred MeV with short acceleration length, has been proposed. The acceleration mechanism is based on the combination of two physical principles, plasma electron ion adiabatic ejection (PLEIADE) and Gyromagnetic Autoresonance (GYRAC). In this study, we have designed the proof of principle machine ECR-IPAC device and simulated the electromagnetic field distribution generating in the resonance cavity. ECR-IPAC device consisted of three parts, ECR ion source section, GYRAC section, and PLEIADE section. ECR ion source section and PLEIADE section were designed using several multi-turn solenoid coils and sextupole magnets, and GYRAC section was designed using 10 turns coil. The structure of ECR-IPAC device was the cylindrical shape, and the total length was 1024 mm and the maximum diameter was 580 mm. The magnetic field distribution, which maintains the stable acceleration of plasma, was generated on the acceleration center axis throughout three sections. In addition, the electric field for efficient acceleration of electrons was generated in the resonance cavity by supplying microwave of 2.45 GHz.

  6. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  7. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. . Mineral Resources Inst.)

    1991-01-01

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  8. Benchmarking Heavy Ion Transport Codes FLUKA, HETC-HEDS MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronningen, Reginald Martin; Remec, Igor; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.

    2013-06-07

    Powerful accelerators such as spallation neutron sources, muon-collider/neutrino facilities, and rare isotope beam facilities must be designed with the consideration that they handle the beam power reliably and safely, and they must be optimized to yield maximum performance relative to their design requirements. The simulation codes used for design purposes must produce reliable results. If not, component and facility designs can become costly, have limited lifetime and usefulness, and could even be unsafe. The objective of this proposal is to assess the performance of the currently available codes – PHITS, FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and HETC-HEDS – that could be used for design simulations involving heavy ion transport. We plan to access their performance by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data of benchmark quality. Quantitative knowledge of the biases and the uncertainties of the simulations is essential as this potentially impacts the safe, reliable and cost effective design of any future radioactive ion beam facility. Further benchmarking of heavy-ion transport codes was one of the actions recommended in the “Report of the 2003 RIA R&D Workshop".

  9. Elise - the next step in development of induction heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.; Bangerter, R.O.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.; Peters, C.; Pickrell, J.; Reginato, L.; Seidl, P.; Yu, S.

    1994-11-01

    LBL, with the participation of LLNL and industry, proposes to build Elise, an electric-focused accelerator as the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction linac powerful enough to implode or {open_quotes}drive{close_quotes} inertial-confinement fusion targets. Elise will be at full driver scale in several important parameters-most notably line charge density (a function of beam size), which was not explored in earlier experiments. Elise will be capable of accelerating and electrostatically focusing four parallel, full-scale ion beams and will be designed to be extendible, by successive future construction projects, to meet the goal of the USA DOE Inertial Fusion Energy program (IFE). This goal is to address all remaining issues in heavy-ion IFE except target physics, which is currently the responsibility of DOE Defense Programs, and the target chamber. Thus Elise is the first step of a program that will provide a solid foundation of data for further progress toward a driver, as called for in the National Energy Strategy and National Energy Policy Act.

  10. Weakly relativistic plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fermous, Rachid Djebli, Mourad

    2015-04-15

    Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.

  11. Thermalization of color gauge fields in high energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwazaki, Aiichi [International Politics Economics, Nishogakusha University, Ohi Kashiwa Chiba 277-8585 (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    We discuss the quantum mechanical decay of the color magnetic field generated initially during high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The decay is caused by Nielsen-Olesen unstable modes and is accomplished possibly in a period <1 fm/c. We show that the decay products (i.e., incoherent gluons) may be thermalized in a sufficiently short period (<1 fm/c). The precise determination of the period is made by calculating the two-point function of the color magnetic field in a color glass condensate model.

  12. Heavy ion precompound phenomena: A glance at hard gamma and subthreshold pion production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1987-08-01

    We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann master equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons share the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho. With no additional free parameters our model successfully reproduces subthreshold pion production cross sections, high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra, and angular distributions of high energy ..gamma..-rays. 40 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. An optical technique for measuring divergence, beam profile, and aiming direction, of relativistic negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1988-02-01

    A novel, nonobstructive diagnostic technique for high energy H/sup minus/D/sup minus/ ion beams is described. This scheme employs spectroscopic techniques designed to measure beam profile, perpendicular velocity spread (i.e., divergence), and orientation of multiMeV H/sup minus/ beams. The basic principle of this method is to photoneutralize a small portion of the H/sup minus/ beam in a way such that the photodetachment process results in the formation of excited hydrogen atoms in the n = 2 levels. Observation of fluorescence from spontaneous decay of H(sp) andor induced deacy of H(2s) can be readily used to determine beam profile. Doppler broadening measurements can be used to determine velocity spread from which beam emittance is calculated. With off-the-shelf instruments resolutions of 1 mm for beam profile and 2 x 10/sup minus/2) ..pi.. cm-mrad are possible. For photodetachment, the best commercially available laser is found to be ArF eximer laser. The analysis is performed for the 200 MEV BNL Linac. The laser, which has a pulse duration which has a pulse duration which is of 10/sup minus/5) of the linac can produce sufficient signal at a negligible beam loss. In addition, measurements of minute Doppler shifts of this Lyman-Alpha radiation by a spectrograph could in principle resolve beam direction to within 1.57 ..mu..rad. The process under consideration has a resonance known as the shape resonance. As the following literature review indicates, the total cross section is known and there is a reasonable agreement between theory and experiment. There are no experimental measurements of partical cross sections. nevertheless, there are theoretical estimates which agree within 15%. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Brookhaven Summer Program on Quarkonium Production in Elementary and Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumitru, A.; Lourenco, C.; Petreczky, P.; Qiu, J., Ruan, L.

    2011-08-03

    Understanding the structure of the hadron is of fundamental importance in subatomic physics. Production of heavy quarkonia is arguably one of the most fascinating subjects in strong interaction physics. It offers unique perspectives into the formation of QCD bound states. Heavy quarkonia are among the most studied particles both theoretically and experimentally. They have been, and continue to be, the focus of measurements in all high energy colliders around the world. Because of their distinct multiple mass scales, heavy quarkonia were suggested as a probe of the hot quark-gluon matter produced in heavy-ion collisions; and their production has been one of the main subjects of the experimental heavy-ion programs at the SPS and RHIC. However, since the discovery of J/psi at Brookhaven National Laboratory and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory over 36 years ago, theorists still have not been able to fully understand the production mechanism of heavy quarkonia, although major progresses have been made in recent years. With this in mind, a two-week program on quarkonium production was organized at BNL on June 6-17, 2011. Many new experimental data from LHC and from RHIC were presented during the program, including results from the LHC heavy ion run. To analyze and correctly interpret these measurements, and in order to quantify properties of the hot matter produced in heavy-ion collisions, it is necessary to improve our theoretical understanding of quarkonium production. Therefore, a wide range of theoretical aspects on the production mechanism in the vacuum as well as in cold nuclear and hot quark-gluon medium were discussed during the program from the controlled calculations in QCD and its effective theories such as NRQCD to various models, and to the first principle lattice calculation. The scientific program was divided into three major scientific parts: basic production mechanism for heavy quarkonium in vacuum or in high energy elementary collisions; the

  15. Impact of beam transport method on chamber and driver design for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.; Neff, S.; Sharp, W.M.

    2002-12-01

    In heavy ion inertial fusion energy systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. In this paper, we examine three different modes of beam propagation: neutralized ballistic transport, assisted pinched transport, and self-pinched transport. The status of our understanding of these three modes is summarized, and the constraints imposed by beam propagation upon the chamber environment, as well as their compatibility with various chamber and target concepts, are considered. We conclude that, on the basis of our present understanding, there is a reasonable range of parameter space where beams can propagate in thick-liquid wall, wetted-wall, and dry-wall chambers.

  16. HIGH-POWER FFAG-BASED HEAVY-ION AND PROTON DRIVERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUGGIERO,A.

    2007-10-01

    Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators are being proposed as an alternative to Super-conducting Linacs (SCL), Rapid-Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) and Cyclotrons for the acceleration of very intense Heavy-Ion and Proton beams in the medium energy range. One application is the acceleration of ions of Uranium-238 to an energy of 400 MeV/u, and the average power of 400 kWatt, and the other a 1-GeV Proton Driver with an average beam power of 10 MWatt. One or two FFAG rings are needed for acceleration of both beams. They adopt a Non-Scaling Lattice (NSL) to reduce the size and the cost of the accelerator. The continuous wave (CW) mode of operation is achieved with the method of Harmonic Number Jump (HNJ).

  17. Off-momentum dynamic aperture for lattices in the RHIC heavy ion runs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo Y.; Bai, M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Gu, X.; Fischer, W.; Marusic, A.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Zhang, S.

    2012-05-20

    To reduce transverse emittance growth rates from intrabeam scattering in the RHIC heavy ion runs, a lattice with an increased phase advance in the arc FODO cells was adopted in 2008-2011. During these runs, a large beam loss due to limited off-momentum dynamic aperture was observed during longitudinal RF re-bucketing and with transverse cooling. Based on the beam loss observations in the previous ion runs and the calculated off-momentum apertures, we decided to adopt the lattice used before 2008 for the 2012 U-U and Cu-Au runs. The observed beam decay and the measured momentum aperture in the 2012 U-U run are presented.

  18. Final Technical Report DE-FG02-08ER41540. Establishing the Transport Properties of QCD With Heavy Ion Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teaney, Derek

    2015-03-17

    We review the results of the DE-FG02-08ER41540, "Establishing the transport properties of QCD with heavy ion reactions"

  19. Intriguing structures and magic sizes of heavy noble metal nanoclusters around size 55 governed by relativistic effect and covalent bonding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, X. J.; Xue, X. L.; Jia, Yu; Guo, Z. X.; Li, S. F.; Zhang, Zhenyu; Gao, Y. F.

    2015-11-07

    Nanoclusters usually display exotic physical and chemical properties due to their intriguing geometric structures in contrast to their bulk counterparts. By means of first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we find that heavy noble metal Pt{sub N} nanoclusters around the size N = 55 begin to prefer an open configuration, rather than previously reported close-packed icosahedron or core-shell structures. Particularly, for Pt{sub N}, the widely supposed icosahedronal magic cluster is changed to a three-atomic-layered structure with D{sub 6h} symmetry, which can be well addressed by our recently established generalized Wulff construction principle (GWCP). However, the magic number of Pt{sub N} clusters around 55 is shifted to a new odd number of 57. The high symmetric three-layered Pt{sub 57} motif is mainly stabilized by the enhanced covalent bonding contributed by both spin-orbital coupling effect and the open d orbital (5d{sup 9}6s{sup 1}) of Pt, which result in a delicate balance between the enhanced Pt–Pt covalent bonding of the interlayers and negligible d dangling bonds on the cluster edges. These findings about Pt{sub N} clusters are also applicable to Ir{sub N} clusters, but qualitatively different from their earlier neighboring element Os and their later neighboring element Au. The magic numbers for Os and Au are even, being 56 and 58, respectively. The findings of the new odd magic number 57 are the important supplementary of the recently established GWCP.

  20. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  1. Stress influenced trapping processes in Si based multi-quantum well structures and heavy ions implanted Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciurea, Magdalena Lidia Lazanu, Sorina

    2014-10-06

    Multi-quantum well structures and Si wafers implanted with heavy iodine and bismuth ions are studied in order to evaluate the influence of stress on the parameters of trapping centers. The experimental method of thermostimullatedcurrents without applied bias is used, and the trapping centers are filled by illumination. By modeling the discharge curves, we found in multilayered structures the parameters of both 'normal' traps and 'stress-induced' ones, the last having a Gaussian-shaped temperature dependence of the cross section. The stress field due to the presence of stopped heavy ions implanted into Si was modeled by a permanent electric field. The increase of the strain from the neighborhood of I ions to the neighborhood of Bi ions produces the broadening of some energy levels and also a temperature dependence of the cross sections for all levels.

  2. Heavy-ion inertial fusion: influence of target gain on accelerator parameters for vacuum-propagation regimes in reaction chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark, J.W.K.; Bangerter, R.O.; Barletta, W.A.; Fawley, W.M.; Judd, D.L.

    1982-03-04

    Target physics imposes requirements on the design of inertial fusion drivers. The influence of beam propagation in near vacuum fusion reaction chambers is evaluated for the relation between target gain and the phase-space requirements of heavy-ion accelerators. Initial results suggest that neutralization of the ion beam has a much greater positive effect than the deleterious one of beam stripping provided that the fusion chamber pressure is < 10/sup -3/ torr (of Li vapor or equivalent).

  3. Radiation damage by light- and heavy-ion bombardment of single-crystal LiNbO?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Hsu-Cheng; Zhang, Lihua; Malladi, Girish; Dadap, Jerry I.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Kisslinger, Kim; Vemuri, Rama Sesha R.; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Bakhru, Hassaram; Osgood, Jr., Richard M.

    2015-04-14

    In this work, a battery of analytical methods including in situ RBS/C, confocal micro-Raman, TEM/STEM, EDS, AFM, and optical microscopy were used to provide a comparative investigation of light- and heavy-ion radiation damage in single-crystal LiNbO?. High (~MeV) and low (~100s keV) ion energies, corresponding to different stopping power mechanisms, were used and their associated damage events were observed. In addition, sequential irradiation of both ion species was also performed and their cumulative depth-dependent damage was determined. It was found that the contribution from electronic stopping by high-energy heavy ions gave rise to a lower critical fluence for damage formationmorethan for the case of low-energy irradiation. Such energy-dependent critical fluence of heavy-ion irradiation is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that for the case of light-ion damage. In addition, materials amorphization and collision cascades were seen for heavy-ion irradiation, while for light ion, crystallinity remained at the highest fluence used in the experiment. The irradiation-induced damage is characterized by the formation of defect clusters, elastic strain, surface deformation, as well as change in elemental composition. In particular, the presence of nanometric-scale damage pockets results in increased RBS/C backscattered signal and the appearance of normally forbidden Raman phonon modes. The location of the highest density of damage is in good agreement with SRIM calculations. (author)less

  4. A new look at positron production from heavy-ion collisions: Results from apex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Austin, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    A new solenoidal spectrometer, designed to study the production mechanism of electrons and positrons in heavy-ion collisions, has been constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The spectrometer has been used to study the {sup 238}U + {sup 181}Ta system at 5.95, 6.10, and 6.30 MeV/u and the {sup 238}U + {sup 232}Th system at 5.95 MeV/u. These bombarding energies cover the energy region where previous experiments have reported sharp sum-energy lines. No evidence is found for sharp peaks in the present data. For the specific case of the isolated decay of a neutral particle of mass 1.4--2.1 MeV/c{sup 2} the upper limits on cross sections obtained from the present data are significantly less than the previously reported cross sections.

  5. A. pi. /sup 0/ spectrometer for low-energy heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    A spectrometer composes of SF5 and F2 lead-glass blocks has been constructed for detection of neutral pi mesons emitted in low energy heavy-ion reactions. A geometric acceptance of nearly 10% of 4..pi.. is possible; the ..pi../sup 0/ detection efficiency varies between this value at T/sub ..pi../ approx. = O MeV and 2% for T/sub ..pi../ approx.100 MeV. Integrated cross sections as low as 300 pb have been measured. A few comments on the spectra observed are presented. In particular, evidence is seen for pion reabsorption. The total yields are apparently too large to interpret in single nucleon collision or statistical models. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Half-Wave, beta=0.43 Cavity Prototyping for a Heavy Ion Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popielarski, John; Compton, Chris C.; Hartung, Walter; Johnson, Mat; Oliva, John; York, R. C.; Marti, Felix

    2008-04-01

    A medium velocity half wave resonator has been designed and prototyped at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU) for use in a heavy ion linac. The cavity is designed to provide 3.7 MV of accelerating voltage at an optimum beta = v/c = 0.53, with peak surface electric and magnetic fields of 32.5 MV/m and 79 mT, respectively. The cavity was designed for stiffness and tunability, as well as straightforward fabrication, assembly and cleaning. Measurements were performed to confirm Finite Element Analysis (FEA) predictions for modal analysis, bath pressure sensitivity, tuner stiffness and tuning range. A copper cavity prototype has been fabricated to confirm tolerances and formability. A tuner prototype has been built. The helium vessel and power coupler have been designed.

  7. Dynamical approach to heavy-ion induced fusion using actinide target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aritomo, Y.; Hagino, K.; Chiba, S.; Nishio, K.

    2012-10-20

    To treat heavy-ion reactions using actinide target nucleus, we propose a model which takes into account the coupling to the collective states of interacting nuclei in the penetration of the Coulomb barrier and the dynamical evolution of nuclear shape from the contact configuration. A fluctuation-dissipation model (Langevin equation) was applied in the dynamical calculation, where effect of nuclear orientation at the initial impact on the prolately deformed target nucleus was considered. Using this model, we analyzed the experimental data for the mass distribution of fission fragments (MDFF) in the reaction of {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U at several incident energies. Fusion-fission, quasifission and deep-quasi-fission are separated as different trajectories on the potential energy surface. We estimated the fusion cross section of the reaction.

  8. Swift heavy ion irradiation of Pt nanocrystals: II. Structural changes and H desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giulian, R.; Araujo, L.L.; Kluth, P.; Sprouster, D.J.; Schnohr, C.S.; Byrne, A.P.; Ridgway, M.C.

    2014-09-24

    The structural properties and H desorption from embedded Pt nanocrystals (NCs) following irradiation with swift heavy ions were investigated as a function of energy and fluence. From x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analysis, Pt-H bonding was identified in NCs annealed in a forming gas (95% N{sub 2} + 5% H{sub 2}) ambient. The H content decreased upon irradiation and the desorption process was NC-size dependent such that larger NCs required a higher fluence to achieve a H-free state. Pt-H bonding and NC dissolution both perturbed the NC structural parameters (coordination number, bond-length and mean-square relative displacement) as determined with extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements.

  9. Operation of a multiple cell array detector in plasma experiments with a heavy ion beam diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncalves, B.; Malaquias, A.; Nedzelskiy, I. S.; Pereira, L.; Silva, C.; Varandas, C.A.F.; Cabral, J.A.C.; Khrebtov, S.M.; Dreval, N.B.; Krupnik, L.I.; Hidalgo, C.; Depablos, J.

    2004-10-01

    A multiple cell array detector (MCAD) has been developed to investigate the spatial structure of plasma turbulence in fusion plasmas. This system is expected to provide simultaneous measurements of edge and core density fluctuations with both temporal and spatial resolution, extending the range and number of the sample volumes simultaneously recorded by a heavy ion beam diagnostic (HIBD). Since the detector (usually located close to the vessel wall of a plasma device) operates in a strong plasma radiation environment, the effective shielding of the detector presents a special problem. This article describes and compares the MCAD operation conditions on ISTTOK tokamak and TJ-II stellarator. Experimental results of the detector performance are presented together with the first measurements of n{sub e}{sigma}{sub eff} in the TJ-II plasmas.

  10. Equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter and heavy-ion fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Gharaei, R.

    2011-08-15

    We employ the equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter to simulate the repulsive force caused by the incompressibility effects of nuclear matter in the fusion reactions of heavy colliding ions. The results of our studies reveal that temperature effects of compound nuclei have significant importance in simulating the repulsive force on the fusion reactions for which the temperature of the compound nucleus increases up to about 2 MeV. Since the equation of state of hot nuclear matter depends upon the density and temperature of the nuclear matter, it has been suggested that, by using this equation of state, one can simulate simultaneously both the effects of the precompound nucleons' emission and the incompressibility of nuclear matter to calculate the nuclear potential in fusion reactions within a static formalism such as the double-folding (DF) model.

  11. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy {sup 129}Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tso, Kin

    1996-05-01

    The {sup 129}Xe-induced reactions on {sup nat}Cu, {sup 89}Y, {sup 165}Ho, and {sup 197}Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 & 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the {sup 129}Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied.

  12. Future directions in intermediate energy heavy ion physics. A proposed expansion of the Holifield Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    A proposal is presented for a major accelerator addition to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. The expanded facility will provide ion beams of mass 1 to 238 amu with a combination of energy, intensity, momentum resolution, and beam quality not currently available at any other facility in North America. The physics motivation for such an addition is discussed, and involves physics dominated by meson-exchange forces, Coulomb-force dominated physics, and possibly a regime where the quark and gluon degrees of freedom are significant. The physics research would include topics in atomic and interdisciplinary areas as well as nuclear physics. Some remarks are made on the merits of Oak Ridge as a site for this facility, placing the proposal in some historical perspective. The accelerator system is then described, giving the required beam properties, and the parameters of the synchrotron ring components, injection, ring magnets, RF systems, vacuum system, and electron cooling system and stochastic cooling system requirements. Also described are such facilities as buildings, beam transport and shielding, and experimental facilities, including target areas. (LEW)

  13. Radiation tolerant nanocrystalline ZrN films under high dose heavy-ion irradiations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiao, L.; Wang, H.; Yu, K. Y.; Chen, D.; Jacob, C.; Shao, L.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-14

    ZrN, a refractory ceramic material, finds many potential applications in advanced nuclear reactors. However, the grain size dependent radiation response in nanocrystalline (nc) ZrN under high dose heavy ion irradiation has not yet been studied to date. Here, we compare the radiation response of nc-ZrN films (with a respective average grain size of ∼9 and 31 nm) to Fe{sup 2+} ion irradiations up to a damage level of 10 displacements-per-atom (dpa). The ZrN film with the average grain size of 9 nm shows prominently enhanced radiation tolerance as evidenced by suppressed grain growth, alleviated radiation softening, as well as reduced variation in electrical resistivity. In contrast, ZrN with the larger average grain size of 31 nm shows prominent radiation softening and resistivity increase, attributed to the high density of defect cluster formed inside the grains. The influence of grain boundaries on enhanced irradiation tolerance in nc-ZrN is discussed.

  14. Response of nanostructured ferritic alloys to high-dose heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, Chad M.; White, Ryan M.; LeBeau, James M.; Miller, Michael K.

    2014-02-01

    A latest-generation aberration-corrected scanning/transmission electron microscope (STEM) is used to study heavy-ion-irradiated nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). Results are presented for STEM X-ray mapping of NFA 14YWT irradiated with 10 MeV Pt to 16 or 160 dpa at -100°C and 750°C, as well as pre-irradiation reference material. Irradiation at -100°C results in ballistic destruction of the beneficial microstructural features present in the pre-irradiated reference material, such as Ti-Y-O nanoclusters (NCs) and grain boundary (GB) segregation. Irradiation at 750°C retains these beneficial features, but indicates some coarsening of the NCs, diffusion of Al to the NCs, and a reduction of the Cr-W GB segregation (or solute excess) content. Ion irradiation combined with the latest-generation STEM hardware allows for rapid screening of fusion candidate materials and improved understanding of irradiation-induced microstructural changes in NFAs.

  15. The Next Generation of Heavy Ion Sources (447th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamura, Masahiro

    2009-03-04

    Imagine if, by staying in your lane when driving on the expressway, you could help fight cancer or provide a new, clean energy source. You would clench the steering wheel with both hands and stay in your lane, right? Unlike driving on the expressway where you intentionally avoid hitting other cars, scientists sometimes work to steer particle beams into head-on collisions with other oncoming particle beams. However, the particles must be kept "in their lanes" for cleaner, more frequent collisions. Some scientists propose starting the whole process by using lasers to heat a fixed target as a way to get particles with higher charge, which are more steerable. These scientists believe the new methods could be used to develop particle beams for killing cancer cells or creating usable energy from fusion. Join Masahiro Okamura of Brookhaven's Collider-Accelerator Department for the 447th Brookhaven Lecture, titled "The Next Generation of Heavy Ion Sources." Okamura will explain how lasers can be used to create plasma, neutral mixtures of positive ions and negative electrons, from different materials, and how using this plasma leads to beams with higher charge states and currents. He will also discuss how this efficient, simpler method of producing particle beams might be used for cancer therapy, to develop new energy sources, or in synchrotrons.

  16. A very thin havar film vacuum window for heavy ions to perform radiobiology studies at the BNL Tandem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thieberger, P.; Abendroth, H.; Alessi, J.; Cannizzo, L.; Carlson, C.; Gustavsson, A.; Minty, M.; Snydstrup, L.

    2011-03-28

    Heavy ion beams from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators will be made available for radiobiology studies on cell cultures. Beam energy losses need to be minimized both in the vacuum window and in the air in order to achieve the ranges required for the cells to be studied. This is particularly challenging for ions heavier than iron. The design is presented of a 0.4-inch diameter Havar film window that will satisfy these requirements. Films as thin as 80 microinches were successfully pressure tested. The final thickness to be used may be slightly larger to help in achieving pin hole free windows. We discuss design considerations and present pressure and vacuum test results as well as tests with heavy ion beams.

  17. Plasma channel and Z-pinch dynamics for heavy ion transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponce-Marquez, David

    2002-07-09

    A self stabilized, free standing, z-pinch plasma channel has been proposed to deliver the high intensity heavy ion beam from the end of a driver to the fuel target in a heavy ion inertial fusion power plant. The z-pinch relaxes emittance and energy spread requirements requiring a lower cost driver. A z-pinch transport would reduce the number of beam entry port holes to the target chamber from over a hundred to four as compared to neutralized ballistic focusing thus reducing the driver hardware exposure to neutron flux. Experiments where a double pulse discharge technique is used, z-pinch plasma channels with enhanced stability are achieved. Typical parameters are 7 kV pre-pulse discharge and 30 kV main bank discharge with 50 kA of channel current in a 7 torr background gas atmosphere. This work is an experimental study of these plasma channels examining the relevant physics necessary to understand and model such plasmas. Laser diagnostics measured the dynamical properties of neutrals and plasma. Schlieren and phase contrast techniques probe the pre-pulse gas dynamics and infrared interferometry and faraday effect polarimetry are used on the z-pinch to study its electron density and current distribution. Stability and repeatability of the z-pinch depend on the initial conditions set by the pre-pulse. Results show that the z-pinch channel is wall stabilized by an on-axis gas density depression created by the pre-pulse through hydrodynamic expansion where the ratio of the initial gas density to the final gas density is > 10/1. The low on-axis density favors avalanching along the desired path for the main bank discharge. Pinch time is around 2 s from the main bank discharge initiation with a FWHM of {approx} 2 cm. Results also show that typical main bank discharge plasma densities reach 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} peak on axis for a 30 kV, 7 torr gas nitrogen discharge. Current rise time is limited by the circuit-channel inductance with the highest contribution to the

  18. Direct nucleonemission from hot and dense regions described in the hydrodynamical model of relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barz, H.W.; Csernai, L.P.; Greiner, W.

    1982-08-01

    The collision process is described by hydrodynamical equations. The escape of nucleons which do not take part in the thermal equilibrium are considered by including drain terms in these equations. The energy spectra of the escaped nucleons and of nucleons evaporated after the break up of the fluid are compared.

  19. Heavy-flavour and quarkonium production in the LHC era: from proton-proton to heavy-ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Andronic, A.; Arleo, F.; Arnaldi, R.; Beraudo, A.; Bruna, E.; Caffarri, D.; del Valle, Z. C.; Contreras, J. G.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; et al

    2016-02-29

    This report reviews the study of open heavy-flavour and quarkonium production in high-energy hadronic collisions, as tools to investigate fundamental aspects of Quantum Chromodynamics, from the proton and nucleus structure at high energy to deconfinement and the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Emphasis is given to the lessons learnt from LHC Run 1 results, which are reviewed in a global picture with the results from SPS and RHIC at lower energies, as well as to the questions to be addressed in the future. The report covers heavy flavour and quarkonium production in proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. This includes discussionmore » of the effects of hot and cold strongly interacting matter, quarkonium photo-production in nucleus-nucleus collisions and perspectives on the study of heavy flavour and quarkonium with upgrades of existing experiments and new experiments. The report results from the activity of the SaporeGravis network of the I3 Hadron Physics programme of the European Union 7th Framework Programme.« less

  20. Relativistic configuration-interaction calculations of electric dipole n=2−n=3 transitions for medium-charge Li-like ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Banglin; Jiang, Gang; Zhang, Chuanyu

    2014-09-15

    In this work, the multi-configuration Dirac–Fock and relativistic configuration-interaction methods have been used to calculate the transition wavelengths, electric dipole transition probabilities, line strengths, and absorption oscillator strengths for the 2s–3p, 2p–3s, and 2p–3d transitions in Li-like ions with nuclear charge Z=7–30. Our calculated values are in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results. We took the contributions from Breit interaction, finite nuclear mass corrections, and quantum electrodynamics corrections to the initial and final levels into account, and also found that the contributions from Breit interaction, self-energy, and vacuum polarization grow fast with increasing nuclear charge for a fixed configuration. The ratio of the velocity to length form of the transition rate (A{sub v}/A{sub l}) was used to estimate the accuracy of our calculations.

  1. RHIC PERFORMANCE DURING THE FY10 200 GeV Au+Au HEAVY ION RUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.; Bruno, D.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; de Maria, R.; DOttavio, T.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gardner, C.; Gassner, D.; Glenn, J.W.; Hao, Y.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Huang, H.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Oerter, B.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.; Sampson, P.; Sandberg, J.; Satogata, T.; Severino, F.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Tepikian, S.; Theisen, C.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2010-05-23

    Since the last successful RHIC Au+Au run in 2007 (Run-7), the RHIC experiments have made numerous detector improvements and upgrades. In order to benefit from the enhanced detector capabilities and to increase the yield of rare events in the acquired heavy ion data a significant increase in luminosity is essential. In Run-7 RHIC achieved an average store luminosity of = 12 x 10{sup 26} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} by operating with 103 bunches (out of 111 possible), and by squeezing to {beta}* = 0.85 m. This year, Run-10, we achieved = 20 x 10{sup 26} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which put us an order of magnitude above the RHIC design luminosity. To reach these luminosity levels we decreased {beta}* to 0.75 m, operated with 111 bunches per ring, and reduced longitudinal and transverse emittances by means of bunched-beam stochastic cooling. In addition we introduced a lattice to suppress intra-beam scattering (IBS) in both RHIC rings, upgraded the RF control system, and separated transition crossing times in the two rings. We present an overview of the changes and the results of Run-10 performance.

  2. A study of the early-stage evolution of relativistic electron-ion shock using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, E. J.; Min, K.; Choi, C. R.; Nishikawa, K.-I.

    2014-07-15

    We report the results of a 3D particle-in-cell simulation carried out to study the early-stage evolution of the shock formed when an unmagnetized relativistic jet interacts with an ambient electron-ion plasma. Full-shock structures associated with the interaction are observed in the ambient frame. When open boundaries are employed in the direction of the jet, the forward shock is seen as a hybrid structure consisting of an electrostatic shock combined with a double layer, while the reverse shock is seen as a double layer. The ambient ions show two distinct features across the forward shock: a population penetrating into the shocked region from the precursor region and an accelerated population escaping from the shocked region into the precursor region. This behavior is a signature of a combination of an electrostatic shock and a double layer. Jet electrons are seen to be electrostatically trapped between the forward and reverse shock structures showing a ring-like distribution in a phase-space plot, while ambient electrons are thermalized and become essentially isotropic in the shocked region. The magnetic energy density grows to a few percent of the jet kinetic energy density at both the forward and the reverse shock transition layers in a rather short time scale. We see little disturbance of the jet ions over this time scale.

  3. Band gap engineering by swift heavy ions irradiation induced amorphous nano-channels in LiNbO3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sachan, Ritesh; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Liu, Peng; Patel, Maulik; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Xuelin; Weber, William J.

    2015-04-01

    The irradiation of lithium niobate with swift heavy ions results in the creation of amorphous nano-sized channels along the incident ion path. These nano-channels are on the order of a hundred microns in length and could be useful for photonic applications. However, there are two major challenges in these nano-channels characterization; (i) it is difficult to investigate the structural characteristics of these nano-channels due to their very long length, and (ii) the analytical electron microscopic analysis of individual ion track is complicated due to electron beam sensitive nature of lithium niobate. Here, we report the first high resolution microscopic characterizationmore » of these amorphous nano-channels, widely known as ion-tracks, by direct imaging them at different depths in the material, and subsequently correlating the key characteristics with Se of ions. Energetic Kr ions (84Kr22 with 1.98 GeV energy) are used to irradiate single crystal lithium niobate with a fluence of 2x1010 ions/cm2, which results in the formation of individual ion tracks with a penetration depth of ~180 μm. Along the ion path, electron energy loss of the ions, which is responsible for creating the ion tracks, increases with depth under these conditions in LiNbO3, resulting in increases in track diameter of a factor of ~2 with depth. This diameter increase with electronic stopping power is consistent with predictions of the inelastic thermal spike model. We also show a new method to measure the band gap in individual ion track by using electron energy-loss spectroscopy.« less

  4. Laboratory Studies of the X-Ray Emission Produced by the Interaction of Solar Wind Heavy Ions with Comets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beriersdorfer, P; Chen, H; May, M J; Thorn, D; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Kelly, R L; Porter, F S; Stahle, C K; Szymkowiak, A E; Kahn, S M

    2002-08-09

    The process of X-ray emission following charge exchange between solar wind heavy ions and cometary gases is studied in the laboratory. The emission is recorded with the spare ASTRO-E 6 x 6 microcalorimeter array. The microcalorimeter affords a resolution of better than 10 eV in the range of X-ray energies of interest and thus individual emission lines can be resolved. Our present measurements focus on the most abundant K-shell heavy ions found in the solar wind. In particular, we measure the K-shell emission of bare C, N, O, and Ne, and their hydrogen-like counter parts interacting with such gases as CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}. Several results are noted that had not been considered in the early cometary X-ray models.

  5. Time-of-flight energy analyzer for the plasma potential measurements by a heavy ion beam diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nedzelskiy, I.S.; Malaquias, A.; Goncalves, B.; Silva, C.; Varandas, C.A.F.; Cabral, J.A.C.

    2004-10-01

    A time-of-flight (TOF) technique for the plasma potential measurements by a heavy ion beam diagnostic (HIBD) with a multiple cell array detector has been elaborated on tokamak ISTTOK as an alternative to the traditional electrostatic energy analyzer. This article describes the design and operation of a four-channel TOF energy analyzer (TOFEA). First results of plasma potential measurements by TOFEA are presented proving the feasibility of this technique in experiments with HIBD.

  6. Cavity morphology in a Ni based superalloy under heavy ion irradiation with hot pre-injected helium. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, He; Yao, Zhongwen, E-mail: yaoz@me.queensu.ca; Daymond, Mark R. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen's University Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Kirk, Marquis A. [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-03-14

    In the current investigation, TEM in-situ heavy ion (1?MeV Kr{sup 2+}) irradiation with helium pre-injected at elevated temperature (400?C) was conducted to simulate in-reactor neutron irradiation induced damage in CANDU spacer material Inconel X-750, in an effort to understand the effects of helium on irradiation induced cavity microstructures. Three different quantities of helium, 400 appm, 1000 appm, and 5000 appm, were pre-injected directly into TEM foils at 400?C. The samples containing helium were then irradiated in-situ with 1?MeV Kr{sup 2+} at 400?C to a final dose of 5.4 dpa (displacement per atom). Cavities were formed from the helium injection solely and the cavity density and size increased with increasing helium dosage. In contrast to previous heavy ion irradiations with cold pre-injected helium, heterogeneous nucleation of cavities was observed. During the ensuing heavy ion irradiation, dynamical observation showed noticeable size increase in cavities which nucleated close to the grain boundaries. A bubble-void transformation was observed after Kr{sup 2+} irradiation to high dose (5.4?dpa) in samples containing 1000 appm and 5000 appm helium. Cavity distribution was found to be consistent with in-reactor neutron irradiation induced cavity microstructures. This implies that the distribution of helium is greatly dependent on the injection temperature, and helium pre-injection at high temperature is preferred for simulating the migration of the transmutation produced helium.

  7. Collision Processes of Highly Charged Ions with Electrons Studied with an Electron Beam Ion Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Ohtani, Shunsuke; Kavanagh, Anthony P.; Currell, Fred J.; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Li Yueming; Tong Xiaoming

    2009-09-10

    The electron beam ion trap in Tokyo (Tokyo-EBIT)is suitable for studying relativistic effects in the collisions of highly charged heavy ions with electrons because it can produce and trap very highly charged heavy ions which interact with a mono-energetic and unidirectional relativistic electron beam with an energy of up to 200 keV. Recently, we have been studying resonant processes in ionization and recombination by measuring the charge abundance inside the EBIT at the equilibrium. The abundance ratio between adjacent charge states varies slowly with the electron energy when there is no resonant process. However, when the electron energy coincides with the resonant energy at which ionization or recombination is enhanced, the abundance ratio can drastically change. Thus, the resonant processes can be studied by measuring the abundance ratio between adjacent ions as a function of electron beam energy. In this talk, recent progress for heavy ions with very high charge states up to He-like Bi{sup 81+}, is presented. For such ions, relativistic effects significantly affect the resonant processes. For example, the generalized Breit interaction (GBI) effect, which treats the retardation in the exchange of single virtual photon between the free and orbital electrons, has been clearly observed in the DR resonant strength in Li-like Bi{sup 80+}. Recently we have also found that the GBI effect plays an important role in the interference between non-resonant and resonant recombinations. Experimental results are presented in comparison with theoretical calculations.

  8. Design of electric-field assisted surface plasmon resonance system for the detection of heavy metal ions in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyaw, Htet Htet; Boonruang, Sakoolkan E-mail: waleed.m@bu.ac.th; Mohammed, Waleed S. E-mail: waleed.m@bu.ac.th; Dutta, Joydeep

    2015-10-15

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used in diverse applications. For detecting heavy metal ions in water, surface functionalization of the metal surface is typically used to adsorb target molecules, where the ionic concentration is detected via a resonance shift (resonance angle, resonance wavelength or intensity). This paper studies the potential of a possible alternative approach that could eliminate the need of using surface functionalization by the application of an external electric field in the flow channel. The exerted electrical force on the ions pushes them against the surface for enhanced adsorption; hence it is referred to as “Electric-Field assisted SPR system”. High system sensitivity is achieved by monitoring the time dynamics of the signal shift. The ion deposition dynamics are discussed using a derived theoretical model based on ion mobility in water. On the application of an appropriate force, the target ions stack onto the sensor surface depending on the ionic concentration of target solution, ion mass, and flow rate. In the experimental part, a broad detection range of target cadmium ions (Cd{sup 2+}) in water from several parts per million (ppm) down to a few parts per billion (ppb) can be detected.

  9. High energy Coulomb-scattered electrons for relativistic particle beams and diagnostics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thieberger, P.; Altinbas, Z.; Carlson, C.; Chasman, C.; Costanzo, M.; Degen, C.; Drees, K. A.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D.; Gu, X.; et al

    2016-03-29

    A new system used for monitoring energetic Coulomb-scattered electrons as the main diagnostic for accurately aligning the electron and ion beams in the new Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) electron lenses is described in detail. The theory of electron scattering from relativistic ions is developed and applied to the design and implementation of the system used to achieve and maintain the alignment. Commissioning with gold and 3He beams is then described as well as the successful utilization of the new system during the 2015 RHIC polarized proton run. Systematic errors of the new method are then estimated. Lastly, some possiblemore » future applications of Coulomb-scattered electrons for beam diagnostics are briefly discussed.« less

  10. Universality far from equilibrium: From superfluid Bose gases to heavy-ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schlichting, S.; Venugopalan, R.; Berges, J.; Boguslavski, K.

    2015-02-10

    Isolated quantum systems in extreme conditions can exhibit unusually large occupancies per mode. In addition, this over-population gives rise to new universality classes of many-body systems far from equilibrium. We present theoretical evidence that important aspects of non-Abelian plasmas in the ultra-relativistic limit admit a dual description in terms of a Bose condensed scalar field theory.

  11. Diffusion and particle production in relativistic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolschin, Georg

    2008-08-29

    The short parton production phase in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is treated analytically as a nonlinear diffusion process. The initial buildup of the rapidity density distributions of produced charged hadrons within {tau}{sub p}{approx_equal}0.25 fm/c occurs in three sources during the colored partonic phase. In a two-step approach, the subsequent diffusion in pseudorapidity space during the interaction time of {tau}{sub int}{approx_equal}7-10 fm/c (mean duration of the collision) is essentially linear as expressed in the Relativistic Diffusion Model (RDM) which yields excellent agreement with the data at RHIC energies, and allows for predictions at LHC energies. Results for d+Au are discussed in detail.

  12. Solenoid transport of a heavy ion beam for warm dense matterstudies and inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armijo, Julien

    2006-10-01

    From February to July 2006, I have been doing research as a guest at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in the Heavy Ion Fusion group. This internship, which counts as one semester in my master's program in France, I was very pleased to do it in a field that I consider has the beauty of fundamental physics, and at the same time the special appeal of a quest for a long-term and environmentally-respectful energy source. During my stay at LBNL, I have been involved in three projects, all of them related to Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). The first one, experimental and analytical, has consisted in measuring the effects of the eddy currents induced by the pulsed magnets in the conducting plates of the source and diagnostic chambers of the Solenoid Transport Experiment (STX, which is a subset of NDCX). We have modeled the effect and run finite-element simulations that have reproduced the perturbation to the field. Then, we have modified WARP, the Particle-In-Cell code used to model the whole experiment, in order to import realistic fields including the eddy current effects and some details of each magnet. The second project has been to take part in a campaign of WARP simulations of the same experiment to understand the leakage of electrons that was observed in the experiment as a consequence to some diagnostics and the failure of the electrostatic electron trap. The simulations have shown qualitative agreement with the measured phenomena, but are still in progress. The third project, rather theoretical, has been related to the upcoming target experiment of a thin aluminum foil heated by a beam to the 1-eV range. At the beginning I helped by analyzing simulations of the hydrodynamic expansion and cooling of the heated material. But, progressively, my work turned into making estimates for the nature of the liquid/vapor two-phase flow. In particular, I have been working on criteria and models to predict the formation of droplets, their size, and

  13. Proposal for the Study of Thermophysical Properties of High-Energy-Density Matter Using Current and Future Heavy-Ion Accelerator Facilities at GSI Darmstadt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahir, N.A.; Spiller, P.; Deutsch, C.; Fortov, V.E.; Gryaznov, V.; Kulish, M.; Lomonosov, I.V.; Mintsev, V.; Nikolaev, D.; Shilkin, N.; Shutov, A.; Ternovoi, V.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Ni, P.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Piriz, A.R.; Temporal, M.

    2005-07-15

    The subject of high-energy-density (HED) states in matter is of considerable importance to numerous branches of basic as well as applied physics. Intense heavy-ion beams are an excellent tool to create large samples of HED matter in the laboratory with fairly uniform physical conditions. Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, is a unique worldwide laboratory that has a heavy-ion synchrotron, SIS18, that delivers intense beams of energetic heavy ions. Construction of a much more powerful synchrotron, SIS100, at the future international facility for antiprotons and ion research (FAIR) at Darmstadt will lead to an increase in beam intensity by 3 orders of magnitude compared to what is currently available. The purpose of this Letter is to investigate with the help of two-dimensional numerical simulations, the potential of the FAIR to carry out research in the field of HED states in matter.

  14. Experimental plan for investigating building-earth heat transfer at the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.

    1980-11-01

    An experimental plan is presented for investigating heat transfer between below-grade portions of building envelopes and the surrounding soil. Included is a detailing of data to be collected at an earth-sheltered structure (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research Building) to be constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The attributes of the required data collection instrumentation are defined and a program to assure the accuracy of the collected data is discussed. The experimental plan is intended to be used as a guide to selection, installation, and maintenance of instrumentation as well as in data collection and verification.

  15. Damage Processes In MgO Irradiated With Medium-energy Heavy Ions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    backscattering spectrometry in channeling geometry coupled to Monte-Carlo analyses, secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. ...

  16. Studies of heavy-ion reactions and transuranic nuclei. Progress report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, W.U.

    1993-08-01

    This report contain papers on the following topics: The Cold-Fusion Saga; Decay Patterns of Dysprosium Nuclei Produced in {sup 32}S + {sup 118,124}Sn Fusion Reactions; Unexpected Features of Reactions Between Very Heavy Ions at Intermediate Bombarding Energies; Correlations Between Neutrons and Charged Products from the Dissipative Reaction {sup 197}Au+{sup 208}Pb at E/A = 29 MeV; Dissipative Dynamics of Projectile-Like Fragment Production in the Reaction {sup 209}Bi+{sup 136}Xe at E/A = 28.2 MeV; Dynamical Production of Intermediate-Mass Fragments in Peripheral {sup 209}Bi+{sup 136}Xe Collisions at E{sub lab}/A = 28.2 MeV; The Rochester 960-Liter Neutron Multiplicity Meter; A Simple Pulse Processing Concept for a Low-Cost Pulse-Shape-Based Particle Identification; A One-Transistor Preamplifier for PMT Anode Signals; A Five-Channel Multistop TDC/Event Handler for the SuperBall Neutron Multiplicity Meter; Construction of the SuperBall -- a 16,000-Liter Neutron Detector for Calorimetric Studies of Intermediate-Energy Heavy-Ion Reactions; A Computer Code for Light Detection Efficiency Calculations for Photo-multipliers of a Neutron Detector; Evaluation of Gd-Loaded Liquid Scintillators for the SuperBall Neutron Calorimeter; and Measurement of the Interaction of Cosmic-Ray {mu}{sup {minus}} with a Muon Telescope.

  17. Effect of the electrostatic plasma lens on the emittance of ahigh-current heavy ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chekh, Yu.; Goncharov, A.; Protsenko, I.; Brown, I.G.

    2004-01-10

    We describe measurements we have made of the emittance of a high-current, moderate-energy ion beam after transport through a permanent-magnet electrostatic plasma lens. The results indicate the absence of emittance growth due to the lens, when the lens is adjusted for optimal beam focusing. The measured emittance for a 16 keV Cu{sup 2+} ion beam formed by a vacuum arc ion source was about 0.4 {pi} {center_dot} mm {center_dot} mrad at a beam current of 50 mA rising more-or-less linearly to 1.5 {pi} {center_dot} mm {center_dot} mrad at 250 mA, and was conserved in beam transport through the lens. These results have significance for the application of high-current ion sources and the electrostatic plasma lens to particle accelerator injection.

  18. Reactor Chamber and Balance-of-Plant Characteristics for a Fast-Ignition Heavy-Ion Fusion Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medin, Stanislav; Churazov, Mikhail; Koshkarev, Dmitri; Sharkov, Boris; Orlov, Yurii; Suslin, Viktor; Zemskov, Eugeni

    2003-05-15

    The concept of a fast-ignition heavy-ion fusion (FIHIF) power plant involves a cylindrical target and superhigh energy ion beams. The driver produces one plus/minus charge state multimass platinum ions with energy of 100 GeV. The driver efficiency and the target gain are taken as 0.25 and 100, respectively. The preliminary data on the energy fluxes delivered to the reactor chamber wall by the 500-MJ fusion yield are presented. The reactor chamber designed has two sections. In the first section, the microexplosions occur, and in the second section of bigger volume the expansion and condensation of vapors take place. The response of the blanket and the thin liquid film at the first-wall surface is evaluated. Lithium-lead eutectic is taken as a coolant. The evaporated mass and the condensation time are estimated, taking into account major thermophysical effects. The estimated neutron spectrum from the FIHIF target gives an average neutron energy of 11.9 MeV. The mechanical stresses in the construction material due to neutron energy release are evaluated. The outlet coolant chamber temperature is taken as 550 deg. C. The heat conversion system consisting of three coolant loops provides a net efficiency of the FIHIF power plant of 0.37.

  19. Recent results in the study of heavy-ion elastic scattering at large angles. [180/sup 0/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrette, J.; Kahana, S.

    1983-01-01

    The observation, a few years ago, of unexpected large cross sections at backward angles in the elastic scattering of mass-asymmetric heavy ion systems gave us hope that we could learn something new and more precise on the properties of the average ion-ion potential. The subsequent observation of broad regular structures in the elastic and inelastic excitation functions near theta/sub cm/ = 180/sup 0/ were also very promising. Numerous models were proposed to explain some or all the observed features. These models can be divided mainly in two groups. Some try to modify directly the average optical potential whereas others associate the observed cross sections to a modification of specific partial waves outside the scope of the optical potential. This separation in two groups is not always clear since as demonstrated adding a Regge pole to a strongly absorbing potential is under some conditions perfectly equivalent to changing the shape of this potential. Similarly the resonances added to an S matrix can be understood as the manifestation of the potential resonances of a completely different optical potential. We describe recent calculations which have been carried on to try to understand the behavior of the data near the barrier.

  20. Performance on the low charge state laser ion source in BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamura, M.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Costanzo, M.; DeSanto, L.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kanesue, T.; Lambiase, R.; Lehn, D.; Liaw, C. J.; McCafferty, D.; Morris, J.; Olsen, R.; Pikin, A.; Raparia, D.; Steszyn, A.; Ikeda, S.

    2015-09-07

    On March 2014, a Laser Ion Source (LIS) was commissioned which delivers high-brightness, low-charge-state heavy ions for the hadron accelerator complex in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Since then, the LIS has provided many heavy ion species successfully. The low-charge-state (mostly singly charged) beams are injected to the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), where ions are then highly ionized to fit to the following accelerator’s Q/M acceptance, like Au32+. Recently we upgraded the LIS to be able to provide two different beams into EBIS on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Now the LIS is simultaneously providing beams for both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL).

  1. Amorphization resistance of nano-engineered SiC under heavy ion irradiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Imada, Kenta; Ishimaru, Manabu; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Shannon, Steven C.; Weber, William J.

    2016-06-19

    Silicon carbide (SiC) with a high-density of planar defects (hereafter, ‘nano-engineered SiC’) and epitaxially-grown single-crystalline 3C-SiC were simultaneously irradiated with Au ions at room temperature, in order to compare their relative resistance to radiation-induced amorphization. Furthermore, it was found that the local threshold dose for amorphization is comparable for both samples under 2 MeV Au ion irradiation; whereas, nano-engineered SiC exhibits slightly greater radiation tolerance than single crystalline SiC under 10 MeV Au irradiation. Under 10 MeV Au ion irradiation, the dose for amorphization increased by about a factor of two in both nano-engineered and single crystal SiC due tomore » the local increase in electronic energy loss that enhanced dynamic recovery.« less

  2. Λb → pℓ¯ν¯ℓ and Λb → Λcℓ¯ν¯ℓ form factors from lattice QCD with relativistic heavy quarks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Detmold, William; Lehner, Christoph; Meinel, Stefan

    2015-08-04

    Measurements of the Λb → pℓ¯ν¯ℓ and Λb → Λcℓ¯ν¯ℓ decay rates can be used to determine the magnitudes of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb, provided that the relevant hadronic form factors are known. Here we present a precise calculation of these form factors using lattice QCD with 2+1 flavors of dynamical domain-wall fermions. The b and c quarks are implemented with relativistic heavy-quark actions, allowing us to work directly at the physical heavy-quark masses. The lattice computation is performed for six different pion masses and two different lattice spacings, using gauge-field configurations generated by the RBC andmore » UKQCD Collaborations. The b → u and b → c currents are renormalized with a mostly nonperturbative method. We extrapolate the form factor results to the physical pion mass and the continuum limit, parametrizing the q² dependence using z expansions. The form factors are presented in such a way as to enable the correlated propagation of both statistical and systematic uncertainties into derived quantities such as differential decay rates and asymmetries. Using these form factors, we present predictions for the Λb → pℓ¯ν¯ℓ and Λb → Λcℓ¯ν¯ℓdifferential and integrated decay rates. Combined with experimental data, our results enable determinations of |Vub|, |Vcb|, and |Vub/Vcb| with theory uncertainties of 4.4%, 2.2%, and 4.9%, respectively.« less

  3. Dynamical dipole gamma radiation in heavy-ion collisions on the basis of a quantum molecular dynamics model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H. L.; Tian, W. D.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Chen, J. G.; Fang, D. Q.; Guo, W.; Wang, H. W.

    2010-04-15

    Dynamical dipole gamma-ray emission in heavy-ion collisions is explored in the framework of the quantum molecular dynamics model. The studies are focused on systems of {sup 40}Ca bombarding {sup 48}Ca and its isotopes at different incident energies and impact parameters. Yields of gamma rays are calculated and the centroid energy and dynamical dipole emission width of the gamma spectra are extracted to investigate the properties of gamma emission. In addition, sensitivities of dynamical dipole gamma-ray emission to the isospin and the symmetry energy coefficient of the equation of state are studied. The results show that detailed study of dynamical dipole gamma radiation can provide information on the equation of state and the symmetry energy around the normal nuclear density.

  4. Nucleon-nucleon correlations in heavy ion transfer reactions: Recent investigations at energies far below the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corradi, Lorenzo

    2015-10-15

    Excitation functions of one- and two-neutron transfer channels have been measured for the {sup 96}Zr+{sup 40}Ca and {sup 116}Sn+{sup 60}Ni systems at bombarding energies ranging from the Coulomb barrier to ∼25% below. Target-like recoils have been identified in A, Z and velocity with the large solid angle magnetic spectrometer PRISMA. The experimental transfer probabilities have been compared, in absolute values and in slope, with semiclassical microscopic calculations which incorporate nucleon-nucleon pairing correlations. For the first time in a heavy ion collision, one was able to provide a consistent description of one and two neutron transfer reactions by incorporating, in the reaction mechanism, all known structure information of entrance and exit channels nuclei. In particular, there is no need to introduce any enhancement factor for the description of two neutron transfer, of course very important are the correlations induced by the pairing interaction.

  5. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1989--March 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Transverse Emittance Studies on MBE-4; MBE-4 Simulations; Beam Centroid Motion and Misalignments in MBE-4; Survey and Alignment of MBE-4; Energy Analysis of the 5mA MBE-4 Beam; An Improved 10 mA Ion Source for MBE-4; Emittance Degradation via a Wire Grid; Ion Source Development; 2 MV Injector; Electrostatic Quadrupole Prototype Development Activity; Magnetic Induction Core Studies; A Preliminary Consideration of Beam Splitting in Momentum Space; and Status of the Optimization Code HILDA.

  6. Relativistic Plasma Polarizer: Impact of Temperature Anisotropy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Relativistic Plasma Polarizer: Impact of Temperature Anisotropy on Relativistic Transparency Title: Relativistic Plasma Polarizer: Impact of Temperature Anisotropy on Relativistic ...

  7. Heavy ion fusion year-end report, April 1, 1983-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    Some highlights of the program during this reporting period are as follows: (1) First results with the completed apparatus of the Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE) have shown the stable propagation of a space-charge-dominated cesium-ion beam through 41 periods of an AG focussing lattice. The space-charge effects were large enough to depress the betatron phase advance per cell from sigma/sub 0/ = 60/sup 0/ to sigma = 12/sup 0/. (2) Understanding of the reflection stabilization of longitudinal instability in a high-current beam bunch has been improved by analytical and computational studies. (3) Conceptual design studies of a multiple-beam ion induction linac suitable for the High Temperature Experiment have progressed to the stage where a first reference design (sodium, 125 MeV, 30 ..mu..C, 16 beams) is available. (4) The Long-Pulse Induction Accelerating Unit, first used to accelerate a cesium-ion beam in February 1983, has been undergoing modification in the low-level trigger circuitry to allow more precisely controlled waveform synthesis.

  8. Design study of primary ion provider for RHIC-EBIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.; Okamura, M.

    2009-09-20

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed the new pre-injector system, Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  9. Calculating survival curves in spread-peaks of heavy ion beams and comparison with experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, S.B.; Chu, W.T.; Llacer, J.; Renner, T.R.; Rodriguez, A.; Yang, T.C.H.

    1995-08-01

    In preparing for treating patients with high-energy ion beams, it is important first to determine the composition of the beam, that is, the relative mixes of the various primary and secondary particles and their LET spectra, and secondly to estimate the cell killing expected during a treatment schedule. This requires measurements of the beam composition at various depths through the spread-peak region, and a calculation of cell survival using a cell-killing model designed to accommodate the mixed LET nature of the beam in the spread-peak region. This talk presents results of an experiment in which a particle identification telescope, the BEPKLET, was used to measure the LET spectra of the primary and secondary particles at two positions in a 12-cm-spread-peak of a 585 MeV/amu neon ion beam at the Bevalac. Cell survival measurements were made at the same positions at which the LET-spectra were measured. The survival curves obtained were compared with calculations using the LPL (Lethal, Potentially Lethal) model of cell-killing. Results agree quite well at doses up to about 4 Gy. A quantity proportional to the RBE at 10% survival, when plotted against dose-averaged LET for a number of different beams and energies, appears to be a fairly good predictor of biological effect. This would not be expected if the difference in biological effect due to differences in track structure between various ions at the same LET played a significant role in modifying cell-killing in the range of LETs covered by this experiment.

  10. Evidence for Strong Breit Interaction in Dielectronic Recombination of Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Kavanagh, Anthony P.; Currell, Fred J.; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Li, Yueming; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2008-02-22

    Resonant strengths have been measured for dielectronic recombination of Li-like iodine, holmium, and bismuth using an electron beam ion trap. By observing the atomic number dependence of the state-resolved resonant strength, clear experimental evidence has been obtained that the importance of the generalized Breit interaction (GBI) effect on dielectronic recombination increases as the atomic number increases. In particular, it has been shown that the GBI effect is exceptionally strong for the recombination through the resonant state [1s2s{sup 2}2p{sub 1/2}]{sub 1}.

  11. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1986-September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Activities are reported on MBE-4, the four-beam proof-of-principle ion induction linear accelerator with the capability of beam-current amplification. Mechanical aspects of MBE-4, quadrupole insulator performance, and pulsers are discussed. The computer code, SLID, has been used to help understand the longitudinal beam dynamics in MBE-4. A computer-controlled emittance scanning system is in use in MBE-4. A systematic effort is under way to discover and correct all the defects peculiar to the low energy part of the linac design code. (LEW)

  12. Heavy ion fusion half-year report, October 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    Results from the Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE) showed that stable beam transport in a 41-period AG lattice with single-particle phase advance per period, sigma/sub 0/ + 60/sup 0/, was possible with space-charge forces large enough to depress the phase-advance to sigma = 12/sup 0/. We have since extended that result and have shown that depression from sigma/sub 0/ = 60/sup 0/ to sigma = 8/sup 0/ is still stable. Measurements of the Cs/sup +/ ion beam attenuation in the SBTE at different gas pressures, taken together with the different lattice acceptances for singly and doubly-charged ions, have allowed us to measure both the electron pick-up and electron cross-sections for Cs/sup +/ on nitrogen at 160 keV. A large effort is under way to arrive at a conceptual reference design for the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE), so that final engineering design and prototyping can begin as soon as possible. The MBE design process has stimulated many detailed questions for the theory group and several important results have ensued. For instance, on the question of what magnitude of sextupole component could be tolerated in the lenses, computer simulation showed that, for a space-charge-dominated beam, a significant sextupole term had essentially no effect if the beam remained on axis, but led to intolerable emittance growth for the practical case of an off-axis beam.

  13. PHITS-2.76, Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    the cross sections from evaluated nuclear data libraries JENDL-4.0 (Shibata et al 2011). For high energy neutrons and other particles, we have incorporated several models such as JAM (Nara et al 1999), INCL (Cugnon et al 2011), INCL-ELF (Sawada et al 2012) and JQMD (Niita et al 1995) to simulate nuclear reactions up to 100 GeV/u. The special features of PHITS are the event generator mode (Iwamoto et al 2007) and the microdosimetric function (Sato et al 2009). Owing to the event generator mode, PHITS can determine the profiles of all secondary particles generated from a single nuclear interaction even using nuclear data libraries, taking the momentum and energy conservations into account. The microdosimetric function gives the probability densities of deposition energy in microscopic sites such as lineal energy y and specific energy z, using the mathematical model developed based on the results of the track structure simulation. These features are very important for various purposes such as the estimations of soft-error rates of semi-conductor devices induced by neutrons, and relative biological effectiveness of charged particles. From version 2.64, Prompt gamma spectrum and isomer production rates can be precisely estimated, owing to the implementation of EBITEM (ENSDF-Based Isomeric Transition and isomEr production Model). The photo-nuclear reaction model was improved up to 140 MeV. From version 2.76, electron and photon transport algorithm based on EGS5 (Hirayama et al. 2005) was incorporated. Models for describing photo-nuclear reaction above 140 MeV and muon-nuclear reaction were implemented. Event-generator mode version 2 was developed. Relativistic theory can be considered in the JQMD model.« less

  14. Effects of alloying elements on the formation of < c >-component loops in Zr alloy Excel under heavy ion irradiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idrees, Yasir; Francis, Elisabeth M.; Yao, Zhongwen; Korinek, Andreas; Kirk, Marquis A.; Sattari, Mohammad; Preuss, Michael; Daymond, M. R.

    2015-05-14

    We report here the microstructural changes occurring in the zirconium alloy Excel (Zr-3.5 wt% Sn-0.8Nb-0.8Mo-0.2Fe) during heavy ion irradiation. In situ irradiation experiments were conducted at reactor operating temperatures on two Zr Excel alloy microstructures with different states of alloying elements, with the states achieved by different solution heat treatments. In the first case, the alloying elements were mostly concentrated in the beta (beta) phase, whereas, in the second case, large Zr-3(Mo,Nb,Fe)(4) secondary phase precipitates (SPPs) were grown in the alpha (alpha) phase by long term aging. The heavy ion induced damage and resultant compositional changes were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. Significant differences were seen in microstructural evolution between the two different microstructures that were irradiated under similar conditions. Nucleation and growth of < c >-component loops and their dependence on the alloying elements are a major focus of the current investigation. It was observed that the < c >-component loops nucleate readily at 100, 300, and 400 degrees C after a threshold incubation dose (TID), which varies with irradiation temperature and the state of alloying elements. It was found that the TID for the formation of < c >-component loops increases with decrease in irradiation temperature. Alloying elements that are present in the form of SPPs increase the TID compared to when they are in the beta phase solid solution. Dose and temperature dependence of loop size and density are presented. Radiation induced redistribution and clustering of alloying elements (Sn, Mo, and Fe) have been observed and related to the formation of < c >-component loops. It has been shown that at the higher temperature tests, irradiation induced dissolution of precipitates occurs whereas irradiation induced

  15. Chiral asymmetry in relativistic matter in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shovkovy, I. A.

    2009-12-17

    We show that the normal phase of dense relativistic matter in a magnetic field is characterized by a nonzero relative shift of the longitudinal momenta in the dispersion relations of the left-handed and right-handed fermions. The presence of such a shift in the ground state does not break any symmetries of the action. To leading order, the corresponding parameter, dubbed the chiral shift, is linear in the coupling constant. Because of the chiral shift, a dynamical contribution to the axial current is induced. The induced axial current and the shift of the Fermi surfaces of the opposite chirality fermions are expected to play an important role in transport and emission properties of matter in various types of compact stars as well as in heavy ion collisions.

  16. Effects of ion-neutral collisions on Alfven waves: The presence of forbidden zone and heavy damping zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, C. J.; Lee, L. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Wang, C. B.

    2013-03-15

    Alfven waves are low-frequency transverse waves propagating in a magnetized plasma. We define the Alfven frequency {omega}{sub 0} as {omega}{sub 0}=kV{sub A}cos{theta}, where k is the wave number, V{sub A} is the Alfven speed, and {theta} is the angle between the wave vector and the ambient magnetic field. There are partially ionized plasmas in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasma systems, such as in the solar chromosphere, interstellar clouds, and the earth ionosphere. The presence of neutral particles may modify the wave frequency and cause damping of Alfven waves. The effects on Alfven waves depend on two parameters: (1) {alpha}=n{sub n}/n{sub i}, the ratio of neutral density (n{sub n}), and ion density (n{sub i}); (2) {beta}={nu}{sub ni}/{omega}{sub 0}, the ratio of neutral collisional frequency by ions {nu}{sub ni} to the Alfven frequency {omega}{sub 0}. Most of the previous studies examined only the limiting case with a relatively large neutral collisional frequency or {beta} Much-Greater-Than 1. In the present paper, the dispersion relation for Alfven waves is solved for all values of {alpha} and {beta}. Approximate solutions in the limit {beta} Much-Greater-Than 1 as well as {beta} Much-Less-Than 1 are obtained. It is found for the first time that there is a 'forbidden zone (FZ)' in the {alpha}-{beta} parameter space, where the real frequency of Alfven waves becomes zero. We also solve the wavenumber k from the dispersion equation for a fixed frequency and find the existence of a 'heavy damping zone (HDZ).' We then examine the presence of FZ and HDZ for Alfven waves in the ionosphere and in the solar chromosphere.

  17. Microscopic heavy-ion theory. Final Report. February 2014-June 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernst, David J.; Oberacker, Volker E.; Umar, A. Sait

    2015-06-30

    The Vanderbilt nuclear theory group conducts research in the areas of low-energy nuclear reactions and in neutrino oscillations. Specically, we study dynamics of nuclear reactions microscopically, in particular for neutron-rich nuclei which will be accessible with current and future radioactive ion beam facilities. The neutrino work concentrates on constructing computational tools for analyzing neutrino oscillation data. The most important of these is the analysis of the Super K atmospheric data. Our research concentrates on the following topics which are part of the DOE Long-Range Plan: STUDIES OF LOW-ENERGY REACTIONS OF EXOTIC NUCLEI (Professors Umar and Oberacker), including sub-barrier fusion cross sections, capture cross sections for superheavy element production, and nuclear astrophysics applications. Our theory project is strongly connected to experiments at RIB facilities around the world, including NSCL-FRIB (MSU) and ATLAS-CARIBU (Argonne). PHENOMENOLOGY OF NEUTRINO OSCILLATIONS (Prof. Ernst), extracting information from existing neutrino oscillation experiments and proposing possible future experiments in order to better understand the oscillation phenomenon.

  18. Fourier harmonics of high-p{sub T} particles probing the fluctuating initial condition geometries in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betz, Barbara; Gyulassy, Miklos; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2011-08-15

    Second Fourier harmonics of jet quenching have been thoroughly explored in the literature and shown to be sensitive to the underlying jet path-length dependence of energy loss and the differences between the mean eccentricity predicted by Glauber and color glass condensate (CGC)/Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi (KLN) models of initial conditions. We compute the jet path-length dependence of energy-loss for higher azimuthal harmonics of jet-fragments in a generalized model of energy-loss for Relativistc Heavy Ion Collider energies and find, however, that even the high-p{sub T} second moment is most sensitive to the poorly known early time evolution during the first fm/c. Moreover, we demonstrate that higher-jet harmonics are remarkably insensitive to the initial conditions, while the different v{sub n}(N{sub part}) vs v{sub n}{sup I{sub AA}}(N{sub part}) correlations between the moments of monojet and dijet nuclear modifications factors remain a most sensitive probe to differentiate between Glauber and CGC/KLN initial state geometries of the strongly-coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma.

  19. Nuclear-structure studies with pions and heavy ions. Progress report, June 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehnhard, D.

    1981-03-01

    Experiments performed at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility yielded very striking results. In inelastic pion scattering from /sup 14/C near the (3,3) resonance cross sections ratios R = sigma(..pi../sup +/)/sigma(..pi../sup -/) and R/sup -1/ = sigma(..pi../sup -/)/sigma(..pi../sup +/) were observed that are significantly larger than the free pion-nucleon values. These results were interpreted as due to strong cancellations of the neutron and proton components in the transition amplitude. Measurements of /sup 13/C(..pi..,..pi..') excitation functions between 100 and 300 MeV at two momentum transfers showed dramatically different energy dependencies for ..delta..S =0 and ..delta..S = 1 transitions. They were used to derive nuclear structure information on several highly excited states. Pion data for other nuclei (/sup 12/C, /sup 16/O, /sup 40/Ca, etc.) were analyzed and information on isospin mixing, the double-charge-exchange reaction mechanism, and the excitation of collective states was extracted. Further data were taken with a 547 MeV proton beam on /sup 13/C. The data taking for the (t,t') and (/sup 3/He,/sup 3/He') reactions at the Los Alamos Van de Graaff has been completed. The continuing studies of the heavy-ion nucleus optical potential yielded information on very systematic dependencies of the potential depths on the incident energy.

  20. OPERATION OF THE RHIC AU ION SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STESKI,D.B.; ALESSI,J.; BENJAMIN,J.; CARLSON,C.; MANNI,M.; THIEBERGER,P.; WIPLICH,M.

    2001-09-02

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is beginning its second year of operation. A cesium sputter ion source injecting into a tandem Van de Graaff provides the gold ions for RHIC. The ion source is operated in the pulsed beam mode and produces a 500{micro}sec long pulse of Au{sup -} with a peak intensity of 290pA at the entrance of the tandem. After acceleration in the tandem and post stripping, this results in a beam of Au{sup +32} with an intensity of 80e{micro}A and an energy of 182MeV. Over the last several years, a series of improvements have been made to increase the intensity of the pulsed beam from the ion source. Details of the source performance and improvements will be presented. In addition, an effort is under way to provide other beam species for RHIC collisions.

  1. Dynamics of heavy-Rydberg ion-pair formation in K(14p,20p)-SF{sub 6}, CCl{sub 4} collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, C. H.; Kelley, M.; Buathong, S.; Dunning, F. B.

    2014-06-21

    The dynamics of formation of heavy-Rydberg ion-pair states through electron transfer in K(np)-SF{sub 6}, CCl{sub 4} collisions is examined by measuring the velocity, angular, and binding energy distributions of the product ion pairs. The results are analyzed with the aid of a Monte Carlo collision code that models both the initial electron capture and the subsequent evolution of the ion pairs. The model simulations are in good agreement with the experimental data and highlight the factors such as Rydberg atom size, the kinetic energy of relative motion of the Rydberg atom and target particle, and (in the case of attaching targets that dissociate) the energetics of dissociation that can be used to control the properties of the product ion-pair states.

  2. Burnout thresholds and cross section of power MOS transistors with heavy ions. Technical report, 1 May 1986-30 April 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waskiewicz, A.E.; Groninger, J.W.

    1990-02-01

    Power MOSFET heavy ion-induced Single Event Burnout tests were performed jointly by representatives of the Aerospace Corporation, NASA Goddard, NWSC Crane and Rockwell International. For the most part, presented are the results of the burnout threshold and cross section characterizations performed on n-channel power MOSFETs, however a small amount of p-channel data is also included. In addition, data on the effect of temperature, gate bias, total dose and inductive loading on MOSFET Single Event Burnout sensitivity is preferred. At the time of the test effort, radiation hardened devices were being developed by International Rectifier and RCA/GE. The heavy-ion-induced burnout test results on available samples of these devices are also incorporated for comparison to the commercial and JEDEC versions tested.

  3. Relativistic atomic beam spectroscopy II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-12-31

    The negative ion of H is one of the simplest 3-body atomic systems. The techniques we have developed for experimental study of atoms moving near speed of light have been productive. This proposal request continuing support for experimental studies of the H{sup -} system, principally at the 800 MeV linear accelerator (LAMPF) at Los Alamos. Four experiments are currently planned: photodetachment of H{sup -} near threshold in electric field, interaction of relativistic H{sup -} ions with matter, high excitations and double charge escape in H{sup -}, and multiphoton detachment of electrons from H{sup -}.

  4. CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF PURE AMMONIA AND AMMONIA-WATER ICES INDUCED BY HEAVY IONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordalo, V.; Da Silveira, E. F.; Seperuelo Duarte, E.

    2013-09-10

    Cosmic rays are possibly the main agents to prevent the freeze-out of molecules onto grain surfaces in cold dense clouds. Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is one of the most abundant molecules present in dust ice mantles, with a concentration of up to 15% relative to water (H{sub 2}O). FTIR spectroscopy is used to monitor pure NH{sub 3} and NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ice samples as they are irradiated with Ni and Zn ion beams (500-600 MeV) at GANIL/France. New species, such as hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}), diazene (N{sub 2}H{sub 2} isomers), molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}), and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) were identified after irradiation of pure NH{sub 3} ices. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and hydroxylamine (NH{sub 2}OH) are some of the products of the NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ice radiolysis. The spectral band at 6.85 {mu}m was observed after irradiation of both types of ice. Besides the likely contribution of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) and amino (NH{sub 2}) radicals, data suggest a small contribution of NH{sub 2}OH to this band profile after high fluences of irradiation of NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ices. The spectral shift of the NH{sub 3} ''umbrella'' mode (9.3 {mu}m) band is parameterized as a function of NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O ratio in amorphous ices. Ammonia and water destruction cross-sections are obtained, as well as the rate of NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O (1:10) ice compaction, measured by the OH dangling bond destruction cross-section. Ammonia destruction is enhanced in the presence of H{sub 2}O in the ice and a power law relationship between stopping power and NH{sub 3} destruction cross-section is verified. Such results may provide relevant information for the evolution of molecular species in dense molecular clouds.

  5. Compositional analysis and depth profiling of thin film CrO{sub 2} by heavy ion ERDA and standard RBS: a comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khamlich, S.; Msimanga, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C.A.; Nuru, Z.Y.; McCrindle, R.; Maaza, M.

    2012-08-15

    Chromium dioxide (CrO{sub 2}) thin film has generated considerable interest in applied research due to the wide variety of its technological applications. It has been extensively investigated in recent years, attracting the attention of researchers working on spintronic heterostructures and in the magnetic recording industry. However, its synthesis is usually a difficult task due to its metastable nature and various synthesis techniques are being investigated. In this work a polycrystalline thin film of CrO{sub 2} was prepared by electron beam vaporization of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} onto a Si substrate. The polycrystalline structure was confirmed through XRD analysis. The stoichiometry and elemental depth distribution of the deposited film were measured by ion beam nuclear analytical techniques heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), which both have relative advantage over non-nuclear spectrometries in that they can readily provide quantitative information about the concentration and distribution of different atomic species in a layer. Moreover, the analysis carried out highlights the importance of complementary usage of the two techniques to obtain a more complete description of elemental content and depth distribution in thin films. - Graphical abstract: Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) both have relative advantage over non-nuclear spectrometries in that they can readily provide quantitative information about the concentration and distribution of different atomic species in a layer. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films of CrO{sub 2} have been grown by e-beam evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} target in vacuum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition was determined by heavy ion-ERDA and RBS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HI-ERDA and RBS provided information on the light and heavy elements, respectively.

  6. K/pi Fluctuations at Relativistic Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, B.I.

    2009-08-24

    We report results for K/{pi} fluctuations from Au+Au collisions at {radical}sNN = 19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV using the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Our results for K/{pi} fluctuations in central collisions show little dependence on the incident energies studied and are on the same order as results observed by NA49 at the Super Proton Synchrotron in central Pb+Pb collisions at {radical}sNN = 12.3 and 17.3 GeV. We also report results for the collision centrality dependence of K/{pi} fluctuations as well as results for K{sup +}/{pi}{sup +}, K{sup -}/{pi}{sup -}, K{sup +}/{pi}{sup -}, and K{sup -}/{pi}{sup +} fluctuations. We observe that the K/{pi} fluctuations scale with the multiplicity density, dN/d{eta}, rather than the number of participating nucleons.

  7. Relativistic electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mooney, L.J.; Hyatt, H.M.

    1975-11-11

    A relativistic electron beam generator for laser media excitation is described. The device employs a diode type relativistic electron beam source having a cathode shape which provides a rectangular output beam with uniform current density.

  8. The longitudinal dependence of heavy-ion composition in the 2013 April 11 solar energetic particle event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mason, G. M.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2014-09-20

    On 2013 April 11 active region 11719 was centered just west of the central meridian; at 06:55 UT, it erupted with an M6.5 X-ray flare and a moderately fast (?800 km s{sup 1}) coronal mass ejection. This solar activity resulted in the acceleration of energetic ions to produce a solar energetic particle (SEP) event that was subsequently observed in energetic protons by both ACE and the two STEREO spacecraft. Heavy ions at energies ?10 MeV nucleon{sup 1} were well measured by SEP sensors on ACE and STEREO-B, allowing the longitudinal dependence of the event composition to be studied. Both spacecraft observed significant enhancements in the Fe/O ratio at 12-33 MeV nucleon{sup 1}, with the STEREO-B abundance ratio (Fe/O = 0.69) being similar to that of the large, Fe-rich SEP events observed in solar cycle 23. The footpoint of the magnetic field line connected to the ACE spacecraft was longitudinally farther from the flare site (77 versus 58), and the measured Fe/O ratio at ACE was 0.48, 44% lower than at STEREO-B but still enhanced by more than a factor of 3.5 over average SEP abundances. Only upper limits were obtained for the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He abundance ratio at both spacecraft. Low upper limits of 0.07% and 1% were obtained from the ACE sensors at 0.5-2 and 6.5-11.3 MeV nucleon{sup 1}, respectively, whereas the STEREO-B sensor provided an upper limit of 4%. These characteristics of high, but longitudinally variable, Fe/O ratios and low {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are not expected from either the direct flare contribution scenario or the remnant flare suprathermal material theory put forth to explain the Fe-rich SEP events of cycle 23.

  9. Cavity morphology in a Ni based superalloy under heavy ion irradiation with cold pre-injected helium. I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, He; Yao, Zhongwen Daymond, Mark R.; Kirk, Marquis A.

    2014-03-14

    In order to understand radiation damage in the nickel based superalloy Inconel X-750 in thermal reactors, where (n, ?) transmutation reaction also occurred in addition to fast neutron induced atomic displacement, heavy ion (1?MeV Kr{sup 2+}) irradiation with pre-injected helium was performed under in-situ observations of an intermediate voltage electron microscope at Argonne National Laboratory. By comparing to our previous studies using 1?MeV Kr{sup 2+} irradiation solely, the pre-injected helium was found to be essential in cavity nucleation. Cavities started to be visible after Kr{sup 2+} irradiation to 2.7 dpa at ?200?C in samples containing 200 appm, 1000 appm, and 5000 appm helium, respectively, but not at lower temperatures. The cavity growth was observed during the continuous irradiation. Cavity formation appeared along with a reduced number density of stacking fault tetrahedra, vacancy type defects. With higher pre-injected helium amount, a higher density of smaller cavities was observed. This is considered to be the result of local trapping effect of helium which disperses vacancies. The average cavity size increases with increasing irradiation temperatures; the density reduced; and the distribution of cavities became heterogeneous at elevated temperatures. In contrast to previous characterization of in-reactor neutron irradiated Inconel X-750, no obvious cavity sink to grain boundaries and phase boundaries was found even at high doses and elevated temperatures. MC-type carbides were observed as strong sources for agglomeration of cavities due to their enhanced trapping strength of helium and vacancies.

  10. SU-E-J-137: Image Registration Tool for Patient Setup in Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, M; Suh, T; Cho, W; Jung, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A potential validation tool for compensating patient positioning error was developed using 2D/3D and 3D/3D image registration. Methods: For 2D/3D registration, digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) images were applied. The ray-casting algorithm is the most straightforward method for generating DRR. We adopted the traditional ray-casting method, which finds the intersections of a ray with all objects, voxels of the 3D-CT volume in the scene. The similarity between the extracted DRR and orthogonal image was measured by using a normalized mutual information method. Two orthogonal images were acquired from a Cyber-Knife system from the anterior-posterior (AP) and right lateral (RL) views. The 3D-CT and two orthogonal images of an anthropomorphic phantom and head and neck cancer patient were used in this study. For 3D/3D registration, planning CT and in-room CT image were applied. After registration, the translation and rotation factors were calculated to position a couch to be movable in six dimensions. Results: Registration accuracies and average errors of 2.12 mm ± 0.50 mm for transformations and 1.23° ± 0.40° for rotations were acquired by 2D/3D registration using an anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom. In addition, registration accuracies and average errors of 0.90 mm ± 0.30 mm for transformations and 1.00° ± 0.2° for rotations were acquired using CT image sets. Conclusion: We demonstrated that this validation tool could compensate for patient positioning error. In addition, this research could be the fundamental step for compensating patient positioning error at the first Korea heavy-ion medical accelerator treatment center.

  11. Experimental Cross Sections for Reactions of Heavy Ions and 208Pb, 209Bi, 238U, and 248Cm Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patin, Joshua B.

    2002-05-24

    The study of the reactions between heavy ions and {sup 208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 238}U, and {sup 248} Cm targets was performed to look at the differences between the cross sections of hot and cold fusion reactions. Experimental cross sections were compared with predictions from statistical computer codes to evaluate the effectiveness of the computer code in predicting production cross sections. Hot fusion reactions were studied with the MG system, catcher foil techniques and the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS). 3n- and 4n-exit channel production cross sections were obtained for the {sup 238}U({sup 18}O,xn){sup 256-x}Fm, {sup 238}U({sup 22}Ne,xn){sup 260-x}No, and {sup 248}Cm({sup 15}N,xn){sup 263-x}Lr reactions and are similar to previous experimental results. The experimental cross sections were accurately modeled by the predictions of the HIVAP code using the Reisdorf and Schaedel parameters and are consistent with the existing systematics of 4n exit channel reaction products. Cold fusion reactions were examined using the BGS. The {sup 208}Pb({sup 48}Ca,xn){sup 256-x}No, {sup 208}Pb({sup 50}Ti,xn){sup 258-x}Rf, {sup 208}Pb({sup 51}V,xn){sup 259-x}Db, {sup 209}Bi({sup 50}Ti,xn){sup 259-x}Db, and {sup 209}Bi({sup 51}V,xn){sup 260-x}Sg reactions were studied. The experimental production cross sections are in agreement with the results observed in previous experiments. It was necessary to slightly alter the Reisdorf and Schaedel parameters for use in the HIVAP code in order to more accurately model the experimental data. The cold fusion experimental results are in agreement with current 1n- and 2n-exit channel systematics.

  12. Relativistic plasma expansion with Maxwell-Juettner distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Yongsheng; Wang, Naiyan; Tang, Xiuzhang; Shi, Yijin

    2013-11-15

    A self-similar analytical solution is proposed to describe the relativistic ion acceleration with the local Maxwell-Juettner relativistic distribution electrons. It is an alternative to the existing static model [M. Passoni and M. Lontano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115001 (2008)], which exploits a limited solution for the acceleration potential. With our model, the potential is finite naturally and has an upper limitation proportional to the square root of the electron temperature. The divergent potential in the non-relativistic case is the linear items of the Taylor expansion of that obtained relativistic one here. The energy distribution of ions and the dependence of the ion momentum on the acceleration time are obtained analytically. Maximum ion energy has an upper limitation decided by the finite potential difference. In the ultra-relativistic region, the ion energy at the ion front is proportional to t{sup 4/5} and the energy of the ions behind the ion front is proportional to t{sup 2/3} since the field there is shielded by the ions beyond them and the field at the ion front is the most intense.

  13. Thermal nature of charmonium transverse momentum spectra from Au-Au collisions at the highest energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akkelin, S. V.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.; Braun-Munzinger, P.

    2010-03-15

    We analyze the transverse momentum distribution of J/psi mesons produced in Au+Au collisions at the top RHIC energy within a blast-wave model that accounts for a possible inhomogeneity of the charmonium distribution and/or flow fluctuations. The results imply that the transverse momentum spectra of J/psi, phi, and OMEGA hadrons measured at the RHIC can be described well if kinetic freeze-out takes place just after chemical freeze-out for these particles.

  14. Effect of final state interactions on particle production in d+Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.; Xu, Z.; Chen, J.; Ren, Z.; Xu, N.; Zheng, Q.; and Zhu, X.

    2011-09-15

    We show that particle species dependence of enhanced hadron production at intermediate transverse momentum (p{sub T}) for d+Au collisions at RHIC can be understood in terms of the hadronization from string fragmentation and the subsequent hadronic rescatterings in the final state. A multiphase transport model (AMPT) with two different hadronization mechanisms, string fragmentation or parton coalescence, is used in our study. When the hadrons are formed from string fragmentation, the subsequent hadronic rescatterings will result in particle mass dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub CP}, which is consistent with the present experimental data. On the other hand, in the framework of parton coalescence, the mass dependence disappears and the strangeness plays an important role in hadron production.

  15. Elliptic flow of thermal photons and formation time of quark gluon plasma at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Rupa; Srivastava, Dinesh K.

    2009-02-15

    We calculate the elliptic flow of thermal photons from Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies for a range of values for the formation time {tau}{sub 0} but a fixed entropy (or particle rapidity density). The results are found to be quite sensitive to {tau}{sub 0}. The value of v{sub 2} for photons decreases as {tau}{sub 0} decreases and admits a larger contribution from the quark gluon plasma phase, which has a smaller v{sub 2}. The elliptic flow coefficient for hadrons, however, is only marginally dependent on {tau}{sub 0}.

  16. Measuring the isotropization time of quark-gluon plasma from direct photons at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, Lusaka; Roy, Pradip

    2009-05-15

    We calculate transverse momentum distribution of direct photons from various sources by taking into account the initial state momentum anisotropy of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and late stage transverse flow effects. To evaluate the photon yield from hadronic matter we include the contributions from baryon-meson reactions. The total photon yield, calculated for various combinations of initial conditions and transition temperatures, is then compared with the recent measurement of photon transverse momentum distribution by the PHENIX Collaboration. It is shown that because of the initial state anisotropy the photon yield from the QGP is larger by a factor of 8-10 than that of the isotropic case in the intermediate p{sub T} regime. It is also demonstrated that the presence of such an anisotropy can describe the PHENIX photon data better than the isotropic case in the present model. We show that the isotropization time thus extracted lies within the range 1.5{>=}{tau}{sub iso}{>=}0.5 fm/c for the initial conditions used here.

  17. Higher order QED in high-mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltz, Anthony J.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2010-08-15

    Lowest order and higher order QED calculations have been carried out for the RHIC high mass e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs observed by PHENIX with single zero-degree-calorimeter triggers. The lowest order QED results for the experimental acceptance are about two standard deviations larger than the PHENIX data. Corresponding higher order QED calculations are within one standard deviation of the data.

  18. Comparing the same-side ridge in p-p angular correlations at 7 TeV to data measured at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trainor, Thomas A.; Kettler, David T.

    2011-08-15

    The Compact Muon Solenoid Collaboration (CMS) has recently reported the appearance of a same-side ridge structure in two-particle angular correlations from 7-TeV p-p collisions. The ridge in p-p collisions at 7 TeV has been compared to a ridge structure in more-central Au-Au collisions at 200 GeV, interpreted by some as evidence for a dense, flowing QCD medium. In this study we make a detailed comparison between 200-GeV p-p correlations and the CMS results. We find that 7-TeV minimum-bias jet correlations are remarkably similar to those at 200 GeV, even to the details of the same-side peak geometry. Appearance of a same-side ridge reflects a change in the sign of the azimuth curvature determined by the ratio of azimuth quadrupole-to-dipole amplitudes. Extrapolation of quadrupole systematics from 200 GeV suggests that the same-side ridge at 7 TeV is a manifestation of the quadrupole amplitude enhanced relative to the dipole by the energy increase and applied cuts.

  19. Dynamical simulation of energy dissipation in asymmetric heavy-ion induced fission of {sup 200}Pb, {sup 213}Fr, and {sup 251}Es

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirfathi, S. M.; Pahlavani, M. R.

    2008-12-15

    The dynamical model based on the asymmetric mass division has been applied to calculate pre-scission neutron multiplicity from heavy-ion induced fusion-fission reactions. Links between the pre-scission neutron multiplicity, excitation energy, and asymmetric mass distribution are clarified based on the Monte Carlo simulation and Langevin dynamics. The pre-scission neutron multiplicity is calculated and compared with the respective experimental data over a wide range of excitation energy and nonconstant viscosity. The analysis indicates a different effect for the application of asymmetric mass division in different energy regions of such processes.

  20. Relativistic Guiding Center Equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, R. B.; Gobbin, M.

    2014-10-01

    In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.

  1. Studies of heavy ion reactions and transuranic nuclei. Progress report, August 1, 1979-July 31, 1980. [Univ. of Rochester, New York, 8/1/79-7/31/80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huizenga, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    The study of heavy-ion reaction mechanisms at the SuperHILAC and LAMPF is reported. Preprints of five articles and manuscripts of four recent conference papers are given, along with complete citations of publications and a list of personnel. Significant work was performed in the following areas: the bombarding energy dependence of the /sup 209/Bi + /sup 136/Xe reaction; the fragment yields for specific Z and A for projectile-like fragments produced in the reaction of 8.3-MeV/u /sup 56/Fe ions with targets of /sup 56/Fe, /sup 165/Ho, /sup 209/Bi, and /sup 238/U; and time distributions of fragments from delayed fission after muon capture for muonic /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 237/Np, /sup 239/Pu, and /sup 242/Pu. (RWR)

  2. Nonlinear magnetosonic waves in dense plasmas with non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.; Rehman, Aman-ur-

    2014-11-15

    Linear and nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic waves in the perpendicular direction to the ambient magnetic field is studied in dense plasmas for non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure. The sources of nonlinearities are the divergence of the ions and electrons fluxes, Lorentz forces on ions and electrons fluids and the plasma current density in the system. The Korteweg-de Vries equation for magnetosonic waves propagating in the perpendicular direction of the magnetic field is derived by employing reductive perturbation method for non-relativistic as well as ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure cases in dense plasmas. The plots of the magnetosonic wave solitons are also shown using numerical values of the plasma parameters such a plasma density and magnetic field intensity of the white dwarfs from literature. The dependence of plasma density and magnetic field intensity on the magnetosonic wave propagation is also pointed out in dense plasmas for both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure cases.

  3. Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Enabling the next generation of intense particle accelerators Contact Juan Fernandez (505) 667-6575 ...

  4. Parametic Study of the current limit within a single driver-scaletransport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prost, Lionel Robert

    2007-02-14

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density {approx}0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (4 {micro}s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor ({approx}80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  5. 2D potential measurements by applying automatic beam adjustment system to heavy ion beam probe diagnostic on the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, A. Ido, T.; Kato, S.; Hamada, Y.; Kurachi, M.; Makino, R.; Nishiura, M.; Nishizawa, A.

    2014-11-15

    Two-dimensional potential profiles in the Large Helical Device (LHD) were measured with heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). To measure the two-dimensional profile, the probe beam energy has to be changed. However, this task is not easy, because the beam transport line of LHD-HIBP system is very long (∼20 m), and the required beam adjustment consumes much time. To reduce the probe beam energy adjustment time, an automatic beam adjustment system has been developed. Using this system, required time to change the probe beam energy is dramatically reduced, such that two-dimensional potential profiles were able to be successfully measured with HIBP by changing the probe beam energy shot to shot.

  6. Heavy ion Coulomb excitation and gamma decay studies of the one and two phonon giant dipole resonances in {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, P.E.; Beene, J.R.; Bertrand, F.E.

    1993-12-01

    Projectile -- photon coincidences were measured for the scattering of an 80 MeV/nucleon {sup 64}Zn beam from {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi targets at the GANIL heavy ion accelerator facility. Projectile-like particles between 0.5{degrees} and 4.5{degrees} relative to the incident beam direction were detected in the SPEG energy loss spectrometer where their momentum, charge, and mass were determined. Photons were detected in the BaF{sub 2} scintillation detector array TAPS. Light charged particles produced in the reaction were detected in the KVI Forward Wall. The analysis of the data acquired in this experiment is focused on three different phenomena: (1) the two phonon giant dipole resonance, (2) time dependence of the decay of the one phonon giant dipole resonance, and (3) giant resonance strength in projectile nuclei.

  7. Energy dependence of multiplicity fluctuations in heavy ion collisions at 20A to 158A GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alt, C.; Blume, C.; Bramm, R.; Dinkelaker, P.; Flierl, D.; Kliemant, M.; Kniege, S.; Lungwitz, B.; Mitrovski, M.; Renfordt, R.; Schuster, T.; Stock, R.; Strabel, C.; Stroebele, H.; Utvic, M.; Wetzler, A.; Anticic, T.; Kadija, K.; Nicolic, V.; Susa, T.

    2008-09-15

    Multiplicity fluctuations of positively, negatively, and all charged hadrons in the forward hemisphere were studied in central Pb+Pb collisions at 20A,30A,40A,80A, and 158A GeV. The multiplicity distributions and their scaled variances {omega} are presented as functions of their dependence on collision energy as well as on rapidity and transverse momentum. The distributions have bell-like shapes and their scaled variances are in the range from 0.8 to 1.2 without any significant structure in their energy dependence. No indication of the critical point in fluctuations are observed. The string-hadronic ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model significantly overpredicts the mean, but it approximately reproduces the scaled variance of the multiplicity distributions. The predictions of the statistical hadron-resonance gas model obtained within the grand-canonical and canonical ensembles disagree with the measured scaled variances. The narrower than Poissonian multiplicity fluctuations measured in numerous cases may be explained by the impact of conservation laws on fluctuations in relativistic systems.

  8. Relativistic Quantum Scars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Liang; Lai Yingcheng; Ferry, David K.; Goodnick, Stephen M.; Akis, Richard

    2009-07-31

    The concentrations of wave functions about classical periodic orbits, or quantum scars, are a fundamental phenomenon in physics. An open question is whether scarring can occur in relativistic quantum systems. To address this question, we investigate confinements made of graphene whose classical dynamics are chaotic and find unequivocal evidence of relativistic quantum scars. The scarred states can lead to strong conductance fluctuations in the corresponding open quantum dots via the mechanism of resonant transmission.

  9. collisions'' Ulrich W. Heinz 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions'' Ulrich W. Heinz 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS Nuclear Theory, Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions, Quark-Gluon...

  10. ABSTRACTS FOR PAPERS SUBMITTED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Partonic Effects on Pion Interferometry in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions Z. W. Lin, C. ... we study the pion interferometry at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). ...

  11. Chiral asymmetry of the Fermi surface in dense relativistic matter in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.

    2009-09-15

    It is revealed that in the normal phase of dense relativistic matter in a magnetic field, there exists a contribution to the axial current associated with a relative shift of the longitudinal momenta in the dispersion relations of opposite chirality fermions. Unlike the topological contribution in the axial current at the lowest Landau level, recently discussed in the literature, the dynamical one appears only in interacting matter and affects the fermions in all Landau levels, including those around the Fermi surface. The induced axial current and the shift of the Fermi surfaces of the left-handed and right-handed fermions are expected to play an important role in transport and emission properties of matter in various types of compact stars as well as in heavy ion collisions.

  12. Synthesis of nanocrystalline thin films of gold on the surface of GaSb by swift heavy ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jadhav, Vidya; Dubey, S. K.; Yadav, A. D.; Singh, A.

    2013-02-05

    Thin films of gold ({approx}100 nm thick) were deposited on p-type GaSb substrates. These samples were irradiated with 100 MeV Fe{sup 7+}ions for the fluence of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} ions cm{sup -2}. After irradiation, samples were characterized using AFM, UV-VIS -NIR, X-Ray Diffraction techniques. AFM studies showed the presence of clusters on the surface of GaSb. R.M.S. roughness of the sample was found to increase w.r.t ion fluence. Absorption coefficient obtained from the Ultra violet - Visible NIR (UV-VIS -NIR) spectra of the samples irradiated with various fluences compared with non irradiated GaSb. The annealing experiment showed a significant improvement in the absorption coefficient after rapid thermal annealing at temperature of 400 Degree-Sign C. X-Ray Diffraction study reveals different orientations of Au film.

  13. Dynamical Dipole Mode in Heavy-Ion Fusion-Evaporation and Fission Reactions in the {sup 192}Pb Mass Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, R.; Inglima, G.; La Commara, M.; Martin, B.; Sandoli, M.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Parascandolo, C.; Boiano, A.; Romoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Baran, V.; De Filippo, E.; Di Toro, M.; Rizzo, C.

    2011-10-28

    The prompt {gamma}-ray emission related with the dynamical dipole mode decay was investigated in the {sup 192}Pb mass region by means of the {sup 40}Ca+{sup 152}Sm and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 144}Sm fusion-evaporation and fission reactions at E{sub lab} = 11 and 10.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively. The two reactions populate, through entrance channel having different charge asymmetries, the {sup 192}Pb compound nucleus at an excitation energy of 236 MeV with identical spin distribution. Preliminary results of this experiment show that the dynamical dipole mode survives in collisions involving heavier mass reaction partners than those studied previously. As a fast cooling mechanism on the fusion path, the prompt dipole {gamma} radiation could be of interest for the synthesis of super-heavy elements through ''hot'' fusion reactions.

  14. Relativistic self-focusing in underdense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feit, M.D.; Garrison, J.C.; Komashko, A.; Musher, J.L.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Turistsyn, S.K.

    1997-04-24

    In the present paper, we discuss light self-focusing in underdense (nion motion is important even for picosecond pulse durations and a description of relativistic self-focusing including ion dynamics will be presented in second part of the paper. In particular, we will demonstrate the formation of empty, wide channels in underdense plasma in the wake of the laser pulse. we discuss the applicability of our results to real situations and possible consequences for the ``Fast Ignitor`` project.

  15. Light-emitting Si nanostructures formed in SiO{sub 2} on irradiation with swift heavy ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kachurin, G. A. Cherkova, S. G.; Skuratov, V. A.; Marin, D. V.; Cherkov, A. G.

    2010-04-15

    SiO{sub 2} layers containing implanted excess Si are irradiated with Xe ions with an energy of 130 MeV and doses of 3 x 10{sup 12}-10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. In the samples irradiated with a dose of 3 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, {approx}10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} segregated clusters 3-4 nm in dimension are detected by transmission electron microscopy. With increasing dose, the dimensions and number of these clusters increase. In the photoluminescence spectrum, a 660- to 680-nm band is observed, with the intensity dependent on the dose. After passivation of the sample with hydrogen at 500 deg. C, the band disappears, but a new {approx}780-nm band typical of Si nanocrystals becomes evident. On the basis of the entire set of data, it is concluded that the 660- to 680-nm band is associated with imperfect Si nanocrystals grown in the tracks of Xe ions due to high ionization losses. The nonmonotonic dependence of the photoluminescence intensity on the dose is attributed to the difference between the diameters of tracks and the diameters of the displacements' cascades responsible for defect formation.

  16. Fusion-fission and quasifission in the reactions with heavy ions leading to the formation of Hs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kozulin, E. M.

    2012-10-20

    Mass and energy distributions of binary reaction products obtained in the reactions {sup 22}Ne+{sup 249}Cf,{sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm,{sup 36}S+{sup 238}U and {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb leading to Hs isotopes have been measured. At energies below the Coulomb barrier the bimodal fission of Hs*, formed in the reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, is observed. In the reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U the considerable part of the symmetric fragments arises from the quasifission process. At energies above the Coulomb barrier the symmetric fragments originate mainly from fusion-fission process for both reactions with Mg and S ions. In the case of the {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb reaction the quasifission process dominates at all measured energies. The pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities as a function of the fragment mass have been obtained for the reactions studied.

  17. Fission and quasifission modes in heavy-ion-induced reactions leading to the formation of Hs{sup *}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itkis, I. M.; Kozulin, E. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Bogachev, A. A.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Krupa, L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Goennenwein, F.; Dorvaux, O.; Stuttge, L.; Hanappe, F.; Vardaci, E.; Goes Brennand, E. de

    2011-06-15

    Mass and energy distributions of binary reaction products obtained in the reactions {sup 22}Ne+{sup 249}Cf,{sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U, and {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb have been measured. All reactions lead to Hs isotopes. At energies below the Coulomb barrier the bimodal fission of Hs{sup *}, formed in the reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, is observed. In the reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U, leading to the formation of a similar compound nucleus, the main part of the symmetric fragments arises from the quasifission process. At energies above the Coulomb barrier fusion-fission is the main process leading to the formation of symmetric fragments for both reactions with Mg and S ions. In the case of the {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb reaction the quasifission process dominates at all measured energies.

  18. Mass transport of heavy metal ions and radon in gels used as sealing agents in containment technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakatos, I.; Bauer, K.; Lakatos-Szabo, J.; Kretzschmar, H.J.

    1997-12-31

    The diffusion and hydrodynamic mass transport of multivalent cations, mostly Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ions and radon in polymer/silicate gels and Montanwax emulsions were studied. It was concluded that the self-conforming gels may decrease the hydrodynamic mass transport in porous and fractured media by 4-6 orders of magnitude. In water saturated systems, however, the diffusion transport can be restricted by hydrogels only to a moderate extent. On the other hand, the high and selective retention capacity of gels towards different diffusing species may open new vistas in the sealing technologies. Similar results were obtained for transport phenomena of radon. The almost perfect quenching process of radon and its nuclides in gels and emulsions further enhances the positive effects of the encapsulation methods. The laboratory experiments provided valuable new information to design the different containment technologies.

  19. Stability of nanoclusters in 14YWT oxide dispersion strengthened steel under heavy ion-irradiation by atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianchao He; Farong Wan; Kumar Sridharan; Todd R. Allen; A. Certain; V. Shutthanandan; Y.Q. Wu

    2014-12-01

    14YWT oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel was irradiated with of 5 MeV Ni2+ ions, at 300 C, 450 C, and 600 C to a damage level of 100 dpa. The stability of Ti–Y–O nanoclusters was investigated by applying atom probe tomography (APT) in voltage mode, of the samples before and after irradiations. The average size and number density of the nanoclusters was determined using the maximum separation method. These techniques allowed for the imaging of nanoclusters to sizes well below the resolution limit of conventional transmission electron microscopy techniques. The most significant changes were observed for samples irradiated at 300 C where the size (average Guinier radius) and number density of nanoclusters were observed to decrease from 1.1 nm to 0.8 nm and 12 1023 to 3.6 1023, respectively. In this study, the nanoclusters are more stable at higher temperature.

  20. Normal ground state of dense relativistic matter in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.

    2011-04-15

    The properties of the ground state of relativistic matter in a magnetic field are examined within the framework of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The main emphasis of this study is the normal ground state, which is realized at sufficiently high temperatures and/or sufficiently large chemical potentials. In contrast to the vacuum state, which is characterized by the magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking, the normal state is accompanied by the dynamical generation of the chiral shift parameter {Delta}. In the chiral limit, the value of {Delta} determines a relative shift of the longitudinal momenta (along the direction of the magnetic field) in the dispersion relations of opposite chirality fermions. We argue that the chirality remains a good approximate quantum number even for massive fermions in the vicinity of the Fermi surface and, therefore, the chiral shift is expected to play an important role in many types of cold dense relativistic matter, relevant for applications in compact stars. The qualitative implications of the revealed structure of the normal ground state on the physics of protoneutron stars are discussed. A noticeable feature of the {Delta} parameter is that it is insensitive to temperature when T<<{mu}{sub 0}, where {mu}{sub 0} is the chemical potential, and increases with temperature for T>{mu}{sub 0}. The latter implies that the chiral shift parameter is also generated in the regime relevant for heavy ion collisions.

  1. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alessi, James Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-15

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  2. Relativistic Point Coupling Model for Vibrational Excitations in the Continuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ring, P.; Daoutidis, J.; Litvinova, E.; Niksic, T.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.

    2009-08-26

    An implementation of the relativistic random phase approximation with the proper treatment of the continuum has been developed for the relativistic point coupling model and applied to investigate collective excitations in spherical nuclei. The results are compared with the spectral implementation of the same model. In heavy nuclei, where the escape width is negligible, we find an excellent agreement between both methods in the region of giant resonance and some discrepancies in the region of low-lying pygmy resonance. The differences are more pronounced in light nuclei due to the larger values of the escape widths.

  3. Crystallization and collapse in relativistically degenerate matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2013-04-15

    In this paper, it is shown that a mass density limit exists beyond which the relativistically degenerate matter would crystallize. The mass density limit, found here, is quite analogous to the mass limit predicted by Chandrasekhar for a type of compact stars called white dwarfs (M{sub Ch} Asymptotically-Equal-To 1.43 Solar Mass). In this study, the old problem of white dwarf core collapse, which has been previously investigated by Chandrasekhar using hydrostatic stability criteria, is revisited in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamics model by inspection of the charge screening at atomic scales in the relativistic degeneracy plasma regime taking into account the relativistic Fermi-Dirac statistics and electron interaction features such as the quantum statistical pressure, Coulomb attraction, electron exchange-correlation, and quantum recoil effects. It is revealed that the existence of ion correlation and crystallization of matter in the relativistically degenerate plasma puts a critical mass density limit on white dwarf core region. It is shown that a white dwarf star with a core mass density beyond this critical limit can undergo the spontaneous core collapse (SCC). The SCC phenomenon, which is dominantly caused by the electron quantum recoil effect (interference and localization of the electron wave function), leads to a new exotic state of matter. In such exotic state, the relativistic electron degeneracy can lead the white dwarf crystallized core to undergo the nuclear fusion and an ultimate supernova by means of the volume reduction (due to the enhanced compressibility) and huge energy release (due to the increase in cohesive energy), under the stars huge inward gravitational pressure. Moreover, it is found that the SCC phenomenon is significantly affected by the core composition (it is more probable for heavier plasmas). The critical mass density found here is consistent with the values calculated for core density of typical white dwarf stars.

  4. Experimental Data of Neutron Yields from Thick Targets Bombarded by 100 to 800 MeV / Nucleon Heavy Ions.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-05-15

    Version 02 The recent experimental data by the authors listed above are summarized in this paper on differential neutron yields in energy and angle produced by 100, 155 and 180 MeV/nucleon He, 100, 155, 180 and 400 MeV/nucleon C, 100, 180, 400 MeV/nucleon Ne, 400MeV/nucleon Ar, Xe and Fe, 272 and 435MeV/nucleon Nb and 800 MeV/nucleon Si ions stopping in thick targets of C, Al, Cu, Pb and Nb. The paper referenced above is availablemore » on the RSICC web site. The numerical values of the data, which were used to plot figures in References 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 of this paper, are available for download at no charge. To get access to the data, complete a RSICC registration form and order form. Both are available by clicking on "Ordering" from the RSICC web pages. You will be contacted with details about how to proceed.« less

  5. Nuclear structure studies with pions and heavy ions. Progress report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980. [Univ. of Minnesota, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehnhard, D.

    1980-03-01

    The elastic and inelastic scattering of ..pi../sup +/ and ..pi../sup -/ by /sup 13/C, /sup 16/O, and /sup 17/O was studied at pion energies close to the (3,3) resonance. Data were taken at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Large asymmetries were observed, two of which are consistent with pure neutron and pure proton excitations. Transitions to strongly excited states of /sup 13/C are in strikingly good agreement with theoretical predictions of Lee and Kurath. In sharp contrast, strong disagreements are found for the weakly excited states. The asymmetries for /sup 16/O + ..pi../sup + -/ were interpreted as due to isospin mixing between the excited states. High-resolution data for (t,t') and (/sup 3/He,/sup 3/He') on /sup 13/C were taken to supplement the pion work. Asymmetries were found for the relative cross sections for some states. In studies of the heavy-ion-nucleus potential the effect of potential resonances on the elastic scattering of /sup 16/O + /sup 28/Si was found to be small. A close similarity between the elastic exchange amplitude at 180/sup 0/ and the effect of the parity dependence on the elastic amplitude was found. Fits to the new data at 40 and 41.226 MeV required the use of a composite absorptive potential. The surface derivative part of this potential can be deduced from a coupled-channels calculation. 17 figures.

  6. Distinct optical properties of relativistically degenerate matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, we use the collisional quantum magnetohydrodynamic (CQMHD) model to derive the transverse dielectric function of a relativistically degenerate electron fluid and investigate various optical parameters, such as the complex refractive index, the reflection and absorption coefficients, the skin-depth and optical conductivity. In this model we take into accounts effects of many parameters such as the atomic-number of the constituent ions, the electron exchange, electron diffraction effect and the electron-ion collisions. Study of the optical parameters in the solid-density, the warm-dense-matter, the big-planetary core, and the compact star number-density regimes reveals that there are distinct differences between optical characteristics of the latter and the former cases due to the fundamental effects of the relativistic degeneracy and other quantum mechanisms. It is found that in the relativistic degeneracy plasma regime, such as found in white-dwarfs and neutron star crusts, matter possess a much sharper and well-defined step-like reflection edge beyond the x-ray electromagnetic spectrum, including some part of gamma-ray frequencies. It is also remarked that the magnetic field intensity only significantly affects the plasma reflectivity in the lower number-density regime, rather than the high density limit. Current investigation confirms the profound effect of relativistic degeneracy on optical characteristics of matter and can provide an important plasma diagnostic tool for studying the physical processes within the wide scope of quantum plasma regimes be it the solid-density, inertial-confined, or astrophysical compact stars.

  7. In-beam Mssbauer spectroscopy of {sup 57}Fe/{sup 57}Mn in MgO and NaF at Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo, M. K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Mihara, M.; Nagatomo, T.; Sato, W.; Miyazaki, J.; Sato, S.; Kitagawa, A.

    2014-02-15

    Development of efficient ion supply of {sup 58}Fe from {sup 58}Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}, and quick switching between therapy and material science at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba realized a new {sup 57}Mn in-beam emission Mssbauer spectroscopy measurement system. Application to simple binary chemical compounds, MgO and NaF, proved the usefulness of the system to probe chemical and physical behaviors of trace impurities in solids. Annealing of lattice defects produced by the implantation and ?-decay of {sup 57}Mn and/or ?-ray emission recoil was observed by a local probe.

  8. INTERPLANETARY PROPAGATION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE HEAVY IONS OBSERVED AT 1 AU AND THE ROLE OF ENERGY SCALING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, G. M.; Haggerty, D. K.; Li, G.; Zank, G. P.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Desai, M. I.

    2012-12-20

    We have studied {approx}0.3 to >100 MeV nucleon{sup -1} H, He, O, and Fe in 17 large western hemisphere solar energetic particle events (SEP) to examine whether the often observed decrease of Fe/O during the rise phase is due to mixing of separate SEP particle populations, or is an interplanetary transport effect. Our earlier study showed that the decrease in Fe/O nearly disappeared if Fe and O were compared at energies where the two species interplanetary diffusion coefficient were equal, and therefore their kinetic energy nucleon{sup -1} was different by typically a factor {approx}2 ({sup e}nergy scaling{sup )}. Using an interplanetary transport model that includes effects of focusing, convection, adiabatic deceleration, and pitch angle scattering we have fit the particle spectral forms and intensity profiles over a broad range of conditions where the 1 AU intensities were reasonably well connected to the source and not obviously dominated by local shock effects. The transport parameters we derive are similar to earlier studies. Our model follows individual particles with a Monte Carlo calculation, making it possible to determine many properties and effects of the transport. We find that the energy scaling feature is preserved, and that the model is reasonably successful at fitting the magnitude and duration of the Fe/O ratio decrease. This along with successfully fitting the observed decrease of the O/He ratio leads us to conclude that this feature is best understood as a transport effect. Although the effects of transport, in particular adiabatic deceleration, are very significant below a few MeV nucleon{sup -1}, the spectral break observed in these events at 1 AU is only somewhat modified by transport, and so the commonly observed spectral breaks must be present at injection. For scattering mean free paths of the order of 0.1 AU adiabatic deceleration is so large below {approx}200 keV nucleon{sup -1} that ions starting with such energies at injection are

  9. Interferometry radii in heavy-ion collisions at {radical}(s)=200 GeV and 2.76 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozek, Piotr

    2011-04-15

    The expansion of the fireball created in Au-Au collisions at {radical}(s)=200 GeV and Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV is modelled using relativistic viscous hydrodynamics. The experimentally observed interferometry radii are well reproduced. Additional pre-equilibrium flow slightly improves the results for the lower energies studied.

  10. Ultrafast laser and swift heavy ion irradiation: Response of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} to intense electronic excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Tracy, Cameron L.; Cusick, Alex B.; Abere, Michael J.; Yalisove, Steven M.; Torralva, Ben; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2015-04-27

    In order to investigate the response of materials to extreme conditions, there are several approaches to depositing extremely high concentrations of energy into very small volumes of material, including ultrafast laser and swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. In this study, crystalline-to-crystalline phase transformations in cubic Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} have been investigated using ultrafast laser irradiation. The phases produced by the extreme conditions of irradiation were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited a cubic-to-monoclinic phase transformation, as evidenced by the appearance of the monoclinic (402{sup ¯}), (003), (310), and (112{sup ¯}) peaks in the GIXRD pattern and of four A{sub g} and three B{sub g} Raman modes. ZrO{sub 2} underwent a monoclinic-to-tetragonal phase transformation, as evidenced by the emergence of the tetragonal (101) peak in the GIXRD pattern and of E{sub g} and A{sub 1g} Raman modes. The new phases formed by ultrafast laser irradiation are high temperature polymorphs of the two materials. No evidence of amorphization was seen in the GIXRD data, though Raman spectroscopy indicated point defect accumulation. These results are identical to those produced by irradiation with SHIs, which also deposit energy in materials primarily through electronic excitation. The similarity in damage process and material response between ultrafast laser and SHI irradiation suggests a fundamental relationship between these two techniques.

  11. SECTION II. HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Fission Dynamics With Neutrons and GDR Gamma Rays T. Botting, G.G. Chubarian, R.P. Schmitt, K.L. Wolf, M.J. Murray, B.J. Hurst, H. Jabs, M. Hamelin, A. Bacak, Yu.Ts. ...

  12. SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    II-12 Y. G. Ma, R. Wada, K. Hagel, J. Wang, T. Keutgen, Z. Majka, M. Murray, L. Qin, P. Smith, J. B. Natowitz, R. Alfarro, J. Cibor, M. Cinausero, Y. El Masri, D....

  13. Heavy Ions - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Geothermal heat pumps are expensive to install but pay for themselves over time in reduced heating and cooling costs. Learn more about how geothermal heat pumps heat and cool buildings by concentrating the naturally existing heat contained within the earth -- a clean, reliable, and renewable source of energy. In moderate climates, heat pumps can be an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Several types of heat pumps are available, including

  14. SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... L. W. May, S. Wuenschel, B. Stein, and S. J. Yennello Analysis of 86,78Kr + 64,58Ni data taken on the upgraded NIMROD-ISiS...... II-28 S. Wuenschel, S. ...

  15. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; ET AL.

    2005-02-28

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linac. The highly successful development of an EBIS at BNL now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based pre-injectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The new RFQ and Linac that are used to accelerate beams from the EBIS to an energy sufficient for injection into the Booster are both very similar to existing devices already in operation at other facilities. Injection into the Booster will occur at the same location as the existing injection from the Tandem.

  16. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; GRANDINETTI, R.; HSEUH, H.; JAVIDFAR, A.; KPONOU, A.; LAMBIASE, R.; LESSARD, E.; LOCKEY, R.; LODESTRO, V.; MAPES, M.; MIRABELLA, D.; NEHRING, T.; OERTER, B.; PENDZICK, A.; PIKIN, A.; RAPARIA, D.; RITTER, J.; ROSER, T.; RUSSO, T.; SNYDSTRUP, L.; WILINSKI, M.; ZALTSMAN, A.; ZHANG, S.

    2005-09-01

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linear accelerator (Linac). The highly successful development of an EBIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based preinjectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The proposed pre-injector system would also provide for a major enhancement in capability for the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), which utilizes heavy-ion beams from the RHIC complex. EBIS would allow for the acceleration of all important ion species for the NASA radiobiology program, such as, helium, argon, and neon which are unavailable with the present Tandem injector. In addition, the new system would allow for very rapid switching of ion species for

  17. Perspectives on heavy-quarkonium production at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lansberg, J. P.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Blaschke, D.; Prorok, D.; Cugnon, J.; D'Enterria, D.; Kraan, A. C.; Satz, H.

    2008-08-29

    We summarise the perspectives on heavy-quarkonium production at the LHC, both for proton-proton and heavy-ion runs, discussed in the round table held at this meeting.

  18. Reliable operation of the Brookhaven EBIS for highly charged ion production for RHIC and NSRL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beebe, E. Alessi, J. Binello, S. Kanesue, T. McCafferty, D. Morris, J. Okamura, M. Pikin, A. Ritter, J. Schoepfer, R.

    2015-01-09

    An Electron Beam Ion Source for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC EBIS) was commissioned at Brookhaven in September 2010 and since then it routinely supplies ions for RHIC and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) as the main source of highly charged ions from Helium to Uranium. Using three external primary ion sources for 1+ injection into the EBIS and an electrostatic injection beam line, ion species at the EBIS exit can be switched in 0.2 s. A total of 16 different ion species have been produced to date. The length and the capacity of the ion trap have been increased by 20% by extending the trap by two more drift tubes, compared with the original design. The fraction of Au{sup 32+} in the EBIS Au spectrum is approximately 12% for 70-80% electron beam neutralization and 8 pulses operation in a 5 Hertz train and 4-5 s super cycle. For single pulse per super cycle operation and 25% electron beam neutralization, the EBIS achieves the theoretical Au{sup 32+} fractional output of 18%. Long term stability has been very good with availability of the beam from RHIC EBIS during 2012 and 2014 RHIC runs approximately 99.8%.

  19. Final Report for Project ``Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    discovery during the years 2001-2003 that quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in nuclear ... a new stage of quantitative precision in the description of quark-gluon plasma properties. ...

  20. Final Report for Project ``Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and short-lived hot and dense fireball created in such collisions. Starting from a qualitative understanding of the main features based on earlier research during the last...

  1. The Brookhaven National Laboratory electron beam ion source for RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alessi, J.G.; Barton, D.; Beebe, E.; Bellavia, S.; Gould, O.; Kponou, A.; Lambiase, R.; Lockey, R.; McNerney, A.; Mapes, M.; Marneris, I.; Okamura, M.; Phillips, D.; Pikin, A.I.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Snydstrup, L.; Theisen, C.; Wilinski, M.

    2010-02-22

    As part of a new heavy ion preinjector that will supply beams for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory, construction of a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) is now being completed. This source, based on the successful prototype Brookhaven National Laboratory Test EBIS, is designed to produce milliampere level currents of all ion species, with q/m = (1/6)-(1/2). Among the major components of this source are a 5 T, 2-m-long, 204 mm diameter warm bore superconducting solenoid, an electron gun designed to operate at a nominal current of 10 A, and an electron collector designed to dissipate {approx} 300 kW of peak power. Careful attention has been paid to the design of the vacuum system, since a pressure of 10{sup -10} Torr is required in the trap region. The source includes several differential pumping stages, the trap can be baked to 400 C, and there are non-evaporable getter strips in the trap region. Power supplies include a 15 A, 15 kV electron collector power supply, and fast switchable power supplies for most of the 16 electrodes used for varying the trap potential distribution for ion injection, confinement, and extraction. The EBIS source and all EBIS power supplies sit on an isolated platform, which is pulsed up to a maximum of 100 kV during ion extraction. The EBIS is now fully assembled, and operation will be beginning following final vacuum and power supply tests. Details of the EBIS components are presented.

  2. Phenomenological Relativistic Energy Density Functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalazissis, G. A.; Kartzikos, S.; Niksic, T.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.

    2009-08-26

    The framework of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals is applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena, not only in spherical and deformed nuclei along the valley of beta-stability, but also in exotic systems with extreme isospin values and close to the particle drip-lines. Dynamical aspects of exotic nuclear structure is explored using the fully consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Recent applications of energy density functionals with explicit density dependence of the meson-nucleon couplings are presented.

  3. Heavy quark diffusion in strong magnetic fields at weak coupling and implications for elliptic flow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fukushima, Kenji; Hattori, Koichi; Yee, Ho -Ung; Yin, Yi

    2016-04-20

    In this paper, we compute the momentum diffusion coefficients of heavy quarks, κ∥ and κ⊥, in a strong magnetic field B along the directions parallel and perpendicular to B, respectively, at the leading order in QCD coupling constant αs. We consider a regime relevant for the relativistic heavy ion collisions, αseB << T2 << eB, so that thermal excitations of light quarks are restricted to the lowest Landau level (LLL) states. In the vanishing light-quark mass limit, we find κLO⊥ ∝ α2sTeB in the leading order that arises from screened Coulomb scatterings with (1+1)-dimensional LLL quarks, while κ∥ gets nomore » contribution from the scatterings with LLL quarks due to kinematic restrictions. We show that the first nonzero leading order contributions to κLO∥ come from the two separate effects: 1) the screened Coulomb scatterings with thermal gluons, and 2) a finite light-quark mass mq. The former leads to κLO,gluon∥ ∝ α2sT3 and the latter to κLO,massive∥ ∝ αs(αseB)1/2m2q. Based on our results, we propose a new scenario for the large value of heavy-quark elliptic flow observed in RHIC and LHC. Namely, when κ⊥ >> κ∥, an anisotropy in drag forces gives rise to a sizable amount of the heavy-quark elliptic flow even if heavy quarks do not fully belong to an ellipsoidally expanding background fluid.« less

  4. A relativistic constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlumpf, F.

    1993-08-01

    We investigate the predictive power of a relativistic quark model formulated on the light-front. The nucleon electromagnetic form factors, the semileptonic weak decays of the hyperons and the magnetic moments of both baryon octet and decuplet are calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with experiment.

  5. Simulation and optimization of a 10 A electron gun with electrostatic compression for the electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikin, A.; Beebe, E. N.; Raparia, D.

    2013-03-15

    Increasing the current density of the electron beam in the ion trap of the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) in BNL's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider facility would confer several essential benefits. They include increasing the ions' charge states, and therefore, the ions' energy out of the Booster for NASA applications, reducing the influx of residual ions in the ion trap, lowering the average power load on the electron collector, and possibly also reducing the emittance of the extracted ion beam. Here, we discuss our findings from a computer simulation of an electron gun with electrostatic compression for electron current up to 10 A that can deliver a high-current-density electron beam for EBIS. The magnetic field in the cathode-anode gap is formed with a magnetic shield surrounding the gun electrodes and the residual magnetic field on the cathode is (5 Division-Sign 6) Gs. It was demonstrated that for optimized gun geometry within the electron beam current range of (0.5 Division-Sign 10) A the amplitude of radial beam oscillations can be maintained close to 4% of the beam radius by adjusting the injection magnetic field generated by a separate magnetic coil. Simulating the performance of the gun by varying geometrical parameters indicated that the original gun model is close to optimum and the requirements to the precision of positioning the gun elements can be easily met with conventional technology.

  6. Probing properties of hot and dense QCD matter with heavy flavor in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2015-05-29

    Hadrons carrying heavy quarks, i.e. charm or bottom, are important probes of the hot and dense medium created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Heavy quark-antiquark pairs are mainly produced in initial hard scattering processes of partons. While some of the produced pairs form bound quarkonia, the vast majority hadronize into particles carrying open heavy flavor. Heavy quark production has been studied by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC via measurements of single leptons from semi-leptonic decays in both the electron channel at mid-rapidity and in the muon channel at forward rapidity. A large suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of single electrons have been observed in Au + Au collisions at 200 GeV. These results suggest a large energy loss and flow of heavy quarks in the hot, dense matter. The PHENIX experiment has also measured J/ψ production at 200 GeV in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu and Au + Au collisions, both at mid- and forward-rapidities, and additionally Cu + Au and U + U at forward-rapidities. In the most energetic collisions, more suppression is observed at forward rapidity than at central rapidity. This can be interpreted either as a sign of quark recombination, or as a hint of additional cold nuclear matter effects. The centrality dependence of nuclear modification factor, RAA(pT), for J/ψ in U + U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV shows a similar trend to the lighter systems, Au + Au and Cu + Cu, at similar energy 200 GeV.

  7. Probing properties of hot and dense QCD matter with heavy flavor in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2015-05-29

    Hadrons carrying heavy quarks, i.e. charm or bottom, are important probes of the hot and dense medium created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Heavy quark-antiquark pairs are mainly produced in initial hard scattering processes of partons. While some of the produced pairs form bound quarkonia, the vast majority hadronize into particles carrying open heavy flavor. Heavy quark production has been studied by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC via measurements of single leptons from semi-leptonic decays in both the electron channel at mid-rapidity and in the muon channel at forward rapidity. A large suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of single electrons havemore » been observed in Au + Au collisions at 200 GeV. These results suggest a large energy loss and flow of heavy quarks in the hot, dense matter. The PHENIX experiment has also measured J/ψ production at 200 GeV in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu and Au + Au collisions, both at mid- and forward-rapidities, and additionally Cu + Au and U + U at forward-rapidities. In the most energetic collisions, more suppression is observed at forward rapidity than at central rapidity. This can be interpreted either as a sign of quark recombination, or as a hint of additional cold nuclear matter effects. The centrality dependence of nuclear modification factor, RAA(pT), for J/ψ in U + U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV shows a similar trend to the lighter systems, Au + Au and Cu + Cu, at similar energy 200 GeV.« less

  8. Temperature and epi thickness dependence of the heavy ion induced latchup threshold for a CMOS/epi 16K static RAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.S.; Nichols, D.K.; Coss, J.R.; Price, W.E.; Binder, D.

    1987-12-01

    Data have been obtained with krypton and xenon ions for the latchup threshold vs. temperature of four different versions of a Harris CMOS/epi 16K static RAM. These special versions of the HM6516 RAM have 12-micron, 9-micron, 7-micron and 5-micron epi thicknesses, as grown. The test data showed a marked improvement in latchup resistance with decreasing epi thickness and with decreasing temperature over the range of 25/sup 0/C (operating chip ambient) to 100/sup 0/C.s.

  9. Carbon-ion cancer therapy shows promise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, David

    2015-06-15

    Radiation-resistant tumors are targets for heavy-ion particles. But high capital costs have prevented construction of treatment facilities in the US.

  10. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and radiation physics nuclear theory, relativistic heavy-ion collisions, quark-gluon plasma, relativistic fluid dynamics (1) Filter by Author Ulrich W. Heinz (1) Save Results...

  11. The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Jr, J. Abdallah; Clark, R. E. H.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Colgan, J.; Cunningham, R. T.; Hakel, P.; Magee, N. H.; Sherrill, M. E.

    2015-05-28

    The Los Alamos SuitE of Relativistic (LASER) atomic physics codes is a robust, mature platform that has been used to model highly charged ions in a variety of ways. The suite includes capabilities for calculating data related to fundamental atomic structure, as well as the processes of photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation and ionization, photoionization and autoionization within a consistent framework. These data can be of a basic nature, such as cross sections and collision strengths, which are useful in making predictions that can be compared with experiments to test fundamental theories of highly charged ions, such as quantum electrodynamics. The suitemore » can also be used to generate detailed models of energy levels and rate coefficients, and to apply them in the collisional-radiative modeling of plasmas over a wide range of conditions. Such modeling is useful, for example, in the interpretation of spectra generated by a variety of plasmas. In this work, we provide a brief overview of the capabilities within the Los Alamos relativistic suite along with some examples of its application to the modeling of highly charged ions.« less

  12. Kinematical correlations of dielectrons from semileptonic decays of heavy mesons and Drell-Yan processes at BNL RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maciula, R.; Slipek, G.; Szczurek, A.

    2011-03-01

    We discuss kinematical correlations between charged leptons from semileptonic decays of open charm/bottom leptons produced in the Drell-Yan mechanism as well as some other mechanisms not included so far in the literature in proton-proton scattering at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The distributions of charm and bottom quarks/antiquarks are calculated in the framework of the k{sub t}-factorization approach. For this calculation we use different unintegrated parton distributions from the literature. The hadronization of heavy quarks is done with the help of well-known fragmentation functions. Uncertainties of our predictions related to heavy quark masses, factorization, and renormalization scales as well as due to the choice of fragmentation model are also discussed. We use semileptonic decay functions found by fitting recent semileptonic data obtained by the CLEO and BABAR collaborations. The Drell-Yan processes were calculated including transverse momenta of quarks and antiquarks, using the Kwiecinski parton distributions. We have also taken into consideration reactions initiated by purely QED {gamma}{sup *{gamma}*} fusion in elastic and inelastic pp collisions as well as a recently proposed diffractive mechanism of exclusive charm-anticharm production. The contribution of the latter mechanism is rather small. We get a good description of the dilepton invariant mass spectrum measured recently by the PHENIX Collaboration and present predictions for the dilepton pair transverse momentum distribution as well as the distribution in the azimuthal angle between electron and positron.

  13. Anomalous grain growth in the surface region of a nanocrystalline CeO2 film under low-temperature heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, Philip D.; Zhang, Yanwen; Moll, Sandra J.; Varga, Tamas; Namavar, Fereydoon; Weber, William J.

    2012-06-15

    Grain growth and phase stability of nanocrystalline ceria are investigated under ion irradiation at different temperatures. Irradiations at temperatures of 300 and 400 K result in uniform grain growth throughout the film. Anomalous grain growth is observed in thin films of nanocrystalline ceria under 3 MeV Au+ irradiation at 160 K. At this low temperature, significant grain growth is observed within 100 nm from the surface, no obvious growth is detected in the rest of the films. While the grain growth is attributed to a defect-stimulated mechanism at room temperature and above, a defect diffusion-limited mechanism is significant at low temperature with the primary defect responsible being the oxygen vacancy. The nanocrystalline grains remain in the cubic phase regardless of defect kinetics.

  14. Conductivity enhancement in PVA−PEO−EC−LiCF−{sub 3}SO{sub 3} blends upon swift heavy O{sup 7+} ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joge, Prajakta Kanchan, D. K. Sharma, Poonam Jayswal, Manish; Awasthi, D. K.

    2014-04-24

    In the present study, the PVA−PEO−EC−LiCF−{sub 3}SO{sub 3} blend system was prepared using solution cast technique. The system was prepared by taking 5 different concentrations LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} in the range of 3wt% to 11 wt%, at a fixed proportion of the rest of the constituents. These blend films had been exposed to O{sup 7+} radiations of 80 MeV at a current of 1pnA at a fluence of 1×10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The conductivity variation of the specimens is investigated using impedance spectroscopy wherein; the conductivity enhances drastically upon irradiation at all the concentrations of salt. The thermal characteristics of the blend films are being studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

  15. Mesoscopic Superposition States in Relativistic Landau Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bermudez, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Solano, E.

    2007-09-21

    We show that a linear superposition of mesoscopic states in relativistic Landau levels can be built when an external magnetic field couples to a relativistic spin 1/2 charged particle. Under suitable initial conditions, the associated Dirac equation produces unitarily superpositions of coherent states involving the particle orbital quanta in a well-defined mesoscopic regime. We demonstrate that these mesoscopic superpositions have a purely relativistic origin and disappear in the nonrelativistic limit.

  16. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2015-04-15

    Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ?50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  17. HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY 1ST QUARTER 2010 MILESTONE REPORT: Simulations of fast correction of chromatic aberrations to establish physics specifications for implementation on NDCX-1 and NDCX-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LIDIA, S.M.; LUND, S.M.; SEIDL, P.A.

    2010-01-04

    This milestone has been accomplished. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory has completed simulations of a fast correction scheme to compensate for chromatic and time-dependent defocusing effects in the transport of ion beams to the target plane in the NDCX-1 facility. Physics specifications for implementation in NDCX-1 and NDCX-2 have been established. This milestone has been accomplished. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory has completed simulations of a fast correction scheme to compensate for chromatic and time-dependent defocusing effects in the transport of ion beams to the target plane in the NDCX-1 facility. Physics specifications for implementation in NDCX-1 and NDCX-2 have been established. Focal spot differences at the target plane between the compressed and uncompressed regions of the beam pulse have been modeled and measured on NDCX-1. Time-dependent focusing and energy sweep from the induction bunching module are seen to increase the compressed pulse spot size at the target plane by factors of two or more, with corresponding scaled reduction in the peak intensity and fluence on target. A time-varying beam envelope correction lens has been suggested to remove the time-varying aberration. An Einzel (axisymmetric electric) lens system has been analyzed and optimized for general transport lines, and as a candidate correction element for NDCX-1. Attainable high-voltage holdoff and temporal variations of the lens driving waveform are seen to effect significant changes on the beam envelope angle over the duration of interest, thus confirming the utility of such an element on NDCX-1. Modeling of the beam dynamics in NDCX-1 was performed using a time-dependent (slice) envelope code and with the 3-D, self-consistent, particle-in-cell code WARP. Proof of concept was established with the slice envelope model such that the spread in beam waist positions relative to the target plane can be minimized with a carefully designed

  18. Project: Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the Magnetosphere Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Project: Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the ...

  19. Scaling of Magnetic Reconnection in Relativistic Collisionless...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Scaling of Magnetic Reconnection in Relativistic Collisionless Pair Plasmas Authors: Liu, Yi-Hsin ; Guo, Fan ; Daughton, William ; Li, Hui ; Hesse, Michael Publication Date: ...

  20. Relativistic Multireference Many-body Perturbation Theory for Open-shell Ions with Multiple Valence Shell Electrons: the Transition Rates and Lifetimes of the Excited Levels in Chlorinelike Fe X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishikawa, Y; Santana, J A; Trabert, E

    2009-09-30

    A recently developed relatistic multireference many-body perturbation theory based on multireference configuration-interaction wavefunctions as zeroth order wavefunctions is outlined. The perturbation theory employs a general class of configuration-interaction wve functions as reference functions, and thus is applciable to multiple open valence shell systems with near degeneracy of a manifold of strongly interacting configurations. Multireference many-body perturbation calculations are reported for the ground and excited states of chlorine-like Fe X in which the near degeneracy of a manifold of strongly interacting configurations mandates a multireference treatment. Term energies of a total of 83 excited levels arising from the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5}, 3s3p{sup 6}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 4}3d, 3s3p{sup 5}3d, and 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}3d{sup 2} configurations of the ion are evaluated to high accuracy. Transition rates associated with E1/M1/E2/M2/E3 radiative decays and lifetimes of a number of excited levels are calculated and compared with laboratory measurements to critically evaluate recent experiments.

  1. Heavy loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metz, D.

    1982-01-01

    The extreme pressures on the roof and walls of an earth-sheltered residential home are discussed and the need for careful planning is stressed. Pertinent terms are defined. Footings and wall structure (reinforced concrete walls and concrete block walls) are described. Roofing systems are discussed in detail and illustrated: (1) poured-in-place concrete roof slabs; (2) pre-cast concrete planks; and (3) heavy timber roofs. Insulation of earth-sheltered homes is reviewed in terms of using: (1) urethanes; (2) extruded polystyrene; and (3) expanded polystyrene. Advantages, disadvantages, R-factors, costs, and installation are discussed. (MJJ)

  2. Relativistic self-focusing in underdense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feit, M. D.; Garrison, J. C.; Rubenchik, A. M.; Komashko, A.; Musher, S. L.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    1997-04-15

    An improved cavitation model shows that stable beam channeling and electron cavitation occur for relativistic laser intensities even at powers hundreds of times larger than the critical power for self-focusing. Numerical calculations for long pulses (100 ps) demonstrate strong self-focusing at weakly relativistic intensities. The destructive effects of self-focusing are increasingly suppressed at high intensity.

  3. Ion Sources - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources The 88-Inch Cyclotron is fed by three Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) high-charge-state ion sources, the ECR, the AECR, and VENUS, currently the most powerful ECR ion source in the world. Built to answer the demand for intense heavy ion beams, these high performance ion sources enable the 88-Inch Cyclotron to accelerate beams of ions from hydrogen to uranium. The ECR ion sources allow the efficient use of rare isotopes of stable elements, either from natural or enriched sources. A

  4. Supersymmetry across the light and heavy-light hadronic spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosch, Hans Gunter; de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2015-10-07

    Relativistic light-front bound-state equations for mesons and baryons can be constructed in the chiral limit from the supercharges of a superconformal algebra which connect baryon and meson spectra. Quark masses break the conformal invariance, but the basic underlying supersymmetric mechanism, which transforms meson and baryon wave functions into each other, still holds and gives remarkable connections across the entire spectrum of light and heavy-light hadrons. As a result, we also briefly examine the consequences of extending the supersymmetric relations to double-heavy mesons and baryons.

  5. Relativistic Thomson Scatter from Factor Calculation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this program is calculate the fully relativistic Thomson scatter from factor in unmagnetized plasmas. Such calculations are compared to experimental diagnoses of plasmas at such facilities as the Jupiter laser facility here a LLNL.

  6. Relativistic electron beam crossed-field device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bekefi, George; Orzechowski, Thaddeus J.

    1980-01-01

    An intense relativistic crossed field device in a nested configuration wherein a field emission cathode is nested within a segmented annular anode with an annular gap separating the two.

  7. Relativistic self-focusing in underdense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feit, M.D.; Garrison, J.C.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Musher, S.L.; Turitsyn, S.K.

    1997-04-01

    An improved cavitation model shows that stable beam channeling and electron cavitation occur for relativistic laser intensities even at powers hundreds of times larger than the critical power for self-focusing. Numerical calculations for long pulses (100 ps) demonstrate strong self-focusing at weakly relativistic intensities. The destructive effects of self-focusing are increasingly suppressed at high intensity. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Relativistic klystron research at SLAC and LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Higo, T.; Hoag, H.A.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Morton, P.L.; Palmer, R.B.; Paterson, J.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Schwarz, H.D.; Takeuchi, Y.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Wilson, P.B.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.; Barletta, W.A.; Birx, D.L.; Boyd, J.K.; Houck, T.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We are developing relativistic klystrons as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications such as large linear electron-positron colliders and compact accelerators. We have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here briefly on our experiments so far. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Heavy Ion Reactions - Research - Cyclotron Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    capable of isotopic resolution, are used to study these collisions. Dynamic and thermodynamic information is derived from the observed multiplicities, energies, angular...

  10. Proceedings of the heavy ion fusion workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 35 of the included papers. Abstracts for 9 of the remaining papers appeared earlier in ERA. Two of the included papers were title listed only. (MOW)

  11. Plasma Instabilities in Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attems, M.; Rebhan, A.; Strickland, M.

    2011-05-23

    Non-Abelian plasma instabilities play a crucial role in the nonequilibrium dynamics of a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma. The Chromo-Weibel instabilities have been proposed as a possible mechanism for the fast apparent thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma and have been extensively studied in stationary anisotropic plasmas using the so-called hard-loop approximation. The generalization to the hard-expanding-loop (HEL) formalism allows the (numerical) calculation of the time evolution of gluonic mean fields in the more realistic dynamical case of anisotropic expansion.

  12. 2009 SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    isospin dependence of the nuclear equation of state near the critical point M. Huang, A. Bonasera, Z. Chen, R. Wada, K. Hagel, J. B. Natowitz, P. K. Sahu, L. Qin, T. Keutgen, S. Kowalski, T. Materna, J. Wang, M. Barbui, C. Bottosso, and M. R. D. Rodrigues Variance of the isotope yield distribution and symmetry energy Z. Chen, S. Kowalski, M. Huang, R. Wada, T. Keutgen, K. Hagel, J. Wang, L. Qin, A novel approach to Isoscaling: the role of the order parameter m=(N-Z)/A M. Huang, Z. Chen, S.

  13. Heavy Vehicle Simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-09

    Idaho National Laboratory Heavy Vehicle Simulator located at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies.

  14. Heavy metal biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hillson, Nathan J; Shapiro, Lucille; Hu, Ping; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-04-15

    Compositions and methods are provided for detection of certain heavy metals using bacterial whole cell biosensors.

  15. Linear and cubic response to the initial eccentricity in heavy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Linear and cubic response to the initial eccentricity in heavy-ion collisions Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on January 21, 2017 ...

  16. Kinetically balanced Gaussian basis-set approach to relativistic Compton profiles of atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, Prerit; Shukla, Alok

    2007-02-15

    Atomic Compton profiles (CPs) are a very important property which provide us information about the momentum distribution of atomic electrons. Therefore, for CPs of heavy atoms, relativistic effects are expected to be important, warranting a relativistic treatment of the problem. In this paper, we present an efficient approach aimed at ab initio calculations of atomic CPs within a Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) formalism, employing kinetically balanced Gaussian basis functions. The approach is used to compute the CPs of noble gases ranging from He to Rn, and the results have been compared to the experimental and other theoretical data, wherever possible. The influence of the quality of the basis set on the calculated CPs has also been systematically investigated.

  17. Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian

    2014-10-28

    Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same “direct relativistic mapping” between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].

  18. Solitons and shocks in dense astrophysical magnetoplasmas with relativistic degenerate electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, S.; Ata-ur-Rahman; Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000

    2014-04-15

    The linear and nonlinear properties of the ion-acoustic (IA) waves are investigated in a relativistically degenerate magnetoplasma, whose constituents are the electrons, positrons, and ions. The electrons and positrons are assumed to obey the Fermi-Dirac statistics, whereas the cold ions are taken to be inertial and magnetized. In linear analysis, various limiting cases are discussed both analytically and numerically. However, for nonlinear studies, the well-known reductive perturbation technique is employed to derive the Zakharov-Kuznetsov and Zakharov-Kuznetsov Burgers equations in the presence of relativistically degenerate electrons and positrons. Furthermore, with the use of hyperbolic tangent method, the equations are simplified to admit the soliton and shock wave solutions. Numerically, it is shown that the amplitude, width, and phase speed associated with the localized IA solitons and shocks are significantly influenced by the various intrinsic plasma parameters relevant to our model. The present analysis can be useful for understanding the collective processes in dense astrophysical environments like neutron stars, where the electrons and positrons are expected to be relativistic and degenerate.

  19. Generalized charge-screening in relativistic ThomasFermi model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}?r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar

  20. THE ELECTRON ION COLLIDER. A HIGH LUMINOSITY PROBE OF THE PARTONIC SUBSTRUCTURE OF NUCLEONS AND NUCLEI.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EDITED BY M.S. DAVIS

    2002-02-01

    By the end of this decade, the advancement of current and planned research into the fundamental structure of matter will require a new facility, the Electron Ion Collider (EIC). The EIC will collide high-energy beams of polarized electrons from polarized protons and neutrons, and unpolarized beams of electrons off atomic nuclei with unprecedented intensity. Research at the EIC will lead to a detailed understanding of the structure of the proton, neutron, and atomic nuclei as described by Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD), the accepted theory of the strong interaction. The EIC will establish quantitative answers to important questions by delivering dramatically increased precision over existing and planned experiments and by providing completely new experimental capabilities. Indeed, the EIC will probe QCD in a manner not possible previously. This document presents the scientific case for the design, construction and operation of the EIC. While realization of the EIC requires a significant advance in the development of efficient means of producing powerful beams of energetic electrons, an important consideration for choosing the site of the EIC is the planned upgrade to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The upgrade planned for RHIC will fully meet the requirements for the ion beam for the EIC, providing a distinct advantage in terms of cost, schedule and the final operation.

  1. Relativistic electron acceleration by oblique whistler waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Peter H.; School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 ; Pandey, Vinay S.; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2013-11-15

    Test-particle simulations of electrons interacting with finite-amplitude, obliquely propagating whistler waves are carried out in order to investigate the acceleration of relativistic electrons by these waves. According to the present findings, an efficient acceleration of relativistic electrons requires a narrow range of oblique propagation angles, close to the whistler resonance cone angle, when the wave amplitude is held constant at relatively low value. For a constant wave propagation angle, it is found that a range of oblique whistler wave amplitudes permits the acceleration of relativistic electrons to O(MeV) energies. An initial distribution of test electrons is shown to form a power-law distribution when plotted in energy space. It is also found that the acceleration is largely uniform in electron pitch-angle space.

  2. The study of the phase structure of hadronic matter by searching for the deconfined quark-gluon phase transition using 2 TeV {bar p}p collisions; and by searching for critical phenomena in an exclusive study of multifragmentation using 1 GeV/nucleon heavy ion collisions. Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharenberg, R.P.; Hirsch, A.S.; Tincknell, M.L.

    1992-09-15

    An experiment to search for the production of quark{endash}gluon plasma in proton{endash}antiproton interactions is described with emphasis on 1992 results. Next, a search for critical phenomena using the EOS Time Projection Chamber is similarly described, including the results of 1992 test runs, nucleus{endash}nucleus collision simulations, and the extraction of critical indices from small percolation lattices. Analysis of results from experiments to detect the possible production of anomalous photons in the central rapidity region with transverse momentum between 5 and 50 MeV/c are discussed. Initial work on an experiment to study the high-density, high-temperature state of matter formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies, planned to begin in fall 1997, is related. Finally, work on a research and development project to investigate silicon avalanche diodes as time-of-flight detectors for nuclear and particle physics applications is reviewed. The principle is to detect the ionization of charged particles directly in the Si; feasibility has been demonstrated.

  3. The study of the phase structure of hadronic matter by searching for the deconfined quark-gluon phase transition using 2 TeV [bar p]p collisions; and by searching for critical phenomena in an exclusive study of multifragmentation using 1 GeV/nucleon heavy ion collisions. [Detect ionization of charged particles directly in Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharenberg, R.P.; Hirsch, A.S.; Tincknell, M.L.

    1992-09-15

    An experiment to search for the production of quark[endash]gluon plasma in proton[endash]antiproton interactions is described with emphasis on 1992 results. Next, a search for critical phenomena using the EOS Time Projection Chamber is similarly described, including the results of 1992 test runs, nucleus[endash]nucleus collision simulations, and the extraction of critical indices from small percolation lattices. Analysis of results from experiments to detect the possible production of anomalous photons in the central rapidity region with transverse momentum between 5 and 50 MeV/c are discussed. Initial work on an experiment to study the high-density, high-temperature state of matter formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies, planned to begin in fall 1997, is related. Finally, work on a research and development project to investigate silicon avalanche diodes as time-of-flight detectors for nuclear and particle physics applications is reviewed. The principle is to detect the ionization of charged particles directly in the Si; feasibility has been demonstrated.

  4. Ab initio and relativistic DFT study of spin–rotation and NMR shielding constants in XF{sub 6} molecules, X = S, Se, Te, Mo, and W

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruud, Kenneth; Demissie, Taye B.; Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa, Kasprzaka 44 ; Jaszuński, Michał

    2014-05-21

    We present an analysis of the spin–rotation and absolute shielding constants of XF{sub 6} molecules (X = S, Se, Te, Mo, W) based on ab initio coupled cluster and four-component relativistic density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that the relativistic contributions to the spin–rotation and shielding constants are large both for the heavy elements as well as for the fluorine nuclei. In most cases, incorporating the computed relativistic corrections significantly improves the agreement between our results and the well-established experimental values for the isotropic spin–rotation constants and their anisotropic components. This suggests that also for the other molecules, for which accurate and reliable experimental data are not available, reliable values of spin–rotation and absolute shielding constants were determined combining ab initio and relativistic DFT calculations. For the heavy nuclei, the breakdown of the relationship between the spin–rotation constant and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constant, due to relativistic effects, causes a significant error in the total absolute shielding constants.

  5. NMR microscopy of heavy metal absorption in calcium alginate beads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nestle, N.; Kimmich, R.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, heavy metal uptake by biopolymer gels, such as Cal-Alginate or chitosan, has been studied by various methods. This is of interest because such materials might be an alternative to synthetical ion-exchange resins in the treatment of industrial waste waters. Most of the work done in this field consisted of studies of equilibrium absorption of different heavy metal ions with dependence on various experimental parameters. In some publications, the kinetics of absorption were studied, too. However, no experiments on the spatial distribution of heavy metals during the absorption process are known to us. Using Cu as an example, it is demonstrated in this article that NMR microscopy is an appropriate tool for such studies. By the method presented here, it is possible to monitor the spatial distribution of heavy metal ions with a time resolution of about 5 min and a spatial resolution of 100 {mu}m or even better. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-12

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. In this study, the laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, whichmore » was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.« less

  7. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanesue, Takeshi Okamura, Masahiro; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro

    2014-11-10

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90?mT, 1?m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2??s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2??10{sup 11}, which was provided by a single 1?J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  8. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-12

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. In this study, the laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 ?s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  9. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-10

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 ?s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  10. Nonlinear electrostatic excitations in magnetized dense plasmas with nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, S.; Sadiq, Safeer; Haque, Q.

    2013-12-15

    Linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves in magnetized dense electron-ion plasmas are studied with nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate and singly, doubly charged helium (He{sup +}, He{sup ++}) and hydrogen (H{sup +}) ions, respectively. The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in magnetized dense plasmas is obtained under both the energy limits of degenerate electrons. Using reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation for nonlinear propagation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas is derived for both nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons. It is found that variations in plasma density, magnetic field intensity, different mass, and charge number of ions play significant role in the formation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas. The numerical plots are also presented for illustration using the parameters of dense astrophysical plasma situations such as white dwarfs and neutron stars exist in the literature. The present investigation is important for understanding the electrostatic waves propagation in the outer periphery of compact stars which mostly consists of hydrogen and helium ions with degenerate electrons in dense magnetized plasmas.

  11. GIANT GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT OF RELATIVISTIC SOLAR PROTONS ON 2005 JANUARY 20. I. SPACESHIP EARTH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.; Saiz, A.; Ruffolo, D. E-mail: clem@bartol.udel.edu E-mail: pyle@bartol.udel.edu E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th

    2013-07-10

    A ground level enhancement (GLE) is a solar event that accelerates ions (mostly protons) to GeV range energies in such great numbers that ground-based detectors, such as neutron monitors, observe their showers in Earth's atmosphere above the Galactic cosmic ray background. GLEs are of practical interest because an enhanced relativistic ion flux poses a hazard to astronauts, air crews, and aircraft electronics, and provides the earliest direct indication of an impending space radiation storm. The giant GLE of 2005 January 20 was the second largest on record (and largest since 1956), with up to 4200% count rate enhancement at sea level. We analyzed data from the Spaceship Earth network, supplemented to comprise 13 polar neutron monitor stations with distinct asymptotic viewing directions and Polar Bare neutron counters at South Pole, to determine the time evolution of the relativistic proton density, energy spectrum, and three-dimensional directional distribution. We identify two energy-dispersive peaks, indicating two solar injections. The relativistic solar protons were initially strongly beamed, with a peak maximum-to-minimum anisotropy ratio over 1000:1. The directional distribution is characterized by an axis of symmetry, determined independently for each minute of data, whose angle from the magnetic field slowly varied from about 60 Degree-Sign to low values and then rose to about 90 Degree-Sign . The extremely high relativistic proton flux from certain directions allowed 10 s tracking of count rates, revealing fluctuations of period {approx}> 2 minutes with up to 50% fractional changes, which we attribute to fluctuations in the axis of symmetry.

  12. Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a challenging and rewarding career, while working, living, and playing in the Pacific Northwest. The Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (HMEM)...

  13. Kinetic Simulations of Relativistic Radiative Magnetic Reconnection |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility This visualization shows the increased plasma density inside flux ropes In three dimensions, magnetic reconnection occurs between "ropes" of magnetic flux; this figure, from a supercomputer simulation of reconnection in ultra-relativistic electron-positron plasma, shows the increased plasma density inside flux ropes. During reconnection, magnetic energy is transferred to plasma particles; the accelerated particles emit high-energy X-rays and

  14. Ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  15. Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory1st Quarter FY08 Milestone Report: Report Initial Work on Developing Plasma Modeling Capability in WARP for NDCX ExperimentsReport Initial work on developing Plasma Modeling Capability in WARP for NDCX Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, A.; Cohen, R.H.; Grote, D.P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2007-12-10

    This milestone has been accomplished. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) has developed and implemented an initial beam-in-plasma implicit modeling capability in Warp; has carried out tests validating the behavior of the models employed; has compared the results of electrostatic and electromagnetic models when applied to beam expansion in an NDCX-I relevant regime; has compared Warp and LSP results on a problem relevant to NDCX-I; has modeled wave excitation by a rigid beam propagating through plasma; and has implemented and begun testing a more advanced implicit method that correctly captures electron drift motion even when timesteps too large to resolve the electron gyro-period are employed. The HIFS-VNL is well on its way toward having a state-of-the-art source-to-target simulation capability that will enable more effective support of ongoing experiments in the NDCX series and allow more confident planning for future ones.

  16. Relativistic electron scattering by magnetosonic waves: Effects of discrete wave emission and high wave amplitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we study relativistic electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We compare results of test particle simulations and the quasi-linear theory for different spectra of waves to investigate how a fine structure of the wave emission can influence electron resonant scattering. We show that for a realistically wide distribution of wave normal angles θ (i.e., when the dispersion δθ≥0.5{sup °}), relativistic electron scattering is similar for a wide wave spectrum and for a spectrum consisting in well-separated ion cyclotron harmonics. Comparisons of test particle simulations with quasi-linear theory show that for δθ>0.5{sup °}, the quasi-linear approximation describes resonant scattering correctly for a large enough plasma frequency. For a very narrow θ distribution (when δθ∼0.05{sup °}), however, the effect of a fine structure in the wave spectrum becomes important. In this case, quasi-linear theory clearly fails in describing accurately electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We also study the effect of high wave amplitudes on relativistic electron scattering. For typical conditions in the earth's radiation belts, the quasi-linear approximation cannot accurately describe electron scattering for waves with averaged amplitudes >300 pT. We discuss various applications of the obtained results for modeling electron dynamics in the radiation belts and in the Earth's magnetotail.

  17. Laser-to-hot-electron conversion limitations in relativistic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and differing trends across multiple target types acquired from two separate laser ... edge of the main pulse measurably alters target evolution and relativistic electron ...

  18. Ionized channel generation of an intense-relativistic electron beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Charles A.; Leifeste, Gordon T.; Shope, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    A foilless intense relativistic electron beam generator uses an ionized cnel to guide electrons from a cathode passed an anode to a remote location.

  19. Measuring fast electron spectra and laser absorption in relativistic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measuring fast electron spectra and laser absorption in relativistic laser-solid interactions using differential bremsstrahlung photon detectors Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  20. Super-Heavy Element Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Targets for Super-Heavy Element Research Presented at International Workshop on Super-Heavy Element Research SHE-15 J. B. Roberto Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge,...

  1. Finite volume effects for nucleon and heavy meson masses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Fuhrer, Andreas; Lanz, Stefan

    2010-08-01

    We apply the resummed version of the Luescher formula to analyze finite volume corrections to the mass of the nucleon and of heavy mesons. We show that by applying the subthreshold expansion of the scattering amplitudes one can express the finite volume corrections in terms of only a few physical observables and the size of the box. In the case of the nucleon, the available information about the quark mass dependence of these physical quantities is discussed and used to assess the finite volume corrections to the nucleon mass as a function of the quark mass including a detailed analysis of the remaining uncertainties. For heavy mesons, the Luescher formula is derived both fully relativistically and in a nonrelativistic approximation and a first attempt at a numerical analysis is made.

  2. Upgrading heavy gas oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, S.; Reese, D.D.

    1986-05-20

    A method is described of neutralizing the organic acidity in heavy gas oils to produce a neutralization number less than 1.0 whereby they are rendered suitable as lube oil feed stocks which consists essentially of treating the heavy gas oils with a neutralizing amount of monoethanolamine to form an amine salt with the organic acids and then heating the thus-neutralized heavy gas oil at a temperature at least about 25/sup 0/F greater than the boiling point of water and for a time sufficient to convert the amine salts to amides.

  3. DECELERATING RELATIVISTIC TWO-COMPONENT JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R. E-mail: Rony.Keppens@wis.kuleuven.b

    2009-11-10

    Transverse stratification is a common intrinsic feature of astrophysical jets. There is growing evidence that jets in radio galaxies consist of a fast low-density outflow at the jet axis, surrounded by a slower, denser, extended jet. The inner and outer jet components then have a different origin and launching mechanism, making their effective inertia, magnetization, associated energy flux, and angular momentum content different as well. Their interface will develop differential rotation, where disruptions may occur. Here we investigate the stability of rotating, two-component relativistic outflows typical for jets in radio galaxies. For this purpose, we parametrically explore the long-term evolution of a transverse cross section of radially stratified jets numerically, extending our previous study where a single, purely hydrodynamic evolution was considered. We include cases with poloidally magnetized jet components, covering hydro and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models. With grid-adaptive relativistic MHD simulations, augmented with approximate linear stability analysis, we revisit the interaction between the two jet components. We study the influence of dynamically important poloidal magnetic fields, with varying contributions of the inner component jet to the total kinetic energy flux of the jet, on their non-linear azimuthal stability. We demonstrate that two-component jets with high kinetic energy flux and inner jet effective inertia which is higher than the outer jet effective inertia are subject to the development of a relativistically enhanced, rotation-induced Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability. This instability plays a major role in decelerating the inner jet and the overall jet decollimation. This novel deceleration scenario can partly explain the radio source dichotomy, relating it directly to the efficiency of the central engine in launching the inner jet component. The FRII/FRI transition could then occur when the relative kinetic energy flux of the

  4. Relativistic Random Phase Approximation At Finite Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, Y. F.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2009-08-26

    The fully self-consistent finite temperature relativistic random phase approximation (FTRRPA) has been established in the single-nucleon basis of the temperature dependent Dirac-Hartree model (FTDH) based on effective Lagrangian with density dependent meson-nucleon couplings. Illustrative calculations in the FTRRPA framework show the evolution of multipole responses of {sup 132}Sn with temperature. With increased temperature, in both monopole and dipole strength distributions additional transitions appear in the low energy region due to the new opened particle-particle and hole-hole transition channels.

  5. Imperfect relativistic mirrors in the quantum regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Serbeto, A.; Galvão, R. M. O.

    2014-05-15

    The collective backscattering of intense laser radiation by energetic electron beams is considered in the relativistic quantum regime. Exact solutions for the radiation field are obtained, for arbitrary electron pulse shapes and laser intensities. The electron beams act as imperfect nonlinear mirrors on the incident laser radiation. This collective backscattering process can lead to the development of new sources of ultra-short pulse radiation in the gamma-ray domain. Numerical examples show that, for plausible experimental conditions, intense pulses of gamma-rays, due to the double Doppler shift of the harmonics of the incident laser radiation, can be produced using the available technology, with durations less than 1 as.

  6. ION-STABILIZED ELECTRON INDUCTION ACCELERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finkelstein, D.

    1960-03-22

    A method and apparatus for establishing an ion-stabilized self-focusing relativistic electron beam from a plasma are reported. A plasma is introduced into a specially designed cavity by plasma guns, and a magnetic field satisfying betatron conditions is produced in the cavity by currents flowing in the highly conductive, non-magnetic surface of the cavity. This field forms the electron beam by induction from the plasma.

  7. Laser-to-hot-electron conversion limitations in relativistic laser matter interactions due to multi-picosecond dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schollmeier, Marius; Sefkow, Adam B.; Geissel, Matthias; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Flippo, Kirk A.; Gaillard, Sandrine A.; Johnson, Randy P.; Kimmel, Mark W.; Offermann, Dustin T.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Shimada, Tom

    2015-04-20

    High-energy short-pulse lasers are pushing the limits of plasma-based particle acceleration, x-ray generation, and high-harmonic generation by creating strong electromagnetic fields at the laser focus where electrons are being accelerated to relativistic velocities. Understanding the relativistic electron dynamics is key for an accurate interpretation of measurements. We present a unified and self-consistent modeling approach in quantitative agreement with measurements and differing trends across multiple target types acquired from two separate laser systems, which differ only in their nanosecond to picosecond-scale rising edge. Insights from high-fidelity modeling of laser-plasma interaction demonstrate that the ps-scale, orders of magnitude weaker rising edge of the main pulse measurably alters target evolution and relativistic electron generation compared to idealized pulse shapes. This can lead for instance to the experimentally observed difference between 45 MeV and 75 MeV maximum energy protons for two nominally identical laser shots, due to ps-scale prepulse variations. Our results indicate that the realistic inclusion of temporal laser pulse profiles in modeling efforts is required if predictive capability and extrapolation are sought for future target and laser designs or for other relativistic laser ion acceleration schemes.

  8. Laser-to-hot-electron conversion limitations in relativistic laser matter interactions due to multi-picosecond dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schollmeier, Marius; Sefkow, Adam B.; Geissel, Matthias; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Flippo, Kirk A.; Gaillard, Sandrine A.; Johnson, Randy P.; Kimmel, Mark W.; Offermann, Dustin T.; Rambo, Patrick K.; et al

    2015-04-20

    High-energy short-pulse lasers are pushing the limits of plasma-based particle acceleration, x-ray generation, and high-harmonic generation by creating strong electromagnetic fields at the laser focus where electrons are being accelerated to relativistic velocities. Understanding the relativistic electron dynamics is key for an accurate interpretation of measurements. We present a unified and self-consistent modeling approach in quantitative agreement with measurements and differing trends across multiple target types acquired from two separate laser systems, which differ only in their nanosecond to picosecond-scale rising edge. Insights from high-fidelity modeling of laser-plasma interaction demonstrate that the ps-scale, orders of magnitude weaker rising edge ofmore » the main pulse measurably alters target evolution and relativistic electron generation compared to idealized pulse shapes. This can lead for instance to the experimentally observed difference between 45 MeV and 75 MeV maximum energy protons for two nominally identical laser shots, due to ps-scale prepulse variations. Our results indicate that the realistic inclusion of temporal laser pulse profiles in modeling efforts is required if predictive capability and extrapolation are sought for future target and laser designs or for other relativistic laser ion acceleration schemes.« less

  9. Laser-to-hot-electron conversion limitations in relativistic laser matter interactions due to multi-picosecond dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schollmeier, M.; Sefkow, A. B.; Geissel, M.; Kimmel, M. W.; Rambo, P. K.; Schwarz, J.; Arefiev, A. V.; Flippo, K. A.; Johnson, R. P.; Shimada, T.; Gaillard, S. A.; Offermann, D. T.

    2015-04-15

    High-energy short-pulse lasers are pushing the limits of plasma-based particle acceleration, x-ray generation, and high-harmonic generation by creating strong electromagnetic fields at the laser focus where electrons are being accelerated to relativistic velocities. Understanding the relativistic electron dynamics is key for an accurate interpretation of measurements. We present a unified and self-consistent modeling approach in quantitative agreement with measurements and differing trends across multiple target types acquired from two separate laser systems, which differ only in their nanosecond to picosecond-scale rising edge. Insights from high-fidelity modeling of laser-plasma interaction demonstrate that the ps-scale, orders of magnitude weaker rising edge of the main pulse measurably alters target evolution and relativistic electron generation compared to idealized pulse shapes. This can lead for instance to the experimentally observed difference between 45 MeV and 75 MeV maximum energy protons for two nominally identical laser shots, due to ps-scale prepulse variations. Our results show that the realistic inclusion of temporal laser pulse profiles in modeling efforts is required if predictive capability and extrapolation are sought for future target and laser designs or for other relativistic laser ion acceleration schemes.

  10. Relativistic Corrections to e+e- {yields} J/{psi} + {eta}c in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Relativistic Corrections to e+e- yields Jpsi + etac in a Potential Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Relativistic Corrections to e+e- yields Jpsi + ...

  11. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  12. Relativistic field theory of neutron stars and their hyperon populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear many-body problem is examined by means of the formulation of an effective relativistic field theory of interacting hadrons. A relativistic field theory of hadronic matter is especially appropriate for the description of hot or dense matter, because of the appearance of antiparticles and higher baryon resonances and because it automatically respects causality. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab. (WRF)

  13. Open Heavy Flavor Production at Forward Angles in PHENIX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Read Jr, Kenneth F; PHENIX, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of the production of heavy quarks in heavy ion collisions can be used to probe the early stages of the created medium, study hot and cold nuclear matter effects, and test theoretical predictions concerning quark energy loss and initial-state effects. This is a current area of active research in the field and it is important to extend such measurements to the forward region. PHENIX can measure the production of open heavy flavor at forward angles with subsequent semi-leptonic decay of heavy flavor mesons into muons. We report the nuclear modification factor for the production of muon from heavy flavor decay in Cu+Cu collisions at s_NN = 200 GeV for three centrality intervals and compare to theoretical predictions concerning the suppression of heavy quark production which incorporate heavy quark energy loss and in-medium heavy meson disassociation. Additionally, we report the charm production cross section for p+p collisions at s = 200 GeV and compare results to Fixed Order plus Next-to-Leading Log predictions Research sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics, U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C.; Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K.; Matsakos, T.; Lima, J. J. G.

    2014-06-10

    Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.

  15. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tremaine, Scott; Shen, Yue; Liu, Xin; Loeb, Abraham E-mail: yshen@obs.carnegiescience.edu E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-10-10

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few percent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad Hβ line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [O III] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ∼30°-45°, consistent with simple active galactic nucleus unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  16. Table of Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JR Production from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions B. Zhang, C. M. Ko, B. A. Li, Z. W. Lin, and S. Pal Pion Interferometry in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Z. W. Lin, C. M. Ko, ...

  17. Relativistic equation of state at subnuclear densities in the Thomas-Fermi approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. W.; Shen, H., E-mail: shennankai@gmail.com [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-06-20

    We study the non-uniform nuclear matter using the self-consistent Thomas-Fermi approximation with a relativistic mean-field model. The non-uniform matter is assumed to be composed of a lattice of heavy nuclei surrounded by dripped nucleons. At each temperature T, proton fraction Y{sub p} , and baryon mass density ? {sub B}, we determine the thermodynamically favored state by minimizing the free energy with respect to the radius of the Wigner-Seitz cell, while the nucleon distribution in the cell can be determined self-consistently in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. A detailed comparison is made between the present results and previous calculations in the Thomas-Fermi approximation with a parameterized nucleon distribution that has been adopted in the widely used Shen equation of state.

  18. Minimal position-velocity uncertainty wave packets in relativistic and non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Hashimi, M.H. Wiese, U.-J.

    2009-12-15

    We consider wave packets of free particles with a general energy-momentum dispersion relation E(p). The spreading of the wave packet is determined by the velocity v={partial_derivative}{sub p}E. The position-velocity uncertainty relation {delta}x{delta}v{>=}1/2 |<{partial_derivative}{sub p}{sup 2}E>| is saturated by minimal uncertainty wave packets {phi}(p)=Aexp(-{alpha}E(p)+{beta}p). In addition to the standard minimal Gaussian wave packets corresponding to the non-relativistic dispersion relation E(p)=p{sup 2}/2m, analytic calculations are presented for the spreading of wave packets with minimal position-velocity uncertainty product for the lattice dispersion relation E(p)=-cos(pa)/ma{sup 2} as well as for the relativistic dispersion relation E(p)={radical}(p{sup 2}+m{sup 2}). The boost properties of moving relativistic wave packets as well as the propagation of wave packets in an expanding Universe are also discussed.

  19. Microscopic picture of non-relativistic classicalons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkhahn, Felix; Mller, Sophia; Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert E-mail: sophia.x.mueller@physik.uni-muenchen.de E-mail: robert.bob.schneider@physik.uni-muenchen.de

    2013-08-01

    A theory of a non-relativistic, complex scalar field with derivatively coupled interaction terms is investigated. This toy model is considered as a prototype of a classicalizing theory and in particular of general relativity, for which the black hole constitutes a prominent example of a classicalon. Accordingly, the theory allows for a non-trivial solution of the stationary Gross-Pitaevskii equation corresponding to a black hole in the case of GR. Quantum fluctuations on this classical background are investigated within the Bogoliubov approximation. It turns out that the perturbative approach is invalidated by a high occupation of the Bogoliubov modes. Recently, it was proposed that a black hole is a Bose-Einstein condensate of gravitons that dynamically ensures to stay at the verge of a quantum phase transition. Our result is understood as an indication for that claim. Furthermore, it motivates a non-linear numerical analysis of the model.

  20. Three regimes of relativistic beam - plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muggli, P.; Allen, B.; Fang, Y.; Yakimenko, V.; Babzien, M.; Kusche, K.; Fedurin, M.; Vieira, J.; Martins, J.; Silva, L.

    2012-12-21

    Three regimes of relativistic beam - plasma interaction can in principle be reached at the ATF depending on the relative transverse and longitudinal size of the electron bunch when compared to the cold plasma collisionless skin depth c?{omega}{sub pe}: the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA), the self-modulation instability (SMI), and the current filamentation instability (CFI) regime. In addition, by choosing the bunch density, the linear, quasi-nonlinear and non linear regime of the PWFA can be reached. In the case of the two instabilities, the bunch density determines the growth rate and therefore the occurrence or not of the instability. We briefly describe these three regimes and outline results demonstrating that all these regime have or will be reached experimentally. We also outline planned and possible follow-on experiments.

  1. Relativistic laser pulse compression in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Yun; Sang, Hai-Bo Wan, Feng; Lv, Chong; Xie, Bai-Song

    2015-07-15

    The self-compression of a weak relativistic Gaussian laser pulse propagating in a magnetized plasma is investigated. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which describes the laser pulse amplitude evolution, is deduced and solved numerically. The pulse compression is observed in the cases of both left- and right-hand circular polarized lasers. It is found that the compressed velocity is increased for the left-hand circular polarized laser fields, while decreased for the right-hand ones, which is reinforced as the enhancement of the external magnetic field. We find a 100 fs left-hand circular polarized laser pulse is compressed in a magnetized (1757 T) plasma medium by more than ten times. The results in this paper indicate the possibility of generating particularly intense and short pulses.

  2. Colliding Nuclei at High Energy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab

    2010-01-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains what happens when atomic nucleii travelling at close to the speed of light smash together in Brookhaven Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  3. Tsung-Dao Lee, Weak Interactions, and Nonconservation of Parity

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, to understand the properties of quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that scientists theorize existed near the beginning of the Universe. ...

  4. The ABC's of Atomic Nuclei: The Modern Alchemist

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear reactions and accelerators Quark effects inside nucleus Phases of ... to 12 GeV) * Excited states of p & n * Quark effects in nuclei Relativistic Heavy Ion ...

  5. (A05TG045)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... At Brookhaven National Laboratory (Brookhaven) the National Synchrotron Light Source exceeded its planned operating hours and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider achieved over 97 ...

  6. Microsoft Word - Talks 20120822

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrodynamical and Transport Model for Ultra-relativistic Heavy Ion Reactions Dr. Yun Cheng Central China Normal University, China yuncheng@phy.ccnu.edu.cn Abstract: Combining the ...

  7. Quark-Gluon Plasma: a New State of Matter

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab

    2010-01-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains the nature of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), a new state of matter produced at Brookhaven Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  8. Quark-Gluon Plasma: a New State of Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-07-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains the nature of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), a new state of matter produced at Brookhaven Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  9. Lattice QCD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from this data and used in the analysis of experimental data produced in the collisions of relativistic heavy ions at Brookhaven National Lab and the Large Hadron Collider. ...

  10. Miklos Gyulassy, 1987 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of direct experimental relevance, especially the use of hydrodynamics to describe matter flowing in relativistic heavy ion collisions and for his studies of pion interferometry

  11. Future directions in electron--ion collision physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, K.J. ); Griffin, D.C. )

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Summary of session on synergistic co-ordination of theory and experiment; synergism between experiment and theory in atomic physics; comparison of theory and experiment for electron-ion excitation and ionization; summary of session on new theoretical and computational methods; new theoretical and computational methods-r-matrix calculations; the coulomb three-body problem: a progress report; summary of session on needs and applications for electron-ion collisional data; electron-ion collisions in the plasma edge; needs and applications of theoretical data for electron impact excitation; summary of session on relativistic effects, indirect effects, resonance, etc; direct and resonant processes in electron-ion collisions; relativistic calculations of electron impact ionization and dielectronic recombination cross section for highly charged ions; electron-ion recombination in the close-coupling approximation; modified resonance amplitudes with strongly correlated channels; a density-matrix approach to the broadening of spectral lines by autoionization, radiative transitions and electron-ion collisions; towards a time-dependent description of electron-atom/ion collisions two electron systems; and comments on inclusion of the generalized bright interaction in electron impact excitation of highly charged ions.

  12. Future directions in electron--ion collision physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, K.J.; Griffin, D.C.

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Summary of session on synergistic co-ordination of theory and experiment; synergism between experiment and theory in atomic physics; comparison of theory and experiment for electron-ion excitation and ionization; summary of session on new theoretical and computational methods; new theoretical and computational methods-r-matrix calculations; the coulomb three-body problem: a progress report; summary of session on needs and applications for electron-ion collisional data; electron-ion collisions in the plasma edge; needs and applications of theoretical data for electron impact excitation; summary of session on relativistic effects, indirect effects, resonance, etc; direct and resonant processes in electron-ion collisions; relativistic calculations of electron impact ionization and dielectronic recombination cross section for highly charged ions; electron-ion recombination in the close-coupling approximation; modified resonance amplitudes with strongly correlated channels; a density-matrix approach to the broadening of spectral lines by autoionization, radiative transitions and electron-ion collisions; towards a time-dependent description of electron-atom/ion collisions two electron systems; and comments on inclusion of the generalized bright interaction in electron impact excitation of highly charged ions.

  13. Time-dependent closure relations for relativistic collisionless fluid equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bendib-Kalache, K.; Bendib, A.; El Hadj, K. Mohammed

    2010-11-15

    Linear fluid equations for relativistic and collisionless plasmas are derived. Closure relations for the fluid equations are analytically computed from the relativistic Vlasov equation in the Fourier space ({omega},k), where {omega} and k are the conjugate variables of time t and space x variables, respectively. The mathematical method used is based on the projection operator techniques and the continued fraction mathematical tools. The generalized heat flux and stress tensor are calculated for arbitrary parameter {omega}/kc where c is the speed of light, and for arbitrary relativistic parameter z=mc{sup 2}/T, where m is the particle rest mass and T, the plasma temperature in energy units.

  14. Microsoft Word - VI-1 Papers Published 2003.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Phi meson production in relativistic heavy ion collisions S. Pal, C. M. Ko, and Z. W. Lin Nucl. Phys. A707, 525 (2002). Partonic effects on pion interferometry in relativistic ...

  15. Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sid Diamond; Richard Wares; Jules Routbort

    2000-04-11

    Heavy Vehicle (HV) systems are a necessary component of achieving OHVT goals. Elements are in place for a far-ranging program: short, intermediate, and long-term. Solicitation will bring industrial input and support. Future funding trend is positive, outlook for HV systems is good.

  16. Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Truong X.; Longhi, Stefano; Biancalana, Fabio; School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh

    2014-01-15

    We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.

  17. Portable radiography system using a relativistic electron beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoeberling, R.F.

    1987-09-22

    A portable radiographic generator is provided with an explosive magnetic flux compression generator producing the high voltage necessary to generate a relativistic electron beam. The relativistic electron beam is provided with target materials which generates the desired radiographic pulse. The magnetic flux compression generator may require at least two conventional explosively driven generators in series to obtain a desired output voltage of at least 1 MV. The cathode and anode configuration of the diode are selected to provide a switching action wherein a high impedance load is presented to the magnetic flux compression generator when the high voltage is being generated, and thereafter switching to a low impedance load to generate the relativistic electron beam. Magnetic flux compression generators can be explosively driven and provided in a relatively compact, portable form for use with the relativistic x-ray equipment. 8 figs.

  18. Portable radiography system using a relativistic electron beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoeberling, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    A portable radiographic generator is provided with an explosive magnetic flux compression generator producing the high voltage necessary to generate a relativistic electron beam. The relativistic electron beam is provided with target materials which generates the desired radiographic pulse. The magnetic flux compression generator may require at least two conventional explosively driven generators in series to obtain a desired output voltage of at least 1 MV. The cathode and anode configuration of the diode are selected to provide a switching action wherein a high impedance load is presented to the magnetic flux compression generator when the high voltage is being generated, and thereafter switching to a low impedance load to generate the relativistic electron beam. Magnetic flux compression generators can be explosively driven and provided in a relatively compact, portable form for use with the relativistic x-ray equipment.

  19. A THEORY OF PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM RELATIVISTIC OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffini, R.; Siutsou, I. A.; Vereshchagin, G. V.

    2013-07-20

    We derive the optical depth and photospheric radius of relativistic outflows using a model of a relativistic wind with a finite duration. We also discuss the role of radiative diffusion in such an outflow. We numerically solve the radiative transfer equation and obtain light curves and observed spectra of the photospheric emission. The spectra we obtain are nonthermal and in some cases have Band shapes.

  20. Process for upgrading heavy oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePage, J.F.; Marlino, G.

    1983-07-05

    The viscosity of heavy oils is reduced in order to facilitate pipe line transportation thereof. A fraction of the heavy oil is deasphalted in the presence of C/sub 5/-C/sub 7/ hydrocarbons, a portion of the separated asphalt is converted to synthesis gas, at least a portion of said gas is used to manufacture an alcohol mixture including methanol and C/sub 2/ to C/sub 10/ alcohols, which mixture is admixed with the heavy oil before transportation thereof. This procedure is more beneficial to the transported heavy oil than the prior processes which do not comprise the conversion of the asphalt fraction of the heavy oil.

  1. DYNAMICS OF STRONGLY TWISTED RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parfrey, Kyle; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Hui, Lam

    2013-09-10

    Magnetar magnetospheres are believed to be strongly twisted due to shearing of the stellar crust by internal magnetic stresses. We present time-dependent axisymmetric simulations showing in detail the evolution of relativistic force-free magnetospheres subjected to slow twisting through large angles. When the twist amplitude is small, the magnetosphere moves quasi-statically through a sequence of equilibria of increasing free energy. At some twist amplitude the magnetosphere becomes tearing-mode unstable to forming a resistive current sheet, initiating large-scale magnetic reconnection in which a significant fraction of the magnetic free energy can be dissipated. This ''critical'' twist angle is insensitive to the resistive length scale. Rapid shearing temporarily stabilizes the magnetosphere beyond the critical angle, allowing the magnetosphere of a rapidly differentially rotating star to store and dissipate more free energy. In addition to these effects, shearing the surface of a rotating star increases the spindown torque applied to the star. If shearing is much slower than rotation, the resulting spikes in spindown rate can occur on timescales anywhere from the long twisting timescale to the stellar spin period or shorter, depending both on the stellar shear distribution and the existing distribution of magnetospheric twists. A model in which energy is stored in the magnetosphere and released by a magnetospheric instability therefore predicts large changes in the measured spindown rate before soft gamma repeater giant flares.

  2. Fundamentals of the relativistic theory of gravitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    An extended exposition of the relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) proposed by Logunov, Vlasov, and Mestvirishvili is presented. The RTG was constructed uniquely on the basis of the relativity principle and the geometrization principle by regarding the gravitational field as a physical field in the spirit of Faraday and Maxwell possessing energy, momentum, and spins 2 and 0. In the theory, conservation laws for the energy, momentum, and angular momentum for the matter and gravitational field taken together are strictly satisfied. The theory explains all the existing gravitational experiments. When the evolution of the universe is analyzed, the theory leads to the conclusion that the universe is infinite and flat, and it is predicted to contain a large amount of hidden mass. This missing mass exceeds by almost 40 times the amount of matter currently observed in the universe. The RTG predicts that gravitational collapse, which for a comoving observer occurs after a finite proper time, does not lead to infinite compression of matter but is halted at a certain finite density of the collapsing body. Therefore, according to the RTG there cannot be any objects in nature in which the gravitational contraction of matter to infinite density occurs, i.e., there are no black holes.

  3. Transparency parameters from relativistically expanding outflows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bgu, D. [University of Roma "Sapienza," I-00185, p.le A. Moro 5, Rome (Italy); Iyyani, S. [Department of Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    In many gamma-ray bursts a distinct blackbody spectral component is present, which is attributed to the emission from the photosphere of a relativistically expanding plasma. The properties of this component (temperature and flux) can be linked to the properties of the outflow and have been presented in the case where there is no sub-photospheric dissipation and the photosphere is in coasting phase. First, we present the derivation of the properties of the outflow for finite winds, including when the photosphere is in the accelerating phase. Second, we study the effect of localized sub-photospheric dissipation on the estimation of the parameters. Finally, we apply our results to GRB 090902B. We find that during the first epoch of this burst the photosphere is most likely to be in the accelerating phase, leading to smaller values of the Lorentz factor than the ones previously estimated. For the second epoch, we find that the photosphere is likely to be in the coasting phase.

  4. Ab initio non-relativistic spin dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Li, Xiaosong; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-12-07

    Many magnetic materials do not conform to the (anti-)ferromagnetic paradigm where all electronic spins are aligned to a global magnetization axis. Unfortunately, most electronic structure methods cannot describe such materials with noncollinear electron spin on account of formally requiring spin alignment. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to generalize electronic structure methods and allow each electron spin to rotate freely. Here, we report the development of an ab initio time-dependent non-relativistic two-component spinor (TDN2C), which is a generalization of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations. Propagating the TDN2C equations in the time domain allows for the first-principles description of spin dynamics. A numerical tool based on the Hirshfeld partitioning scheme is developed to analyze the time-dependent spin magnetization. In this work, we also introduce the coupling between electron spin and a homogenous magnetic field into the TDN2C framework to simulate the response of the electronic spin degrees of freedom to an external magnetic field. This is illustrated for several model systems, including the spin-frustrated Li{sub 3} molecule. Exact agreement is found between numerical and analytic results for Larmor precession of hydrogen and lithium atoms. The TDN2C method paves the way for the ab initio description of molecular spin transport and spintronics in the time domain.

  5. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Johnson

    2000-01-31

    The objectives are to Provide Key Enabling Materials Technologies to Increase Energy Efficiency and Reduce Exhaust Emissions. The following goals are listed: Goal 1: By 3rd quarter 2002, complete development of materials enabling the maintenance or improvement of fuel efficiency {ge} 45% of class 7-8 truck engines while meeting the EPA/Justice Department ''Consent Decree'' for emissions reduction. Goal 2: By 4th quarter 2004, complete development of enabling materials for light-duty (class 1-2) diesel truck engines with efficiency over 40%, over a wide range of loads and speeds, while meeting EPA Tier 2 emission regulations. Goal 3: By 4th quarter 2006, complete development of materials solutions to enable heavy-duty diesel engine efficiency of 50% while meeting the emission reduction goals identified in the EPA proposed rule for heavy-duty highway engines.''

  6. Exact mapping of the 2+1 Dirac oscillator onto the Jaynes-Cummings model: Ion-trap experimental proposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bermudez, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Solano, E.

    2007-10-15

    We study the dynamics of the 2+1 Dirac oscillator exactly and find spin oscillations due to a Zitterbewegung of purely relativistic origin. We find an exact mapping of this quantum-relativistic system onto a Jaynes-Cummings model, describing the interaction of a two-level atom with a quantized single-mode field. This equivalence allows us to map a series of quantum optical phenomena onto the relativistic oscillator and vice versa. We make a realistic experimental proposal, in reach with current technology, for studying the equivalence of both models using a single trapped ion.

  7. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  8. Retrofitting heavy oil processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, G.L.; Fitzgerald, M.; D'Amico, V.

    1986-01-01

    Refiners, faced with the need to process the bottom end of the heavy high sulfur crude oil barrel in today's uncertain economic environment, are reluctant to commit large amounts of money to expensive upgrading processes. In order to conserve scarce capital while improving operating margins, additional valuable products can be produced by retrofits such as conversion of an idle crude unit to visbreaking, delayed coking or deasphalting service, or conversion of hydrodesulfurizers to mild hydrocracking.

  9. Viscous heavy brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    House, R.F.; Hoover, L.D.

    1984-07-10

    Hydroxyethyl cellulose and a sequestrant are added to a heavy brine containing one or more salts selected from calcium chloride, calcium bromide, and zinc bromide to increase the viscosity of the brine. Preferably the brine contains zinc bromide, has a density in the range from about 14.2-19.2 pounds per gallon, and the sequestrant is a polyphosphonic acid or water soluble salt thereof.

  10. ION SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martina, E.F.

    1958-04-22

    An improved ion source particularly adapted to provide an intense beam of ions with minimum neutral molecule egress from the source is described. The ion source structure includes means for establishing an oscillating electron discharge, including an apertured cathode at one end of the discharge. The egress of ions from the source is in a pencil like beam. This desirable form of withdrawal of the ions from the plasma created by the discharge is achieved by shaping the field at the aperture of the cathode. A tubular insulator is extended into the plasma from the aperture and in cooperation with the electric fields at the cathode end of the discharge focuses the ions from the source,

  11. Nuclei at extreme conditions. A relativistic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afanasjev, Anatoli

    2014-11-14

    The major goals of the current project were further development of covariant density functional theory (CDFT), better understanding of its features, its application to different nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics phenomena and training of graduate and undergraduate students. The investigations have proceeded in a number of directions which are discussed in detail in the part “Accomplishments” of this report. We have studied the role of isovector and isoscalar proton-neutron pairings in rotating nuclei; based on available experimental data it was concluded that there are no evidences for the existence of isoscalar proton-neutron pairing. Generalized theoretical approach has been developed for pycnonuclear reaction rates in the crust of neutron stars and interior of white dwarfs. Using this approach, extensive database for considerable number of pycnonuclear reactions involving stable and neutron-rich light nuclei has been created; it can be used in future for the study of various nuclear burning phenomena in different environments. Time-odd mean fields and their manifestations in terminating states, non-rotating and rotating nuclei have been studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory. Contrary to non-relativistic density functional theories these fields, which are important for a proper description of nuclear systems with broken time-reversal symmetry, are uniquely defined in the CDFT framework. Hyperdeformed nuclear shapes (with semi-axis ratio 2.5:1 and larger) have been studied in the Z = 40-58 part of nuclear chart. We strongly believe that such shapes could be studied experimentally in the future with full scale GRETA detector.

  12. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Heavy-Duty ...

  13. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel ...

  14. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient engine

  15. Thermalization of heavy quarks in the quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hees, Hendrik van; Rapp, Ralf

    2005-03-01

    Charm- and bottom-quark rescattering in a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is investigated with the objective of assessing the approach toward thermalization. Employing a Fokker-Planck equation to approximate the collision integral of the Boltzmann equation we augment earlier studies based on perturbative parton cross sections by introducing resonant heavy-light quark interactions. The latter are motivated by recent QCD lattice calculations that indicate the presence of 'hadronic' states in the QGP. We model these states by colorless (pseudo-) scalar and (axial-) vector D and B mesons within a heavy-quark effective theory framework. We find that the presence of these resonances at moderate QGP temperatures substantially accelerates the kinetic equilibration of c quarks as compared to using perturbative interactions. We also comment on consequences for D-meson observables in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  16. Comprehensive Nuclear Model Code, Nucleons, Ions, Induced Cross-Sections

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-09-27

    EMPIRE-II is a flexible code for calculation of nuclear reactions in the frame of combined op0tical, Multistep Direct (TUL), Multistep Compound (NVWY) and statistical (Hauser-Feshbach) models. Incident particle can be a nucleon or any nucleus (Heavy Ion). Isomer ratios, residue production cross sections and emission spectra for neutrons, protons, alpha- particles, gamma-rays, and one type of Light Ion can be calculated. The energy range starts just above the resonance region for neutron induced reactions andmore »extends up to several hundreds of MeV for the Heavy Ion induced reactions.« less

  17. Comprehensive Nuclear Model Code, Nucleons, Ions, Induced Cross-Sections

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-09-27

    EMPIRE-II is a flexible code for calculation of nuclear reactions in the frame of combined op0tical, Multistep Direct (TUL), Multistep Compound (NVWY) and statistical (Hauser-Feshbach) models. Incident particle can be a nucleon or any nucleus (Heavy Ion). Isomer ratios, residue production cross sections and emission spectra for neutrons, protons, alpha- particles, gamma-rays, and one type of Light Ion can be calculated. The energy range starts just above the resonance region for neutron induced reactions andmore » extends up to several hundreds of MeV for the Heavy Ion induced reactions.« less

  18. Heavy-flavor production overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey A. Appel

    2003-12-10

    This talk serves as an introduction to the Heavy-Flavor session of the XXXIII International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics. A major focus of this session is on the production of heavy quarks. The talks which follow review the latest results on heavy quark production in strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions, as well as some of the physics of the heavy quarks themselves. This talk emphasizes what we can learn from the production measurements, both about underlying QCD theory and the partonic nature of the hadrons which we see in the laboratory.

  19. INL '@work' heavy equipment mechanic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Cad

    2008-01-01

    INL's Cad Christensen is a heavy equipment mechanic. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. INL '@work' heavy equipment mechanic

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Christensen, Cad

    2013-05-28

    INL's Cad Christensen is a heavy equipment mechanic. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.