National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for relative sampling rates

  1. Naughton's related rates problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dominic

    2013-02-25

    Related rates (1). (1) Oil spills from a rupture container in a circular pattern whose radius increases at a rate of 2 ft/s. How fast is the area of the oil spill increasing ...

  2. Lesson 22 Related Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-10-11

    Oct 11, 2013 ... A spherical weather balloon is being inflated with helium at a rate of 82 cubic meters per minute. Find the rate at which its radius is increasing.

  3. EERE Peer Review Guide, Appendix K Sample Rating Summary Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-18

    A peer review sample summary rating sheet, from the September 2002 The Peer Review Process Handbook, an Implementation Manual based on the Superconductivity Program Experience.

  4. Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FOUST, D.J.

    2000-10-26

    This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering.

  5. Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow rate--pressure drop relation for...

  6. The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

    2004-07-01

    Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences accounted for almost 87% of the cost difference. The sum of these differences could result in a $34 per acre cost difference for the fertilization. Because of these differences, better analysis or better sampling methods may need to be done, or more samples collected, to ensure that the soil measurements are truly representative of the field’s spatial variability.

  7. Timed Relational Abstractions For Sampled Data Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Timed Relational Abstractions For Sampled Data Control Systems Aditya Zutshi1 , Sriram relational abstractions for verifying sampled data control systems. Sampled data control systems consist of a plant, modeled as a hybrid system and a synchronous controller, modeled as a discrete transition system

  8. TIME DELAY ESTIMATION IN A REVERBERANT ENVIRONMENT BY LOW RATE SAMPLING OF IMPULSIVE ACOUSTIC SOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    ) is utilized for its estimation from the low rate sampled received signal. The arrival time of the di- rectTIME DELAY ESTIMATION IN A REVERBERANT ENVIRONMENT BY LOW RATE SAMPLING OF IMPULSIVE ACOUSTIC}@kfupm.edu.sa ABSTRACT This paper presents a new method of time delay estimation (TDE) using low sample rates

  9. Can compressed sensing beat the Nyquist sampling rate?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaroslavsky, L

    2015-01-01

    Data saving capability of "Compressed sensing (sampling)" in signal discretization is disputed and found to be far below the theoretical upper bound defined by the signal sparsity. On a simple and intuitive example, it is demonstrated that, in a realistic scenario for signals that are believed to be sparse, one can achieve a substantially larger saving than compressing sensing can. It is also shown that frequent assertions in the literature that "Compressed sensing" can beat the Nyquist sampling approach are misleading substitution of terms and are rooted in misinterpretation of the sampling theory.

  10. Relative and Absolute Mobility Rates in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, L. Keith

    1971-01-01

    the actual normative structure allows little else than inheritance. Thus whether one is comparing the same country at different times or different countries at the same time, the absolute mobility rates may not reveal the actual normative structures. Relative... of jobs which will obtain if present trends in the distribution continue until a stable state is reached. This stable state is easily determined by means of simple Markov theorems. 3 Relative and Absolute Mobility Rates Table 2. The Rigidity of U...

  11. Universal Relation for the Inelastic Two-Body Loss Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Braaten; H. -W. Hammer

    2014-01-08

    Strongly-interacting systems consisting of particles that interact through a large scattering length satisfy universal relations that relate many of their central properties to the contact, which measures the number of pairs with small separations. We use the operator product expansion of quantum field theory to derive the universal relation for the inelastic 2-body loss rate. A simple universal relation between the loss rate and the contact is obtained by truncating the expansion after the lowest dimension operator. We verify the universal relation explicitly by direct calculations in the low-density limit at nonzero temperature. This universal relation can be tested experimentally using ultracold quantum gases of atoms in hyperfine states that have an inelastic spin-relaxation channel.

  12. Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.

    1997-02-25

    A method is described for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries. 3 figs.

  13. Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Anthony, Brian W. (Clearfield, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries.

  14. Speed Training: Improving the Rate of Backpropagation Learning through Stochastic Sample Presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Tony R.

    Speed Training: Improving the Rate of Backpropagation Learning through Stochastic Sample. However, using complex neural networks to learn very large training sets is often problematic, imposing prohibitive time constraints on the training process. We present four practical methods for dramatically

  15. An Ultra-Low-Power Analog Memory System with an Adaptive Sampling Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, David W.

    An Ultra-Low-Power Analog Memory System with an Adaptive Sampling Rate Brandon M. Kelly, Brandon normally associated with sleep states in WSNs, we introduce an ultra-low-power analog memory buffer in which ultra- low-power operation is a necessity. In this paper, we propose an ultra-low-power analog mem

  16. Ambient aerosol sampling inlet for flow rates of 100 and 400 l/min 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baehl, Michael Matthew

    2009-05-15

    New bioaerosol sampling inlets were designed and tested that have nominal exhaust flow rates of 100 L/min to 400 L/min, and which have internal fractionators and screens to scalp large, unwanted particles and debris from the transmitted size...

  17. DEFORMATION OF SUPERPLASTIC ALLOYS AT RELATIVELY LOW STRAIN RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grivas, Dionysios

    2011-01-01

    load change test during a creep test or a strain rate changethe desired microstructures. Creep tests were performed on a5. The strains in the creep test were Because the measured

  18. A New Series of Rate Decline Relations Based on the Diagnosis of Rate-Time Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boulis, Anastasios

    2010-01-14

    point for their derivation is given by the definitions of the "loss ratio" and the "derivative of the loss ratio", where the "loss ratio" is the ratio of rate data to derivative of rate data, and the "derivative of the loss ratio" is the "b...

  19. SAMPLE-PATH ANALYSIS OF THE PROPORTIONAL RELATION AND ITS CONSTANT FOR DISCRETE-TIME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishizaki, Fumio

    SAMPLE-PATH ANALYSIS OF THE PROPORTIONAL RELATION AND ITS CONSTANT FOR DISCRETE-TIME SINGLE and c is a constant which is called proportional constant. We call such a relation the proportional relation. It has been shown that similar proportional relations also hold for some other queueing systems

  20. Evaluation of contaminant flux rates from sediments of Sinclair Inlet, WA, using a benthic flux sampling device. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chadwick, D.B.; Lieberman, S.H.; Reimers, C.E.; Young, D.

    1993-02-01

    A Benthic Flux Sampling Device (BFSD) was demonstrated on site to determine the mobility of contaminants in sediments off the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS) in Sinclair Inlet, WA. Quantification of toxicant flux from the sediments will support ongoing assessment studies and facilitate the design of appropriate remediation strategies, if required. In general, where release of contaminants was found, the measured rates do not represent a significant source relative to other major inputs such as sewer discharges, nonpoint source runoff, and marinas. They may, however, represent an exposure pathway for benthic biota with a subsequent potential for toxicological effects and/or bioaccumulation. Environmental assessment, CIVAPP:Toxicity, CIVAPP:Marine chemistry, Hazardous waste.

  1. Relative cost and precision of hydroacoustic and net sampling at hydroelectric facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, A.W.; Matousek, J.A.; Metzger, S.G. [Lawler, Matusky & Skelly Engineers, Pearl River, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Estimating the number of fish passing through a hydroelectric facility is often an important aspect of hydroelectric project relicensing. The number of fish per unit volume, and ultimately the total number of fish entrained, is usually obtained from hydroacoustic methods or tailrace nets. Data collected at several small hydroelectric projects in Michigan gave us the opportunity to compare the sampling precision of these two methods. This comparison can be useful in formulating future sampling programs as the degree of sampling precision relates directly to the sampling effort and program cost. Individual hydroacoustic samples covered small volumes of water. This resulted in a high degree of variability among samples and a less precise estimate of total entrainment for a given number of samples. In contrast, net samples filtered greater volumes of water and had lower variability among samples. To examine the trade-off between precision and program cost, we computed the 95% confidence interval for the annual estimated entrainment and cost of the associated sampling program. The results suggested that the most cost-effective sampling method depends on the desired precision of the entrainment estimate. For low precision estimates, hydroacoustic sampling was most advantageous. Net sampling would be advantageous when precise entrainment estimates are required and when species composition must be obtained.

  2. Administrative Directive For: Travel and Related Expenses Rates, Suppliers and Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michelson, David G.

    1 Administrative Directive For: Travel and Related Expenses Rates, Suppliers and Services under Options - University travellers have the following alternate options for rental vehicle collision

  3. Dependence of the Firearm-Related Homicide Rate on Gun Availability: A Mathematical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wodarz, Dominik; Komarova, Natalia L; Abbott, Derek

    2013-01-01

    D, Miller M (2000) Firearm availability and homicide ratesThe effect of gun availability on violent crime patterns.Related Homicide and Gun Availability 38. Kellermann A,

  4. The effect of temperature and relative humidity levels upon charcoal tube sampling for vinyl choloride 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCaskill, Gerald Daniel

    1983-01-01

    hygienist involves sorbent tubes. '~(hen correctly applied, samples collected in this manner yield time- weighted average values for airborne concentrations to which the individual of interest is exposed. To correctly use the results of this sampling.... This is a significant finding due to the fact that as the ambient air tem- perature rises, so does its capability to hoId water vapor. At 90! relative humidity, the amount of water vapor in the air virtually doubles when the ambient air temperature...

  5. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and PACI Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...

  6. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - 392K) Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...

  7. Vectors Cast New Darkness, and New Light, on a Classic Related Rates Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulling, Stephen

    Vectors Cast New Darkness, and New Light, on a Classic Related Rates Problem S. A. Fulling Texas A]: A car is traveling west at 50 miles per hour and a truck is traveling north at 60 miles per hour. At what rate are the vehicles approaching each other when the car is 0.3 miles and the truck 0.4 miles

  8. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-12-15

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread.

  9. 34. RADIOACTIVE DECAY A sample of radium decays at a rate that ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-23

    yields 400 barrels of crude oil per month will run dry in 2 years. The price of crude oil is currently. $130 per barrel and is expected to rise at the constant rate of 4 ...

  10. Existing and Past Methods of Test and Rating Standards Related to Integrated Heat Pump Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reedy, Wayne R. [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01

    This report evaluates existing and past US methods of test and rating standards related to electrically operated air, water, and ground source air conditioners and heat pumps, 65,000 Btu/hr and under in capacity, that potentiality incorporate a potable water heating function. Two AHRI (formerly ARI) standards and three DOE waivers were identified as directly related. Six other AHRI standards related to the test and rating of base units were identified as of interest, as they would form the basis of any new comprehensive test procedure. Numerous other AHRI and ASHRAE component test standards were also identified as perhaps being of help in developing a comprehensive test procedure.

  11. Reference samples for water-related programs in the US Environmental Protection Agency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, J.A.

    1985-06-01

    The Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory at Cincinnati provides quality assurance (QA) support for US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water-related programs. Two important segments of this support are the Quality Control Sample Program, which furnishes samples of known concentrations for use as independent checks on intralaboratory QA activities, and the EPA's Repository for Toxic and Hazardous Materials, which provides calibration standards and spiking solutions for trace organic analyses of interest to the Agency. Each series contains one or more analytes, with true or reference values. The samples and standards are prepared as stable concentrated solutions in all-glass ampuls for dilution to volume, and analyses by EPA, its contractors and grantees, and other federal, state, and local agencies. 1 reference, 6 tables.

  12. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Washoe Project, Stampede Division FERC Order Approving Extension of Non-Firm Power Formula Rate - Rate Order No. WAPA-160 (Sept. 5, 2013) (PDF - 22K) Notice of Extension of...

  13. Neutron-g Pulse Shape Discrimination with NE213 Liquid Scintillator: Comparison of Different Sampling Rate/Bit Resolution Digital Acquisition Systems Datasets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neutron-g Pulse Shape Discrimination with NE213 Liquid Scintillator: Comparison of Different Sampling Rate/Bit Resolution Digital Acquisition Systems Datasets

  14. Related Rates Introduction: Consider water draining from the bottom of a circular cylin-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavener, Simon

    . On the tape, mark a 2cm interval l centered at b (from 1cm above b to 1cm below b). Fill the funnel with water until the water level is approximately 2cm above b. 6. When the water level reaches the top mark (1cmRelated Rates Introduction: Consider water draining from the bottom of a circular cylin- der

  15. 4882 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 62, NO. 18, SEPTEMBER 15, 2014 Low-Sampling-Rate Ultra-Wideband Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    -Naffouri, Member, IEEE Abstract--In this paper, a low-sampling-rate scheme for ultra-wideband channel estimation. The results show that high reduction in sampling rate can be achieved. The proposed estimator outper- forms estimator. In addition to channel estimation, a synchronization method is also proposed that utilizes

  16. Free energy of cluster formation and a new scaling relation for the nucleation rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Diemand, Jürg; Angélil, Raymond

    2014-05-21

    Recent very large molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous nucleation with (1 ? 8) ×?10{sup 9} Lennard-Jones atoms [J. Diemand, R. Angélil, K. K. Tanaka, and H. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074309 (2013)] allow us to accurately determine the formation free energy of clusters over a wide range of cluster sizes. This is now possible because such large simulations allow for very precise measurements of the cluster size distribution in the steady state nucleation regime. The peaks of the free energy curves give critical cluster sizes, which agree well with independent estimates based on the nucleation theorem. Using these results, we derive an analytical formula and a new scaling relation for nucleation rates: ln?J{sup ?}/? is scaled by ln?S/?, where the supersaturation ratio is S, ? is the dimensionless surface energy, and J{sup ?} is a dimensionless nucleation rate. This relation can be derived using the free energy of cluster formation at equilibrium which corresponds to the surface energy required to form the vapor-liquid interface. At low temperatures (below the triple point), we find that the surface energy divided by that of the classical nucleation theory does not depend on temperature, which leads to the scaling relation and implies a constant, positive Tolman length equal to half of the mean inter-particle separation in the liquid phase.

  17. On the reversal of star formation rate-density relation at z = 1: Insights from simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Cen, Renyue E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-06-20

    Recent surveys have found a reversal of the star formation rate (SFR)-density relation at z = 1 from that at z = 0, while the sign of the slope of the color-density relation remains unchanged. We use adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of a 21 × 24 × 20 h {sup –3} Mpc{sup 3} region to examine the SFR-density and color-density relations of galaxies at z = 0 and z = 1. The local environmental density is defined by the dark matter mass in spheres of radius 1 h {sup –1} Mpc, and we probe two decades of environmental densities. Our simulations produce a large increase of SFR with density at z = 1, as in the Elbaz et al. observations. We also find a significant evolution to z = 0, where the SFR-density relation is much flatter. The simulated color-density relation is consistent from z = 1 to z = 0, in agreement with observations. We find that the increase in SFR with local density at z = 1 is due to a growing population of star-forming galaxies in higher-density environments. At z = 0 and z = 1 both the SFR and cold gas mass are correlated with the galaxy halo mass, and therefore the correlation between median halo mass and local density is an important cause of the SFR-density relation at both redshifts. However, at z = 0 the local density on 1 h {sup –1} Mpc scales affects galaxy SFRs as much as halo mass. Finally, we find indications that while at z = 0 high-density environments depress galaxy SFRs, at z = 1 high-density environments tend to increase SFRs.

  18. Dynamic Relations for Sparsely Sampled Gaussian Hans-Georg Muller and Wenjing Yang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Hans-Georg

    data. Such data are found in e-commerce and auction bid prices (Jank and Shmueli 2006), genetic trait studies, it is common to observe repeated measurements data from a sample of subjects where noisy assumption is that the data are generated by the trajectories of a smooth underlying stochastic process

  19. The Gas Phase Mass Metallicity Relation for Dwarf Galaxies: Dependence on Star Formation Rate and HI Gas Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimmy,; Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino; Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of dwarf galaxies observed using the VIMOS IFU on the VLT, we investigate the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) as a function of star formation rate (FMR$_{\\text{SFR}}$) as well as HI-gas mass (FMR$_{\\text{HI}}$). We combine our IFU data with a subsample of galaxies from the ALFALFA HI survey crossmatched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to study the FMR$_{\\text{SFR}}$ and FMR$_{\\text{HI}}$ across the stellar mass range 10$^{6.6}$ to 10$^{8.8}$ M$_\\odot$, with metallicities as low as 12+log(O/H) = 7.67. We find the 1$\\sigma$ mean scatter in the MZR to be 0.05 dex. The 1$\\sigma$ mean scatter in the FMR$_{\\text{SFR}}$ (0.02 dex) is significantly lower than that of the MZR. The FMR$_{\\text{SFR}}$ is not consistent between the IFU observed galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS galaxies for SFRs lower than 10$^{-2.4}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, however this could be the result of limitations of our measurements in that regime. The lowest mean scatter (0.01 dex) is found in the FMR$_{\\text{HI}}$. We also find that th...

  20. The Relation Between Accretion Rate And Jet Power in X-Ray Luminous Elliptical Galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Steven W.; Dunn, R.J.H.; Fabian, A.C.; Taylor, G.B.; Reynolds, C.S.; /Maryland U.

    2006-03-10

    Using Chandra X-ray observations of nine nearby, X-ray luminous elliptical galaxies with good optical velocity dispersion measurements, we show that a tight correlation exists between the Bondi accretion rates calculated from the observed gas temperature and density profiles and estimated black hole masses, and the power emerging from these systems in relativistic jets. The jet powers, which are inferred from the energies and timescales required to inflate cavities observed in the surrounding X-ray emitting gas, can be related to the accretion rates using a power law model of the form log (P{sub Bondi}/10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}) = A + B log (P{sub jet}/10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}), with A = 0.62 {+-} 0.15 and B = 0.77 {+-} 0.18. Our results show that a significant fraction of the energy associated with the rest mass of material entering the Bondi accretion radius (2.4{sub -0.7}{sup +1.0} per cent, for P{sub jet} = 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}) eventually emerges in the relativistic jets. Our results have significant implications for studies of accretion, jet formation and galaxy formation. The observed tight correlation suggests that the Bondi formulae provide a reasonable description of the accretion process in these systems, despite the likely presence of magnetic pressure and angular momentum in the accreting gas. The similarity of the P{sub Bondi} and P{sub jet} values argues that a significant fraction of the matter entering the accretion radius flows down to regions close to the black holes, where the jets are presumably formed. The tight correlation between P{sub Bondi} and P{sub jet} also suggests that the accretion flows are approximately stable over timescales of a few million years. Our results show that the black hole ''engines'' at the hearts of large elliptical galaxies and groups feed back sufficient energy to stem cooling and star formation, leading naturally to the observed exponential cut off at the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function.

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 3, MARCH 2008 1421 On the Use of a Lower Sampling Rate for Broken

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Mo-Yuen

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 3, MARCH 2008 1421 On the Use of a Lower- strated with experimental results that the use of a lower sampling rate with a digital notch filter is feasible for MCSA in broken rotor bar detection with discrete-time Fourier transform and autoregressive

  2. Numerical examination of plasmoid-induced reconnection model for solar flares: the relation between plasmoid velocity and reconnection rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keisuke Nishida; Masaki Shimizu; Daikou Shiota; Hiroyuki Takasaki; Tetsuya Magara; Kazunari Shibata

    2008-09-04

    The plasmoid-induced-reconnection model explaining solar flares based on bursty reconnection produced by an ejecting plasmoid suggests a possible relation between the ejection velocity of a plasmoid and the rate of magnetic reconnection. In this study, we focus on the quantitative description of this relation. We performed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of solar flares by changing the values of resistivity and the plasmoid velocity. The plasmoid velocity has been changed by applying an additional force to the plasmoid to see how the plasmoid velocity affects the reconnection rate. An important result is that the reconnection rate has a positive correlation with the plasmoid velocity, which is consistent with the plasmoid-induced-reconnection model for solar flares. We also discuss an observational result supporting this positive correlation.

  3. Abstract The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) aids in the diagnosis of various diseases related to the malfunction of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    Abstract² The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) aids in the diagnosis of various diseases related to the malfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Traditional approaches for analysis of HRV different kinds of random and real HRV signals are presented. Statistically significant differences were

  4. The calcite !! aragonite transformation in low-Mg marble: Equilibrium relations, transformation mechanisms, and rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    mechanisms, and rates Bradley R. Hacker,1 David C. Rubie,2 Stephen H. Kirby,3 and Steven R. Bohlen4 Received in Japan and China that disproportionated to low-Mg calcite and dolomite. Citation: Hacker, B. R., D. C starting material is a single block of Carrara marble obtained from a monument company [Hacker and Kirby

  5. Vectors Cast New Darkness, and New Light, on a Classic Related Rates Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulling, Stephen

    Vectors Cast New Darkness, and New Light, on a Classic Related this question [2, Sec. 2.8, Example 4]: A car is traveling west at 50 miles per hour and a truck the car is 0.3 miles and the truck 0.4 miles from the intersection of the roads?

  6. Two part condenser for varying the rate of condensing and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobos, James G. (North Augusta, SC)

    2007-12-11

    A heat transfer apparatus, such as a condenser, is provided. The apparatus includes a first component with a first heat transfer element that has first component inlet and outlet ports through which a first fluid may pass. A second component is also included and likewise has a second heat transfer element with second component inlet and outlet ports to pass a second fluid. The first component has a body that can receive a third fluid for heat transfer with the first heat transfer element. The first and second components are releasably attachable with one another so that when attached both the first and second heat transfer elements effect heat transfer with the third fluid. Attachment and removal of the first and second components allows for the heat transfer rate of the apparatus to be varied. An associated method is also provided.

  7. Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Statistical Software as Related to the CTBTO’s On-Site Inspection Procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2010-09-01

    In the event of a potential nuclear weapons test the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is commissioned to conduct an on-site investigation (OSI) of the suspected test site in an effort to find confirmatory evidence of the nuclear test. The OSI activities include collecting air, surface soil, and underground samples to search for indications of a nuclear weapons test - these indicators include radionuclides and radioactive isotopes Ar and Xe. This report investigates the capability of the Visual Sample Plan (VSP) software to contribute to the sampling activities of the CTBTO during an OSI. VSP is a statistical sampling design software, constructed under data quality objectives, which has been adapted for environmental remediation and contamination detection problems for the EPA, US Army, DoD and DHS among others. This report provides discussion of a number of VSP sample designs, which may be pertinent to the work undertaken during an OSI. Examples and descriptions of such designs include hot spot sampling, combined random and judgment sampling, multiple increment sampling, radiological transect surveying, and a brief description of other potentially applicable sampling methods. Further, this work highlights a potential need for the use of statistically based sample designs in OSI activities. The use of such designs may enable canvassing a sample area without full sampling, provide a measure of confidence that radionuclides are not present, and allow investigators to refocus resources in other areas of concern.

  8. False Negative Rates of a Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates via Real-Time PCR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutchison, Janine R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Sydor, Michael A.; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L

    2015-05-01

    Surface sampling for Bacillus anthracis spores has traditionally relied on detection via bacterial cultivation methods. Although effective, this approach does not provide the level of organism specificity that can be gained through molecular techniques. False negative rates (FNR) and limits of detection (LOD) were determined for two B. anthracis surrogates with modified rapid viability-polymerase chain reaction (mRV-PCR) following macrofoam-swab sampling. This study was conducted in parallel with a previously reported study that analyzed spores using a plate-culture method. B. anthracis Sterne (BAS) or B. atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores were deposited onto four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic) at nine target concentrations (2 to 500 spores/coupon; 0.078 to 19.375 colony-forming units [CFU] per cm²). Mean FNR values for mRV-PCR analysis ranged from 0 to 0.917 for BAS and 0 to 0.875 for BG and increased as spore concentration decreased (over the concentrations investigated) for each surface material. FNRs based on mRV-PCR data were not statistically different for BAS and BG, but were significantly lower for glass than for vinyl tile. FNRs also tended to be lower for the mRV-PCR method compared to the culture method. The mRV-PCR LOD?? was lowest for glass (0.429 CFU/cm² with BAS and 0.341 CFU/cm² with BG) and highest for vinyl tile (0.919 CFU/cm² with BAS and 0.917 CFU/cm² with BG). These mRV-PCR LOD?? values were lower than the culture values (BAS: 0.678 to 1.023 CFU/cm² and BG: 0.820 to 1.489 CFU/cm²). The FNR and LOD?? values reported in this work provide guidance for environmental sampling of Bacillus spores at low concentrations.

  9. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Amidan, Brett G.; Sydor, Michael A.; Barrett, Christopher A.

    2015-03-31

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in. × 2 in.) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results will be discussed in a subsequent report.

  10. A physiological and morphological analysis of the effects of nitrogen supply on the relative growth rates of nine loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) clones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stover, Corey Michael

    2006-08-16

    The influence of nitrogen supply on relationships of relative growth rate (RGR) to leaf physiology, structural and non-structural carbon partitioning, and nitrogen- and water-use efficiencies were examined in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) clonal...

  11. Rate-decline Relations for Unconventional Reservoirs and Development of Parametric Correlations for Estimation of Reservoir Properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Askabe, Yohanes 1985-

    2012-10-24

    Time-rate analysis and time-rate-pressure analysis methods are available to estimate reserves and study flow performance of wells in unconventional gas reservoirs. However, these tools are often incorrectly used or the analysis can become difficult...

  12. PGDP (Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant)-UF/sub 6/ handling, sampling, analysis and associated QC/QA and safety related procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.L. (comp.)

    1987-05-22

    This document is a compilation of Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant procedures on UF/sub 6/ handling, sampling, and analysis, along with associated QC/QA and safety related procedures. It was assembled for transmission by the US Department of Energy to the Korean Advanced Energy Institute as a part of the US-Korea technical exchange program.

  13. Optimal state discrimination with a fixed rate of inconclusive results: Analytical solutions and relation to state discrimination with a fixed error rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulrike Herzog

    2012-09-25

    We study an optimum measurement for quantum state discrimination, which maximizes the probability of correct results when the probability of inconclusive results is fixed at a given value. The measurement describes minimum-error discrimination if this value is zero, while under certain conditions it corresponds to optimized maximum-confidence discrimination, or to optimum unambiguous discrimination, respectively, when the fixed value reaches a definite minimum. Using operator conditions that determine the optimum measurement, we derive analytical solutions for the discrimination of two mixed qubit states, including the case of two pure states occurring with arbitrary prior probabilities, and for the discrimination of N symmetric states, both pure and mixed. We also consider a case where the given density operators resolve the identity operator, and we specify the optimality conditions for the case of partially symmetric states. Moreover, we show that from the complete solution for arbitrary values of the fixed rate of inconclusive results one can always obtain the optimum measurement in another strategy where the error rate is fixed, and vice versa.

  14. Parent and teacher ratings of Mexican American children?s behavior on the BAS : influence of acculturation on a Texas sample 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Melissa Escobedo

    2006-04-12

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of acculturation on the parent and teacher ratings of non-clinical Mexican American children's behavior, using the BASC Parent Rating Scale-C (PRS-C ) and the Teacher ...

  15. Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Participating Investigators of ICD-HRV Italian Study Group.heart rate variability (HRV) in a population of researchersthe association between HRV parameters (standard deviation

  16. THE RADIO SURFACE-BRIGHTNESS-TO-DIAMETER RELATION FOR GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANTS: SAMPLE SELECTION AND ROBUST ANALYSIS WITH VARIOUS FITTING OFFSETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavlovic, M. Z.; Urosevic, D.; Arbutina, B. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vukotic, B. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade 38 (Serbia); Goeker, Ue. D., E-mail: marko@math.rs [Physics Department, Bogazici University, Bebek 34342, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    In this paper, we present new empirical radio surface-brightness-to-diameter ({Sigma}-D) relations for supernova remnants (SNRs) in our Galaxy. We also present new theoretical derivations of the {Sigma}-D relation based on equipartition or on a constant ratio between cosmic rays and magnetic field energy. A new calibration sample of 60 Galactic SNRs with independently determined distances is created. Instead of (standard) vertical regression, used in previous papers, different fitting procedures are applied to the calibration sample in the log {Sigma}-log D plane. Non-standard regressions are used to satisfy the requirement that values of parameters obtained from the fitting of {Sigma}-D and D-{Sigma} relations should be invariant within estimated uncertainties. We impose symmetry between {Sigma}-D and D-{Sigma} due to the existence of large scatter in both D and {Sigma}. Using four fitting methods that treat {Sigma} and D symmetrically, different {Sigma}-D slopes {beta} are obtained for the calibration sample. Monte Carlo simulations verify that the slopes of the empirical {Sigma}-D relation should be determined by using orthogonal regression because of its good performance in data sets with severe scatter. The slope derived here ({beta} = 4.8) is significantly steeper than those derived in previous studies. This new slope is closer to the updated theoretically predicted surface-brightness-diameter slope in the radio range of the Sedov phase. We also analyze the empirical {Sigma}-D relations for SNRs in a dense environment of molecular clouds and for SNRs evolving in the lower-density interstellar medium. Applying new empirical relations to estimate distances of Galactic SNRs results in a dramatically changed distance scale.

  17. Sampling apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

    1989-07-18

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

  18. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-12-05

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

  19. Using path sampling to build better Markovian state models: Predicting the folding rate and mechanism of a tryptophan zipper beta hairpin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinrichs, Nina Singhal

    propose an efficient method for the prediction of protein folding rate constants and mechanisms. We use While experiments can yield a wealth of insight into protein folding, it is difficult for experiments of protein folding. The comparison of the rate prediction with experiment could be used as a test

  20. Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    to traffic-related air pollution and the risk of coronaryof particulate air pollution. Environ Health Perspect 2001,between ambient air pollution and daily mortality among

  1. Abstract --The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) aids in the diagnosis of various diseases related to the malfunction of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    Abstract --The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) aids in the diagnosis of various diseases related to the malfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Traditional approaches for analysis of HRV the signal. We recently introduced MatLab software for DFA of HRV (BIOSIGNALS 2010:225-229). We now present

  2. The relation of body weight, egg weight, rate of production and breeding to feed efficiency for egg production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCracken, Don Frederick

    1955-01-01

    significant difference in rate of production between these two hybrids, and s1nce the DeKalb birds were significantly heavier Chan the +lines, it seems fairly safe to conclude that the effeciency of f'eed utilization for egg production of the DeKalbs 1s...

  3. Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shields, Kyra Naumoff

    Abstract Background While air pollution exposures have been linked to cardiovascular outcomes, the contribution from acute gas and particle traffic-related pollutants remains unclear. Using a panel study design with repeated ...

  4. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-04-16

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

  5. Use of Electrodeposition for Sample Preparation and Rejection Rate Prediction for Assay of Electroformed Ultra High Purity Copper for 232Th and 238U Prior to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP/MS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Day, Anthony R.; Farmer, Orville T.; Hossbach, Todd W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Mintzer, Esther E.; Seifert, Allen; Smart, John E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2008-07-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge has driven the need for ultra-low background Ge detectors shielded by electroformed copper of ultra-high radiopurity (<0.1µBq/kg). Although electrodeposition processes are almost sophisticated enough to produce copper of this purity, to date there are no methods sensitive enough to assay it. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) can detect thorium and uranium at femtogram levels, but in the past, this assay has been hindered by high copper concentrations in the sample. Electrodeposition of copper samples removes copper from the solution while selectively concentrating thorium and uranium contaminants to be assayed by ICP/MS. Spiking 232Th and 238U into the plating bath simulates low purity copper and allows for the calculation of the electrochemical rejection rate of thorium and uranium in the electroplating system. This rejection value will help to model plating bath chemistry.

  6. JOINT ANALYSIS OF CLUSTER OBSERVATIONS. II. CHANDRA/XMM-NEWTON X-RAY AND WEAK LENSING SCALING RELATIONS FOR A SAMPLE OF 50 RICH CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahdavi, Andisheh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94131 (United States); Hoekstra, Henk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Babul, Arif; Bildfell, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Jeltema, Tesla [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Henry, J. Patrick [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    We present a study of multiwavelength X-ray and weak lensing scaling relations for a sample of 50 clusters of galaxies. Our analysis combines Chandra and XMM-Newton data using an energy-dependent cross-calibration. After considering a number of scaling relations, we find that gas mass is the most robust estimator of weak lensing mass, yielding 15% {+-} 6% intrinsic scatter at r{sub 500}{sup WL} (the pseudo-pressure Y{sub X} yields a consistent scatter of 22% {+-} 5%). The scatter does not change when measured within a fixed physical radius of 1 Mpc. Clusters with small brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) to X-ray peak offsets constitute a very regular population whose members have the same gas mass fractions and whose even smaller (<10%) deviations from regularity can be ascribed to line of sight geometrical effects alone. Cool-core clusters, while a somewhat different population, also show the same (<10%) scatter in the gas mass-lensing mass relation. There is a good correlation and a hint of bimodality in the plane defined by BCG offset and central entropy (or central cooling time). The pseudo-pressure Y{sub X} does not discriminate between the more relaxed and less relaxed populations, making it perhaps the more even-handed mass proxy for surveys. Overall, hydrostatic masses underestimate weak lensing masses by 10% on the average at r{sub 500}{sup WL}; but cool-core clusters are consistent with no bias, while non-cool-core clusters have a large and constant 15%-20% bias between r{sub 2500}{sup WL} and r{sub 500}{sup WL}, in agreement with N-body simulations incorporating unthermalized gas. For non-cool-core clusters, the bias correlates well with BCG ellipticity. We also examine centroid shift variance and power ratios to quantify substructure; these quantities do not correlate with residuals in the scaling relations. Individual clusters have for the most part forgotten the source of their departures from self-similarity.

  7. Validation of a Measure of Weight-Related Quality of Life in a Community Sample of Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese 4th and 5th Grade Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cushing, Christopher

    2012-08-31

    The current study extends the quality of life assessment literature by examining the reliability and validity of a disease-specific instrument in a sample of nontreatment-seeking school aged children with overweight and ...

  8. False-alarm probability in relation to over-sampled power spectra, with application to Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter A. Sturrock; Jeffrey D. Scargle

    2010-06-03

    The term "false-alarm probability" denotes the probability that at least one out of M independent power values in a prescribed search band of a power spectrum computed from a white-noise time series is expected to be as large as or larger than a given value. The usual formula is based on the assumption that powers are distributed exponentially, as one expects for power measurements of normally distributed random noise. However, in practice one typically examines peaks in an over-sampled power spectrum. It is therefore more appropriate to compare the strength of a particular peak with the distribution of peaks in over-sampled power spectra derived from normally distributed random noise. We show that this leads to a formula for the false-alarm probability that is more conservative than the familiar formula. We also show how to combine these results with a Bayesian method for estimating the probability of the null hypothesis (that there is no oscillation in the time series), and we discuss as an example the application of these procedures to Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino data.

  9. Comparative forecasting performance of symmetric and asymmetric conditional volatility models of an exchange rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balaban, Ercan

    2002-01-01

    The relative out-of-sample forecasting quality of symmetric and asymmetric conditional volatility models of an exchange rate differs according to the symmetric and asymmetric evaluation criteria as well as a regression-based ...

  10. Sampling box

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Terrance D. (617 Chestnut Ct., Aiken, SC 29803); Johnson, Craig (100 Midland Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0895)

    2000-01-01

    An air sampling box that uses a slidable filter tray and a removable filter cartridge to allow for the easy replacement of a filter which catches radioactive particles is disclosed.

  11. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  12. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  13. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  14. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2011-05-01

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the false negative rate (FNR). The FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The testing was performed by SNL and is now completed. The study investigated the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge-wipe samples, RE, and FNR. The experimental design involves 16 test runs, performed in two blocks of eight runs. Three surface materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, and ceramic tile) were tested in the first block, while three other surface materials (plastic, painted wood paneling, and faux leather) were tested in the second block. The eight surface concentrations of the surrogate were randomly assigned to test runs within each block. Some of the concentrations were very low and presented challenges for deposition, sampling, and analysis. However, such tests are needed to investigate RE and FNR over the full range of concentrations of interest. In each run, there were 10 test coupons of each of the three surface materials. A positive control sample was generated at the same time as each test sample. The positive control results will be used to 1) calculate RE values for the wipe sampling and analysis method, and 2) fit RE- and FNR-concentration equations, for each of the six surface materials. Data analyses will support 1) estimating the FNR for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 2) estimating the surface concentrations and their uncertainties of the contaminant for each combination of concentration and surface material, 3) estimating RE (%) and their uncertainties for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 4) fitting FNR-concentration and RE-concentration equations for each of the six surface materials, 5) assessing goodness-of-fit of the equations, and 6) quantifying the uncertainty in FNR and RE predictions made with the fitted equations.

  15. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2010-12-16

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the probability of correct detection (PCD) (or equivalently the false negative rate FNR = 1 ? PCD). The PCD/FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not PCD/FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the PCD/FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in PCD/FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The study will investigate the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge-wipe samples, RE, and PCD/FNR. The experimental design involves 16 test runs, to be performed in two blocks of eight runs. Three surface materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, and ceramic tile) were tested in the first block, while three other surface materials (plastic, painted wood paneling, and faux leather) will be tested in the second block. The eight surface concentrations of the surrogate were randomly assigned to test runs within each block. Some of the concentrations will be very low and may present challenges for deposition, sampling, and analysis. However, such tests are needed to investigate RE and PCD/FNR over the full range of concentrations of interest. In each run, there will be 10 test coupons of each of the three surface materials. A positive control sample will be generated prior to each test sample. The positive control results will be used to 1) calculate RE values for the wipe sampling and analysis method, and 2) fit RE- and PCD-concentration equations, for each of the six surface materials. Data analyses will support 1) estimating the PCD for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 2) estimating the surface concentrations and their uncertainties of the contaminant for each combination of concentration and surface material, 3) estimating RE (%) and their uncertainties for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 4) fitting PCD-concentration and RE-concentration equations for each of the six surface materials, 5) assessing goodness-of-fit of the equations, and 6) quantifying the uncertainty in PCD and RE predictions made with the fitted equations.

  16. An analysis of the accuracy of relative permeability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Teh-Ming

    1982-01-01

    Properties Used in Sample Study. . . 2. Summary of Cases Run 34 3. Summary of Sample Properties. 36 4. Comparison of the Relative Error 51 5. Error in Water Infection Rate. 57 6. Influence of Different Magnitude of Measurement Error. 75 LIST QF FIGURES.... Pressure Variation. 27 8. Simulated Measurement Errors. 31 Estimation Deviation Distribution of k for Cases 1, 5, 6, 7. 41 10 Estimation Deviation Distribution of k for Cases 1, 5, 6, 7. 42 Standard Deviation Distribution of Oil Relative Permeability...

  17. Quantum rejection sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maris Ozols; Martin Roetteler; Jérémie Roland

    2011-12-13

    Rejection sampling is a well-known method to sample from a target distribution, given the ability to sample from a given distribution. The method has been first formalized by von Neumann (1951) and has many applications in classical computing. We define a quantum analogue of rejection sampling: given a black box producing a coherent superposition of (possibly unknown) quantum states with some amplitudes, the problem is to prepare a coherent superposition of the same states, albeit with different target amplitudes. The main result of this paper is a tight characterization of the query complexity of this quantum state generation problem. We exhibit an algorithm, which we call quantum rejection sampling, and analyze its cost using semidefinite programming. Our proof of a matching lower bound is based on the automorphism principle which allows to symmetrize any algorithm over the automorphism group of the problem. Our main technical innovation is an extension of the automorphism principle to continuous groups that arise for quantum state generation problems where the oracle encodes unknown quantum states, instead of just classical data. Furthermore, we illustrate how quantum rejection sampling may be used as a primitive in designing quantum algorithms, by providing three different applications. We first show that it was implicitly used in the quantum algorithm for linear systems of equations by Harrow, Hassidim and Lloyd. Secondly, we show that it can be used to speed up the main step in the quantum Metropolis sampling algorithm by Temme et al.. Finally, we derive a new quantum algorithm for the hidden shift problem of an arbitrary Boolean function and relate its query complexity to "water-filling" of the Fourier spectrum.

  18. High repetition rate fiber lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

  19. Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Phillip N.

    2009-01-01

    and a high resuspension rate, will lead to the conclusionand a high resuspension rate, will lead to the conclusionresuspension rate, the assumed sampling e?ectiveness, and the level of certainty that a building is “safe enough” — will lead

  20. The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related...

  1. Entanglement sampling and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frédéric Dupuis; Omar Fawzi; Stephanie Wehner

    2015-06-15

    A natural measure for the amount of quantum information that a physical system E holds about another system A = A_1,...,A_n is given by the min-entropy Hmin(A|E). Specifically, the min-entropy measures the amount of entanglement between E and A, and is the relevant measure when analyzing a wide variety of problems ranging from randomness extraction in quantum cryptography, decoupling used in channel coding, to physical processes such as thermalization or the thermodynamic work cost (or gain) of erasing a quantum system. As such, it is a central question to determine the behaviour of the min-entropy after some process M is applied to the system A. Here we introduce a new generic tool relating the resulting min-entropy to the original one, and apply it to several settings of interest, including sampling of subsystems and measuring in a randomly chosen basis. The sampling results lead to new upper bounds on quantum random access codes, and imply the existence of "local decouplers". The results on random measurements yield new high-order entropic uncertainty relations with which we prove the optimality of cryptographic schemes in the bounded quantum storage model.

  2. Sample push-out fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biernat, John L. (Scotia, NY)

    2002-11-05

    This invention generally relates to the remote removal of pelletized samples from cylindrical containment capsules. V-blocks are used to receive the samples and provide guidance to push out rods. Stainless steel liners fit into the v-channels on the v-blocks which permits them to be remotely removed and replaced or cleaned to prevent cross contamination between capsules and samples. A capsule holder securely holds the capsule while allowing manual up/down and in/out movement to align each sample hole with the v-blocks. Both end sections contain identical v-blocks; one that guides the drive out screw and rods or manual push out rods and the other to receive the samples as they are driven out of the capsule.

  3. Method and apparatus for data sampling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Odell, Daniel M. C. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sampling radiation detector outputs and determining event data from the collected samples. The method uses high speed sampling of the detector output, the conversion of the samples to digital values, and the discrimination of the digital values so that digital values representing detected events are determined. The high speed sampling and digital conversion is performed by an A/D sampler that samples the detector output at a rate high enough to produce numerous digital samples for each detected event. The digital discrimination identifies those digital samples that are not representative of detected events. The sampling and discrimination also provides for temporary or permanent storage, either serially or in parallel, to a digital storage medium.

  4. Method and apparatus for data sampling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1994-04-19

    A method and apparatus for sampling radiation detector outputs and determining event data from the collected samples is described. The method uses high speed sampling of the detector output, the conversion of the samples to digital values, and the discrimination of the digital values so that digital values representing detected events are determined. The high speed sampling and digital conversion is performed by an A/D sampler that samples the detector output at a rate high enough to produce numerous digital samples for each detected event. The digital discrimination identifies those digital samples that are not representative of detected events. The sampling and discrimination also provides for temporary or permanent storage, either serially or in parallel, to a digital storage medium. 6 figures.

  5. Cooling rate, heating rate and aging effects in glassy water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Giovambattista; H. Eugene Stanley; Francesco Sciortino

    2004-03-03

    We report a molecular dynamics simulation study of the properties of the potential energy landscape sampled by a system of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process of regenerating the equilibrium liquid by heating the glass. We study the dependence of these processes on the cooling/heating rates as well as on the role of aging (the time elapsed in the glass state). We compare the properties of the potential energy landscape sampled during these processes with the corresponding properties sampled in the liquid equilibrium state to elucidate under which conditions glass configurations can be associated with equilibrium liquid configurations.

  6. Stochastic Sampling for Internet Traffic Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rejaie, Reza

    is to sample or aggregate information. For example, to estimate link utilization, the size of all packets Gong Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA data from different sources with independent clocks and sampling rates. We present results that show

  7. ANALYSES AND COMPARISON OF BULK AND COIL SURFACE SAMPLES FROM THE DWPF SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, M.; Nash, C.; Stone, M.

    2012-02-17

    Sludge samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) heating coil frame and coil surface were characterized to identify differences that might help identify heat transfer fouling materials. The SME steam coils have seen increased fouling leading to lower boil-up rates. Samples of the sludge were taken from the coil frame somewhat distant from the coil (bulk tank material) and from the coil surface (coil surface sample). The results of the analysis indicate the composition of the two SME samples are very similar with the exception that the coil surface sample shows {approx}5-10X higher mercury concentration than the bulk tank sample. Elemental analyses and x-ray diffraction results did not indicate notable differences between the two samples. The ICP-MS and Cs-137 data indicate no significant differences in the radionuclide composition of the two SME samples. Semi-volatile organic analysis revealed numerous organic molecules, these likely result from antifoaming additives. The compositions of the two SME samples also match well with the analyzed composition of the SME batch with the exception of significantly higher silicon, lithium, and boron content in the batch sample indicating the coil samples are deficient in frit relative to the SME batch composition.

  8. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy?s extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative sampling directly from the large Tank Farm tanks is a difficult, if not unsolvable enterprise due to li

  9. Rain sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, D.A.; Tomich, S.D.; Glover, D.W.; Allen, E.V.; Hales, J.M.; Dana, M.T.

    1991-05-14

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of the precipitation from the chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device. 11 figures.

  10. Rain sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Danny A. (Richland, WA); Tomich, Stanley D. (Richland, WA); Glover, Donald W. (Prosser, WA); Allen, Errol V. (Benton City, WA); Hales, Jeremy M. (Kennewick, WA); Dana, Marshall T. (Richland, WA)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of said precipitation from said chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device.

  11. FRN and Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...

  12. FRN & Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...

  13. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Furth, H.P.; Valeo, E.J.; Goldhaber, M.

    1983-05-09

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the reaction rates in a nuclear fusion reactor; and more particularly, to the use of polarized nuclear fuel.

  14. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  15. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  16. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  17. Sample Environments at Sector 30

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Designs Two standard sample holder designs are below. Copper sample holder from ARS. ARS sample holde diagram picture Aluminum sample holder - custom design Al design Al pic...

  18. The Inverse Problem for Derivative Securities of Interest Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-02-02

    May 26, 2000 ... Market price for risk of interest rate reflects the close relation between risk and yield of securities dependent on interest rate. An inverse problem.

  19. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-21

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  20. Adaptive Peer Sampling with Newscast Norbert Tlgyesi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jelasity, Márk

    extremely robust to many failure scenarios, including node churn and catastrophic failure. We identify two experiences a higher-than-average message drop rate then the probability of sampling this node in the network at very different rates which can result in very poor random sampling especially at nodes with high

  1. Sampling system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  2. IDENTIFICATION Your Sample Box

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    to Virginia Tech Soil Testing Lab, 145 Smyth Hall (MC 0465), 185 Ag Quad Ln, Blacksburg VA 24061, in sturdy, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, B, and soluble salts) NoCharge $16.00 Organic Matter $4.00 $6.00 Fax with soil sample and form; make check or money order payable to "Treasurer, Virginia Tech." COST PER SAMPLE

  3. Free Standing Soil Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Free Standing Soil Sample Kiosks Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service Reportto of Richland County, Jackie Kopack Jordan has partnered with local garden centers to provide free standing soil sample collections sites. The free standing kiosks are located at three local garden centers. Woodley

  4. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis...

  5. 2004 Rate Adjustments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Transmission and Ancillary Services Federal Register Notice -- Rate Order WAPA-141: Notice of Extension of Formula Rates for Transmission and Ancillary Services If you have any...

  6. Rate Schedule CPP-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    points established by contract, in accordance with approved policies and procedures. Formula Rate: The formula rate for CPP includes three components: Component 1: The customer...

  7. Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores and other commercial buildings in California. Issues related to the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Apte, Mike G.

    2010-10-31

    This report considers the question of whether the California Energy Commission should incorporate the ASHRAE 62.1 ventilation standard into the Title 24 ventilation rate (VR) standards, thus allowing buildings to follow the Indoor Air Quality Procedure. This, in contrast to the current prescriptive standard, allows the option of using ventilation rate as one of several strategies, which might include source reduction and air cleaning, to meet specified targets of indoor air concentrations and occupant acceptability. The research findings reviewed in this report suggest that a revised approach to a ventilation standard for commercial buildings is necessary, because the current prescriptive ASHRAE 62.1 Ventilation Rate Procedure (VRP) apparently does not provide occupants with either sufficiently acceptable or sufficiently healthprotective air quality. One possible solution would be a dramatic increase in the minimum ventilation rates (VRs) prescribed by a VRP. This solution, however, is not feasible for at least three reasons: the current need to reduce energy use rather than increase it further, the problem of polluted outdoor air in many cities, and the apparent limited ability of increasing VRs to reduce all indoor airborne contaminants of concern (per Hodgson (2003)). Any feasible solution is thus likely to include methods of pollutant reduction other than increased outdoor air ventilation; e.g., source reduction or air cleaning. The alternative 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure (IAQP) offers multiple possible benefits in this direction over the VRP, but seems too limited by insufficient specifications and inadequate available data to provide adequate protection for occupants. Ventilation system designers rarely choose to use it, finding it too arbitrary and requiring use of much non-engineering judgment and information that is not readily available. This report suggests strategies to revise the current ASHRAE IAQP to reduce its current limitations. These strategies, however, would make it more complex and more prescriptive, and would require substantial research. One practical intermediate strategy to save energy would be an alternate VRP, allowing VRs lower than currently prescribed, as long as indoor VOC concentrations were no higher than with VRs prescribed under the current VRP. This kind of hybrid, with source reduction and use of air cleaning optional but permitted, could eventually evolve, as data, materials, and air-cleaning technology allowed gradual lowering of allowable concentrations, into a fully developed IAQP. Ultimately, it seems that VR standards must evolve to resemble the IAQP, especially in California, where buildings must achieve zero net energy use within 20 years.

  8. Water Sample Concentrator

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  9. Liquid scintillator sampling calorimetry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudgeon, R. Greg

    1994-01-01

    This research was supported by the Department of Energy to investigate a new sampling calorimeter technology for the high intensity regions of the Superconducting Supercollider. The technology involved using liquid scintillator filled glass tubes...

  10. Sample Changes and Issues

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    EIA-914 Survey and HPDI. Figure 2 shows how this could change apparent production. The blue line shows the reported sample production as it would normally be reported under the...

  11. Dissolution actuated sample container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nance, Thomas A.; McCoy, Frank T.

    2013-03-26

    A sample collection vial and process of using a vial is provided. The sample collection vial has an opening secured by a dissolvable plug. When dissolved, liquids may enter into the interior of the collection vial passing along one or more edges of a dissolvable blocking member. As the blocking member is dissolved, a spring actuated closure is directed towards the opening of the vial which, when engaged, secures the vial contents against loss or contamination.

  12. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS PROTOCOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, T; P Fledderman, P

    2007-02-09

    Radiological sampling and analyses are performed to collect data for a variety of specific reasons covering a wide range of projects. These activities include: Effluent monitoring; Environmental surveillance; Emergency response; Routine ambient monitoring; Background assessments; Nuclear license termination; Remediation; Deactivation and decommissioning (D&D); and Waste management. In this chapter, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs at nuclear operating facilities and radiological sampling and analysis plans for remediation and D&D activities will be discussed.

  13. The Sample Preparation Laboratories | Sample Preparation Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopment TopMetathesisSediments and RelatedProjectResearch

  14. Circumnuclear Media and Accretion Rates of Quiescent Supermassive Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Generozov, Aleksey; Metzger, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    We calculate steady-state, one-dimensional hydrodynamic profiles of hot gas in slowly accreting ("quiescent") galactic nuclei for a range of central black hole masses, parameterized gas heating rates, and observationally-motivated stellar density profiles. Mass is supplied to the circumnuclear medium by stellar winds, while energy is injected primarily by stellar winds, supernovae, and black hole feedback. Analytic estimates are derived for the stagnation radius (where the radial velocity of the gas passes through zero) and the black hole accretion rate, as a function of the black hole mass and the gas heating efficiency, the latter being related to the star-formation history. We assess the conditions under which radiative instabilities develop in the hydrostatic region near the stagnation radius, both in the case of a single burst of star formation and for the average star formation history predicted by cosmological simulations. By combining a sample of measured nuclear X-ray luminosities from nearby quiesce...

  15. Fluid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houck, Edward D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  16. Fluid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houck, E.D.

    1994-10-11

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.

  17. Viscous sludge sample collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beitel, George A [Richland, WA

    1983-01-01

    A vertical core sample collection system for viscous sludge. A sample tube's upper end has a flange and is attached to a piston. The tube and piston are located in the upper end of a bore in a housing. The bore's lower end leads outside the housing and has an inwardly extending rim. Compressed gas, from a storage cylinder, is quickly introduced into the bore's upper end to rapidly accelerate the piston and tube down the bore. The lower end of the tube has a high sludge entering velocity to obtain a full-length sludge sample without disturbing strata detail. The tube's downward motion is stopped when its upper end flange impacts against the bore's lower end inwardly extending rim.

  18. Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

    2011-02-01

    A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

  19. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  20. EDC-37 Deflagration Rates at Elevated Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maienschein, J L; Koerner, J G

    2008-01-31

    We report deflagration rates on EDC-37 at high pressures. Experiments are conducted using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory High Pressure Strand Burner (HPSB) apparatus. The HPSB contains a deflagrating sample in a small volume, high pressure chamber. The sample consists of nine, 6.35 mm diameter, 6.35 mm length cylinders stacked on end, with burn wires placed between cylinders. Sample deflagration is limited to the cross-sectional surface of the cylinder by coating the cylindrical surface of the tower with Halthane 88-2 epoxy. Sample deflagration is initiated on one end of the tower by a B/KNO{sub 3} and HNS igniter train. Simultaneous temporal pressure history and burn front time of arrival measurements yield the laminar deflagration rate for a range of pressures and provide insight into deflagration uniformity. These measurements are one indicator of overall thermal explosion violence. Specific details of the experiment and the apparatus can be found in the literature.

  1. Enhanced reaction rates in NDP analysis with neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, R. Gregory

    2014-04-15

    Neutron depth profiling (NDP) makes accessible quantitative information on a few isotopic concentration profiles ranging from the surface into the sample a few micrometers. Because the candidate analytes for NDP are few, there is little interference encountered. Furthermore, neutrons have no charge so mixed chemical states in the sample are of no direct concern. There are a few nuclides that exhibit large probabilities for neutron scattering. The effect of neutron scattering on NDP measurements has not previously been evaluated as a basis for either enhancing the reaction rates or as a source of measurement error. Hydrogen is a common element exhibiting large neutron scattering probability found in or around sample volumes being analyzed by NDP. A systematic study was conducted to determine the degree of signal change when neutron scattering occurs during analysis. The relative signal perturbation was evaluated for materials of varied neutron scattering probability, concentration, total mass, and geometry. Signal enhancements up to 50% are observed when the hydrogen density is high and in close proximity to the region of analysis with neutron beams of sub thermal energies. Greater signal enhancements for the same neutron number density are reported for thermal neutron beams. Even adhesive tape used to position the sample produces a measureable signal enhancement. Because of the shallow volume, negligible distortion of the NDP measured profile shape is encountered from neutron scattering.

  2. Sampling Report for May-June, 2014 WIPP Samples

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1 L L N L - X X X X - X X X X X Sampling Report for May- June, 2014 WIPP Samples UNCLASSIFIED Forensic Science Center January 8, 2015 Sampling Report for May-June, 2014 WIPP...

  3. Gas sampling system for a mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2003-12-30

    The present invention relates generally to a gas sampling system, and specifically to a gas sampling system for transporting a hazardous process gas to a remotely located mass spectrometer. The gas sampling system includes a capillary tube having a predetermined capillary length and capillary diameter in communication with the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a flexible tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube intermediate the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a heat transfer tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube, and a heating device in communication the heat transfer tube for substantially preventing condensation of the process gas within the capillary tube.

  4. Practical reporting times for environmental samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayne, C.K.; Schmoyer, D.D.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    Preanalytical holding times for environmental samples are specified because chemical and physical characteristics may change between sampling and chemical analysis. For example, the Federal Register prescribes a preanalytical holding time of 14 days for volatile organic compounds in soil stored at 4{degrees}C. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) uses a more technical definition that the preanalytical holding time is the day when the analyte concentration for an environmental sample falls below the lower 99% confidence interval on the analyte concentration at day zero. This study reviews various holding time definitions and suggest a new preanalytical holding time approach using acceptable error rates for measuring an environmental analyte. This practical reporting time (PRT) approach has been applied to nineteen volatile organic compounds and four explosives in three environmental soil samples. A PRT nomograph of error rates has been developed to estimate the consequences of missing a preanalytical holding time. This nomograph can be applied to a large class of analytes with concentrations that decay linearly or exponentially with time regardless of sample matrices and storage conditions.

  5. Rating of Mixed Split Residential Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domanski, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    require that manufac- turers derive cooling ratings for unitary systems by testing a sample of sufficient size to meet certain specified statistical confidence levels. For split unitary systems comprising an outdoor unit and an indoor coil assembly...(95), SEER, and recommended indoor volumetric flow rate of air, are publicly available. The procedure also assumee that the matched indoor section is available for inspection and evaluation of the indoor coil capacity and the indoor fan power...

  6. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, Russell M. (Princeton, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Valeo, Ernest J. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Goldhaber, Maurice (Bayport, NY)

    1988-01-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  7. Sample introducing apparatus and sample modules for mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN); Wise, Marcus B. (Kingston, TN)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for introducing gaseous samples from a wide range of environmental matrices into a mass spectrometer for analysis of the samples is described. Several sample preparing modules including a real-time air monitoring module, a soil/liquid purge module, and a thermal desorption module are individually and rapidly attachable to the sample introducing apparatus for supplying gaseous samples to the mass spectrometer. The sample-introducing apparatus uses a capillary column for conveying the gaseous samples into the mass spectrometer and is provided with an open/split interface in communication with the capillary and a sample archiving port through which at least about 90 percent of the gaseous sample in a mixture with an inert gas that was introduced into the sample introducing apparatus is separated from a minor portion of the mixture entering the capillary discharged from the sample introducing apparatus.

  8. Sample introducing apparatus and sample modules for mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, C.V.; Wise, M.B.

    1993-12-21

    An apparatus for introducing gaseous samples from a wide range of environmental matrices into a mass spectrometer for analysis of the samples is described. Several sample preparing modules including a real-time air monitoring module, a soil/liquid purge module, and a thermal desorption module are individually and rapidly attachable to the sample introducing apparatus for supplying gaseous samples to the mass spectrometer. The sample-introducing apparatus uses a capillary column for conveying the gaseous samples into the mass spectrometer and is provided with an open/split interface in communication with the capillary and a sample archiving port through which at least about 90 percent of the gaseous sample in a mixture with an inert gas that was introduced into the sample introducing apparatus is separated from a minor portion of the mixture entering the capillary discharged from the sample introducing apparatus. 5 figures.

  9. Decoupled Sampling for Graphics Pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragan-Kelley, Jonathan Millar

    We propose a generalized approach to decoupling shading from visibility sampling in graphics pipelines, which we call decoupled sampling. Decoupled sampling enables stochastic supersampling of motion and defocus blur at ...

  10. Sample Environments at Sector 30

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sample holder designs are below. Aluminum sample holder - custom design Al design Al pic click drawing for .pdf-file Aluminum sample holder - custom design Al design Al pic...

  11. Fluid sampling apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeamans, D.R.

    1998-02-03

    Incorporation of a bellows in a sampling syringe eliminates ingress of contaminants, permits replication of amounts and compression of multiple sample injections, and enables remote sampling for off-site analysis. 3 figs.

  12. Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allow an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds.

  13. Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, C.V.

    1991-02-05

    A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allows an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds. 11 figures.

  14. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-09-12

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

  15. Germanium-76 Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-04-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, and the first one gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on April 24, 2011. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility, a DOE user facility at PNNL, was used to make the required isotopic and chemical purity measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The results of this first analysis are reported here.

  16. Small sample feature selection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sima, Chao

    2007-09-17

    that the correction factor is a function of the dimensionality. The estimated standard deviations for the bolstering kernels are thus given by: ?i = ˆd(yi) ?p,i , for i = 1,...,n. (2.8) Clearly, as the number of samples in the training data increases, the standard de..., the DeArray software of the National Human Genome Research Institute calculates a multi-faceted quality metric for each spot [25]. This quality problem is a result of imperfections in RNA preparation, hybridization to the arrays, scanning, and also...

  17. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700 GJO-2003-411-TACe: SUBJIHX:ontineSampling at

  18. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700 GJO-2003-411-TACe: SUBJIHX:ontineSampling

  19. 2003 CBECS Sample Design

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade Year-0Cubic MonthlyTechnical Information > Sample

  20. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the t-) S/,,5 'a C O M1 theGroundwater Sampling at the

  1. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the t-) S/,,5 'a C O M1 theGroundwater Sampling at

  2. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the t-) S/,,5 'a C O M1 theGroundwater Sampling at4

  3. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the t-) S/,,5 'a C O M1 theGroundwater Sampling at4and

  4. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the t-) S/,,5 'a C O M1 theGroundwater Sampling

  5. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the t-) S/,,5 'a C O M1 theGroundwater Sampling Rifle,

  6. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the t-) S/,,5 'a C O M1 theGroundwater Sampling

  7. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the t-) S/,,5 'a C O M1 theGroundwater Sampling4

  8. Labor Relations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Addressing Poor Performance What Happens if an Employee’s Performance is Below the Meets Expectations (ME) level? Any time during the appraisal period an employee demonstrates that he/she is performing below the ME level in at least one critical element, the Rating Official should contact his/her Human Resources Office for guidance and: •If performance is at the Needs Improvement (NI) level; issue the employee a Performance Assistance Plan (PAP); or •If performance is at the Fails to Meet Expectations (FME) level; issue the employee a Performance Improvement Plan (PIP). Department of Energy Headquarters and The National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU) Collective Bargaining Agreement The National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU) is the exclusive representative of bargaining unit employees at the Department of Energy Headquarters offices in the Washington DC metropolitan area. The terms and conditions of this agreement have been negotiated by DOE and NTEU, and prescribe their respective rights and obligations in matters related to conditions of employment. Headquarters 1187 Request For Payroll Deductions For Labor Organization Dues The Request for Payroll Deduction for Labor Organization Dues (SF-1187) permits eligible employees, who are members of the National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU), to authorize voluntary allotments from their compensation. Headquarters 1188 Cancellation Of Payroll Deductions For Labor Organization Dues The Cancellation of Payroll Deductions for Labor Organizations Dues (SF-1188) permits eligible employees, who are members of the National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU), to cancel dues allotments. The National Treasury Employees Union, Collective Bargaining Agreement, Article 9 – Dues Withholding This article is for the purpose of permitting eligible employees, who are members of the National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU), to authorize voluntary allotments from their compensation.

  9. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  10. LCC Guidance Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  11. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-02-01

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  12. Sample holder with optical features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milas, Mirko; Zhu, Yimei; Rameau, Jonathan David

    2013-07-30

    A sample holder for holding a sample to be observed for research purposes, particularly in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), generally includes an external alignment part for directing a light beam in a predetermined beam direction, a sample holder body in optical communication with the external alignment part and a sample support member disposed at a distal end of the sample holder body opposite the external alignment part for holding a sample to be analyzed. The sample holder body defines an internal conduit for the light beam and the sample support member includes a light beam positioner for directing the light beam between the sample holder body and the sample held by the sample support member.

  13. Workshop on Thermonuclear Reaction Rates for Astrophysics Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Workshop on Thermonuclear Reaction Rates for Astrophysics Applications 24-25 November 2011, Athens circular for the Workshop on Thermonuclear Reaction Rates for Astrophysics Applications, to be held of thermonuclear reaction rates. The topics of the workshop, in relation with thermonuclear reaction rates

  14. Fluid sampling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  15. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod L. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 19F SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.

    2009-12-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked by Liquid Waste Operations to characterize Tank 19F closure samples. Tank 19F slurry samples analyzed included the liquid and solid fractions derived from the slurry materials along with the floor scrape bottom Tank 19F wet solids. These samples were taken from Tank 19F in April 2009 and made available to SRNL in the same month. Because of limited amounts of solids observed in Tank 19F samples, the samples from the north quadrants of the tank were combined into one Tank 19F North Hemisphere sample and similarly the south quadrant samples were combined into one Tank 19F South Hemisphere sample. These samples were delivered to the SRNL shielded cell. The Tank 19F samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Where analytical methods yielded additional contaminants other than those requested by the customer, these results were also reported. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on detection values of 1E-04 {micro}Ci/g for most radionuclides and customer desired detection values of 1E-05 {micro}Ci/g for I-129, Pa-231, Np-237, and Ra-226. While many of the target detection limits, as specified in the technical task request and task technical and quality assurance plans were met for the species characterized for Tank 19F, some were not met. In a number of cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. SRNL, in conjunction with the plant customer, reviewed all these cases and determined that the impacts were negligible.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TANK 18F SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.; Click, D.; Diprete, D.

    2009-12-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked by Liquid Waste Operations to characterize Tank 18F closure samples. Tank 18F slurry samples analyzed included the liquid and solid fractions derived from the 'as-received' slurry materials along with the floor scrape bottom Tank 18F wet solids. These samples were taken from Tank 18F in March 2009 and made available to SRNL in the same month. Because of limited amounts of solids observed in Tank 18F samples, the samples from the north quadrants of the tank were combined into one North Tank 18F Hemisphere sample and similarly the south quadrant samples were combined into one South Tank 18F Hemisphere sample. These samples were delivered to the SRNL shielded cell. The Tank 18F samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Where analytical methods yielded additional contaminants other than those requested by the customer, these results were also reported. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were 1E-04 {micro}Ci/g for most radionuclides and customer desired detection values of 1E-05 {micro}Ci/g for I-129, Pa-231, Np-237, and Ra-226. While many of the minimum detection limits, as specified in the technical task request and task technical and quality assurance plans were met for the species characterized for Tank 18F, some were not met due to spectral interferences. In a number of cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. SRNL, in conjunction with the plant customer, reviewed all these cases and determined that the impacts were negligible.

  18. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >

  19. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >

  20. Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | FY

  1. Previous Power Rates (rates/current)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal PlumesPress1,Previous EventsRates

  2. Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Normale Superieure de Cachan Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan; Stone, Howard A Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering,...

  3. The potential benefits of distributed deneration and rate-related...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interruptions to U.S. Electricity Consumers Economic Benefits of Increasing Electric Grid Resilience to Weather Outages Smart Grid Investments Improve Grid Reliability,...

  4. Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |production atmeasurementComparison Study (Conference)

  5. Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) |Final

  6. Industrial Relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulman, Lloyd

    1987-01-01

    S. Tannenbaum. Madison: Industrial 1955. The Rise of the N ai a Working Paper 8733 INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS L l o y d UlmanEconomic Theory and Doctrine INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS Two great

  7. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-05-11

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05/kWh to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when commercial PV systems represent a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  8. The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-06-24

    This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-min interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05 to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when energy from commercial PV systems represents a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.

  9. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  10. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 3.98 4.17 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  11. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.17 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  12. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for HLH and LLH. 2. OTHER RATE PROVISIONS a. BPA Incremental Cost BPA's incremental cost will be based on an hourly energy index in the Pacific Northwest. If no adequate...

  13. Specified assurance level sampling procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willner, O.

    1980-11-01

    In the nuclear industry design specifications for certain quality characteristics require that the final product be inspected by a sampling plan which can demonstrate product conformance to stated assurance levels. The Specified Assurance Level (SAL) Sampling Procedure has been developed to permit the direct selection of attribute sampling plans which can meet commonly used assurance levels. The SAL procedure contains sampling plans which yield the minimum sample size at stated assurance levels. The SAL procedure also provides sampling plans with acceptance numbers ranging from 0 to 10, thus, making available to the user a wide choice of plans all designed to comply with a stated assurance level.

  14. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    1996-12-02

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

  15. A Comparison of Independent Star Formation Diagnostics for a UV-Selected Sample of Nearby Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, M; Chan, B; Cram, L; Ellis, R; Treyer, M A; Hopkins, A; Sullivan, Mark; Mobasher, Bahram; Chan, Ben; Cram, Lawrence; Ellis, Richard; Treyer, Marie; Hopkins, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    We present results from a decimetric radio survey undertaken with the Very Large Array as part of a longer term goal to inter-compare star formation and dust extinction diagnostics, on a galaxy by galaxy basis, for a representative sample of nearby galaxies. For our survey field, Selected Area 57, star formation rates derived from 1.4GHz luminosities are compared with earlier nebular emission line and ultraviolet (UV) continuum diagnostics. We find broad correlations, over several decades in luminosity, between H-alpha, the UV continuum and 1.4GHz diagnostics. However, the scatter in these relations is found to be larger than observational errors, with offsets between the observed relations and those expected assuming constant star-formation histories and luminosity-independent extinction models. We investigate the physical origin of the observed relations, and conclude the discrepancies between different star-formation diagnostics can only be partly explained by simple models of dust extinction in galaxies. ...

  16. 3 - DJ : sampling as design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Sayjel Vijay

    2015-01-01

    3D Sampling is introduced as a new spatial craft that can be applied to architectural design, akin to how sampling is applied in the field of electronic music. Through the development of 3-DJ, a prototype design software, ...

  17. Resuspension rates from aged inert-tracer sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1982-11-01

    Wind-caused particle resuspension rates were investigated with molybdenum tracers at two circular resuspension sites in the Hanford area. The tracer particles were calcium molybdate. The radii of each circular tracer-source area were 22.9 m and 29.9 m respectively for tracer deposited on 2 October 1973 and 29 May 1979. Resuspension rates were investigated by sampling resuspended tracer with air sampling equipment mounted as a function of height on a centrally located sampling tower at each site. Sampling equipment was operated as a function of wind speed increments in order to investigate resuspension rates, wind speed dependencies of resuspension rates, and for subsequent comparisons of resuspension rate changes as a function of time for constant wind speed ranges. Experimental results are reported for measurements over several years. Resuspension rates ranged from about 10/sup -13/ to 10/sup -6/ fraction of the tracer source resuspended per second. Resuspension rates tended to increase with increasing wind speed. At one investigation site, resuspension rates were nearly constant, except for seasonal variations, for a four-year time period. Resuspension rates appear higher in the autumn than in the spring and summer.

  18. A COMPARISON OF ESTIMATED AND BACKGROUND SUBSIDENCE RATES IN TEXAS-LOUISIANA GEOPRESSURED GEOTHERMAL AREAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    and Kazmann, R. G. , 1978, Subsidence in the capital areageothermal-related subsidence rates derived from EDAW ESA111-5 Scale corpus Background Subsidence Rates Compared to

  19. Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, K.

    2012-06-01

    Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

  20. Variability of high-volume sampling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelar, Eugene

    1974-01-01

    a con- venient method of collecting particulates in both urban and non-urban localities (General Metal Works, Inc. Catalogue) . The sampling method is relatively simple and does not require elaborate equipment. The blower motor, which... motor but had the same performance characteristics of its predecessor, was developed and made commercially available in 1957. Two important modifications of this new machine were: stronger cast ? aluminum parts and the elimination of the rubber...

  1. Category:Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPID RoadmapInformation Utility RateWater Sampling

  2. Dynamically Close Galaxy Pairs and Merger Rate Evolution in the CNOC2 Redshift Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patton, D R; Carlberg, R G; Marzke, R O; Yee, H K C; Hall, P B; Lin, H; Morris, S L; Sawicki, M; Shepherd, C W; Wirth, G D

    2001-01-01

    We investigate redshift evolution in the galaxy merger and accretion rates, using a well-defined sample of 4184 galaxies with 0.12 < z < 0.55 and R_C < 21.5. We identify 88 galaxies in close (5 < r_p < 20 h^{-1} kpc) dynamical (delta v < 500 km/s) pairs. These galaxies are used to compute global pair statistics, after accounting for selection effects resulting from the flux limit, k-corrections, luminosity evolution, and spectroscopic incompleteness. We find that the number of companions per galaxy (for -21 < M_B^{k,e} < -18) is Nc = 0.0321 +/- 0.0077 at z=0.3. The luminosity in companions, per galaxy, is Lc = 0.0294 +/- 0.0084 x 10^10 h^2 L_sun. We assume that Nc is proportional to the galaxy merger rate, while Lc is directly related to the mass accretion rate. After increasing the maximum pair separation to 50 h^{-1} kpc, and comparing with the low redshift SSRS2 pairs sample, we infer evolution in the galaxy merger and accretion rates of (1+z)^{2.3 +/- 0.7} and (1+z)^{2.3 +/- 0.9} r...

  3. Dynamically Close Galaxy Pairs and Merger Rate Evolution in the CNOC2 Redshift Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. R. Patton; C. J. Pritchet; R. G. Carlberg; R. O. Marzke; H. K. C. Yee; P. B. Hall; H. Lin; S. L. Morris; M. Sawicki; C. W. Shepherd; G. D. Wirth

    2001-09-24

    We investigate redshift evolution in the galaxy merger and accretion rates, using a well-defined sample of 4184 galaxies with 0.12 < z < 0.55 and R_C < 21.5. We identify 88 galaxies in close (5 < r_p < 20 h^{-1} kpc) dynamical (delta v < 500 km/s) pairs. These galaxies are used to compute global pair statistics, after accounting for selection effects resulting from the flux limit, k-corrections, luminosity evolution, and spectroscopic incompleteness. We find that the number of companions per galaxy (for -21 < M_B^{k,e} < -18) is Nc = 0.0321 +/- 0.0077 at z=0.3. The luminosity in companions, per galaxy, is Lc = 0.0294 +/- 0.0084 x 10^10 h^2 L_sun. We assume that Nc is proportional to the galaxy merger rate, while Lc is directly related to the mass accretion rate. After increasing the maximum pair separation to 50 h^{-1} kpc, and comparing with the low redshift SSRS2 pairs sample, we infer evolution in the galaxy merger and accretion rates of (1+z)^{2.3 +/- 0.7} and (1+z)^{2.3 +/- 0.9} respectively. These are the first such estimates to be made using only confirmed dynamical pairs. When combined with several additional assumptions, this implies that approximately 15% of present epoch galaxies with -21 < M_B < -18 have undergone a major merger since z=1.

  4. Homeowner Soil Sample Information Form 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony

    2007-04-11

    THE TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY SYSTEM Soil, Water and Forage Testing Laboratory Urban and Homeowner Soil Sample Information Form See sampling procedures and mailing instructions on the back of this form. (PLEASE DO NOT SEND CASH) SU07 E-444... (7-07) Results will be mailed to this address ONLY Address City Phone County where sampled Name Laboratory # (For Lab Use Only) State Zip Payment (DO NOT SEND CASH). Amount Paid $ SUBMITTED BY: Check Money Order Make Checks Payable to: Soil...

  5. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  6. Exports and exchange rate : a firm-level investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Exports and exchange rate : a firm-level investigation N° 2008-02 Février 2008 Sarah Guillou OFCE-DRIC hal-00973044,version1-3Apr2014 #12;Exports and exchange rate: a firm-level investigation Sarah Guillou February 2008 Abstract This paper investigates the relation between export behaviour and the exchange rate

  7. Sample Residential Program Term Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A sample for defining and elaborating on the specifics of a clean energy loan program. Author: U.S. Department of Energy

  8. Adaptive Sampling for Environmental Robotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Rahimi; Richard Pon; Deborah Estrin; William J. Kaiser; Mani Srivastava; Gaurav S. Sukhatme

    2003-01-01

    186, 2003. S. Thrun, “Robotics Mapping: A survey”, Exploringtechnique to environmental robotics applications includingSampling for Environmental Robotics Mohammad Rahimi †,‡‡ ,

  9. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  10. Solvent Hold Tank Sample Results For MCU-15-710-711-712: June 2015 Monthly Sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2015-10-07

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received one set of Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples (MCU-15-710, MCU-15-711, and MCU-15-712), pulled on 06/15/2015 for analysis. The samples were combined and analyzed for composition. Analysis of the composite sample MCU-15-710-711-712 indicated a low concentration (~ 55 % of nominal) of the suppressor (TiDG) and concentrations of the extractant (MaxCalix), and of the modifier (Cs-7SB) in the solvent that were slightly lower than nominal. This analysis confirms the addition of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier (92 % of nominal) to the solvent in February 2015. Based on the current monthly sample, the levels of TiDG, MaxCalix, and modifier were sufficient when this solvent sample was collected from MCU. A higher cesium concentration (9.3 E6 dpm/mL) was observed in this sample relative to recent samples. In the past, this level of cesium appeared to correlate with upsets in the MCU operation. It is not known at this time the reason for the higher cesium level in this solvent. No impurities above the 1000 ppm level were found in this solvent by the Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA). In addition, the sample contains up to 10.4 micrograms of mercury per gram of solvent (or 8.7 µg/mL). A relatively large cesium concentration (9.3 E 6 dpm/mL) was measured in this solvent and it may indicate poor cesium stripping. The laboratory will continue to monitor the quality of the solvent in particular for any new impurities or degradation of the solvent components.

  11. An Analysis of Statewide Adoption Rates of Building Energy Code by Local Jurisdictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2012-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to generally inform the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program of the local, effective energy code adoption rate for a sample set of 21 states, some which have adopted statewide codes and some that have not. Information related to the residential energy code adoption process and status at the local jurisdiction was examined for each of the states. Energy code status information was gathered for approximately 2,800 jurisdictions, which effectively covered approximately 80 percent of the new residential building construction in the 21 states included in the study.

  12. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  13. MFE Sample Questions and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOA

    2008-02-11

    Feb 11, 2008 ... contracts offer a minimum guarantee return rate of g%. ... Thus, at the contract maturity date, T, the insurance company will pay the policyholder.

  14. Adaptive Non-Linear Sampling Method for Accurate Flow Size Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yan

    is utilized when the counter value is large, while a larger sampling rate is employed for a smaller counter errors for the estimation of small-size flows, which is important for many applications like Worm esti- mation. Instead of statically pre-configuring the sampling rate, ANLS dynamically adjusts

  15. Riebe et al., p. 1 Appendix 1: Sampling Rationale and Cosmogenic Nuclide Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Riebe et al., p. 1 Appendix 1: Sampling Rationale and Cosmogenic Nuclide Methodology (Supplemental methods for inferring whole-catchment denudation rates from cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in the quartz fraction of stream sediment samples, (9) the cosmogenic nuclide production rates that we used, (10

  16. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  17. Hazard Sampling Dialog General Layout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tao

    1 Hazard Sampling Dialog General Layout The dialog's purpose is to display information about the hazardous material being sampled by the UGV so either the system or the UV specialist can identify the risk level of the hazard. The dialog is associated with the hazmat reading icons (Table 1). Components

  18. Database Sampling with Functional Dependencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riera, Jesús Bisbal

    Database Sampling with Functional Dependencies Jes´us Bisbal, Jane Grimson Department of Computer there is a need to prototype the database which the applications will use when in operation. A prototype database can be built by sampling data from an existing database. Including relevant semantic information when

  19. 200 area TEDF sample schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M.J.

    1995-03-22

    This document summarizes the sampling criteria associated with the 200 Area Treatment Effluent Facility (TEDF) that are needed to comply with the requirements of the Washington State Discharge Permit No. WA ST 4502 and good engineering practices at the generator streams that feed into TEDF. In addition, this document Identifies the responsible parties for both sampling and data transference.

  20. Towards an integrated petrophysical tool for multiphase flow properties of core samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenormand, R.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the first use of an Integrated Petrophysical Tool (IPT) on reservoir rock samples. The IPT simultaneously measures the following petrophysical properties: (1) Complete capillary pressure cycle: primary drainage, spontaneous and forced imbibitions, secondary drainage (the cycle leads to the wettability of the core by using the USBM index); End-points and parts of the relative permeability curves; Formation factor and resistivity index. The IPT is based on the steady-state injection of one fluid through the sample placed in a Hassler cell. The experiment leading to the whole Pc cycle on two reservoir sandstones consists of about 30 steps at various oil or water flow rates. It takes about four weeks and is operated at room conditions. Relative permeabilities are in line with standard steady-state measurements. Capillary pressures are in accordance with standard centrifuge measurements. There is no comparison for the resistivity index, but the results are in agreement with literature data. However, the accurate determination of saturation remains the main difficulty and some improvements are proposed. In conclusion, the Integrated Petrophysical Tool is as accurate as standard methods and has the advantage of providing the various parameters on the same sample and during a single experiment. The FIT is easy to use and can be automated. In addition, it can be operated in reservoir conditions.

  1. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding in ActinideRail betweenProtectionCurrentJobPower-Rates

  2. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | Careers |

  3. Rate Design and Renewables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | Careers

  4. Sampling Report for August 15, 2014 WIPP Samples

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and pulley system was constructed to move a camera for documentation and close-up pictures. The sampling device is located at the end of the boom. (Note, this picture is from...

  5. Regularization of Tunneling Rates with Quantum Chaos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pecora, Louis M; Wu, Dong-Ho

    2012-01-01

    We study tunneling in various shaped, closed, two-dimensional, flat potential, double wells by calculating the energy splitting between symmetric and anti-symmetric state pairs. For shapes that have regular or nearly regular classical behavior (e.g. rectangular or circular) the tunneling rates vary greatly over wide ranges often by several orders of magnitude. However, for well shapes that admit more classically chaotic behavior (e.g. the stadium, the Sinai billiard) the range of tunneling rates narrows, often by orders of magnitude. This dramatic narrowing appears to come from destabilization of periodic orbits in the regular wells that produce the largest and smallest tunneling rates and causes the splitting vs. energy relation to take on a possibly universal shape. It is in this sense that we say the quantum chaos regularizes the tunneling rates.

  6. Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

    2014-04-01

    Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

  7. Energy Management Through Innovative Rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    of energy efficiency in the industrial sector and specific rate design alternatives for doing so....

  8. Cosmological Evolution of Long Gamma-ray Bursts and Star Formation Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrosian, Vahe'; Kocevski, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by virtue of their high luminosities can be detected up to very high redshifts and therefore can be excellent probes of the early universe. This task is hampered by the fact that most of their characteristics have a broad range so that we first need to obtain an accurate description of the distribution of these characteristics, and specially, their cosmological evolution. We use a sample of about 200 \\swift long GRBs with known redshift to determine the luminosity and formation rate evolutions and the general shape of the luminosity function. In contrast to most other forward fitting methods of treating this problem we use the Efron Petrosian methods which allow a non-parametric determination of above quantities. We find a relatively strong luminosity evolution, a luminosity function that can be fitted to a broken power law, and an unusually high rate of formation rate at low redshifts, a rate more than one order of magnitude higher than the star formation rate (SFR). On the other hand...

  9. Dose Rate Analysis Capability for Actual Spent Fuel Transportation Cask Contents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Lefebvre, Robert A; Peplow, Douglas E.; Williams, Mark L; Scaglione, John M

    2014-01-01

    The approved contents for a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed spent nuclear fuel casks are typically based on bounding used nuclear fuel (UNF) characteristics. However, the contents of the UNF canisters currently in storage at independent spent fuel storage installations are considerably heterogeneous in terms of fuel assembly burnup, initial enrichment, decay time, cladding integrity, etc. Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation & Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System (UNF ST&DARDS) is an integrated data and analysis system that facilitates automated cask-specific safety analyses based on actual characteristics of the as-loaded UNF. The UNF-ST&DARDS analysis capabilities have been recently expanded to include dose rate analysis of as-loaded transportation packages. Realistic dose rate values based on actual canister contents may be used in place of bounding dose rate values to support development of repackaging operations procedures, evaluation of radiation-related transportation risks, and communication with stakeholders. This paper describes the UNF-ST&DARDS dose rate analysis methodology based on actual UNF canister contents and presents sample dose rate calculation results.

  10. The Baryonic Tully Fisher Relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastian Gurovich; Stacy S. McGaugh; Ken C. Freeman; Helmut Jerjen; Lister Staveley-Smith; W. J. G. De Blok

    2004-11-17

    We validate the baryonic Tully Fisher (BTF) relation by exploring the Tully Fish er (TF) and BTF properties of optically and HI-selected disk galaxies. The data includes galaxies from: Sakai et al. (2000) calibrator sample; McGaugh et al. (2000: MC2000) I-band sample; and 18 newly acquired HI-selected field dwarf galaxies observed with the ANU 2.3m telescope and the ATNF Parkes telescope from Gurovich's thesis sample (2005). As in MC2000, we re-cast the TF and BTF relations as relationships between baryo n mass and W_{20}. First we report some numerical errors in MC2000. Then, we c alculate weighted bi-variate linear fits to the data, and finally we compare the fits of the intrinsically fainter dwarfs with the brighter galaxies of Sakai et al. (2000). With regards to the local calibrator disk galaxies of Sakai et al. (2000), our results suggest that the BTF relation is indeed tighter than the T F relation and that the slopes of the BTF relations are statistically flatter th an the equivalent TF relations. Further, for the fainter galaxies which include the I-band MCG2000 and HI-selected galaxies of Gurovich's thesis sample, we calc ulate a break from a simple power law model because of what appears to be real c osmic scatter. Not withstanding this point, the BTF models are marginally better models than the equivalent TF ones with slightly smaller reduced chi^2.

  11. Depth-discrete sampling port

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemberton, Bradley E. (Aiken, SC); May, Christopher P. (Columbia, MD); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA); Nichols, Ralph L. (North Augusta, SC)

    1998-07-07

    A sampling port is provided which has threaded ends for incorporating the port into a length of subsurface pipe. The port defines an internal receptacle which is in communication with subsurface fluids through a series of fine filtering slits. The receptacle is in further communication through a bore with a fitting carrying a length of tubing there which samples are transported to the surface. Each port further defines an additional bore through which tubing, cables, or similar components of adjacent ports may pass.

  12. Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Levy, I.S.; Trimble, D.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Gerber, F.S.

    1990-04-10

    An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-based materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different compositions and/or fabrication methods are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280 to 316 C). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hydriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrosion. 1 figure.

  13. Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jr., A. Burtron (Richland, WA); Levy, Ira S. (Kennewick, WA); Trimble, Dennis J. (Kennewick, WA); Lanning, Donald D. (Kennewick, WA); Gerber, Franna S. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01

    An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-bsed materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different composition and/or fabrication are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280.degree. to 316.degree. C.). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hyriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrision.

  14. Stratified random sampling plan for an irrigation customer telephone survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, J.W.; Davis, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes the procedures used to design and select a sample for a telephone survey of individuals who use electricity in irrigating agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The survey is intended to gather information on the irrigated agricultural sector that will be useful for conservation assessment, load forecasting, rate design, and other regional power planning activities.

  15. General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canuto, V

    2015-01-01

    This is an English translation of the Italian version of an encyclopedia chapter that appeared in the Italian Encyclopedia of the Physical Sciences, edited by Bruno Bertotti (1994). Following requests from colleagues we have decided to make it available to a more general readership. We present the motivation for constructing General Relativity, provide a short discussion of tensor algebra, and follow the set up of Einstein equations. We discuss briefly the initial value problem, the linear approximation and how should non gravitational physics be described in curved spacetime.

  16. Related Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation |Publications TheGashome / Related Links Institute

  17. Heating Rate Profiles in Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward C. D. Pope; Georgi Pavlovski; Christian R. Kaiser; Hans Fangohr

    2006-01-05

    In recent years evidence has accumulated suggesting that the gas in galaxy clusters is heated by non-gravitational processes. Here we calculate the heating rates required to maintain a physically motived mass flow rate, in a sample of seven galaxy clusters. We employ the spectroscopic mass deposition rates as an observational input along with temperature and density data for each cluster. On energetic grounds we find that thermal conduction could provide the necessary heating for A2199, Perseus, A1795 and A478. However, the suppression factor, of the clasical Spitzer value, is a different function of radius for each cluster. Based on the observations of plasma bubbles we also calculate the duty cycles for each AGN, in the absence of thermal conduction, which can provide the required energy input. With the exception of Hydra-A it appears that each of the other AGNs in our sample require duty cycles of roughly $10^{6}-10^{7}$ yrs to provide their steady-state heating requirements. If these duty cycles are unrealistic, this may imply that many galaxy clusters must be heated by very powerful Hydra-A type events interspersed between more frequent smaller-scale outbursts. The suppression factors for the thermal conductivity required for combined heating by AGN and thermal conduction are generally acceptable. However, these suppression factors still require `fine-tuning` of the thermal conductivity as a function of radius. As a consequence of this work we present the AGN duty cycle as a cooling flow diagnostic.

  18. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  19. Sample Results from Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.

    2015-05-13

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES), and Ion Chromatography Anions (IC-A). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from earlier samples from this and previous macrobatches. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal, due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) notes that historically, most measured Concentration Factor (CF) values during salt processing have been in the 12-14 range. However, recent processing gives CF values closer to 11. This observation does not indicate that the solvent performance is suffering, as the Decontamination Factor (DF) has still maintained consistently high values. Nevertheless, SRNL will continue to monitor for indications of process upsets. The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  20. Bubble growth rates in boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1956-01-01

    The conditions determining the growth rate of a bubble on a surface in boiling are considered and a mathematical model framed in the light of these conditions. The growth rate is then calculated for bubbles growing under ...

  1. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  2. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  3. Communication Engineering Systems Sampling Theorem &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kovintavewat, Piya

    x nT nx continuous sample quantized sample binary stream x t x t 2 D 7 D 8 D ( ) 7L MIDRISE s T 3 DPCM (1-bit quantizer) 1 (unit delay) 17 1n n nv x x , 0 sgn , 0 n n n n v v v v 1n n nx v x 2 DM #12;.. DM 18 1n n nx x v nx 1 1 sgn sgn n n n i ii i x v v #12;.. 19 1 b s b R mf T #12

  4. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; et al

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and theirmore »embedded functional traits.« less

  5. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  6. Commercial Building Asset Rating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides from a Commercial Building Initiative webinar outlining the Commercial Building Asset Rating Program on August 23, 2011.

  7. Methane oxidation rates by AMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pack, M; Heintz, M; ReeburGh, WS; Trumbore, SE; Valentine, DL; Xu, X

    2009-01-01

    second case. Number of cases Methane oxidation rates by AMSIn the marine environment methane (CH 4 ) oxidation consumes

  8. High Sampling Rate Dynamic Inversion - Digital Signal Processing, Filter Realizations and Applications in Digital Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Herrick

    2012-01-01

    IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 13(1):112–116, Feb. 2008. [IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 15(3):480–491, Jun. 2010. [Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, pp. 969–974, Jul. 2005. [

  9. Sub-Nyquist Rate Sampling Data Acquisition Systems Based on Compressive Sensing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xi

    2012-07-16

    that are unique to CS are provided based on the analytical tools. Simulations with IBM 90nm CMOS process verify the theoretical derivations and the circuit implementations. Based on these results, it is shown that instantaneous receiver signal bandwidth of 1.5 GHz...

  10. Efficient ab initio sampling methods in rate constant calculations for proton-transfer reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    a molecular mechanics guidance potential for the simulation of the proton transfer reaction which improves integrated correlation lengths in calculations of quantum static correlation functions. © 2001 American distribution. It was demonstrated that the utilization of a reasonably accurate molecular mechanics potential

  11. Method for measuring the rate of cell reproduction by analysis of nanoliter cell samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gourley, Paul L.

    2005-04-26

    A method of detecting cancer using a laser biocavity having a semiconductor laser including a microchannel through which cells in fluid traverse, comprising determining the laser wavelength of the laser biocavity with only fluid in the microchannel; determining the wavelength shift of the biocavity when each cell passes through the microchannel; and determining the percentage of cells in G2 phase from the wavelength shift of the cells; wherein an increased percentage of G2 phase cells is an indication of cancer.

  12. On the effects of sampling rate and interpolation in HMM-based dynamic signature verification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    . Politecnica Superior - Univ. Autonoma de Madrid C/ Francisco Tomas y Valiente, 11 - Campus de Cantoblanco are provided on the MCYT database com- prising 16,500 signatures from 330 subjects and as many skilled-based authentication. Automatic signature verifica- tion is still a challenging task, and many approaches have been

  13. High Sampling Rate Dynamic Inversion - Digital Signal Processing, Filter Realizations and Applications in Digital Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Herrick

    2012-01-01

    is the reference or disturbance frequency. q(z) is typicallyfrequency and all of its harmonics of the reference and disturbance,Gain(dB) Frequency (Hz) Error PSD ? Disturbance Rejection of

  14. 500 MHz, 300 MHz, and 100 MHz Sample Rates up to 5 GS/s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscilloscopes TDS 3012 · TDS 3014 · TDS 3032 · TDS 3034 · TDS 3052 · TDS 3054 ® #12;T D S 3 0 0 0 S E R I E S D

  15. The distant type Ia supernova rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pain, R.; Fabbro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Ellis, R.S.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Deustua, S.E.; Fruchter, A.S.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Irwin, M.J.; Kim, A.G.; Kim, M.Y.; Knop, R.A.; Lee, J.C.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.A.

    2002-05-20

    We present a measurement of the rate of distant Type Ia supernovae derived using 4 large subsets of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project. Within this fiducial sample,which surveyed about 12 square degrees, thirty-eight supernovae were detected at redshifts 0.25--0.85. In a spatially flat cosmological model consistent with the results obtained by the Supernova Cosmology Project, we derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova rate at a mean red shift z {approx_equal} 0.55 of 1.53 {sub -0.25}{sub -0.31}{sup 0.28}{sup 0.32} x 10{sup -4} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1} or 0.58{sub -0.09}{sub -0.09}{sup +0.10}{sup +0.10} h{sup 2} SNu(1 SNu = 1 supernova per century per 10{sup 10} L{sub B}sun), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects. The dependence of the rate on the assumed cosmological parameters is studied and the redshift dependence of the rate per unit comoving volume is contrasted with local estimates in the context of possible cosmic star formation histories and progenitor models.

  16. AFRICAN AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY Sample Syllabus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    AFRICAN AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 503 Sample Syllabus Course Description and Overview: This course examines the psychology of the African American experience. We begin the course with an overview of Black/African American psychology as an evolving field of study and consider the Black/African American Psychology

  17. Design of bioaerosol sampling inlets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nene, Rohit Ravindra

    2007-09-17

    An experimental investigation involving the design, fabrication, and testing of an ambient sampling inlet and two additional Stokes-scaled inlets is presented here. Testing of each inlet was conducted at wind speeds of 2, 8, and 24 km/h (0.55, 2...

  18. Analytical liquid test sample filtration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lohnes, B.C.; Turner, T.D.; Klingler, K.M.; Clark, M.L.

    1996-01-09

    A liquid sample filtration apparatus includes: (a) a module retaining filter elements; (b) a filter clamping and fluid injection apparatus positioned relative to the module to engage a filter element thereon, and includes a pair of first and second opposing engageable members to engage a filter element there between; (c) an inlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; (d) an outlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; (e) a motor to move the module relative to the filter clamping and injection apparatus to register filter elements on the module to the clamping and injection apparatus; and (f) a motor associated with the filter clamping and injection apparatus to move the opposing engageable members into substantial sealing fluid communication relative to a filter element on the module. An apparatus for engaging opposing ends of a filter element includes: (a) a member having a recess configured to engage one end of a filter element, including a first fluid passage communicating with the recess to pass fluid between the recess and externally of the member; and (b) a second member positioned in opposing juxtaposition relative to the other member, and having a projection sized and shaped to matingly fit within the other member recess, the second member projection including a second recess configured to engage the other end of the filter element, the second member including a second fluid passage communicating with the second recess to pass fluid between the second recess and externally of the second member. 8 figs.

  19. Calculating Confidence, Uncertainty, and Numbers of Samples When Using Statistical Sampling Approaches to Characterize and Clear Contaminated Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Sego, Landon H.; Amidan, Brett G.

    2013-04-27

    This report discusses the methodology, formulas, and inputs needed to make characterization and clearance decisions for Bacillus anthracis-contaminated and uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas using a statistical sampling approach. Specifically, the report includes the methods and formulas for calculating the • number of samples required to achieve a specified confidence in characterization and clearance decisions • confidence in making characterization and clearance decisions for a specified number of samples for two common statistically based environmental sampling approaches. In particular, the report addresses an issue raised by the Government Accountability Office by providing methods and formulas to calculate the confidence that a decision area is uncontaminated (or successfully decontaminated) if all samples collected according to a statistical sampling approach have negative results. Key to addressing this topic is the probability that an individual sample result is a false negative, which is commonly referred to as the false negative rate (FNR). The two statistical sampling approaches currently discussed in this report are 1) hotspot sampling to detect small isolated contaminated locations during the characterization phase, and 2) combined judgment and random (CJR) sampling during the clearance phase. Typically if contamination is widely distributed in a decision area, it will be detectable via judgment sampling during the characterization phrase. Hotspot sampling is appropriate for characterization situations where contamination is not widely distributed and may not be detected by judgment sampling. CJR sampling is appropriate during the clearance phase when it is desired to augment judgment samples with statistical (random) samples. The hotspot and CJR statistical sampling approaches are discussed in the report for four situations: 1. qualitative data (detect and non-detect) when the FNR = 0 or when using statistical sampling methods that account for FNR > 0 2. qualitative data when the FNR > 0 but statistical sampling methods are used that assume the FNR = 0 3. quantitative data (e.g., contaminant concentrations expressed as CFU/cm2) when the FNR = 0 or when using statistical sampling methods that account for FNR > 0 4. quantitative data when the FNR > 0 but statistical sampling methods are used that assume the FNR = 0. For Situation 2, the hotspot sampling approach provides for stating with Z% confidence that a hotspot of specified shape and size with detectable contamination will be found. Also for Situation 2, the CJR approach provides for stating with X% confidence that at least Y% of the decision area does not contain detectable contamination. Forms of these statements for the other three situations are discussed in Section 2.2. Statistical methods that account for FNR > 0 currently only exist for the hotspot sampling approach with qualitative data (or quantitative data converted to qualitative data). This report documents the current status of methods and formulas for the hotspot and CJR sampling approaches. Limitations of these methods are identified. Extensions of the methods that are applicable when FNR = 0 to account for FNR > 0, or to address other limitations, will be documented in future revisions of this report if future funding supports the development of such extensions. For quantitative data, this report also presents statistical methods and formulas for 1. quantifying the uncertainty in measured sample results 2. estimating the true surface concentration corresponding to a surface sample 3. quantifying the uncertainty of the estimate of the true surface concentration. All of the methods and formulas discussed in the report were applied to example situations to illustrate application of the methods and interpretation of the results.

  20. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System:...

  1. Reducing Your Leak Rate Without Repairing Leaks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beals, C.

    2005-01-01

    below the header pressure have the added advantage of reducing the air consumption of equipment, as well as reducing the leak rate. Turn Off the Air to Idle Equipment In most plants, when production equipment operators shut off their equipment... of the reason why plant personnel often find leak repair unproductive. The other reason relates to the compressor controls. If the plant had several lubricated rotary screw compressors operating in modulation, repairing 2,000 cfm in leaks may only reduce...

  2. Micropyrolyzer for chemical analysis of liquid and solid samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowry, Curtis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, Catherine H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2006-07-18

    A micropyrolyzer has applications to pyrolysis, heated chemistry, and thermal desorption from liquid or solid samples. The micropyrolyzer can be fabricated from semiconductor materials and metals using standard integrated circuit technologies. The micropyrolyzer enables very small volume samples of less than 3 microliters and high sample heating rates of greater than 20.degree. C. per millisecond. A portable analyzer for the field analysis of liquid and solid samples can be realized when the micropyrolyzer is combined with a chemical preconcentrator, chemical separator, and chemical detector. Such a portable analyzer can be used in a variety of government and industrial applications, such as non-proliferation monitoring, chemical and biological warfare detection, industrial process control, water and air quality monitoring, and industrial hygiene.

  3. Method and apparatus for sampling low-yield wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Last, George V. (Richland, WA); Lanigan, David C. (Kennewick, WA)

    2003-04-15

    An apparatus and method for collecting a sample from a low-yield well or perched aquifer includes a pump and a controller responsive to water level sensors for filling a sample reservoir. The controller activates the pump to fill the reservoir when the water level in the well reaches a high level as indicated by the sensor. The controller deactivates the pump when the water level reaches a lower level as indicated by the sensors. The pump continuously activates and deactivates the pump until the sample reservoir is filled with a desired volume, as indicated by a reservoir sensor. At the beginning of each activation cycle, the controller optionally can select to purge an initial quantity of water prior to filling the sample reservoir. The reservoir can be substantially devoid of air and the pump is a low volumetric flow rate pump. Both the pump and the reservoir can be located either inside or outside the well.

  4. Basics of Chemical Kinetics -1 Rate of reaction = rate of disappearance of A =

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albert, Réka

    reactions: Forward Reaction Backward Reaction CBA + 2 CBA + 2 CBA + 2 CBA + 2 #12;Basics of Chemical], [C] CBA + #12;Ex. 1 Determine the relation between the reaction rates and the reaction flux. Assume conservation. Hint: think of the reaction as a complex formation CBA + ]B][A[k dt ]C[d =]B][A[k dt ]B[d dt ]A

  5. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Naturita, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Naturita UMTRA Project processing site in the spring of 1994. No water sampling was performed during 1993 at either the Naturita processing site (NAT-01) or the Dry Flats disposal site (NAT-12). Results of previous water sampling at the Naturita processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities. Baseline ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Dry Flats disposal site. Water sampling activities scheduled for April 1994 include preconstruction sampling of selected monitor wells at the processing site, surface water sampling of the San Miguel River, sampling of several springs/seeps in the vicinity of the disposal site, and sampling of two monitor wells in Coke Oven Valley. The monitor well locations provide sampling points to characterize ground water quality and flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been updated to reflect constituents related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted annually at minimum during the period of construction activities.

  6. Neutron-Irradiated Samples as Test Materials for MPEX

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ellis, Ronald James; Rapp, Juergen

    2015-10-09

    Plasma Material Interaction (PMI) is a major concern in fusion reactor design and analysis. The Material-Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) will explore PMI under fusion reactor plasma conditions. Samples with accumulated displacements per atom (DPA) damage produced by fast neutron irradiations in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be studied in the MPEX facility. This paper presents assessments of the calculated induced radioactivity and resulting radiation dose rates of a variety of potential fusion reactor plasma-facing materials (such as tungsten). The scientific code packages MCNP and SCALE were used to simulate irradiation of themore »samples in HFIR including the generation and depletion of nuclides in the material and the subsequent composition, activity levels, gamma radiation fields, and resultant dose rates as a function of cooling time. A challenge of the MPEX project is to minimize the radioactive inventory in the preparation of the samples and the sample dose rates for inclusion in the MPEX facility.« less

  7. Neutron-Irradiated Samples as Test Materials for MPEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Ronald James; Rapp, Juergen

    2015-10-09

    Plasma Material Interaction (PMI) is a major concern in fusion reactor design and analysis. The Material-Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) will explore PMI under fusion reactor plasma conditions. Samples with accumulated displacements per atom (DPA) damage produced by fast neutron irradiations in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be studied in the MPEX facility. This paper presents assessments of the calculated induced radioactivity and resulting radiation dose rates of a variety of potential fusion reactor plasma-facing materials (such as tungsten). The scientific code packages MCNP and SCALE were used to simulate irradiation of the samples in HFIR including the generation and depletion of nuclides in the material and the subsequent composition, activity levels, gamma radiation fields, and resultant dose rates as a function of cooling time. A challenge of the MPEX project is to minimize the radioactive inventory in the preparation of the samples and the sample dose rates for inclusion in the MPEX facility.

  8. The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion. Report Pursuant to Section 1817 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The...

  9. SST Sample Characterization Analysis of Archive Samples 102-C, 105-C, and 106-C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hara, F. T.; Kaye, J. H.; Steele, R. T.; Stromatt, R. W.; Thomas, D. L.; Urie, M. W.

    1990-04-01

    A substantial effort is planned to be initiated at the Hanford Site regarding the characterization of 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing the byproducts of reprocessing during the 1950s and 1960s. Sampling and analysis, in distinct phases, are planned to involve laboratory investigations to determine both chemical and radionuclide inventories, so that waste disposal decisions can be developed. During 1989, trial analyses were performed on four archived samples from SSTs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory using established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols and radiochemical procedures. The analysis of the archived SST waste material provides three important types of data for use in planning Phase I-A and Phase 1-B sample analysis. The types of data served as input to I) fi na 1 i zing the waste samp 1 e analysis procedures and methods and identify where procedure developmen~ may be needed, 2) evaluating the impact of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) lubricant {used in field sampling) on extracting inorganics or radionuclides from the SST sample, and 3) identifying trends in amounts of occupational radiation exposure expected from performing the various analysis procedures. Overall, the results are qualitative in nature, and the conclusions given are to be used with appropriate respect for the limitations of small amounts of data from four samples used in development processes. The results of the Phase I-A and I-B sample analysis will provide essential data for method performance for use in finalizing Phase I-C planning and methods development scope. Section 2.0, Inorganic Analysis, encompasses sample preparation, sample analysis, identification of methods performance limitations, and possible alternatives. Performance of the inorganic analytical methods was evaluated and changes were made to some of the procedures. In some cases, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (referred to in this report as ICP) did not provide the levels of accuracy and precision usually required for EPA work due to interference by other elements. In these cases, other methods are suggested as appropriate for trial as alternatives. In all cases, duplicates, spikes, and blanks were used to establish performance of the methods for the specific waste matrix. Results focused on problems in using the methods tested on the samples, the suitability of the ICP method of determining EP Toxicity metal ions and 22 EPA pollutant metal ions, and the suitability of cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) for mercury determinations. Problems areas identified are ICP spectral corrections, poor reproducibility from water leach and EP Toxicity methods, and adjustments needed for mercury analysis by CVAA. Section 3.0, Organics Analysis, details two screening procedures [total organic carbon (TOC) and gas chromatography (GC)], extraction procedures and related problems, surrogate spiking to test extraction efficiencies and matrix effects, and semivolatile organics via GC/mass spectroscopy (MS). The results show that the GC/MS is vulnerable to fouling and overload and that a combination of dilution and perhaps acidification are required to provide acceptable results. NPH and silicone-based lubricants from the sampling process impact the semivolatile analysis; however, with some modification the semivolatile method based on EPA SOW 288 can be used. Section 4.0, Radionuclide Analysis, evaluates procedures used to measure the radionuclides that might be found in the SST tank waste samples and establishes the level of accuracy and precision that can be expected. These data reveal that additional procedure development is needed in order to measure all of the radionuclides listed in Table 4-14 of the Waste Characterization Plan. In addition, the archive samples analyzed may not be representative of the tank population and considerable adaptation of the radiochemical procedures may be necessary to perform the desired measurements. NPH tests were conducted to determine whether the NPH from the field sampling process extracted significan

  10. Development of Alternative Rheological Measurements for DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D. c.

    2005-09-01

    Rheological measurements are used to evaluate the fluid dynamic behavior of Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, slurry samples. Measurements are currently made on non-radioactive simulant slurries using two state-of-the-art rheometers located at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory, ACTL. Measurements are made on plant samples using a rheometer in the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL, Shielded Cells facility. Low activity simulants or plant samples can be analyzed using a rheometer located in a radioactive hood in SRNL. Variations in the rheology of SB2 simulants impacted the interpretation of results obtained in a number of related studies. A separate rheological study was initiated with the following four goals: (1) Document the variations seen in the simulant slurries, both by a review of recent data, and by a search for similar samples for further study. (2) Attempt to explain the variations in rheological behavior, or, failing that, reduce the number of possible causes. In particular, to empirically check for rheometer-related variations. (3) Exploit the additional capabilities of the rheometers by developing new measurement methods to study the simulant rheological properties in new ways. (4) Formalize the rheological measurement process for DWPF-related samples into a series of protocols. This report focuses on the third and fourth goals. The emphasis of this report is on the development and formalization of rheological measurement methods used to characterize DWPF slurry samples. The organization is by rheological measurement method. Progress on the first two goals was documented in a concurrent technical report, Koopman (2005). That report focused on the types and possible causes of unusual rheological behavior in simulant slurry samples. It was organized by the sample being studied. The experimental portion of this study was performed in the period of March to April 2004. A general rheology protocol for routine DWPF slurry samples, Koopman (2004b), was drafted in addition to the companion technical report to this document.

  11. Integrated fiducial sample mount and software for correlated microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy R McJunkin; Jill R. Scott; Tammy L. Trowbridge; Karen E. Wright

    2014-02-01

    A novel design sample mount with integrated fiducials and software for assisting operators in easily and efficiently locating points of interest established in previous analytical sessions is described. The sample holder and software were evaluated with experiments to demonstrate the utility and ease of finding the same points of interest in two different microscopy instruments. Also, numerical analysis of expected errors in determining the same position with errors unbiased by a human operator was performed. Based on the results, issues related to acquiring reproducibility and best practices for using the sample mount and software were identified. Overall, the sample mount methodology allows data to be efficiently and easily collected on different instruments for the same sample location.

  12. Mutual information, bit error rate and security in Wójcik's scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhanjun Zhang

    2004-02-21

    In this paper the correct calculations of the mutual information of the whole transmission, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) are presented. Mistakes of the general conclusions relative to the mutual information, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) and the security in W\\'{o}jcik's paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 90}, 157901(2003)] have been pointed out.

  13. Rock Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk, NewMichigan: Energy Resources JumpMtSampling Jump to:

  14. Cold SQUIDs and hot samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Thomas S.C.

    2010-01-01

    this signal with a spectrum analyzer, we obtain the spectralOur dual-channel spectrum analyzer (HP 3582A) calculatescomputed by our spectrum analyzer is the average relative

  15. Riebe et al., p. 1 Appendix 1. Cosmogenic Nuclide Methods and Erosion Rate Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Riebe et al., p. 1 Appendix 1. Cosmogenic Nuclide Methods and Erosion Rate Data (Supplemental cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in the quartz fraction of stream sediment samples are used to infer whole-catchment erosion rates, (2) the cosmogenic nuclide production rates that we used, (3) our cosmogenic nuclide

  16. Sampling, characterization, and remote sensing of aerosols formed in the atmospheric hydrolysis of uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; McCulla, W.H.; Pickrell, P.W.

    1984-05-01

    When gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) is released into the atmosphere, it rapidly reacts with ambient moisture to form an aerosol of uranyl fluoride (UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). As part of our Safety Analysis program, we have performed several experimental releases of HF/sub 6/ in contained volumes in order to investigate techniques for sampling and characterizing the aerosol materials. The aggregate particle morphology and size distribution have been found to be dependent upon several conditions, including the temperature of the UF/sub 6/ at the time of its release, the relative humidity of the air into which it is released, and the elapsed time after the release. Aerosol composition and settling rate have been investigated using stationary samplers for the separate collection of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ and HF and via laser spectroscopic remote sensing (Mie scatter and infrared spectroscopy). 25 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Sampling and characterization of aerosols formed in the atmospheric hydrolysis of UF/sub 6/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; McCulla, W.H.; Pickrell, P.W.; Branam, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    When gaseous UF/sub 6/ is released into the atmosphere, it rapidly reacts with ambient moisture to form an aerosol of uranyl fluoride and HF. As part of our Safety Analysis program, we have performed several experimental releases of UF/sub 6/ (from natural uranium) in contained volumes in order to investigate techniques for sampling and characterizing the aerosol materials. The aggregrate particle morphology and size distribution have been found to be dependent upon several conditions, including the relative humidity at the time of the release and the elapse time after the release. Aerosol composition and settling rate have been investigated using isokinetic samplers for the separate collection of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ and HF, and via laser spectroscopic remote sensing (Mie scatter and infrared spectroscopy). 8 references.

  18. LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2014/15 SUBSCRIPTION RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2014/15 SUBSCRIPTION RATES LMS membership subscription: £ US.00 Associate membership 16.00 32.00 Free membership (see note 2) Print only Online only Print & online* LMS, or are unemployed or otherwise in hardship. Contact membership@lms.ac.uk to enquire further. #12;LMS PUBLICATIONS 4

  19. LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2013/14 SUBSCRIPTION RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2013/14 SUBSCRIPTION RATES LMS membership subscription: £ US.00 Associate membership 15.00 30.00 Free membership (see note 2) Print only Online only Print & online* LMS, or are unemployed or otherwise in hardship. Contact membership@lms.ac.uk to enquire further. #12;LMS PUBLICATIONS 4

  20. Upper Great Plains Rates information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 2014 (112 KB .pdf) FRN Notice of Proposed Transmission and Ancillary Services Formula Rates November 3, 2014 (93 KB .pdf) SPP Membership Information Integrated System (IS)...

  1. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

  2. Attention and emotion: Does rating emotion alter neural responses to amusing and sad films?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, James J.

    of Psychology, Jordan Hall, Building 420, Stanford, CA 94305-2130, USA b Department of Psychology, Columbia-reported rating of emotion experience, and compared the impact of rating with passive viewing of amusing and sad of emotion or neural activa- tions relative to passive viewing in any brain regions. Rating, relative

  3. EFFECT OF TRANSPORTING SALTSTONE SAMPLES PRIOR TO SET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.

    2013-05-21

    The Saltstone Sampling and Analyses Plan provides a basis for the quantity (and configuration) of saltstone grout samples required for conducting a study directed towards correlation of the Performance Assessment (PA) related properties of field-emplaced samples and samples processed and cured in the laboratory. The testing described in the saltstone sampling and analyses plan will be addressed in phases. The initial testing (Phase I) includes collecting samples from the process room in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and transporting them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they will cure under a temperature profile that mimics the temperature in the Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) and then be analyzed. SRNL has previously recommended that after the samples of fresh (uncured) saltstone are obtained from the SPF process room, they are allowed to set prior to transporting them to SRNL for curing. The concern was that if the samples are transported before they are set, the vibrations during transport may cause artificial delay of structure development which could result in preferential settling or segregation of the saltstone slurry. However, the results of this testing showed there was no clear distinction between the densities of the cylinder sections for any of the transportation scenarios tested (1 day, 1 hour, and 0 minutes set time prefer to transportation) . The bottom section of each cylinder was the densest for each transportation scenario, which indicates some settling in all the samples. Triplicate hydraulic conductivity measurements on samples from each set of time and transportation scenarios indicated that those samples transported immediately after pouring had the highest hydraulic conductivity. Conversely, samples that were allowed to sit for an hour before being transported had the lowest hydraulic conductivity. However, the hydraulic conductivities of all three samples fell within an acceptable range. Based on the cured property analysis of the three samples, there is no clear conclusion about transporting the samples before they are set; however, experience with saltstone grout indicates the samples should sit and develop some structure before being transported to SRNL for curing.

  4. Cost Bases for Incentive Rates Applicable to Industrial Loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stover, C. N.

    1987-01-01

    ; they involve a depressed economy base in all or certain segments of the service area, a decrease in load, excess generation capacity, and an increase in base rates. An increase in rates may also be related to the commercial operation of a base load unit, i... utility has completely abandoned a pricing structure that is in any way related to cost. Some of the incentive rates are very short lived and reflect transient economic conditions while others tend to reflect long-term economic relationships...

  5. Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskeyFootprintGEXA Corp. (Delaware)GalvestonWindSampling Details

  6. Gasoline Vehicle Exhuast Particle Sampling Study | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Exhuast Particle Sampling Study Gasoline Vehicle Exhuast Particle Sampling Study 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: University of Minnesota 2003deerkittelson.pdf More...

  7. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  8. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, Kent

    2004-12-17

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  9. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM MCU SOLIDS OUTAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.

    2014-09-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has received several solid and liquid samples from MCU in an effort to understand and recover from the system outage starting on April 6, 2014. SRNL concludes that the presence of solids in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) is the likely root cause for the outage, based upon the following discoveries ? A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the scrub contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? An archived sample from Tank 49H taken last year was shown to contain a fine precipitate of sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 drain pipe from extraction contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium aluminosilicate ? A liquid sample from the SSFT was shown to have elevated levels of oxalate anion compared to the expected concentration in the feed Visual inspection of the SSFT indicated the presence of precipitated or transferred solids, which were likely also in the Salt Solution Receipt Tank (SSRT). The presence of the solids coupled with agitation performed to maintain feed temperature resulted in oxalate solids migration through the MCU system and caused hydraulic issues that resulted in unplanned phase carryover from the extraction into the scrub, and ultimately the strip contactors. Not only did this carryover result in the Strip Effluent (SE) being pushed out of waste acceptance specification, but it resulted in the deposition of solids into several of the contactors. At the same time, extensive deposits of aluminosilicates were found in the drain tube in the extraction contactor #1. However it is not known at this time how the aluminosilicate solids are related to the oxalate solids. The solids were successfully cleaned out of the MCU system. However, future consideration must be given to the exclusion of oxalate solids into the MCU system. There were 53 recommendations for improving operations recently identified. Some additional considerations or additional details are provided below as recommendations. ? From this point on, IC-Anions analyses of the DSSHT should be part of the monthly routine analysis in order to spot negative trends in the oxalate leaving the MCU system. Care must be taken to monitor the oxalate content to watch for sudden precipitation of oxalate salts in the system. ? Conduct a study to optimize the cleaning strategy at ARP-MCU through decreasing the concentration or entirely eliminating the oxalic acid. ? The contents of the SSFT should remain unagitated. Routine visual observation should be maintained to ensure there is not a large buildup of solids. As water with agitation provided sufficient removal of the solids in the feed tank, it should be considered as a good means for dissolving oxalate solids if they are found in the future. ? Conduct a study to improve prediction of oxalate solubility in salt batch feed materials. As titanium and mercury have been found in various solids in this report, evaluate if either element plays a role in oxalate solubility during processing. ? Salt batch characterization focuses primarily on characterization and testing of unaltered Tank 21H material; however, non-typical feeds are developed through cleaning, washing, and/or sump transfers. As these solutions are processed through MCU, they may precipitate solids or reduce performance. Salt batch characterization and testing should be expanded to encompass a broader range of feeds that may be processed through ARPMCU.

  10. Apparatus for sectioning demountable semiconductor samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Scottsdale, AZ); Wolf, Abraham (Sun City West, AZ)

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for use during polishing and sectioning operations of a ribbon sample is described. The sample holder includes a cylinder having an axially extending sample cavity terminated in a first funnel-shaped opening and a second slot-like opening. A spring-loaded pressure plunger is located adjacent the second opening of the sample cavity for frictional engagement of the sample prior to introduction of a molding medium in the sample cavity. A heat softenable molding medium is inserted in the funnel-shaped opening, to surround the sample. After polishing, the heater is energized to allow draining of the molding medium from the sample cavity. During manual polishing, the second end of the sample holder is inserted in a support ring which provides mechanical support as well as alignment of the sample holder during polishing. A gauge block for measuring the protrusion of a sample beyond the second wall of the holder is also disclosed.

  11. NIHAO project I: Reproducing the inefficiency of galaxy formation across cosmic time with a large sample of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Liang; Stinson, Gregory S; Macciò, Andrea V; Penzo, Camilla; Kang, Xi; Keller, Ben W; Wadsley, James

    2015-01-01

    We introduce project NIHAO (Numerical Investigation of a Hundred Astrophysical Objects), a set of 100 cosmological zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations performed using the GASOLINE code, with an improved implementation of the SPH algorithm. The haloes in our study range from dwarf to Milky Way masses, and represent an unbiased sampling of merger histories, concentrations and spin parameters. The particle masses and force softenings are chosen to resolve the mass profile to below 1% of the virial radius at all masses, ensuring that galaxy half-light radii are well resolved. Using the same treatment of star formation and stellar feedback for every object, the simulated galaxies reproduce the observed inefficiency of galaxy formation across cosmic time as expressed through the stellar mass vs halo mass relation, and the star formation rate vs stellar mass relation. We thus conclude that stellar feedback is the chief piece of physics required to limit the efficiency of star formation in galaxies less massive than t...

  12. Thermal dilepton rates from quenched lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. -T. Ding; A. Francis; O. Kaczmarek; F. Karsch; E. Laermann; S. Mukherjee; M. Müller; W. Soeldner

    2013-01-30

    We present new lattice results on the continuum extrapolation of the vector current correlation function. Lattice calculations have been carried out in the deconfined phase at a temperature of 1.1 Tc, extending our previous results at 1.45 Tc, utilizing quenched non-perturbatively clover-improved Wilson fermions and light quark masses. A systematic analysis on multiple lattice spacings allows to perform the continuum limit of the correlation function and to extract spectral properties in the continuum limit. Our current analysis suggests the results for the electrical conductivity are proportional to the temperature and the thermal dilepton rates in the quark gluon plasma are comparable for both temperatures. Preliminary results of the continuum extrapolated correlation function at finite momenta, which relates to thermal photon rates, are also presented.

  13. Core sampling system spare parts assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-04-04

    Soon, there will be 4 independent core sampling systems obtaining samples from the underground tanks. It is desirable that these systems be available for sampling during the next 2 years. This assessment was prepared to evaluate the adequacy of the spare parts identified for the core sampling system and to provide recommendations that may remediate overages or inadequacies of spare parts.

  14. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.; Shine, E. P.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  15. HYDROGEN CONCENTRATIONS DURING STORAGE OF 3013 OXIDE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensel, S.; Askew, N.; Laurinat, J.

    2011-03-14

    As part of a surveillance program intended to ensure the safe storage of plutonium bearing nuclear materials in the Savannah River Site (SRS) K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS), samples of these materials are shipped to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. These samples are in the form of solids or powders which will have absorbed moisture. Potentially flammable hydrogen gas is generated due to radiolysis of the moisture. The samples are shipped for processing after chemical analysis. To preclude the possibility of a hydrogen deflagration or detonation inside the shipping containers, the shipping times are limited to ensure that hydrogen concentration in the vapor space of every layer of confinement is below the lower flammability limit of 4 volume percent (vol%). This study presents an analysis of the rate of hydrogen accumulation due to radiolysis and calculation of allowable shipping times for typical KAMS materials.

  16. A flexible importance sampling method for integrating subgrid processes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Raut, E. K.; Larson, V. E.

    2015-10-22

    Numerical models of weather and climate need to compute grid-box-averaged rates of physical processes such as microphysics. These averages are computed by integrating subgrid variability over a grid box. For this reason, an important aspect of atmospheric modeling is integration. The needed integrals can be estimated by Monte Carlo integration. Monte Carlo integration is simple and general but requires many evaluations of the physical process rate. To reduce the number of function evaluations, this paper describes a new, flexible method of importance sampling. It divides the domain of integration into eight categories, such as the portion that contains bothmore »precipitation and cloud, or the portion that contains precipitation but no cloud. It then allows the modeler to prescribe the density of sample points within each of the eight categories. The new method is incorporated into the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS). The resulting method is tested on drizzling cumulus and stratocumulus cases. In the cumulus case, the sampling error can be considerably reduced by drawing more sample points from the region of rain evaporation.« less

  17. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup ?} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup ?}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The Cr oxidation front (depth to which soluble Cr was detected) for the Cast Stone sample exposed for 68 days to ambient outdoor temperatures and humid air (total age of sample was 131 days) was determined to be about 35 mm below the top sample surface exposed. The Tc oxidation front, depth at which Tc was insoluble, was not determined. Interpretation of the results indicates that the oxidation front is at least 38 mm below the exposed surface. The sample used for this measurement was exposed to ambient laboratory conditions and humid air for 50 days. The total age of the sample was 98 days. Technetium appears to be more easily oxidized than Cr in the Cast Stone matrix. The oxidized forms of Tc and Cr are soluble and therefore leachable. Longer exposure times are required for both the Cr and Tc spiked samples to better interpret the rate of oxidation. Tc spiked subsamples need to be taken further from the exposed surface to better define and interpret the leachable Tc profile. Finally Tc(VII) reduction to Tc(IV) appears to occur relatively fast. Results demonstrated that about 95 percent of the Tc(VII) was reduced to Tc(IV) during the setting and very early stage setting for a Cast Stone sample cured 10 days. Additional testing at longer curing times is required to determine whether additional time is required to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII) in Cast Stone or whether the Tc loading exceeded the ability of the waste form to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII). Additional testing is required for samples cured for longer times. Depth discrete subsampling in a nitrogen glove box is also required to determine whether the 5 percent Tc extracted from the subsamples was the result of the sampling process which took place in air. Reduction capacity measurements (per the Angus-Glasser method) performed on depth discrete samples could not be correlated with the amount of chromium or technetium leached from the depth discrete subsamples or with the oxidation front inferred from soluble chromium and technetium (i.e., effective Cr and Tc oxidation fronts). Residual reduction capacity

  18. Sample introduction apparatus for a flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A sample introduction system for a flow cytometer allows easy change of sample containers such as test tubes and facilitates use in high pressure environments. The sample container includes a cap having a pressure supply chamber and a sample container attachment cavity. A sample container may be automatically positioned into the attachment cavity so as to sealably engage the end of the sample container as its outer surface. This positioning may be accomplished through some sample introduction mechanism. To facilitate cleaning HPLC tubing and fittings may be used in a manner which facilitates removable of the entire tubing from both the nozzle container and other sample container cap to permit its replacement to avoid contamination. The sample container support may include horizontal stops which loosely limit the movement of the sample container and thus avoid further stresses upon it.

  19. Apparatus for sectioning demountable semiconductor samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.; Wolf, A.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for use during polishing and sectioning operations of a ribbon sample is described. The sample holder includes a cylinder having an axially extending sample cavity terminated in a first funnel-shaped opening and a second slot-like opening. A spring-loaded pressure plunger is located adjacent the second opening of the sample cavity for frictional engagement of the sample cavity. A heat softenable molding medium is inserted in the funnel-shaped opening, to surround the sample. After polishing, the heater is energized to allow draining of the molding medium from the sample cavity. During manual polishing, the second end of the sample holder is inserted in a support ring which provides mechanical support as well as alignment of the sample holder during polishing. A gauge block for measuring the protrusion of a sample beyond the second wall of the holder is also disclosed.

  20. 1134 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 60, NO. 3, MARCH 2012 Sub-Nyquist Sampling of Short Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eldar, Yonina

    1134 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 60, NO. 3, MARCH 2012 Sub-Nyquist Sampling-Nyquist sampling systems for analog signals comprised of several, possibly overlapping, finite duration pulses-rate sampling strategies for contin- uous signals that are superpositions of unknown pulses without knowledge

  1. Characterization Of Sample HTF-13-13-128

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-09-25

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) characterize a sample of Tank 13 in preparation for Sludge Batch 9 (SB9). A 200 mL sample of Tank 13 was received by SRNL on July 22, 2013 (Tank Farm sample ID HTF-13-13-128). Characterization of the sample to meet the requirements of the request is complete. Results include: visual observations; slurry and supernatant density; weight percent total and insoluble solids; supernatant characterization; total alpha, total beta, and several radionuclide analyses; and elemental analyses of the dried solids. The sample was very fluid. After settling overnight, there was a small layer of solids on the bottom of the sample container (a 250 mL HDPE bottle) with the remainder being clear supernatant. To better show the sludge solids relative to the overall sample, 25 mL of slurry was placed in a graduated cylinder and allowed to settle over a weekend (approximately 90 hours). The sludge layer was at the approximately 4 mL. The small visually observed quantity of insoluble solids was confirmed with a low weight percent insoluble solids of 0.94%.

  2. Optical method for the characterization of laterally-patterned samples in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample having a structure disposed on or within the sample, comprising the steps of applying a first pulse of light to a surface of the sample for creating a propagating strain pulse in the sample, applying a second pulse of light to the surface so that the second pulse of light interacts with the propagating strain pulse in the sample, sensing from a reflection of the second pulse a change in optical response of the sample, and relating a time of occurrence of the change in optical response to at least one dimension of the structure.

  3. Optical method for the characterization of laterally patterned samples in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI)

    2009-03-17

    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample having a structure disposed on or within the sample, comprising the steps of applying a first pulse of light to a surface of the sample for creating a propagating strain pulse in the sample, applying a second pulse of light to the surface so that the second pulse of light interacts with the propagating strain pulse in the sample, sensing from a reflection of the second pulse a change in optical response of the sample, and relating a time of occurrence of the change in optical response to at least one dimension of the structure.

  4. Optical method and system for the characterization of laterally-patterned samples in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI)

    2011-02-22

    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample having a structure disposed on or within the sample, comprising the steps of applying a first pulse of light to a surface of the sample for creating a propagating strain pulse in the sample, applying a second pulse of light to the surface so that the second pulse of light interacts with the propagating strain pulse in the sample, sensing from a reflection of the second pulse a change in optical response of the sample, and relating a time of occurrence of the change in optical response to at least one dimension of the structure.

  5. Optical method and system for the characterization of laterally-patterned samples in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    2008-03-04

    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample having a structure disposed on or within the sample, comprising the steps of applying a first pulse of light to a surface of the sample for creating a propagating strain pulse in the sample, applying a second pulse of light to the surface so that the second pulse of light interacts with the propagating strain pulse in the sample, sensing from a reflection of the second pulse a change in optical response of the sample, and relating a time of occurrence of the change in optical response to at least one dimension of the structure.

  6. Optical method for the characterization of laterally-patterned samples in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI)

    2010-08-24

    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample having a structure disposed on or within the sample, comprising the steps of applying a first pulse of light to a surface of the sample for creating a propagating strain pulse in the sample, applying a second pulse of light to the surface so that the second pulse of light interacts with the propagating strain pulse in the sample, sensing from a reflection of the second pulse a change in optical response of the sample, and relating a time of occurrence of the change in optical response to at least one dimension of the structure.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 6F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.; Shine, G.

    2012-06-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite Sample 2, and highest concentrations for Composite Sample 3. The Hg and Mo results suggest possible measurement outliers. However, the magnitudes of the differences between the Hg 95% upper confidence limit (UCL95) results with and without the outlier and the magnitudes of the differences between the Mo UCL95 results with and without the outlier do not appear to have practical significance. It is recommended to remove the potential measurement outliers. Doing so is conservative in the sense of producing a higher UCL95 for Hg and Mo than if the potential outliers were included in the calculations. In contrast to the inorganic results, most of the radionuclides did not demonstrate heterogeneity among the three Tank 6F composite sample characterization results.

  8. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite Sample 2, and highest concentrations for Composite Sample 3. The Hg and Mo results suggest possible measurement outliers. However, the magnitudes of the differences between the Hg 95% upper confidence limit (UCL95) results with and without the outlier and the magnitudes of the differences between the Mo UCL95 results with and without the outlier do not appear to have practical significance. It is recommended to remove the potential measurement outliers. Doing so is conservative in the sense of producing a higher UCL95 for Hg and Mo than if the potential outliers were included in the calculations. In contrast to the inorganic results, most of the radionuclides did not demonstrate heterogeneity among the three Tank 6F composite sample characterization results.

  9. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite Sample 2, and highest concentrations for Composite Sample 3. The Hg and Mo results suggest possible measurement outliers. However, the magnitudes of the differences between the Hg 95% upper confidence limit (UCL95) results with and without the outlier and the magnitudes of the differences between the Mo UCL95 results with and without the outlier do not appear to have practical significance. It is recommended to remove the potential measurement outliers. Doing so is conservative in the sense of producing a higher UCL95 for Hg and Mo than if the potential outliers were included in the calculations. In contrast to the inorganic results, most of the radionuclides did not demonstrate heterogeneity among the three Tank 6F composite sample characterization results.

  10. Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Letter to South Texas Electric Coop., Inc requesting an extension of the existing rate formula FalconAmistad WAPA-143 FERC Approval FalconAmistad Published WAPA-143 Falcon...

  11. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    period FY2015 through 2028. Customers have a diversification right to limit the amount of power they purchase at the Load Growth rate in future years with notice provided by...

  12. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2003-08-01

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that ...

  13. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2004-11-30

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that stock market prices are correlated ...

  14. High compression rate text summarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on methods for condensing large documents into highly concise summaries, achieving compression rates on par with human writers. While the need for such summaries in the current age of information overload ...

  15. Effect of Phosphate, Fluoride, and Nitrate on Gibbsite Dissolution Rate and Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herting, Daniel L.

    2014-01-29

    Laboratory tests have been completed with simulated tank waste samples to investigate the effects of phosphate, fluoride, and nitrate on the dissolution rate and equilibrium solubility of gibbsite in sodium hydroxide solution at 22 and 40{degrees}C. Results are compared to relevant literature data and to computer model predictions. The presence of sodium nitrate (3 M) caused a reduction in the rate of gibbsite dissolution in NaOH, but a modest increase in the equilibrium solubility of aluminum. The increase in solubility was not as large, though, as the increase predicted by the computer model. The presence of phosphate, either as sodium phosphate or sodium fluoride phosphate, had a negligible effect on the rate of gibbsite dissolution, but caused a slight increase in aluminum solubility. The magnitude of the increased solubility, relative to the increase caused by sodium nitrate, suggests that the increase is due to ionic strength (or water activity) effects, rather than being associated with the specific ion involved. The computer model predicted that phosphate would cause a slight decrease in aluminum solubility, suggesting some Al-PO4 interaction. No evidence was found of such an interaction.

  16. Electrphoretic Sample Excitation Light Assembly.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Qingbo (State College, PA); Liu, Changsheng (State College, PA)

    2002-04-02

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carrousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  17. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.

    1994-11-22

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.

  18. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Alper, Naum I. (Monroeville, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump.

  19. THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, STAR FORMATION RATE, AND GAS METALLICITY OF GALAXIES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION...

  20. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the following: Al-26, Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the plant customer, reviewed all these cases and determined that the impacts were negligible.

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARATERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-01-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the following: Al-26, Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the plant customer, reviewed all these cases and determined that the impacts were negligible.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the following: Al-26, Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the plant customer, reviewed all these cases and determined that the impacts were negligible.

  3. Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Hydrologic and Natural Gas Sampling and Analysis Results for 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted hydrologic and natural gas sampling for the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, site on June 16, and 17, 2009. Hydrologic sampling consists of collecting water samples from water wells and surface water locations. Natural gas sampling consists of collecting both gas samples and samples of produced water from gas production wells. The water well samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and tritium. Surface water samples were analyzed for tritium. Water samples from gas production wells were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Natural gas samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14. Water samples were analyzed by ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, and natural gas samples were analyzed by Isotech Laboratories in Champaign, Illinois. Concentrations of tritium and gamma-emitting radionuclides in water samples collected in the vicinity of the Gasbuggy site continue to demonstrate that the sample locations have not been impacted by detonation-related contaminants. Results from the sampling of natural gas from producing wells demonstrate that the gas wells nearest the Gasbuggy site are not currently impacted by detonation-related contaminants. Annual sampling of the gas production wells nearest the Gasbuggy site for gas and produced water will continue for the foreseeable future. The sampling frequency of water wells and surface water sources in the surrounding area will be reduced to once every 5 years. The next hydrologic sampling event at water wells, springs, and ponds will be in 2014.

  4. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  5. Feasibility of the Interferometric Neighboring Fracture Method and Improved Relative Travel Time Measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shtaygrud, Ilaan

    2014-12-16

    The recently proposed Interferometric Neighboring Fracture (INF) localization method places unique and demanding constraints on relative travel time measurement accuracy and precision, while sampling a function of relative ...

  6. Thermophoretic separation of aerosol particles from a sampled gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Postma, A.K.

    1984-09-07

    This disclosure relates to separation of aerosol particles from gas samples withdrawn from within a contained atmosphere, such as containment vessels for nuclear reactors or other process equipment where remote gaseous sampling is required. It is specifically directed to separation of dense aerosols including particles of any size and at high mass loadings and high corrosivity. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract DE-AC06-76FF02170 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  7. Curve sampling and geometric conditional simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Ayres C. (Ayres Chee), 1978-

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is the development and exploitation of techniques to generate geometric samples for the purpose of image segmentation. A sampling-based approach provides a number of benefits over existing ...

  8. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  9. Adaptive Basis Sampling for Smoothing Splines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Nan

    2015-08-03

    . However, the high computational cost of smoothing splines for large data sets has hindered their wide application. We develop a new method, named adaptive basis sampling, for efficient computation of smoothing splines in super-large samples. Generally, a...

  10. Fourier Sampling Coset States of Nonabelian Groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallgren, Sean

    55 Chapter 6 Fourier Sampling Coset States of Nonabelian Groups In this chapter we analyze the HSP problem, to the HSP over the symmetric group S n . In particular, we will analyze Fourier sampling coset states when the group is nonabelian. We show that Fourier sampling a polynomial number of coset states

  11. Rate Analysis of Two Photovoltaic Systems in San Diego

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.; Ong, S.; Van Geet, O.

    2009-07-01

    Analysts have found increasing evidence that rate structure has impacts on the economics of solar systems. This paper uses 2007 15-minute interval photovoltaic (PV) system and load data from two San Diego City water treatment facilities to illustrate impacts of different rate designs. The comparison is based on rates available in San Diego at the time of data collection and include proportionately small to large demand charges (relative to volumetric consumption), and varying on- and off- peak times. Findings are twofold for these large commercial systems: 1) transferring costs into demand charges does not result in savings and 2) changes in peak times do not result in a major cost difference during the course of a year. While lessons learned and discussion on rate components are based on the findings, the applicability is limited to buildings with similar systems, environments, rate options, and loads.

  12. Statistical Methods for Thermonuclear Reaction Rates and Nucleosynthesis Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliadis, Christian; Coc, Alain; Timmes, F X; Champagne, Art E

    2014-01-01

    Rigorous statistical methods for estimating thermonuclear reaction rates and nucleosynthesis are becoming increasingly established in nuclear astrophysics. The main challenge being faced is that experimental reaction rates are highly complex quantities derived from a multitude of different measured nuclear parameters (e.g., astrophysical S-factors, resonance energies and strengths, particle and gamma-ray partial widths). We discuss the application of the Monte Carlo method to two distinct, but related, questions. First, given a set of measured nuclear parameters, how can one best estimate the resulting thermonuclear reaction rates and associated uncertainties? Second, given a set of appropriate reaction rates, how can one best estimate the abundances from nucleosynthesis (i.e., reaction network) calculations? The techniques described here provide probability density functions that can be used to derive statistically meaningful reaction rates and final abundances for any desired coverage probability. Examples ...

  13. Review of Mathematical Techniques Applicable in Astrophysical Reaction Rate Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Mathai; H. J. Haubold

    2002-06-23

    An overview is presented on statistical techniques for the analytic evaluation of integrals for non-resonant, non-resonant depleted, non-resonant cut-off, non-resonant sccreened, and resonant thermonuclear reaction rates. The techniques are based on statistical distribution theory and the theory of Meijer's G-function and Fox's H-function. The implementation of Meijer's G-function in Mathematica constituts an additional utility for analytic manipulations and numerical computation of thermonuclear reaction rate integrals. Recent results in the astrophysical literature related to the use of analytic thermonuclear reaction rates are incorporated.

  14. Relational Database SQL: Querying the Relational DB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    Standards and Dialects ISO SQL:2008 DBMS vendors offer their own extensions Oracle PostgreSQL MySQL Weigang: auto-completion and command history Weigang Qiu Relational Database & SQL #12;Relational Database SQL

  15. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  16. MEDICAL RATES for Active Employees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    -time, your base salary is calculated on the full-time equivalent. For example, if you are at an appointment percentage of 50% and earn $12,000 per year, your base salary is $24,000 and UNM would contribute 40%. UNM Health-Bi-Weekly Rates Annualized Salary $34,999 and below Annualized Salary $35,000 - $49,999 Annualized

  17. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Zbigniew (Shoreham, NY); Falkowski, Paul (Stony Brook, NY)

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  18. FNR 3410C Natural Resource Sampling FNR 3410C -NATURAL RESOURCE SAMPLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    of sampling. Design of cost-effective sample surveys. Sampling methodology applicable 0211 (Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering) Lab 1 Period 7-9 13:55-16:55 M BLK begins with a review of elementary statistics and continues with specific

  19. Characterization of evolutionary rates and constraints in three mammalian genomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Gregory M.; Brudno, Michael; Stone, Eric A.; Dubchak, Inna; Batzoglou, Serafim; Sidow, Arend

    2004-02-15

    We present an analysis of rates and patterns of microevolutionary phenomena that have shaped the human, mouse, and rat genomes since their last common ancestor. We find evidence for a shift in the mutational spectrum between the mouse and rat lineages, with the net effect being a relative increase in GC content in the rat genome. Our estimate for the neutral point substitution rate separating the two rodents is 0.196 substitutions per site, and 0.65 substitutions per site for the tree relating all three mammals. Small insertions and deletions of 1-10 bp in length (''microindels'') occur at approximately 5 percent of the point substitution rate. Inferred regional correlations in evolutionary rates between lineages and between types of sites support the idea that rates of evolution are influenced by local genomic or cell biological context. No substantial correlations between rates of point substitutions and rates of microindels are found, however, implying that the influences that affect these processes are distinct. Finally, we have identified those regions in the human genome that are evolving slowly, which are likely to include functional elements important to human biology. At least 5 percent of the human genome is under substantial constraint, most of which is noncoding.

  20. Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01

    We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

  1. Assessment of the 296-S-21 Stack Sampling Probe Location

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2006-09-08

    Tests were performed to assess the suitability of the location of the air sampling probe on the 296-S-21 stack according to the criteria of ANSI N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted most tests on a 3.67:1 scale model of the stack. CH2MHill also performed some limited confirmatory tests on the actual stack. The tests assessed the capability of the air-monitoring probe to extract a sample representative of the effluent stream. The tests were conducted for the practical combinations of operating fans and addressed: (1) Angular Flow--The purpose is to determine whether the velocity vector is aligned with the sampling nozzle. The average yaw angle relative to the nozzle axis should not be more than 20. The measured values ranged from 5 to 11 degrees on the scale model and 10 to 12 degrees on the actual stack. (2) Uniform Air Velocity--The gas momentum across the stack cross section where the sample is extracted should be well mixed or uniform. The uniformity is expressed as the variability of the measurements about the mean, the coefficient of variance (COV). The lower the COV value, the more uniform the velocity. The acceptance criterion is that the COV of the air velocity must be ?20% across the center two-thirds of the area of the stack. At the location simulating the sampling probe, the measured values ranged form 4 to 11%, which are within the criterion. To confirm the validity of the scale model results, air velocity uniformity measurements were made both on the actual stack and on the scale model at the test ports 1.5 stack diameters upstream of the sampling probe. The results ranged from 6 to 8% COV on the actual stack and 10 to 13% COV on the scale model. The average difference for the eight runs was 4.8% COV, which is within the validation criterion. The fact that the scale model results were slightly higher than the actual stack suggests that the other test results on the scale model are conservative relative to the actual stack. (3) Uniform Concentration of Tracer Gases--A uniform contaminant concentration in the sampling plane enables the extraction of samples that represent the true concentration. This was first tested using a tracer gas to represent gaseous effluents. The fan is a good mixer, so injecting the tracer downstream of the fans provides worst-case results. The acceptance criteria are that (1) the COV of the measured tracer gas concentration is ?20% across the center two-thirds of the sampling plane and (2) at no point in the sampling plane does the concentration vary from the mean by >30%. The results on the scale model at the point simulating the sampling probe ranged from 0.3 to 6 %COV, and the maximum single point deviation from the mean was -10%. (4) Uniform Concentration of Tracer Particles--Uniformity in contaminant concentration at the sampling probe was further demonstrated using tracer particles large enough to exhibit inertial effects. Particles of 10-?m aerodynamic diameter were used. The acceptance criterion is that the COV of particle concentration is ?20% across the center two-thirds of the sampling plane. The scale model results ranged form 2 to 9%. Based on these tests, the location of the air sampling probe on the 296-S-21 stack meets the requirements of the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard.

  2. Sampling probe for microarray read out using electrospray mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2004-10-12

    An automated electrospray based sampling system and method for analysis obtains samples from surface array spots having analytes. The system includes at least one probe, the probe including an inlet for flowing at least one eluting solvent to respective ones of a plurality of spots and an outlet for directing the analyte away from the spots. An automatic positioning system is provided for translating the probe relative to the spots to permit sampling of any spot. An electrospray ion source having an input fluidicly connected to the probe receives the analyte and generates ions from the analyte. The ion source provides the generated ions to a structure for analysis to identify the analyte, preferably being a mass spectrometer. The probe can be a surface contact probe, where the probe forms an enclosing seal along the periphery of the array spot surface.

  3. Modeling Background Attenuation by Sample Matrix in Gamma Spectrometric Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory-Department of Physics-CCE-State University of Londrina Campus Universitario-Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid s/n, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2008-08-07

    In laboratory gamma spectrometric analyses, the procedures for estimating background usually overestimate it. If an empty container similar to that used to hold samples is measured, it does not consider the background attenuation by sample matrix. If a 'blank' sample is measured, the hypothesis that this sample will be free of radionuclides is generally not true. The activity of this 'blank' sample is frequently sufficient to mask or to overwhelm the effect of attenuation so that the background remains overestimated. In order to overcome this problem, a model was developed to obtain the attenuated background from the spectrum acquired with the empty container. Beyond reasonable hypotheses, the model presumes the knowledge of the linear attenuation coefficient of the samples and its dependence on photon energy and samples densities. An evaluation of the effects of this model on the Lowest Limit of Detection (LLD) is presented for geological samples placed in cylindrical containers that completely cover the top of an HPGe detector that has a 66% relative efficiency. The results are presented for energies in the range of 63 to 2614keV, for sample densities varying from 1.5 to 2.5 g{center_dot}cm{sup -3}, and for the height of the material on the detector of 2 cm and 5 cm. For a sample density of 2.0 g{center_dot}cm{sup -3} and with a 2cm height, the method allowed for a lowering of 3.4% of the LLD for the energy of 1460keV, from {sup 40}K, 3.9% for the energy of 911keV from {sup 228}Ac, 4.5% for the energy of 609keV from {sup 214}Bi, and8.3% for the energy of 92keV from {sup 234}Th. For a sample density of 1.75 g{center_dot}cm{sup -3} and a 5cm height, the method indicates a lowering of 6.5%, 7.4%, 8.3% and 12.9% of the LLD for the same respective energies.

  4. Long-Term Sediment Generation Rates for the Upper Rio Chagres Basin: Implications for Panama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nichols, Kyle K.

    Chapter 19 Long-Term Sediment Generation Rates for the Upper Rio Chagres Basin: Implications: We measured in situ-produced cosmogenic 10 Be in 17 sand-sized sediment samples (0.25 to 0.85 mm) to estimate the rate and distribution of sediment generation in the upper Chagres watershed over the last 10

  5. Heart rate variability in preterm neonates with and without abnormal cardiorespiratory events.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heart rate variability in preterm neonates with and without abnormal cardiorespiratory events The heart rate variability (HRV) of preterm neonates undergoing a polysomnography is ana- lyzed in relation experience abnormal cardiorespiratory events, based only on the heart rate recordings during periods without

  6. HEART RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY UNDER MOON, MARS AND ZERO GRAVITY CONDITIONS DURING PARABOLIC FLIGHTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HEART RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY UNDER MOON, MARS AND ZERO GRAVITY CONDITIONS DURING), studied via the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). HRV and BPV were predominant during reduced gravity. For the mean heart rate, a non-monotonic relation was found, which can

  7. A new approach for estimating entrainment rate in cumulus clouds Chunsong Lu,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A new approach for estimating entrainment rate in cumulus clouds Chunsong Lu,1,2 Yangang Liu,2 entrainment rate in cumulus clouds. The new approach is directly derived from the definition of fractional entrainment rate and relates it to mixing fraction and the height above cloud base. The results derived from

  8. An Open Port Sampling Interface for Liquid Introduction Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2015-08-25

    RATIONALE: A simple method to introduce unprocessed samples into a solvent for rapid characterization by liquid introduction atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry has been lacking. The continuous flow, self-cleaning open port sampling interface introduced here fills this void. METHODS: The open port sampling interface used a vertically aligned, co-axial tube arrangement enabling solvent delivery to the sampling end of the device through the tubing annulus and solvent aspiration down the center tube and into the mass spectrometer ionization source via the commercial APCI emitter probe. The solvent delivery rate to the interface was set to exceed the aspiration rate creatingmore »a continuous sampling interface along with a constant, self-cleaning spillover of solvent from the top of the probe. RESULTS: Using the open port sampling interface with positive ion mode APCI and a hybrid quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer, rapid, direct sampling and analysis possibilities are exemplified with plastics, ballpoint and felt tip ink pens, skin, and vegetable oils. These results demonstrated that the open port sampling interface could be used as a simple, versatile and self-cleaning system to rapidly introduce multiple types of unprocessed, sometimes highly concentrated and complex, samples into a solvent flow stream for subsequent ionization and analysis by mass spectrometry. The basic setup presented here could be incorporated with any self-aspirating liquid introduction ionization source (e.g., ESI, APCI, APPI, ICP, etc.) or any type of atmospheric pressure sampling ready mass spectrometer system. CONCLUSIONS: The open port sampling interface provides a means to introduce and quickly analyze unprocessed solid or liquid samples with liquid introduction atmospheric pressure ionization source without fear of sampling interface or ionization source contamination.« less

  9. An observational study of entrainment rate in deep convection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Xiaohao; Lu, Chunsong; Zhao, Tianliang; Zhang, Guang Jun; Liu, Yangang

    2015-09-22

    This study estimates entrainment rate and investigates its relationships with cloud properties in 156 deep convective clouds based on in-situ aircraft observations during the TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment) field campaign over the western Pacific. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the probability density function of entrainment rate, the relationships between entrainment rate and cloud microphysics, and the effects of dry air sources on the calculated entrainment rate in deep convection from an observational perspective. Results show that the probability density function of entrainment rate can be well fitted by lognormal,more »gamma or Weibull distribution, with coefficients of determination being 0.82, 0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Entrainment tends to reduce temperature, water vapor content and moist static energy in cloud due to evaporative cooling and dilution. Inspection of the relationships between entrainment rate and microphysical properties reveals a negative correlation between volume-mean radius and entrainment rate, suggesting the potential dominance of homogeneous mechanism in the clouds examined. The entrainment rate and environmental water vapor content show similar tendencies of variation with the distance of the assumed environmental air to the cloud edges. Their variation tendencies are non-monotonic due to the relatively short distance between adjacent clouds.« less

  10. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Distenfeld, Carl H. (Mattituck, NY); Klemish, Jr., Joseph R. (Bohemia, NY)

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector.

  11. Electric Rate Alternatives to Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, K. R. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    ALTERNATIVES TO COGENERATION" K. R. SANDBERG, JR. INDUSTRIAL ACCOUNTS MANAGER - TEXAS GULF STATES UTILITIES COMPANY BEAUMONT, TEXAS ABSTRACT This paper discusses electric rate slternatives to cogeneration for the industrisl customer and attempts... electricity to municipalities and rural electric cooperatives in both Texas and Louisiana. In Baton Rouge. GSU supplies steam and electricity to a large industrial customer through a cogeneration facility that the company has had in operation since...

  12. ISOLOK VALVE ACCEPTANCE TESTING FOR DWPF SME SAMPLING PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-12-05

    Evaluation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. Of the opportunities, a focus area related to optimizing the equipment and efficiency of the sample turnaround time for DWPF Analytical Laboratory was identified. The Mechanical Systems & Custom Equipment Development (MS&CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated the possibility of using an Isolok{reg_sign} sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard{reg_sign} valve for taking process samples. Previous viability testing was conducted with favorable results using the Isolok sampler and reported in SRNL-STI-2010-00749 (1). This task has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time and decrease CPC cycle time. This report summarizes the results from acceptance testing which was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 (2) and which was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNL-RP-2011-00145 (3). The Isolok to be tested is the same model which was tested, qualified, and installed in the Sludge Receipt Adjustment Tank (SRAT) sample system. RW-0333P QA requirements apply to this task. This task was to qualify the Isolok sampler for use in the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) sampling process. The Hydragard, which is the current baseline sampling method, was used for comparison to the Isolok sampling data. The Isolok sampler is an air powered grab sampler used to 'pull' a sample volume from a process line. The operation of the sampler is shown in Figure 1. The image on the left shows the Isolok's spool extended into the process line and the image on the right shows the sampler retracted and then dispensing the liquid into the sampling container. To determine tank homogeneity, a Coliwasa sampler was used to grab samples at a high and low location within the mixing tank. Data from the two locations were compared to determine if the contents of the tank were well mixed. The Coliwasa sampler is a tube with a stopper at the bottom and is designed to obtain grab samples from specific locations within the drum contents. A position paper (4) was issued to address the prototypic flow loop issues and simulant selections. A statistically designed plan (5) was issued to address the total number of samples each sampler needed to pull, to provide the random order in which samples were pulled and to group samples for elemental analysis. The TTR required that the Isolok sampler perform as well as the Hydragard sampler during these tests to ensure the acceptability of the Isolok sampler for use in the DWPF sampling cells. Procedure No.L9.4-5015 was used to document the sample parameters and process steps. Completed procedures are located in R&D Engineering job folder 23269.

  13. The Relation between Luminous AGNs and Star Formation in Their Host Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Lei; Egami, E; Haines, C P; Pereira, M J; Smith, G P

    2015-01-01

    We study the relation of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to star formation in their host galaxies. Our sample includes 205 Type-1 and 85 Type-2 AGNs, 162 detected with Herschel, from fields surrounding 30 galaxy clusters in the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS). The sample is identified by optical line widths and ratios after selection to be brighter than 1 mJy at 24 microns. We show that Type-2 AGN [OIII]5007 line fluxes at high z can be contaminated by their host galaxies with typical spectrograph entrance apertures (but our sample is not compromised in this way). We use spectral energy distribution (SED) templates to decompose the galaxy SEDs and estimate star formation rates, AGN luminosities, and host galaxy stellar masses (described in an accompanying paper). The AGNs arise from massive black holes (~ 3 X 10^8 Msun) accreting at ~ 10% of the Eddington rate and residing in galaxies with stellar mass > 3 X 10^{10} Msun; those detected with Herschel have IR luminosity from star formation in the rang...

  14. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0Photos and Videos Videos Re-EntryApproval OMB No.:Rates

  15. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power are

  16. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power

  17. October 2001 - September 2006 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power1 -

  18. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power1

  19. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power13 -

  20. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power13

  1. October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power135

  2. WP-07 Rate Case Workshops (rates/meetings)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02) nerg *415,Rates > Meetings &

  3. Type Ia supernova rate measurements to redshift 2.5 from CANDELS: Searching for prompt explosions in the early universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Graur, Or; Jones, David O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Dahlen, Tomas; Casertano, Stefano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dickinson, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Garnavich, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Hayden, Brian [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jha, Saurabh W.; McCully, Curtis; Patel, Brandon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that surveyed a total area of ?0.25 deg{sup 2} with ?900 HST orbits spread across five fields over three years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SNe) of all types, out to z ? 2.5. We classify ?24 of these as Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of six SNe). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z = 2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SNe that exploded when the universe was only ?3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SNe Ia that explode promptly after formation (<500 Myr). Combining the CANDELS rates with all available SN Ia rate measurements in the literature we find that this prompt SN Ia fraction is f{sub P} = 0.53{sub stat0.10}{sup ±0.09}{sub sys0.26}{sup ±0.10}, consistent with a delay time distribution that follows a simple t {sup –1} power law for all times t > 40 Myr. However, mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z surveys and space-based high-z surveys. In both CANDELS and the sister HST program CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble), we find a low rate of SNe Ia at z > 1. This could be a hint that prompt progenitors are in fact relatively rare, accounting for only 20% of all SN Ia explosions—though further analysis and larger samples will be needed to examine that suggestion.

  4. Reconstruction of Intensity From Covered Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Watkins, Thomas R; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Burchell, Timothy D; Rosseel, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The safe handling of activated samples requires containment and covering the sample to eliminate any potential for contamination. Subsequent characterization of the surface with x-rays ideally necessitates a thin film. While many films appear visually transparent, they are not necessarily x-ray transparent. Each film material has a unique beam attenuation and sometimes have amorphous peaks that can superimpose with those of the sample. To reconstruct the intensity of the underlying activated sample, the x-ray attenuation and signal due to the film needs to be removed from that of the sample. This requires the calculation of unique deconvolution parameters for the film. The development of a reconstruction procedure for a contained/covered sample is described.

  5. 100 Area Columbia River sediment sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, S.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-08

    Forty-four sediment samples were collected from 28 locations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to assess the presence of metals and man-made radionuclides in the near shore and shoreline settings of the Hanford Site. Three locations were sampled upriver of the Hanford Site plutonium production reactors. Twenty-two locations were sampled near the reactors. Three locations were sampled downstream of the reactors near the Hanford Townsite. Sediment was collected from depths of 0 to 6 in. and between 12 to 24 in. below the surface. Samples containing concentrations of metals exceeding the 95 % upper threshold limit values (DOE-RL 1993b) are considered contaminated. Contamination by arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc was found. Man-made radionuclides occur in all samples except four collected opposite the Hanford Townsite. Man-made radionuclide concentrations were generally less than 1 pCi/g.

  6. Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proper Oil Sampling Intervals and Sample Collection Techniques Gasoline/Diesel/Natural Gas Engines: · Oil samples can be collected during oil changes. Follow manufacturers recommendations on frequency (hours, mileage, etc) of oil changes. · Capture a sample from the draining oil while the oil is still hot

  7. Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank The Argonne Premium Coal (APC) Sample Bank can supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maranas, Costas

    Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank Background Overview T The Argonne Premium Coal (APC) Sample Bank can supply researchers with highly uniform, well-protected coal samples unexposed to oxygen. Researchers investigating coal structure, properties, and behavior can benefit greatly from these samples

  8. Hanford Sampling Quality Management Plan (HSQMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyatt, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    HSQMP establishes quality requirements in response to DOE Order 5700. 6C and to 10 Code of Federal Regulations 830.120. HSQMP is designed to meet the needs of Richland Operations Office for controlling the quality of services provided by sampling operations. It is issued through the Analytical Services Program of the Waste Programs Division. This document describes the Environmental Sampling and Analysis Program activities considered to represent the best management activities necessary to achieve a sampling program with adequate control.

  9. Power Spectrum Analyses of Nuclear Decay Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javorsek, D; Lasenby, R N; Lasenby, A N; Buncher, J B; Fischbach, E; Gruenwald, J T; Hoft, A W; Horan, T J; Jenkins, J H; Kerford, J L; Lee, R H; Longman, A; Mattes, J J; Morreale, B L; Morris, D B; Mudry, R N; Newport, J R; O'Keefe, D; Petrelli, M A; Silver, M A; Stewart, C A; Terry, B; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.06.011

    2010-01-01

    We provide the results from a spectral analysis of nuclear decay data displaying annually varying periodic fluctuations. The analyzed data were obtained from three distinct data sets: 32Si and 36Cl decays reported by an experiment performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), 56Mn decay reported by the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), but also performed at BNL, and 226Ra decay reported by an experiment performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. All three data sets exhibit the same primary frequency mode consisting of an annual period. Additional spectral comparisons of the data to local ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, Earth-Sun distance, and their reciprocals were performed. No common phases were found between the factors investigated and those exhibited by the nuclear decay data. This suggests that either a combination of factors was responsible, or that, if it was a single factor, its effects on the decay rate experiments are n...

  10. The rate and luminosity function of long Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pescalli, A; Salvaterra, R; Ghisellini, G; Vergani, S D; Nappo, F; Salafia, O S; Melandri, A; Covino, S; Götz, D

    2015-01-01

    We derive, adopting a direct method, the luminosity function and the formation rate of long Gamma Ray Bursts through a complete, flux-limited, sample of Swift bursts which has a high level of completeness in redshift z (~82%). We parametrise the redshift evolution of the GRB luminosity as L = L_0(1+ z)^k and we derive k = 2.5, consistently with recent estimates. The de-evolved luminosity function of GRBs can be represented by a broken power law with slopes a = -1.32 +- 0.21 and b = -1.84 +- 0.24 below and above, respectively, a characteristic break luminosity L_0,b = 10^51.45+-0.15 erg/s. Under the hypothesis of luminosity evolution we find that the GRB formation rate increases with redshift up to z~2, where it peaks, and then decreases in agreement with the shape of the cosmic star formation rate. We test the direct method through numerical simulations and we show that if it is applied to incomplete (both in redshift and/or flux) GRB samples it can misleadingly result in an excess of the GRB formation rate a...

  11. RECOVERY OF A TRITIATED LANA SAMPLE FOR DOSE CONVERSION FACTOR DETERMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staack, G.

    2010-11-12

    The purpose of this work is to develop a technical basis for both estimating the dose of a worker exposed to respirable tritiated LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA) and implementing hazard appropriate controls. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has agreed to provide Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) with a tritiated LANA sample. LRRI will determine the particle size distribution (PSD) as well as perform dissolution rate studies on the sample in serum ultrafiltrate (SUF), a simulated lung fluid. The rate of tritium release from the sample will be measured over a three month period. Tritium release rate information will be used to calculate a DCF for respirable tritiated LANA.

  12. Sample Withdrawal Letter Ready Reference F-11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sample Withdrawal Letter Ready Reference F-11 College of Engineering, Architecture & Technology Career Services Oklahoma State University College of College of Engineering, Architecture & Technology

  13. Sample Application Letter Ready Reference F-5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sample Application Letter Ready Reference F-5 College of Engineering, Architecture & Technology Career Services Oklahoma State University College of College of Engineering, Architecture & Technology

  14. Sample Networking Letter Ready Reference F-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sample Networking Letter Ready Reference F-6 College of Engineering, Architecture & Technology Career Services Oklahoma State University College of College of Engineering, Architecture & Technology

  15. Sample Acceptance Letter Ready Reference F-10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sample Acceptance Letter Ready Reference F-10 College of Engineering, Architecture & Technology Career Services Oklahoma State University College of College of Engineering, Architecture & Technology

  16. Hanford analytical sample projections 1996--2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, S.M.

    1996-06-26

    This document summarizes the biannual Hanford sample projections for fiscal years 1996 to 2001. Sample projections are based on inputs submitted to Analytical Services covering Environmental Restoration, Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Solid Waste, Liquid Effluents, Spent Nuclear Fuels, Transition Projects, Analytical Services, Site Monitoring, and Industrial Hygiene. This information will be used by Hanford Analytical Services to assure that laboratories and resources are available and effectively utilized to meet these documented needs. Sample projections are categorized by radiation level, protocol, sample matrix and Program. Analyses requirements are also presented.

  17. Colloid characterization and quantification in groundwater samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Stephen Kung

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for studying the groundwater colloids for the Yucca Mountain Project in conjunction with the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. Colloidal particle size distributions and total particle concentration in groundwater samples are quantified and characterized. Colloid materials from cavity waters collected near underground nuclear explosion sites by HRMP field sampling personnel at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were quantified. Selected colloid samples were further characterized by electron microscope to evaluate the colloid shapes, elemental compositions, and mineral phases. The authors have evaluated the colloid size and concentration in the natural groundwater sample that was collected from the ER-20-5 well and stored in a 50-gallon (about 200-liter) barrel for several months. This groundwater sample was studied because HRMP personnel have identified trace levels of radionuclides in the water sample. Colloid results show that even though the water sample had filtered through a series of Millipore filters, high-colloid concentrations were identified in all unfiltered and filtered samples. They had studied the samples that were diluted with distilled water and found that diluted samples contained more colloids than the undiluted ones. These results imply that colloids are probably not stable during the storage conditions. Furthermore, results demonstrate that undesired colloids have been introduced into the samples during the storage, filtration, and dilution processes. They have evaluated possible sources of colloid contamination associated with sample collection, filtrating, storage, and analyses of natural groundwaters. The effects of container types and sample storage time on colloid size distribution and total concentration were studied to evaluate colloid stability by using J13 groundwater. The data suggests that groundwater samples should be analyzed for colloid size and concentration shortly after they have been collected. A prolonged waiting period after sampling will affect the colloid size distribution as well as colloid concentration resulting from the changes of water chemical properties. The data also shows that sample containers, filter materials, and labware that are used for colloid analyses should be cleaned by specially treated low-colloid-containing water. Water used for sample dilution should be verified for total colloidal particle concentration. They then analyzed freshly collected groundwater from NTS wells ER-20-5{number_sign}1 and {number_sign}3. Results show that these groundwater samples have similar colloid concentrations and particle size distributions. For the particle size range between 50- and 200-nm, about ten trillion (1E10) colloidal particles per liter are present in these water samples. Most of these colloidal particles are less than 100 mm in size. For example, more than 98% of the colloids are smaller than 100 nm in size in the ER-20-5 {number_sign}1 sample. Furthermore, it was found that the smaller the sizes of colloid, the higher the colloid concentration present in the water. For another site at NTS, Cheshire, they had analyzed two zones of groundwater samples. For water samples collected from the lower water zone (near the underground detonation cavity about 3,700 feet of slanted depth from the surface), the colloid concentration was about 5E12 particles per liter. About 20 times less than the lower zone of total colloids was found in water samples collected from the upper aquifer (around 2,511 feet of slanted depth), although colloid size distributions from these two zones appear to be rather similar.

  18. Rate Schedule CV-SPR4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that is available immediately to serve load and is synchronized with the power system. Formula Rate: The formula rate for spinning reserve includes three components: Component 1:...

  19. Rate Schedule CV-SUR4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    within the first 10 minutes to take load and is synchronized with the power system. Formula Rate: The formula rate for supplemental reserve service includes three components:...

  20. Rate Schedule COTP-T3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and system control and dispatch service needed to support the transmission service. Formula Rate: The formula rate for COTP firm and non-firm PTP transmission service includes...

  1. Rate Schedule CV-NWT5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and system control and dispatch service needed to support the transmission service. Formula Rate: The formula rate for CVP NITS includes three components: Component 1: The NITS...

  2. Rate Schedule PACI-T3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and system control and dispatch service needed to support the transmission service. Formula Rate: The formula rate for PACI firm and non-firm transmission includes three...

  3. Rate Schedule CV-RFS4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    load and for maintaining scheduled interconnection frequency at 60-cycles per second. Formula Rate: The formula rate for regulation includes three components: Component 1: Annual...

  4. Rate Schedule CV-EID4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that is established in the service agreement or Interconnected Operations Agreements. Formula Rate: The formula rate for EI service includes three components: Component 1: EI...

  5. DOE-2 sample run book: Version 2.1E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkelmann, F.C.; Birdsall, B.E.; Buhl, W.F.; Ellington, K.L.; Erdem, A.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Hirsch, J.J.; Gates, S. [Hirsch (James J.) and Associates, Camarillo, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The DOE-2 Sample Run Book shows inputs and outputs for a variety of building and system types. The samples start with a simple structure and continue to a high-rise office building, a medical building, three small office buildings, a bar/lounge, a single-family residence, a small office building with daylighting, a single family residence with an attached sunspace, a ``parameterized`` building using input macros, and a metric input/output example. All of the samples use Chicago TRY weather. The main purpose of the Sample Run Book is instructional. It shows the relationship of LOADS-SYSTEMS-PLANT-ECONOMICS inputs, displays various input styles, and illustrates many of the basic and advanced features of the program. Many of the sample runs are preceded by a sketch of the building showing its general appearance and the zoning used in the input. In some cases we also show a 3-D rendering of the building as produced by the program DrawBDL. Descriptive material has been added as comments in the input itself. We find that a number of users have loaded these samples onto their editing systems and use them as ``templates`` for creating new inputs. Another way of using them would be to store various portions as files that can be read into the input using the {number_sign}{number_sign} include command, which is part of the Input Macro feature introduced in version DOE-2.lD. Note that the energy rate structures here are the same as in the DOE-2.lD samples, but have been rewritten using the new DOE-2.lE commands and keywords for ECONOMICS. The samples contained in this report are the same as those found on the DOE-2 release files. However, the output numbers that appear here may differ slightly from those obtained from the release files. The output on the release files can be used as a check set to compare results on your computer.

  6. The Merger Rate to Redshift One from Kinematic Pairs: Caltech Faint Galaxy Redshift Survey XI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. G. Carlberg; Judith G. Cohen; D. R. Patton; Roger Blandford; David W. Hogg; H. K. C. Yee; S. L. Morris; H. Lin; Lennox L. Cowie; Esther Hu; Antoinette Songaila

    2000-02-01

    The rate of mass accumulation due to galaxy merging depends on the mass, density, and velocity distribution of galaxies in the near neighborhood of a host galaxy. The fractional luminosity in kinematic pairs combines all of these effects in a single estimator which is relatively insensitive to population evolution. Here we use a k-corrected and evolution compensated volume-limited sample drawing about 300 redshifts from CFGRS and 3000 from CNOC2 to measure the rate and redshift evolution of merging. We identify kinematic pairs with projected separations less than either 50 or 100 \\hkpc and rest-frame velocity differences of less than 1000\\kms. The fractional luminosity in pairs is modeled as f_L(Delta v,r_p,M_r^{ke})(1+z)^{m_L} where [f_L,m_L] are [0.14+/-0.07,0+/-1.4] and [0.37+/-0.7,0.1+/-0.5] for r_p= 0.2 M*) is 0.02+/-0.01(1+z)^{0.1+/-0.5} M*~Gyr^{-1}. Present day high-luminosity galaxies therefore have accreted approximately 0.15M* of their mass over the approximately 7 Gyr to redshift one. (abridged)

  7. STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) currently houses 88 samples (~10.5 kg) of K Basin sludge (81 wet and seven dry samples) on behalf of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), which is managed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Selected samples are intended to serve, in part, as sentinels to enhance understanding of sludge properties after long-term storage, and thus enhance understanding of sludge behavior following transfer to sludge transfer and storage containers (STSCs) and storage at the Hanford 200 Area central plateau. In addition, remaining samples serve in contingency for future testing requirements. At PNNL, the samples are tracked and maintained under a prescriptive and disciplined monthly sample-monitoring program implemented by PNNL staff. This report updates the status of the K Basin archive sludge sample inventory to April 2014. The previous inventory status report, PNNL 22245 (Fiskum et al. 2013, limited distribution report), was issued in February of 2013. This update incorporates changes in the inventory related to repackaging of 17 samples under test instructions 52578 TI052, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging for Continued Long Term Storage, and 52578 TI053, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging Post-2014 Shear Strength Measurements. Note that shear strength measurement results acquired in 2014 are provided separately. Specifically, this report provides the following: • a description of the K Basin sludge sample archive program and the sample inventory • a summary and images of the samples that were repackaged in April 2014 • up-to-date images and plots of the settled density and water loss from all applicable samples in the inventory • updated sample pedigree charts, which provide a roadmap of the genesis and processing history of each sample in the inventory • occurrence and deficiency reports associated with sample storage and repackaging

  8. Power Rates Study Final Proposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >5

  9. Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report Appendices |ProjectKnow Your PowerWeatherize »Rain orRate

  10. Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleischhauer, H.L.

    1985-10-01

    Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described.

  11. Annual Logging Symposium, May 25-28, 2008 COMPARISON OF WIRELINE FORMATION-TESTER SAMPLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    -TESTER SAMPLING WITH FOCUSED AND CONVENTIONAL PROBES IN THE PRESENCE OF OIL-BASE MUD-FILTRATE INVASION Mayank miscibility with reservoir hydrocarbons. In the course of fluid sampling, varying concentrations of OBM to properly quantify the relative performance of focused and conventional probes for a wide range of field

  12. Spatially resolved heat release rate measurements in turbulent premixed flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayoola, B.O.; Kaminski, C.F.; Balachandran, R.; Mastorakos, E.; Frank, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Heat release rate is a fundamental property of great importance for the theoretical and experimental elucidation of unsteady flame behaviors such as combustion noise, combustion instabilities, and pulsed combustion. Investigations of such thermoacoustic interactions require a reliable indicator of heat release rate capable of resolving spatial structures in turbulent flames. Traditionally, heat release rate has been estimated via OH or CH radical chemiluminescence; however, chemiluminescence suffers from being a line-of-sight technique with limited capability for resolving small-scale structures. In this paper, we report spatially resolved two-dimensional measurements of a quantity closely related to heat release rate. The diagnostic technique uses simultaneous OH and CH{sub 2}O planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), and the pixel-by-pixel product of the OH and CH{sub 2}O PLIF signals has previously been shown to correlate well with local heat release rates. Results from this diagnostic technique, which we refer to as heat release rate imaging (HR imaging), are compared with traditional OH chemiluminescence measurements in several flames. Studies were performed in lean premixed ethylene flames stabilized between opposed jets and with a bluff body. Correlations between bulk strain rates and local heat release rates were obtained and the effects of curvature on heat release rate were investigated. The results show that the heat release rate tends to increase with increasing negative curvature for the flames investigated for which Lewis numbers are greater than unity. This correlation becomes more pronounced as the flame gets closer to global extinction.

  13. Precursors prior to type IIn supernova explosions are common: Precursor rates, properties, and correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Steinbok, Aviram; Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Tal, David; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Yaron, Ofer [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Shaviv, Nir J. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    There is a growing number of Type IIn supernovae (SNe) which present an outburst prior to their presumably final explosion. These precursors may affect the SN display, and are likely related to poorly charted phenomena in the final stages of stellar evolution. By coadding Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) images taken prior to the explosion, here we present a search for precursors in a sample of 16 Type IIn SNe. We find five SNe IIn that likely have at least one possible precursor event (PTF 10bjb, SN 2010mc, PTF 10weh, SN 2011ht, and PTF 12cxj), three of which are reported here for the first time. For each SN we calculate the control time. We find that precursor events among SNe IIn are common: at the one-sided 99% confidence level, >50% of SNe IIn have at least one pre-explosion outburst that is brighter than 3 × 10{sup 7} L{sub ?} taking place up to 1/3 yr prior to the SN explosion. The average rate of such precursor events during the year prior to the SN explosion is likely ? 1 yr{sup –1}, and fainter precursors are possibly even more common. Ignoring the two weakest precursors in our sample, the precursors rate we find is still on the order of one per year. We also find possible correlations between the integrated luminosity of the precursor and the SN total radiated energy, peak luminosity, and rise time. These correlations are expected if the precursors are mass-ejection events, and the early-time light curve of these SNe is powered by interaction of the SN shock and ejecta with optically thick circumstellar material.

  14. What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right...

  15. GraFix: sample preparation for single-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    (cryo-EM). GraFix uses a glycerol gradient centrifugation step in which the complexes are centrifuged a structurally and compositionally homogeneous sample; this in turn requires advanced tools for sample handling are dissolved during centrifugation because of the pressure acting on the molecules. Chemical fixation reagents

  16. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1989 data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.

    1991-08-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1989 indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the analytical and sampling techniques that were used to measure them. During 1989, the occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that we measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. The 1989 annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites were lower than those previously reported during the last decade. Possible changes in the atmospheric production of {sup 7}Be, variations in atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns, as well as modifications to our sampling procedure many all have contributed to this observed trend. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. These short-term fluctuations probably resulted from variations in meteorological factors. The data from our quality control samples indicate that the reliability of the air filter measurements are acceptable for their intended application.

  17. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1989 data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.

    1991-08-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1989 indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the analytical and sampling techniques that were used to measure them. During 1989, the occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that we measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. The 1989 annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites were lower than those previously reported during the last decade. Possible changes in the atmospheric production of {sup 7}Be, variations in atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns, as well as modifications to our sampling procedure many all have contributed to this observed trend. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. These short-term fluctuations probably resulted from variations in meteorological factors. The data from our quality control samples indicate that the reliability of the air filter measurements are acceptable for their intended application.

  18. Disc valve for sampling erosive process streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mrochek, J.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.; Chandler, E.W.

    1984-08-16

    This is a patent for a disc-type, four-port sampling valve for service with erosive high temperature process streams. Inserts and liners of ..cap alpha..-silicon carbide respectively, in the faceplates and in the sampling cavities, limit erosion while providing lubricity for a smooth and precise operation. 1 fig.

  19. Accurate Direct Illumination Using Iterative Adaptive Sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bala, Kavita

    Accurate Direct Illumination Using Iterative Adaptive Sampling Michael Donikian, Bruce Walter with many lights and complex occlusion. Images are first divided into 8 Â 8 pixel blocks and for each point to be shaded within a block, a probability density function (PDF) is constructed over the lights and sampled

  20. Sampling Techniques for Probabilistic Roadmap Planners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Sampling Techniques for Probabilistic Roadmap Planners Roland Geraerts Mark H. Overmars institute;Sampling Techniques for Probabilistic Roadmap Planners Roland Geraerts Mark H. Overmars Institute,markov}@cs.uu.nl. Abstract The probabilistic roadmap approach is a commonly used motion planning technique. A crucial

  1. Sampling Techniques for Probabilistic Roadmap Planners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Sampling Techniques for Probabilistic Roadmap Planners Roland Geraerts Mark H. Overmars institute; Sampling Techniques for Probabilistic Roadmap Planners Roland Geraerts Mark H. Overmars Institute,markov}@cs.uu.nl. Abstract The probabilistic roadmap approach is a commonly used motion planning technique. A crucial

  2. SAMPLE PROGRAM (First Math Course MATH 198)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    MATH SAMPLE PROGRAM (First Math Course MATH 198) This sample program suggests one way to navigate equivalent patterns are possible. Fall ­ Semester 1 Spring ­ Semester 2 MATH 198: Analytic Geometry with Calculus I MATH 263: Analytic Geometry with Calculus II MATH 101: Freshman Seminar CS 170: Intro

  3. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  4. Empirical comparison of network sampling techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blagus, Neli; Bahec, Marko

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, the storage and analysis of large-scale and fast evolving networks present a great challenge. Therefore, a number of different techniques have been proposed for sampling large networks. In general, network exploration techniques approximate the original networks more accurately than random node and link selection. Yet, link selection with additional subgraph induction step outperforms most other techniques. In this paper, we apply subgraph induction also to random walk and forest-fire sampling. We analyze different real-world networks and the changes of their properties introduced by sampling. We compare several sampling techniques based on the match between the original networks and their sampled variants. The results reveal that the techniques with subgraph induction underestimate the degree and clustering distribution, while overestimate average degree and density of the original networks. Techniques without subgraph induction step exhibit exactly the opposite behavior. Hence, the pe...

  5. Microfluidic Tools for Biological Sample Preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visuri, S R; Ness, K; Dzenitis, J; Benett, B; Bettencourt, K; Hamilton, J; Fisher, K; Krulevitch, P

    2002-04-10

    Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are developing means to collect and identify fluid-based biological pathogens in the forms of proteins, viruses, and bacteria. To support detection instruments, we are developing a flexible fluidic sample preparation unit. The overall goal of this Microfluidic Module is to input a fluid sample, containing background particulates and potentially target compounds, and deliver a processed sample for detection. We are developing techniques for sample purification, mixing, and filtration that would be useful to many applications including immunologic and nucleic acid assays. Sample preparation functions are accomplished with acoustic radiation pressure, dielectrophoresis, and solid phase extraction. We are integrating these technologies into packaged systems with pumps and valves to control fluid flow and investigating small-scale detection methods.

  6. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  7. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  8. Fixture for supporting and aligning a sample to be analyzed in an x-ray diffraction apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, L.A.; Heck, J.L. Jr.

    1985-04-23

    A fixture is provided for supporting and aligning small samples of material on a goniometer for x-ray diffraction analysis. A sample-containing capillary is accurately positioned for rotation in the x-ray beam by selectively adjusting the fixture to position the capillary relative to the x and y axes thereof to prevent wobble and position the sample along the z axis or the axis of rotation. By employing the subject fixture relatively small samples of materials can be analyzed in an x-ray diffraction apparatus previously limited to the analysis of much larger samples.

  9. EPMA Instructions for Thin Film Samples General guidelines to reading computer related commands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    finished! (Don't forget to wear gloves while doing this) 3. Non-conductive films or non back to the down position) g. "pump" #12;h. Use the button on the side

  10. Food Group Consumption in a Sample of Children in Houston Area and Its Related Influencing Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Lu

    2012-07-16

    The objective of this research is to discover if significant relationships exist between age, gender, household income, locations where children/adolescents ate, whom they ate with, whether they considered the food as a ...

  11. Estimation of land surface water and energy balance flux components and closure relation using conditional sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farhadi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Models of terrestrial water and energy balance include numerical treatment of heat and moisture diffusion in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. These two diffusion and exchange processes are linked only at a few ...

  12. Attachment and detachment of microorganisms as related to sampling carcasses and meat products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Jacqueline Love

    1980-01-01

    of Advisory Committee: Dr. C. Vanderzant A model system was developed to study attachment and de- t-chment of' bacteria with pork skin and muscle surfaces of beef and lamb carcasses. The technique involved embedding pork skin and beef and lamb muscle... medium, although in some cases attachment continued to occur over a $0-min period. Gram-negative motile bacteria had greater force of attachment than gram-positive non-motile species. Temperature and pH of the attachment medium had little eff...

  13. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier4Rate | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo,AltFuelVehicle2 JumpPublicationDate Jump to:InformationEnergyInformation Rate Jump

  14. Instructions for Apple Leaf Sample Collection.doc September 2013 Instructions for Apple Leaf Sample Collection Vermont

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Instructions for Apple Leaf Sample Collection.doc September 2013 Instructions for Apple Leaf Sample;Instructions for Apple Leaf Sample Collection.doc September 2013 Washing Leaf Samples 1. Wash the leaf samples

  15. PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT DEFLAGRATION RATE MEASUREMENTS OF LLM-105 AND TATB BASED EXPLOSIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N; Koerner, J; Lorenz, K T; Maienschein, J L

    2009-11-10

    The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105 and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. Two different formulations of LLM-105 and three formulations of TATB were studied and results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate and become erratic. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

  16. Deflagration Rate Measurements of Three Insensitive High Explosives: LLM-105, TATB, and DAAF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Maienschein, J L; Lorenz, K T; Tan, N; Koerner, J G

    2010-03-08

    The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105, DAAF and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. One DAAF formulation, two different formulations of LLM-105, and four formulations of TATB were studied; results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating DAAF and TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

  17. Monte Carlo sampling from the quantum state space. II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi-Lin Seah; Jiangwei Shang; Hui Khoon Ng; David John Nott; Berthold-Georg Englert

    2015-04-27

    High-quality random samples of quantum states are needed for a variety of tasks in quantum information and quantum computation. Searching the high-dimensional quantum state space for a global maximum of an objective function with many local maxima or evaluating an integral over a region in the quantum state space are but two exemplary applications of many. These tasks can only be performed reliably and efficiently with Monte Carlo methods, which involve good samplings of the parameter space in accordance with the relevant target distribution. We show how the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method known as Hamiltonian Monte Carlo, or hybrid Monte Carlo, can be adapted to this context. It is applicable when an efficient parameterization of the state space is available. The resulting random walk is entirely inside the physical parameter space, and the Hamiltonian dynamics enable us to take big steps, thereby avoiding strong correlations between successive sample points while enjoying a high acceptance rate. We use examples of single and double qubit measurements for illustration.

  18. Solubility and near-equilibrium dissolution rates of quartz in dilute NaCl solutions at 398-473 K under alkaline conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Rosenqvist, Jorgen K [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The dissolution-precipitation of quartz controls porosity and permeability in many lithologies and may be the best studied mineral-water reaction. However, the rate of quartz-water reaction is relatively well characterized far from equilibrium but relatively unexplored near equilibrium. We present kinetic data for quartz as equilibrium is approached from undersaturation and more limited data on the approach from supersaturated conditions in 0.1 molal NaCl + NaOH + NaSiO(OH){sub 3} solutions with pH 8.2-9.7 at 398, 423, 448, and 473 K. We employed a potentiometric technique that allows precise determination of solution speciation within 2 kJ mol{sup -1} of equilibrium without the need for to perturb the system through physical sampling and chemical analysis. Slightly higher equilibrium solubilities between 423 and 473 K were found than reported in recent compilations. Apparent activation energies of 29 and 37 kJ mol{sup -1} are inferred for rates of dissolution at two surface sites with different values of connectedness: dissolution at Q{sup 1} or Q{sup 2} silicon sites, respectively. The dissolution mechanism varies with DG such that reactions at both sites control dissolution up until a critical free energy value above which only reactions at Q{sup 1} sites are important. When our near-equilibrium dissolution rates are extrapolated far from equilibrium, they agree within propagated uncertainty at 398 K with a recently published model by Bickmore et al. (2008). However, our extrapolated rates become progressively slower than model predictions with increasing temperature. Furthermore, we see no dependence of the postulated Q{sup 1} reaction rate on pH, and a poorly-constrained pH dependence of the postulated Q{sup 2} rate. Our slow extrapolated rates are presumably related to the increasing contribution of dissolution at Q{sup 3} sites far from equilibrium. The use of the potentiometric technique for rate measurement will yield both rate data and insights into the mechanisms of dissolution over a range of chemical affinity. Such measurements are needed to model the evolution of many natural systems quantitatively.

  19. Automated collection and processing of environmental samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Troyer, Gary L. (Richland, WA); McNeece, Susan G. (Richland, WA); Brayton, Darryl D. (Richland, WA); Panesar, Amardip K. (Kennewick, WA)

    1997-01-01

    For monitoring an environmental parameter such as the level of nuclear radiation, at distributed sites, bar coded sample collectors are deployed and their codes are read using a portable data entry unit that also records the time of deployment. The time and collector identity are cross referenced in memory in the portable unit. Similarly, when later recovering the collector for testing, the code is again read and the time of collection is stored as indexed to the sample collector, or to a further bar code, for example as provided on a container for the sample. The identity of the operator can also be encoded and stored. After deploying and/or recovering the sample collectors, the data is transmitted to a base processor. The samples are tested, preferably using a test unit coupled to the base processor, and again the time is recorded. The base processor computes the level of radiation at the site during exposure of the sample collector, using the detected radiation level of the sample, the delay between recovery and testing, the duration of exposure and the half life of the isotopes collected. In one embodiment, an identity code and a site code are optically read by an image grabber coupled to the portable data entry unit.

  20. The RGB Sample of Intermediate BL Lacs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Laurent-Muehleisen; R. I. Kollgaard; E. D. Feigelson; W. Brinkmann; J. Siebert

    1999-05-12

    Combining newly identified and previously known BL Lacs from the RASS-Green Bank (RGB) catalog, we present a sample of 127 BL Lacs, the largest ever derived from a single uniform survey. A Complete sample of 33 objects brighter than O=18.0 mag is also presented. These samples are compared to other known BL Lac samples and are generally found to exhibit properties intermediate between those of the previously disparate classes of High and Low energy peaked BL Lacs (HBLs and LBLs, respectively). This result is most dramatic in the distribution of the X-ray to radio logarithmic flux ratios, where the RGB BL Lacs are shown to peak precisely where the sharp dichotomy between the two subclasses was previously seen. The alpha_ro vs alpha_ox diagram also shows the RGB sample smoothly bridges the gap between the previously distinct subclasses of LBLs and HBLs. We also find a weak, but statistically significant correlation between the composite X-ray spectral index alpha_xox and alpha_ro. This implies that the more LBL-like RGB BL Lacs have a secondary source of X-ray emission, possibly from an inverse Compton component. We also present both the X-ray and radio logN-logS distributions for which the competing HBL/LBL unification scenarios have differing predictions. The unknown effects of the triple flux limit inherent in the RGB Complete sample makes quantitative analysis uncertain, but the characteristics of the RGB sample compare well both with results obtained from previous samples and with general theoretical predictions based on a simple Monte Carlo simulation. Our analysis indicates that the unimodal distribution of BL Lac properties found in the RGB sample likely reliably reflect the underlying population, while the bimodal distribution found in earlier studies arose primarily from observational selection effects.

  1. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and contaminant mixing in an exhaust system and may be useful to identify potential sampling locations in an exhaust system that are likely to meet criteria in the revised standard.

  2. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification of Chinese typical coal samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanping Chen; Zhiwu Luo; Haiping Yang; Fudong Ju; Shihong Zhang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2008-03-15

    This paper aims to understand the pyrolysis and gasification behavior of different Chinese coal samples at different pressures. First, the pyrolysis of four typical Chinese coals samples (Xiaolongtan brown coal, Shenfu bituminous coal, Pingzhai anthracite coal, and Heshan lean coal) were carried out using a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer at ambient pressure and 3 MPa, respectively. The surface structure and elemental component of the resultant char were measured with an automated gas adsorption apparatus and element analyzer. It was observed that higher pressure suppressed the primary pyrolysis, while the secondary pyrolysis of coal particles was promoted. With respect to the resultant solid char, the carbon content increased while H content decreased; however, the pore structure varied greatly with increasing pressure for different coal samples. For Xiaolongtan brown coal (XLT) char, it decreased greatly, while it increased obviously for the other three char types. Then, the isothermal gasification behavior of solid char particles was investigated using an ambient thermal analyzer with CO{sub 2} as the gasifying agent at 1000{sup o}C. The gasification reactivity of solid char was decreased greatly with increasing pyrolysis pressure. However, the extent of change displayed a vital relation with the characteristics of the original coal sample. 26 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Determining the Bayesian optimal sampling strategy in a hierarchical system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, Matthew D.; Ringland, James T.; Boggs, Paul T.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Consider a classic hierarchy tree as a basic model of a 'system-of-systems' network, where each node represents a component system (which may itself consist of a set of sub-systems). For this general composite system, we present a technique for computing the optimal testing strategy, which is based on Bayesian decision analysis. In previous work, we developed a Bayesian approach for computing the distribution of the reliability of a system-of-systems structure that uses test data and prior information. This allows for the determination of both an estimate of the reliability and a quantification of confidence in the estimate. Improving the accuracy of the reliability estimate and increasing the corresponding confidence require the collection of additional data. However, testing all possible sub-systems may not be cost-effective, feasible, or even necessary to achieve an improvement in the reliability estimate. To address this sampling issue, we formulate a Bayesian methodology that systematically determines the optimal sampling strategy under specified constraints and costs that will maximally improve the reliability estimate of the composite system, e.g., by reducing the variance of the reliability distribution. This methodology involves calculating the 'Bayes risk of a decision rule' for each available sampling strategy, where risk quantifies the relative effect that each sampling strategy could have on the reliability estimate. A general numerical algorithm is developed and tested using an example multicomponent system. The results show that the procedure scales linearly with the number of components available for testing.

  4. Visual Sample Plan (VSP) - FIELDS Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulsipher, Brent A.; Wilson, John E.; Gilbert, Richard O.; Hassig, Nancy L.; Carlson, Deborah K.; Bing-Canar, John; Cooper, Brian; Roth, Chuck

    2003-04-19

    Two software packages, VSP 2.1 and FIELDS 3.5, are being used by environmental scientists to plan the number and type of samples required to meet project objectives, display those samples on maps, query a database of past sample results, produce spatial models of the data, and analyze the data in order to arrive at defensible decisions. VSP 2.0 is an interactive tool to calculate optimal sample size and optimal sample location based on user goals, risk tolerance, and variability in the environment and in lab methods. FIELDS 3.0 is a set of tools to explore the sample results in a variety of ways to make defensible decisions with quantified levels of risk and uncertainty. However, FIELDS 3.0 has a small sample design module. VSP 2.0, on the other hand, has over 20 sampling goals, allowing the user to input site-specific assumptions such as non-normality of sample results, separate variability between field and laboratory measurements, make two-sample comparisons, perform confidence interval estimation, use sequential search sampling methods, and much more. Over 1,000 copies of VSP are in use today. FIELDS is used in nine of the ten U.S. EPA regions, by state regulatory agencies, and most recently by several international countries. Both software packages have been peer-reviewed, enjoy broad usage, and have been accepted by regulatory agencies as well as site project managers as key tools to help collect data and make environmental cleanup decisions. Recently, the two software packages were integrated, allowing the user to take advantage of the many design options of VSP, and the analysis and modeling options of FIELDS. The transition between the two is simple for the user – VSP can be called from within FIELDS, automatically passing a map to VSP and automatically retrieving sample locations and design information when the user returns to FIELDS. This paper will describe the integration, give a demonstration of the integrated package, and give users download instructions and software requirements for running the integrated package.

  5. Disc valve for sampling erosive process streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mrochek, J.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.; Chandler, E.W.

    1986-01-07

    A four-port disc valve is described for sampling erosive, high temperature process streams. A rotatable disc defining opposed first and second sampling cavities rotates between fired faceplates defining flow passageways positioned to be alternatively in axial alignment with the first and second cavities. Silicon carbide inserts and liners composed of [alpha] silicon carbide are provided in the faceplates and in the sampling cavities to limit erosion while providing lubricity for a smooth and precise operation when used under harsh process conditions. 1 fig.

  6. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  7. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  8. Spectroscopic diagnostics for bacteria in biologic sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sayed, Mostafa A. (Atlanta, GA); El-Sayed, Ivan H. (Somerville, MA)

    2002-01-01

    A method to analyze and diagnose specific bacteria in a biologic sample using spectroscopy is disclosed. The method includes obtaining the spectra of a biologic sample of a non-infected patient for use as a reference, subtracting the reference from the spectra of an infected sample, and comparing the fingerprint regions of the resulting differential spectrum with reference spectra of bacteria in saline. Using this diagnostic technique, specific bacteria can be identified sooner and without culturing, bacteria-specific antibiotics can be prescribed sooner, resulting in decreased likelihood of antibiotic resistance and an overall reduction of medical costs.

  9. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  10. Sampling and analysis plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105 KW fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1996-08-09

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan describes the equipment,procedures and techniques for obtaining gas and liquid samples from sealed K West fuel canisters. The analytical procedures and quality assurance requirements for the subsequent laboratory analysis of the samples are also discussed.

  11. Generalized Sampling-Based Feedback Motion Planners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Sandip

    2012-02-14

    states. In the deterministic robotics motion planning community, sampling based algorithms like probabilistic roadmaps (PRM) and rapidly exploring random trees (RRTs) have been successful in solving very high dimensional deterministic problem. However...

  12. Interdisciplinary Mathematics/Statistics Actuarial Science Sample ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Interdisciplinary Mathematics/Statistics Actuarial Science Sample Plan 2 . 1 MA 161 (4-5) MA/S T 170 ENGL 101 Lab Science Language or 165, 173, 181, 271 ...

  13. Gibbs Sampling and Centroids for Gene Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newberg, Heidi

    of bioethanol and biohydrogen production" (CEL, LAM, LAN) E #12;Lee A. Newberg 11/30/2011 Gibbs sampling ... for the understanding of cell function, differentiation, and pathology ... because the elements affect both the products

  14. Metrics for sampling-based motion planning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morales Aguirre, Marco Antonio

    2009-05-15

    A motion planner finds a sequence of potential motions for a robot to transit from an initial to a goal state. To deal with the intractability of this problem, a class of methods known as sampling-based planners build ...

  15. LIGHT EMITTING DIODE CHARACTERISTICS (SAMPLE LAB WRITEUP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeill, John A.

    1 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE CHARACTERISTICS (SAMPLE LAB WRITEUP) John A. McNeill ECE Box 000 January 19, 1997 ABSTRACT This lab investigates the V-I characteristic of a light-emitting diode (LED

  16. Experimental analysis of municipal solid waste samples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendoza Sanchez, Itza

    2002-01-01

    In the analysis of municipal solid waste consolidation, large-scale devices are usually used to measure the compression and hydraulic conductivity parameters. The use of those devices is justified due to difficulties in probing undisturbed samples...

  17. WRAP Module 1 sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-03-24

    This document provides the methodology to sample, screen, and analyze waste generated, processed, or otherwise the responsibility of the Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 facility. This includes Low-Level Waste, Transuranic Waste, Mixed Waste, and Dangerous Waste.

  18. Surface sampling concentration and reaction probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Elnaggar, Mariam S

    2013-07-16

    A method of analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen is described. The method can include providing a probe comprising an outer capillary tube and an inner capillary tube disposed co-axially within the outer capillary tube, where the inner and outer capillary tubes define a solvent capillary and a sampling capillary in fluid communication with one another at a distal end of the probe; contacting a target site on a surface of a specimen with a solvent in fluid communication with the probe; maintaining a plug volume proximate a solvent-specimen interface, wherein the plug volume is in fluid communication with the probe; draining plug sampling fluid from the plug volume through the sampling capillary; and analyzing a chemical composition of the plug sampling fluid with an analytical instrument. A system for performing the method is also described.

  19. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (95706 William Dr., Hinsdale, IL 60521)

    2000-01-01

    A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is <10 cm of water, usually <5 cm of water. The sampler's collection efficiency is usually >20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the 2-3.mu. range and >50% for particles larger than 4.mu.. In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives.

  20. On sampling fractions and electron shower shapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peryshkin, Alexander; Raja, Rajendran; /Fermilab

    2011-12-01

    We study the usage of various definitions of sampling fractions in understanding electron shower shapes in a sampling multilayer electromagnetic calorimeter. We show that the sampling fractions obtained by the conventional definition (I) of (average observed energy in layer)/(average deposited energy in layer) will not give the best energy resolution for the calorimeter. The reason for this is shown to be the presence of layer by layer correlations in an electromagnetic shower. The best resolution is obtained by minimizing the deviation from the total input energy using a least squares algorithm. The 'sampling fractions' obtained by this method (II) are shown to give the best resolution for overall energy. We further show that the method (II) sampling fractions are obtained by summing the columns of a non-local {lambda} tensor that incorporates the correlations. We establish that the sampling fractions (II) cannot be used to predict the layer by layer energies and that one needs to employ the full {lambda} tensor for this purpose. This effect is again a result of the correlations.

  1. Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-01-12

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organicsmore »present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.« less

  2. Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-01-12

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organics present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.

  3. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2014-03-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti+3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used tomore »separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1–2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ~30–60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4–8 h with tracer yields of ~85–95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort.« less

  4. The lithium abundances of a large sample of red giants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y. J.; Tan, K. F.; Wang, L.; Zhao, G.; Li, H. N. [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Sato, Bun'ei [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Takeda, Y., E-mail: lyj@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-04-20

    The lithium abundances for 378 G/K giants are derived with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium correction considered. Among these are 23 stars that host planetary systems. The lithium abundance is investigated, as a function of metallicity, effective temperature, and rotational velocity, as well as the impact of a giant planet on G/K giants. The results show that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. The lithium abundance has no correlation with rotational velocity at v sin i < 10 km s{sup –1}. Giants with planets present lower lithium abundance and slow rotational velocity (v sin i < 4 km s{sup –1}). Our sample includes three Li-rich G/K giants, 36 Li-normal stars, and 339 Li-depleted stars. The fraction of Li-rich stars in this sample agrees with the general rate of less than 1% in the literature, and the stars that show normal amounts of Li are supposed to possess the same abundance at the current interstellar medium. For the Li-depleted giants, Li-deficiency may have already taken place at the main sequence stage for many intermediate mass (1.5-5 M {sub ?}) G/K giants. Finally, we present the lithium abundance and kinematic parameters for an enlarged sample of 565 giants using a compilation of the literature, and confirm that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. With the enlarged sample, we investigate the differences between the lithium abundance in thin-/thick-disk giants, which indicate that the lithium abundance in thick-disk giants is more depleted than that in thin-disk giants.

  5. Thermoelastic study of nanolayered structures using time-resolved X-ray diffraction at high repetition rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navirian, H. A.; Schick, D. Leitenberger, W.; Bargheer, M.; Gaal, P.; Shayduk, R.

    2014-01-13

    We investigate the thermoelastic response of a nanolayered sample composed of a metallic SrRuO{sub 3} electrode sandwiched between a ferroelectric Pb(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3} film with negative thermal expansion and a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. SrRuO{sub 3} is rapidly heated by fs-laser pulses with 208?kHz repetition rate. Diffraction of X-ray pulses derived from a synchrotron measures the transient out-of-plane lattice constant c of all three materials simultaneously from 120?ps to 5??s with a relative accuracy up to ?c/c?=?10{sup ?6}. The in-plane propagation of sound is essential for understanding the delayed out-of-plane compression of Pb(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}.

  6. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Kathy; Sherwood, Sherri; Robinson, Rhonda

    2006-08-15

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample size prevents a detailed examination of reproduction composition. Because of small sample size of some species and differences that might occur on a seasonal basis, additional sampling would need to be conducted to further evaluate sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive characteristics.

  7. Machine-Learning for Big Data: Sampling and Distributed On-Line Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combettes, Patrick Louis

    Machine-Learning for Big Data: Sampling and Distributed On-Line Algorithms Stéphan Clémençon LTCI variance control: rate faster than n 1/2 3 Convex risk minimization 4 Oracle inequalities #12;Big Data? Big phones, internet, embedded systems, social networks, . . .) · to store and manage Big (and Complex) Data

  8. Aerosol-to-Hydrosol Transfer Stages for use in bioaerosol sampling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phan, Huy Ngoc

    2002-01-01

    Single-Jet and Multi-Jet Aerosol to Hydrosol Transfer Stages (AHTS) with cutpoints of 2 and 0.8 []m AD, respectively, were designed and evaluated. Both devices operate at nominal air sampling flow rate of 1 L/min, 0.1% Tween®20, and 0.3 m...

  9. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    J Bradshaw, "SLate ’F~es’ Gasoline Tax So ~t Wdl Rise," TheVarlable-Rate State Gasoline Taxers Jeffrey Ang-Olson MartinVariable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes Jeffrey Ang-Olson

  10. Rate Schedule CV-TPT7

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or receipt, adjusted for losses, and delivered to points as agreed to by the parties. Formula Rate: The formula rate for transmission of Western's power by others includes three...

  11. Fluorescence Assay for Polymerase Arrival Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Austin

    2003-08-31

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  12. Fluorescence assay for polymerase arrival rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Austin, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  13. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For new and existing home purchases that are rated 6 Star or 5 Star Plus, applicants are eligible for an interest rate reduction for the first $200,000 of the loan amount, with a blended interest...

  14. Rate Setting for Small Water Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

    2007-03-28

    Knowing how to set the proper rate for water service is a challenge for small water systems. They must generate enough revenue to remain solvent, but offer affordable service. This publication describes the various types of rates and explains...

  15. Home Energy Ratings and Building Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    climate as they affect the rating score of a proposed or completed structure. The rating is used to determine the most cost effective mechanical systems, building envelope design including window and door types, effect of various roofing materials...

  16. Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprio, G.S.

    1995-11-01

    This document presents sampling data resulting from the June 8, 1995, sampling of SST 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System.

  17. Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

  18. Apparatus and methods for high resolution separation of sample components on microfabricated channel devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, Richard A.; Paegel, Brian; Simpson, Peter C.; Hutt, Lester

    2005-07-05

    Sample component separation apparatus and methods are described. An exemplary sample component separation apparatus includes a separation channel having a turn portion configured to reduce band-broadening caused by passage of a sample through the turn portion. To reduce band broadening caused by passage of a sample through a turn portion, the turn portion may be constructed and arranged to have a sample transport characteristic that is different from the corresponding sample transport characteristic of a substantially straight portion of the separation channel. For example, the turn portion may be configured with an effective channel width that is smaller than the effective channel widths of the substantially straight portion of the separation channel. The actual channel width of the turn portion may be smaller than the channel widths of the substantially straight portion; the effective channel width of the turn portion may be reduced by placing one or more sample transport barriers or constrictions in the turn portion of the channel. Alternatively, the sample velocity through the turn portion may be controlled so as to reduce band broadening. For example, sample transport barriers may be disposed in the turn portion so that sample components of a given band travel through the turn portion at substantially the same effective rate, whereby the band orientation remains substantially aligned along radial directions characteristic of the turn portion. Other a sample transport characteristics, such as electrical resistance or fluid flow resistance, of the turn portion may be adapted to reduce band broadening caused by passage of the sample through the turn portion.

  19. Kiwifruitsize influences softening rate during storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crisosto, Carlos H.

    Kiwifruitsize influences softening rate during storage Carlos H. Crisosto o David Garner D Katia)at 32*F for 16 weeks. Un- der both storage conditions,large fruit had a slower rate of softening than fruit size and the rate of softening under air and CA conditions will help cold storage managerssafely

  20. An analysis of international grain freight rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonnala, Sneha Latha

    1999-01-01

    decreasing rate as shipment quantity increases. Highest rates were associated with the berth term followed by the free discharge and free-in-and-out terms. The ships with U.S. flags were found to charge higher rates when compared to ships with foreign flags...

  1. The evolution of the cosmic SN rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enrico Cappellaro; Maria Teresa Botticella; Laura Greggio

    2007-06-09

    We briefly review the contribution of SN rate measurements to the debate on SN progenitor scenarios. We find that core collapse rates confirms the rapid evolution of the star formation rate with redshift. After accounting for the dispersion of SN Ia measurements and uncertainty of the star formation history, the standard scenarios for SN Ia progenitors appear consistent with all observational constraints.

  2. Germanium-76 Sample Analysis: Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2011-09-19

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia. The first one-gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on April 24, 2011. The second one-gram sample was received from the supplier for analysis on July 12, 2011. The third sample, which came from the first large shipment of germanium from the vendor, was received from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on September 13, 2011. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility, a DOE user facility at PNNL, was used to make the required isotopic and chemical purity measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The results of these analyses are reported here. The isotopic composition of a sample of natural germanium was also measured twice. Differences in the result between these two measurements led to a re-measurement of the second 76Ge sample.

  3. Analytical instrument with apparatus for sample concentrating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A system for analysis of trace concentrations of contaminants in air includes a portable liquid chromatograph and a preconcentrator for the contaminants to be analyzed. The preconcentrator includes a sample bag having an inlet valve and an outlet valve for collecting an air sample. When the sample is collected the sample bag is connected in series with a sorbing apparatus in a recirculation loop. The sorbing apparatus has an inner gas-permeable container containing a sorbent material and an outer gas-impermeable container. The sample is circulated through the outer container and around the inner container for trapping and preconcentrating the contaminants in the sorbent material. The sorbent material may be a liquid having the same composition as the mobile phase of the chromatograph for direct injection thereinto. Alternatively, the sorbent material may be a porous, solid body, to which mobile phase liquid is added after preconcentration of the contaminants for dissolving the contaminants, the liquid solution then being withdrawn for injection into the chromatograph.

  4. Simple rate-adaptive LDPC coding for quantum key distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mo Li; Chun-Mei Zhang; Zhen-Qiang Yin; Wei Chen; Chuan Wang; Zheng-Fu Han

    2015-05-24

    Although quantum key distribution (QKD) comes from the development of quantum theory, the implementation of a practical QKD system does involve a lot of classical process, such as key reconciliation and privacy amplification, which is called post-processing. Post-processing has been a crucial element to high speed QKD systems, even the bottleneck of it because of its relatively high time consumption. Low density parity check (LDPC) is now becoming a promising approach of overcoming the bottleneck due to its good performance in processing throughput. In this article we propose and simulate an easily implemented but efficiently rate-adaptive LDPC coding approach of reconciliation, different from the previously proposed puncturing- and shortening-based approach. We also give a measure for choosing the optimal LDPC parameter for our rate-adaptive approach according to error rates.

  5. Biological Electric Fields and Rate Equations for Biophotons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Alvermann; Y. N. Srivastava; J. Swain; A. Widom

    2014-04-13

    Ultraweak bioluminescence - the emission of biophotons - remains an experimentally well-established, but theoretically poorly understood phenomenon. This paper presents several related investigations into the physical process of both spontaneous biophoton emission and delayed luminescence. Since light intensities depend upon the modulus squared of their corresponding electric fields we first make some general estimates about the inherent electric fields within various biological systems. Since photon emission from living matter following an initial excitation ("delayed luminescence") typically does not follow a simple exponential decay law after excitation we discuss such non-exponential decays from a general theoretical perspective and argue that they are often to be expected and why. We then discuss the dynamics behind some nonlinear rate equations, connecting them both to biological growth rates and biophoton emission rates, noting a possible connection with cancer. We then return to non-exponential decay laws seen for delayed luminescence in an experimental context and again note a possible connection with cancer.

  6. Reduction of neutrino - nucleon scattering rate by nucleon - nucleon collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoichi Yamada

    1999-07-05

    We studied possible modifications of the neutrino - nucleon scattering rate due to the nucleon - nucleon collisions in the hot dense matter which we find in the supernova core. We show that the finite width of the nucleon spectral function induced by the nucleon collisions leads to broadening of the dynamical spin structure function of the nucleon, resulting in the reduction of the rate of neutrino - nucleon scattering via the axial vector current and making the energy exchange between neutrinos and nucleons easier. The reduction rate is relatively large (about 0.6) even at density of about 10^{13}g/cm^{3} and could have a significant impact on the dynamics of the collapse-driven supernova as well as the cooling of the proto neutron star.

  7. Reaction Rate Constant for Radiative Association of CF$^+$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Öström, Jonatan; Nyman, Gunnar; Gustafsson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Reaction rate constants and cross sections are computed for the radiative association of carbon cations ($\\text{C}^+$) and fluorine atoms ($\\text{F}$) in their ground states. We consider reactions through the electronic transition $1^1\\Pi \\rightarrow X^1\\Sigma^+$ and rovibrational transitions on the $X^1\\Sigma^+$ and $a^3\\Pi$ potentials. Semiclassical and classical methods are used for the direct contribution and Breit--Wigner theory for the resonance contribution. Quantum mechanical perturbation theory is used for comparison. A modified formulation of the classical method applicable to permanent dipoles of unequally charged reactants is implemented. The total rate constant is fitted to the Arrhenius--Kooij formula in five temperature intervals with a relative difference of $10$ to $250\\:\\text{K}$, the rate constant is about $10^{-21}\\:\\text{cm}^3\\text{s}^{-1}$, rising toward $10^{-16}\\:\\text{cm}^3\\text{s}^{-1}$ fo...

  8. RADIONUCLIDE DISPERSION RATES BY AEOLIAN, FLUVIAL, AND POROUS MEDIA TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Walton; P. Goodell; C. Brashears; D. French; A. Kelts

    2005-07-11

    Radionuclide transport was measured from high grade uranium ore boulders near the Nopal I Site, Chihuahua, Mexico. High grade uranium ore boulders were left behind after removal of a uranium ore stockpile at the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). During the 25 years when the boulder was present, radionuclides were released and transported by sheetflow during precipitation events, wind blown resuspension, and infiltration into the unsaturated zone. In this study, one of the boulders was removed, followed by grid sampling of the surrounding area. Measured gamma radiation levels in three dimensions were used to derive separate dispersion rates by the three transport mechanisms.

  9. Downstream hydraulic geometry relations: 2. Calibration and testing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Vijay P.; Yang, Chih Ted; Deng, Zhi-Qiang

    2003-12-04

    Using 456 data sets under bank-full conditions obtained from various sources, the geometric relations, derived in part 1 [ Singh et al., 2003 ], are calibrated and verified using the split sampling approach. The calibration of parameters shows...

  10. DUST ATTENUATION IN UV-SELECTED STARBURSTS AT HIGH REDSHIFT AND THEIR LOCAL COUNTERPARTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE COSMIC STAR FORMATION RATE DENSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overzier, Roderik A.; Wang Jing [Max-Planck-Institut for Astrophysics, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heckman, Timothy M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Armus, Lee; Howell, Justin [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-marseille, CNRS, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Meurer, Gerhardt [ICRAR/University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Seibert, Mark [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Siana, Brian; Goncalves, Thiago S.; Martin, D. Christopher; Neill, James D. [California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Basu-Zych, Antara [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Charlot, Stephane [PMC Univ Paris 06, UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Salim, Samir [National Optical Astronomical Observatories, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Schiminovich, David, E-mail: overzier@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, MC 2457, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the dust obscuration in starburst galaxies at low and high redshifts. This study is motivated by our unique sample of the most extreme UV-selected starburst galaxies in the nearby universe (z < 0.3), found to be good analogs of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) in most of their physical properties. We find that the dust properties of the Lyman break analogs (LBAs) are consistent with the relation derived previously by Meurer et al. (M99) that is commonly used to dust-correct star formation rate (SFR) measurements at a very wide range of redshifts. We directly compare our results with high-redshift samples (LBGs, 'BzK', and submillimeter galaxies at z {approx} 2-3) having IR data either from Spitzer or Herschel. The attenuation in typical LBGs at z {approx} 2-3 and LBAs is very similar. Because LBAs are much better analogs to LBGs compared to previous local star-forming samples, including M99, the practice of dust-correcting the SFRs of high-redshift galaxies based on the local calibration is now placed on a much more solid ground. We illustrate the importance of this result by showing how the locally calibrated relation between UV measurements and extinction is used to estimate the integrated, dust-corrected SFR density at z {approx_equal} 2-6.

  11. Power Spectrum Analyses of Nuclear Decay Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Javorsek II; P. A. Sturrock; R. N. Lasenby; A. N. Lasenby; J. B. Buncher; E. Fischbach; J. T. Gruenwald; A. W. Hoft; T. J. Horan; J. H. Jenkins; J. L. Kerford; R. H. Lee; A. Longman; J. J. Mattes; B. L. Morreale; D. B. Morris; R. N. Mudry; J. R. Newport; D. O'Keefe; M. A. Petrelli; M. A. Silver; C. A. Stewart; B. Terry

    2010-07-06

    We provide the results from a spectral analysis of nuclear decay data displaying annually varying periodic fluctuations. The analyzed data were obtained from three distinct data sets: 32Si and 36Cl decays reported by an experiment performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), 56Mn decay reported by the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), but also performed at BNL, and 226Ra decay reported by an experiment performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. All three data sets exhibit the same primary frequency mode consisting of an annual period. Additional spectral comparisons of the data to local ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, Earth-Sun distance, and their reciprocals were performed. No common phases were found between the factors investigated and those exhibited by the nuclear decay data. This suggests that either a combination of factors was responsible, or that, if it was a single factor, its effects on the decay rate experiments are not a direct synchronous modulation. We conclude that the annual periodicity in these data sets is a real effect, but that further study involving additional carefully controlled experiments will be needed to establish its origin.

  12. DWPF SMECT PVV SAMPLE CHARACTERIZATION AND REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.; Crawford, C.

    2013-06-18

    On April 2, 2013, a solid sample of material collected from the Defense Waste Processing Facility’s Process Vessel Vent (PVV) jumper for the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) was received at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). DWPF has experienced pressure spikes within the SMECT and other process vessels which have resulted in processing delays while a vacuum was re-established. Work on this sample was requested in a Technical Assistance Request (TAR). This document reports the results of chemical and physical property measurements made on the sample, as well as insights into the possible impact to the material using DWPF’s proposed remediation methods. DWPF was interested in what the facility could expect when the material was exposed to either 8M nitric acid or 90% formic acid, the two materials they have the ability to flush through the PVV line in addition to process water once the line is capped off during a facility outage.

  13. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  14. Standard guide for sampling radioactive tank waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide addresses techniques used to obtain grab samples from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste created during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Guidance on selecting appropriate sampling devices for waste covered by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is also provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1). Vapor sampling of the head-space is not included in this guide because it does not significantly affect slurry retrieval, pipeline transport, plugging, or mixing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. RAPID DETERMINATION OF RADIOSTRONTIUM IN SEAWATER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.

    2013-01-16

    A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium and yttrium isotopes in seawater samples for measurement. The new SRNL method employs a novel and effective pre-concentration step that utilizes a blend of calcium phosphate with iron hydroxide to collect both strontium and yttrium rapidly from the seawater matrix with enhanced chemical yields. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with rapid Sr Resin and DGA Resin cartridge separation options using vacuum box technology, allow seawater samples up to 10 liters to be analyzed. The total {sup 89}Sr + {sup 90}Sr activity may be determined by gas flow proportional counting and recounted after ingrowth of {sup 90}Y to differentiate {sup 89}Sr from {sup 90}Sr. Gas flow proportional counting provides a lower method detection limit than liquid scintillation or Cerenkov counting and allows simultaneous counting of samples. Simultaneous counting allows for longer count times and lower method detection limits without handling very large aliquots of seawater. Seawater samples up to 6 liters may be analyzed using Sr Resin for {sup 89}Sr and {sup 90}Sr with a Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of 1-10 mBq/L, depending on count times. Seawater samples up to 10 liters may be analyzed for {sup 90}Sr using a DGA Resin method via collection and purification of {sup 90}Y only. If {sup 89}Sr and other fission products are present, then {sup 91}Y (beta energy 1.55 MeV, 58.5 day half-life) is also likely to be present. {sup 91}Y interferes with attempts to collect {sup 90}Y directly from the seawater sample without initial purification of Sr isotopes first and {sup 90}Y ingrowth. The DGA Resin option can be used to determine {sup 90}Sr, and if {sup 91}Y is also present, an ingrowth option with using DGA Resin again to collect {sup 90}Y can be performed. An MDA for {sup 90}Sr of <1 mBq/L for an 8 hour count may be obtained using 10 liter seawater sample aliquots.

  16. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahlgran, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  17. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahlgran, J.R.

    1999-08-17

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation uses encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration. 1 fig.

  18. Analytical laboratory and mobile sampling platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stetzenbach, K.; Smiecinski, A.

    1996-04-30

    This is the final report for the Analytical Laboratory and Mobile Sampling Platform project. This report contains only major findings and conclusions resulting from this project. Detailed reports of all activities performed for this project were provided to the Project Office every quarter since the beginning of the project. This report contains water chemistry data for samples collected in the Nevada section of Death Valley National Park (Triangle Area Springs), Nevada Test Site springs, Pahranagat Valley springs, Nevada Test Site wells, Spring Mountain springs and Crater Flat and Amargosa Valley wells.

  19. Measurement of entropy production rate in compressible turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. M. Bandi; W. I. Goldburg; J. R. Cressman Jr

    2006-10-22

    The rate of change of entropy $\\dot S$ is measured for a system of particles floating on the surface of a fluid maintained in a turbulent steady state. The resulting coagulation of the floaters allows one to relate $\\dot S$ to the velocity divergence and to the Lyapunov exponents characterizing the behavior of this system. The quantities measured from experiments and simulations are found to agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  20. 3096 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 12, NO. 6, JUNE 2013 Distributed Sampling Rate Control for Rechargeable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"

    networks [1][2][3][4]. Rechargeable sensor nodes can harvest energy from sources such as solar and wind-powered sensor networks. Due to time variations of harvested energy, one of the main challenging issues an adaptive Energy Allocation sCHeme (EACH) for each sensor node to manage its energy use in an efficient way

  1. Star formation relations in nearby molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Neal J. II; Heiderman, Amanda; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin

    2014-02-20

    We test some ideas for star formation relations against data on local molecular clouds. On a cloud by cloud basis, the relation between the surface density of star formation rate and surface density of gas divided by a free-fall time, calculated from the mean cloud density, shows no significant correlation. If a crossing time is substituted for the free-fall time, there is even less correlation. Within a cloud, the star formation rate volume and surface densities increase rapidly with the corresponding gas densities, faster than predicted by models using the free-fall time defined from the local density. A model in which the star formation rate depends linearly on the mass of gas above a visual extinction of 8 mag describes the data on these clouds, with very low dispersion. The data on regions of very massive star formation, with improved star formation rates based on free-free emission from ionized gas, also agree with this linear relation.

  2. Method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY)

    1996-01-01

    Provided is a method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants, and particularly for aromatic compounds such as those found in diesel fuel and other heavy fuel oils, kerosene, creosote, coal oil, tars and asphalts. A drying step is provided in which a drying agent is contacted with either the earth sample or a liquid extract phase to reduce to possibility of false indications of contamination that could occur when humic material is present in the earth sample. This is particularly a problem when using relatively safe, non-toxic and inexpensive polar solvents such as isopropyl alcohol since the humic material tends to be very soluble in those solvents when water is present. Also provided is an ultraviolet spectroscopic measuring technique for obtaining an indication as to whether a liquid extract phase contains aromatic organic contaminants. In one embodiment, the liquid extract phase is subjected to a narrow and discrete band of radiation including a desired wave length and the ability of the liquid extract phase to absorb that wavelength of ultraviolet radiation is measured to provide an indication of the presence of aromatic organic contaminants.

  3. Method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, J.F.

    1996-10-01

    Provided is a method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants, and particularly for aromatic compounds such as those found in diesel fuel and other heavy fuel oils, kerosene, creosote, coal oil, tars and asphalts. A drying step is provided in which a drying agent is contacted with either the earth sample or a liquid extract phase to reduce to possibility of false indications of contamination that could occur when humic material is present in the earth sample. This is particularly a problem when using relatively safe, non-toxic and inexpensive polar solvents such as isopropyl alcohol since the humic material tends to be very soluble in those solvents when water is present. Also provided is an ultraviolet spectroscopic measuring technique for obtaining an indication as to whether a liquid extract phase contains aromatic organic contaminants. In one embodiment, the liquid extract phase is subjected to a narrow and discrete band of radiation including a desired wave length and the ability of the liquid extract phase to absorb that wavelength of ultraviolet radiation is measured to provide an indication of the presence of aromatic organic contaminants. 2 figs.

  4. THE GAS INFLOW AND OUTFLOW RATE IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ? 1.4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yabe, Kiyoto; Ohta, Kouji; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Akiyama, Masayuki; Tamura, Naoyuki; Yuma, Suraphong; Dalton, Gavin; Lewis, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We try to constrain the gas inflow and outflow rate of star-forming galaxies at z ? 1.4 by employing a simple analytic model for the chemical evolution of galaxies. The sample is constructed based on a large near-infrared spectroscopic sample observed with Subaru/FMOS. The gas-phase metallicity is measured from the [N II] ?6584/H? emission line ratio and the gas mass is derived from the extinction corrected H? luminosity by assuming the Kennicutt-Schmidt law. We constrain the inflow and outflow rate from the least-?{sup 2} fittings of the observed gas-mass fraction, stellar mass, and metallicity with the analytic model. The joint ?{sup 2} fitting shows that the best-fit inflow rate is ?1.8 and the outflow rate is ?0.6 in units of star-formation rate. By applying the same analysis to the previous studies at z ? 0 and z ? 2.2, it is shown that both the inflow and outflow rates decrease with decreasing redshift, which implies the higher activity of gas flow process at higher redshift. The decreasing trend of the inflow rate from z ? 2.2 to z ? 0 agrees with that seen in previous observational works with different methods, though the absolute value is generally larger than in previous works. The outflow rate and its evolution from z ? 2.2 to z ? 0 obtained in this work agree well with the independent estimations in previous observational works.

  5. Relation between viscosity and stability for heavy oil emulsions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, Sherry Qianwen

    1998-01-01

    The relation between viscosity and stability has been hics. found by investigating the effect of surfactant concentration on emulsion stability. Based on the Bingham plastic model for viscosity as a function of shear rate, ...

  6. Relationalism vs. Bayesianism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Marlow

    2006-03-07

    We compare and contrast the basic principles of two philosophies: Bayesianism and relationalism. These two philosophies are both based upon criteria of rationality. The analogy invoked in such a comparison seems rather apt when discussing tentative proofs of quantum nonlocality. We argue that Bayesianism is almost to quantum theory, what general covariance is to general relativity. This is because the Bayesian interpretation of quantum theory can be given a relational flavour.

  7. Quantifying Holocene lithospheric subsidence rates underneath the Mississippi Delta Shi-Yong Yu a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    Quantifying Holocene lithospheric subsidence rates underneath the Mississippi Delta Shi-Yong Yu: Mississippi Delta relative sea level glacial isostatic adjustment flexural subsidence Holocene The pattern), and lithospheric flexural subsidence associated with Mississippi Delta sediment loading remains unre- solved. Here

  8. Rate of Industrial Conservation - Petroleum Refining, Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Manufacture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prengle, H. W. Jr.; Golden, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper considers three related questions: 1) What are the primary economic driving forces which determine the rate of industrial energy conservation? 2) How much industrial energy conservation has been achieved over 1972-1973 levels? 3) What...

  9. Community Relations Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and disagreements between the Permittees and the public are documented during the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Community Relations Plan development. Contact Environmental...

  10. Thermodynamics and scale relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Carroll

    2011-10-13

    It is shown how the fractal paths of scale relativity (following Nottale) can be introduced into a thermodynamical context (following Asadov-Kechkin).

  11. Statistical Methods for Thermonuclear Reaction Rates and Nucleosynthesis Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Iliadis; Richard Longland; Alain Coc; F. X. Timmes; Art E. Champagne

    2014-09-19

    Rigorous statistical methods for estimating thermonuclear reaction rates and nucleosynthesis are becoming increasingly established in nuclear astrophysics. The main challenge being faced is that experimental reaction rates are highly complex quantities derived from a multitude of different measured nuclear parameters (e.g., astrophysical S-factors, resonance energies and strengths, particle and gamma-ray partial widths). We discuss the application of the Monte Carlo method to two distinct, but related, questions. First, given a set of measured nuclear parameters, how can one best estimate the resulting thermonuclear reaction rates and associated uncertainties? Second, given a set of appropriate reaction rates, how can one best estimate the abundances from nucleosynthesis (i.e., reaction network) calculations? The techniques described here provide probability density functions that can be used to derive statistically meaningful reaction rates and final abundances for any desired coverage probability. Examples are given for applications to s-process neutron sources, core-collapse supernovae, classical novae, and big bang nucleosynthesis.

  12. Investigating AGN Heating in a Sample of Nearby Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, R J H

    2006-01-01

    We analyse those objects in the Brightest 55 sample of clusters of galaxies which have a short central cooling time and a central temperature drop. Such clusters are likely to require some form of heating. Where clear radio bubbles are observed in these clusters, their energy injection is compared to the X-ray cooling rate. Of the 20 clusters requiring heating, at least 14 have clear bubbles, implying a duty cycle for the bubbling activity of at least 70 per cent. The average distance out to which the bubbles can offset the X-ray cooling, r_heat is given by r_heat/r_cool=0.86+/-0.11 where r_cool is defined as the radius as which the radiative cooling time is 3 Gyr. 10 out of 16 clusters have r_heat/r_cool>1, but there is a large range in values. The clusters which require heating but show no clear bubbles were combined with those clusters which have a radio core to form a second sub-sample. Using r_heat=0.86 r_cool we calculate the size of an average bubble expected in these clusters. In five cases (3C129.1, ...

  13. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 57, NO. 3, MARCH 2009 977 High-Rate Interpolation of Random Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eldar, Yonina

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 57, NO. 3, MARCH 2009 977 High-Rate Interpolation of Random Signals From Nonideal Samples Tomer Michaeli and Yonina C. Eldar, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--We address the problem of reconstructing a random signal from samples of its filtered version using a given

  14. Computed microtomography of reservoir core samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, M.E.; Muegge, E.L.; Spanne, P.; Jones, K.W.

    1995-03-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is often utilized to evaluate and characterize structural characteristics within reservoir core material systems. Generally, medical CT scanners have been employed because of their availability and ease of use. Of interest lately has been the acquisition of three-dimensional, high resolution descriptions of rock and pore structures for characterization of the porous media and for modeling of single and multiphase transport processes. The spatial resolution of current medical CT scanners is too coarse for pore level imaging of most core samples. Recently developed high resolution computed microtomography (CMT) using synchrotron X-ray sources is analogous to conventional medical CT scanning and provides the ability to obtain three-dimensional images of specimens with a spatial resolution on the order of micrometers. Application of this technique to the study of core samples provides two- and three-dimensional high resolution description of pore structure and mineral distributions. Pore space and interconnectivity is accurately characterized and visualized. Computed microtomography data can serve as input into pore-level simulation techniques. A generalized explanation of the technique is provided, with comparison to conventional CT scanning techniques and results. Computed microtomographic results of several sandstone samples are presented and discussed. Bulk porosity values and mineralogical identification were obtained from the microtomograms and compared with gas porosity and scanning electron microscope results on tandem samples.

  15. Efficient Bayesian sampling inspection for industrial processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, John

    Efficient Bayesian sampling inspection for industrial processes based on transformed spatio of complex industrial systems subject to degradation effects, such as corrosion, is important for safety, inspection, Bayesian, minima. 1 #12;1 Introduction Many large industrial systems including pipes, vessels

  16. Sampling the National Deep Web Denis Shestakov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammerton, James

    Sampling the National Deep Web Denis Shestakov Department of Media Technology, Aalto University pages filled with information from myriads of online databases. This part of the Web, known as the deep a problem of deep Web characterization: how to estimate the total number of online databases on the Web? We

  17. PSYC 465: Poverty and Development Sample Syllabus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    PSYC 465: Poverty and Development Sample Syllabus Description: Poverty is one of the most examines the impact of poverty and family economic hardship on human development. An ecological systems on the scientific study of poverty as an important developmental risk factor as well as on research on protective

  18. Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    . of water for up to 10 hrs. after the CM was retrieved (Butler 1973, pages 38 and 39). The outer bag Sci. Conf. 1975-2003. Butler P. (1973) Lunar Sample Information Catalog Apollo 17. Lunar Receiving Laboratory. MSC 03211 Curator's Catalog. pp. 447. Heiken G.H. (1974) A catalog of lunar soils. JSC Curator

  19. Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    2672 grams Mineralogical Mode of 15058 Sample catalog Rhodes and Juan et Butler 1971 Hubbard 1973 al basalts returned from the moon, but its lunar orientation is not known with much certainty. The catalog are fluorapatite with minor chloroapatite and trace water (~2400 ± 1100 ppm H2 O). Chemistry O'Kelley et al. (1972

  20. Using Slocum Gliders for Coordinated Spatial Sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kremer, Ulrich

    in the per sample energy cost. I. INTRODUCTION Buoyancy driven Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) allow of vehicles. Although functional, alternative approaches should be explored. This paper proposes and evaluates--Buoyancy driven Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), such as the Slocum glider, allow for a prolonged presence

  1. Sample & Assay Technologies Ni-NTA Superflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    March 2007 Sample & Assay Technologies Ni-NTA Superflow Cartridge Handbook For manual or FPLCTM purification of His-tagged proteins #12;2 Ni-NTA Superflow Cartridge Handbook 03/2007 Trademarks: QIAGEN, are not to be considered unprotected by law. © 2007 QIAGEN, all rights reserved. #12;Ni-NTA Superflow Cartridge Handbook 03

  2. Sample Job Offer Letter Best Company, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awtar, Shorya

    Sample Job Offer Letter Best Company, Inc. 1553 Job Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (Tel) (734) 000 would like to offer (student's name here) an internship position. Below is the information you requested: 1553 Job Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 Number of hours worked per week: 40 Official offer beginning

  3. Hanford site transuranic waste sampling plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-05-13

    This sampling plan (SP) describes the selection of containers for sampling of homogeneous solids and soil/gravel and for visual examination of transuranic and mixed transuranic (collectively referred to as TRU) waste generated at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The activities described in this SP will be conducted under the Hanford Site TRU Waste Certification Program. This SP is designed to meet the requirements of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) (DOE 1996a) (QAPP), site-specific implementation of which is described in the Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Characterization Program Quality Assurance Project Plan (HNF-2599) (Hanford 1998b) (QAPP). The QAPP defines the quality assurance (QA) requirements and protocols for TRU waste characterization activities at the Hanford Site. In addition, the QAPP identifies responsible organizations, describes required program activities, outlines sampling and analysis strategies, and identifies procedures for characterization activities. The QAPP identifies specific requirements for TRU waste sampling plans. Table 1-1 presents these requirements and indicates sections in this SP where these requirements are addressed.

  4. Hanford Sampling Quality Management Plan (HSQMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyatt, J.E.

    1995-04-28

    This document provides a management tool for evaluating and designing the appropriate elements of a field sampling program. This document provides discussion of the elements of a program and is to be used as a guidance document during the preparation of project and/or function specific documentation. This document does not specify how a sampling program shall be organized. The HSQMP is to be used as a companion document to the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Plan (HASQAP) DOE/RL-94-55. The generation of this document was enhanced by conducting baseline evaluations of current sampling organizations. Valuable input was received from members of field and Quality Assurance organizations. The HSQMP is expected to be a living document. Revisions will be made as regulations and or Hanford Site conditions warrant changes in the best management practices. Appendices included are: summary of the sampling and analysis work flow process, a user`s guide to the Data Quality Objective process, and a self-assessment checklist.

  5. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  6. Bachelor of Arts in Geography: Sample Curriculum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Bachelor of Arts in Geography: Sample Curriculum FIRST YEAR Fall Spring GEOG 1401, Physical Geography 4 GEOG 2300, Intro to Human Geography 3 POLS 1301, American Govt. Org. 3 POLS 2302, American Geog. 3 GEOG 4300, Seminar in Geography 3 Minor 3 Minor (Jr./Sr. ) 6 Junior/Senior Elective 6 TOTAL 15

  7. MA265 Linear Algebra — Sample Exam 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    page 1. Purdue University. MA265 Linear Algebra — Sample Exam 1. Date: February 20, 2015 Duration: 50 ... 1. Determine A such that (let-(A). 7 .110 [p. 1100 O r. In. )1 A n 1. \\\\\\\\l_ he zlxrs M. \\11. '01 .... Rep'mr'ata. 1 F'ncl '3“ m muVVnN

  8. Validating the use of qualitative ratings of static wrist postures relative to quantitative measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohac, Melanie Dawn

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the accuracy and reliability of observer estimates of varying degrees of static wrist flexion and extension. Observers' classification of various angles of static wrist flexion and ...

  9. Dependence of the Firearm-Related Homicide Rate on Gun Availability: A Mathematical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wodarz, Dominik; Komarova, Natalia L; Abbott, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Wiebe D (2009) Investigating the link between gun possessionand gun assault. American Journal of Public Health 99: 2034–Hemenway D (2006) Private Guns, Public Health. University of

  10. Consistency of Principal Ratings by Central Office Administration Across Various Job Related Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett-O'Brien, Kristin

    2012-08-31

    , and the federal government. However, many forms of appraisal have failed to assess the daily work of principals. The conventional form of evaluation in the field of educational leadership has focused on a process whereby a central office administrator...

  11. Literature review of intrinsic actinide colloids related to spent fuel waste package release rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, P.; Steward, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Existence of actinide colloids provides an important mechanism in the migration of radionuclides and will be important in performance of a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. Actinide colloids have been formed during long-term unsaturated dissolution of spent fuel by groundwater. This article summarizes a literature search of actinide colloids. This report emphasizes the formation of intrinsic actinide colloids, because they would have the opportunity to form soon after groundwater contact with the spent fuel and before actinide-bearing groundwater reaches the surrounding geologic formations.

  12. Relating carrion breakdown rates to ambient resource level and community structure in four cave stream ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benstead, Jon

    . Cave systems that are well connected to the surface (e.g., via entrances and sinkholes) can receive

  13. A Rating of Plants with Reference to their Relative Resistance or Susceptibility to Phymatotrichum Root Rot. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, Walter N. (Walter Naphtali)

    1936-01-01

    , a co-operativc experi- ment mas begun in 1890 with stations at Mississippi, Naryland, Georgia, Connecticut, New York, Wisconsin and Kansas. Previous work and observation had lead to the belief that such a variation would be found to exist... too mucn work upon the chenlists at the several stations. Owing to drouth, and other unavoidable causes, reports have been received from but three stations. That of Connecticut, Georgia and New York. Of the corn grown in Connecticut 1890 but two...

  14. The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutory Authority J-I-12 GeVAudit and InspectionsTheOf

  15. The potential benefits of distributed deneration and rate-related issues

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavings for Specific Measures 5 U.S. C. § 552.

  16. Sonochemical Digestion of Soil and Sediment Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determination of plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to determine the potential for applying ultrasonic irradiation to sample digestion. Two standard reference materials (SRMs) were used in this study: Columbia River Sediment and Rocky Flats Soil. The key experiments performed are listed below along with a summary of the results. The action of nitric acid, regardless of its concentration and liquid-to-solid ratio, did not achieve dissolution efficiency better that 20%. The major fraction of natural organic matter (NOM) remained undissolved by this treatment. Sonication did not result in improved dissolution for the SRMs tested. The action of hydrofluoric acid at concentrations of 8 M and higher achieved much more pronounced dissolution (up to 97% dissolved for the Rocky Flats soil sample and up to 78% dissolved for the Columbia River Sediment sample). Dissolution efficiency remains constant for solid-to-liquid ratios of up to 0.05 to 1 and decreases for the higher loadings of the solid phase. Sonication produced no measurable effect in improving the dissolution of the samples compared with the control digestion experiments. Combined treatment of the SRM by mixtures of HNO3 and HF showed inferior performance compared with the HF alone. An adverse effect of sonication was found for the Rocky Flats soil material, which became more noticeable at higher HF concentrations. Sonication of the Columbia River sediment samples had no positive effect in the mixed acid treatment. The results indicate that applying ultrasound in an isolated cup horn configuration does not offer any advantage over conventional ''heat and mix'' treatment for dissolution of the soil and sediment based on the SRM examined here. This conclusion, however, is based on an approach that uses gravimetric analysis to determine gross dissolution efficiency. This approach does not allow any conclusion regarding the possible advantage of sonication in selective dissolution of plutonium traces incorporated into an inorganic or organic fraction of the samples.

  17. A direct ab inifio dynamics approach for calculating thermal rate constants using variational transition state theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Thanh N.

    of a focusing technique to minimize the number of electronic structure calculations, while still preservingA direct ab inifio dynamics approach for calculating thermal rate constants using variational dynamics, " for calculations of thermal rate constants and related properties from first principles

  18. Exports and exchange rate: a firm-level investigation Sarah Guillou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Exports and exchange rate: a firm-level investigation Sarah Guillou February 2008 Abstract This paper investigates the relation between export behaviour and the exchange rate at firm level. We use a dataset of French manufacturing firms from 1994 to 2004, to study the sensitivity of firms' export

  19. Cooperativity, Smooth Energy Landscapes and the Origins of Topology-dependent Protein Folding Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Alex J.

    Cooperativity, Smooth Energy Landscapes and the Origins of Topology-dependent Protein Folding Rates Barbara Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9510 USA The relative folding rates of simple, single-domain proteins, proteins whose folding energy landscapes are smooth, are highly dispersed and strongly correlated

  20. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Aniruddh D.

    Racists: What Constitutes Racism (and What Doesn't) Samuel R. Sommers Tufts University Michael I. Norton appearing racist, yet researchers know little regarding laypeople's theories about what constitutes racism. By investigating lay theories of White racism across both college and community samples, we seek to develop a more