Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Atmospheric Circulation Trends, 1950–2000: The Relative Roles of Sea Surface Temperature Forcing and Direct Atmospheric Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative roles of direct atmospheric radiative forcing (due to observed changes in well-mixed greenhouse gases, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, sulfate and volcanic aerosols, and solar output) and observed sea surface temperature (SST) ...

Clara Deser; Adam S. Phillips

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Radiative Forcing of Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 6 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Sections include: Executive Summary 6.1 Radiative Forcing 6.2 Forcing-Response Relationship 6.3 Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases 6.4 Stratospheric Ozone 6.5 Radiative Forcing By Tropospheric Ozone 6.6 Indirect Forcings due to Chemistry 6.7 The Direct Radiative Forcing of Tropospheric Aerosols 6.8 The Indirect Radiative Forcing of Tropospheric Aerosols 6.9 Stratospheric Aerosols 6.10 Land-use Change (Surface Albedo Effect) 6.11 Solar Forcing of Climate 6.12 Global Warming Potentials hydrocarbons 6.13 Global Mean Radiative Forcings 6.14 The Geographical Distribution of the Radiative Forcings 6.15 Time Evolution of Radiative Forcings Appendix 6.1 Elements of Radiative Forcing Concept References.

Ramaswamy, V.; Boucher, Olivier; Haigh, J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Haywood, J.; Myhre, G.; Nakajima, Takahito; Shi, Guangyu; Solomon, S.; Betts, Robert E.; Charlson, R.; Chuang, C. C.; Daniel, J. S.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Feichter, J.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Forster, P. M.; Ghan, Steven J.; Jones, A.; Kiehl, J. T.; Koch, D.; Land, C.; Lean, J.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Minschwaner, K.; Penner, Joyce E.; Roberts, D. L.; Rodhe, H.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Rotstayn, Leon D.; Schneider, T. L.; Schumann, U.; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Schwartzkopf, M. D.; Shine, K. P.; Smith, Steven J.; Stevenson, D. S.; Stordal, F.; Tegen, I.; van Dorland, R.; Zhang, Y.; Srinivasan, J.; Joos, Fortunat

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Greenhouse impact due to the use of combustible fuels: Life cycle viewpoint and relative radiative forcing commitment  

SciTech Connect

Extensive information on the greenhouse impacts of various human actions is important in developing effective climate change mitigation strategies. The greenhouse impacts of combustible fuels consist not only of combustion emissions but also of emissions from the fuel production chain and possible effects on the ecosystem carbon storages. It is important to be able to assess the combined, total effect of these different emissions and to express the results in a comprehensive way. In this study, a new concept called relative radiative forcing commitment (RRFC) is presented and applied to depict the greenhouse impact of some combustible fuels currently used in Finland. RRFC is a ratio that accounts for the energy absorbed in the Earth system due to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations (production and combustion of fuel) compared to the energy released in the combustion of fuel. RRFC can also be expressed as a function of time in order to give a dynamic cumulative picture on the caused effect. Varying time horizons can be studied separately, as is the case when studying the effects of different climate policies on varying time scales. The RRFC for coal for 100 years is about 170, which means that in 100 years 170 times more energy is absorbed in the atmosphere due to the emissions of coal combustion activity than is released in combustion itself. RRFC values of the other studied fuel production chains varied from about 30 (forest residues fuel) to 190 (peat fuel) for the 100-year study period. The length of the studied time horizon had an impact on the RRFC values and, to some extent, on the relative positions of various fuels.

Kirkinen, J.; Palosuo, T.; Holmgren, K.; Savolainen, I. [VTT Technical Research Center Finland, Espoo (Finland)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic organic aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] This study simulates the direct radiative forcing of organic aerosol using the GFDL AM2 GCM. The aerosol climatology is provided by the MOZART chemical transport model (CTM). The approach to calculating aerosol optical properties explicitly considers relative humidity–dependent hygroscopic growth by employing a functional group– based thermodynamic model, and makes use of the size distribution derived from AERONET measurements. The preindustrial (PI) and present-day (PD) global burdens of organic carbon are 0.17 and 1.36 Tg OC, respectively. The annual global mean total-sky and clear-sky top-of-the atmosphere (TOA) forcings (PI to PD) are estimated as 0.34 and 0.71 W m 2, respectively. Geographically the radiative cooling largely lies over the source regions, namely part of South America, Central Africa, Europe and South and East Asia. The annual global mean total-sky and clear-sky surface forcings are 0.63 and 0.98 W m 2, respectively. A series of sensitivity analyses shows that the treatments of hygroscopic growth and optical properties of organic aerosol are intertwined in the determination of the global organic aerosol forcing. For example, complete deprivation of water uptake by hydrophilic organic particles reduces the standard (total-sky) and clearsky TOA forcing estimates by 18 % and 20%, respectively, while the uptake by a highly soluble organic compound (malonic acid) enhances them by 18 % and 32%, respectively. Treating particles as non-absorbing enhances aerosol reflection and increases the total-sky and clear-sky TOA forcing by 47 % and 18%, respectively, while neglecting the scattering brought about by the water associated with particles reduces them by 24% and 7%, respectively.

Yi Ming; V. Ramaswamy; Paul A. Ginoux; Larry H. Horowitz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Attractive Optical Forces from Blackbody Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Blackbody radiation around hot objects induces ac Stark shifts of the energy levels of nearby atoms and molecules. These shifts are roughly proportional to the fourth power of the temperature and induce a force decaying with the third power of the distance from the object. We explicitly calculate the resulting attractive blackbody optical dipole force for ground state hydrogen atoms. Surprisingly, this force can surpass the repulsive radiation pressure and actually pull the atoms against the radiation energy flow towards the surface with a force stronger than gravity. We exemplify the dominance of the "blackbody force" over gravity for hydrogen in a cloud of hot dust particles. This overlooked force appears relevant in various astrophysical scenarios, in particular, since analogous results hold for a wide class of other broadband radiation sources.

Matthias Sonnleitner; Monika Ritsch-Marte; Helmut Ritsch

2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

6

Impact of Desert Dust Radiative Forcing on Sahel Precipitation: Relative Importance of Dust Compared to Sea Surface Temperature Variations, Vegetation Changes, and Greenhouse Gas Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of direct radiative forcing of desert dust aerosol in the change from wet to dry climate observed in the African Sahel region in the last half of the twentieth century is investigated using simulations with an atmospheric general ...

Masaru Yoshioka; Natalie M. Mahowald; Andrew J. Conley; William D. Collins; David W. Fillmore; Charles S. Zender; Dani B. Coleman

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Longwave radiative forcing by aqueous aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Recently, a great deal of interest has been focused on the role of aerosols in climatic change because of their potential cooling impacts due to light scattering. Recent advances in infrared spectroscopy using cylindrical internal reflectance have allowed the longwave absorption of dissolved aerosol species and the associated liquid water to be accurately determined and evaluated. Experimental measurements using these techniques have shown that dissolved sulfate, nitrate, and numerous other aerosol species will act to cause greenhouse effects. Preliminary calculations indicate that the longwave climate forcing (i.e., heating) for sulfate aerosol will be comparable in magnitude to the cooling effect produced by light scattering. However, more detailed modeling will clearly be needed to address the impact of the longwave forcing due to aerosols as a function of atmospheric height and composition. Their work has shown that aerosol composition will be important in determining longwave forcing, while shortwave forcing will be more related to the physical size of the aerosol droplets. On the basis of these studies, it is increasingly apparent that aerosols, fogs, and clouds play a key role in determining the radiative balance of the atmosphere and in controlling regional and global climates.

Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Radiative Forcing of Stationary Planetary Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stationary wave components of the planetary-scale circulation are maintained by topographic forcing and by latent and sensible heat transfers and radiation. These waves have a potential vorticity balance mainly due to vertically differential ...

Leo J. Donner; Hsiao-Lan Kuo

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Radiative Forcing Due to Reactive Gas Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reactive gas emissions (CO, NOx, VOC) have indirect radiative forcing effects through their influences on tropospheric ozone and on the lifetimes of methane and hydrogenated halocarbons. These effects are quantified here for the full set of ...

T. M. L. Wigley; S. J. Smith; M. J. Prather

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Sensitivity of aerosol radiative forcing calculations to spectral resolution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Potential impacts of aerosol radiative forcing on climate have generated considerable recent interest. An important consideration in estimating the forcing from various aerosol components is the spectral resolution used for the solar radiative transfer calculations. This paper examines the spectral resolution required from the viewpoint of overlapping spectrally varying aerosol properties with other cross sections. A diagnostic is developed for comparing different band choices, and the impact of these choices on the radiative forcing calculated for typical sulfate and biomass aerosols was investigated.

Grant, K.E.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Influence of cloud-radiative forcing on tropical cyclone structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate how and why cloud-radiative forcing (CRF), the interaction of hydrometeors with longwave and shortwave radiation, can influence tropical cyclone structure through “semi-idealized” integrations of the Hurricane Weather Research and ...

Yizhe Peggy Bu; Robert G. Fovell; Kristen L. Corbosiero

12

Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing as Determined from Nimbus-7 Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Collocated and coincident cloud and outgoing longwave radiation observations taken by experiments on board the Nimbus-7 satellite have been used to infer the daytime longwave cloud-radiative forcing. Through the specification of a time-series of ...

Philip E. Ardanuy; Larry L. Stowe; Arnold Gruber; Mitchell Weiss; Craig S. Long

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Radiative forcing for changes in tropospheric O{sub 3}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have evaluated the radiative forcing for assumed changes in tropospheric O{sub 3} in the 500-1650 cm{sup {minus}1} wavenumber range. The radiative forcing calculations were performed as a function of latitude as well as for a globally and seasonally averaged model atmosphere, both in a clear sky approximation and in a model containing a representative cloud distribution. The scenarios involved radiative forcing calculations for O{sub 3} at normal atmospheric abundance and at a tropospheric abundance depleted by 25 ppbv, at each altitude, for all northern hemisphere latitudes. Normal abundances of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O were included in the calculations. The IR radiative forcing was calculated using a correlated k-distribution radiative transfer model. The tropospheric radiative forcing values are compared to the IPCC formulae for ozone tropospheric forcing as well as other published values to determine the validity of the correlated k-distribution approach to the radiative forcing calculations. The results for the global average atmosphere show agreement with previous results to the order of 10 percent. We conclude that the O{sub 3} forcing is linear in the background abundance and that the radiative forcing for ozone for the globally averaged atmosphere and the latitude averaged radiative forcing in the clear sky approximation are in agreement to within 10 percent. For the case of an atmosphere in which the tropospheric ozone has been depleted by 25 ppbv at all altitudes in the northern hemisphere, the mid latitude zone contributes {approximately}50 percent of the forcing, tropic zone contributes {approximately}37 percent of the forcing and the polar zone contributes {approximately}13 percent of the total forcing.

Grossman, A.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Grant, K.E.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

15

Intercomparison of Radiation Transfer Models Representing Direct Shortwave Forcing by Sulfate Aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study has been conducted, involving 15 models by 12 groups, to compare modeled forcing (change in shortwave radiation budget) due to sulfate aerosol for a wide range of values of particle radius, optical depth, surface albedo, and solar zenith angle (SZA). The models included high- and low-spectral resolution models, incorporating a variety of radiative transfer approximations, as well as a line-by-line model. The normalized forcings (forcing per sulfate column burden) obtained with the radiative transfer models were examined and the differences characterized. All models simulate forcings of comparable amplitude and exhibit a similar dependence on input parameters. As expected for a non-light-absorbing aerosol, forcings were negative (cooling influence), except at high surface albedo combined with low SZA. The relative standard deviation of the zenith-angle-average normalized broadband forcing for 15 models was 8% for particle radius near the maximum in magnitude of this forcing (ca....

Sulfate Aerosols; Stephen E Schwartz

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Surface Forcing of the Infrared Cooling Profile over the Tibetan Plateau. Part I: Influence of Relative Longwave Radiative Heating at High Altitude  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of the Tibetan Plateau on the behavior of the surface longwave radiation budget is examined, and the behavior of the vertical profile of longwave cooling over the plateau, including its diurnal variation, is quantified. The investigation ...

Eric A. Smith; Lei Shi

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Climate Forcing by Changing Solar Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By how much does changing radiation from the sun influence the earth’s climate, presently and in the recent past, compared with other natural and anthropogenic processes? Current knowledge of the amplitudes and timescales of solar radiative ...

Judith Lean; David Rind

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Saharan Dust Aerosol Radiative Forcing Measured from Space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study uses data collected from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments to determine Saharan dust broadband shortwave aerosol radiative forcing over ...

F. Li; A. M. Vogelmann; V. Ramanathan

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

A Parametric Radiative Forcing Model for Contrail Cirrus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new parameterized analytical model is presented to compute the instantaneous radiative forcing (RF) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) produced by an additional thin contrail cirrus layer (called “contrail” below). The model calculates the RF ...

U. Schumann; B. Mayer; K. Graf; H. Mannstein

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing Uncertainty Based on a Radiative Perturbation Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To provide a lower bound for the uncertainty in measurement-based clear- and all-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), a radiative perturbation analysis is performed for the ideal case in which the perturbations in global mean aerosol ...

Norman G. Loeb; Wenying Su

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

RADIATIVE FORCING OF CLIMATE CHANGE BY AEROSOLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nonbelievers. #12;Level of Scientific Understanding 2 1 0 1 2 3 Radiativeforcing(Wattspersquaremetre) Cooling scattering -- Cooling influence Light absorption -- Warming influence, depending on surface Indirect Effects is highly sensitive to modest aerosol loadings. Global-average AOT 0.1 corresponds to global-average forcing

Schwartz, Stephen E.

22

Radiative Forcing of Simulated Tropical Cloud Clusters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of field experiments and subsequent studies in the 1970s and 1980s have led to the belief that radiative processes play a more significant role in the evolution of tropical mesoscale convective systems (MCSS) than was once thought. In ...

Rosemary Auld Miller; William M. Frank

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Cloud Radiative Forcing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud Radiative Forcing at the ARM Climate Research Facility: Part 2. The Cloud Radiative Forcing at the ARM Climate Research Facility: Part 2. The Vertical Redistribution of Radiant Energy by Clouds. Mace, Gerald University of Utah Benson, Sally University of Utah Kato, Seiji Hampton University/NASA Langley Research Center Documentation with data of the effects of clouds on the radiant energy balance of the surface and atmosphere represent a critical shortcoming in the set of observations that are needed to ascertain the validity of model simulations of the earth's climate. While clouds are known to cool the climate system from TOA radiation budget studies, the redistribution of energy between the surface and atmosphere and within the atmosphere by clouds has not been examined in detail. Using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP)

24

Surface Solar Radiation Flux and Cloud Radiative Forcing for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP): A Satellite, Surface Observations, and Radiative Transfer Model Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents surface solar radiation flux and cloud radiative forcing results obtained by using a combination of satellite and surface observations interpreted by means of a simple plane-parallel radiative transfer model called 2001. This ...

Catherine Gautier; Martin Landsfeld

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

High Resolution Aerosol Modeling: Decadal Changes in Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Science Division of LLNL has performed high-resolution calculations of direct sulfate forcing using a DOE-provided computer resource at NERSC. We integrated our global chemistry-aerosol model (IMPACT) with the LLNL high-resolution global climate model (horizontal resolution as high as 100 km) to examine the temporal evolution of sulfate forcing since 1950. We note that all previous assessments of sulfate forcing reported in IPCC (2001) were based on global models with coarse spatial resolutions ({approx} 300 km or even coarser). However, the short lifetime of aerosols ({approx} days) results in large spatial and temporal variations of radiative forcing by sulfate. As a result, global climate models with coarse resolutions do not accurately simulate sulfate forcing on regional scales. It requires much finer spatial resolutions in order to address the effects of regional anthropogenic SO{sub 2} emissions on the global atmosphere as well as the effects of long-range transport of sulfate aerosols on the regional climate forcing. By taking advantage of the tera-scale computer resources at NERSC, we simulated the historic direct sulfate forcing at much finer spatial resolutions than ever attempted before. Furthermore, we performed high-resolution chemistry simulations and saved monthly averaged oxidant fields, which will be used in subsequent simulations of sulfate aerosol formation and their radiative impact.

Bergmann, D J; Chuang, C C; Govindasamy, B; Cameron-Smith, P J; Rotman, D A

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Forcing Efficiency in the UVB for Regions Affected by Saharan and Asian Mineral Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of mineral dust on ultraviolet energy transfer is studied for two different mineralogical origins. The aerosol radiative forcing ?F and the forcing efficiency at the surface ?Feff in the range 290–325 nm were estimated in ground-...

O. E. García; A. M. Díaz; F. J. Expósito; J. P. Díaz; A. Redondas; T. Sasaki

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Indirect radiative forcing by ion-mediated nucleation of aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A clear understanding of particle formation mechanisms is critical for assessing aerosol indirect radiative forcing and associated climate feedback processes. Recent studies reveal the importance of ion-mediated nucleation (IMN) in generating new particles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. Here we implement for the first time a physically based treatment of IMN into the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. Our simulations show that, compared to globally averaged results based on binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN), the presence of ionization (i.e., IMN) halves H2SO4 column burden, but increases the column integrated nucleation rate by around one order of magnitude, total particle number burden by a factor of ~ 3, CCN burden by ~ 10% (at 0.2% supersaturation) to 65% (at 1.0% supersaturation), and cloud droplet number burden by ~ 18%. Compared to BHN, IMN increases cloud liquid water path by 7.5%, decreases precipitation by 1.1%, and increases total cloud cover by 1.9%. This leads to an increase of total shortwave cloud radiative forcing by 3.67 W/m2 (more negative) and longwave cloud forcing by 1.78 W/m2 (more positive), resulting in a -1.9 W/m2 net change in cloud radiative forcing associated with IMN. The significant impacts of ionization on global aerosol formation, CCN abundance, and cloud radiative forcing may provide an important physical mechanism linking the global energy balance to various processes affecting atmospheric ionization, which should be properly represented in climate models.

Yu, Fangqun; Luo, Gan; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Xiaoyan; Ghan, Steven J.

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

28

The whitehouse effect: Shortwave radiative forcing of climate by anthropogenic aerosols, an overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstraet--Loadings of tropospheric aerosols have increased substantially over the past 150 yr as a consequence of industrial activities. These aerosols enhance reflection of solar radiation by the Earth-atmosphere system both directly, by scattering light in clear air and, indirectly, by increasing the reflectivity of clouds. The magnitude of the resultant decrease in absorption of solar radiation is estimated to be comparable on global average to the enhancement in infrared forcing at the tropopause due to increases in concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases over the same time period. Estimates of the aerosol shortwave forcing are quite uncertain, by more than a factor of two about the current best estimates. This article reviews the atmospheric chemistry and microphysical processes that govern the loading and light scattering properties of the aerosol particles responsible for the direct effect and delineates the basis for the present estimates of the magnitude and uncertainty in the resultant radiative forcing. The principal sources of uncertainty are in the loading of anthropogenic aerosols, which is highly variable spatially and temporally because of the relatively short residence time of these aerosols (ca. 1 week) and the episodic removal in precipitation, and in the dependence of light scattering on particle size, and in turn on relative humidity. Uncertainty in aerosol forcing is the greatest source of uncertainty in radiative forcing of climate

Stephen E. Schwartz

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

The Link between Summertime Cloud Radiative Forcing and Extratropical Cyclones in the North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the role of extratropical cyclones in determining the cloud radiative forcing over the North Pacific during summer. Specifically, this study uses daily and monthly ERBE cloud radiative forcing, monthly ISCCP cloud-type ...

C. P. Weaver; V. Ramanathan

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Radiative Forcing of Climate By Ice-Age Atmospheric Dust  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During glacial periods, dust deposition rates and inferred atmospheric concentrations were globally much higher than present. According to recent model results, the large enhancement of atmospheric dust content at the last glacial maximum (LGM) can be explained only if increases in the potential dust source areas are taken into account. Such increases are to be expected, due to e#ects of low precipitation and low atmospheric (CO 2 ) on plant growth. Here the modelled three-dimensional dust fields from Mahowald et al. and modelled seasonally varying surface-albedo fields derived in a parallel manner, are used to quantify the mean radiative forcing due to modern (non-anthropogenic) and LGM dust. The e#ect of mineralogical provenance on the radiative properties of the dust is taken into account, as is the range of optical properties associated with uncertainties about the mixing state of the dust particles. The high-latitude (poleward of 45#) mean change in forcing (LGM minus modern) is estimated to be small (--0.9 to +0.2 W m ), especially when compared to nearly --20 W m due to reflection from the extended ice sheets. Although the net e#ect of dust over ice sheets is a positive forcing (warming), much of the simulated high-latitude dust was not over the ice sheets, but over unglaciated regions close to the expanded dust source region in central Asia. In the tropics the change in forcing is estimated to be overall negative, and of similarly large magnitude (--2.2 to --3.2 W m ) to the radiative cooling e#ect of low atmospheric (CO 2 ). Thus, the largest long-term climatic e#ect of the LGM dust is likely to have been a cooling of the tropics. Low tropical sea-surface temperatures, low atmospheric (CO 2 ) and high atmospheric dust loading may be mutually reinforcin...

T. Claquin; C. Roelandt; K.E. Kohfeld; S.P. Harrison; I. Tegen; I.C. Prentice; Y. Balkanski; Prentice Æ Y. Balkanski; G. Bergametti; Æ N. Mahowald; Æ M. Schulz; M. Schulz; Æ K. E. Kohfeld; Æ K. E. Kohfeld; C. Roelandt; C. Roelandt; Æ S. P. Harrison; Æ S. P. Harrison; Æ S. P. Harrison; G. Bergametti; H. Rodhe; Æ H. Rodhe; M. Hansson; M. Hansson; N. Mahowald; N. Mahowald

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

A Method to Estimate Aerosol Radiative Forcing from Spectral Optical Depths  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative forcing of aerosols is much more difficult to estimate than that of well-mixed gases due to the large spatial variability of aerosols and the lack of an adequate database on their radiative properties. Estimation of aerosol radiative ...

S. K. Satheesh; J. Srinivasan

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Connecting Blackbody Radiation, Relativity, and Discrete Charge in Classical Electrodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is suggested that an understanding of blackbody radiation within classical physics requires the presence of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, the restriction to relativistic (Coulomb) scattering systems, and the use of discrete charge. The contrasting scaling properties of nonrelativistic classical mechanics and classical electrodynamics are noted, and it is emphasized that the solutions of classical electrodynamics found in nature involve constants which connect together the scales of length, time, and energy. Indeed, there are analogies between the electrostatic forces for groups of particles of discrete charge and the van der Waals forces in equilibrium thermal radiation. The differing Lorentz- or Galilean-transformation properties of the zero-point radiation spectrum and the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum are noted in connection with their scaling properties. Also, the thermal effects of acceleration within classical electromagnetism are related to the existence of thermal equilibrium within a gravitational field. The unique scaling and phase-space properties of a discrete charge in the Coulomb potential suggest the possibility of an equilibrium between the zero-point radiation spectrum and matter which is universal (independent of the particle mass), and an equilibrium between a universal thermal radiation spectrum and matter where the matter phase space depends only upon the ratio mc^2/kT. The observations and qualitative suggestions made here run counter to the ideas of currently accepted quantum physics.

Timothy H. Boyer

2006-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

33

Human Radiation Experiments: Related Sites  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Experiment Experiment Related Sites Related Links Home Roadmap What's New Search HREX Multimedia Related Sites Federal DOE DOE Sites & National Laboratories Federal Other The following are organizations which provide related information and links to databases, electronic documents, and servers. FEDERAL - DOE U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) homepage (http://www.doe.gov/)contains information on DOE's Departmental Resources, Programs, Offices, National Labs and other DOE related topics. DOE's Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Technical Information Services (TIS) homepage (http://nattie.eh.doe.gov/) is a collection of information services designed to provide safety and health professionals with reliable, accurate and current information to assist them in performing their jobs.

34

Aerosols in Central California: Unexpectedly Large Contribution of Coarse Mode to Aerosol Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The majority of previous studies dealing with effect of coarse-mode aerosols on the radiation budget have focused primary on polluted regions with substantial aerosol loadings. We reexamine this effect for a relatively "pristine" area using a unique 1-month dataset collected during recent Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES). We demonstrate that the coarse-mode (supermicron) particles can contribute substantially (more than 50%) and frequently (up to 85% of time) to the total volume. In contrast to the conventional expectations that the radiative impact of coarse-mode aerosols should be small for "pristine" regions, we find that the neglecting of the large particles may lead to significant overestimation (up to 45%) of direct aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of atmosphere despite of very small aerosol optical depth (about 0.05 at 0.5 ). Our findings highlight the potential for widespread impacts of the coarse-mode aerosols on the pristine radiative properties over land and the need for more explicit inclusion of the coarse-mode aerosols in climate-related observational and model studies.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Barnard, James C.

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

35

TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOLS: THE WILD CARD IN RADIATIVE FORCING OF CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

forcings of climate change over the industrial period. Cooling forcings of tens of watts per square meter Understanding 2 1 0 1 2 3 Radiativeforcing(Wattspersquaremetre) CoolingWarming The global mean radiative forcing scattering -- Cooling influence Light absorption -- Warming influence, depending on surface Indirect Effects

Schwartz, Stephen E.

36

Uncertainties in the Radiative Forcing Due to Sulfate Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative transfer calculations based on a new sulfate distribution from a chemistry-transport model simulation have been performed. A wide range of sensitivity experiments have been performed to illustrate the large uncertainty in the radiative ...

Gunnar Myhre; Frode Stordal; Tore F. Berglen; Jostein K. Sundet; Ivar S. A. Isaksen

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Seasonal Variation of Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and Optical Properties Estimated from Ground-Based Solar Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The surface direct radiative forcing and optical properties of aerosols have been analyzed from a ground-based solar radiation measurement, which was made under clear-sky conditions in Tsukuba, Japan, over two years from April 1997 to March 1999. ...

Tomoaki Nishizawa; Shoji Asano; Akihiro Uchiyama; Akihiro Yamazaki

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the ?rst indirect aerosol effect, Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 5,Cloud susceptibility and the ?rst aerosol indirect forcing:to black carbon and aerosol concentrations, J. Geophys.

Lohmann, Ulrike

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Wave–Current Interaction: A Comparison of Radiation-Stress and Vortex-Force Representations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vortex-force representation of the wave-averaged effects on currents is compared to the radiation-stress representation in a scaling regime appropriate to coastal and shelf waters. Three-dimensional and vertically integrated expressions for ...

E. M. Lane; J. M. Restrepo; J. C. McWilliams

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Simulations of Contrail Optical Properties and Radiative Forcing for Various Crystal Shapes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of radiative-forcing computations to various contrail crystal shape models. Contrail optical properties in the shortwave and longwave ranges are derived using a ray-tracing geometric method ...

Krzysztof M. Markowicz; Marcin L. Witek

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The Role of Longwave Radiation and Boundary Layer Thermodynamics in Forcing Tropical Surface Winds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reveals major deficiencies of the existing intermediate climate models for tropical surface winds and elaborates the important roles of cloud-longwave radiational forcing and boundary layer thermodynamics in driving the tropical ...

Xiouhua Fu; Bin Wang

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Reproducibility by Climate Models of Cloud Radiative Forcing Associated with Tropical Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, cloud radiative forcing (CRF) associated with convective activity over tropical oceans is analyzed for monthly mean data from twentieth-century simulations of 18 climate models participating in phase 3 of the Coupled Model ...

Hiroki Ichikawa; Hirohiko Masunaga; Yoko Tsushima; Hiroshi Kanzawa

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Radiative Forcing of Saharan Dust: GOCART Model Simulations Compared with ERBE Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study uses information on Saharan aerosol from a dust transport model to calculate radiative forcing values. The transport model is driven by assimilated meteorological fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System. ...

Clark J. Weaver; Paul Ginoux; N. Christina Hsu; Ming-Dah Chou; Joanna Joiner

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Estimation of Shortwave Direct Radiative Forcing of Biomass-Burning Aerosols Using New Angular Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a new angular distribution model (ADM) for smoke aerosols, the instantaneous top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave aerosol radiative forcing (SWARF) is calculated for selected days over biomass-burning regions in South America. The visible and ...

Xiang Li; Sundar A. Christopher; Joyce Chou; Ronald M. Welch

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Daytime Variation of Shortwave Direct Radiative Forcing of Biomass Burning Aerosols from GOES-8 Imager  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-8 (GOES-8) imager data (1344–1944 UTC) from 20 July–31 August 1998 were used to study the daytime variation of shortwave direct radiative forcing (SWARF) of smoke aerosols over biomass ...

Sundar A. Christopher; Jianglong Zhang

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Adjustment to Radiative Forcing in a Simple Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study calculates the adjustment to radiative forcing in a simple model of a mixed layer ocean coupled to the overlying atmosphere. One application of the model is to calculate how dust aerosols perturb the temperature of the atmosphere and ...

R. L. Miller

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Observations and Modeling of the Surface Aerosol Radiative Forcing during UAE2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol radiative forcing in the Persian Gulf region is derived from data collected during the United Arab Emirates (UAE) Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2). This campaign took place in August and September of 2004. The land–sea-breeze circulation ...

K. M. Markowicz; P. J. Flatau; J. Remiszewska; M. Witek; E. A. Reid; J. S. Reid; A. Bucholtz; B. Holben

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

General Circulation Model Calculations of the Direct Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Sulfate and Fossil-Fuel Soot Aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new radiation code within a general circulation model is used to assess the direct solar and thermal radiative forcing by sulfate aerosol of anthropogenic origin and soot aerosol from fossil-fuel burning. The radiative effects of different ...

J. M. Haywood; D. L. Roberts; A. Slingo; J. M. Edwards; K. P. Shine

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Using Surface Remote Sensors to Derive Mixed-Phase Cloud Radiative Forcing:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Surface Remote Sensors to Derive Mixed-Phase Cloud Radiative Forcing: Using Surface Remote Sensors to Derive Mixed-Phase Cloud Radiative Forcing: An Example from M-PACE Title Using Surface Remote Sensors to Derive Mixed-Phase Cloud Radiative Forcing: An Example from M-PACE Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors de Boer, Gijs, William D. Collins, Surabi Menon, and Charles N. Long Journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Volume 11 Start Page 11937 Pagination 11937-11949 Abstract Measurements from ground-based cloud radar, high spectral resolution lidar and microwave radiometer are used in conjunction with a column version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) and radiosonde measurements to derive the surface radiative properties under mixed-phase cloud conditions. These clouds were observed during the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Experiment (M-PACE) between September and November of 2004. In total, sixteen half hour time periods are reviewed due to their coincidence with radiosonde launches. Cloud liquid (ice) water paths are found to range between 11.0-366.4 (0.5-114.1) gm-2, and cloud physical thicknesses fall between 286-2075 m. Combined with temperature and hydrometeor size estimates, this information is used to calculate surface radiative flux densities using RRTMG, which are demonstrated to generally agree with measured flux densities from surface-based radiometric instrumentation. Errors in longwave flux density estimates are found to be largest for thin clouds, while shortwave flux density errors are generally largest for thicker clouds. A sensitivity study is performed to understand the impact of retrieval assumptions and uncertainties on derived surface radiation estimates. Cloud radiative forcing is calculated for all profiles, illustrating longwave dominance during this time of year, with net cloud forcing generally between 50 and 90 Wm-2.

50

Estimation and Model Validation of Surface Solar Radiation and Cloud Radiative Forcing Using TOGA COARE Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) radiation measurements in the western Pacific warm pool are used to estimate surface solar radiation budgets and to validate radiation model ...

Ming-Dah Chou; Wenzhong Zhao

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

The Competition of Freshwater and Radiation in Forcing the Ocean during El Niño  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative roles of heat and freshwater fluxes in forcing the tropical Pacific on interannual timescales are investigated using sophisticated atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models.

Niklas Schneider; Tim P. Barnett

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Aerosol Radiative Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions.in Winter ZCAREX-2001  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions in Winter ZCAREX-2001 G. S. Golitsyn, I. A. Gorchakova, and I. I. Mokhov Institute of Atmospheric Physic Moscow, Russia Introduction Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) is estimated for winter clear-sky conditions from measurements during ZCAREX-2001-Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Experiment in February-March, 2001 at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station (ZSS) of the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. ARF in the shortwave range is determined by the difference between the net fluxes of the solar radiation, calculated with and without the aerosol component of the atmosphere. The estimates of ARF are made for conditions with high surface albedo. Data Used The following data of atmospheric characteristics observed during winter are used for the

54

The sensitivity of tropical convective precipitation to the direct radiative forcings of black carbon aerosols emitted from major regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous works have suggested that the direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) aerosols are able to force a significant change in tropical convective precipitation ranging from the Pacific and Indian Ocean to ...

Wang, Chien

55

Anthropogenic NO2 in the Atmosphere: Estimates of the Column Content and Radiative Forcing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anthropogenic NO Anthropogenic NO 2 in the Atmosphere: Estimates of the Column Content and Radiative Forcing A. N. Rublev Institution of Molecular Physics Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute Moscow, Russia N Chubarova Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University Moscow, Russia G. Gorchakov Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia Introduction The work summarizes the different methodical aspects, firstly, the use of atmosphere optical depths presented in Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for NO 2 column retrievals, and, secondly, its radiative forcing calculated as difference between integral solar fluxes absorbed in the atmosphere with and without NO 2 under given air mass or the sun zenith angle.

56

Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Comparative Decomposition of Aerosol Direct, Semidirect, and Indirect Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have decomposed the anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing into direct contributions from each aerosol species to the planetary energy balance through absorption and scattering of solar radiation, indirect effects of anthropogenic ...

S. J. Ghan; X. Liu; R. C. Easter; R. Zaveri; P. J. Rasch; J.-H. Yoon; B. Eaton

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility. Part II: Cloud Fraction and Surface Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (SCF) are analyzed to determine the monthly and hourly variations of cloud fraction and radiative forcing between ...

Xiquan Dong; Baike Xi; Patrick Minnis

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

The Significance of Cloud–Radiative Forcing to the General Circulation on Climate Time Scales—A Satellite Interpretation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud–radiative forcing calculations based on Nimbus-7 radiation budget and cloudiness measurements reveal that cloud-induced longwave (LW) warming (cloud greenhouse influence) is dominant over the tropics, whereas cloud-induced shortwave (SW) ...

Byung-Ju Sohn; Eric A. Smith

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Global Solar Radiation Estimation from Relative Sunshine Hours in Italy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We examine the existing measurements of global solar radiation and sunshine duration for Italy, and evaluate the errors made in estimating global solar radiation from sunshine hours measurements. We find that the Ångstrom–Black linear relation in ...

A. Andretta; B. Bartoli; B. Coluzzi; V. Cuomo; M. Francesca; C. Serio

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100  

SciTech Connect

Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 is a scenario that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m{sup -2} in the year 2100 without ever exceeding that value. Simulated with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), RCP4.5 includes long-term, global emissions of greenhouse gases, short-lived species, and land-use-land-cover in a global economic framework. RCP4.5 was updated from earlier GCAM scenarios to incorporate historical emissions and land cover information common to the RCP process and follows a cost-minimizing pathway to reach the target radiative forcing. The imperative to limit emissions in order to reach this target drives changes in the energy system, including shifts to electricity, to lower emissions energy technologies and to the deployment of carbon capture and geologic storage technology. In addition, the RCP4.5 emissions price also applies to land use emissions; as a result, forest lands expand from their present day extent. The simulated future emissions and land use were downscaled from the regional simulation to a grid to facilitate transfer to climate models. While there are many alternative pathways to achieve a radiative forcing level of 4.5 W m{sup -2}, the application of the RCP4.5 provides a common platform for climate models to explore the climate system response to stabilizing the anthropogenic components of radiative forcing.

Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page; Volke, April C.; Patel, Pralit L.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Numerical Simulation of Transient Boundary-Forced Radiation. Part II: The Modon Regime  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Part I of the present work we studied the transient Rossby wave radiation excited in the far field by a northern boundary forcing. We proposed as a possible mechanism responsible for transient pulses of Rossby waves the sudden growth to finite ...

Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli; Roberta E. Young; Dale B. Haidvogel

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Impaired skin integrity related to radiation therapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Skin reactions associated with radiation therapy require frequent nursing assessment and intervention. Preventive interventions and early management can minimize the severity of the skin reaction. With the understanding of the pathogenesis of radiation skin reactions, the ET nurse can determine who is at risk and then implement preventive measures. Because radiation treatment is fractionated, skin reactions do not usually occur until midway through the course of therapy and will subside within a few weeks after completion of radiation. Many patients and their families still fear that radiation causes severe burns. Teaching and anticipatory guidance by the ET nurse is needed to assist patients and their families to overcome this fear, and to educate them on preventive skin care regimens.

Ratliff, C.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Force-velocity relations for multiple-molecular-motor transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A transition rate model of cargo transport by $N$ molecular motors is proposed. Under the assumption of steady state, the force-velocity curve of multi-motor system can be derived from the force-velocity curve of single motor. Our work shows, in the case of low load, the velocity of multi-motor system can decrease or increase with increasing motor number, which is dependent on the single motor force-velocity curve. And most commonly, the velocity decreases. This gives a possible explanation to some recent

Ziqing Wang; Ming Li

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

64

Dynamic Effects on the Tropical Cloud Radiative Forcing and Radiation Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertical velocity is used to isolate the effect of large-scale dynamics on the observed radiation budget and cloud properties in the tropics, using the methodology suggested by Bony et al. Cloud and radiation budget quantities in the tropics show ...

Jian Yuan; Dennis L. Hartmann; Robert Wood

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

The whitehouse effect: shortwave radiative forcing of climate by anthropogenic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Increases in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other infrared active gases over the industrial period are thought to have increased the average flux of longwave (thermal infrared) radiation between the surface of the earth and the lower atmosphere, leading to an increase in global mean temperature. Over the same period it is though that concentrations of aerosol particles in the troposphere have similarly increased as a consequence of industrial emissions and that these increased concentrations of particles have increased the earth`s reflectivity of shortwave (solar) radiation incident on the planet both directly, by scattering radiation, and indirectly, by increasing the reflectivity of clouds. The term ``whitehouse effect`` is introduced to refer to this increased scattering of shortwave radiation by analogy to the term ``greenhouse effect,`` which refers to the enhanced trapping of longwave radiation resulting from increased concentrations of infrared active gases. Each of these phenomena is referred to as a ``forcing`` of the earth`s climate, that is a secular change imposed on the system; such a forcing is to be distinguished from a ``response`` of the system, such as a change in global mean temperature or other index of global climate. The forcing due to the direct and indirect effects induced by anthropogenic aerosols has been estimated to be comparable in global- average magnitude to that due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, but it is of opposite direction, that is exerting a cooling influence. The shortwave radiative influence of anthropogenic aerosols may thus be considered to be offsetting some, perhaps a great fraction, of the longwave radiative influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases.

Schwartz, S.E.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

Global Distribution and Climate Forcing of Marine Organic Aerosol - Part 2: Effects on Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a 7-mode Modal Aerosol Model were conducted to assess the changes in cloud microphysical properties and radiative forcing resulting from marine organic aerosols. Model simulations show that the anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) predicted by CAM5 is decreased in absolute magnitude by up to 0.09 Wm{sup -2} (7 %) when marine organic aerosols are included. Changes in the AIF from marine organic aerosols are associated with small global increases in low-level incloud droplet number concentration and liquid water path of 1.3 cm{sup -3} (1.5 %) and 0.22 gm{sup -2} (0.5 %), respectively. Areas especially sensitive to changes in cloud properties due to marine organic aerosol include the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and North Atlantic Ocean, all of which are characterized by high marine organic emission rates. As climate models are particularly sensitive to the background aerosol concentration, this small but non-negligible change in the AIF due to marine organic aerosols provides a notable link for ocean-ecosystem marine low-level cloud interactions and may be a candidate for consideration in future earth system models.

Gantt, Brett; Xu, Jun; Meskhidze, N.; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

67

Antarctic Cloud Radiative Forcing at the Surface Estimated from the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder and ISCCP D1 Datasets, 1985–93  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface cloud radiative forcing from the newly extended Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Polar Pathfinder (APP-x) dataset and surface cloud radiative forcing calculated using cloud and surface properties from the International ...

Michael J. Pavolonis; Jeffrey R. Key

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger  

SciTech Connect

This study presents ground-based remote sensing measurements of aerosol optical properties and corresponding shortwave surface radiative effect calculations for the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger during 2006. Aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (AP) were derived from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) measurements during the two dry seasons (Jan-Apr and Oct-Dec) at Niamey. The vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from the collocated micropulse lidar (MPL). The aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution of extinction varied significantly throughout the year, with higher AOD, lower SSA, and deeper aerosol layers during the Jan-Apr time period, when biomass burning aerosol layers were more frequent. Using the retrieved aerosol properties and vertical extinction profiles, broadband shortwave surface fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles were calculated. Corresponding calculations with no aerosol were used to estimate the aerosol direct radiative effect at the surface. Comparison of the calculated surface fluxes to observed fluxes for non-cloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W/m2 and RMS differences less than 25 W/m2. Sensitivity tests for a particular case study showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of < 10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. We estimated the daily-averaged aerosol radiative effect at the surface by subtracting the clear calculations from the aerosol calculations. The average daily SW aerosol radiative effect over the study period was -27 W/m2, which is comparable to values estimated from satellite data and from climate models with sophisticated dust parameterizations.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

2009-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

69

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Radiation Research Related...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Related Databases Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) The European Radiobiology Archives Genomics: GTL - Systems Biology for...

70

Implications of Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 Methane Emissions to Stabilize Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect

Increases in the abundance of methane (CH4) in the Earth’s atmosphere are responsible for significant radiative forcing of climate change (Forster et al., 2007; Wuebbles and Hayhoe, 2002). Since 1750, a 2.5 fold increase in atmospheric CH4 contributed 0.5 W/m2 to direct radiative forcing and an additional 0.2 W/m2 indirectly through changes in atmospheric chemistry. Next to water and carbon dioxide (CO2), methane is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the troposphere. Additionally, CH4 is significantly more effective as a greenhouse gas on a per molecule basis than is CO2, and increasing atmospheric CH4 has been second only to CO2 in radiative forcing (Forster et al., 2007). The chemical reactivity of CH4 is important to both tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Along with carbon monoxide, methane helps control the amount of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the troposphere where oxidation of CH4 by OH leads to the formation of formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, and ozone.

Emanuel, William R.; Janetos, Anthony C.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Multi-Dimensional Effects in Longwave Radiative Forcing of PBL Clouds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multi-Dimensional Effects in Longwave Radiative Forcing of PBL Clouds D. B. Mechem and Y. L. Kogan Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma M. Ovtchinnikov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington K. F. Evans University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado A. B. Davis Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico R. F. Cahalan National Aeronautic and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland E. E. Takara and R. G. Ellingson Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida 1. Introduction Numerical cloud models nearly universally employ one-dimensional (1D) treatments of radiative transfer (RT). Radiative transfer is typically implemented as a 2- or 4-stream approximation to the

72

Evolution of Ozone, Particulates, and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing in the Vicinity of Houston Using a Fully Coupled Meteorology-Chemistry-Aerosol Model  

SciTech Connect

A new fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model is used to simulate the urban to regional scale variations in trace gases, particulates, and aerosol direct radiative forcing in the vicinity of Houston over a five day summer period. Model performance is evaluated using a wide range of meteorological, chemistry, and particulate measurements obtained during 2000 Texas Air Quality Study. The predicted trace gas and particulate distributions were qualitatively similar to the surface and aircraft measurements with considerable spatial variations resulting from urban, power plant, and industrial sources of primary pollutants. Sulfate, organic carbon, and other inorganics were the largest constituents of the predicted particulates. The predicted shortwave radiation was 30 to 40 W m-2 closer to the observations when the aerosol optical properties were incorporated into the shortwave radiation scheme; however, the predicted hourly aerosol radiative forcing was still under-estimated by 10 to 50 W m-2. The predicted aerosol radiative forcing was larger over Houston and the industrial ship channel than over the rural areas, consistent with surface measurements. The differences between the observed and simulated aerosol radiative forcing resulted from transport errors, relative humidity errors in the upper convective boundary layer that affect aerosol water content, secondary organic aerosols that were not yet included in the model, and uncertainties in the primary particulate emission rates. The current model was run in a predictive mode and demonstrates the challenges of accurately simulating all of the meteorological, chemical, and aerosol parameters over urban to regional scales that can affect aerosol radiative forcing.

Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Barnard, James C.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Grell, Georg; Peckham, S. E.

2006-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

73

The Sensitivity of Latent Heat Flux to Changes in the Radiative Forcing: A Framework for Comparing Models and Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A climate model must include an accurate surface physics scheme in order to examine the interactions between the land and atmosphere. Given an increase in the surface radiative forcing, the sensitivity of latent heat flux to available energy ...

Jonathan M. Winter; Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Arctic Ocean Radiative Fluxes and Cloud Forcing Estimated from the ISCCP C2 Cloud Dataset, 1983?1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative fluxes and cloud forcings for the ocean areas of the Arctic are computed from the monthly cloud product of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for 1983?90. Spatially averaged short-wave fluxes compare well with ...

Axel J. Schweiger; Jeffrey R. Key

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

The Interactions among Cyclone Dynamics, Vertical Thermodynamic Structure, and Cloud Radiative Forcing in the North Atlantic Summertime Storm Track  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the changes in the vertical thermodynamic structure of the troposphere associated with the passage of cyclones and the corresponding influence on cloud radiative forcing (CRF). The focus is the synoptic-scale evolution of ...

C. P. Weaver

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

The Impact of Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing on Surface Insolation and Spring Snowmelt in the Southern Sierra Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To understand the regional impact of the atmospheric aerosols on the surface energy and water cycle in the southern Sierra Nevada characterized by extreme variations in terrain elevation, the authors examine the aerosol radiative forcing on ...

Jinwon Kim; Yu Gu; K. N. Liou

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model combined with the GISS general circulation model to calculate the aerosol direct and indirect (warm cloud) radiative forcings from US anthropogenic sources over the 1950–2050 ...

Leibensperger, Eric Michael

78

The Sensitivity of Latent Heat Flux to Changes in the Radiative Forcing: A Framework for Comparing Models and Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A climate model must include an accurate surface physics scheme in order to examine the interactions between the land and atmosphere. Given an increase in the surface radiative forcing, the sensitivity of latent heat flux ...

Winter, Jonathan (Jonathan Mark)

79

Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in Asia Derived From Regional Models With Atmospheric and Aerosol Data Assimilation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A high-resolution estimate of monthly 3D aerosol solar heating rates and surface solar fluxes in Asia from 2001 to 2004 is described here. This product stems from an Asian aerosol assimilation project, in which a) the PNNL regional model bounded by the NCEP reanalyses was used to provide meteorology, b) MODIS and AERONET data were integrated for aerosol observations, c) the Iowa aerosol/chemistry model STEM-2K1 used the PNNL meteorology and assimilated aerosol observations, and d) 3D (X-Y-Z) aerosol simulations from the STEM-2K1 were used in the Scripps Monte-Carlo Aerosol Cloud Radiation (MACR) model to produce total and anthropogenic aerosol direct solar forcing for average cloudy skies. The MACR model and STEM both used the PNNL model resolution of 0.45º×0.4º in the horizontal and of 23 layers in the troposphere. The 2001–2004 averaged anthropogenic all-sky aerosol forcing is ?1.3 Wm-2 (TOA), +7.3 Wm-2 (atmosphere) and ?8.6 Wm-2 (surface) averaged in Asia (60?138°E & Eq. ?45°N). In the absence of AERONET SSA assimilation, absorbing aerosol concentration (especially BC aerosol) is much smaller, giving ?2.3 Wm-2 (TOA), +4.5 Wm-2 (atmosphere) and ?6.8 Wm-2 (surface), averaged in Asia. In the vertical, monthly forcing is mainly concentrated below 600hPa with maxima around 800hPa. Seasonally, low-level forcing is far larger in dry season than in wet season in South Asia, whereas the wet season forcing exceeds the dry season forcing in East Asia. The anthropogenic forcing in the present study is similar to that in Chung et al.’s [2005] in overall magnitude but the former offers fine-scale features and simulated vertical profiles. The interannual variability of the computed anthropogenic forcing is significant and extremely large over major emission outflow areas. In view of this, the present study’s estimate is within the implicated range of the 1999 INDOEX result. However, NCAR/CCSM3’s anthropogenic aerosol forcing is much smaller than the present study’s estimate at the surface, and is outside of what the INDOEX findings can support.

Chung, Chul Eddy; Ramanathan, V.; Carmichael, Gregory; Kulkarni, S.; Tang, Youhua; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun

2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

80

Role of radiation reaction forces in the dynamics of centrifugally accelerated particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we study the influence of radiation reaction (RR) forces on the dynamics of centrifugally accelerated particles. It is assumed that the particles move along magnetic field lines anchored in the rotating central object. The common 'bead-on-the-wire' approximation is used. The solutions are found and analyzed for cases when the form of the prescribed trajectory (rigidly rotating field line) is approximated by: (a) straight line, and (b) Archimedes spiral. Dynamics of neutral and charged particles are compared with the emphasis on the role of RR forces in the latter case. It is shown that for charged particles there exist locations of stable equilibrium. It is demonstrated that for particular initial conditions RR forces cause centripetal motion of the particles: their 'falling' on the central rotating object. It is found that in the case of Archimedes spiral both neutral and charged particles can reach infinity where their motion has asymptotically force-free character. The possible importance of these processes for the acceleration of relativistic, charged particles by rotating magnetospheres in the context of the generation of nonthermal, high-energy emission of AGN and pulsars is discussed.

Dalakishvili, G. T.; Rogava, A. D.; Berezhiani, V. I. [Eugene Kharadze Georgian National Astrophysical Observatory, 2a Kazbegi Avenue, Tbilisi-0160(Georgia); Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Faculty of Natural and Exact Sciences, Physics Department, 3, Chavchavadze Avenue, 0128 Tbilisi (Georgia); Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste I-34014 (Italy); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5-Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Institute of Physics, 6 Tamarashvili Street., 0177 Tbilisi (Georgia)

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Task-related encumbrance methodology in force-on-force agent-based simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soldiers today are faced with a number of challenges related to the operational environment that impact task performance and overall mission effectiveness. With each additional piece of equipment, the individual Soldier's load increases, potentially ... Keywords: decision support, encumbrance, load, physiological characteristics

Cortney Eldridge; Mitha Andra; Alexander Kennedy; Adam Peloquin; Daniel Rice; Steven Yuhaski, Jr.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Sensitivity of shortwave radiative flux density, forcing, and heating rates to the aerosol vertical profile  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the aerosol vertical distribution on the solar radiation profiles, for idealized and measured profiles of optical properties (extinction and single-scattering albedo (SSA)) during the May 2003 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Observation Period (AIOP), has been investigated using the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model Shortwave (RRTM_SW) code. Calculated profiles of down-welling and up-welling solar fluxes during the AIOP have been compared with the data measured by up- and down-looking solar broadband radiometers aboard a profiling research aircraft. The measured profiles of aerosol extinction, SSA, and water vapor obtained from the same aircraft that carried the radiometers served as the inputs for the model calculations. It is noteworthy that for this study, the uplooking radiometers were mounted on a stabilized platform that kept the radiometers parallel with respect to the earth’s horizontal plane. The results indicate that the shape of the aerosol extinction profiles has very little impact on direct radiative forcings at the top of atmosphere and surface in a cloud-free sky. However, as long as the aerosol is not purely scattering, the shape of the extinction profiles is important for forcing profiles. Identical extinction profiles with different absorption profiles drastically influence the forcing and heating rate profiles. Using aircraft data from 19 AIOP profiles over the Southern Great Plains (SGP), we are able to achieve broadband down-welling solar flux closure within 0.8% (bias difference) or 1.8% (rms difference), well within the expected measurement uncertainty of 1 to 3%. The poorer agreement in up-welling flux (bias -3.7%, rms 10%) is attributed to the use of inaccurate surface albedo data. The sensitivity tests reveal the important role accurate, vertically resolved aerosol extinction data plays in tightening flux closure. This study also suggests that in the presence of a strongly absorbing substance, aircraft flux measurements from a stabilized platform have the potential to determine heating rate profiles. These measurement-based heating rate profiles provide useful data for heating rate closure studies and indirect estimates of single scattering albedo assumed in radiative transfer calculations.

Guan, Hong; Schmid, Beat; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bergstrom, Robert

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Thermal correction to the Casimir force, radiative heat transfer, and an experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The low-temperature asymptotic expressions for the Casimir interaction between two real metals described by Leontovich surface impedance are obtained in the framework of thermal quantum field theory. It is shown that the Casimir entropy computed using the impedance of infrared optics vanishes in the limit of zero temperature. By contrast, the Casimir entropy computed using the impedance of the Drude model attains at zero temperature a positive value which depends on the parameters of a system, i.e., the Nernst heat theorem is violated. Thus, the impedance of infrared optics withstands the thermodynamic test, whereas the impedance of the Drude model does not. We also perform a phenomenological analysis of the thermal Casimir force and of the radiative heat transfer through a vacuum gap between real metal plates. The characterization of a metal by means of the Leontovich impedance of the Drude model is shown to be inconsistent with experiment at separations of a few hundred nanometers. A modification of the impedance of infrared optics is suggested taking into account relaxation processes. The power of radiative heat transfer predicted from this impedance is several times less than previous predictions due to different contributions from the transverse electric evanescent waves. The physical meaning of low frequencies in the Lifshitz formula is discussed. It is concluded that new measurements of radiative heat transfer are required to find out the adequate description of a metal in the theory of electromagnetic fluctuations.

V. B. Bezerra; G. Bimonte; G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko; C. Romero

2007-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

84

Temporal Variability of Aerosol Properties during TCAP: Impact on Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect

Ground-based remote sensing and in situ observations of aerosol microphysical and optical properties have been collected during summertime (June-August, 2012) as part of the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/), which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (http://www.arm.gov/). The overall goal of the TCAP field campaign is to study the evolution of optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol transported from North America to the Atlantic and their impact on the radiation energy budget. During TCAP, the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed on Cape Cod, an arm-shaped peninsula situated on the easternmost portion of Massachusetts (along the east coast of the United States) and that is generally downwind of large metropolitan areas. The AMF site was equipped with numerous instruments for sampling aerosol, cloud and radiative properties, including a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), and a three-wavelength nephelometer. In this study we present an analysis of diurnal and day-to-day variability of the column and near-surface aerosol properties obtained from remote sensing (MFRSR data) and ground-based in situ measurements (SMPS, APS, and nephelometer data). In particular, we show that the observed diurnal variability of the MFRSR aerosol optical depth is strong and comparable with that obtained previously from the AERONET climatology in Mexico City, which has a larger aerosol loading. Moreover, we illustrate how the variability of aerosol properties impacts the direct aerosol radiative forcing at different time scales.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

State-Space Realization of the Wave-Radiation Force within FAST: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several methods have been proposed in the literature to find a state-space model for the wave-radiation forces. In this paper, four methods were compared, two in the frequency domain and two in the time domain. The frequency-response function and the impulse response of the resulting state-space models were compared against the ones derived by the numerical code WAMIT. The implementation of the state-space module within the FAST offshore wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool was verified, comparing the results against the previously implemented numerical convolution method. The results agreed between the two methods, with a significant reduction in required computational time when using the state-space module.

Duarte, T.; Sarmento, A.; Alves, M.; Jonkman, J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

The effect of horizontal resolution on cloud radiative forcing in the ECMWF model. PCMDI report No. 22  

SciTech Connect

With expanding computer capability and capacity there has been considerable interest in increasing the resolution in GCMs. The primary driving force behind this are two fold: (1) increased resolution may reduce the systematic errors inherent in parameterization of sub-grid scale processes, and (2) higher resolution may improve confidence in regional scale studies of climatic features that are orographically influenced -- such as the effect of the Tibetan Plateau on the East Asian Monsoon. This study focuses on the effect of horizontal resolution on the spatial and temporal systematic errors of cloud radiative forcing and its components. In this paper, the top-of-the-atmosphere radiation fields are taken from a series of simulations using the European Centre for Medium Range Forecasts (ECMWF) general circulation model (cycle 33), run at four different horizontal resolutions. Section 2 discusses the concept of cloud radiative forcing and describes the simulations from the ECMWF model. The observed global field of cloud forcing from ERBE is presented in section 3 along with the model-produced fields of the net solar and longwave cloud forcing. The seasonal effect of forcing is described in section 4, and the results are summarized in section 5.

Potter, G.L.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative Forcing through Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol indirect effects, i.e., the interactions of aerosols with clouds by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN), constitute the largest uncertainty in climate forcing and projection. Previous IPCC reported aerosol indirect forcing is negative, which does not account for aerosol-convective cloud interactions because the complex processes involved are poorly understood and represented in climate models. Here we report that aerosol indirect effect on deep convective cloud systems can lead to enhanced regional convergence and a strong top-of atmosphere (TOA) warming. Aerosol invigoration effect on convection can result in a strong radiative warming in the atmosphere (+5.6 W m-2) due to strong night-time warming, a lofted latent heating, and a reduced diurnal temperature difference, all of which could remarkably impact regional circulation and modify weather systems. We further elucidated how aerosols change convective intensity, diabatic heating, and regional circulation under different environmental conditions and concluded that wind shear and cloud base temperature play key roles in determining the significance of aerosol invigoration effect for convective systems.

Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ding, Yanni; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

88

Periodicity, Thermal Effects, and Vacuum Force: Rotation in Random Classical Zero-Point Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that for a detector rotating in a random classical zero-point electromagnetic or massless scalar field at T=0 thermal effects exist. The rotating reference system is constructed as an infinite set of Frenet-Seret tetrads defined so that the detector is at rest in a tetrad at each proper time. Correlation functions, more exactly their frequency spectrum, contain the Planck thermal factor, and the energy density the rotating detector observes is proportional to the sum of energy densities of Planck's spectrum at the temperature T_rot = \\hbar \\Omega / (2 \\pi k_B) and zero-point radiation. The proportionality factor is (2/3)(4\\gamma^2 - 1) for an electromagnetic field and (2/9)(4\\gamma^2 - 1) for a massless scalar field, where \\gamma = (1 - (\\Omega r/c)^2)^(-1/2), and r is a detector rotation radius. The origin of these thermal effects is the periodicity of the correlation functions and their discrete spectrum, both following rotation with angular velocity \\Omega. The thermal energy can also be interpreted as a source of a vacuum force, f_vac, applied to the rotating detector from the vacuum field. The f_vac depends on the size of neither the charge nor the mass, like the force in the Casimir model for a charged particle, but, contrary to the last one, it is directed to the center of the circular orbit. The f_vac infinitely grows by magnitude when r \\to r_0 = c/\\Omega, with a fixed \\Omega. The orbits with a radius greater than r_0 do not exist simply because the returning vacuum force becomes infinite. On the uttermost orbit with the radius r_0, a linear velocity of the rotating particle would have become c. The f_vac becomes very small and proportional to r when r is small, r << c/\\aOmega. Such vacuum force dependence on radius, at large and small r, can be associated respectively with so called confinement and asymptotic freedom, known in QCD, and provide a new explanation for them.

Yefim Semenovitch Levin

2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

89

Duality relation between radiation thermodynamics and cosmic string loop thermodynamics  

SciTech Connect

We discuss thermodynamics of electromagnetic radiation, with p=(1/3){rho} and S{proportional_to}T{sup 3}V, and of cosmic string loops, with p=-(1/3){rho} and S{proportional_to}T{sup -3}V, where p stands for pressure, T temperature, {rho} energy density, S entropy, and V volume. We write the thermodynamic formalisms under a common framework that illustrates their formal relationship and allows us to go from one to the other through a smooth transformation. From a microscopic perspective, these relations arise from the energy relations u({lambda})=hc/{lambda} for the photons of electromagnetic radiation, and u(l)=(c{sup 4}/a{sup 2}G)l for cosmic string loops, a being a numerical (dimensionless) constant and {lambda} and l the radiation wavelength and the length of a loop; G, c, and h are the gravitational constant, the speed of light in vacuo, and the Planck constant, respectively. The corresponding thermodynamic behaviors are seen to be connected through a related thermal duality corresponding to the change of T by T*=T{sub c}{sup 2}/T, with T{sub c} a reference temperature related to h, c, and G.

Jou, D. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Mongiovi, M. S. [Dipartimento di Metodi e Modelli Matematici, Universita di Palermo, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Sciacca, M. [Dipartimento di Sistemi Agro-Ambientali, Universita di Palermo, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Evaluation of Cloud Type Occurrences and Radiative Forcings Simulated by a Cloud Resolving Model Using Observations from Sa...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud Type Occurrences Cloud Type Occurrences and Radiative Forcings Simulated by a Cloud Resolving Model Using Observations from Satellite and Cloud Radar Y. Luo and S. K. Krueger University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Introduction Because of both the various effects clouds exert on the earth-atmospheric system and the cloud feedback, correct representations of clouds in numerical models are critical for accurate climate modeling and weather forecast. Unfortunately, determination of clouds and their radiative feedback processes is still the weakest component of current general circulation models (e.g., Senior and Mitchell 1993, Cess et al. 1996). Using radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) available from satellite observations made by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE; Barkstrom 1984), one could assess cloud radiative effects

91

Blackbody radiation drag on a relativistically moving mirror  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the drag force on a mirror moving at relativistic velocity relative to blackbody radiation background.

N. R. Balasanyan; V. E. Mkrtchian

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

92

Periodicity, Thermal Effects, and Vacuum Force: Rotation in Random Classical Zero-Point Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that, for a detector rotating in a random classical zero-point electromagnetic or massless scalar field at zero temperature, thermal effects exist. The rotating reference system is constructed as an infinite set of Frenet-Seret tetrads so that the detector is at rest in a tetrad at each proper time. Frequency spectrum of correlation functions contains the Planck thermal factor with temperature $T_{rot} = \\frac{\\hbar \\Omega}{2 \\pi k_B} $. The energy density the rotating detector observes is proportional to the sum of energy densities of Planck's spectrum at the temperature $T_{rot}$ and zero-point radiation. The proportionality factor is $2/3 (4 \\gamma^2 -1)$ for an EMF and $2/9 (4 \\gamma^2 -1)$ for a MSF, where $\\gamma = (1 - (\\frac{\\Omega r}{c})^2)^{-1/2}$, and r is a rotation radius. The origin of these thermal effects is the periodicity of the correlation functions and their discrete spectrum, both following rotation with angular velocity $\\Omega$. The thermal energy can also be interpreted as a source of a vacuum force (VF) applied to the rotating detector from the vacuum field. The VF depends on the size of neither the charge nor the mass, like the force in the Casimir model for a charged particle, but, contrary to the last one, VF is attractive and directed to the center of the circular orbit. VF infinitely grows in magnitude with orbit radius. The orbits with a radius greater than $c/ \\Omega$ do not exist because the returning VF becomes infinite. On the uttermost orbit with the radius $c / \\Omega$, a linear velocity of the rotating particle would have become c. The VF becomes very small and proportional to radius when r is very small. Such VF dependence on radius, at large and small radii, can be associated respectively with so called confinement and asymptotic freedom, known in quantum chromodynamics, and provide a new explanation for them.

Yefim Semenovitch Levin

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

93

Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Comparative Decomposition of Aerosol Direct, Semidirect, and Indirect Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect

The authors have decomposed the anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing into direct contributions from each aerosol species to the planetary energy balance through absorption and scattering of solar radiation, indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosol on solar and infrared radiation through droplet and crystal nucleation on aerosol, and semidirect effects through the influence of solar absorption on the distribution of clouds. A three-mode representation of the aerosol in version 5.1 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5.1) yields global annual mean radiative forcing estimates for each of these forcing mechanisms that are within 0.1 W m–2 of estimates using a more complex seven-mode representation that distinguishes between fresh and aged black carbon and primary organic matter. Simulating fresh black carbon particles separately from internally mixed accumulation mode particles is found to be important only near fossil fuel sources. In addition to the usual large indirect effect on solar radiation, this study finds an unexpectedly large positive longwave indirect effect (because of enhanced cirrus produced by homogenous nucleation of ice crystals on anthropogenic sulfate), small shortwave and longwave semidirect effects, and a small direct effect (because of cancelation and interactions of direct effects of black carbon and sulfate). Differences between the threemode and seven-mode versions are significantly larger (up to 0.2 W m–2) when the hygroscopicity of primary organic matter is decreased from 0.1 to 0 and transfer of the primary carbonaceous aerosol to the accumulation mode in the seven-mode version requires more hygroscopic material coating the primary particles. Radiative forcing by cloudborne anthropogenic black carbon is only 20.07 W m–2.

Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Rasch, Philip J.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Eaton, Brian

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Investigation of Aerosol Sources, Lifetime and Radiative Forcing through Multi-Instrument Data Assimilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as clouds reflect solar radiation and trap outgoing CHAPTEReffectively scatter solar radiation, such as sulfate, reduceF o = 1361W/m 2 (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiement (

Rubin, Juli Irene

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Modeling Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature with Satellite-Derived Solar Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two independent datasets for the solar radiation at the surface derived from satellites are compared. The data derived from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is for the net solar radiation at the surface whereas the International ...

Richard Seager; M. Benno Blumenthal

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Activities of the National Academy of Sciences in relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The activities of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), in relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), has a long history and the specific time period supported by this contract is but a small piece of the long-term continuing program. As a background, in August 1945, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima (6 August) and Nagasaki (9 August). Shortly after the bombings, US medical teams joined forces with their Japanese counterparts to form a Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bombs. As a result of the Joint Commission's investigations, it was determined that consideration should be given to the establishment of a long-term study of the potential late health effects of exposure of the survivors to radiation from the bombs. The results obtained from RERF studies contribute the vast majority of information that provides a better understanding of radiation effects on humans. This information has been used extensively by national organizations and international committees for estimating risks associated with radiation exposures. The estimated risks developed by these independent organizations are used by government agencies around the world to establish standards for protection of individuals exposed in the occupational, medical, and general environment. Some of these results are described briefly in this report.

Edington, C.W.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

The effects of viscous forces on three-phase relative permeability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of Three-Phase Relative Permeability Project (BE9) is to develop guidelines for improving the accuracy of three-phase relative permeability determinations. This report summarizes previous studies and explains the progress made at NIPER on studying the effect of variations in viscous forces on three-phase relative permeabilities by changing the viscosity of both wetting and nonwetting phases. Significant changes were observed due to viscosity variations. An increase in oil viscosity reduced the relative permeability to gas; an increase in brine/(wetting-phase) viscosity reduced the relative permeability to brine. A slight increase in gas relative permeability was also observed. These observations suggest that the viscosities of both oil and water influence three-phase permeability data. During this study, data scatter was sometimes encountered which was comparable to that of published results. The causes of this scatter are outlined in this report and remedial attempts are discussed. 20 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Maloney, D.R.; Mahmood, S.M.; Honarpour, M.M.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Using an AGCM to diagnose historical effective radiative forcing and mechanisms of recent decadal climate change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An atmospheric general circulation model is forced with observed monthly sea-surface-temperature and sea-ice boundary conditions, as well as forcing agents that vary in time, for the period 1979-2008. The simulations are then repeated with various ...

Timothy Andrews

99

Radiative Forcing of a Tropical Direct Circulation by Soil Dust Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of soil dust aerosols upon the tropical climate is estimated by forcing a simple model of a tropical direct circulation. The model consists of a region vertically mixed by deep convection and a nonconvecting region, for which budgets ...

R. L. Miller; I. Tegen

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

A scattering approach to Casimir forces and radiative heat transfer for nanostructured surfaces out of thermal equilibrium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop an exact method for computing Casimir forces and the power of radiative heat transfer between two arbitrary nanostructured surfaces out of thermal equilibrium. The method is based on a generalization of the scattering approach recently used in investigations on the Casimir effect. Analogously to the equilibrium case, we find that also out of thermal equilibrium the shape and composition of the surfaces enter only through their scattering matrices. The expressions derived provide exact results in terms of the scattering matrices of the intervening surfaces.

Giuseppe Bimonte

2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Relationship between Cloud Radiative Forcing and Sea Surface Temperatures over the Entire Tropical Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite measurements from January 1985 to December 1989 show that warmer tropical oceans as a whole are associated with less longwave greenhouse effect of clouds and less cloud reflection of solar radiation to the space. The regression slopes ...

M. H. Zhang; R. D. Cess; S. C. Xie

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Radiation Control Coatings Installed on Federal Buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical objectives of this CRADA comprise technology deployment and energy conservation efforts with the radiation control coatings industry and the utility sector. The results of this collaboration include a high-level data reporting, analysis and management system to support the deployment efforts. The technical objectives include successfully install, commission, operate, maintain and document the performance of radiation control coatings on roofs at Tyndall AFB and the Buildings Technology Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory; determine the life cycle savings that can be achieved by using radiation control coatings on entire roofs at Tyndall AFB, based on documented installed cost and operating maintenance costs with and without the coatings; determine if any specific improvements are required in the coatings before they can be successfully deployed in the federal sector; determine the most effective way to facilitate the widespread and rapid deployment of radiation control coatings in the federal sector; and clearly define any barriers to deployment.

Kaba, R.L.; Petrie, T.W.

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

103

An Aerosol Climatology at Kyoto: Observed Local Radiative Forcing and Columnar Optical Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to evaluate the radiative effect of the atmospheric aerosol at Kyoto, Japan, surface solar irradiance and columnar aerosol optical properties were observed in the period between September 1998 and December 2001. The aerosol optical ...

Takahiro Yabe; Robert Höller; Susumu Tohno; Mikio Kasahara

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Forced, Dissipative Generalizations of Finite-Amplitude Wave-Activity Conservation Relations for Zonal and Nonzonal Basic Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of forcing and dissipation are incorporated into finite amplitude, local wave-activity relations for disturbances to zonal and nonzonal flows. The method used is an extension of the momentum–Casimir and energy–Casimir methods that ...

Peter H. Haynes

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Role of aerosols in radiative forcing of climate change: Global mean and uncertainties  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenically induced climate change is of great current interest because of increases in atmospheric loading of infrared active (greenhouse) gases over the past 150 years and the inferred resultant increase in infrared radiation flux in the troposphere. However, the climate change ascribed to such increases, not to mention predictions of future climate change in response to prospective changes in the earth`s radiation budget, is based virtually entirely on climate model simulations of how the earth`s climate would respond to changes in radiation rather than on empirically established relationships between changes in the earth`s radiation budget and climate change. There is thus an urgent need to evaluate the performance of climate models to ascertain the accuracy with which they represent the changes in temperature and other indicia of climate that have been observed over the industrial period. Such an evaluation, however, requires an accurate assessment of the totality of changes in the earth`s radiation budget in both the longwave (thermal infrared) and shortwave (solar) spectral regions, not just of changes in the longwave due to increased concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases.

Schwartz, S.E.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Gravity Wave Radiation and Mean Responses to Local Body Forces in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors determine the spectral linear solutions that arise in response to local 3D body forces and heatings in an idealized environment that turn on and off smoothly but not necessarily slowly over a finite interval in time. The solutions ...

Sharon L. Vadas; David C. Fritts

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

The Role of Relative Humidity in Radiative–Convective Equilibrium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The following conditions are derived for the existence of a radiation limit of tropospheric origin in a nongray atmosphere, extending the work on a gray atmosphere by Nakajima et al.: 1) the atmosphere must become sufficiently optically thick, ...

Masahiro Sugiyama; Peter H. Stone; Kerry A. Emanuel

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

On the Theory of Continuous-Spin Particles: Helicity Correspondence in Radiation and Forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have recently shown that continuous-spin particles (CSPs) have covariant single-emission amplitudes with the requisite properties to mediate long-range forces. CSPs, the most general massless particle type consistent with Lorentz symmetry, are characterized by a scale \\rho. Here, we demonstrate a helicity correspondence at CSP energies larger than \\rho, in which these amplitudes are well approximated by the familiar ones for particles of helicity 0, 1, or 2. These properties follow from Lorentz invariance. We also construct tree-level multi-emission and CSP-exchange amplitudes that are unitary, appropriately analytic, and consistent with helicity-0 correspondence. We propose sewing rules from which these amplitudes and others can be obtained. We also exhibit a candidate CSP-graviton matrix element, which shows that the Weinberg-Witten theorem does not apply to CSPs. These results raise the surprising possibility that the known long-range forces might be mediated by CSPs with very small \\rho, rather than by...

Schuster, Philip

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

On the Theory of Continuous-Spin Particles: Helicity Correspondence in Radiation and Forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have recently shown that continuous-spin particles (CSPs) have covariant single-emission amplitudes with the requisite properties to mediate long-range forces. CSPs, the most general massless particle type consistent with Lorentz symmetry, are characterized by a scale \\rho. Here, we demonstrate a helicity correspondence at CSP energies larger than \\rho, in which these amplitudes are well approximated by the familiar ones for particles of helicity 0, 1, or 2. These properties follow from Lorentz invariance. We also construct tree-level multi-emission and CSP-exchange amplitudes that are unitary, appropriately analytic, and consistent with helicity-0 correspondence. We propose sewing rules from which these amplitudes and others can be obtained. We also exhibit a candidate CSP-graviton matrix element, which shows that the Weinberg-Witten theorem does not apply to CSPs. These results raise the surprising possibility that the known long-range forces might be mediated by CSPs with very small \\rho, rather than by helicity 1 and 2 particles.

Philip Schuster; Natalia Toro

2013-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

110

Self-Force in the Radiation Reaction Formula -- Adiabatic Approximation of a Metric Perturbation and an Orbit --  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new metric perturbation scheme under a possible constraint of the gauge conditions in which we obtain a physically expected prediction of the orbital evolution caused by the MiSaTaQuWa self-force. In this new scheme of a metric perturbation, an adiabatic approximation is applied to both the metric perturbation and the orbit. As a result, we are able to predict the gravitational evolution of the system in the so-called radiation reaction time scale, which is longer than the dephasing time scale. However, for gravitational wave detection by LISA, this may still be insufficient. We further consider a gauge transformation in this new metric perturbation scheme, and find a special gauge condition with which we can calculate the gravitational waveform of a time scale long enough for gravitational wave detection by LISA.

Yasushi Mino

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

111

THE RADIATION CHEMISTRY OP AMINO ACIDS, PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS IN RELATION TO THE RADIATION STERILIZATION OF HIGH-PROTEIN FOODS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Various Ionizing Radiations. Radiat. Res. , 22, 694 (1968). W. M. Garrison, Radiation Induced Reactions of AminoFrozen Aqueous Solutions, in Radiation Chemistry of Aqueous

Garrison, W.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

The spatial distribution of mineral dust and its shortwave radiative forcing over North Africa: Modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model (WRF-Chem) with the implementation of two dust emission schemes (GOCART and DUSTRAN) into two aerosol models (MADE/SORGAM and MOSAIC) is applied over North Africa to investigate the modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments in simulating mineral dust and its shortwave (SW) radiative forcing. Model results of the spatial distribution of mineral dust and its radiative forcing are evaluated using measurements from the AMMA SOP0 campaign in January and February of 2006 over North Africa. Our study suggests that the size distribution of emitted dust can result in significant differences (up to 100%) in simulating mineral dust and its SW radiative forcing. With the same dust emission and dry deposition processes, two aerosol models, MADE/SORGAM and MOSAIC, can yield large difference in size distributions of dust particles due to their different aerosol size treatments using modal and sectional approaches respectively. However, the difference between the two aerosol models in simulating the mass concentrations and the SW radiative forcing of mineral dust is small (< 10%). The model simulations show that mineral dust increases AOD by a factor of 2, heats the lower atmosphere (1-3 km) with a maximum rate of 0.7?0.5 K day-1 below 1 km, and reduces the downwelling SW radiation by up to 25 W m-2 on 24-hour average at surface, highlighting the importance of including dust radiative impact in understanding the regional climate of North Africa. When compared to the available measurements, WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of mineral dust and its radiative properties over North Africa, suggesting that the model can be used to perform more extensive simulations of regional climate over North Africa.

Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Johnson, Ben; McFarlane, Sally A.; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

113

Downscaling Aerosols and the Impact of Neglected Subgrid Processes on Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing for a Representative Global Climate Model Grid Spacing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent improvements to many global climate models include detailed, prognostic aerosol calculations intended to better reproduce the observed climate. However, the trace gas and aerosol fields are treated at the grid-cell scale with no attempt to account for sub-grid impacts on the aerosol fields. This paper begins to quantify the error introduced by the neglected sub-grid variability for the shortwave aerosol radiative forcing for a representative climate model grid spacing of 75 km. An analysis of the value added in downscaling aerosol fields is also presented to give context to the WRF-Chem simulations used for the sub-grid analysis. We found that 1) the impact of neglected sub-grid variability on the aerosol radiative forcing is strongest in regions of complex topography and complicated flow patterns, and 2) scale-induced differences in emissions contribute strongly to the impact of neglected sub-grid processes on the aerosol radiative forcing. The two of these effects together, when simulated at 75 km vs. 3 km in WRF-Chem, result in an average daytime mean bias of over 30% error in top-of-atmosphere shortwave aerosol radiative forcing for a large percentage of central Mexico during the MILAGRO field campaign.

Gustafson, William I.; Qian, Yun; Fast, Jerome D.

2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

114

Effect of Direct Radiative Forcing of Asian Dust on the Meteorological Fields in East Asia during an Asian Dust Event Period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coupled and noncoupled models in a grid of 60 × 60 km2 in the eastern Asian domain have been employed to examine the effect of the direct radiative forcing of the Asian dust aerosol on meteorological fields for an intense Asian dust event ...

Hyun-Ju Ahn; Soon-Ung Park; Lim-Seok Chang

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Seasonal Changes in Solar Radiation and Relative Humidity in Europe in Response to Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future seasonal changes in surface incident solar radiation and relative humidity (RH) over Europe and adjacent ocean areas were assessed based on phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) model ensemble. Under the A1B scenario, ...

Kimmo Ruosteenoja; Petri Räisänen

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry. ... OH. US Air Force Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Wright-Patterson - Base, OH [100548- 0] PA. ...

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

117

Electromagnetic radiation, motion of a particle and energy-mass relation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Equation of motion of an uncharged arbitrarily shaped dust particle under the effects of (stellar) electromagnetic radiation and thermal emission is derived. The resulting relativistically covariant equation of motion is expressed in terms of standard optical parameters. Relations between energy and mass of the incoming and outgoing radiation are obtained, together with relations between radiation energy and mass of the particle. The role of the diffraction nicely fits the relativistic formulation of the momentum of the outgoing radiation. The inequality 0 radiation pressure, integrated over stellar spectrum). The condition for the P-R effect is $\\vec{p}'_{o}$ = (1 - $\\bar{Q}'_{pr, 1} / \\bar{Q}'_{ext}$) $\\vec{p}'_{i}$, where $\\vec{p}'_{i}$ and $\\vec{p}'_{o}$ are incoming and outgoing radiation momenta (per unit time) measured in the proper frame of reference of the particle. The case of "perfectly absorbing spherical dust particle", within geometrical optics approximation, corresponds to the condition $\\vec{p}'_{o}$ = 0.5 $\\vec{p}'_{i}$. As for arbitrarily shaped dust particle, the condition 0 radiation pressure components. The condition can add a new information to the results obtained from observations, measurements and numerical calculations of the optical properties of the particle.

J. Klacka

2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

118

Equilibrium Response of an Atmosphere–Mixed Layer Ocean Model to Different Radiative Forcing Agents: Global and Zonal Mean Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equilibrium response to various forcing agents, including CO2, solar irradiance, tropospheric ozone, black carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, and volcanic aerosols, is investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a ...

Masakazu Yoshimori; Anthony J. Broccoli

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Transmission of Solar Radiation by Clouds over Snow and Ice Surfaces. Part II: Cloud Optical Depth and Shortwave Radiative Forcing from Pyranometer Measurements in the Southern Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Downward solar irradiance at the sea surface, measured on several voyages of an icebreaker in the Southern Ocean, is used to infer transmittance of solar radiation by clouds. Together with surface albedo estimated from coincident hourly sea ice ...

Melanie F. Fitzpatrick; Stephen G. Warren

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

The Influence of the 1998 El Niño upon Cloud-Radiative Forcing over the Pacific Warm Pool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clouds cool the climate system by reflecting shortwave radiation and warm it by increasing the atmospheric greenhouse. Previous studies have shown that in tropical regions of deep convection there is a near cancellation between cloud-induced ...

Robert D. Cess; Minghua Zhang; Bruce A. Wielicki; David F. Young; Xue-Long Zhou; Yuri Nikitenko

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Annual Forcing of the Surface Radiation Balance Diurnal Cycle Measured from a High Tower near Boulder, Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation balance consisting of upward and downward components of solar and thermal infrared broadband irradiances is continuously measured from the top of a 300-m tower situated on the Colorado high plains. The data are representative of a ...

Ellsworth G. Dutton

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

The Influence of Solar Zenith Angle and Cloud Type on Cloud Radiative Forcing at the Surface in the Arctic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the long- and shortwave incident radiation taken from the USCGC Polar Sea during a research cruise to the Northeast Water Polynya during the summer of 1993 are analyzed together with observations of cloud type and amount to ...

Peter J. Minnett

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Response of the NCAR Community Climate Model to the Radiative Forcing by the Naturally Occurring Tropospheric Aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We insert the effect of naturally occurring tropospheric aerosols on solar radiation into the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM). The effect of the aerosol depends on concentration and type (continental, maritime), surface albedo, solar zenith ...

James A. Coakley Jr.; Robert D. Cess

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Robustness of Dynamical Feedbacks from Radiative Forcing: 2% Solar versus 2 × CO2 Experiments in an Idealized GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite the differences in the spatial patterns of the external forcing associated with a doubling CO2 and with a 2% solar variability, the final responses in the troposphere and at the surface in a three-dimensional general circulation model ...

Ming Cai; Ka-Kit Tung

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Influence of the Upper-Tropospheric Wind Shear upon Cloud Radiative Forcing in the Asian Monsoon Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the top-of-the-atmosphere radiative flux and cloud data from satellites, as well as atmospheric data from NCEP–NCAR reanalysis, this paper investigates the reason for the unusually large high-cloud amount in the Asian monsoon region during ...

V. Sathiyamoorthy; P. K. Pal; P. C. Joshi

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Arctic Stratus Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing Derived from Ground-Based Data Collected at Barrow, Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A record of single-layer and overcast low-level Arctic stratus cloud properties has been generated using data collected from May to September 2000 at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) (71.3°N, 156.6°W) site ...

Xiquan Dong; Gerald G. Mace

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Relation between measurable and principal characteristics of radiation-induced shape-change of graphite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the basis of studies of radiation-induced shape-change of reactor graphite GR-280, through the series of measurements of samples with different orientation of cutting with respect to the direction of extrusion, a conclusion is made about the existence of polycrystal substructural elements - domains. Domains, like graphite as a whole, possess the property of transverse isotropy, but have different amplitudes of shape-change and random orientations of the axes of axial symmetry. The model of graphite, constructed on the basis of the concept of domains allowed to explain from a unified point of view most of existing experimental data. It is shown that the presence of the disoriented domain structure leads to the development of radiation-induced stresses and to the dependence of the shape-change on the size of graphite samples. We derive the relation between the shape-change of finite size samples and the actual shape-change of macro-graphite.

M. V. Arjakov; A. V. Subbotin; S. V. Panyukov; O. V. Ivanov; A. S. Pokrovskii; D. V. Kharkov

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

128

Electron acceleration and emission in a field of a plane and converging dipole wave of relativistic amplitudes with the radiation reaction force taken into account  

SciTech Connect

A comparative analysis is performed of the electron emission characteristics as the electrons move in laser fields with ultra-relativistic intensity and different configurations corresponding to a plane or tightly focused wave. For a plane travelling wave, analytical expressions are derived for the emission characteristics, and it is shown that the angular distribution of the radiation intensity changes qualitatively even when the wave intensity is much less than that in the case of the radiation-dominated regime. An important conclusion is drawn that the electrons in a travelling wave tend to synchronised motion under the radiation reaction force. The characteristic features of the motion of electrons are found in a converging dipole wave, associated with the curvature of the phase front and nonuniformity of the field distribution. The values of the maximum achievable longitudinal momenta of electrons accelerated to the centre, as well as their distribution function are determined. The existence of quasi-periodic trajectories near the focal region of the dipole wave is shown, and the characteristics of the emission of both accelerated and oscillating electrons are analysed. (extreme light fields and their applications)

Bashinov, Aleksei V; Gonoskov, Arkady A; Kim, A V; Marklund, Mattias; Mourou, G; Sergeev, Aleksandr M

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

129

Implementation of a simplified approach to radiative transfer in general relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe in detail the implementation of a simplified approach to radiative transfer in general relativity by means of the well-known neutrino leakage scheme (NLS). In particular, we carry out an extensive investigation of the properties and limitations of the NLS for isolated relativistic stars to a level of detail that has not been discussed before in a general-relativistic context. Although the numerous tests considered here are rather idealized, they provide a well-controlled environment in which to understand the relationship between the matter dynamics and the neutrino emission, which is important in order to model the neutrino signals from more complicated scenarios, such as binary neutron-star mergers. When considering nonrotating hot neutron stars we confirm earlier results of one-dimensional simulations, but also present novel results about the equilibrium properties and on how the cooling affects the stability of these configurations. In our idealized but controlled setup, we can then show that deviations from the thermal and weak-interaction equilibrium affect the stability of these models to radial perturbations, leading models that are stable in the absence of radiative losses, to a gravitational collapse to a black hole when neutrinos are instead radiated.

Filippo Galeazzi; Wolfgang Kastaun; Luciano Rezzolla; José A. Font

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

130

Activities of the National Academy of Sciences in relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation  

SciTech Connect

This progress report relates progress in the various research projects evaluating the late health effects, both somatic and genetic, resulting from radiation exposure of the survivors of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Considerable progress has been made in the collection and utilization of the various epidemiological data bases. These include the Life Span Study, (LSS) cohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort, the In Utero cohort, the leukemia registry and the F-1 Study population. Important progress has been made in using RERF Tumor and Tissue Registry records for evaluation of cancer incidence and radiation risk estimates for comparison with cancer mortality and risk in the LSS cohort. At the present time, a manuscript on the incidence of solid tumors (1950-1987) is undergoing internal and external review for publication as an RERF Technical report (TR) and for publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. In addition, manuscripts are in preparation on (1) a comprehensive report on the incidence of hematological cancers, including analysis of leukemia by cell type (1950-1987), (2) a general description of Tumor Registry operations and (3) a comparison of incidence- and mortality-based estimates of radiation risk in the LSS cohort.

Edington, C.W.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Radiators  

SciTech Connect

A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape, the spigot carrying an O-ring seal and either latching fingers or a resilient latching circlip.

Webster, D. M.

1985-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

132

Radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides and proteins in relation to the radiation sterilization of high-protein foods  

SciTech Connect

An important source of information on the question of whether or not toxic or other deleterious substances are formed in the radiation sterilization of foods is the chemical study of reaction products and reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of individual food components. The present evaluation of the radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides, and proteins outlines the various radiation-induced processes which lead to amino acid degradation and to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives of higher molecular weight. Among the latter are the ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino dicarboxylic acids which are formed as major products in the radiolysis of peptides both in aqueous solution and in the solid state. The ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino acids are of particular interest as irradiation products because they represent a class of compounds not normally encountered in plant and animal protein sources. Such compounds have, however, been isolated from certain types of bacteria and bacterial products. All of the available data strongly suggest that the ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino acids are produced in significant yield in the radiation sterilization of high protein foods. The importance of initiating extensive chemical and biological studies of these and of other high molecular weight products in irradiated food is emphasized.

Garrison, W. M.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Support of Activities of the NAS in Relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Academies (NA) provides support for the activities related to the long-term follow up of the health of the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki being conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) laboratories in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. The NA serves as scientific and administrative liaison between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and RERF, and performs tasks in the areas of scientific oversight, information/public interface, fiscal oversight, and personnel management. The project includes recruitment and support of approximately 10 NA employees who work at RERF in Japan. Specific activities are performed consistent with the cooperative agreement’s Statement of Work between DOE and NA and consistent with an Annual Work Plan developed by DOE and NA.

Douple, Evan B.

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

134

The Earth's radiation budget and its relation to atmospheric hydrology 3. Comparison of observations over the oceans with a GCM  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a study that seeks to examine a very limited set of interactions between the hydrological cycle and the radiative processes that take place on Earth and attempt to test how well these interactions are simulated by a general circulation model. Two broad types of tests of the model are introduced in this paper. The first focuses on comparing various sensitivity relationships established by the model with those observed on Earth. The specific relationships examined in this paper include the sensitivities of column-integrated water vapor, the clear sky greenhouse effect, cloud albedo, and cloud radiative forcing to sea surface temperature. The second type of test focuses on comparison of simulated and observed seasonal cycles of the greenhouse effect and cloud radiative forcing. The main results of this study suggest that the model studied, which the authors take to be representative of the current generation of global climate models, is able to simulate some aspects of the observed sensitivities fairly well. Qualitative successes of the simulations include realistic variations of column vapor with sea surface temperature, the clear sky greenhouse parameter and its variation with both column vapor and sea surface temperature, and cloud longwave radiative forcing with sea surface temperature, as well as the seasonal changes of the greenhouse effect and the cloud radiative forcing. However, there exist many serious quantitative differences between the model and the observations. These include problems in the simulations of the column vapor in the tropics and an excessively strong clear-sky greenhouse effect in the mid-latitudes. Significant differences between the simulated and the observed radiative properties of clouds include the overprediction of the longwave cloud radiative forcing over warm tropical oceans and a significant underestimate of the cloud reflection in mid-latitudes during the summer season. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Stephens, G.L.; Randall, D.A.; Wittmeyer, I.L.; Dazlich, D.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States)); Tjemkes, S. (State University, Utrecht (Netherlands))

1993-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

135

Stress-related phenomena in transient radiation-induced absorption in optical fibers  

SciTech Connect

The optical properties of materials can be modified by exposure to radiation and research to investigate these radiation-induced phenomena has intensified over the last several decades. The advent of optical fiber technology and the many applications of optical fiber for information transmission have sharply increased the interest in these investigations. Optical fibers present a long optical transmission path and that path may traverse different adverse environments, including radiation areas. The long tranmission path provides increased potential for interactions between the optical information signal and the optical medium. 10 refs., 10 figs.

Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.; Kelly, R.E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Influence of 21st century atmospheric and sea surface temperature forcing on West African climate  

SciTech Connect

he persistence of extended drought events throughout West Africa during the 20th century has motivated a substantial effort to understand the mechanisms driving African climate variability, as well as the possible response to elevated greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. We use an ensemble of global climate model experiments to examine the relative roles of future direct atmospheric radiative forcing and SST forcing in shaping potential future changes in boreal summer precipitation over West Africa. We find that projected increases in precipitation throughout the Western Sahel result primarily from direct atmospheric radiative forcing. The changes in atmospheric forcing generate a slight northward displacement and weakening of the African easterly jet (AEJ), a strengthening of westward monsoon flow onto West Africa and an intensification of the tropical easterly jet (TEJ). Alternatively, we find that the projected decreases in precipitation over much of the Guinea Coast region are caused by SST changes that are induced by the atmospheric radiative forcing. The changes in SSTs generate a weakening of the monsoon westerlies and the TEJ, as well as a decrease in low-level convergence and resultant rising air throughout the mid levels of the troposphere. Our experiments suggest a potential shift in the regional moisture balance of West Africa should global radiative forcing continue to increase, highlighting the importance of climate system feedbacks in shaping the response of regional-scale climate to global-scale changes in radiative forcing.

Skinner, Chris B [Stanford University; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL; Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Miniature quartz resonator force transducer  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to a piezoelectric quartz force transducer having the shape of a double-ended tuning fork.

Eer Nisse, Errol P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Nuclear forces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These lectures present an introduction into the theory of nuclear forces. We focus mainly on the modern approach

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Direct Aerosol Forcing in the Infrared at the SGP Site?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Aerosol Forcing in the Infrared at the SGP Site? Direct Aerosol Forcing in the Infrared at the SGP Site? D. D. Turner and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Low level haze is often observed during the night and early morning hours in many locations. This haze is typically formed during quiescent conditions by radiative cooling of the surface, which lowers the ambient temperature and consequently increases the near-surface relative humidity (RH). Many aerosols start to deliquesce around 75% relative humidity (RH) (depending on their chemical composition), and thus if the near surface RH increases above this level, haze will form. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's ultimate goal, stated simply, is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in global climate models. Global climate models typically do not

140

A study of longwave radiation codes for climate studies: Validation with ARM observations and tests in general circulation models. Final report, September 15, 1990--October 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

DOE has launched a major initiative -- the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program -- directed at improving the parameterization of the physics governing cloud and radiative processes in general circulation models (GCMs). One specific goal of ARM is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in GCMs under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. In 1990, the authors proposed to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems connected with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem -- longwave radiation. In particular, their long-term research goals are to: develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations, assess the impact of the longwave radiative forcing in a GCM, determine the sensitivity of a GCM to the radiative model used in it, and determine how the longwave radiative forcing contributes relatively when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and expansion.

Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Radiation and Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation is the driving force for the general circulation of the atmosphere and controls the Earth's climate. Ozone is responsible for the warm stratosphere and protects life on Earth from harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. In July 1959, the ...

G. Ohring; R. D. Bojkov; H-J. Bolle; R. D. Hudson; H. Volkert

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

RELATIVE HUMIDITY, INOSITOL AND THE EFFECT OF RADIATIONS ON AIR-DRIED MICROORGANISMS  

SciTech Connect

Investigations were made on the effects of uv irradiation on E. coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa and x irradiation on Serratia marcescens and on the influence of relative humidity and inositol on these effects. The effect of relative humidity was the same for all organisms tested. Under the experimental conditions used, little or no uv irradiation damage occurred above 70% relative humidity, nor were there many deaths occurring in unirradiated aerosols. At about 65% there was a rapid change in the sensitivity to both uv and drying alone, with the maximum rate of change taking place between 65 and 55% relative humidity for uv, and 65 and 45% relative humidity for non-irradiated cells. Some organisms showed an equally sharp increase in sensitivity to drying in the dark between 65 and 55% relative humidity. With uv irradiation relative humidity changes below 55% had little or no effect on the death rate and the same was true for non-irradiated cells below 45% relative humidity. Under all experimental conditions, with the possible exception of a relative humidity region around 40%, inositol completely prevented inactivation of the cells or viruses in the dark or under uv irradiation. Under x irradiation the cells were more stable at relative humidity values below 50% than at higher values, and once again the region in which a pronounced change occurred was between 50 and 70% relative humidity. (P.C.H.)

Webb, S.J.; Cormack, D.V.; Morrison, H.G.

1964-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

143

R2 Solar Forcing and Climate Change of the last 1000 years SOLAR [Depending on funding available; 1 PhD only in relation to WP1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

56 R2 Solar Forcing and Climate Change of the last 1000 years SOLAR [Depending on funding available can the high-resolution solar variability during the last millennium be quantified? How can solar variability be converted into solar forcing? How can solar forcing be detected and attributed in climate

Richner, Heinz

144

Optical Bernoulli forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By Bernoulli's law, an increase in the relative speed of a fluid around a body is accompanied by a decrease in the pressure. Therefore, a rotating body in a fluid stream experiences a force perpendicular to the motion of ...

Movassagh, Ramis

145

The Vertical Structure of Cloud Occurrence and Radiative Forcing at the SGP ARM Site as Revealed by 8 Years of Continuous Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ground sites allow for the description of the atmospheric thermodynamic state, cloud occurrence, and cloud properties. This information allows for the derivation of estimates ...

Gerald G. Mace; Sally Benson

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Evidence from the Special Relativity and Blackbody Radiation Theories for the Existence of Photons Possessing Zero Kinetic Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The traditional interpretation of radiative emission and absorption asserts that photons are created and annihilated in such processes. A Gedanken experiment is considered in which kinetic energy from observed photons is systematically removed until a limit of zero is reached. With the help of the relativistic Doppler effect it is shown that even for infinitesimally small kinetic energies the photons continue to exist, since in other inertial systems they will be observed to have a much higher energy/frequency falling in an easily detectable range. It is possible to formulate an alternative explanation for absorption and emission processes on this basis in terms of real photons with exactly zero kinetic energy being present before or after radiative interactions. Bolstering this hypothesis is the fact that the statistical mechanical treatment of photons interacting with oscillators in blackbody radiation theory predicts an infinite density of photons of this energy, both in the original Planck formulation employing Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics and in the subsequent Bose-Einstein description. These considerations demonstrate that the E = 0 state is greatly preferred as the product of absorption because of the requirement to have the interaction occur in a relatively narrow region of space- time. There is thus strong evidence that photons are not created and annihilated in radiative processes but simply have their kinetic energy changed either to or from a zero value. Accordingly a very high density of zero-energy photons is expected to exist uniformly throughout the universe. Finally, this development suggests that one should subject the creation-annihilation hypothesis to careful scrutiny in other areas of physics as well.

Robert J. Buenker

2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

147

A Field Intercomparison Technique to Improve the Relative Accuracy of Longwave Radiation Measurements and an Evaluation of CASES-99 Pyrgeometer Data Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Techniques for improving the relative accuracy of longwave radiation measurements by a set of pyrgeometers [the Eppley Laboratory Precision Infrared Radiometer (Model PIR)] are presented using 10 PIRs from the 1999 Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface ...

S. P. Burns; J. Sun; A. C. Delany; S. R. Semmer; S. P. Oncley; T. W. Horst

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Cocoa Butter and Related CompoundsChapter 14 New Method to Study Molecular Interactions in Fats—Synchrotron Radiation Microbeam X-ray Diffraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cocoa Butter and Related Compounds Chapter 14 New Method to Study Molecular Interactions in Fats—Synchrotron Radiation Microbeam X-ray Diffraction Food Science Health Nutrition eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Bioc

149

Casimir forces beyond the proximity approximation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The proximity force approximation (PFA) relates the interaction between closely spaced, smoothly curved objects to the force between parallel plates. Precision experiments on Casimir forces necessitate, and spur research ...

Bimonte, G.

150

Disposition Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments Disposition Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments This database contains information on records collections related to human radiation...

151

Estimation of Daily Mean Photosynthetically Active Radiation under All-Sky Conditions Based on Relative Sunshine Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is absorbed by plants to carry out photosynthesis. Its estimation is important for many applications such as ecological modeling. In this study, a broadband transmittance scheme for solar radiation at the ...

Jun Qin; Kun Yang; Shunlin Liang; Wenjun Tang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

ARM - PI Product - Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Site(s) NSA SGP TWP General Description Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in

153

OOTW Force Design Tools  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Radiation dose reconstruction US occupation forces in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1945-1946. Final report 1 March-6 August 80  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upper limit dose estimates (internal and external) are determined for those units of the U.S. occupation forces assigned to Hiroshima or Nagasaki following the detonations of atomic weapons in those two cities. In the absence of specific maneuver and patrol data, these dose estimates are based on the maximum recorded activity levels with exposure over the entire stay period for each unit. The upper limit external dose is .03 rem for Hiroshima and .08 rem for Nagasaki. For the Nishiyama area, the upper limit is 0.63 rem. The dose from internal emitters (inhalation and ingestion) is considerably less. There is no basis for assuming that any individual in the occupation units received these upper limit doses.

McRaney, W.; McGahan, J.

1980-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

155

392 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME 19 Surface Cloud Forcing in the East Pacific Stratus Deck/Cold Tongue/ITCZ Complex*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Data from the Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate Studies (EPIC) mooring array are used to evaluate the annual cycle of surface cloud forcing in the far eastern Pacific stratus cloud deck/cold tongue/ intertropical convergence zone complex. Data include downwelling surface solar and longwave radiation from 10 EPIC-enhanced Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) moorings from 8°S, 95°W to 12°N, 95°W, and the Woods Hole Improved Meteorology (IMET) mooring in the stratus cloud deck region at 20°S, 85°W. Surface cloud forcing is defined as the observed downwelling radiation at the surface minus the clear-sky value. Solar cloud forcing and longwave cloud forcing are anticorrelated at all latitudes from 12°N to 20°S: clouds tended to reduce the downward solar radiation and to a lesser extent increase the downward longwave radiation at the surface. The relative amount of solar radiation reduction and longwave increase depends upon cloud type and varies with latitude. A statistical relationship between solar and longwave surface cloud forcing is developed for rainy and dry periods and for the full record length in six latitudinal regions: northeast tropical warm pool, ITCZ, frontal zone, cold tongue, southern, and stratus deck regions. The buoy cloud forcing observations and empirical relations are compared with the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) radiative flux data (FD) dataset and are used as benchmarks to

Meghan F. Cronin; Nicholas A. Bond; Christopher W. Fairall; Robert A. Weller

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Climate Feedbacks in CCSM3 under Changing CO2 Forcing. Part II: Variation of Climate Feedbacks and Sensitivity with Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Are equilibrium climate sensitivity and the associated radiative feedbacks a constant property of the climate system, or do they change with forcing magnitude and base climate? Using the radiative kernel technique, feedbacks and climate ...

Alexandra K. Jonko; Karen M. Shell; Benjamin M. Sanderson; Gokhan Danabasoglu

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Radiation Stress Estimators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation stresses Sij associated with the propagation of wind-generated waves are principal driving forces for several important surf-zone processes. The accurate estimation of the onshore flux of longshore-directed mean momentum Syx, using ...

S. S. Pawka; D. L. Inman; R. T. Guza

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

What is Force  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... force may be balanced by an opposing force so that no energy is expended ... The unit of force is the Newton (N). By definition, the newton is the force ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

159

Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect

This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

Michael J Iacono

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

160

Boundary-Forced Nonlinear Planetary Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years there has been renewed interest in the Gulf Stream system and its interaction with the mesoscale oceanic eddy field. An important question, not yet adequately addressed, concern the possible generation mechanisms of the mesoscale ...

Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Observed Aerosol Radiative Forcings: Comparison for Natural...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are from 1997, when the El Nio suppressed the rainfall in that region and biomass burning was widespread in the area. These observations are compared to those observed during...

162

The Connection Between Inertial Forces and the Vector Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The inertia property of matter is discussed in terms of a type of induction law related to the extended charged particle's own vector potential. Our approach is based on the Lagrangian formalism of canonical momentum writing Newton's second law in terms of the vector potential and a development in terms of obtaining retarded potentials, that allow an intuitive physical interpretation of its main terms. This framework provides a clear physical insight on the physics of inertia. It is shown that the electron mass has a complete electromagnetic origin and the covariant equation obtained solves the "4/3 mass paradox". This provides a deeper insight into the significance of the main terms of the equation of motion. In particular a force term is obtained from the approach based on the continuity equation for momentum that represents a drag force the charged particle feels when in motion relatively to its own vector potential field lines. Thus, the time derivative of the particle's vector potential leads to the acceleration inertia reaction force and is equivalent to the Schott term responsible for the source of the radiation field. We also show that the velocity dependent term of the particle's vector potential is connected with the relativistic increase of mass with velocity and generates a stress force that is the source of electric field lines deformation. This understanding broadens the possibility to manipulate inertial mass and potentially suggests some mechanisms for possible applications to electromagnetic propulsion and the development of advanced space propulsion physics.

Alexandre A. Martins; Mario J. Pinheiro

2006-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

163

Results of calculations of external gamma radiation exposure rates from local fallout and the related radionuclide compositions of selected US Pacific events  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and local surface deposition of related radionuclides resulting from selected US Pacific events. Results of the calculations of relative external gamma radiation exposure rate and related radionuclide ground deposition are given in six appendices. The output of the calculation has 30 decay times: 10 from 1 to 21 h, 10 from 1 to 300 d, and 10 from 1 to 50 y. For each of these times and for zero time, there are values of the external gamma radiation exposure rate normalized to 1 mR/h, 1 m above the surface, 12 h after the event; the associated values of ..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/ for each radionuclide; and the total ..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/. Surface roughness effects are simulated by using Beck's values of (mR/h)/..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/) for a relaxation length of 0.16 g/cm/sup 2/. Fractionation effects, simulated by the removal of a fraction of the refractory nuclides from the calculation, were found for unfractionated debris and for debris with 0.5 and 0.1 of the refractory elements present. Each Appendix contains three sets of 11 pages of calculated results relating to one event in Table 1. Each set of 11 pages is marked page 2 through page 12. Page 2 of each set gives the external gamma-ray exposure rates and associated values of total microcuries per square meter at 30 decay intervals and at zero time. The value for each activation product at zero time is the result of a measurement. The measurements were performed on debris samples taken by aircraft approximately 1 to 4 h after detonation. When no measurement exists, the value appears as zero. Fission products were calculated from the fissioning nuclides and neutron energy spectra. Calculated values for each radionuclide at various decay intervals are given.

Hicks, H.G.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

On radiation reaction and the [x,p ] commutator for an accelerating charge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We formally state the connection between the relativistic part of the radiation reaction and the Poynting Robertson force term, $-Rv/c^2$, where $R$ is power radiated. Then we address the question, does $[x,p]=i \\hb$ for an accelerating charge ? The full radiation reaction term is used, which includes the relativistic term (von Laue vector.). We show that the full relativistic radiation reaction term must be taken into account if a commutation relation between $x$ and $p$ is to hold for an electron under uniform acceleration, consistent with the expectation values of $x^2$ and $p^2$.

H. Fearn

2013-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

165

Nuclear forces and chiral theories  

SciTech Connect

Recent successes in ab initio calculations of light nuclei (A=2-6) will be reviewed and correlated with the dynamical consequences of chiral symmetry. The tractability of nuclear physics evinced by these results is evidence for that symmetry. The relative importance of three-nucleon forces, four-nucleon forces, multi-pion exchanges, and relativistic corrections will be discussed in the context of effective field theories and dimensional power counting. Isospin violation in the nuclear force will also be discussed in this context.

Friar, J.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs.

Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Radiation-related posterior lenticular opacities in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on the DS86 dosimetry system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the quantitative relationship of ionizing radiation to the occurrence of posterior lenticular opacities among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggested by the DS86 dosimetry system. DS86 doses are available for 1983 (93.4%) of the 2124 atomic bomb survivors analyzed in 1982. The DS86 kerma neutron component for Hiroshima survivors is much smaller than its comparable T65DR component, but still 4.2-fold higher (0.38 Gy at 6 Gy) than that in Nagasaki (0.09 Gy at 6 Gy). Thus, if the eye is especially sensitive to neutrons, there may yet be some useful information on their effects, particularly in Hiroshima. The dose-response relationship has been evaluated as a function of the separately estimated gamma-ray and neutron doses. Among several different dose-response models without and with two thresholds, we have selected as the best model the one with the smallest x2 or the largest log likelihood value associated with the goodness of fit. The best fit is a linear gamma-linear neutron relationship which assumes different thresholds for the two types of radiation. Both gamma and neutron regression coefficients for the best fitting model are positive and highly significant for the estimated DS86 eye organ dose.

Otake, M.; Schull, W.J. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Rising Variability in Thunderstorm-Related U.S. Losses as a Reflection of Changes in Large-Scale Thunderstorm Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thunderstorm-related normalized economic and insured losses in the United States east of the Rockies from the period 1970–2009 (March–September) exhibit higher peaks and greater variability in the last two decades than in the preceding two ...

J. Sander; J. F. Eichner; E. Faust; M. Steuer

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Rising variability in thunderstorm-related U.S. losses as a reflection of changes in large-scale thunderstorm forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thunderstorm-related normalized economic losses in the U.S.A. east of the Rockies from the period 1970–2009 (March–September) exhibit higher peaks and greater variability in the last two decades than in the preceding two decades. To remove the ...

J. Sander; J. F. Eichner; E. Faust; M. Steuer

170

Activities of the National Academy of Sciences in relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Annual performance report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This progress report relates progress in the various research projects evaluating the late health effects, both somatic and genetic, resulting from radiation exposure of the survivors of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Considerable progress has been made in the collection and utilization of the various epidemiological data bases. These include the Life Span Study, (LSS) cohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort, the In Utero cohort, the leukemia registry and the F-1 Study population. Important progress has been made in using RERF Tumor and Tissue Registry records for evaluation of cancer incidence and radiation risk estimates for comparison with cancer mortality and risk in the LSS cohort. At the present time, a manuscript on the incidence of solid tumors (1950-1987) is undergoing internal and external review for publication as an RERF Technical report (TR) and for publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. In addition, manuscripts are in preparation on (1) a comprehensive report on the incidence of hematological cancers, including analysis of leukemia by cell type (1950-1987), (2) a general description of Tumor Registry operations and (3) a comparison of incidence- and mortality-based estimates of radiation risk in the LSS cohort.

Edington, C.W.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Radiation Hydrodynamics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to distinguish hydrogen atoms from helium atoms, for instance. There are all just components of a mixed fluid in this case. So why do we have a special subject called ''radiation hydrodynamics'', when photons are just one of the many kinds of particles that comprise our fluid? The reason is that photons couple rather weakly to the atoms, ions and electrons, much more weakly than those particles couple with each other. Nor is the matter-radiation coupling negligible in many problems, since the star or nebula may be millions of mean free paths in extent. Radiation hydrodynamics exists as a discipline to treat those problems for which the energy and momentum coupling terms between matter and radiation are important, and for which, since the photon mean free path is neither extremely large nor extremely small compared with the size of the system, the radiation field is not very easy to calculate. In the theoretical development of this subject, many of the relations are presented in a form that is described as approximate, and perhaps accurate only to order of {nu}/c. This makes the discussion cumbersome. Why are we required to do this? It is because we are using Newtonian mechanics to treat our fluid, yet its photon component is intrinsically relativistic; the particles travel at the speed of light. There is a perfectly consistent relativistic kinetic theory, and a corresponding relativistic theory of fluid mechanics, which is perfectly suited to describing the photon gas. But it is cumbersome to use this for the fluid in general, and we prefer to avoid it for cases in which the flow velocity satisfies {nu} << c. The price we pay is to spend extra effort making sure that the source-sink terms relating to our relativistic gas component are included in the equations of motion in a form that preserves overall conservation of energy and momentum, something that would be automatic if the relativistic equations were used throughout.

Castor, J I

2003-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

172

Measuring Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration...

173

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Organizations Conducting Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program DoReMi Integrating Low Dose Research High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on European Low Dose Risk Research Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiation United States Transuranium & Uranium Registries Organizations Conducting other Radiation Research Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Armed Forces Radiology Research Institute (AFRRI) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) Colorado State University Columbia University

174

426 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME 16 Solar and Greenhouse Gas Forcing and Climate Response in the Twentieth Century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ensemble experiments with a global coupled climate model are performed for the twentieth century with time-evolving solar, greenhouse gas, sulfate aerosol (direct effect), and ozone (tropospheric and stratospheric) forcing. Observed global warming in the twentieth century occurred in two periods, one in the early twentieth century from about the early 1900s to the 1940s, and one later in the century from, roughly, the late 1960s to the end of the century. The model’s response requires the combination of solar and anthropogenic forcing to approximate the early twentieth-century warming, while the radiative forcing from increasing greenhouse gases is dominant for the response in the late twentieth century, confirming previous studies. Of particular interest here is the model’s amplification of solar forcing when this acts in combination with anthropogenic forcing. This difference is traced to the fact that solar forcing is more spatially heterogeneous (i.e., acting most strongly in areas where sunlight reaches the surface) while greenhouse gas forcing is more spatially uniform. Consequently, solar forcing is subject to coupled regional feedbacks involving the combination of temperature gradients, circulation regimes, and clouds. The magnitude of these feedbacks depends on the climate’s base state. Over relatively cloud-free oceanic regions in the subtropics, the enhanced solar forcing produces greater evaporation. More moisture then converges into the precipitation convergence zones, intensifying the regional monsoon and

unknown authors

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force Meeting Agenda FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force Meeting Agenda February 26, 2009 Task Force...

176

The Response of the Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation to an Enhanced Greenhouse Gas Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of the atmospheric circulation to an enhanced radiative greenhouse gas forcing is investigated. It has been proposed that the response of the climate system to an enhanced forcing projects directly onto the preexisting natural modes ...

Jenny Brandefelt; Erland Källén

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Scale Dependence of the Thermodynamic Forcing of Tropical Monsoon Clouds: Results from TRMM Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clouds exert a thermodynamic forcing on the ocean–atmosphere column through latent heating, owing to the production of rain, and through cloud radiative forcing, owing to the absorption of terrestrial infrared energy and the reflection of solar ...

Eric M. Wilcox; V. Ramanathan

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

On the Observed Near Cancellation between Longwave and Shortwave Cloud Forcing in Tropical Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations based on Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) satellite data indicate that there is a near cancellation between tropical longwave and shortwave cloud forcing in regions of deep convective activity. Cloud forcing depends on both ...

J. T. Kiehl

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Climate Forcings and Climate Sensitivities Diagnosed from Coupled Climate Model Integrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple technique is proposed for calculating global mean climate forcing from transient integrations of coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). This “climate forcing” differs from the conventionally defined radiative ...

Piers Mde F. Forster; Karl E. Taylor

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Toward a demonstration of a Light Force Accelerometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Light Force Accelerometer (LFA) is an optical inertial sensor in which radiation pressure from two counter-propagating laser beams optically confines a glass microsphere. Inertial acceleration of the device results in ...

Kotru, Krish

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Effects of Ozone Heating on Forced Equatorial Kelvin Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An equatorial beta-plane model of the stratosphere is used to examine the effects of longwave radiational cooling, ozone photochemistry, and ozone advection on the linear spatial modulation of forced equatorial Kelvin waves. The model atmosphere ...

Robert S. Echols; Terrence R. Nathan

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Bonding, antibonding and tunable optical forces in asymmetric membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate that tunable attractive (bonding) and repulsive (anti-bonding) forces can arise in highly asymmetric structures coupled to external radiation, a consequence of the bonding/anti-bonding level repulsion of ...

Hui, Pui-Chuen

183

Factors Controlling ERBE Longwave Clear Sky and Cloud Forcing Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The factors controlling the Earth Radiation Budget satellite (ERBS) longwave clear sky and cloud-forcing fluxes are investigated using statistical analyses of the ERBS fluxes with International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud ...

Bryan C. Weare

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Erroneous Relationships among Humidity and Cloud Forcing Variables in Three Global Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Links are examined between time-averaged cloud radiative properties, particularly the longwave and shortwave components of cloud radiative forcing (CRF), and properties of the long-term averages of atmospheric soundings, in particular upper-...

Florian Bennhold; Steven Sherwood

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Forced Trench Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A general theory for forced barotropic long trench waves in the presence of linear bottom friction is presented. Two specific forcing mechanisms are considered: (i) transverse fluctuations in a western boundary current as it flows across a trench,...

Lawrence A. Mysak; Andrew J. Willmott

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

SERVOMECHANISMS WITH FORCE FEEDBACK  

SciTech Connect

A class of linear proportional servomechanisms is examined in which an electrical signal proportional to output force is used to improve performance. The effect of this "force feedback" on a positional servomechanism is analyzed as well as the effect on a special type of servomechanism which reflects load forces back to the input. This latter type of servomechanism is called "force reflecting." Laboratory models of these servormechanisms were designed and constructed, and experimental data are presented in support of the analysis. (auth)

Arzbaecher, R.C.

1960-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Calibrated Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Vorburger, SL Tan, NG Orji, J. Fu, “Interlaboratory Comparison of Traceable Atomic Force Microscope Pitch Measurements,” SPIE Proceedings Vol. ...

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

188

Einstein's Dream of Unified Forces - forces | U.S. DOE Office of Science  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Do all the forces become one? Do all the forces become one? The International Linear Collider The U.S. is pushing superconducting technology forward for use in future accelerators like the proposed International Linear Collider. (Credit: Fermilab) At the most fundamental level, particles and forces may converge, either through hidden principles like grand unification, or through radical physics like superstring. We already know that remarkably similar mathematical laws and principles describe all the known forces except gravity. Perhaps all forces are different manifestations of a single grand unified force, a force that would relate quarks to leptons and predict new ways of converting one kind of particle into another. Such a force might eventually make protons decay, rendering ordinary matter unstable.

189

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

TEST PLAN CHARACTERIZATION OF JET FORCES UPON WASTE TANK COMPONENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Westinghouse Hanford Company plans to install mixer pumps in double-shell waste tanks to mobilize and suspend settled sludge to allow eventual retrieval for treatment and permanent storage. The mixer pumps produce high momentum, horizontally directed jets that impact and mobilize the sludge and mix it into slurry for removal. There is concern that the force of the jet may damage tank internal components in its path. This test plan describes scaled experiments designed to characterize the velocity profiles of a near floor jet and to quantify the impact farces and drag coefficients of three tank components: radiation dry well, airlift circulator, and steam coil. The experiments will be conducted in water, at approximately 1/6-scale, using one stationary nozzle to simulate the jet. To measure and confirm the velocity profile of the free, submerged jet, the horizontal and vertical velocity profiles will be measured at several distances from the nozzle. The profile will also be measured after the jet impinges upon the tank floor to determine the·extent of the change in the profile caused by impingement. The jet forces upon the test articles will be measured at a maximum of four velocities and a variety of test article orientations. Each orientation will represent a unique position of the test article relative to the jet and the tank floor. In addition, the steam coil will be tested in three rotational orientations because it is not symmetric. The highest jet velocity will be selected so that the Reynolds number of the test article in the model will match that of the prototype when operating at design conditions. The forces measured upon the model components will be used to calculate the force on the prototype components using geometric scaling factors. In addition, the model force measurements will be used to calculate the component's drag coefficient as a function of the component Reynolds number.

Bamberger, J. A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Nuclear force in Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform the quenched lattice QCD analysis on the nuclear force (baryon-baryon interactions). We employ $20^3\\times 24$ lattice at $\\beta=5.7$ ($a\\simeq 0.19$ fm) with the standard gauge action and the Wilson quark action with the hopping parameters $\\kappa=0.1600, 0.1625, 0.1650$, and generate about 200 gauge configurations. We measure the temporal correlators of the two-baryon system which consists of heavy-light-light quarks. We extract the inter-baryon force as a function of the relative distance $r$. We also evaluate the contribution to the nuclear force from each ``Feynman diagram'' such as the quark-exchange diagram individually, and single out the roles of Pauli-blocking effects or quark exchanges in the inter-baryon interactions.

T. T. Takahashi; T. Doi; H. Suganuma

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

192

Multilayer radiation shield  

SciTech Connect

A power generation system including: a generator including a rotor including a superconductive rotor coil coupled to a rotatable shaft; a first prime mover drivingly coupled to the rotatable shaft; and a thermal radiation shield, partially surrounding the rotor coil, including at least a first sheet and a second sheet spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft. A thermal radiation shield for a generator including a rotor including a super-conductive rotor coil including: a first sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material; and at least one additional sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft, wherein each successive sheet is an incrementally greater circumferential arc length and wherein the centripetal force shapes the sheets into a substantially catenary shape.

Urbahn, John Arthur (Saratoga Springs, NY); Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon (Niskayuna, NY)

2009-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

193

Tropospheric Adjustment Induces a Cloud Component in CO2 Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiative forcing of CO2 and the climate feedback parameter are evaluated in several climate models with slab oceans by regressing the annual-mean global-mean top-of-atmosphere radiative flux against the annual-mean global-mean surface air ...

Jonathan Gregory; Mark Webb

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Frictional forces in helical buckling of tubing  

SciTech Connect

Previous analyses of helical buckling of tubing have not considered frictional forces. This paper describes the modifications to helical buckling theory necessary to include friction. The first need is a relationship between the buckling force and the casing to tubing contact force. This contact force is determined through use of the principle of virtual work. The next need is the relationship between the friction forces, the buckling force, and the geometry of the tubing helix. Differential equations are derived and solved for two cases of interest: buckling during the landing of the tubing and thermal and differential pressure loading subsequent to landing. Several example problems are examined to evaluate the relative importance of friction.

Mitchell, R.F.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from...

196

Stochastic Forcing of Ocean Variability by the North Atlantic Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At middle and high latitudes, the magnitude of stochastic wind stress forcing of the ocean by atmospheric variability on synoptic time scales (i.e., “weather” related variability) is comparable to that of the seasonal cycle. Stochastic forcing ...

Kettyah C. Chhak; Andrew M. Moore; Ralph F. Milliff

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Mountain Forces and the Atmospheric Energy Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although mountains are generally thought to exert forces on the atmosphere, the related transfers of energy between earth and atmosphere are not represented in standard energy equations of the atmosphere. It is shown that the axial rotation of the ...

Joseph Egger

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Radiation detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

Nelson, Melvin A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Davies, Terence J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Morton, III, John R. (Livermore, CA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Why measure force?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Automated industrial processes such as rolling mills require accurate force measurement to control roll pressure on bar steel, sheet metal, paper ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

200

NUCLEAR PROXIMITY FORCES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One might summarize of nuclear potential energy has beendegree of freedom) for the nuclear interaction between anyUniversity of California. Nuclear Proximity Forces 'I< at

Randrup, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Universal Forces and the Dark Energy Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Dark Energy problem is forcing us to re-examine our models and our understanding of relativity and space-time. Here a novel idea of Fundamental Forces is introduced. This allows us to perceive the General Theory of Relativity and Einstein's Equation from a new pesrpective. In addition to providing us with an improved understanding of space and time, it will be shown how it leads to a resolution of the Dark Energy problem.

Afsar Abbas

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Universal Forces and the Dark Energy Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Dark Energy problem is forcing us to re-examine our models and our understanding of relativity and space-time. Here a novel idea of Fundamental Forces is introduced. This allows us to perceive the General Theory of Relativity and Einstein's Equation from a new pesrpective. In addition to providing us with an improved understanding of space and time, it will be shown how it leads to a resolution of the Dark Energy problem.

Abbas, Afsar

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

ARM - Evaluation Product - CMWG Data - SCM-Forcing Data, Cloud  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsCMWG Data - SCM-Forcing Data, Cloud ProductsCMWG Data - SCM-Forcing Data, Cloud Microphysical Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : CMWG Data - SCM-Forcing Data, Cloud Microphysical Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles Site(s) GAN HFE NSA SGP TWP General Description SCM-forcing data are derived from the ARM Program observational data using the constrained variational analysis approach (Zhang and Lin 1997 and Zhang et al. 2001). The resulting products include both the large-scale forcing terms and the evaluation fields, which can be used for driving the Single-Column Models (SCMs) and Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs) and validating model simulations. Results from our studies are then used to

204

Experiments with Cloud Properties: Impact on Surface Radiative Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar radiation reaching the earth’s surface provides the primary forcing of the climate system, and thus, information on this parameter is needed at a global scale. Several satellite-based estimates of surface radiative fluxes are available, but ...

H. Wang; R. T. Pinker; P. Minnis; M. M. Khaiyer

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Alpha Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics of Radiation Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Special training in use of these instruments is essential for making accurate measurements. 4. A civil defense instrument (CD V-700) cannot detect the presence of radioactive materials that produce alpha radiation unless the radioactive materials also produce beta and/or gamma radiation.

206

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

207

ILC Citizens' Task Force  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force June 2008 Report of the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force 3 Contents 1 Executive Summary 3 Chapter 1 Purpose 7 Chapter 2 Origins and Purpose of the Fermilab Citizens' Task Force 15 Chapter 3 Setting the Stage 19 Chapter 4 Current Status of High Energy Physics Research 25 Chapter 5 Bringing the Next-Generation Accelerator to Fermilab 31 Chapter 6 Learning from Past Projects 37 Chapter 7 Location, Construction and Operation of Facilities Beyond Fermilab's Borders 45 Chapter 8 Health and Safety 49 Chapter 9 Environment 53 Chapter 10 Economics 59 Chapter 11 Political Considerations 65 Chapter 12 Community Engagement 77 Chapter 13 Summary 81 Appendices Appendix A. Task Force Members Appendix B. Task Force Meetings and Topics

208

Radiative Effects on Particle Acceleration via Relativistic Electromagnetic Expansion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the radiation effect on the diamagnetic relativistic pulse accelerator (DPRA) in two-and-half-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulation with magnetized electron-positron plasmas. Radiation damping force is self-consistently calculated for each particle, which reduces the acceleration force and converts particle energy to radiation. The emitted radiation is strongly linearly polarized and peaked within few degrees from the direction of Poynting flux due to the relativistic acceleration by the DPRA.

Noguchi, K; Nishimura, K; Noguchi, Koichi; Liang, Edison; Nishimura, Kazumi

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in Extreme Radiation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation in Extreme Radiation-resistant Microorganisms. ... Elucidated radiation protection by intracellular halides. ...

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Dynamics of Line-Driven Disk Winds in Active Galactic Nuclei II: Effects of Disk Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore consequences of a radiation driven disk wind model for mass outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGN). We performed axisymmetric time-dependent hydrodynamic calculations using the same computational technique as Proga, Stone and Kallman (2000). We test the robustness of radiation launching and acceleration of the wind for relatively unfavorable conditions. In particular, we take into account the central engine radiation as a source of ionizing photons but neglect its contribution to the radiation force. Additionally, we account for the attenuation of the X-ray radiation by computing the X-ray optical depth in the radial direction assuming that only electron scattering contributes to the opacity. Our new simulations confirm the main result from our previous work: the disk atmosphere can 'shield' itself from external X-rays so that the local disk radiation can launch gas off the disk photosphere. We also find that the local disk force suffices to accelerate the disk wind to high velocities in the radial direction. This is true provided the wind does not change significantly the geometry of the disk radiation by continuum scattering and absorption processes; we discuss plausibility of this requirement. Synthetic profiles of a typical resonance ultraviolet line predicted by our models are consistent with observations of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs.

D. Proga; T. R. Kallman

2004-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

211

The Role of the Electrostatic Force in Spore Adhesion  

SciTech Connect

Electrostatic force is investigated as one of the components of the adhesion force between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores and planar surfaces. The surface potentials of a Bt spore and a mica surface are experimentally obtained using a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM)-scanning surface potential microscopy technique. On the basis of experimental information, the surface charge density of the spores is estimated at 0.03 {micro}C/cm{sup 2} at 20% relative humidity and decreases with increasing humidity. The Coulombic force is introduced for the spore-mica system (both charged, nonconductive surfaces), and an electrostatic image force is introduced to the spore-gold system because gold is electrically conductive. The Coulombic force for spore-mica is repulsive because the components are similarly charged, while the image force for the spore-gold system is attractive. The magnitude of both forces decreases with increasing humidity. The electrostatic forces are added to other force components, e.g., van der Waals and capillary forces, to obtain the adhesion force for each system. The adhesion forces measured by AFM are compared to the estimated values. It is shown that the electrostatic (Coulombic and image) forces play a significant role in the adhesion force between spores and planar surfaces.

Chung, Eunhyea [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lee, Ida [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Beta Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells...

213

RADIATION MONITORING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Monitoring for Radiation Protection of Workers" in ICRPNo. 9, in "Advances in Radiation Protection and Dosimetry inDosimetry f o r Stray Radiation Monitoring on the CERN S i t

Thomas, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

Bos, Adrie J. J. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands)

2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

215

Constraint and Restoring Force  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Long-lived sensor network applications must be able to self-repair and adapt to changing demands. We introduce a new approach for doing so: Constraint and Restoring Force. CRF is a physics-inspired framework for computing ...

Beal, Jacob

2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

216

Reduction-in-Force  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Reduction in force (RIF) is a set of regulations and procedures that are used to determine whether an employee keeps his or her present position, or whether the employee has a right to another...

217

Weak nuclear forces cause the strong nuclear force  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is then about ten to the power of 6 times stronger than the weak force between two lattice points.

E. L. Koschmieder

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

218

Definition: Forced Outage | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Forced Outage Forced Outage Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Forced Outage The removal from service availability of a generating unit, transmission line, or other facility for emergency reasons., The condition in which the equipment is unavailable due to unanticipated failure.[1] Related Terms transmission lines, transmission line References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An i LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. nline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Forced_Outage&oldid=480310" Categories: Definitions ISGAN Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties About us Disclaimers Energy blogs Linked Data

219

Elastic Wave Radiation from a Line Source of Finite Length  

SciTech Connect

Straightforward algebraic expressions describing the elastic wavefield produced by a line source of finite length are derived in circular cylindrical coordinates. The surrounding elastic medium is assumed to be both homogeneous and isotropic, anc[ the source stress distribution is considered axisymmetic. The time- and space-domain formulae are accurate at all distances and directions from the source; no fa-field or long-wavelength assumptions are adopted for the derivation. The mathematics yield a unified treatment of three different types of sources: an axial torque, an axial force, and a radial pressure. The torque source radiates only azirnuthally polarized shear waves, whereas force and pressure sources generate simultaneous compressional and shear radiation polarized in planes containing the line source. The formulae reduce to more familiar expressions in the two limiting cases where the length of the line source approaches zero and infinity. Far-field approximations to the exact equations indicate that waves radiated parallel to the line source axI.s are attenuated relative to those radiated normal to the axis. The attenuation is more severe for higher I?equencies and for lower wavespeeds. Hence, shear waves are affected more than compressional waves. This fi-equency- and directiondependent attenuation is characterized by an extremely simple mathematical formula, and is readily apparent in example synthetic seismograms.

Aldridge, D.F.

1998-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

220

Optical Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Optical Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Ionizing Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Ionizing Radiation Measurements. Fees for services are located directly below the technical contacts ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

222

Federal Smart Grid Task Force | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Federal Smart Federal Smart Grid Task Force Federal Smart Grid Task Force Task Force Background The Federal Smart Grid Task Force was established under Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) and includes experts from eleven Federal agencies. The Department of Energy is represented by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability which is the Task Force lead, as well as the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. Task Force Mission The mission of the Task Force is to ensure awareness, coordination and integration of the diverse activities of the Federal Government related to smart grid technologies, practices, and services. The Task Force will collaborate with DOE's Electricity Advisory Committee and other relevant

223

Work Force Restructuring Activities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Force Restructuring Activities Force Restructuring Activities December 10, 2008 Note: Current updates are in bold # Planned Site/Contractor HQ Approved Separations Status General * LM has finalized the compilation of contractor management team separation data for the end of FY07 actuals and end of FY08 and FY09 projections. LM has submitted to Congress the FY 2007 Annual Report on contractor work force restructuring activities. The report has been posted to the LM website. *LM conducted a DOE complex-wide data call to the Field and Operations offices for DOE Contractor Management teams to provide, by program, actual contractor separation data for the end of FY 2008 and projections for the end of FY 2009 and FY 2010. The data will be used to keep senior management informed of upcoming large WFR actions.

224

Einstein-Hopf drag, Doppler shift of thermal radiation and blackbody friction: A unifying perspective on an intriguing physical effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermal friction force acting on an atom moving relative to a thermal photon bath has recently been calculated on the basis of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The thermal fluctuations of the electromagnetic field give rise to a drag force on an atom provided one allows for dissipation of the field energy via spontaneous emission. The drag force exists if the atomic polarizability has a nonvanishing imaginary part. Here, we explore alternative derivations. The damping of the motion of a simple harmonic oscillator is described by radiative reaction theory (result of Einstein and Hopf), taking into account the known stochastic fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Describing the excitations of the atom as an ensemble of damped harmonic oscillators, we identify the previously found expressions as generalizations of the Einstein-Hopf result. In addition, we present a simple explanation for blackbody friction in terms of a Doppler shift of the thermal radiation in the inertial frame of the moving atom...

Lach, G; Jentschura, U D

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Radiation Physics Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Radiation Physics Portal. Radiation Physics Portal. ... more. >> see all Radiation Physics programs and projects ... ...

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

226

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from naturally occurring radioactive materials such as uranium, thorium, radon, and certain forms of potassium and carbon. The air we breathe contains radon, the food we eat contains uranium and thorium from the soil, and our bodies contain radioactive forms of potassium and carbon. Cosmic radiation from the sun also contributes to our natural radiation dose. We also receive radiation doses from man-made sources such as X-rays, nuclear medical procedures, power plants, smoke detectors and older television sets. Some people, such as nuclear plant operators, flight crews, and nuclear medicine staff may also receive an occupational radiation dose.

227

RADIATION COUNTER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

Goldsworthy, W.W.

1958-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Radiation Cataract  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation including patients undergoing diagnostic CT scans or radiotherapy, atomic bomb survivors, residents of radioactively contaminated buildings, victims of the...

229

Radiative Effects on Particle Acceleration in Electromagnetic Dominated Outflows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plasma outflows from gamma-ray bursts (GRB), pulsar winds, relativistic jets, and ultra-intense laser targets radiate high energy photons. However, radiation damping is ignored in conventional PIC simulations. In this letter, we study the radiation damping effect on particle acceleration via Poynting fluxes in two-and-half-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulation of electron-positron plasmas. Radiation damping force is self-consistently calculated for each particle and reduces the net acceleration force. The emitted radiation is peaked within a few degrees from the direction of Poynting flux and strongly linear-polarized.

Koichi Noguchi; Edison Liang; Kazumi Nishimura

2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

230

Force Modulator System  

SciTech Connect

Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better marry the die-specific Force Modulator technology with stamping presses in the form of a press cushion. This system would be designed to operate the binder ring for multiple parts, thus cutting the per-die cost of the technology. This study reports the results of technology field application. This project produced the following conclusions: (1) The Force Modulator system is capable of operating at very high tempos in the stamping environment; (2) The company can generate substantial, controlled holding tonnage (binder ring pressure) necessary to hold high strength steel parts for proper formation during draw operations; (3) A single system can be designed to operate with a family of parts, thus significantly reducing the per-die cost of a FM system; (4) High strength steel parts made with these systems appear to show significant quality improvements; (5) The amounts of steel required to make these parts is typically less than the amounts required with traditional blank-holding technologies; and (6) This technology will aid in the use of higher strength steels in auto and truck production, thus reducing weight and improving fuel efficiency.

Redmond Clark

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

231

ARMY SERVICE FORCES  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ARMY SERVICE FORCES ARMY SERVICE FORCES ' -, 1 MANHATTAN ENGINEER DISTRICT --t 4 IN "LPLI RC,' LR io EIDM CIS INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY DIVISION CHICAGO BRANCH OFFICE i ., -,* - P. 0. Box 6770-A I ' 1 .' CHICAGO 80. ILLINOIS /lvb 15 February 1945 Subject: shipment Security Survey at &Uinckrodt Chemical Works. MEMORANDUM to the Officer in Charge. 1. The Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, St. Louis, Missouri, was contacted by the undersigned on 16 November 1944, for the purpose of -king an investigation to determine security provided shipments of interest to the Manhattan Engineer District. The investigation in- cluded shipments of vital materials originating with the Mallinckrodt Company and those received by them. Particular attention has been given to the future production and shipment schedules of these materials.

232

Hydrologic implications of different large-scale meteorological model forcing datasets in mountainous regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Process-based hydrologic models require extensive meteorological forcing data, including data on precipitation, temperature, shortwave and longwave radiation, humidity, surface pressure and wind speed. Observations of precipitation and temperature ...

Naoki Mizukami; Martyn Clark; Andrew Slater; Levi Brekke; Marketa Elsner; Jeffrey Arnold; Subhrendu Gangopadhyay

233

Volcanic and Solar Forcing of the Tropical Pacific over the Past 1000 Years  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of El Niño to natural radiative forcing changes over the past 1000 yr is investigated based on numerical experiments employing the Zebiak–Cane model of the tropical Pacific coupled ocean–atmosphere system. Previously published ...

Michael E. Mann; Mark A. Cane; Stephen E. Zebiak; Amy Clement

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Nonlinear Aspects of the Climate Response to Greenhouse Gas and Aerosol Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a series of equilibrium experiments the climate response to present-day radiative forcings of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosol particles is calculated. The study was performed with a model system consisting of the ECHAM4 atmospheric ...

Johann Feichter; Erich Roeckner; Ulrike Lohmann; Beate Liepert

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Determining Longwave Forcing and Feedback Using Infrared Spectra and GNSS Radio Occultation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors investigate whether combining a data type derived from radio occultation (RO) with the infrared spectral data in an optimal detection method improves the quantification of longwave radiative forcing and feedback. Signals derived from ...

Yi Huang; Stephen S. Leroy; James G. Anderson

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Evidence of Decadal Climate Prediction Skill Resulting from Changes in Anthropogenic Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is argued that simulations of the twentieth century performed with coupled global climate models with specified historical changes in external radiative forcing can be interpreted as climate hindcasts. A simple Bayesian method for ...

Terry C. K. Lee; Francis W. Zwiers; Xuebin Zhang; Min Tsao

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Observed Relationships between Arctic Longwave Cloud Forcing and Cloud Parameters Using a Neural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A neural network technique is used to quantify relationships involved in cloud–radiation feedbacks based on observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) project. Sensitivities of longwave cloud forcing (CFL) to cloud parameters ...

Yonghua Chen; Filipe Aires; Jennifer A. Francis; James R. Miller

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2004-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

239

Miniaturized radiation chirper  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Microstructure of a Radiation Fog  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative humidity, temperature, droplet size distribution and transmittance of light at 632.8 nm were measured in a radiation fog. A new saturation hygrometer capable of measuring relative humidity between 95 and 105%, was used for the first ...

H. E. Gerber

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Five year report on the medical follow up of Marshallese receiving special medical care related to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation (January 1992--1996)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the 17th and final report of the Marshall Islands Medical Program as carried out by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The purpose of these publications has been to provide information on the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to radiation fallout in 1954. The medical program fulfills a commitment to disclose unique medical information relevant to public health. Details of the Bravo thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published. A 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association, which described the acute medical effects on the population that required special medical care, remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Marshallese participation in this Congressionally mandated program is voluntary. Throughout the 44 years of the program, each participating individual`s relevant medical findings, laboratory data, disease morbidity, and mortality have been published in the BNL reports in a manner preserving patient confidentiality. In each report, there has been an attempt to interpret these findings and to infer the role of radiation exposure in their development. An equally important aspect of the reports has been the presentation of data that allows for analyses of the medical consequences of the Marshallese exposure.

Vaswani, A.N.; Howard, J.E.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Radiation and photochemistry section  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The highlights of this past year in the Radiation and Photochemistry Section at Argonne include: (1) picosecond optical studies of radical cations and excited states produced in hydrocarbon radiolysis provided the first kinetic measurements of ion transformation and production of triplet and singlet excited states by ion recombination. (2) studies of radical cations of alkyl-substituted amines and sulfides provided insights into ion-molecule reactions of radical cations in the condensed phase. (3) studies of the behavior of strained alkane radical cations, such as cubane {sup +}{center dot}, revealed new rearrangements and remarkable, medium-dependent differences in their structures. (4) H{center dot}atom reactions yielding e{sub aq}{sup {minus}} provided the first reliable measurements of hydrated-electron enthalpy and entropy and forced the revision of some previous thinking about the driving force in {sub aq}{sup {minus}} reactions.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Forces on laboratory model dredge cutterhead  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dredge cutting forces produced by the movement of the cutterhead through the sediment have been measured with the laboratory dredge carriage located at the Haynes Coastal Engineering Laboratory. The sediment bed that was used for the dredging test was considered to be relatively smooth and the sediment used was sand with a d50=0.27 mm. Forces on the dredge carriage were measured using five 13.3 kN (3000 lb) one directional load cells placed on the dredge ladder in various places so the transmitted cutting forces could be obtained. The objectives for this study are to determine the vertical, horizontal, and axial forces that are produced by the cutterhead while testing. So, to find these cutter forces, a static analysis was performed on the carriage by applying static loads to the cutterhead in the vertical, horizontal, and axial directions, and for each load that was applied, readings were recorded for all five of the load cells. Then, static equilibrium equations were developed for the dredge carriage ladder to determine loads in the five load cells. Also, equilibrium equations can be applied to a dredging test to find the cutterhead forces by taking the measured data from the five load cells and applying the known forces to the equations, and the cutterhead forces can be determined. These static equilibrium equations have been confirmed by using a program called SolidWorks, which is modeling software that can be used to do static finite element analysis of structural systems to determine stresses, displacement, and pin and bolt forces. Data that were gathered from the experimental procedure and the theoretical calculations show that the force on the dredge cutterhead can be determined. However, the results from the static equilibrium calculations and the results from the SolidWorks program were compared to the experiment procedure results, and from the comparison the procedure results show irregularities when a force of approximately 0.889 kN (200 lb) or above is applied to the cutterhead in a north, south, west, or east orientation. The SolidWorks program was used to determine the results for displacements of the dredge carriage ladder system, which showed that large displacements were occurring at the location of the cutterhead, and when the cutterhead displaces it means that the carriage ladder is also moving, which causes false readings in the five load cells. From this analysis it was determined that a sixth force transducer was needed to produce more resistance on the ladder; and the cell #1 location needed to be redesigned to make the ladder system as rigid as possible and able to produce good testing results. The SolidWorks program was used to determine the best location where the sixth force transducer would give the best results, and this location was determined to be on the lower south-west corner oriented in the direction east to west. The static equilibrium equations were rewritten to include the new redesigned cell #1 location and the new location of the sixth load cell. From the new system of equations, forces on the cutterhead can be determined for future dredging studies conducted with the dredge carriage. Finally, the forces on the laboratory cuttersuction dredge model cutterhead were scaled up to the prototype 61 cm (24 in) cuttersuction dredge. These scaled up cutting forces on the dredge cutterhead can be utilized in the design of the swing winches, swing cable size, ladder supports, and ladder.

Young, Dustin Ray

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

DISCRETE-FREQUENCY AND BROADBAND NOISE RADIATION FROM DIESEL ENGINE COOLING FANS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This effort focuses on measuring and predicting the discrete-frequency and broadband noise radiated by diesel engine cooling fans. Unsteady forces developed by the interaction of… (more)

Kim, Geon-Seok

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Feedbacks between Eddy Heat Fluxes and Radiative Heating in an Energy-Balance Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of midlatitude temperature structure to changes in radiative forcing is examined in an analytical energy-balance model that includes parameterized eddy heat fluxes and linear radiative heating. The characteristics of heat-...

Lee E. Branscome; Enda O'Brien

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Environment/Health/Safety (EHS): Radiation Protection Group: Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Who To Call Who To Call Rad Training Dosimetry Telemetry Laser Safety Radiation Safety Committee Pub-3000 Ch. 21 Forms RPG Procedures RPG Internal Radiation Safety Committee Charter Purpose The Berkeley Lab Radiation Safety Committee (RSC) is appointed by, and reports to, the Laboratory Director and is responsible for advising LBNL Management on all matters related to occupational and environmental radiation safety. The Radiation Safety Committee reviews and recommends approval of radiation safety policies and guides the Environment, Health and Safety Division and radiation user divisions in carrying out these programs. The scope of its actions will generally be in issues of broad institutional concern and impact, or areas of potential high consequence either in terms of safety or institutional needs.

247

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Online Literature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Online Literature Online Literature Journals, Books and other Publications Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety Radioactive Waste and Radioecology "Insight" Magazine Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) News: Aiming at an information center on low dose radiation research Health Physics International Journal of Radiation Biology Iranian Journal of Radiation Research Journal of Radiological Protection National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Radiation Research U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge Reports Animal Cancer Tests and Human Cancer Risk Assessment: A Broad Perspective Effects of Ionizing Radiation: Atomic Bomb Survivors and Their Children (1945-1995) Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR

248

Critical Casimir forces in cellular membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent experiments suggest that membranes of living cells are tuned close to a miscibility critical point in the 2D Ising universality class. We propose that one role for this proximity to criticality in live cells is to provide a conduit for relatively long-ranged critical Casimir forces. Using techniques from conformal field theory we calculate potentials of mean force between membrane bound inclusions mediated by their local interactions with the composition order parameter. We verify these calculations using Monte-Carlo where we also compare critical and off-critical results. Our findings suggest that membrane bound proteins experience weak yet long range forces mediated by critical composition fluctuations in the plasma membranes of living cells.

Benjamin B. Machta; Sarah L. Veatch; James P. Sethna

2012-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

249

On the nature of gravitational forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper I show how the statistics of the gravitational field is changed when the system is characterized by a non-uniform distribution of particles. I show how the distribution functions W(dF/dt) giving the joint probability that a test particle is subject to a force F and an associated rate of change of F given by dF/dt, are modified by inhomogeneity. Then I calculate the first moment of dF/dt to study the effects of inhomogenity on dynamical friction. Finally I test, by N-Body simulations, that the theoretical W(F) and dF/dt describes correctly the experimental data and I find that the stochastic force distribution obtained for the evolved system is in good agreement with theory. Moreover, I find that in an inhomogeneous background the friction force is actually enhanced relative to the homogeneous case.

A. Del Popolo

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

250

On the nature of gravitational forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper I show how the statistics of the gravitational field is changed when the system is characterized by a non-uniform distribution of particles. I show how the distribution functions W(dF/dt) giving the joint probability that a test particle is subject to a force F and an associated rate of change of F given by dF/dt, are modified by inhomogeneity. Then I calculate the first moment of dF/dt to study the effects of inhomogenity on dynamical friction. Finally I test, by N-Body simulations, that the theoretical W(F) and dF/dt describes correctly the experimental data and I find that the stochastic force distribution obtained for the evolved system is in good agreement with theory. Moreover, I find that in an inhomogeneous background the friction force is actually enhanced relative to the homogeneous case.

Del Popolo, A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Radiation Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Information << Timeline >> Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player July 31, 1942 The Army Corp of Engineers leases...

252

Relativistic Constraints on the Structure of Fundamental Forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is proved that Special Relativity imposes constraints on the structure of fundamental forces. The orthogonality of the 4-force exerted on an elementary particle and its 4-velocity is discussed. The significance of the energy-momentum tensor associated with the field is analyzed. Relying on these issues, it is proved that the Lorentz force is consistent with all constraints whereas a force derived from a scalar potential does not satisfy all requirements. This analysis explains a general discussion of Goldstein, Poole and Safko.

E. Comay

2005-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

253

MODELING RADIATIVE FORCING BY AEROSOLS HOW GOOD IS GOOD ENOUGH?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 2 3 Radiativeforcing(Wattspersquaremetre) CoolingWarming High Medium Medium Low Very Low Very Low Understanding -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Radiativeforcing(Wattspersquaremetre) CoolingWarming High Medium Medium Low Very Low(Wattspersquaremetre) CoolingWarming High Medium Medium Low Very Low Very Low Very Low Very Low Very Low Very Low CO2 Very Low

Schwartz, Stephen E.

254

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heterogeneous ice nucleation in mixed-phase clouds, Environ.interactions with mixed-phase and ice clouds can be comparedice nuclei for the indirect aerosol effect on stratiform mixed-phase

Lohmann, Ulrike

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: mechanisms and seasonal dependence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), a Babcock Power Inc. company, has developed a new, innovative, high-efficiency NOX reduction technology into a single unit and provides the maximum NOX reduction and heat recovery practical. The paper will describe emissions. A new system for the reduction of NOX emissions to levels hereby unheard of for US WTE boilers

Stevenson, David

256

Predicting Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing over Mexico using...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Computationally expensive biomass burning mobile area point Two Primary Components Use Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model as the foundation of computational framework...

257

Characteristics of Cloud Radiation Forcing over East China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations indicate that the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) exhibits distinctive characteristics of large cloud amounts with associated heavy and persistent rainfall, although short breaks for clear sky usually occur. Consequently, the ...

Wei-Chyung Wang; Wei Gong; Wen-Shung Kau; Cheng-Ta Chen; Huang-Hsiung Hsu; Chia-Hsiu Tu

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Simultaneously Constraining Climate Sensitivity and Aerosol Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energy balance climate model with latitudinal, surface–air, and land–sea resolution is coupled to a two-dimensional (latitude–depth) ocean model and used to simulate changes in surface and surface air temperature since 1765. The climate model ...

L. D. Danny Harvey; Robert K. Kaufmann

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Tailored Force Fields for Space-Based Construction Narayanan M. Komerath, Sameh S. Wanis, Joseph Czechowski  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Such a project draws upon several technologies such as lunar-based solar power plants, in situ resource. Standing- wave fields offer important advantages - the radiation force in a standing wave field can be 3/electromagnetic and acoustic radiation is used to extend a microgravity flight result from acoustic standing wave fields

260

Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Force Established Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established November 03, 2003 Washington, DC Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established NNSA's Administrator...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Topography and Radiation Exchange of a Mountainous Watershed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report deals with the radiation exchange of a complex terrain. A relatively simple network for computing topographic parameters global radiation, and net radiation of a mountainous terrain was developed and applied to a forested Appalachian ...

Hailiang Fu; Stanislaw J. Tajchman; James N. Kochenderfer

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Radiative QCD corrections a personal outlook  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe several problems related to the studies of the effects of radiative QCD corrections in the phenomenological and theoretical considerations thus summarizing the work of the QCD part of the Symposium on "Radiative Corrections: Status and Outlook".

Kataev, A L

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Radiative QCD Corrections: A Personal Outlook  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe several problems related to the studies of the effects of radiative QCD corrections in the phenomenological and theoretical considerations thus summarizing the work of the QCD part of the Symposium on "Radiative Corrections: Status and Outlook".

Andrei L. Kataev

1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

264

TEXT Pro Force Training  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basic Protective Basic Protective Force Training Program DOE/IG-0641 March 2004 * None of the 10 sites included instruction in rappelling even though it was part of the special response team core curriculum and continued to be offered by the Nonprolif- eration and National Security Institute; * Only one site conducted basic training on use of a shotgun, despite the fact that a num- ber of sites used the weapon for breaching exercises and other purposes; and, * Seven of the sites modified prescribed training techniques by reducing the intensity or delivery method for skills that some security experts characterized as critical, such as handcuffing, hand-to- hand combat, and vehicle assaults. We found that the Department's facilities were not required to report departures from the core

265

Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with both a source of exciting radiation, such as tritium, and a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce radiation of a second energy.

Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with both a source of exciting radiation, such as tritium, and a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce radiation of a second energy. 4 figs.

Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.; Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.

1992-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

267

Definition of Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of...

268

How to Detect Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How...

269

Related Federal Climate Efforts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Related Federal Climate Efforts Print E-mail Related Federal Climate Efforts Print E-mail Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage The Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a group of technologies for capturing, compressing, transporting and permanently storing power plant and industrial source emissions of carbon dioxide. Rapid development and deployment of clean coal technologies, particularly CCS, will help position the United States as a leader in the global clean energy race. Climate Change Adaptation Task Force The Task Force's work has been guided by a strategic vision of a resilient, healthy, and prosperous Nation in the face of a changing climate. To achieve this vision, the Task Force identified a set of guiding principles that public and private decision-makers should consider in designing and implementing adaptation strategies.

270

Hemispheric Insolation Forcing of the Indian Ocean and Asian Monsoon: Local versus Remote Impacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Insolation forcing related to the earth’s orbital parameters is known to play an important role in regulating variations of the South Asian monsoon on geological time scales. The influence of insolation forcing on the Indian Ocean and Asian ...

Xiaodong Liu; Zhengyu Liu; John E. Kutzbach; Steven C. Clemens; Warren L. Prell

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Determination of Earths transient and equilibrium climate sensitivities from observations over the twentieth century: Strong dependence on assumed forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relations among observed changes in global mean surface temperature, ocean heat content, ocean heating rate, and calculated radiative forcing, all as a function of time over the twentieth century, that are based on a two-compartment energy balance model, are used to determine key properties of Earth's climate system. The increase in heat content of the world ocean, obtained as the average of several recent compilations, is found to be linearly related to the increase in global temperature over the period 1965-2009; the slope, augmented to account for additional heat sinks, which is an effective heat capacity of the climate system, is 21.8 {+-} 2.1 W year m{sup -2} K{sup -1} (one sigma), equivalent to the heat capacity of 170 m of seawater (for the entire planet) or 240 m for the world ocean. The rate of planetary heat uptake, determined from the time derivative of ocean heat content, is found to be proportional to the increase in global temperature relative to the beginning of the twentieth century with proportionality coefficient 1.05 {+-} 0.06 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}. Transient and equilibrium climate sensitivities were evaluated for six published data sets of forcing mainly by incremental greenhouse gases and aerosols over the twentieth century as calculated by radiation transfer models; these forcings ranged from 1.1 to 2.1 W m{sup -2}, spanning much of the range encompassed by the 2007 assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For five of the six forcing data sets, a rather robust linear proportionality obtains between the observed increase in global temperature and the forcing, allowing transient sensitivity to be determined as the slope. Equilibrium sensitivities determined by two methods that account for the rate of planetary heat uptake range from 0.31 {+-} 0.02 to 1.32 {+-} 0.31 K (W m{sup -2}){sup -1} (CO{sub 2} doubling temperature 1.16 {+-} 0.09-4.9 {+-} 1.2 K), more than spanning the IPCC estimated 'likely' uncertainty range, and strongly anticorrelated with the forcing used to determine the sensitivities. Transient sensitivities, relevant to climate change on the multidecadal time scale, are considerably lower, 0.23 {+-} 0.01 to 0.51 {+-} 0.04 K (W m{sup -2}){sup -1}. The time constant characterizing the response of the upper ocean compartment of the climate system to perturbations is estimated as about 5 years, in broad agreement with other recent estimates, and much shorter than the time constant for thermal equilibration of the deep ocean, about 500 years.

Schwartz S. E.

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

272

Self-force on extreme mass ratio inspirals via curved spacetime effective field theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this series we construct an effective field theory (EFT) in curved spacetime to study gravitational radiation and backreaction effects. We begin in this paper with a derivation of the self-force on a compact object moving in the background spacetime of a supermassive black hole. The EFT approach utilizes the disparity between two length scales, which in this problem are the size of the compact object and the radius of curvature of the background spacetime, to treat the orbital dynamics of the compact object, described as an effective point particle, separately from its tidal deformations. Ultraviolet divergences are regularized using Hadamard's {\\it partie finie} to isolate the non-local finite part from the quasi-local divergent part. The latter is constructed from a momentum space representation for the graviton retarded propagator and is evaluated using dimensional regularization in which only logarithmic divergences are relevant for renormalizing the parameters of the theory. As a first important application of this framework we explicitly derive the first order self-force given by Mino, Sasaki, Tanaka, Quinn and Wald. Going beyond the point particle approximation, to account for the finite size of the object, we demonstrate that for extreme mass ratio inspirals the motion of a compact object is affected by tidally induced moments at $O(\\epsilon^4)$, in the form of an Effacement Principle. The relatively large radius-to-mass ratio of a white dwarf star allows for these effects to be enhanced until the white dwarf becomes tidally disrupted, a potentially $O(\\epsilon^2)$ process, or plunges into the supermassive black hole. This work provides a new foundation for further exploration of higher order self force corrections, gravitational radiation and spinning compact objects.

Chad R. Galley; B. L. Hu

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

273

Potential contributions of noncontact atomic force microscopy for the future Casimir force measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface electric noise, i.e., the non-uniform distribution of charges and potentials on a surface, poses a great experimental challenge in modern precision force measurements. Such a challenge is encountered in a number of different experimental circumstances. The scientists employing atomic force microscopy (AFM) have long focused their efforts to understand the surface-related noise issues via variants of AFM techniques, such as Kelvin probe force microscopy or electric force microscopy. Recently, the physicists investigating quantum vacuum fluctuation phenomena between two closely-spaced objects have also begun to collect experimental evidence indicating a presence of surface effects neglected in their previous analyses. It now appears that the two seemingly disparate science communities are encountering effects rooted in the same surface phenomena. In this report, we suggest specific experimental tasks to be performed in the near future that are crucial not only for fostering needed collaborations between the two communities, but also for providing valuable data on the surface effects in order to draw the most realistic conclusion about the actual contribution of the Casimir force (or van der Waals force) between a pair of real materials.

W. J. Kim; U. D. Schwarz

2010-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

274

Climate Field Reconstruction under Stationary and Nonstationary Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fidelity of climate reconstructions employing covariance-based calibration techniques is tested with varying levels of sparseness of available data during intervals of relatively constant (stationary) and increasing (nonstationary) forcing. ...

S. Rutherford; M. E. Mann; T. L. Delworth; R. J. Stouffer

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Protective Force Firearms Qualification Courses  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PROTECTIVE FORCE PROTECTIVE FORCE FIREARMS QUALIFICATION COURSES U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Health, Safety and Security AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY: http://www.hss.energy.gov Office of Health, Safety and Security Protective Force Firearms Qualification Courses July 2011 i TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION A - APPROVED FIREARMS QUALIFICATION COURSES .......................... I-1 CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION ................................................................................... I-1 1. Scope .................................................................................................................. I-1 2. Content ............................................................................................................... I-1

276

Virtual Gamma Ray Radiation Sources through Neutron Radiative Capture  

SciTech Connect

The countrate response of a gamma spectrometry system from a neutron radiation source behind a plane of moderating material doped with a nuclide of a large radiative neutron capture cross-section exhibits a countrate response analogous to a gamma radiation source at the same position from the detector. Using a planar, surface area of the neutron moderating material exposed to the neutron radiation produces a larger area under the prompt gamma ray peak in the detector than a smaller area of dimensions relative to the active volume of the gamma detection system.

Scott Wilde, Raymond Keegan

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Friction and Adhesion Forces of Bacillus thuringiensis Spores on Planar Surfaces in Atmospheric Systems  

SciTech Connect

The kinetic friction force and the adhesion force of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on planar surfaces in atmospheric systems were studied using atomic force microscopy. The influence of relative humidity (RH) on these forces varied for different surface properties including hydrophobicity, roughness, and surface charge. The friction force of the spore was greater on a rougher surface than on mica, which is atomically flat. As RH increases, the friction force of the spores decreases on mica whereas it increases on rough surfaces. The influence of RH on the interaction forces between hydrophobic surfaces is not as strong as for hydrophilic surfaces. The friction force of the spore is linear to the sum of the adhesion force and normal load on the hydrophobic surface. The poorly defined surface structure of the spore and the adsorption of contaminants from the surrounding atmosphere are believed to cause a discrepancy between the calculated and measured adhesion forces.

Kweon, Hyojin [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

EPRI Transformer Task Force Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Transformer Task Force held a meeting on December 4, 2007, in San Antonio, Texas. This technical update contains the proceedings of the meeting.

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

279

EPRI Transformer Task Force Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains the proceedings from the EPRI Transformers Task Force, which was held in Montreal on October 26 and 27, 2006.

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

280

Physics Out Loud - Electromagnetic Force  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Detector Previous Video (Detector) Physics Out Loud Main Index Next Video (Electron Scattering) Electron Scattering Electromagnetic Force Cynthia Keppel, a nuclear physicist,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Army Energy Initiatives Task Force  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers the Army Energy Initiatives Task Force.

282

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Radiatively Driven Interactions between Stratocumulus and Synoptic Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quasigeostrophic disturbances on a midlatitude ?-plane channel forced by radiative heating perturbations due to synoptic-scale variations of low-level stratiform cloud are considered. The longitudinal phase of the cloud is linked to that of the ...

John H. E. Clark

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

The Contribution of Radiative Feedbacks to Orbitally Driven Climate Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative feedbacks influence Earth's climate response to orbital forcing, amplifying some aspects of the response while damping others. To better understand this relationship, the GFDL Climate Model, version 2.1 (CM2.1), is used to perform ...

Michael P. Erb; Anthony J. Broccoli; Amy C. Clement

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Does entropic force always imply the Newtonian force law?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the entropic force by introducing a bound between entropy and area of $S \\le A^{3/4}$ which was derived by imposing the non-gravitational collapse condition. In this case, applying a recent argument of Verlinde to this system does not lead to the Newtonian force law.

Myung, Yun Soo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

RADIATION DETECTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

291

NIST Radiation thermometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation thermometry. Summary: ... Description: Radiation thermometers are calibrated using a range of variable-temperature blackbodies. ...

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

292

NIST Optical Radiation Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical Radiation Group. Welcome. The Optical Radiation Group maintains, improves, and disseminates the national scales ...

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

293

Galileon forces in the Solar System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the challenging problem of obtaining an analytic understanding of realistic astrophysical dynamics in the presence of a Vainshtein screened fifth force arising from infrared modifications of General Relativity. In particular, we attempt to solve -- within the most general flat spacetime galileon model -- the scalar force law between well separated bodies located well within the Vainshtein radius of the Sun. To this end, we derive the exact static Green's function of the galileon wave equation linearized about the background field generated by the Sun, for the minimal cubic and maximally quartic galileon theories, and then introduce a method to compute the general leading order force law perturbatively away from these limits. We also show that the same nonlinearities which produce the Vainshtein screening effect present obstacles to an analytic calculation of the galileon forces between closely bound systems within the solar system, such as that of the Earth and Moon. Within the test mass approximation, we deduce that a large enough quartic galileon interaction would suppress the effect on planetary perihelion precession below the level detectable by even the next-generation experiments.

Melinda Andrews; Yi-Zen Chu; Mark Trodden

2013-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

294

Galileon Forces in the Solar System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the challenging problem of obtaining an analytic understanding of realistic astrophysical dynamics in the presence of a Vainshtein screened fifth force arising from infrared modifications of General Relativity. In particular, we attempt to solve -- within the most general flat spacetime galileon model -- the scalar force law between well separated bodies located well within the Vainshtein radius of the Sun. To this end, we derive the exact static Green's function of the galileon wave equation linearized about the background field generated by the Sun, for the minimal cubic and maximally quartic galileon theories, and then introduce a method to compute the general leading order force law perturbatively away from these limits. We also show that the same nonlinearities which produce the Vainshtein screening effect present obstacles to an analytic calculation of the galileon forces between closely bound systems within the solar system, such as that of the Earth and Moon. Within the test mass approximation, we deduce that a large enough quartic galileon interaction would suppress the effect on planetary perihelion precession below the level detectable by even the next-generation experiments.

Melinda Andrews; Yi-Zen Chu; Mark Trodden

2013-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

295

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 Ken Gray P.E. HQ AFCESA /CENR Air Force Renewable Energy Programs April, 2011 FUPWG "Make Energy a Consideration in All We Do" I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Topics  Air Force Energy Use  Air Force Facility Energy Center  Current RE Generation  Project Development System  Programmed RE Generation FY11-13  Goal Achievement 2 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Air Force 2010 Energy Use The Air Force spent approximately $8.2 billion for energy in 2010; an increase of 22% from 2009 Energy Cost and Consumption Trends Energy Cost Breakdown Aviation 79% Facilities 17% 3 Aviation 84% Facilities 12% Vehicles & Equipment

296

Aerosol Radiative Impact on Spectral Solar Flux at the Surface, Derived from Principal-Plane Sky Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate measurements of the spectral solar flux reaching the surface in cloud-free conditions are required to determine the aerosol radiative impact and to test aerosol models that are used to calculate radiative forcing of climate. Spectral ...

Y. J. Kaufman; D. Tanré; B. N. Holben; S. Mattoo; L. A. Remer; T. F. Eck; J. Vaughan; Bernadette Chatenet

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Comparison of Spectrally Resolved Outgoing Longwave Radiation over the Tropical Pacific between 1970 and 2003 Using IRIS, IMG, and AIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observation of changes in the earth’s spectrally resolved outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) provides a direct method of determining changes in the radiative forcing of the climate system. An earlier study showed that satellite-observed ...

J. A. Griggs; J. E. Harries

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Bottke et al.: Yarkovsky Effect and Asteroid Evolution 395 The Effect of Yarkovsky Thermal Forces on the Dynamical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Miroslav Broz Charles University, Prague The Yarkovsky effect is a thermal radiation force that causes states, shapes, and internal structures of the sur- viving bodies. The largest impact events are believed with short cosmic-ray- exposure (CR

Bottke, William F.

299

Posters Radiation Impacts on Global Climate Models F. Baer, N. Arsky, and K. Rocque  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Posters Radiation Impacts on Global Climate Models F. Baer, N. Arsky, and K. Rocque University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Climate Prediction and Radiative Heating Climate models are driven by forcing, and these forces are seen primarily by the thermal field in general circulation models (GCMs). The major forces that affect the thermal field are longwave radiative (LWR) heating, shortwave radiative (SWR) heating, and convection (cumulus, etc.). These forcing effects are cycled through the thermal field to the motion field by nonlinear transfer. The dependent variables-in particular, temperature (T), moisture (Q) and especially clouds-evolve in time in a model and determine the subsequent forcing. If the dependent variables are not accurately calculated in space and time, the forcing

300

The Blackbody Radiation Spectrum Follows from Zero-Point Radiation and the Structure of Relativistic Spacetime in Classical Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The analysis of this article is entirely within classical physics. Any attempt to describe nature within classical physics requires the presence of Lorentz-invariant classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation so as to account for the Casimir forces between parallel conducting plates at low temperatures. Furthermore, conformal symmetry carries solutions of Maxwell's equations into solutions. In an inertial frame, conformal symmetry leaves zero-point radiation invariant and does not connect it to non-zero-temperature; time-dilating conformal transformations carry the Lorentz-invariant zero-point radiation spectrum into zero-point radiation and carry the thermal radiation spectrum at non-zero temperature into thermal radiation at a different non-zero-temperature. However, in a non-inertial frame, a time-dilating conformal transformation carries classical zero-point radiation into thermal radiation at a finite non-zero-temperature. By taking the no-acceleration limit, one can obtain the Planck radiation spect...

Boyer, Timothy H

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

(Theory of relative biological effectiveness)  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on relative biological effectiveness, in the following areas: radial distribution of dose about the path of an energetic heavy ion; the response of E. Coli mutants to ionizing radiations; the application of a fragmentation model to to the calculation of cell survival and mutation with heavy ion beams; biological radiation effects from gamma radiation and heavy ion beams on organisms; cancer induction in the Harderian Gland by HZE particles; and effects of low dose radiations. (CBS)

Katz, R.

1992-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Hybrid Anode for Semiconductor Radiation Detectors - Energy ...  

The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the ...

303

Evolution of the N = 28 shell closure: a test bench for nuclear forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evolution of the N = 28 shell closure: a test bench for nuclear forces O. Sorlin1 and M.-G. Porquet;The N = 28 shell closure: a test bench for nuclear forces 2 reach a value of 4.8 MeV. This effect has and 90). More generally, questions related to the evolution of nuclear forces towards the drip

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

304

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Jones, Scott C. (Pullman, WA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

306

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

307

Radiation receiver  

SciTech Connect

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Predicting Radiation Pneumonitis After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Patients Previously Treated With Conventional Thoracic Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) to the lung in patients who had previously undergone conventional thoracic radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients who had previously received conventionally fractionated radiation therapy to the thorax were treated with SABR (50 Gy in 4 fractions) for recurrent disease or secondary parenchymal lung cancer (T <4 cm, N0, M0, or Mx). Severe (grade {>=}3) RP and potential predictive factors were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. A scoring system was established to predict the risk of RP. Results: At a median follow-up time of 16 months after SABR (range, 4-56 months), 15 patients had severe RP (14 [18.9%] grade 3 and 1 [1.4%] grade 5) and 1 patient (1.4%) had a local recurrence. In univariate analyses, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) before SABR, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and previous planning target volume (PTV) location were associated with the incidence of severe RP. The V{sub 10} and mean lung dose (MLD) of the previous plan and the V{sub 10}-V{sub 40} and MLD of the composite plan were also related to RP. Multivariate analysis revealed that ECOG PS scores of 2-3 before SABR (P=.009), FEV1 {<=}65% before SABR (P=.012), V{sub 20} {>=}30% of the composite plan (P=.021), and an initial PTV in the bilateral mediastinum (P=.025) were all associated with RP. Conclusions: We found that severe RP was relatively common, occurring in 20.8% of patients, and could be predicted by an ECOG PS score of 2-3, an FEV1 {<=}65%, a previous PTV spanning the bilateral mediastinum, and V{sub 20} {>=}30% on composite (previous RT+SABR) plans. Prospective studies are needed to validate these predictors and the scoring system on which they are based.

Liu Hui; Zhang Xu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy Y. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Swisher, Stephen G. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y., E-mail: jychang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

RADIATION SOURCES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel long-lived source of gamma radiation especially suitable for calibration purposes is described. The source of gamma radiation is denoted mock iodine131, which comprises a naixture of barium-133 and cesium-137. The barium and cesium are present in a barium-cesium ratio of approximately 5.7/1 to 14/1, uniformly dispersed in an ion exchange resin and a filter surrounding the resin comprised of a material of atomic number below approximately 51, and substantially 0.7 to 0.9 millimeter thick.

Brucer, M.H.

1958-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

River-Forced Estuarine Plumes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development, maintenance, and dissipation of river-forced estuarine plumes with and without seaward sloping bottom are studied by use of a three-dimensional, primitive-equation model. Inside the estuary, discussion is focused on how the ...

Shenn-Yu Chao

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Nuclear Forces and Chiral Symmetry  

SciTech Connect

We review the main achievements of the research program for the study of nuclear forces in the framework of chiral symmetry and discuss some problems which are still open.

Renato Higa; Manoel Robilotta; Carlos Antonio da Rocha

2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

312

Single-molecule force spectroscopy: Practical limitations beyond Bell's model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments, as well as a number of other physical systems, are governed by thermally activated transitions out of a metastable state under the action of a steadily increasing external force. The main observable in such experiments is the distribution of the forces, at which the escape events occur. The challenge in interpreting the experimental data is to relate them to the microscopic system properties. We work out a maximum likelihood approach and show that it is the optimal method to tackle this problem. When fitting actual experimental data it is unavoidable to assume some functional form for the force-dependent escape rate. We consider a quite general and common such functional form and demonstrate by means of data from a realistic computer experiment that the maximum number of fit parameters that can be determined reliably is three. They are related to the force-free escape rate and the position and height of the activation barrier. Furthermore, the results for the first two of these fit parameters show little dependence on the assumption about the manner in which the barrier decreases with the applied force, while the last one, the barrier height in the absence of force, depends strongly on this assumption.

Sebastian Getfert; Mykhaylo Evstigneev; Peter Reimann

2008-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

313

Gregory H. Friedman: Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces Committee  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Strategic Forces Strategic Forces Committee on Armed Services U.S. House of Representatives Gregory H. Friedman: Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces Committee on Armed Services U.S. House of Representatives February 28, 2013 Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces Committee on Armed Services U.S. House of Representatives Statement of Gregory H. Friedman, Inspector General, Department of Energy Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee, I am pleased to be here at your request to testify on actions of the Office of Inspector General relating to the July 2012 security breach at the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). I will also discuss related aspects of our work concerning contractor governance and physical security at Department of Energy and NNSA facilities.

314

Is Gravity an Entropic Force?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde's example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics system. Furthermore, we show that the entropy increase of the screen is not caused by its statistical tendency to increase entropy as required by the existence of entropic force, but in fact caused by gravity. Therefore, Verlinde's argument for the entropic origin of gravity is problematic. In addition, we argue that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime, together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum theory, may imply the fundamental existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime. This may provide a further support for the conclusion that gravity is not an entropic force.

Shan Gao

2010-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

315

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

316

Radiation Tolerant Metallic Multilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strategies that can alleviate radiation damage may assist the design of radiation tolerant materials. We will summarize our recent studies on radiation damage in ...

317

NEW SOURCES OF RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project Report No. 75/07.IBL 79M0733 Fig. 20. Radiation emission pattern by electronsWinick, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Fig. 21.

Schimmerling, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Radiation-induced angiosarcoma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1a Figure 1b Figure 1. Radiation-induced angiosarcoma in afollowing completion of radiation therapy. Figure 2a Figurecell histiocytosis after radiation for breast carcinoma: can

Anzalone, C Lane; Cohen, Philip R; Diwan, Abdul H; Prieto, Victor G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Casimir-Lifshitz force out of thermal equilibrium and heat transfer between arbitrary bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the Casimir-Lifshitz force and the radiative heat transfer occurring between two arbitrary bodies, each one held at a given temperature, surrounded by environmental radiation at a third temperature. The system, in stationary configuration out of thermal equilibrium, is characterized by a force and a heat transfer depending on the three temperatures, and explicitly expressed in terms of the scattering operators of each body. We find a closed-form analytic expression valid for bodies of any geometry and dielectric properties. As an example, the force between two parallel slabs of finite thickness is calculated, showing the importance of the environmental temperature as well as the occurrence of a repulsive interaction. An analytic expression is also provided for the force acting on an atom in front of a slab. Our predictions can be relevant for experimental and technological purposes.

Riccardo Messina; Mauro Antezza

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

320

Radiation properties of cavity Cerenkov radiation  

SciTech Connect

Cerenkov radiation from cavities has been analyzed by quantum electrodynamic theory. Analytical expressions of basic radiation properties such as the Einstein's A and B coefficients are derived and shown to be directly modified by the cavities. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the coherent radiation from the Cerenkov radiation devices is due to super radiance of spontaneous emission instead of stimulated emission. Coherent and incoherent radiations are analyzed in the THz radiation range.

Gao Ju; Shen Fang [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Task Force Approach | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Task Force Approach Task Force Approach Task Force Approach Task Force Approach Results of the ARI Task Force: The purpose of the ARI Task Force is to 1) identify, prioritize, and resolve issues to enable sites and programs to implement revitalization efforts more effectively and 2) to facilitate programmatic incorporation of revitalization concepts into DOE's programmatic business environments. The Task Force must do this through coordinating and facilitating communication and connections, sharing lessons learned, broadening the general knowledge base, facilitating, analyzing problems, developing implementable solutions, and considering and incorporating broader perspectives and knowledge. The success of the Task Force can be evaluated by impacts to the Department upon its completion. These impacts

322

Attribution of climate forcing to economic sectors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Attribution of climate forcing to economic sectors Title Attribution of climate forcing to economic sectors Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Unger,...

323

Fast Computation of Optimal Contact Forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

requirement, i.e., the ability of the contact forces to resist a specified external .... does not exceed the friction coefficient times the normal force. (In particular, it ...

324

Web Force-Field (WebFF)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Web Force-Field (WebFF). Summary: ... WebFF - A web hosted, extensible force field repository with integrated assignment engine. Description: ...

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

325

Integration of contractile forces during tissue invagination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Contractile forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton within individual cells collectively generate tissue-level force during epithelial morphogenesis. During Drosophila mesoderm invagination, pulsed actomyosin ...

Martin, Adam C.

326

Radiation Management Act (Oklahoma) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiation Management Act (Oklahoma) Radiation Management Act (Oklahoma) Radiation Management Act (Oklahoma) < Back Eligibility Utility Investor-Owned Utility Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality This Act establishes The Department of Environmental Quality as the designated official agency of the State of Oklahoma for all regulatory activities for the use of atomic energy and sources of radiation, except for the use of sources of radiation by diagnostic x-ray facilities. It also states rules for permits and fees related to the establishment of standards for safe levels of protection against radiation; the maintenance and submission of records; the determination, prevention and control of radiation hazards; the reporting of radiation accidents; the handling,

327

Note: Helical nanobelt force sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the fabrication and characterization of helical nanobelt force sensors. These self-sensing force sensors are based on the giant piezoresistivity of helical nanobelts. The three-dimensional helical nanobelts are self-formed from 27 nm-thick n-type InGaAs/GaAs bilayers using rolled-up techniques, and assembled onto electrodes on a micropipette using nanorobotic manipulations. The helical nanobelt force sensors can be calibrated using a calibrated atomic force microscope cantilever system under scanning electron microscope. Thanks to their giant piezoresistance coefficient (515 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} Pa{sup -1}), low stiffness (0.03125 N/m), large-displacement capability ({approx}10 {mu}m), and good fatigue resistance, they are well suited to function as stand-alone, compact ({approx}20 {mu}m without the plug-in support), light ({approx}5 g including the plug-in support), versatile and large range ({approx}{mu}N) and high resolution ({approx}nN) force sensors.

Hwang, G. [Laboratory for Photonics and Nanostructures, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marcoussis 91460 (France); Hashimoto, H. [Department of EECE, Chuo University 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Types of Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

External Irradiation Contamination Incorporation Biological Effects of Acute, Total Body Irradiation Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Types of radiation...

329

Radiation Effects In Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RADIATION MATERIALS SCIENCE IN TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS II: Radiation Effects in Ceramics. Sponsored by: Jt. SMD/MSD Nuclear Materials ...

330

Radiation Physics Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Radiation Physics Division, part of the Physical Measurement Laboratory ... the measurement standards for ionizing radiations and radioactivity ...

2013-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

331

VII. SOLAR RADIATION DATA COMPARISONS In this section some of the solar radiation data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

18 VII. SOLAR RADIATION DATA COMPARISONS In this section some of the solar radiation data gathered by the UO Solar Monitoring Network is presented in tabular and pictorial form and related to similar information from other Western U.S. sites. A comparison of the amount of incident solar radiation is made us

Oregon, University of

332

Nuclear Forces and Nuclear Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Forces and Nuclear Systems Forces and Nuclear Systems Our goal is to achieve a description of nuclear systems ranging in size from the deuteron to nuclear matter and neutron stars using a single parameterization of the nuclear forces. Our work includes both the construction of two- and three-nucleon potentials and the development of many-body techniques for computing nuclear properties with these interactions. Detailed quantitative, computationally intense studies are essential parts of this work. In the last decade we have constructed several realistic two- and three-nucleon potential models. The NN potential, Argonne v18, has a dominant charge-independent piece plus additional charge-dependent and charge-symmetry-breaking terms, including a complete electromagnetic interaction. It fits 4301 pp and np elastic scattering data with a chi**2

333

Physics as an element of radiation research.  

SciTech Connect

Since its inception in 1954, Radiation Research has published an estimated total of about 8700 scientific articles up to August 2001, about 520, or roughly 6%, of which are primarily related to physics. This average of about 11 articles per year indicates steadily continuing contributions by physicists, though there are appreciable fluctuations from year to year. These works of physicists concern radiation sources, dosimetry, instrumentation for measurements of radiation effects, fundamentals of radiation physics, mechanisms of radiation actions, and applications. In this review, we have selected some notable accomplishments for discussion and present an outlook for the future.

Inokuti, M.; Seltzer, S.; Physics; National Inst. of Standards and Technology

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

335

Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility SURF III ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Synchrotron Radiation. What is Synchrotron Radiation? Synchrotron radiation ... known. Properties of Synchrotron Radiation. Schwinger ...

336

Travel for the 2004 American Statistical Association Biannual Radiation Meeting: "Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Factors  

SciTech Connect

The 16th ASA Conference on Radiation and Health, held June 27-30, 2004 in Beaver Creek, CO, offered a unique forum for discussing research related to the effects of radiation exposures on human health in a multidisciplinary setting. The Conference furnishes investigators in health related disciplines the opportunity to learn about new quantitative approaches to their problems and furnishes statisticians the opportunity to learn about new applications for their discipline. The Conference was attended by about 60 scientists including statisticians, epidemiologists, biologists and physicists interested in radiation research. For the first time, ten recipients of Young Investigator Awards participated in the conference. The Conference began with a debate on the question: “Do radiation doses below 1 cGy increase cancer risks?” The keynote speaker was Dr. Martin Lavin, who gave a banquet presentation on the timely topic “How important is ATM?” The focus of the 2004 Conference on Radiation and Health was Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Risk Modifiers. The sessions of the conference included: Radiation, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Interactions of Radiation with Genetic Factors: ATM Radiation, Genetics, and Epigenetics Radiotherapeutic Interactions The Conference on Radiation and Health is held bi-annually, and participants are looking forward to the 17th conference to be held in 2006.

Brenner, David J.

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

337

Characterization of Thallium Bromide (TlBr) for Room Temperature Radiation Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 Motivation: Radiation Detection for HomelandSecurity . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Semiconductor Radiationand related features of radiation ionization energies in

Smith, Holland McTyeire

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Radiation Pressure in Massive Star Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stars with masses of >~ 20 solar masses have short Kelvin times that enable them to reach the main sequence while still accreting from their natal clouds. The resulting nuclear burning produces a huge luminosity and a correspondingly large radiation pressure force on dust grains in the accreting gas. This effect may limit the upper mass of stars that can form by accretion. Indeed, simulations and analytic calculations to date have been unable to resolve the mystery of how stars of 50 solar masses and up form. We present two new ideas to solve the radiation pressure problem. First, we use three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations to study the collapse of massive cores. We find that in three dimensions a configuration in which radiation holds up an infalling envelope is Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, leading radiation driven bubbles to collapse and accretion to continue. We also present Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations showing that the cavities created by protostellar winds provides a valve that allow radiation to escape the accreting envelope, further reducing the ability of radiation pressure to inhibit accretion.

Mark R. Krumholz; Richard I. Klein; Christopher F. McKee

2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

339

Raqs Media Collective Flash Force  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

extended only to a couple of inches. With the invention of light bulbs, scientists started detonatingRaqs Media Collective Flash Force: A Visual History of Might, Right and Light Perhaps the greatest of light and divorcing these from the potent explosions that initially produced them. It is a history

Canales, Jimena

340

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Energy Task Force to Energy Task Force to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Energy Task Force The Governor's Task Force on Energy Policy is developing a state energy plan to facilitate energy efficiency and the use of alternative and renewable fuels in Tennessee. The energy plan will include a summary of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top-of-the-atmosphere radiance interpretation involve knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of ...

James R. Campbell; Dennis L. Hlavka; Ellsworth J. Welton; Connor J. Flynn; David D. Turner; James D. Spinhirne; V. Stanley Scott III; I. H. Hwang

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Reconciling Ground-Based and Space-Based Estimates of the Frequency of Occurrence and Radiative Effect of Clouds around Darwin, Australia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to investigate whether estimates of the cloud frequency of occurrence and associated cloud radiative forcing as derived from ground-based and satellite active remote sensing and radiative transfer calculations can be ...

A. Protat; S. A. Young; S. A. McFarlane; T. L’Ecuyer; G. G. Mace; J. M. Comstock; C. N. Long; E. Berry; J. Delanoë

343

The Angular Distribution of UV-B Sky Radiance under Cloudy Conditions: A Comparison of Measurements and Radiative Transfer Calculations Using a Fractal Cloud Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, global warming concerns have focused attention on cloud radiative forcing and its accurate encapsulation in radiative transfer measurement and modeling programs. At present, this process is constrained by the dynamic movement and ...

Christopher Kuchinke; Kurt Fienberg; Manuel Nunez

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Possible Influence of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Cirrus Clouds and Anthropogenic Forcing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cirrus clouds have a net warming effect on the atmosphere and cover about 30% of the Earth’s area. Aerosol particles initiate ice formation in the upper troposphere through modes of action that include homogeneous freezing of solution droplets, heterogeneous nucleation on solid particles immersed in a solution, and deposition nucleation of vapor onto solid particles. Here, we examine the possible change in ice number concentration from anthropogenic soot originating from surface sources of fossil fuel and biomass burning, from anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, and from aircraft that deposit their aerosols directly in the upper troposphere. We find that fossil fuel and biomass burning soot aerosols exert a radiative forcing of -0.68 to 0.01 Wm-2 while anthropogenic sulfate aerosols exert a forcing of -0.01 to 0.18 Wm-2. Our calculations show that the sign of the forcing by aircraft soot depends on the model configuration and can be both positive or negative, ranging from -0.16 to 0.02 Wm-2. The magnitude of the forcing in cirrus clouds can be comparable to the forcing exerted by anthropogenic aerosols on warm clouds, but this forcing has not been included in past assessments of the total anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate.

Penner, Joyce E.; Chen, Yang; Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong

2009-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

345

AIR FORCE SPECIAL WEAPONS CENTER  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

HEADQUARTERS aII?y HEADQUARTERS aII?y 9 AIR FORCE SPECIAL WEAPONS CENTER 1 AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND . - KlRTlAND AIR FORCE BASE, NEW MEXICO - k FINAL REPORT O N AIR FORCE PARTICIPATION PROJECT RULISON .1 O c t o b e r 1969 P r e p a r e d by : CONT INENTAL TEST D I V I S ION DIRECTORATE OF NUCLEAR FIELD OPERATIONS This page intentionally left blank INDEX AIR FORCE PARTICIPATION I N PROJECT RULISON FINAL REPORT PARAGRAPH BASIC REPORT SUBJECT R e f e r e n c e s PAGE 2 G e n e r a l 1 3 P l a n n i n g 3 4 Command a n d C o n t r o l 5 O p e r a t i o n s , G r a n d ' J u n c t i o n M u n i c i p a l A i r p o r t . . ' A i r O p e r a t i o n s C e n t e r , He1 i c o p t e r P a d / ' 7.. - . M a t e r i e l : ' 8 M e d i c a l 1 9 R a d - S a f e C r a s h - R e s c u e S e c u r i t y 2 1 C o m m u n i c a t i o n s ~ d m i n i s t r a t ' i o n Summary ATTACHMENTS ATTACHMENT SUBJECI' 1 F r a g O r d e r 69-1 ( ~ r o j ' e c t RULISON) , AFSWC D

346

Radiative Reactions and Coherence Modeling in the High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A high altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) with a peak field intensity of 5 x 10^4 V/m carries momentum that results in a retarding force on the average Compton electron (radiating coherently to produce the waveform) with magnitude near that of the geomagnetic force responsible for the coherent radiation. The retarding force results from a self field effect. The Compton electron interaction with the self generated magnetic field due to the other electrons accounts for the momentum density in the propagating wave; interaction with the self generated electric field accounts for the energy flux density in the propagating wave. Coherent addition of radiation is also quantitatively modeled.

Charles N. Vittitoe; Mario Rabinowitz

2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

347

Single Column Model Simulations of Cloud Sensitivity to Forcing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Single-Column Model Simulations Single-Column Model Simulations of Cloud Sensitivity to Forcing A. D. Del Genio National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York A. B. Wolf National Aeronautics and Space Administration SGT, Inc., Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York Introduction The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program single-column modeling (SCM) framework has to date used several fairly brief intensive observing periods (IOPs) to evaluate the performance of climate model parameterizations. With only a few weather events in each IOP, it is difficult to separate errors associated with the instantaneous dynamical forcing from errors in parameterization. It is also impossible to determine whether model errors are systematic and climatically significant. This

348

Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Solar diffuse radiation data including global radiation, shortwave and longwave balances, net radiation and sunshine hours have been extensively analyzed to study the variation of diffuse radiation with turbidity and cloud discharges appearing in the form of atmospherics over the tropics. Results of surface radiation measurements at Calcutta, Poona, Delhi and Madras are presented together with some meteorological parameters. The monthly values of diffuse radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis in relation to the noise level of atmospherics at Calcutta in the very low frequency band. The results exhibit some definite seasonal changes which appear to be in close agreement with one another. 1

unknown authors

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

High-let radiation carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Recent results for neutron radiation-induced tumors are presented to illustrate the complexities of the dose-response curves for high-LET radiation. It is suggested that in order to derive an appropriate model for dose-response curves for the induction of tumors by high-LET radiation it is necessary to take into account dose distribution, cell killing and the susceptibility of the tissue under study. Preliminary results for the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice exposed to various heavy ion beams are presented. The results suggest that the effectiveness of the heavy ion beams increases with increasing LET. The slopes of the dose-response curves for the different high-LET radiations decrease between 20 and 40 rads and therefore comparisons of the relative effectiveness should be made from data obtained at doses below about 20 to 30 rads.

Fry, R.J.M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E.L.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Ullrich, R.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Radiation damage in optical fibers  

SciTech Connect

While plastic-clad-silica (PCS) fiber shows the greatest radiation resistance, PCS fiber has been difficult to reliably connectorize for routine field operations. For this reason, all-glass fibers have been studied as an alternative to PCS. Based on available literature and some preliminary tests at Los Alamos, we have concentrated on fluorosilicate clad, step index, pure silica core fibers. This paper reviews recent laboratory data for these fibers relative to the PCS fibers. This paper also discusses use of a fiber (or any optical medium) on a Cerenkov radiation-to-light transducer. Since the radiation induces attenuation in the medium, the light output is not proportional to the radiation input. The nonlinearity introduced by this attenuation is calculated.

Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.; Ogle, J.W.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Stratospheric Influence on Tropopause Height: The Radiative Constraint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Earlier theoretical and modeling work introduced the concept of a radiative constraint relating tropopause height to tropospheric lapse rate and other factors such as surface temperature. Here a minimal quantitative model for the radiative ...

John Thuburn; George C. Craig

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Corrosion of Metals and Alloys in High Radiation Fields  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper rationalizes the impact of high radiation fields on corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion fatigue and relates that impact to radiation induced changes in chemical reactivity, hydrogen fugacity, and surface chemistry.

Sindelar, R.L.

1999-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

353

Gamma Radiation & X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 1. Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations...

354

Radiation Safety  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brotherhood of Locomotive Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers & Trainmen Scott Palmer BLET Radiation Safety Officer New Hire Training New Hire study topics * GCOR * ABTH * SSI * Employee Safety * HazMat * Railroad terminology * OJT * 15-week class * Final test Hazardous Materials * Initial new-hire training * Required by OSHA * No specified class length * Open book test * Triennial module Locomotive Engineer Training A little bit older...a little bit wiser... * Typically 2-4 years' seniority * Pass-or-get-fired promotion * Intensive program * Perpetually tested to a higher standard * 20 Weeks of training * 15 of that is OJT * General Code of Operating Rules * Air Brake & Train Handling * System Special Instructions * Safety Instructions * Federal Regulations * Locomotive Simulators * Test Ride * Pass test with 90% Engineer Recertification

355

RADIATION DOSIMETER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement was made in the determination of amounts of ionizing radiation, particularly low-energy beta particles of less than 1000 rad total dose by means of fluid-phase dosimeter employing a stabilized-- sensitized ferrous-ferric colorimetric system in a sulphuric acid medium. The improvement in the dosimeter consists of adding to the ferrous-ferric system in concentrations of 10/sub -2/ to 10/sup -4/M an organic compound having one or more carboxylic or equivalent groups, such compounds being capable of chelating or complexing the iron ions in the solution. Suitable sensitizing and stabilizing agents are benzoic, phthalic, salicylic, malonic, lactic, maleic, oxalic, citric, succinic, phenolic tartaric, acetic, and adipic acid, as well as other compounds which are added to the solution alone or in certain combinations. As in conventional fluid-phase dosimeters, the absorbed dosage is correlated with a corresponding change in optical density at particular wavelengths of the solution.

Balkwell, W.R. Jr.; Adams, G.D. Jr.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

356

DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2) W. J. Price, "Nuclear Radiation Detection" (2nd ed. , Newand R. J. Berry, "Manual on Radiation Dosimetry" (New York:4) G. F. Knoll, "Radiation Detection and Measurement" (New

Perez-Mendez, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

RADIATION DETECTOR SYSTEM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to radiation detection devices and presents a unique detection system especialiy desirable for portable type instruments using a Geiger-Mueller for a high voltage battery, thereby reducing the size and weight of the instrument, by arranging a one-shot multivibrator to recharge a capacitance applying operating potential to tho Geiger-Mueller tube each time a nuclear particle is detected. When detection occurs, the multivibrator further delivers a pulse to an appropriate indicator doing away with the necessity for the pulse amplifier conventionally intermediate between the detector and indicator in pulse detection systems.

Gundlach, J.C.; Kelley, G.G.

1958-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

358

Boundary conditions for NLTE polarized radiative transfer with incident radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polarized NLTE radiative transfer in the presence of scattering in spectral lines and/or in continua may be cast in a so-called reduced form for six reduced components of the radiation field. In this formalism the six components of the reduced source function are angle-independent quantities. It thus reduces drastically the storage requirement of numerical codes. This approach encounters a fundamental problem when the medium is illuminated by a polarized incident radiation, because there is a priori no way of relating the known (and measurable) Stokes parameters of the incident radiation to boundary conditions for the reduced equations. The origin of this problem is that there is no unique way of deriving the radiation reduced components from its Stokes parameters (only the inverse operation is clearly defined). The method proposed here aims at enabling to work with arbitrary incident radiation field (polarized or unpolarized). In previous works an ad-hoc treatment of the boundary conditions, applying to case...

Faurobert, Marianne; Atanackovic, Olga

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Solar radiation resource assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

Not Available

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Courses on Synchrotron Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synchrotron Radiation The following is an incomplete list of courses on Synchrotron Radiation. For additional courses, check lightsources.org. XAFS School The APS XAFS School...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Radiation Physics Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Radiation Physics Events. Radiation Physics Events. (showing 1 - 3 of 3). CIRMS 2012 Start Date: 10/22/2012 ...

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Bayesian Radiation Source Localization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Special Issue on the 16th Biennial Topical Meeting of the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division / Radiation Measurements and General Instrumentation

Kenneth D. Jarman; Erin A. Miller; Richard S. Wittman; Christopher J. Gesh

363

Radiation Control (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

364

Methods for Estimating Climate Anomaly Forcing Patterns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inverse methods for determining the anomalous mean forcing functions responsible for climate change are investigated. First, an iterative method is considered, and it is shown to successfully reproduce forcing functions for various idealized and ...

Meelis J. Zidikheri; Jorgen S. Frederiksen

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Development of a light force accelerometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, the feasibility of a light force accelerometer was experimentally demonstrated. The light force accelerometer is an optical inertial sensor which uses focused laser light to levitate and trap glass microspheres ...

Butts, David LaGrange

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 May 2009 Demonstrating commercially availale physical security/force protection soultions around the world The bombing of Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia on 25 June 1996 revealed the need for continal vigilance and protection againist terrorist forces intent on harming US personnel and interests. The Chairman if the Joint Chiefs of Staff directed the Services to investigate COTS equipments solutions for physical security/force protection needs. The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquistion, Technology, and Logistics (OUSD {at&l}) tasked the Office of the US Army Product Manager, force Protection Systems (PM-FPS), to coordiante and facilitate a Force Protection Equipment

367

Methods for estimating climate anomaly forcing patterns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inverse methods for determining the anomalous mean forcing functions responsible for climate change are investigated. Firstly, an iterative method is considered, and it is shown to successfully reproduce forcing functions for various idealised and ...

Meelis J. Zidikheri; Jorgen S. Frederiksen

368

A Systematic Study of GCM Sensitivity to Latitudinal Changes in Solar Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Paleoclimatic data and climate model simulations have demonstrated that orbitally forced changes in solar radiation can have a pronounced effect on global climate. Key questions remain, however, about the spatial patterns in the climatic ...

Benjamin Felzer; Robert J. Oglesby; Hong Shao; Thompson Webb III; Dena E. Hyman; Warren L. Prell; John E. Kutzbach

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Tropical Cyclogenesis Sensitivity to Environmental Parameters in Radiative-Convective Equilibrium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, the relationship between the likelihood of tropical cyclogenesis and external environmental forcings is explored in the simplest idealized modelling framework possible: radiative-convective equilibrium on a ...

Nolan, David S.

370

Fluctuation of Mass Flux in a Cloud-Resolving Simulation with Interactive Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It was shown by Craig and Cohen that fluctuations of cumulus clouds under homogeneous large-scale forcing satisfy the Gibbs canonical ensemble in a strict radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE). In the limit of random noninteracting convective ...

J. Davoudi; N. A. McFarlane; T. Birner

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Determination of Extratropical Tropopause Height in an Idealized Gray Radiation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the mechanisms that determine the extratropical tropopause height, extending previous results with a Newtonian cooling model. A primitive equation model forced by a meridional gradient of incoming solar radiation, with the ...

Pablo Zurita-Gotor; Geoffrey K. Vallis

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

373

Global forces shape the electricity industry  

SciTech Connect

Whatever scenario for electricity comes to pass - one that emphasizes richness in energy supply or productivity in demand - expect to see increased complexity in the industry and its structures. Technology will be a key subversive element of this process of Schumpeterian creation and destruction. There are powerful global forces at work that are transforming whole economies and industries. Today`s electricity industry, with a century of tradition behind it, is also likely to be transformed in terms of its structure, competitive nature and the fuels that it uses. The electricity demand-Gross Domestic Product (GDP) relationship also stems from the increased share of electricity in energy markets. Overall, energy demand is declining relative to GDP, driven by increased efficiency and economic restructuring. Eventually (as indeed is already discernible in OECD countries) electricity demand will show the same characteristics.

Rainbow, R.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Casimir force in presence of multi layer magnetodielectric slabs  

SciTech Connect

Research Highlights: > The Casimir force has been obtained in the presence of some dielectrics. > The approach is based on a Lagrangian. > It can be generalized to include the rough surfaces. > Finite temperature correction can be easily obtained. - Abstract: By using the path-integral formalism, electromagnetic field in the presence of some linear, isotropic magnetodielectric slabs is quantized and related correlation functions are found. In the framework of path-integral techniques, Casimir force between two infinitely large, parallel and ideal conductors, with a different number of magnetodielectric slabs in between, is obtained by calculating the Green's function corresponding to each geometry.

Kheirandish, Fardin, E-mail: fardin_kh@phys.ui.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltani, Morteza, E-mail: msoltani@Phys.ui.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarabadani, Jalal, E-mail: j.sarabadani@phys.ui.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

376

METHOD AND MEANS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a method and device for determining quantities of gamma radiation and x radiation by exposing to such radiation a mature of a purified halogenated hydrocarbon chosen from the class consisting of chloroform, bromoform, tetrachloroethane and 1,1,2trichloroethane, and a minor quantity of a sensitizer chosen from the class consisting of oxygen, benzoyl peroxide, sodium peroxide, and nitrobenzene, the proportion of the sensitizer being at least about 10/sup -5/ moles per cubic centimeter of halogenated hydrocarbon, the total amount of sensitizer depending upon the range of radiation to be measured, and chemically measuring the amount of decomposition generated by the irradiation of the sensitized halogenated hydrocarbon.

Shulte, J.W.; Suttle, J.F.

1958-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

377

Low Dose Radiation Program: Radiation Biology and the Radiation Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology and the Radiation Research Program Biology and the Radiation Research Program The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), always have been concerned about the health effects of ionizing radiation. Extensive research has been conducted under their sponsorship at all levels of biological organization from molecules to man. Over the past 60 years, studies using every type of radiation source have included exposure to both external radiation sources and to internally deposited radioactive materials. These exposures used different dose patterns and distributions delivered over a wide range of experimental times. This extensive research provided the basis for the new Low Dose Radiation Research Program, linking

378

NIST MIRF - Accelerator Radiation Physics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accelerator Radiation Physics. Medium-energy accelerators are under investigation for production of channeling radiation ...

379

NIST Synchrotron radiation in SSD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synchrotron radiation in the Sensor Science Division. ... Synchrotron Radiation-Based Calibrations for Space Weather Prediction. ...

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

380

Air Force Enhanced Use Lease  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 Air Force Enhanced Use Lease Mr. Brian Brown 16 Oct. 12 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 2 Agenda  Brian Brown  Enhanced Use Lease (EUL) Overview  Energy EULs  EUL Goals  David Swanson  Energy EUL Market Drivers  Current EUL Projects  Partnering with the Air Force  Contact Information I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 3 Overview  Authority 10 USC 2667  An EUL is a lease  By the government  Of "non-excess" property  Under the control of the government  To a public or private sector lessee  In exchange for fair market value rental payments in cash and/or in kind consideration I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL; Phillips, Rick [ORNL; Erickson, Marjorie A [ORNL; Kirk, Mark T [ORNL; Stevens, Gary L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Casimir forces in multilayer magnetodielectrics with both gain and loss  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A path-integral approach to the quantization of the electromagnetic field in a linearly amplifying magnetodielectric medium is presented. Two continua of inverted harmonic oscillators are used to describe the polarizability and magnetizability of the amplifying medium. The causal susceptibilities of the amplifying medium, with negative imaginary parts in finite frequency intervals, are identified and their relationships to microscopic coupling functions are determined. By carefully relating the two-point functions of the field theory to the optical Green functions, we calculate the Casimir energy and Casimir forces for a multilayer magnetodielectric medium with both gain and loss. We point out the essential differences with a purely passive layered medium. For a single layer, we find different bounds on the Casimir force for fully amplifying and for lossy media. The force is attractive in both cases, even if the medium exhibits negative refraction. From our Lagrangian we also derive by canonical quantization the postulates of the phenomenological theory of amplifying magnetodielectrics.

Amooghorban, Ehsan [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens. Lyngby (Denmark); Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jarib Avenue, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens. Lyngby (Denmark); Kheirandish, Fardin [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jarib Avenue, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Casimir force for absorbing media in an open quantum system framework: Scalar model  

SciTech Connect

In this article we compute the Casimir force between two finite-width mirrors at finite temperature, working in a simplified model in 1+1 dimensions. The mirrors, considered as dissipative media, are modeled by a continuous set of harmonic oscillators which in turn are coupled to an external environment at thermal equilibrium. The calculation of the Casimir force is performed in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. It is shown that the Casimir interaction has two different contributions: the usual radiation pressure from the vacuum, which is obtained for ideal mirrors without dissipation or losses, and a Langevin force associated with the noise induced by the interaction between dielectric atoms in the slabs and the thermal bath. Both contributions to the Casimir force are needed in order to reproduce the analogous Lifshitz formula in 1+1 dimensions. We also discuss the relationship between the electromagnetic properties of the mirrors and the spectral density of the environment.

Lombardo, Fernando C.; Rubio Lopez, Adrian E. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mazzitelli, Francisco D. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Atomico Bariloche Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Radiation Detection Instruments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Directory of Accredited Laboratories. Radiation Detection Instruments. In 2005, the Department of Homeland Security requested ...

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

385

Reply to Quaas et al.: Can satellites be used to estimate indirect climate forcing by aerosols?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We welcome the comments by Quaas et al. (1). In our paper (2), we used a model to show that the methods used to estimate indirect aerosol forcing using satellite data, especially those based on relating the slope of present-day (PD) drop number (Nc) to aerosol optical depth (AOD), underestimate the forcing calculated when both PD and preindustrial (PI) data are available.

Penner, J. E.; Zhou, Cheng; Xu, Li; Wang, Minghuai

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

radiation.p65  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

5 5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small amounts of radiation. For most people, the benefits from using such products far outweigh the radiation risks. Radiation Dose Radiation is measured in various units. Individuals who have been exposed to radiation have received a radiation dose. Radiation dose to people is expressed in

387

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Frequencies of Radiation-Induced  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Frequencies of Radiation-Induced Chromosome Interchanges and Frequencies of Radiation-Induced Chromosome Interchanges and Randomness of Chromosome Territory Locations Relative to One Another. Authors: RK Sachs,§ MN Cornforth,‡ KM Greulich-Bode,* L Hlatky, and DJ Brenner|| Institutions: §Department of Mathematics, University of California, ‡University of Texas Medical Branch, *Department of Skin Carcinogenesis, German Cancer Research Center DFCI, Harvard Medical School, ||Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University. Leukemogenesis, and perhaps carcinogenesis in general, often involves specific chromosome translocations. Radiation-induced chromosome translocation frequencies are strongly influenced by how close participating chromosomes are to one another in an interphase cell nucleus. We sought to determine whether chromosomes in human peripheral blood

388

Systems and methods of detecting force and stress using tetrapod nanocrystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems and methods of detecting force on the nanoscale including methods for detecting force using a tetrapod nanocrystal by exposing the tetrapod nanocrystal to light, which produces a luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal. The method continues with detecting a difference in the luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal relative to a base luminescent response that indicates a force between a first and second medium or stresses or strains experienced within a material. Such systems and methods find use with biological systems to measure forces in biological events or interactions.

Choi, Charina L.; Koski, Kristie J.; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

389

Radiation Field Control Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Radiation Management Program is dedicated to reducing nuclear power plant worker personnel exposure by developing practices and technologies to increase the radiation protection of the worker, and to implement methods to reduce radiation fields. The nuclear power industry has recently implemented the RP2020 Initiative to promote positive radiation protection trends. Control of radiation fields is crucial to one of the initiative goals of reducing exposure. This manual provides the current state ...

2004-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

390

Smart Grid Task Force Presentations | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services Technology Development Smart Grid Federal Smart Grid Task Force Smart Grid Task Force Presentations Smart Grid Task Force Presentations Presentations about the...

391

Smart Grid Task Force Presentations | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Smart Grid Federal Smart Grid Task Force Smart Grid Task Force Presentations Smart Grid Task Force Presentations Electricity Advisory Committee Technology Development...

392

Army Energy Initiatives Task Force  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Army Energy Initiatives Task Force Kathy Ahsing Director, Planning and Development UNCLASSIFIED 2 Perfect Storm UNCLASSIFIED 3 U.S. Army Energy Consumption, 2010 23% 77% 42% 58%  Facilities  Vehicles & Equipment (Tactical and Non-tactical) Sources: Energy Information Agency, 2010 Annual Energy Review; Agency Annual Energy Management Data Reports submitted to DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (Preliminary FY 2010) 32% 68% DoD 80% Army 21% Federal Gov 1% Federal Government United States Department of Defense U.S. = 98,079 Trillion Btu DoD = 889 Trillion Btu Fed Gov = 1,108 Trillion Btu U.S. Army = 189 Trillion Btu FY10 Highlights - $2.5+B Operational Energy Costs - $1.2 B Facility Energy Costs

393

Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope  

SciTech Connect

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Nuclear forces from lattice QCD  

SciTech Connect

Lattice QCD construction of nuclear forces is reviewed. In this method, the nuclear potentials are constructed by solving the Schroedinger equation, where equal-time Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions are regarded as quantum mechanical wave functions. Since the long distance behavior of equal-time NBS wave functions is controlled by the scattering phase, which is in exactly the same way as scattering wave functions in quantum mechanics, the resulting potentials are faithful to the NN scattering data. The derivative expansion of this potential leads to the central and the tensor potentials at the leading order. Some of numerical results of these two potentials are shown based on the quenched QCD.

Ishii, Noriyoshi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

395

Atomic force microscope: Enhanced sensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Atomic force microscopes (AFMs) are a recent development representing the state of the art in measuring ultrafine surface features. Applications are found in such fields of research as biology, microfabrication, material studies, and surface chemistry. Fiber-optic interferometer techniques developed at LLNL offer the potential of improving the vertical resolution of these instruments by up to 2 orders of magnitude. We are attempting to replace the current AFM measurement scheme, which consists of an optical beam deflection approach, with our fiber-optic interferometer scheme, a much more sensitive displacement measurement technique. In performing this research, we hope to accomplish two important goals; (1) to enhance the sensitivity of the AFM, and (2) to achieve important improvements in our fiber-optic interferometer technology.

Davis, D.T.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Scattering-matrix approach to Casimir-Lifshitz force and heat transfer out of thermal equilibrium between arbitrary bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the radiative heat transfer and the Casimir-Lifshitz force occurring between two bodies in a system out of thermal equilibrium. We consider bodies of arbitrary shape and dielectric properties, held at two different temperatures, and immersed in a environmental radiation at a third different temperature. We derive explicit closed-form analytic expressions for the correlations of the electromagnetic field, and for the heat transfer and Casimir-Lifshitz force, in terms of the bodies scattering matrices. We then consider some particular cases which we investigate in detail: the atom-surface and the slab-slab configurations.

Riccardo Messina; Mauro Antezza

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

397

Coupling Aerosol-Cloud-Radiative Processes in the WRF-Chem Model: Investigating the Radiative Impact of Elevated Point Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The local and regional influence of elevated point sources on summertime aerosol forcing and cloud-aerosol interactions in northeastern North America was investigated using the WRF-Chem community model. The direct effects of aerosols on incoming solar radiation were simulated using existing modules to relate aerosol sizes and chemical composition to aerosol optical properties. Indirect effects were simulated by adding a prognostic treatment of cloud droplet number and adding modules that activate aerosol particles to form cloud droplets, simulate aqueous phase chemistry, and tie a two-moment treatment of cloud water (cloud water mass and cloud droplet number) to an existing radiation scheme. Fully interactive feedbacks thus were created within the modified model, with aerosols affecting cloud droplet number and cloud radiative properties, and clouds altering aerosol size and composition via aqueous processes, wet scavenging, and gas-phase-related photolytic processes. Comparisons of a baseline simulation with observations show that the model captured the general temporal cycle of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and produced clouds of comparable thickness to observations at approximately the proper times and places. The model slightly overpredicted SO2 mixing ratios and PM2.5 mass, but reproduced the range of observed SO2 to sulfate aerosol ratios, suggesting that atmospheric oxidation processes leading to aerosol sulfate formation are captured in the model. The baseline simulation was compared to a sensitivity simulation in which all emissions at model levels above the surface layer were set to zero, thus removing stack emissions. Instantaneous, site-specific differences for aerosol and cloud related properties between the two simulations could be quite large, as removing above-surface emission sources influenced when and where clouds formed within the modeling domain. When summed spatially over the finest resolution model domain (the extent of which corresponds to the typical size of a single GCM grid cell) and temporally over a three day analysis period, total rainfall in the sensitivity simulation increased by 31% over that in the baseline simulation. Fewer optically thin clouds, arbitrarily defined as a cloud exhibiting an optical depth less than 1, formed in the sensitivity simulation. Domain-averaged AODs dropped from 0.46 in the baseline simulation to 0.38 in the sensitivity simulation. The overall net effect of additional aerosols attributable to primary particulates and aerosol precursors from point source emissions above the surface was a domain-averaged reduction of 5 W m-2 in mean daytime downwelling shortwave radiation.

Chapman, Elaine G.; Gustafson, William I.; Easter, Richard C.; Barnard, James C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Fast, Jerome D.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

The Medical Aspects of Radiation Incidents, 3rd Edition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Revised - 092513 Page 1 The Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS) has provided the Department of Energy with expertise related to the medical management...

399

Does an accelerated electron radiate Unruh radiation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An accelerated particle sees the Minkowski vacuum as thermally excited, and the particle moves stochastically due to an interaction with the thermal bath. This interaction fluctuates the particle's transverse momenta like the Brownian motion in a heat bath. Because of this fluctuating motion, it has been discussed that the accelerated charged particle emits extra radiation (the Unruh radiation) in addition to the classical Larmor radiation, and experiments are under planning to detect such radiation by using ultrahigh intensity lasers constructed in near future. There are, however, counterarguments that the radiation is canceled by an interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the fluctuating motion. In fact, in the case of an internal detector where the Heisenberg equation of motion can be solved exactly, there is no additional radiation after the thermalization is completed. In this paper, we revisit the issue in the case of an accelerated charged particle in the scalar QED. We first prove the e...

Iso, Satoshi; Zhang, Sen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Factors Affecting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation William F. Morgan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why This Project The short-term effects of high doses of ionizing radiation on cellular responses are relatively well understood. Less clear are the long-term consequences of exposure to low dose/low dose-rate radiation and the effects of radiation exposure on the progeny of surviving cells. If a cell survives radiation, it is generally thought to have repaired all the radiation-induced insults and be capable of a "normal healthy life". At a certain frequency, however, we have found that some cells surviving radiation grow normally, but will rearrange their genetic material during time in culture. We call this radiation-induced genomic instability. Many

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. In the composition, a composite is formed from a carrier material and at least one of the source of the exciting radiation or the component which is capable of interacting with the exciting radiation. The composite is then employed for loading a porous substrate, preferably an aerogel substrate.

Ashley, Carol S. (14316 Bauer Rd., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (14 Eagle Nest Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Reed, Scott (10308 Leymon Ct., NW., Albuquerque, NM 87114); Shepodd, Timothy J. (1838 Broadmore St., Livermore, CA 94550); Leonard, Leroy E. (4944 Ten Oaks Rd., Dayton, MD 21036); Ellefson, Robert E. (193 Elmwood Dr., Centerville, OH 45459); Gill, John T. (906 E. Linden Ave., Miamisburg, OH 45342); Walko, Robert J. (3215 Blume, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Renschler, Clifford L. (7 Lagarto Rd., Tijeras, NM 87059)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Timescape cosmology with radiation fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The timescape cosmology represents a potentially viable alternative to the standard homogeneous cosmology, without the need for dark energy. Although average cosmic evolution in the timescape scenario only differs substantially from that of Friedmann-Lemaitre model at relatively late epochs when the contribution from the energy density of radiation is negligible, a full solution of the Buchert equations to incorporate radiation is necessary to smoothly match parameters to the epoch of photon decoupling and to obtain constraints from cosmic microwave background data. Here we extend the matter-dominated solution found in earlier work to include radiation, providing series solutions at early times and an efficient numerical integration strategy for generating the complete solution. The numerical solution is used to directly calculate the scale of the sound horizon at decoupling, and at the baryon drag epoch. The constraints on these scales from the Planck satellite data yield bounds on the timescape cosmological...

Duley, James A G; Wiltshire, David L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Diurnal Cycle of Convection at the ARM SGP Site: Role of Large-Scale Forcing, Surface Fluxes, and Convective Inhibition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diurnal Cycle of Convection at the ARM SGP Site: Diurnal Cycle of Convection at the ARM SGP Site: Role of Large-Scale Forcing, Surface Fluxes, and Convective Inhibition G. J. Zhang Center for Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California Introduction Atmospheric convection undergoes strong diurnal variation over both land and oceans (Gray and Jacobson 1977; Dai 2001; Nesbitt and Zipser 2003). Because of the nature of the diurnal variation of solar radiation, the phasing of convection with solar radiation has a significant impact on the atmospheric radiation budget and cloud radiative forcing. A number of studies have investigated the possible mechanisms of the diurnal variation of convection (Gray and Jacobson 1977; Randall et al. 1991; Dai et al. 1999; Dai 2001). Yet, in regional and global climate models, the diurnal variation of

404

Heat pipe technology development for high temperature space radiator applications  

SciTech Connect

Technology requirements for heat pipe radiators, potentially among the lightest weight systems for space power applications, include flexible elements, and improved specific radiator performance(kg/kW). For these applications a flexible heat pipe capable of continuous operation through an angle of 180/sup 0/ has been demonstrated. The effect of bend angle on the heat pipe temperature distribution is reviewed. An analysis of lightweight membrane heat pipe radiators that use surface tension forces for fluid containment has been conducted. The design analysis of these lightweight heat pipes is described and a potential application in heat rejection systems for space nuclear power plants outlined.

Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Elder, M.G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Cerenkov radiation from collisions of straight cosmic (super)strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider Cerenkov radiation which must arise when randomly oriented straight cosmic (super)strings move with relativistic velocities without intercommutation. String interactions via dilaton, two-form and gravity (gravity being the dominant force in the ultra-relativistic regime) leads to formation of superluminal sources which generate Cerenkov radiation of dilatons and axions. Though the effect is of the second order in the couplings of strings to these fields, its total efficiency is increased by high dependence of the radiation rate on the Lorentz-factor of the collision.

Elena Melkumova; Dmitri Gal'tsov; Karim Salehi

2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

406

Health Risks Associated with Low Doses of Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite a wealth of information, there remains uncertainty concerning human radiation effects at low dose levels. This report provides background information and a literature review of research on the potential health hazards associated with exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. Topics include radiation characteristics, protection standards, epidemiologic data and risk models, the nature of human health exposure-related effects, important radiation health studies to date, and the scientific method fo...

1994-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

407

radiation.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Radiation-It's a Fact of Life Radiation-It's a Fact of Life It has been with us since the beginning of time. Everyone who has ever walked on this planet has been exposed to radiation. For the most part, nature is the largest source of exposure. It's in the air we breathe, the ground we walk on, and even the food we eat. The radiation we receive from all natural and some man-made sources is called "background radiation." The millirem (mrem) is a unit used for measuring radiation received by a person. The total average background for radiation received by people living in the United States is 360 millirem per year (mrem/yr), of which 300 mrem/yr is from natural sources, and 60 mrem/yr is man-made. Cosmic Radiation from the sun and stars Internal Radiation from naturally radioactive

408

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - General Radiation Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Radiation Information Answers to Questions about Radiation Dose Ranges Charts - tables showing radiation dose ranges from radio diagnostics to cancer radiotherapy....

409

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Websites about Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Websites About Radiation The ABC's of Nuclear Science A Teacher's Guide To The Nuclear Science Wall Chart Answers to Questions about Radiation and You Background Radiation:...

410

Research priorities for occupational radiation protection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Stability of alert survivable forces during reductions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stability of current and projected strategic forces are discussed within a framework that contains elements of current US and Russian analyses. For current force levels and high alert, stability levels are high, as are the levels of potential strikes, due to the large forces deployed. As force levels drop towards those of current value target sets, the analysis becomes linear, concern shifts from stability to reconstitution, and survivable forces drop out. Adverse marginal costs generally provide disincentives for the reduction of vulnerable weapons, but the exchange of vulnerable for survivable weapons could reduce cost while increasing stability even for aggressive participants. Exchanges between effective vulnerable and survivable missile forces are studied with an aggregated, probabilistic model, which optimizes each sides` first and determines each sides` second strikes and costs by minimizing first strike costs.

Canavan, G.H.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Technical Sessions A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Study of Longwave Radiation A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models R. G. Ellingson F. Baer Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 Introduction the radiation sensitivity problem. We anticipate that the outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and a better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the equilibrium climate of the atmosphere. Nature of Longwave Problems Longwave radiation quantities-radiances, fluxes and heating rates-are usually calculated in GCM models as the cloud amount weighted average of the values for clear and homogeneous cloud conditions. For example, the downward flux at the surface, F, may be written as

413

A Resonance Mechanism Leading to Wind-Forced Motions with a 2f Frequency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study revisits the mechanisms that spatially reorganize wind-forced inertial motions embedded in an oceanic mesoscale eddy field. Inertial motions are known to be affected by the eddy relative vorticity, being expelled from cyclonic ...

Eric Danioux; Patrice Klein

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

An Indirect Effect of Ice Nuclei on Atmospheric Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) with observed large-scale forcing is used to study how ice nuclei (IN) affect the net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). In all the numerical experiments carried out, the cloud ice ...

Xiping Zeng; Wei-Kuo Tao; Minghua Zhang; Arthur Y. Hou; Shaocheng Xie; Stephen Lang; Xiaowen Li; David O’C. Starr; Xiaofan Li; Joanne Simpson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

416

Elastic actuator for precise force control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section.

Pratt, Gill A. (Lexington, MA); Williamson, Matthew M. (Boston, MA)

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

417

Internet Engineering Task Force KK Ramakrishnan ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Engineering Task Force KK Ramakrishnan INTERNET DRAFT AT&T Labs Research draft-kksjf-ecn-00.txt Sally Floyd LBNL November 1997 ...

2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

418

Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

R. Esquivel-Sirvent

2007-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

419

Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

Esquivel-Sirvent, R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

A molecular mechanics force field for lignin  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A CHARMM molecular mechanics force field for lignin is derived. Parameterization is based on reproducing quantum mechanical data of model compounds. Partial atomic charges are derived using the RESP electrostatic potential fitting method supplemented by the examination of methoxybenzene:water interactions. Dihedral parameters are optimized by fitting to critical rotational potentials and bonded parameters are obtained by optimizing vibrational frequencies and normal modes. Finally, the force field is validated by performing a molecular dynamics simulation of a crystal of a lignin fragment molecule and comparing simulation-derived structural features with experimental results. Together with the existing force field for polysaccharides, this lignin force field will enable full simulations of lignocellulose.

Petridis, Loukas [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Weardale Task Force | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name Weardale Task Force Place England, United Kingdom Sector Biomass, Geothermal energy, Hydro, Solar, Wind energy Product Durham based project consortium that is...

422

Air Force Announces Funding for Alternative Energy Research ...  

Air Force Announces Funding for Alternative Energy Research & Development. December 16, 2013. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has ...

423

Tachyons and Gravitational Cherenkov Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND GRAVITATIONAL CHERENKOV RADIATION CHARLES SCHWARTZwould emit gravitational radiation. It is very small.gravitational waves; Cherenkov radiation. In a recent work,

Schwartz, Charles

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advisor Paul Hoover Special Assistant and Issues Management Coordinator Elinor Gwynn Radiation Protection Radiation Protection The Radiation Protection Division supports the...

425

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. RADIATION EXPOSURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2.2. Internal ExposureRADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND

Rubloff, Gary W.

426

Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics S. F. Iacobellis and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California G. M. McFarquhar University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois D. L. Mitchell Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada Introduction A single-column model (SCM) is used to examine the sensitivity of basic quantities such as atmospheric radiative heating rates and surface and top of atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes to various parameter- izations of clouds and cloud microphysics. The SCM was run at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites using forcing data derived from forecast products. The forecast

427

Nuclear Force from Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first lattice QCD result on the nuclear force (the NN potential) is presented in the quenched level. The standard Wilson gauge action and the standard Wilson quark action are employed on the lattice of the size 16^3\\times 24 with the gauge coupling beta=5.7 and the hopping parameter kappa=0.1665. To obtain the NN potential, we adopt a method recently proposed by CP-PACS collaboration to study the pi pi scattering phase shift. It turns out that this method provides the NN potentials which are faithful to those obtained in the analysis of NN scattering data. By identifying the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter wave function with the Schroedinger wave function for the two nucleon system, the NN potential is reconstructed so that the wave function satisfies the time-independent Schroedinger equation. In this report, we restrict ourselves to the J^P=0^+ and I=1 channel, which enables us to pick up unambiguously the ``central'' NN potential V_{central}(r). The resulting potential is seen to posses a clear repulsive core of about 500 MeV at short distance (r < 0.5 fm). Although the attraction in the intermediate and long distance regions is still missing in the present lattice set-up, our method is appeared to be quite promising in reconstructing the NN potential with lattice QCD.

Noriyoshi ISHII; Sinya AOKI; Tetsuo HATSUDA

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

428

Orientation dependence of Casimir forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Casimir interaction between two objects, or between an object and a plane, depends on their relative orientations. We make these angular dependences explicit by considering prolate or oblate spheroids. The variation ...

Emig, Thorsten

429

Forces between chemically structured substrates mediated by critical fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider binary liquid mixtures close to their critical points confined by two parallel, geometrically flat but chemically structured, substrates. Universal order parameters profiles are calculated within mean field theory for periodic patterns of stripes with alternating preferences for the two species of the mixture and with different relative positions of the two substrates. From the order parameters profiles the effective forces between the two plates are derived. The tuning of Casimir amplitudes is discussed.

Monika Sprenger; Frank Schlesener; S. Dietrich

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

430

Nano-mechanics of Tunable Adhesion using Non Covalent Forces  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to examine, via experiment and atomistic and continuum analysis, coordinated noncovalent bonding over a range of length scales with a view to obtaining modulated, patterned and reversible bonding at the molecular level. The first step in this project was to develop processes for depositing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) bearing carboxylic acid and amine moieties on Si (111) surfaces and probe tips of an interfacial force microscope (IFM). This allowed the adhesive portion of the interactions between functionalized surfaces to be fully captured in the force-displacement response (force profiles) that are measured by the IFM. The interactionswere extracted in the form of traction-separation laws using combined molecular and continuum stress analyses. In this approach, the results of molecular dynamics analyses of SAMs subjected to simple stress states are used to inform continuum models of their stress-strain behavior. Continuum analyses of the IFM experiment were then conducted, which incorporate the stress-strain behavior of the SAMs and traction-separation relations that represent the interactions between the tip and functionalized Si surface. Agreement between predicted and measured force profiles was taken to imply that the traction-separation relations have been properly extracted. Scale up to larger contact areas was considered by forming Si/SAM/Si sandwiches and then separating them via fracture experiments. The mode 1 traction-separation relations have been extracted using fracture mechanics concepts under mode 1 and mixed-mode conditions. Interesting differences were noted between the three sets of traction-separation relations.

Kenneth Liechti

2012-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

431

Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

432

WI Radiation Protection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

433

Nonionizing Radiation and HIV  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nonionizing Radiation and HIV Name: Flora R Pitchford Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: What are the effects of nonionizing radiation on DNA , RNA or any other cell...

434

Radiation Safety Policy and Procedures Committee  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RSPPC Meeting Minutes APS only RSPPC Meeting Minutes APS only Radiation Safety Policy and Procedures Committee Charter 1. Purpose The committee reviews functional changes to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) and Personnel Protection System (PSS) used to provide personnel protection and area exclusion related to APS accelerators, storage ring and other radiation handling areas. The RSPP Committee advises APS management on radiation safety matters. At the request of APS Management the committee reviews projects, recommends radiation safety policy, and evaluates accident investigation conclusions. 2. Membership Members are appointed by the APS Division Directors and APS Director for their knowledge and background in Interlock Systems, Radiation Safety, Accelerator Operations and Work on the Experiment Floor.

435

Radiation protection at CERN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Silari, Marco; Streit-Bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Radiation Dosimetry Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation Dosimetry Data. Stopping-Power and Range Tables for Electrons, Protons, and Helium Ions. MJ Berger The databases ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

437

Radiation Shields Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2009. Symposium, Materials Solutions for the Nuclear Renaissance. Presentation Title, Radiation ...

438

FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force Meeting Agenda  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force Meeting Agenda FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force Meeting Agenda February 26, 2009 Task Force Meeting Agenda - CONFERENCE CALL Agenda FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE CONFERENCE CALL February 26, 2009 10:00-11:00 AM 10:00 Opening and Introduction - Eric Lightner, DOE * Call the meeting to order, around-the-table introductions, review of the agenda, additions to agenda 10:05 Update from DOE - Eric Lightner * Stimulus update * E-Forum * Fact sheet - discussion 10:30 Update from FERC - Ray Palmer, David Andrejcak * NARUC-FERC Smart Grid Collaborative meeting update 10:40 Update from NIST - William Anderson, Jerry FitzPatrick * Interoperability Standards Framework report to Congress

439

The Response of a Stochastically Forced ENSO Model to Observed Off-Equatorial Wind Stress Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the response of a stochastically forced coupled atmosphere–ocean model of the equatorial Pacific to off-equatorial wind stress anomaly forcing. The intermediate-complexity coupled ENSO model comprises a linear, first ...

Shayne McGregor; Neil J. Holbrook; Scott B. Power

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

The Nuclear Force is Gravitation. Was Einstein Right?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I combine the effects of Planck length, general relativity and Newtonian gravity in one equation, to come up with a semi-classical model of gravity in the form of deviation from Newtonian gravity. Einstein explained nuclear forces in terms of gravity (Ref. 2). This reference is explicit in expressing Einstein's attempts and describes them as misguided. My model shows Einstein was not misguided in his attempts to explain nuclear forces in terms of gravity. My model shows just the contrary. I use Planck length as what it is: minimum distance that makes any sense. I make a subatomic distinction between mass and space, a lesson learned from general relativity. General relativity is about mass telling space how to curve and space telling mass how to move. Unlike string theory, I use no imaginary dimensions. My model predicts maximum nuclear force as the limit of gravitation and clearly yields Newtonian gravity at a macroscopic scale in an unprecedented and consistent manner: Good-by to quantum gravity. I am combining Newton, Planck and Einstein and to predict a limit of gravity as Chandrashekhar did to predict his limit.

Shantilal G. Goradia

2000-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Nonlinear Response to Anomalous Tropical Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated the nonlinear steady-state response of a barotropic model to an estimate of the observed anomalous tropical divergence forcing for the El Niño winter of 1982/83. The 400 mb climatological flow was made a forced solution of ...

R. J. Haarsma; J. D. Opsteegh

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Quantifying cellular traction forces in three dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the gels. Analysis of the normal displacement profiles suggests that normal forces play important roles-dimensional (2-D) analysis and interpretation of cell-matrix interactions. Furthermore, these approaches cal allows a more complete analysis of cellular forces than does consideration of only in-plane (2-D

Stein, Derek

443

Work Force Retention Work Group Charter  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Work force Retention Work Group is established to support the Department’s critical focus on maintaining a high-performing work force at a time when a significant number of the workers needed to support DOE’s national security mission are reaching retirement age.

444

Chalcogenide Glass Radiation Sensor; Materials Development, Design and Device Testing  

SciTech Connect

For many decades, various radiation detecting material have been extensively researched, to find a better material or mechanism for radiation sensing. Recently, there is a growing need for a smaller and effective material or device that can perform similar functions of bulkier Geiger counters and other measurement options, which fail the requirement for easy, cheap and accurate radiation dose measurement. Here arises the use of thin film chalcogenide glass, which has unique properties of high thermal stability along with high sensitivity towards short wavelength radiation. The unique properties of chalcogenide glasses are attributed to the lone pair p-shell electrons, which provide some distinctive optical properties when compared to crystalline material. These qualities are derived from the energy band diagram and the presence of localized states in the band gap. Chalcogenide glasses have band tail states and localized states, along with the two band states. These extra states are primarily due to the lone pair electrons as well as the amorphous structure of the glasses. The localized states between the conductance band (CB) and valence band (VB) are primarily due to the presence of the lone pair electrons, while the band tail states are attributed to the Van der Waalâ??s forces between layers of atoms [1]. Localized states are trap locations within the band gap where electrons from the valence band can hop into, in their path towards the conduction band. Tail states on the other hand are locations near the band gap edges and are known as Urbach tail states (Eu). These states are occupied with many electrons that can participate in the various transformations due to interaction with photons. According to Y. Utsugi et. al.[2], the electron-phonon interactions are responsible for the generation of the Urbach tails. These states are responsible for setting the absorption edge for these glasses and photons with energy near the band gap affect these states. We have studied the effect of x-rays and γ-rays, on thin film chalcogenide glasses and applied them in conjunction with film incorporating a silver source in a new type of radiation sensor for which we have an US patent application [3]. In this report, we give data about our studies regarding our designed radiation sensor along with the testing and performance at various radiation doses. These studies have been preceded by materials characterization research related to the compositional and structural characteristics of the active materials used in the radiation sensor design. During the work on the project, we collected a large volume of material since every experiment was repeated many times to verify the results. We conducted a comprehensive material research, analysis and discussion with the aim to understand the nature of the occurring effects, design different structures to harness these effects, generated models to aid in the understanding the effects, built different device structures and collected data to quantify device performance. These various aspects of our investigation have been detailed in previous quarterly reports. In this report, we present our main results and emphasize on the results pertaining to the core project goals â?? materials development, sensor design and testing and with an emphasis on classifying the appropriate material and design for the optimal application. The report has three main parts: (i) Presentation of the main data; (ii) Bulleted summary of the most important results; (iii) List of the patent, journal publications, conference proceedings and conferences participation, occurring as a result of working on the project.

Mitkova, Maria; Butt, Darryl; Kozicki, Michael; Barnaby, Hugo

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

445

Environmental radiation detection via thermoluminescence  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method and apparatus of the present invention relate to cryogenically cooling a thermoluminescent material, exposing it to a low level of radiation (less than about 1 R) while it is at the cooled temperature, warming the thermoluminescent material to room temperature'' and counting the photons emitted during heating. Sufficient sensitivity is achieved without exposing the thermoluminescent material to ultraviolet light thereby simplifying the measurements.

Miller, S.D.

1993-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

446

Radiation Reaction, Renormalization and Poincaré Symmetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the self-action problem in classical electrodynamics of a massive point-like charge, as well as of a massless one. A consistent regularization procedure is proposed, which exploits the symmetry properties of the theory. The radiation reaction forces in both 4D and 6D are derived. It is demonstrated that the Poincar\\'e-invariant six-dimensional electrodynamics of the massive charge is renormalizable theory. Unlike the massive case, the rates of radiated energy-momentum tend to infinity whenever the source is accelerated. The external electromagnetic fields, which do not change the velocity of the particle, admit only its presence within the interaction area. The effective equation of motion is the equation for eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the electromagnetic tensor. The interference part of energy-momentum radiated by two massive point charges arbitrarily moving in flat spacetime is evaluated. It is shown that the sum of work done by Lorentz forces of charges acting on one another exhausts the effect of combination of outgoing electromagnetic waves generated by the charges.

Yurij Yaremko

2005-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

447

Zero forcing parameters and minimum rank problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The zero forcing number Z(G), which is the minimum number of vertices in a zero forcing set of a graph G, is used to study the maximum nullity / minimum rank of the family of symmetric matrices described by G. It is shown that for a connected graph of order at least two, no vertex is in every zero forcing set. The positive semidefinite zero forcing number Z_+(G) is introduced, and shown to be equal to |G|-OS(G), where OS(G) is the recently defined ordered set number that is a lower bound for minimum positive semidefinite rank. The positive semidefinite zero forcing number is applied to the computation of positive semidefinite minimum rank of certain graphs. An example of a graph for which the real positive symmetric semidefinite minimum rank is greater than the complex Hermitian positive semidefinite minimum rank is presented.

Barioli, Francesco; Fallat, Shaun M; Hall, H Tracy; Hogben, Leslie; Shader, Bryan; Driessche, P van den; van der Holst, Hein

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

merged under the newly created parent organization, HQ Air Force Officer and Accession Training School-to-day operations of either organization. In June 2008, HQ AFOATS was redesignated as the Jeanne M. Holm Center,796 new Second Lieutenants who entered active duty in the United States Air Force. Organization Air Force

Su, Xiao

449

Impact of the Diurnal Cycle of Solar Radiation on Intraseasonal SST Variability in the Western Equatorial Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanism by which the diurnal cycle of solar radiation modulates intraseasonal SST variability in the western Pacific warm pool is investigated using a one-dimensional mixed layer model. SSTs in the model experiments forced with hourly ...

Toshiaki Shinoda

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation Globus Ruth NASA Ames Research Center Abstract Osteoporosis profoundly affects the aging U.S. population and exposure to high doses of radiation causes bone loss similar to age-related osteoporosis, although the influence of low dose radiation exposures is not known. The central hypothesis of our DOE project (NASA supplement) is that low doses of radiation modulate subsequent skeletal degeneration via oxidative pathways. Our working hypothesis is that a prior exposure to low dose radiation regulates oxidative metabolism within bone and contributes to bone loss caused either by subsequent high, challenge doses of radiation or by aging. HZE source: Because astronauts are exposed to radiation from GCR and solar

451

NIST Optical Radiation Staff Directory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical Radiation Staff Directory. Staff. Name, Position, Office Phone. ... Contact. Optical Radiation Group Eric Shirley, Group Leader. ...

2013-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

452

NVLAP Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry LAP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry LAP. ... This site has been established for applicants to the accreditation program for ionizing radiation dosimetry. ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

453

Radiation and Biomolecular Physics Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Welcome. The Radiation and Biomolecular Physics Division is a division ... disseminate the national standards for ionizing radiations and radioactivity ...

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

454

NIST Radiation Thermometry Short Course  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Radiation Thermometry Short Course. ... 2012 NIST Radiation Thermometry Short Course October 15-19, 2012 NIST Gaithersburg, Maryland. ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

NIST Ionizing Radiation Division - 2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Ionizing Radiation Division of the Physics Laboratory supports the ... meaningful, and compatible measurements of ionizing radiations (x rays ...

456

TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

Clements, Emily B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Radioactivity and Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactivity and Radiation Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects Radioactivity and Radiation Discussion of radioactivity and radiation, uranium and radioactivity, radiological health risks of uranium isotopes and decay products. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the term used to describe the natural process by which some atoms spontaneously disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as they transform into different, more stable atoms. This process, also called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of radioactivity

458

PERSONAL RADIATION MONITOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A transistorized, fountain pen type radiation monitor to be worn on the person is described. Radiation produces both light flashes in a small bulb and an audible warning tone, the frequency of both the tone and light flashes being proportional to radiation intensity. The device is powered by a battery and a blocking oscillator step-up power supply The oscillator frequency- is regulated to be proportional to the radiation intensity, to provide adequate power in high radiation fields, yet minimize battery drain at low operating intensities. (AEC)

Dilworth, R.H.; Borkowski, C.J.

1961-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

459

Sandia Laboratories radiation facilities  

SciTech Connect

This brochure is designed as a basic source of information for prospective users of Sandia Laboratories Radiation Facilities. It contains a brief description of the various major radiation sources, a summary of their output characteristics, and additional information useful to experimenters. Radiation source development and source upgrading is an ongoing program, with new source configurations and modes of operation continually being devised to satisfy the ever-changing radiation requirements of the users. For most cases, the information here should allow a potential user to assess the applicability of a particular radiation facility to a proposed experiment and to permit some preirradiation calculations and planning.

Choate, L.M.; Schmidt, T.R.; Schuch, R.L.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Radiation (North Dakota) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiation (North Dakota) Radiation (North Dakota) Radiation (North Dakota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State North Dakota Program Type Environmental Regulations The Department of Health is the designated agency to receive registration applications and issue certificates necessary for the production, storage, processing, and disposal of radioactive wastes. The Industrial Commission of North Dakota is tasked with monitoring and enforcing provisions related

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

An Analysis of Universality in Blackbody Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Through the formulation of his law of thermal emission, Kirchhoff conferred upon blackbody radiation the quality of universality [G.Kirchhoff, Annalen der Physik 109, 275 (1860)]. Consequently, modern physics holds that such radiation is independent of the nature and shape of the emitted object. Recently, Kirchhoff's experimental work and theoretical conclusions have been reconsidered [P.M.L. Robitaille, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 31(6), 1263 (2003). In this work, Einstein's derivation of the Planckian relation is reexamined. It is demonstrated that claims of universality in blackbody radiation are invalid.

Pierre-Marie Robitaille

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

About Fermilab | Fermilab and the Community | ILC Citizens' Task Force |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Expected Topics of the ILC Citizens' Task Force Topic Informal Input Community Concerns Formal Recomm. Orientation of the ILC Location of the underground tunnel X Community issues related to locating an underground tunnel X Potential impacts on groundwater and the environment X X Issues relating to property rights X X X Surface Structures off Fermilab property Locations X X Aesthetic issues X X Environmental impacts X X Features that could be included to benefit communities X X Construction of the ILC Timing of activities X X Safety X X Mitigating noise, traffic, environmental, and other impacts X X Fermilab-Community Relationships Maximizing economic benefits to the region X X

463

Detection of contraband using microwave radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method and system for using microwave radiation to detect contraband hidden inside of a non-metallic container, such as a pneumatic vehicle tire. The method relies on the attenuation, retardation, time delay, or phase shift of microwave radiation as it passes through the container plus the contraband. The method is non-invasive, non-destructive, low power, and does not require physical contact with the container.

Toth, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Piezoresistive cantilever force-clamp system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a microelectromechanical device-based tool, namely, a force-clamp system that sets or ''clamps'' the scaled force and can apply designed loading profiles (e.g., constant, sinusoidal) of a desired magnitude. The system implements a piezoresistive cantilever as a force sensor and the built-in capacitive sensor of a piezoelectric actuator as a displacement sensor, such that sample indentation depth can be directly calculated from the force and displacement signals. A programmable real-time controller operating at 100 kHz feedback calculates the driving voltage of the actuator. The system has two distinct modes: a force-clamp mode that controls the force applied to a sample and a displacement-clamp mode that controls the moving distance of the actuator. We demonstrate that the system has a large dynamic range (sub-nN up to tens of {mu}N force and nm up to tens of {mu}m displacement) in both air and water, and excellent dynamic response (fast response time, instruments such as a microscope with patch-clamp electronics. We demonstrate the capabilities of the system by using it to calibrate the stiffness and sensitivity of an electrostatic actuator and to measure the mechanics of a living, freely moving Caenorhabditis elegans nematode.

Park, Sung-Jin; Petzold, Bryan C.; Pruitt, Beth L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Goodman, Miriam B. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

Orientation dependence of Casimir forces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Casimir interaction between two objects, or between an object and a plane, depends on their relative orientations. We make these angular dependences explicit by considering prolate or oblate spheroids. The variation with orientation is calculated exactly at asymptotically large distances for the electromagnetic field and at arbitrary separations for a scalar field. For a spheroid in front of a mirror, the leading term is orientation independent, and we find the optimal orientation from computations at higher order.

Emig, T. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8626, 91405 Orsay (France); Graham, N. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); Jaffe, R. L. [Department of Physics, Center for Theoretical Physics, and Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kardar, M. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

CORONAL MASS EJECTION MASS, ENERGY, AND FORCE ESTIMATES USING STEREO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding coronal mass ejection (CME) energetics and dynamics has been a long-standing problem, and although previous observational estimates have been made, such studies have been hindered by large uncertainties in CME mass. Here, the two vantage points of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) COR1 and COR2 coronagraphs were used to accurately estimate the mass of the 2008 December 12 CME. Acceleration estimates derived from the position of the CME front in three dimensions were combined with the mass estimates to calculate the magnitude of the kinetic energy and driving force at different stages of the CME evolution. The CME asymptotically approaches a mass of 3.4 {+-} 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} g beyond {approx}10 R{sub Sun }. The kinetic energy shows an initial rise toward 6.3 {+-} 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 29} erg at {approx}3 R{sub Sun }, beyond which it rises steadily to 4.2 {+-} 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg at {approx}18 R{sub Sun }. The dynamics are described by an early phase of strong acceleration, dominated by a force of peak magnitude of 3.4 {+-} 2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} N at {approx}3 R{sub Sun }, after which a force of 3.8 {+-} 5.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} N takes effect between {approx}7 and 18 R{sub Sun }. These results are consistent with magnetic (Lorentz) forces acting at heliocentric distances of {approx}Sun }, while solar wind drag forces dominate at larger distances ({approx}>7 R{sub Sun }).

Carley, Eoin P.; Gallagher, Peter T. [Astrophysics Research Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); McAteer, R. T. James [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States)

2012-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

467

Sensing Current and Forces with SPM  

SciTech Connect

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are well established techniques to image surfaces and to probe material properties at the atomic and molecular scale. In this review, we show hybrid combinations of AFM and STM that bring together the best of two worlds: the simultaneous detection of atomic scale forces and conduction properties. We illustrate with several examples how the detection of forces during STM and the detection of currents during AFM can give valuable additional information of the nanoscale material properties.

Park, Jeong Y.; Maier, Sabine; Hendriksen, Bas; Salmeron, Miquel

2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

468

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RADIATION SAFETY is the responsibility of all faculty, staff and students who are directly or indirectly involved in the use of radioisotopes or radiation-producing machines. In July 1963, the State of Texas granted The University of Texas at Austin a broad radioactive materials license for research, development and instruction. While this means a minimum of controls by the state, it requires that The University establish and pursue an effective Radiation Safety Program. The Radiation Safety Committee is responsible for The University's radiation control program outlined in this manual. The use of radiation in a university, where a large number of people may be unaware of their exposure to radiation hazards, makes strict adherence to procedures established by federal and state authorities of paramount importance for the protection of The University and the safety of its faculty, staff and students. It is the responsibility of all faculty, staff and students involved in radiation work to familiarize themselves thoroughly with The University's radiation control program and to comply with its requirements and all applicable federal and state regulations. I hope you will always keep in mind that radiation safety depends on a continuous awareness of potential hazards and on the acceptance

unknown authors

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Solar radiation model validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several mathematical models have been developed within the past few years which estimate the solar radiation from other weather variables. Some of these models have been used to generate data bases which are extensively used in the design and analysis of solar system. Three of these solar radiation models have been used in developing the Augmented SOLMET Solar Data Tapes for the 26 SOLMET sites and the 222 ERSATZ Solar Data Tapes. One of the models, a theoretical one, predicts the solar noon radiation for clear sky conditions from the optical air mass, precipitable water vapor and turbidity variables. A second model, an empirical one, predicts the hourly total horizontal radiation from meteorological variables. And, a third model, also an empirical one, predicts the hourly direct normal radiation from the hourly total horizontal radiation. A study of the accuracy of these three solar radiation models is reported here. To assess the accuracy of these models, data were obtained from several US National Weather Service Stations and other sources, used the models to estimate the solar-radiation, and then compared the modeled radiation values with observed radiation values. The results of these comparisons and conclusions regarding the accuracy of the models are presented.

Hall, I.J.; Prairie, R.R.; Anderson, H.E.; Boes, E.C.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Testing for the Possible Influence of Unknown Climate Forcings upon Global Temperature Increases from 1950-2000  

SciTech Connect

Global-scale variations in the climate system over the last half of the twentieth century, including long-term increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures, are consistent with concurrent human-induced emissions of radiatively active gases and aerosols. However, such consistency does not preclude the possible influence of other forcing agents, including internal modes of climate variability or unaccounted for aerosol effects. To test whether other unknown forcing agents may have contributed to multidecadal increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures from 1950 to 2000, data pertaining to observed changes in global-scale sea surface temperatures and observed changes in radiatively active atmospheric constituents are incorporated into numerical global climate models. Results indicate that the radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trends in sea surface temperatures—and global-mean near-surface temperatures—is provided predominantly by known changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols. Further, results indicate that less than 10% of the long-term historical increase in global-mean near-surface temperatures over the last half of the twentieth century could have been the result of internal climate variability. In addition, they indicate that less than 25%of the total radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trend in global-mean near-surface temperatures could have been provided by changes in net radiative forcing from unknown sources (either positive or negative). These results, which are derived from simple energy balance requirements, emphasize the important role humans have played in modifying the global climate over the last half of the twentieth century.

Anderson, Bruce T.; Knight, Jeff R.; Ringer, Mark A.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Cherchi, Annalisa

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

471

Posters The Effects of Radiative Transfer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Posters The Effects of Radiative Transfer on Low-Level Cyclogenesis M. J. Leach and S. Raman Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina Introduction Many investigators have documented the role that thermodynamic forcing due to radiative flux divergence plays in the enhancement or generation of circulation. Most of these studies involve large-scale systems (e.g., Slingo et al. 1988), small-scale systems such as thunderstorms (Chen and Cotton 1988), and squall lines (Chin, submitted). The generation of circulation on large scales results from the creation of divergence in the upper troposphere and the maintenance of low-level potentially unstable air, and the maintenance of baroclinicity throughout

472

Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo Community Connections: Our link to Northern New Mexico Communities Latest Issue:Dec. 2013 - Jan. 2014 All Issues » submit Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo Hazardous devices teams test their maneuvering skills July 1, 2013 Students from Valarde Middle School won the video competition in the Best in Show and Middle School categories. They are shown here with sixth-grade teacher Jimmy Lara. During the Robot Rodeo, an unseen operator attempts to conduct reconnaissance and rescue injured personnel Contact Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office Kurt Steinhaus Email Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo Police and public safety teams from as far away as New Jersey recently convened in Albuquerque to test their ability to remotely deploy robots

473

Casimir force at a knife's edge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Casimir force has been computed exactly for only a few simple geometries, such as infinite plates, cylinders, and spheres. We show that a parabolic cylinder, for which analytic solutions to the Helmholtz equation are ...

Graham, Noah

474

Halving the Casimir force with conductive oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The possibility to modify the strength of the Casimir effect by tailoring the dielectric functions of the interacting surfaces is regarded as a unique opportunity in the development of Micro- and NanoElectroMechanical Systems. In air, however, one expects that, unless noble metals are used, the electrostatic force arising from trapped charges overcomes the Casimir attraction, leaving no room for exploitation of Casimir force engineering at ambient conditions. Here we show that, in the presence of a conductive oxide, the Casimir force can be the dominant interaction even in air, and that the use of conductive oxides allows one to reduce the Casimir force up to a factor of 2 when compared to noble metals.

S. de Man; K. Heeck; R. J. Wijngaarden; D. Iannuzzi

2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

475

Scattering theory approach to electrodynamic Casimir forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give a comprehensive presentation of methods for calculating the Casimir force to arbitrary accuracy, for any number of objects, arbitrary shapes, susceptibility functions, and separations. The technique is applicable ...

Rahi, Sahand Jamal

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Weather Noise Forcing of Surface Climate Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model-based method to evaluate the role of weather noise forcing of low-frequency variability of surface properties, including SST, surface currents, land surface temperature, and soil moisture, is presented. In this procedure, an “interactive ...

Edwin K. Schneider; Meizhu Fan

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Casimir forces between cylinders at different temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study Casimir interactions between cylinders in thermal nonequilibrium, where the objects as well as the environment are held at different temperatures. We provide the general formula for the force, in a one reflection ...

Golyk, Vladyslav A.

478

Casimir forces in the time domain: Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our previous article [Phys. Rev. A 80, 012115 (2009)] introduced a method to compute Casimir forces in arbitrary geometries and for arbitrary materials that was based on a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) scheme. In ...

Johnson, Steven G.

479

On Thermally Forced Circulations over Heated Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combination of analytical and numerical models is used to gain insight into the dynamics of thermally forced circulations over diurnally heated terrain. Solutions are obtained for two-layer flows (representing the boundary layer and the ...

Daniel J. Kirshbaum

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Casimir Forces On A Silicon Micromechanical Chip  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantum fluctuations give rise to van der Waals and Casimir forces that dominate the interaction between electrically neutral objects at sub-micron separations. Under the trend of miniaturization, such quantum electrodynamical effects are expected to play an important role in micro- and nano-mechanical devices. Nevertheless, so far the Casimir force has been experimentally observed only in situations involving an external object manually positioned close to a micromechanical element on a silicon chip. Here, we demonstrate the Casimir effect between two silicon components on the same substrate. In addition to providing an integrated and compact platform for Casimir force measurements, this scheme also opens the possibility of tailoring the Casimir force using lithographically defined components of non-conventional shapes on a single micromechanical chip.

Zou, J. [Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, University of Florida; Marset, zsolt [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rodriguez, A.W. [Harvard University; Reid, M. T.H. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); McCauley, A. P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Bao, Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Johnson, S. G. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Chan, Ho Bun [Hong Kong University of Science & Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.