Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: Mechanisms and seasonal dependence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dependence. The long-term globally integrated annual mean net forcing calculated here is approximately zero, related to the annual cycle in photochemistry; the O3 radiative forcing calculations also have a seasonal, although earlier work suggests a small net positive forcing. The model design (e.g., upper tropospheric

2

Updated radiative forcing estimates of 65 halocarbons and nonmethane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Updated radiative forcing estimates of 65 halocarbons and nonmethane hydrocarbons 1234567 89A64BC7,493-20,505,SEPTEMBER 16,2001 Updated radiative forcing estimates of 65 halocarbons and nonmethane hydrocarbons Kamaljit representhemisphericdifferencesin water vapor, ozoneconcentrations,and cloud cover. Instantaneous,clear-skyradiative forcing

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

3

Technical Note: Estimating Aerosol Effects on Cloud Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimating anthropogenic aerosol effects on the planetary energy balance through the aerosol influence on clouds using the difference in cloud radiative forcing from simulations with and without anthropogenic emissions produces estimates that are positively biased. A more representative method is suggested using the difference in cloud radiative forcing calculated with aerosol radiative effects neglected. The method also yields an aerosol radiative forcing decomposition that includes a term quantifying the impact of changes in surface albedo. The method requires only two additional diagnostic calculations: the whole-sky and clear-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative flux with aerosol radiative effects neglected.

Ghan, Steven J.

2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

4

Contrasting the direct radiative effect and direct radiative forcing of aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols, which is the instantaneous radiative impact of all atmospheric particles on the Earth's energy balance, is sometimes confused with the direct radiative forcing (DRF), which ...

Heald, Colette L.

5

Acoustic radiation force-based elasticity imaging methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Wells Acoustic radiation force-based elasticity imaging...lesions. Acoustic radiation force-based elasticity imaging...properties of soft tissue. In Handbook of elastic properties of solids...W. , Trahey, G. 1995 A fundamental limit on delay estimation using...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) examined the short-lived drivers of climate change in current climate models. Here we evaluate the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of which also participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). The models reproduce present-day total aerosol optical depth (AOD) relatively well, though many are biased low. Contributions from individual aerosol components are quite different, however, and most models underestimate east Asian AOD. The models capture most 1980-2000 AOD trends well, but underpredict increases over the Yellow/Eastern Sea. They strongly underestimate absorbing AOD in many regions. We examine both the direct radiative forcing (RF) and the forcing including rapid adjustments (effective radiative forcing; ERF, including direct and indirect effects). The models all-sky 1850 to 2000 global mean annual average total aerosol RF is (mean; range) ?0.26Wm?2; ?0.06 to ?0.49Wm?2. Screening based on model skill in capturing observed AOD yields a best estimate of ?0.42Wm?2; ?0.33 to ?0.50Wm?2, including adjustment for missing aerosol components in some models. Many ACCMIP and CMIP5 models appear to produce substantially smaller aerosol RF than this best estimate. Climate feedbacks contribute substantially (35 to ?58 %) to modeled historical aerosol RF. The 1850 to 2000 aerosol ERF is ?1.17Wm?2; ?0.71 to ?1.44Wm?2. Thus adjustments, including clouds, typically cause greater forcing than direct RF. Despite this, the multi-model spread relative to the mean is typically the same for ERF as it is for RF, or even smaller, over areas with substantial forcing. The largest 1850 to 2000 negative aerosol RF and ERF values are over and near Europe, south and east Asia and North America. ERF, however, is positive over the Sahara, the Karakoram, high Southern latitudes and especially the Arctic. Global aerosol RF peaks in most models around 1980, declining thereafter with only weak sensitivity to the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP). One model, however, projects approximately stable RF levels, while two show increasingly negative RF due to nitrate (not included in most models). Aerosol ERF, in contrast, becomes more negative during 1980 to 2000. During this period, increased Asian emissions appear to have a larger impact on aerosol ERF than European and North American decreases due to their being upwind of the large, relatively pristine Pacific Ocean. There is no clear relationship between historical aerosol ERF and climate sensitivity in the CMIP5 subset of ACCMIP models. In the ACCMIP/CMIP5 models, historical aerosol ERF of about ?0.8 to ?1.5Wm?2 is most consistent with observed historical warming. Aerosol ERF masks a large portion of greenhouse forcing during the late 20th and early 21st century at the global scale. Regionally, aerosol ERF is so large that net forcing is negative over most industrialized and biomass burning regions through 1980, but remains strongly negative only over east and southeast Asia by 2000. Net forcing is strongly positive by 1980 over most deserts, the Arctic, Australia, and most tropical oceans. Both the magnitude of and area covered by positive forcing expand steadily thereafter.

Shindell, Drew; Lamarque, J.-F.; Schulz, M.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Chin, Mian; Young, P. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Rotstayn, Leon; Mahowald, N. M.; Milly, G.; Faluvegi, G.; Balkanski, Y.; Collins, W. J.; Conley, Andrew; Dalsoren, S.; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; Liu, Xiaohong; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Takemura, T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Lo, Fiona

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Linking future aerosol radiative forcing to shifts in source activities Dorothy Koch,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

because of economic growth, or the desire to mitigate climate effects or improve air quality, affect all or 'black carbon' (BC) that also absorb incoming solar radiation, exert a positive radiative forcing depend upon fuels burned and technologies used in various energy- related activities. Actions that occur

8

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol radiative forcing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

No. DE- Summary: : WHY MEASUREMENTS ALONE CANNOT QUANTIFY AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCING OF CLIMATE CHANGE Stephen E. Schwartz... of radiative forcing of climate change by aerosols,...

9

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Cloud Radiative Forcing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cloud Radiative Forcing at the ARM Climate Research Facility: Part 2. The Cloud Radiative Forcing at the ARM Climate Research Facility: Part 2. The Vertical Redistribution of Radiant Energy by Clouds. Mace, Gerald University of Utah Benson, Sally University of Utah Kato, Seiji Hampton University/NASA Langley Research Center Documentation with data of the effects of clouds on the radiant energy balance of the surface and atmosphere represent a critical shortcoming in the set of observations that are needed to ascertain the validity of model simulations of the earth's climate. While clouds are known to cool the climate system from TOA radiation budget studies, the redistribution of energy between the surface and atmosphere and within the atmosphere by clouds has not been examined in detail. Using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP)

10

Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM`s highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM`s experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

Patrinos, A.A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ellingson, R.G. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM's highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM's experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

Patrinos, A.A. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Ellingson, R.G. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Indirect radiative forcing by ion-mediated nucleation of aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A clear understanding of particle formation mechanisms is critical for assessing aerosol indirect radiative forcing and associated climate feedback processes. Recent studies reveal the importance of ion-mediated nucleation (IMN) in generating new particles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. Here we implement for the first time a physically based treatment of IMN into the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. Our simulations show that, compared to globally averaged results based on binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN), the presence of ionization (i.e., IMN) halves H2SO4 column burden, but increases the column integrated nucleation rate by around one order of magnitude, total particle number burden by a factor of ~ 3, CCN burden by ~ 10% (at 0.2% supersaturation) to 65% (at 1.0% supersaturation), and cloud droplet number burden by ~ 18%. Compared to BHN, IMN increases cloud liquid water path by 7.5%, decreases precipitation by 1.1%, and increases total cloud cover by 1.9%. This leads to an increase of total shortwave cloud radiative forcing by 3.67 W/m2 (more negative) and longwave cloud forcing by 1.78 W/m2 (more positive), resulting in a -1.9 W/m2 net change in cloud radiative forcing associated with IMN. The significant impacts of ionization on global aerosol formation, CCN abundance, and cloud radiative forcing may provide an important physical mechanism linking the global energy balance to various processes affecting atmospheric ionization, which should be properly represented in climate models.

Yu, Fangqun; Luo, Gan; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Xiaoyan; Ghan, Steven J.

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

13

Surface summertime radiative forcing by shallow cumuli at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although shallow cumuli are common over large areas of the globe, their impact on the surface radiative forcing has not been carefully evaluated. This study addresses this shortcoming by analyzing data from days with shallow cumuli collected over eight summers (2000-2007) at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (collectively ACRF) Southern Great Plains site. During periods with clouds, the average shortwave and longwave radiative forcings are 45.5 W m-2 and +11.6 W m-2, respectively. The forcing has been defined so that a negative (positive) forcing indicates a surface cooling (warming). On average, the shortwave forcing is negative, however, instances with positive shortwave forcing are observed approximately 20% of the time. These positive values of shortwave forcing are associated with three-dimensional radiative effects of the clouds. The three-dimensional effects are shown to be largest for intermediate cloud amounts. The magnitude of the three-dimensional effects decreased with averaging time, but it is not negligibly small even for large averaging times as long as four hours.

Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Mills Jr., David L.

2011-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

14

Vibration and acoustic radiation from inhomogeneous structures: Effect of motion of forcing function  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Homogeneous structures are known to radiate only for supersonic structural wavenumbers. The presence of inhomogeneities such as boundaries discrete stiffeners and variable stiffness has been shown to introduce additional modes that will radiate if the structural wavenumbers are supersonic. The radiation pattern for an infinite plate with evenly spaced stiffness gives rise to a stop?passband spectrum. The plate with a continuously varying stiffness also gives rise to similar conditions. All of the previous analyses have always considered stationary forcing functions. In this paper the analyses for the fixed forcing function will be reviewed and then they will be generalized to the case of the forcing function moving along the plate at speeds up to and greater than the wave speeds in the solid. The results presented will show that for certain values of the frequency rib spacings and forcing function velocity traveling wave modes may change direction decaying modes may become traveling modes and modes may change from subsonic to supersonic and vice versa depending upon the relative motion of the forcing function. The effect of the motion may thus enhance or reduce the acoustic radiation.

Mauro Pierucci

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

atoms. Radioactive Contamination Radioactive contamination is radioactive material distributed over some the effects of radiation. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the spontaneous transformation of an unstable atom or a disintegrations of an atom. Radioactive Material Radioactive Material is any material that contains radioactive

Vallino, Joseph J.

16

Shortwave Spectral Radiative Forcing of Cumulus Clouds from Surface Observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spectral changes of the total cloud radiative forcing (CRF) and its diffuse and direct components are examined by using spectrally resolved (visible spectral range) all-sky surface irradiances measured by Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer. We demonstrate: (i) the substantial contribution of the diffuse component to the total CRF, (ii) the well-defined spectral variations of total CRF in the visible spectral region, and (iii) the strong statistical relationship between spectral (500 nm) and shortwave broadband values of total CRF. Our results suggest that the framework based on the visible narrowband fluxes can provide important radiative quantities for rigorous evaluation of radiative transfer parameterizations and can be applied for estimation of the shortwave total CRF.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Berg, Larry K.; Long, Charles N.; Flynn, Connor J.

2011-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

17

Human Radiation Experiments: Related Sites  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Experiment Experiment Related Sites Related Links Home Roadmap What's New Search HREX Multimedia Related Sites Federal DOE DOE Sites & National Laboratories Federal Other The following are organizations which provide related information and links to databases, electronic documents, and servers. FEDERAL - DOE U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) homepage (http://www.doe.gov/)contains information on DOE's Departmental Resources, Programs, Offices, National Labs and other DOE related topics. DOE's Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Technical Information Services (TIS) homepage (http://nattie.eh.doe.gov/) is a collection of information services designed to provide safety and health professionals with reliable, accurate and current information to assist them in performing their jobs.

18

Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

19

Temperature rise and safety considerations for radiation force ultrasound imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Current models for estimating temperature increase during ultrasound exposure calculate the steady?state rise using time?averaged acoustic output as the worst case for safety consideration. While valid for the typically very short (microsecond) pulses used by conventional diagnostic techniques this analysis does not necessarily correspond to a worst case scenario for the longer pulses or pulse bursts used by a new method radiation force imaging. Radiation force imaging employing ultrasound pulse durations up to hundreds of milliseconds produces and detects motion in solid tissue or acoustic streaming in fluids via a high intensity beam. Models that calculate the transient temperature rise from these pulses are developed for both the bone at focus and soft tissue cases. Based on accepted timetemperature dose criteria it is shown that for pulse lengths and intensities utilized by this technique temperature may increase to levels that raise safety concerns for bone at the focus of the ultrasound beam. Also the impact on this modality of the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration output limits for diagnostic ultrasound devices is discussed.

Bruce A. Herman; Gerald R. Harris

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Global Warming Potential and Global Warming Commitment Concepts in the Assessment of Climate Radiative Forcing Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Radiative Forcing (RF ... CS) and Individual (IS) schemes. The Global Warming Commitment (GWC) is calculated by the...

Igor L. Karol; Victor A. Frolkis

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

SURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE VARIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE/Atmospheric Sciences Division Brookhaven National Laboratory P.O. Box, Upton, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Cloud-induced climate change. Cloud-radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo are three key quantities

22

Observations of x-ray radiation pressure force on individual gold nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report observations of x-ray radiation pressure force on individual single nanocrystals using an x-ray single molecular methodology. The observed gold nanocrystals are linked to the adsorbed protein molecules. We observed the directed Brownian motion of individual linked nanocrystals. The observed force is estimated at about 0.13-0.63 aN. We will be able to control and measure dynamics of micro- or nanocrystalline materials using x-ray radiation pressure force.

Sasaki, Yuji C.; Okumura, Yasuaki; Miyazaki, Takuya; Higurashi, Takashi; Oishi, Noboru [Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, Sayou, Hyogo 679-5198, Japan and CREST Sasaki-team, Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), Tachikawa 190-0012 (Japan); Biotechnology Research Center, Teikyo University, Miyamae, Kawasaki 216-0001, Japan and CREST Sasaki-team, Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), Tachikawa 190-0012 (Japan)

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE The Radiation Safety Committee shall advise the Provost on all policy matters relating to radiation safety;  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATION SAFETY COMMITTEE Functions The Radiation Safety Committee shall advise the Provost on all policy matters relating to radiation safety; formulate campus radiation safety policies in compliance the Risk Manager) monitor the performance of the Radiation Safety Officer as it relates to implementation

Sze, Lawrence

24

Measurements of Relative K Radiative Decay Rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Relative radiative decay rates were measured for K-shell vacancies for elements between Z=62and92 with a high-resolution Ge(Li) spectrometer. The ratios ?2?1, ?1??1, and ?2??1 (Siegbahn notation) were determined, with ?2?1 significantly higher (4-14%) than those reported by Beckman but in excellent agreement with recent Hartree-Slater calculations of Scofield. The ratios ?1??1 and ?2??1 do not agree with either Beckman's experiment or Scofield's calculations.

P. J. Ebert and V. W. Slivinsky

1969-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

25

The Effect of Non-Lambertian Surface Reflectance on Aerosol Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface reflectance is an important factor in determining the strength of aerosol radiative forcing. Previous studies of radiative forcing assumed that the reflected surface radiance is isotropic and does not depend on incident illumination angle. This Lambertian reflection model is not a very good descriptor of reflectance from real land and ocean surfaces. In this study we present computational results for the seasonal average of short and long wave aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface. The effect of the Lambertian assumption is found through comparison with calculations using a more detailed bi-direction reflectance distribution function (BRDF).

Ricchiazzi, P.; O'Hirok, W.; Gautier, C.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

26

Analysis of radiation exposure, Task Force RAZOR. Exercise Desert Rock VI, Operation Teapot. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiation dose to Task Force RAZOR personnel participating in Shot Apple II of Operation Teapot, Exercise Desert Rock VI, is reconstructed. Task force personnel were exposed to initial radiation while in their vehicles or in trenches at the time of Apple II detonation. They were also exposed to residual radiation during their subsequent manuever and during an inspection of the equipment display area. The calculated total gamma doses to fully-participating Task Force RAZOR personnel range from about 0.8 rem to 1.8 rem. The highest dose was received by personnel of the armored infantry platoon on right flank nearest ground zero. Internal radiation dose commitments to maximally exposed personnel inside vehicles are estimated to be about 0.4 rem to the thyroid, 0.003 rem to the whole body, and 0.002 rem to the bone.

Edwards, R.; Goetz, J.; Klemm, J.

1983-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Using Surface Remote Sensors to Derive Mixed-Phase Cloud Radiative Forcing:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Using Surface Remote Sensors to Derive Mixed-Phase Cloud Radiative Forcing: Using Surface Remote Sensors to Derive Mixed-Phase Cloud Radiative Forcing: An Example from M-PACE Title Using Surface Remote Sensors to Derive Mixed-Phase Cloud Radiative Forcing: An Example from M-PACE Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors de Boer, Gijs, William D. Collins, Surabi Menon, and Charles N. Long Journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Volume 11 Start Page 11937 Pagination 11937-11949 Abstract Measurements from ground-based cloud radar, high spectral resolution lidar and microwave radiometer are used in conjunction with a column version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) and radiosonde measurements to derive the surface radiative properties under mixed-phase cloud conditions. These clouds were observed during the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Experiment (M-PACE) between September and November of 2004. In total, sixteen half hour time periods are reviewed due to their coincidence with radiosonde launches. Cloud liquid (ice) water paths are found to range between 11.0-366.4 (0.5-114.1) gm-2, and cloud physical thicknesses fall between 286-2075 m. Combined with temperature and hydrometeor size estimates, this information is used to calculate surface radiative flux densities using RRTMG, which are demonstrated to generally agree with measured flux densities from surface-based radiometric instrumentation. Errors in longwave flux density estimates are found to be largest for thin clouds, while shortwave flux density errors are generally largest for thicker clouds. A sensitivity study is performed to understand the impact of retrieval assumptions and uncertainties on derived surface radiation estimates. Cloud radiative forcing is calculated for all profiles, illustrating longwave dominance during this time of year, with net cloud forcing generally between 50 and 90 Wm-2.

28

Aerosol Radiative Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions.in Winter ZCAREX-2001  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions in Winter ZCAREX-2001 G. S. Golitsyn, I. A. Gorchakova, and I. I. Mokhov Institute of Atmospheric Physic Moscow, Russia Introduction Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) is estimated for winter clear-sky conditions from measurements during ZCAREX-2001-Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Experiment in February-March, 2001 at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station (ZSS) of the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. ARF in the shortwave range is determined by the difference between the net fluxes of the solar radiation, calculated with and without the aerosol component of the atmosphere. The estimates of ARF are made for conditions with high surface albedo. Data Used The following data of atmospheric characteristics observed during winter are used for the

29

Synthetic Lorentz force in classical atomic gases via Doppler effect and radiation pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We theoretically predict a novel type of synthetic Lorentz force for classical (cold) atomic gases, which is based on the Doppler effect and radiation pressure. A fairly uniform and strong force can be constructed for gases in macroscopic volumes of several cubic millimeters and more. This opens the possibility to mimic classical charged gases in magnetic fields, such as those in a tokamak, in cold atom experiments.

Dub?ek, T; Juki?, D; Aumiler, D; Ban, T; Buljan, H

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Anthropogenic NO2 in the Atmosphere: Estimates of the Column Content and Radiative Forcing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Anthropogenic NO Anthropogenic NO 2 in the Atmosphere: Estimates of the Column Content and Radiative Forcing A. N. Rublev Institution of Molecular Physics Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute Moscow, Russia N Chubarova Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University Moscow, Russia G. Gorchakov Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia Introduction The work summarizes the different methodical aspects, firstly, the use of atmosphere optical depths presented in Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for NO 2 column retrievals, and, secondly, its radiative forcing calculated as difference between integral solar fluxes absorbed in the atmosphere with and without NO 2 under given air mass or the sun zenith angle.

31

Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Comparative Decomposition of Aerosol Direct, Semidirect, and Indirect Radiative Forcing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors have decomposed the anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing into direct contributions from each aerosol species to the planetary energy balance through absorption and scattering of solar radiation, indirect effects of anthropogenic ...

S. J. Ghan; X. Liu; R. C. Easter; R. Zaveri; P. J. Rasch; J.-H. Yoon; B. Eaton

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 is a scenario that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m{sup -2} in the year 2100 without ever exceeding that value. Simulated with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), RCP4.5 includes long-term, global emissions of greenhouse gases, short-lived species, and land-use-land-cover in a global economic framework. RCP4.5 was updated from earlier GCAM scenarios to incorporate historical emissions and land cover information common to the RCP process and follows a cost-minimizing pathway to reach the target radiative forcing. The imperative to limit emissions in order to reach this target drives changes in the energy system, including shifts to electricity, to lower emissions energy technologies and to the deployment of carbon capture and geologic storage technology. In addition, the RCP4.5 emissions price also applies to land use emissions; as a result, forest lands expand from their present day extent. The simulated future emissions and land use were downscaled from the regional simulation to a grid to facilitate transfer to climate models. While there are many alternative pathways to achieve a radiative forcing level of 4.5 W m{sup -2}, the application of the RCP4.5 provides a common platform for climate models to explore the climate system response to stabilizing the anthropogenic components of radiative forcing.

Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page; Volke, April C.; Patel, Pralit L.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

34

Radiative forcing due to changes in ozone and methane caused by the transport sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

., 2008). This switch for SHIP is partly due to the strong direct and indirect aerosol effect from SHIP in revised form 27 September 2010 Accepted 4 October 2010 Keywords: Radiative forcing GWP GTP Shipping SHIPping and AIRcraft) are calculated using results from five global atmospheric chemistry models. Using

Haak, Hein

35

Estimate of Solar Radiative Forcing by Polluted Clouds Using OMI and SCIAMACHY Satellite Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This range of 280-1750 nm contains 92 % of the solar energy. Therefore, SCIAMACHY can be used to determineEstimate of Solar Radiative Forcing by Polluted Clouds Using OMI and SCIAMACHY Satellite Data P. These events we call polluted clouds. Next we zoom in on SW-Africa, where polluted clouds occur most frequently

Graaf, Martin de

36

Uncertainty in Modeling Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing from Size Parameterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examines the uncertainties in simulating mass balance and radiative forcing of mineral dust due to biases in the aerosol size parameterization. Simulations are conducted quasi-globally (180oW-180oE and 60oS-70oN) using the WRF24 Chem model with three different approaches to represent aerosol size distribution (8-bin, 4-bin, and 3-mode). The biases in the 3-mode or 4-bin approaches against a relatively more accurate 8-bin approach in simulating dust mass balance and radiative forcing are identified. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach simulates similar but coarser size distributions of dust particles in the atmosphere, while the 3-mode pproach retains more fine dust particles but fewer coarse dust particles due to its prescribed og of each mode. Although the 3-mode approach yields up to 10 days longer dust mass lifetime over the remote oceanic regions than the 8-bin approach, the three size approaches produce similar dust mass lifetime (3.2 days to 3.5 days) on quasi-global average, reflecting that the global dust mass lifetime is mainly determined by the dust mass lifetime near the dust source regions. With the same global dust emission (~6000 Tg yr-1), the 8-bin approach produces a dust mass loading of 39 Tg, while the 4-bin and 3-mode approaches produce 3% (40.2 Tg) and 25% (49.1 Tg) higher dust mass loading, respectively. The difference in dust mass loading between the 8-bin approach and the 4-bin or 3-mode approaches has large spatial variations, with generally smaller relative difference (<10%) near the surface over the dust source regions. The three size approaches also result in significantly different dry and wet deposition fluxes and number concentrations of dust. The difference in dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) (a factor of 3) among the three size approaches is much larger than their difference (25%) in dust mass loading. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach yields stronger dust absorptivity, while the 3-mode approach yields weaker dust absorptivity. Overall, on quasi-global average, the three size parameterizations result in a significant difference of a factor of 2~3 in dust surface cooling (-1.02~-2.87 W m-2) and atmospheric warming (0.39~0.96 W m-2) and in a tremendous difference of a factor of ~10 in dust TOA cooling (-0.24~-2.20 W m-2). An uncertainty of a factor of 2 is quantified in dust emission estimation due to the different size parameterizations. This study also highlights the uncertainties in modeling dust mass and number loading, deposition fluxes, and radiative forcing resulting from different size parameterizations, and motivates further investigation of the impact of size parameterizations on modeling dust impacts on air quality, climate, and ecosystem.

Zhao, Chun; Chen, Siyu; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Kok, Jasper; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Huang, J.

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

37

Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites ...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Other Related Sites DOE - Main Home Page - the home page for all DOE information and web sites. DOE EHSS Information Portal - source for EHSS information across the complex....

38

Truncated Moment Formalism for Radiation Hydrodynamics in Numerical Relativity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......closure relation among the radiation stress tensor, energy density, and energy flux, and a variable Eddington factor, which works...Transfer (1984) 31:149. 15) Gonzalez M. , Audit E., Huynh P. Astron. Astrophys. (2007) 464......

Masaru Shibata; Kenta Kiuchi; Yu-ichiro Sekiguchi; Yudai Suwa

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Global Distribution and Climate Forcing of Marine Organic Aerosol - Part 2: Effects on Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a 7-mode Modal Aerosol Model were conducted to assess the changes in cloud microphysical properties and radiative forcing resulting from marine organic aerosols. Model simulations show that the anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) predicted by CAM5 is decreased in absolute magnitude by up to 0.09 Wm{sup -2} (7 %) when marine organic aerosols are included. Changes in the AIF from marine organic aerosols are associated with small global increases in low-level incloud droplet number concentration and liquid water path of 1.3 cm{sup -3} (1.5 %) and 0.22 gm{sup -2} (0.5 %), respectively. Areas especially sensitive to changes in cloud properties due to marine organic aerosol include the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and North Atlantic Ocean, all of which are characterized by high marine organic emission rates. As climate models are particularly sensitive to the background aerosol concentration, this small but non-negligible change in the AIF due to marine organic aerosols provides a notable link for ocean-ecosystem marine low-level cloud interactions and may be a candidate for consideration in future earth system models.

Gantt, Brett; Xu, Jun; Meskhidze, N.; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

40

Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

DeWall, Kevin George (Pocatello, ID); Garcia, Humberto Enrique (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael George (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Axial and transverse acoustic radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in Bessel beam standing wave tweezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The axial and transverse radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in the acoustical field of Bessel beams of standing waves are evaluated. The three-dimensional components of the time-averaged force are expressed in terms of the beam-shape coefficients of the incident field and the scattering coefficients of the fluid sphere using a partial-wave expansion (PWE) method. Examples are chosen for which the standing wave field is composed of either a zero-order (non-vortex) Bessel beam, or a first-order Bessel vortex beam. It is shown here, that both transverse and axial forces can push or pull the fluid sphere to an equilibrium position depending on the chosen size parameter ka (where k is the wave-number and a the spheres radius). The corresponding results are of particular importance in biophysical applications for the design of lab-on-chip devices operating with Bessel beams standing wave tweezers. Moreover, potential investigations in acoustic levitation and related applications in particle rotation in a vortex beam may benefit from the results of this study. -- Highlights: The axial and transverse forces on a fluid sphere in acoustical Bessel beams tweezers are evaluated. The attraction or repulsion to an equilibrium position in the standing wave field is examined. Potential applications are in particle manipulation using standing waves.

Mitri, F.G., E-mail: mitri@chevron.com

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Study of cloud properties from single-scattering, radiative forcing, and retrieval perspectives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation reports on three different yet related topics in light scattering computation, radiative transfer simulation, and remote sensing implementation, regarding the cloud properties and the retrieval of cloud properties from satellite...

Lee, Yong-Keun

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

43

Multi-Dimensional Effects in Longwave Radiative Forcing of PBL Clouds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Multi-Dimensional Effects in Longwave Radiative Forcing of PBL Clouds D. B. Mechem and Y. L. Kogan Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma M. Ovtchinnikov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington K. F. Evans University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado A. B. Davis Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico R. F. Cahalan National Aeronautic and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland E. E. Takara and R. G. Ellingson Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida 1. Introduction Numerical cloud models nearly universally employ one-dimensional (1D) treatments of radiative transfer (RT). Radiative transfer is typically implemented as a 2- or 4-stream approximation to the

44

Kappa - Poincare dispersion relations and the black hole radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Following the methods developed by Corley and Jacobson, we consider qualitatively the issue of Hawking radiation in the case when the dispersion relation is dictated by quantum kappa-Poincare algebra. This relation corresponds to field equations that are non-local in time, and, depending on the sign of the parameter kappa, to sub- or superluminal signal propagation. We also derive the conserved inner product, that can be used to count modes, and therefore to obtain the spectrum of black hole radiation in this case.

A. Blaut; J. Kowalski-Glikman; D. Nowak-Szczepaniak

2001-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

45

Radiation Therapy for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the enormity of the public health burden imposed by age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), much effort has been directed toward identifying effective and efficient treatments. Currently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections have demonstrated considerably efficacy in treating neovascular ARMD, but patients require frequent treatment to fully benefit. Here, we review the rationale and evidence for radiation therapy of ARMD. The results of early photon external beam radiation therapy are included to provide a framework for the sequential discussion of evidence for the usage of stereotactic radiation therapy, proton therapy, and brachytherapy. The evidence suggests that these 3 modern modalities can provide a dose-dependent benefit in the treatment of ARMD. Most importantly, preliminary data suggest that all 3 can be used in conjunction with anti-VEGF therapeutics, thereby reducing the frequency of anti-VEGF injections required to maintain visual acuity.

Kishan, Amar U. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Modjtahedi, Bobeck S.; Morse, Lawrence S. [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California (United States)] [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California (United States); Lee, Percy, E-mail: percylee@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surface-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. The analytical expression is then used to deduce a new approach for inferring cloud albedo from concurrent surface-based measurements of downwelling surface shortwave radiation and cloud fraction. High-resolution decade-long data on cloud albedos are obtained by use of this surface-based approach over the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiaton Measurement (ARM) Program at the Great Southern Plains (SGP) site. The surface-based cloud albedos are further compared against those derived from the coincident GOES satellite measurements. The three long-term (1997-2009) sets of hourly data on shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo collected over the SGP site are analyzed to explore the multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations. The analytical formulation is useful for diagnosing deficiencies of cloud-radiation parameterizations in climate models.

Liu, Y.; Wu, W.; Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.

2011-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

47

Temporal Variability of Aerosol Properties during TCAP: Impact on Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ground-based remote sensing and in situ observations of aerosol microphysical and optical properties have been collected during summertime (June-August, 2012) as part of the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/), which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (http://www.arm.gov/). The overall goal of the TCAP field campaign is to study the evolution of optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol transported from North America to the Atlantic and their impact on the radiation energy budget. During TCAP, the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed on Cape Cod, an arm-shaped peninsula situated on the easternmost portion of Massachusetts (along the east coast of the United States) and that is generally downwind of large metropolitan areas. The AMF site was equipped with numerous instruments for sampling aerosol, cloud and radiative properties, including a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), and a three-wavelength nephelometer. In this study we present an analysis of diurnal and day-to-day variability of the column and near-surface aerosol properties obtained from remote sensing (MFRSR data) and ground-based in situ measurements (SMPS, APS, and nephelometer data). In particular, we show that the observed diurnal variability of the MFRSR aerosol optical depth is strong and comparable with that obtained previously from the AERONET climatology in Mexico City, which has a larger aerosol loading. Moreover, we illustrate how the variability of aerosol properties impacts the direct aerosol radiative forcing at different time scales.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

State-Space Realization of the Wave-Radiation Force within FAST: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several methods have been proposed in the literature to find a state-space model for the wave-radiation forces. In this paper, four methods were compared, two in the frequency domain and two in the time domain. The frequency-response function and the impulse response of the resulting state-space models were compared against the ones derived by the numerical code WAMIT. The implementation of the state-space module within the FAST offshore wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool was verified, comparing the results against the previously implemented numerical convolution method. The results agreed between the two methods, with a significant reduction in required computational time when using the state-space module.

Duarte, T.; Sarmento, A.; Alves, M.; Jonkman, J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Multi-Dimensional Broadband IR Radiative Forcing of Marine Stratocumulus in a Large Eddy Simulation Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to address the interactive and evolutionary nature of the cloud-radiation interaction, we have coupled to a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model the sophisticated multi-dimensional radiative transfer (MDRT) scheme of Evans (Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinate Method; 1998). Because of computational expense, we are at this time only able to run 2D experiments. Preliminary runs consider only the broadband longwave component, in large part because IR cloud top cooling is the significant forcing mechanism for marine stratocumulus. Little difference is noted in the evolution of unbroken stratocumulus between three-hour runs using MDRT and independent pixel approximation (IPA) for 2D domains of 50 km in the horizontal and 1.5 km in the vertical. Local heating rates differ slightly near undulating regions of cloud top, and a slight bias in mean heating rate from 1 to 3 h is present, yet the differences are never strong enough to result in a pronounced evolutionary bias in typical boundary layer metrics (e.g. inversion height, vertical velocity variance, TKE). Longer integration times may eventually produce a physical response to the bias in radiative cooling rates. A low-CCN case, designed to produce significant drizzle and induce cloud breakup does show subtle differences between MDRT and IPA. Over the course of the 6 hour simulations, entrainment is slightly less in the MDRT case, and the transition to the surface-based trade cumulus regime is delayed. Mean cooling rates appear systematically weaker in the MDRT case, indicative of a less energetic PBL and reflected in profiles of vertical velocity variance and TKE.

Mechem, David B.; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Kogan, Y. L.; Davis, Anthony B; Cahalan, Robert F.; Takara, Ezra E.; Ellingson, Robert G.

2002-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

50

Evaluation of Cloud Type Occurrences and Radiative Forcings Simulated by a Cloud Resolving Model Using Observations from Sa...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cloud Type Occurrences Cloud Type Occurrences and Radiative Forcings Simulated by a Cloud Resolving Model Using Observations from Satellite and Cloud Radar Y. Luo and S. K. Krueger University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Introduction Because of both the various effects clouds exert on the earth-atmospheric system and the cloud feedback, correct representations of clouds in numerical models are critical for accurate climate modeling and weather forecast. Unfortunately, determination of clouds and their radiative feedback processes is still the weakest component of current general circulation models (e.g., Senior and Mitchell 1993, Cess et al. 1996). Using radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) available from satellite observations made by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE; Barkstrom 1984), one could assess cloud radiative effects

51

A Sensitivity Study on Modeling Black Carbon in Snow and its Radiative Forcing over the Arctic and Northern China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon in snow (BCS) simulated in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is evaluated against measurements over Northern China and the Arctic, and its sensitivity to atmospheric deposition and two parameters that affect post-depositional enrichment is explored. The BCS concentration is overestimated (underestimated) by a factor of two in Northern China (Arctic) in the default model, but agreement with observations is good over both regions in the simulation with improvements in BC transport and deposition. Sensitivity studies indicate that uncertainty in the melt-water scavenging efficiency (MSE) parameter substantially affects BCS and its radiative forcing (by a factor of 2-7) in the Arctic through post-depositional enrichment. The MSE parameter has a relatively small effect on the magnitude of BCS seasonal cycle but can alter its phase in Northern China. The impact of the snow aging scaling factor (SAF) on BCS, partly through the post-depositional enrichment effect, shows more complex latitudinal and seasonal dependence. Similar to MSE, SAF affects more significantly the magnitude (phase) of BCS season cycle over the Arctic (Northern China). While uncertainty associated with the representation of BC transport and deposition processes in CAM5 is more important than that associated with the two snow model parameters in Northern China, the two uncertainties have comparable effect in the Arctic.

Qian, Yun; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Flanner, M. G.; Rasch, Philip J.

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

52

Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 2: Long-term monitoring and modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. This is the second volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. The first volume described the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. This second volume updates and completes the presentation of data to compare performance of fresh coatings with weathered coatings.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

O{sub 3} and stratospheric H{sub 2}O radiative forcing resulting from a supersonic jet transport emission scenario  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tropospheric radiative forcing has been calculated for ozone and water vapor perturbations caused by a realistic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft emission scenario. Atmospheric profiles of water vapor and ozone were obtained using the LLNL 2-D chemical-radiative-transport model (CRT) of the global troposphere and stratosphere. IR radiative forcing calculations were made with the LLNL correlated k-distribution radiative transfer model. UV-Visible-Near IR radiative forcing calculations were made with the LLNL two stream solar radiation model. For the case of water vapor the IR and Near IR radiative forcing was determined at five different latitudes and then averaged using an appropriate latitudinal average to obtain the global average value. Global average values of radiative forcing were approximately 1.2--2.6 10{sup {minus}3} W/m{sup 2}, depending on the background atmospheric water vapor profile. This result is consistent with prior published values for a similar aircraft scenario and supports the conclusion that the water vapor climate forcing effect is very small. The radiative forcing in the IR and UV-Visible spectral ranges, due to the ozone perturbation, was calculated for the globally averaged atmosphere. Global average values of the radiative forcing were 0.034 W/m{sup 2} for the UV-Visible spectral range and 0.006 W/m{sup 2} for the IR spectral range (0.04 W/m{sup 2} total). This result is also consistent with the range of published values obtained for a similar HSCT scenario. As was the case for water vapor, the ozone forcing is too small to be of major consequence.

Grossman, A.S.; Kinnison, D.E.; Penner, J.E.; Grant, K.E.; Tamaresis, J.; Connell, P.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Atmospheric Science Research Div.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Three-body radiative heat transfer and Casimir-Lifshitz force out of thermal equilibrium for arbitrary bodies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the Casimir-Lifshitz force and the radiative heat transfer in a system consisting of three bodies held at three independent temperatures and immersed in a thermal environment, the whole system being in a stationary configuration out of thermal equilibrium. The theory we develop is valid for arbitrary bodies, i.e. for any set of temperatures, dielectric and geometrical properties, and describes each body by means of its scattering operators. For the three-body system we provide a closed-form unified expression of the radiative heat transfer and of the Casimir-Lifshitz force (both in and out of thermal equilibrium). This expression is thus first applied to the case of three planar parallel slabs. In this context we discuss the non-additivity of the force at thermal equilibrium, as well as the equilibrium temperature of the intermediate slab as a function of its position between two external slabs having different temperatures. Finally, we consider the force acting on an atom inside a planar cavity. We show that, differently from the equilibrium configuration, the absence of thermal equilibrium admits one or more positions of minima for the atomic potential. While the corresponding atomic potential depths are very small for typical ground state atoms, they may become particularly relevant for Rydberg atoms, becoming a promising tool to produce an atomic trap.

Riccardo Messina; Mauro Antezza

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

55

Dynamic Effects on the Tropical Cloud Radiative Forcing and Radiation Budget JIAN YUAN, DENNIS L. HARTMANN, AND ROBERT WOOD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the tropics, using the methodology suggested by Bony et al. Cloud and radiation budget quantities source of uncertainty in pre- dicting future climate (Cess et al. 2001b; Stephens 2005; Solomon et al

Wood, Robert

56

Response of tropical sea surface temperature, precipitation, and tropical cyclone-related variables to changes in global and local forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A single-column model is used to estimate the equilibrium response of sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation, and several variables related to tropical cyclone (TC) activity to changes in both local and global forcing. ...

Sobel, Adam

57

Assessment of sea-ice albedo radiative forcing and feedback over the Northern Hemisphere from 1982 to 2009 using satellite and reanalysis data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The decreasing surface albedo caused by continously retreating sea ice over Arctic plays a critical role in Arctic warming amplification. However, the quantification of the change in radiative forcing at top of atmosphere (TOA) introduced by the ...

Yunfeng Cao; Shunlin Liang; Xiaona Chen; Tao He

58

Correlation between present-day model simulation of Arctic cloud radiative forcing and sea ice consistent with positive winter convective cloud feedback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A positive feedback on winter sea-ice loss, based on warming due to radiative forcing caused by the onset of convective clouds in response to sea-ice loss, has recently been proposed. This feedback has thus far been ...

Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

59

Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

Schwarz, J. P.

60

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,2 J. S. Fuglestvedt,1 G. Marston,3 G. Myhre,1 C. J. Nielsen,4 K. P. Shine,2 and T. J. Wallington5. Nielsen, K. P. Shine, and T. J. Wallington (2013), Global warming potentials and radiative ef ciencies

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Remaining Life Related Issues Being Pursued at DRDO for Indian Air Force  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hot section components of an aircraft gas turbine engine are critical to the performance and safety during the operation of military aircraft, where the service spectra are highly random and relatively severe in terms of the loading rates. DMRL, in collaboration with Indian Air Force (IAF), has initiated a project for the estimation of remaining life as well as life extension of military aeroengines of various origins. This is based on extensive laboratory specimen-level material characterization in terms of fatigue and creep, followed by the scale-up of experimental results to actual component. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is an indispensable engineering tool for evaluation of the mechanical variables that determine crack initiation and growth, apart from material degradation prior to physical failure. DMRL's understanding and experience with FEA applications and damage mechanics concepts in these areas are briefly discussed in this paper.

Vikas Kumar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Phononic-Crystal-Based Acoustic Sieve for Tunable Manipulations of Particles by a Highly Localized Radiation Force  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability to manipulate microscale and nanoscale particles is highly desirable for various applications ranging from targeting drug delivery to additive manufacturing. Here we report an acoustic sieve that is capable of aligning, trapping, sorting, and transferring a large number of particles according to their size or mass density, all in a tunable manner. The concept is based on the highly localized periodic radiation force induced by the resonance transmission of an acoustic wave across a phononic crystal plate, a phenomenon analogous to the surface-phonon-enhanced optical force, yet the physical concept has not been explored in acoustics. The acoustic sieve demonstrates the effective manipulation of massive particles using an artificially engineered acoustic field by a phononic crystal, and it has potential application for a wide range of applications.

Fei Li; Feiyan Cai; Zhengyou Liu; Long Meng; Ming Qian; Chen Wang; Qian Cheng; Menglu Qian; Xin Liu; Junru Wu; Jiangyu Li; Hairong Zheng

2014-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

63

Radiation Pressure on a Test Particle in General Relativity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... order in M'. This definition agrees with the conventional definition of stationarity in the Schwarzschild case (M? = 0). Corrections to the metric because of the energy density ... travel time across the object can hardly exceed 104 yr. 1 use Vaidya's Radiation Schwarzschild Metric6'8

PETER D. NOERDLINGER

1972-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

64

Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and air pollutants during the springtime in Southeast Asia. At Lulin mountain background station (elevation 2862 m) in Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter particles with diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10), were measured around 150-250 ppb, 40-60 ppb, and 10-30?g/m3, respectively at spring time (February-April) during 2006 and 2009, which are about 2~3 times higher than those in other seasons. Observations and simulation results indicate that the higher concentrations during the spring time are clearly related to biomass burning plumes transported from the Indochina Peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosols optical depth (AOD) were identified by the satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15-18 March, 2008. AOD reached as high as 0.8-1.0 in Indochina ranging from 10 to 22N and 95 to 107E. Organic carbon (OC) is a major contributor of AOD over Indochina according to simulation results. The contributor of AOD from black carbon (BC) is minor when compared with OC over the Indochina. However, the direct absorption radiative forcing of BC in the atmosphere could reach 35-50 W m-2, which is about 8-10 times higher than that of OC. The belt shape of radiation reduction at surface from Indochina to Taiwan could be as high 20-40 W m-2 during the study period. The implication of the radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia is our major concern.

Lin, Chuan-Yao; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chen, Wei-Nei

2014-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

65

Motion of small bodies in general relativity: foundations and implementations of the self-force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extreme mass-ratio inspirals, in which solar-mass compact bodies spiral into supermassive black holes, are an important potential source for gravitational wave detectors. Because of the extreme mass-ratio, one can model these systems using perturbation theory. However, in order to relate the motion of the small body to the emitted waveform, one requires a model that is accurate on extremely long timescales. Additionally, in order to avoid intractable divergences, one requires a model that treats the small body as asymptotically small rather than exactly pointlike. Both of these difficulties can be resolved by using techniques of singular perturbation theory. I begin this dissertation with an analysis of singular perturbation theory on manifolds, including the common techniques of matched asymptotic expansions and two-timescale expansions. I then formulate a systematic asymptotic expansion in which the metric perturbation due to the body is expanded while a representative worldline is held fixed, and I contrast it with a regular expansion in which both the metric and the worldline must be expanded. This results in an approximation that is potentially uniformly accurate on long timescales. The equation of motion for the body's fixed worldline is determined by performing a local-in-space expansion in the neighbourhood of the body. Using this local expansion as boundary data, I construct a global solution to the perturbative Einstein equation. To concretely characterize orbits, I next devise a relativistic generalization of the Newtonian method of osculating orbits. Making use of this method and two-timescale expansions, I examine the utility of adiabatic approximations that can forgo an explicit calculation of the force.

Adam Pound

2010-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

66

Theory of the D+D Reactions Part II. Relation to the Internucleonic Forces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The adequacy of current ideas about the internucleonic forces in accounting for the observations as analyzed in Part I is investigated. In particular, the adequacy of the spin-orbit coupling provided by the tensor forces is examined. To this end, a "minimal" formulation of the four-body problem is attempted. The interaction responsible for the reaction is derived. Some order-of-magnitude comparisons with the experimental data are presented.

J. R. Pruett; F. M. Beiduk; E. J. Konopinski

1950-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Galectin-1 Mediates Radiation-Related Lymphopenia and Attenuates NSCLC Radiation Response  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...lung cancer (NSCLC)] and head and neck cancer patients. Results...different sites, including brain, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis...with radiation in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). These...newly diagnosed squamous cell head and neck cancer.Head Neck...

Peiwen Kuo; Scott V. Bratman; David B. Shultz; Rie von Eyben; Cato Chan; Ziwei Wang; Carmen Say; Aparna Gupta; Bill W. Loo, Jr; Amato J. Giaccia; Albert C. Koong; Maximilian Diehn; Quynh-Thu Le

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Conservative Moment Equations for Neutrino Radiation Transport with Limited Relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive conservative, multidimensional, energy-dependent moment equations for neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae and related astrophysical systems, with particular attention to the consistency of conservative four-momentum and lepton number transport equations. After taking angular moments of conservative formulations of the general relativistic Boltzmann equation, we specialize to a conformally flat spacetime, which also serves as the basis for four further limits. Two of these---the multidimensional special relativistic case, and a conformally flat formulation of the spherically symmetric general relativistic case---are given in appendices for the sake of comparison with extant literature. The third limit is a weak-field, `pseudo-Newtonian' approach \\citep{kim_etal_2009,kim_etal_2012} in which the source of the gravitational potential includes the trace of the stress-energy tensor (rather than just the mass density), and all orders in fluid velocity $v$ are retained. Our primary interest here ...

Endeve, Eirik; Mezzacappa, Anthony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Response of Colorado River runoff to dust radiative forcing in snow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...smaller than that of dust loading (45...downwind of several coal-fired power plants...energy-related combustion, 18502000 . Global...The ecology of dust . Front Ecol Environ...saturation vapor pressure at the snow surface...after disturbance dust loading (ADL) parameterization...

Thomas H. Painter; Jeffrey S. Deems; Jayne Belnap; Alan F. Hamlet; Christopher C. Landry; Bradley Udall

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 1: Pre-coating monitoring and fresh coating results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. The partnership of these interests is secured through a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA), in this case between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation, the manager of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and ThermShield International, Ltd., the manufacturer of the technology. This is the first volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. This volume describes the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. By including results from roofs at Tyndall AFB and from an outdoor test facility at the BTC, the data cover the range from poorly insulated to well-insulated roofs and two kinds of radiation control coatings on various roof membranes.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect radiation response Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

12;Radiative Forcings: Shortwave Forcings... What about gases that affect the greenhouse effect? Radiative forcing for greenhouse gases: Instantly... ;Radiative Forcings In ......

72

Multi-dimensional Longwave Forcing of Boundary Layer Cloud Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of multi-dimensional (MD) longwave radiative effects on cloud dynamics is evaluated in a large eddy simulation (LES) framework employing multi-dimensional radiative transfer (Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinate Method SHDOM). Simulations are performed for a case of unbroken, marine boundary layer stratocumulus and a broken field of trade cumulus. Snapshot calculations of MD and IPA (independent pixel approximation 1D) radiative transfer applied to LES cloud fields show that the total radiative forcing changes only slightly, although the MD effects significantly modify the spatial structure of the radiative forcing. Simulations of each cloud type employing MD and IPA radiative transfer, however, differ little. For the solid cloud case, relative to using IPA, the MD simulation exhibits a slight reduction in entrainment rate and boundary layer TKE relative to the IPA simulation. This reduction is consistent with both the slight decrease in net radiative forcing and a negative correlation between local vertical velocity and radiative forcing, which implies a damping of boundary layer eddies. Snapshot calculations of the broken cloud case suggest a slight increase in radiative cooling, though few systematic differences are noted in the interactive simulations. We attribute this result to the fact that radiative cooling is a relatively minor contribution to the total energetics. For the cloud systems in this study, the use of IPA longwave radiative transfer is sufficiently accurate to capture the dynamical behavior of BL clouds. Further investigations are required in order to generalize this conclusion for other cloud types and longer time integrations. 1

Mechem, David B.; Kogan, Y. L.; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Davis, Anthony B; Evans, K. F.; Ellingson, Robert G.

2008-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

73

The relation between Hawking radiation via tunnelling and the laws of black hole thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Parikh and Wilczek's original works, the laws of black hole thermodynamics are not referred and it seems that there is no relation between Hawking radiation via tunnelling and the laws of black hole thermodynamics in their works. However, taking examples for the R-N black hole and the Kerr black hole, we find that they are correlated and even consistent if the tunnelling process is a reversible process.

Yapeng Hu; Jingyi Zhang; Zheng Zhao

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

74

Longitudinal variation of tides in the MLT region: 2. Relative effects of solar radiative and latent heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of solar radiative and latent heating Xiaoli Zhang,1 Jeffrey M. Forbes,1 and Maura E. Hagan2 Received 11 study examines the relative importance of radiative heating and latent heating in accounting (GSWM) and new tidal heating rates derived from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP

Forbes, Jeffrey

75

Response of the NCAR Community Climate Model to the Radiative Forcing by the Naturally Occurring Tropospheric Aerosol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We insert the effect of naturally occurring tropospheric aerosols on solar radiation into the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM). The effect of the aerosol depends on concentration and type (continental, maritime), surface albedo, solar zenith ...

James A. Coakley Jr.; Robert D. Cess

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Results of calculations of external gamma radiation exposure rates from fallout and related radionuclide compositions. Operation Teapot, 1955  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents data on calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from events that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex.

Hicks, H.G.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

Kotter, Dale K

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

78

The Tropical Response to Extratropical Thermal Forcing in an Idealized GCM: The Importance of Radiative Feedbacks and Convective Parameterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) atmospheric energy transport per unit mass transport] of the model tropics converts the energy flux change 25% between the imposed oceanic flux and the resulting response in the atmospheric energy transportThe Tropical Response to Extratropical Thermal Forcing in an Idealized GCM: The Importance

Miami, University of

79

V444 Cyg X-ray and polarimetric variability: Radiative and Coriolis forces shape the wind collision region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results from a study of the eclipsing, colliding-wind binary V444 Cyg that uses a combination of X-ray and optical spectropolarimetric methods to describe the 3-D nature of the shock and wind structure within the system. We have created the most complete X-ray light curve of V444 Cyg to date using 40 ksec of new data from Swift, and 200 ksec of new and archived XMM-Newton observations. In addition, we have characterized the intrinsic, polarimetric phase-dependent behavior of the strongest optical emission lines using data obtained with the University of Wisconsin's Half-Wave Spectropolarimeter. We have detected evidence of the Coriolis distortion of the wind-wind collision in the X-ray regime, which manifests itself through asymmetric behavior around the eclipses in the system's X-ray light curves. The large opening angle of the X-ray emitting region, as well as its location (i.e. the WN wind does not collide with the O star, but rather its wind) are evidence of radiative braking/inhibition occurri...

Lomax, Jamie R; Hoffman, Jennifer L; Russell, Christopher M P; De Becker, Michael; Corcoran, Michael F; Davidson, James W; Neilson, Hilding R; Owocki, Stan; Pittard, Julian M; Pollock, Andy M T

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

The Relative Effects of Direct and Indirect Actions of Ionizing Radiations on Deoxyribonucleic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...determined over a range of concentrations...means that over this range of concentration...independent of the dose rate and of the hardness of the radiations within the ranges used and identical...indirect actions of ionizing radiations on deoxyribonucleic...

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Climate forcing Climate forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parameters (solar distance factors) solar luminosity moon orbit volcanoes and other geothermal sources,000 years (large panels) and since 1750 (inset panels). Measurements are shown from ice cores (symbols forcings are shown on the right hand axes of the large panels. {Figure 6.4} !"#$#%&'(!&#)$&*$+#$,-.$/0

MacKinnon, Jennifer

82

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C10, suppliment au no 11-12, Tome 34, Novembre-Dkcembre 1973,page C10-27 GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION AND GENERAL RELATIVITY (*)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a detectable flux of gravitational waves in the laboratory, but naturally occurring astronomical explosions-27 GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION AND GENERAL RELATIVITY (*) D. W. SCIAMA (**) International Centre for Theoretical of gravitational radiation, as predicted by general relativity, are described and compared with those

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

84

The Larger Opportunities for Research on the Relations of Solar and Terrestrial Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the so-called "solar constant of radiation...an insuperable obstacle to the highest...distribution of energy along the diameter of the solar image. These measurements...quantitative in terms of energy. Something can...reflecting the solar beam by means of...

C. G. Abbot

1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

The chemical composition of the cosmic radiation around the ankle and the related spectral indices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some recent measurements of the chemical composition of the cosmic radiation indicate that at the energy of 3 x 10 **18 eV, around the ankle, light cosmic ions dominate the spectrum as it occurs in the preknee energy region. Taking advantage of a recent theory of cosmic radiation which provides a quantitative explanation of the knee, the second knee and the ankle, the chemical composition of cosmic radiation is explicitly calculated giving individual ion spectra and ion fractions from 10 ** 12 eV to 5 x 10 ** 19 eV. The calculation assumes two components of the cosmic radiation feeding the ion flux at Earth: one originated in the disc volume and another one, called extradisc component, which from the disc boundaries traverses the Galaxy reaching the solar system. Data above 10 ** 17 eV collected during half century of experimentation by Auger, HiRes, Agasa, Akeno, Fly' s Eye, Yakutsk, Haverah Park and Volcano Ranch experiments are reviewed, examined and compared with the theoretical . The comparison between c...

Codino, Antonio

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Species richness and abundance of forest birds in relation to radiation at Chernobyl  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...estimated to the nearest 10% of ground coverage within a distance...sand. The presence of open water within a distance of 50 m was...beta and gamma radiation at ground level directly at each point...Chernobyl accident and their remediation: twenty years of experienceNew...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Estimation of isodose curves in radiation therapy and related response analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by a review of literature and the second by a computer program. Accompanying the literature review is a bibliography of interstitial and intracavitary radiation therapy dealing with radium and radon sources with emphasis on references dealing...- 2 active seed (usually radon or gold-198) could be made the proper strength to destroy only the tumor when placed in the center of the tumor, However, tumors are rarely or never truly spheroid and, in addition, economic considerations dictate...

Goodlett, James Campbell

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

88

Unbalanced electromagnetic forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) . I :, jazdz g (Member) (Member) August 1974 -" ~ 5:. -. 62 ABSTRACT Unbalanced Electromagnetic Forces (August 1974) Craig Martin Hansen, B. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. Attilio J. Giaroia Electromagnetic forces from moving... be deduced from the history of the development of an under- standing of electromagnetic forces. This is a relatively short history (starting in the late 1800's) filled with misunderstandings and pre]udices. This history can be divided into two eras: non...

Hansen, Craig Martin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

89

Direct Aerosol Forcing in the Infrared at the SGP Site?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Aerosol Forcing in the Infrared at the SGP Site? Direct Aerosol Forcing in the Infrared at the SGP Site? D. D. Turner and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Low level haze is often observed during the night and early morning hours in many locations. This haze is typically formed during quiescent conditions by radiative cooling of the surface, which lowers the ambient temperature and consequently increases the near-surface relative humidity (RH). Many aerosols start to deliquesce around 75% relative humidity (RH) (depending on their chemical composition), and thus if the near surface RH increases above this level, haze will form. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's ultimate goal, stated simply, is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in global climate models. Global climate models typically do not

90

R2 Solar Forcing and Climate Change of the last 1000 years SOLAR [Depending on funding available; 1 PhD only in relation to WP1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

56 R2 Solar Forcing and Climate Change of the last 1000 years SOLAR [Depending on funding available can the high-resolution solar variability during the last millennium be quantified? How can solar variability be converted into solar forcing? How can solar forcing be detected and attributed in climate

Richner, Heinz

91

Nuclear forces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These lectures present an introduction into the theory of nuclear forces. We focus mainly on the modern approach, in which the forces between nucleons emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory.

Machleidt, R. [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

92

A Mechanism-Based Approach to Predict the Relative Biological Effectiveness of Protons and Carbon Ions in Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The physical and potential biological advantages of proton and carbon ions have not been fully exploited in radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. In this work, an approach to predict proton and carbon ion relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in a representative spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) is derived using the repair-misrepair-fixation (RMF) model. Methods and Materials: Formulas linking dose-averaged linear-quadratic parameters to DSB induction and processing are derived from the RMF model. The Monte Carlo Damage Simulation (MCDS) software is used to quantify the effects of radiation quality on the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Trends in parameters {alpha} and {beta} for clinically relevant proton and carbon ion kinetic energies are determined. Results: Proton and carbon ion RBE are shown to increase as particle energy, dose, and tissue {alpha}/{beta} ratios decrease. Entrance RBE is {approx}1.0 and {approx}1.3 for protons and carbon ions, respectively. For doses in the range of 0.5 to 10 Gy, proton RBE ranges from 1.02 (proximal edge) to 1.4 (distal edge). Over the same dose range, the RBE for carbon ions ranges from 1.5 on the proximal edge to 6.7 on the distal edge. Conclusions: The proposed approach is advantageous because the RBE for clinically relevant particle distributions is guided by well-established physical and biological (track structure) considerations. The use of an independently tested Monte Carlo model to predict the effects of radiation quality on DSB induction also minimizes the number of ad hoc biological parameters that must be determined to predict RBE. Large variations in predicted RBE across an SOBP may produce undesirable biological hot and cold spots. These results highlight the potential for the optimization of physical dose for a uniform biological effect.

Frese, Malte C. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Yu, Victor K. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Stewart, Robert D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Carlson, David J., E-mail: david.j.carlson@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

A two-loop relation between inclusive radiative and semileptonic B-decay spectra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A shape-function independent relation is derived between the partial B->X_u+l+nu decay rate with a cut on P_+=E_X-P_XX_s+gamma photon-energy spectrum. The leading-power contribution to the weight function is calculated at next-to-next-to-leading order in renormalization-group improved perturbation theory, including exact two-loop matching corrections at the scale mu_i^2 ~ m_b*Lambda_{QCD}. The overall normalization of the weight function is obtained up to yet unknown corrections of order [alpha_s(m_b)]^2. Power corrections from phase-space factors are included exactly, while the remaining subleading contributions are included at first order in 1/m_b. At this level unavoidable hadronic uncertainties enter, which are estimated in a conservative way. The combined theoretical accuracy in the extraction of |V_{ub}| is at the level of 5% if a value of Delta near the charm threshold can be achieved experimentally.

Bjorn O. Lange; Matthias Neubert; Gil Paz

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

94

Relation between clinical and laboratory parameters with radiation dose rates from patients receiving iodine-131 therapy for thyroid carcinoma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......educate every patient on radiation safety procedures for the dosage...improvised containers; the safety officer transferred...origin of emission, and radiation detection survey metre...significant. SPSS for Windows software package (Release 11......

Isa Neshandar Asli; Nastaran Baharfard; Babak Shafiei; Faraj Tabei; Hamid Javadi; Mohammad Seyedabadi; Iraj Nabipour; Majid Assadi

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Coulomb force as an entropic force  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Motivated by Verlinde's theory of entropic gravity, we give a tentative explanation to the Coulomb's law with an entropic force. When trying to do this, we find the equipartition rule should be extended to charges and the concept of temperature should be reinterpreted. If one accepts the holographic principle as well as our generalizations and reinterpretations, then Coulomb's law, the Poisson equation, and the Maxwell equations can be derived smoothly. Our attempt can be regarded as a new way to unify the electromagnetic force with gravity, from the entropic origin. Possibly some of our postulates are related to the D-brane picture of black hole thermodynamics.

Wang Tower [Center for High-Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

A New Multi-Energy Neutrino Radiation-Hydrodynamics Code in Full General Relativity and Its Application to Gravitational Collapse of Massive Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new multi-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code for massive stellar core-collapse in full general relativity (GR). Employing an M1 analytical closure scheme, we solve spectral neutrino transport of the radiation energy and momentum based on a truncated moment formalism. Regarding neutrino opacities, we take into account the so-called standard set in state-of-the-art simulations, in which inelastic neutrino-electron scattering, thermal neutrino production via pair annihilation and nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung are included. In addition to gravitational redshift and Doppler effects, these energy-coupling reactions are incorporated in the moment equations in a covariant form. While the Einstein field equations and the spatial advection terms in the radiation-hydrodynamics equations are evolved explicitly, the source terms due to neutrino-matter interactions and energy shift in the radiation moment equations are integrated implicitly by an iteration method. To verify our code, we conduct several ...

Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force (PF), establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Cancels: DOE M 473.2-1A DOE M 473.2-2

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

98

Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The manual establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force, establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Chg 1 dated 3/7/06. DOE M 470.4-3A cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1, Protective Force, dated 3-7-06, Attachment 2, Contractor Requirement Document (CRD) only (except for Section C). Chg 1, dated 3-7-06, cancels DOE M 470.4-3

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

99

Bacterial stress response to environmental radiation relating to the Fukushima radiation discharge event, Japan: Will environmental bacteria alter their antibiotic susceptibility profile?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Antibiotic resistance in clinical pathogens in humans may be traced back to resistance mechanisms in environmental bacteria and any factors, which are likely to alter (upregulate) resistance in environmental organisms, is of potential and eventual consequence to human pathogens. Furthermore, sublethal doses of gamma radiation to environmental organisms may cause sublethal stress and a selective pressure, which may lead to mutational events that alter the bacterium's susceptibility profile. A gamma (?) radiation simulation experiment was performed to emulate the exposure of four environmental bacteria, including Listeria innocua, Bacillus subtilis, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to levels of radiation in and around Fukushima, Japan, equating to 1, 10 and 100 years equivalence exposure. Alteration to susceptibility to 14 antibiotics was measured as the primary endpoint. There was no significant alteration in the susceptibility of the Gram-positive organisms, whereas both Gram-negative organisms became slightly more susceptible to the antibiotics tested over time. These data indicate that such radiation exposure will not increase the antibiotic resistance profile of these organisms and hence not add to the global public health burden of increased antibiotic resistance in human bacterial pathogens.

Shigeyuki Nakanishi; John E. Moore; Motoo Matsuda; Colin E. Goldsmith; Wilson A. Coulter; Juluri R. Rao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Clear Skies A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and a better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Relationalism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article contributes to the debate of the meaning of relationalism and background independence, which has remained of interest in theoretical physics from Newton versus Leibniz through to foundational issues for today's leading candidate theories of quantum gravity. I contrast and compose the substantially different Leibniz--Mach--Barbour (LMB) and Rovelli--Crane (RC) uses of the word `relational'. Leibniz advocated primary timelessness and Mach that `time is to be abstracted from change'. I consider 3 distinct viewpoints on Machian time: Barbour's, Rovelli's and my own. I provide four expansions on Barbour's taking configuration space to be primary: to (perhaps a weakened notion of) phase space, categorizing, perspecting and propositioning. Categorizing means considering not only object spaces but also the corresponding morphisms and then functors between such pairs. Perspecting means considering the set of subsystem perspectives; this is an arena in which the LMB and Rovelli approaches make contact. By propositioning, I mean considering the set of propositions about a physical (sub)system. I argue against categorization being more than a formal pre-requisite for quantization in general; however, perspecting is a categorical operation, and propositioning leads one to considering topoi, with Isham and Doering's work represents one possibility for a mathematically sharp implementation of propositioning. Further applications of this article are arguing for Ashtekar variables as being relational in LMB as well as just the usually-ascribed RC sense, relationalism versus supersymmetry, string theory and M-theory. The question of whether scale is relational is also considered, with quantum cosmology in mind.

Edward Anderson

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

ARM - PI Product - Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Site(s) NSA SGP TWP General Description Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in

103

Relating geo-meteorological parameters to global solar radiation for Egypt by Iranna-Bapat's estimation models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Estimation of solar radiation is considered as the most important parameter for the design and development of various solar energy systems. But, the availability of the required data is very scarce and often not readily accessible. The foremost objective of the present study was to estimate the monthly average global solar radiation (GSR) at various locations for Egypt, by the generalised Iranna-Bapat's model. Iranna-Bapat's model is developed to estimate the value of global solar radiation at any location on earth surface. This model uses the most commonly measurable meteorological parameters such as ambient temperature, humidity, windspeed, moisture for a given location. A total of 11 locations spread across the country are used to validate this model. The computed values from Iranna-Bapat's model are compared with the measured values. Iranna-Bapat's model demonstrated acceptable results, and statistically displayed lower RMSE. Therefore this model could be a good estimator for predicting the global solar radiation at other locations for Egypt, where such data is not available.

Iranna Korachagaon; V.N. Bapat

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Nuclear Forces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One-meson-exchange Feynman diagrams are nonrelativistically reduced and unitarized via Schrdinger's equation. Properties of nucleon-nucleon scattering are calculated at incident laboratory energies of 25-310 MeV. Bound-state properties of the deuteron and of nuclear matter are also calculated. Mesons included are the ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, and ?. Very good over-all agreement with the experimental data is obtained. Important features of this "potential" include its momentum dependence, properly treated, and the contribution of the ? "meson," which qualitatively changes the central/tensor force ratio from that of previous phenomenological potentials.

Lester Ingber

1968-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

105

AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute). Annual research report, 1 October 1984-30 September 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst.(AFRRI) is the primary DOD facility for scientific research in the field of radiobiology and related matters. It conducts applied and basic research that is essential for the operational and medical support of the DOD. The work is carried out by five scientific departments: Behavioral sciences - Effects on ionizing radiation, chemicals, and drugs on performance. Biochemistry - Elucidation of mechanisms of injury, repair, and protection from the effects of ionizing radiation alone or in combination with other agents; development of improved methods to detect and quantify the severity of radiation injury. Experimental Hematology - Investigation of radiation injury of bone marrow; development of therapy for damage from intermediate radiation doses; determination and treatment of injuries caused by combined effects of radiation, blast, and burns. Physiology - Research on cellular, tissue, and whole-animal models to determine physiological and biophysical changes resulting from radiation either alone or in combination with drugs and other chemicals. and Radiation Sciences - Operation, maintenance, and quality control of all AFRRI radiation sources, radiation dosimetry and estimation of tissue doses at various depths in different kinds if tissues; development and use of nuclear medicine and magnetic spectroscopic techniques for determining radiation damage in animals and model systems.

Not Available

1985-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

106

Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

Michael J Iacono

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

107

Energy loss for heavy quarks in relation to light partons; is radiative energy loss for heavy quarks anomalous?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The scaling properties of jet suppression measurements are compared for non-photonic electrons ($e^{\\pm}$) and neutral pions ($\\pi^0$) in Au + Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV. For a broad range of transverse momenta and collision centralities, the comparison is consistent with jet quenching dominated by radiative energy loss for both heavy and light partons. Less quenching is indicated for heavy quarks via $e^{\\pm}$; this gives an independent estimate of the transport coefficient $\\hat{q}$ that agrees with its magnitude obtained from quenching of light partons via $\\pi^0$'s.

Roy A. Lacey; R. Wei; N. N. Ajitanand; J. M. Alexander; X. Gong; J. Jia; A. Mawi; S. Mohapatra; D. Reynolds; S. Salnikov; A. Taranenko

2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

108

Specific gene expression by extremely low-dose ionizing radiation which related to enhance proliferation of normal human diploid cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrated that X-ray irradiation at low doses of between 2 and 5 cGy stimulated proliferation of a normal human diploid. At low doses of between 2 and 5 cGy, ERK1/2 was phosphorylated as efficiently as at higher doses between 50 and 100 cGy of X-rays, while the p53 protein level was not increased by doses below 50 cGy. On the other hand, the p53 protein was efficiently accumulated at higher doses of X-ray more than 100 cGy. ERK1/2 was phosphorylated by doses over 50 cGy with increasing doses. We found that activated ERK1/2 augmented phosphorylation of the Elk-1 protein. Furthermore, over expression of ERK2 in NCI-H1299, and human lung carcinoma cells, potentiated enhanced proliferation, while down-regulation of ERK2 using the anti-sense ERK2 gene abrogated the stimulative effect of low-dose irradiation. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activate ERK1/2 kinases, which causes enhanced proliferation of cells receiving very low doses of ionizing radiation.

Masami Watanabe; Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Radiation protection and measurement issues related to cargo scanning with accelerator-produced high-energy X rays, NCRP Commentary No. 20  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......December 2008 book-review Book Review Radiation protection...technology in the current regulatory environment. The Introduction...radiation protection plan. Although there is not...radiation protection plan, the information can......

Robert May

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Quantitative evaluation of light scattering intensities of the crystalline lens for radiation related minimal change in interventional radiologists: a cross-sectional pilot study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Medical Physics and Radiation Safety, Boston University...evaluate low-dose X-ray radiation effects on the eye by...hours and scattered radiation exposure during working...performed using commercial software (JMP 7.01J). Statistical......

Toshi Abe; Shigeru Furui; Hiroshi Sasaki; Yasuo Sakamoto; Shigeru Suzuki; Tatsuya Ishitake; Kinuyo Terasaki; Hiroshi Kohtake; Alexander M. Norbash; Richard H. Behrman; Naofumi Hayabuchi

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Polymorphisms in Apoptosis- and Proliferation-Related Genes, Ionizing Radiation Exposure, and Risk of Breast Cancer among U.S. Radiologic Technologists  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation and breast cancer dose-response relationship...controls and quantified radiation breast doses in the low-to-moderate range. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers...Breast Cancer|SNPs|Ionizing radiation|Interaction|Radiobiological...

Alice J. Sigurdson; Parveen Bhatti; Michele M. Doody; Michael Hauptmann; Laura Bowen; Steven L. Simon; Robert M. Weinstock; Martha S. Linet; Marvin Rosenstein; Marilyn Stovall; Bruce H. Alexander; Dale L. Preston; Jeffrey P. Struewing; and Preetha Rajaraman

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

The Global Carbon Cycle Radiative forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, solubility defined Effective partial pressure in surface water Gas exchange between air and water driven" of carbon Cooling of high latitude surface waters increases solubility of CO2 and saturation DIC Induces in deep ocean Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, etc. returned to inorganic form in the deep waters

Follows, Mick

113

The Global Carbon Cycle Radiative forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water Gas exchange between air and water driven by partial pressure difference Ko = CO2 * / pCO2 pCO2 waters increases solubility of CO2 and saturation DIC Induces uptake of CO2 from atmosphere and increase Solubility pump Carbonate chemistry Biological pump Photosynthesis and respiration Causes of glacial

Follows, Mick

114

UNITS RELATED TO RADIATION EXPOSURE AND RADIOACTIVITY IN MASS MEDIA: THE FUKUSHIMA CASE STUDY IN EUROPE AND RUSSIA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......people are interested in how dangerous something is for them. Since...related to the estimation of health effects, they are therefore...people who want to know what is dangerous for them. Besides, these...often compared Fukushima with dangerous and non-dangerous levels......

T. Perko; Y. Tomkiv; D. H. Oughton; M. C. Cantone; E. Gallego; I. Prezelj; E. Byrkina

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Radiative Plasmas At The Edge And Their Basic Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma radiation plays the determining role in temperature balance, equilibrium and stability of plasmas at the edge of fusion devices. The differences in properties of radiative plasmas and pure hydrogen ones are significant. The sound branch is split into two branches, i.e. fast and slow sounds. They may be destabilize by radiation and stabilized by internal relative motion of species. The basic properties of radiative plasmas are discussed in the current presentation. Radiation of multi-electron impurity ions is significant, even if the impurity concentration is small. It depends strongly on the Impurity Distribution Over Ionization States (IDOIS). One can find many interesting effects taking into account the finite relaxation time of IDOIS and thermal forces. In particular, the anomalous sound damping due to the internal friction, decompression shocks, slow thermal waves, and self-sustained thermal oscillation are discussed in the current presentation. Opacity effects also are discussed in the current presentation.

Morozov, D. Kh. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' Kurchatov square, 1, MOSCOW, 123182 (Russian Federation)

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Does the Sun work as a nuclear fusion amplifier of planetary tidal forcing? A proposal for a physical mechanism based on the mass-luminosity relation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Empirical evidences show that planetary tides may influence solar activity: 1) the 11-yr Schwabe sunspot number cycle is constrained between the spring tidal period of Jupiter and Saturn, 9.93 yr, and the tidal orbital period of Jupiter, 11.86 yr, and a model based on these cycles reconstructs solar dynamics at multiple time ; 2) a measure of the alignment of Venus, Earth and Jupiter reveals quasi 11.07-yr cycles well correlated to the 11-year Schwabe solar cycles; 3) there exists a 11.08 yr cyclical recurrence in the solar jerk-shock vector, which is induced mostly by Mercury and Venus. However, Newtonian classical physics fails to explain the phenomenon. Only by means of a significant nuclear fusion amplification of the tidal gravitational potential energy released in the Sun, may planetary tides produce irradiance output oscillations with a sufficient magnitude to influence solar dynamo processes. Here we use an adaptation of the well-known mass-luminosity relation to calculate a conversion factor between ...

Scafetta, Nicola

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Modified entropic force  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The theory of statistical thermodynamics tells us the equipartition law of energy does not hold in the limit of very low temperatures. It is found the Debye model is very successful in explaining the experimental results for most of the solid objects. Motivated by this fact, we modify the entropic force formula which is proposed very recently. Since the Unruh temperature is proportional to the strength of the gravitational field, so the modified entropic force formula is an extension of the Newtonian gravity to the weak field. On the contrary, general relativity extends Newtonian gravity to the strong field case. Corresponding to Debye temperature, there exists a Debye acceleration g{sub D}. It is found the Debye acceleration is g{sub D}=10{sup -15} N kg{sup -1}. This acceleration is very much smaller than the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -4} N kg{sup -1} which is felt by Neptune and the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -10} N kg{sup -1} felt by the Sun. Therefore, the modified entropic force can be very well approximated by the Newtonian gravity in the Solar System and in the Galaxy. With this Debye acceleration, we find the current cosmic speeding up can be explained without invoking any kind of dark energy.

Gao Changjun [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, NAOC, CAS, Beijing, 100012 and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Organizations Conducting Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program DoReMi Integrating Low Dose Research High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on European Low Dose Risk Research Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiation United States Transuranium & Uranium Registries Organizations Conducting other Radiation Research Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Armed Forces Radiology Research Institute (AFRRI) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) Colorado State University Columbia University

119

Medical radiation protection in next decade  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......towards increasing radiation safety levels. Whether...users whenever the radiation dose to the patient...human errors and software-related problems...global view of radiation protection in medicine...increasing radiation safety levels. Whether......

Madan M. Rehani; Eliseo Vano

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Radiation protection: Natural radiation risks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... radiation to which humans are exposed consists of four components - cosmic, gamma, internal, radon. The relative contribution that each makes to the sum is shown in the chart. ... but exposure of the whole body to terrestrial gamma rays and of the lungs to radon daughters are influenced by the nature and location of housing. Gamma rays are emitted ...

M. C. O'Riordan

1983-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Einstein's Dream of Unified Forces - forces | U.S. DOE Office of Science  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Do all the forces become one? Do all the forces become one? The International Linear Collider The U.S. is pushing superconducting technology forward for use in future accelerators like the proposed International Linear Collider. (Credit: Fermilab) At the most fundamental level, particles and forces may converge, either through hidden principles like grand unification, or through radical physics like superstring. We already know that remarkably similar mathematical laws and principles describe all the known forces except gravity. Perhaps all forces are different manifestations of a single grand unified force, a force that would relate quarks to leptons and predict new ways of converting one kind of particle into another. Such a force might eventually make protons decay, rendering ordinary matter unstable.

122

On the Correlation between Forcing and Climate Sensitivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The possible correlation between climate sensitivity and radiative forcing is studied using versions of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) model with different climate sensitivities. No such correlation was found ...

Sokolov, Andrei

123

Hickam Air Force Base  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hickam Air Force Base spans 2,850 acres in Honolulu, Hawaii. The military base is home to the 15th Airlift Wing, the Hawaii Air National Guard, and the Pacific Air Forces headquarters.

124

Protective Force Program Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, Protective Force Program, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Does not cancel other directives.

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

125

Fluid force transducer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A. (Warrenville, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Damping of glacial-interglacial cycles from anthropogenic forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate variability over the past million years shows a strong glacial-interglacial cycle of ~100,000 years as a combined result of Milankovitch orbital forcing and climatic resonance. It has been suggested that anthropogenic contributions to radiative forcing may extend the length of the present interglacial, but the effects of anthropogenic forcing on the periodicity of glacial-interglacial cycles has received little attention. Here I demonstrate that moderate anthropogenic forcing can act to damp this 100,000 year cycle and reduce climate variability from orbital forcing. Future changes in solar insolation alone will continue to drive a 100,000 year climate cycle over the next million years, but the presence of anthropogenic warming can force the climate into an ice-free state that only weakly responds to orbital forcing. Sufficiently strong anthropogenic forcing that eliminates the glacial-interglacial cycle may serve as an indication of an epoch transition from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene.

Haqq-Misra, Jacob

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Nuclear force in Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform the quenched lattice QCD analysis on the nuclear force (baryon-baryon interactions). We employ $20^3\\times 24$ lattice at $\\beta=5.7$ ($a\\simeq 0.19$ fm) with the standard gauge action and the Wilson quark action with the hopping parameters $\\kappa=0.1600, 0.1625, 0.1650$, and generate about 200 gauge configurations. We measure the temporal correlators of the two-baryon system which consists of heavy-light-light quarks. We extract the inter-baryon force as a function of the relative distance $r$. We also evaluate the contribution to the nuclear force from each ``Feynman diagram'' such as the quark-exchange diagram individually, and single out the roles of Pauli-blocking effects or quark exchanges in the inter-baryon interactions.

T. T. Takahashi; T. Doi; H. Suganuma

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

128

Frictional forces in helical buckling of tubing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous analyses of helical buckling of tubing have not considered frictional forces. This paper describes the modifications to helical buckling theory necessary to include friction. The first need is a relationship between the buckling force and the casing to tubing contact force. This contact force is determined through use of the principle of virtual work. The next need is the relationship between the friction forces, the buckling force, and the geometry of the tubing helix. Differential equations are derived and solved for two cases of interest: buckling during the landing of the tubing and thermal and differential pressure loading subsequent to landing. Several example problems are examined to evaluate the relative importance of friction.

Mitchell, R.F.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Casimir force between integrable and chaotic pistons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have computed numerically the Casimir force between two identical pistons inside a very long cylinder, considering different shapes for the pistons. The pistons can be considered as quantum billiards, whose spectrum determines the vacuum force. The smooth part of the spectrum fixes the force at short distances, and depends only on geometric quantities like the area or perimeter of the piston. However, correcting terms to the force, coming from the oscillating part of the spectrum which is related to the classical dynamics of the billiard, are qualitatively different for classically integrable or chaotic systems. We have performed a detailed numerical analysis of the corresponding Casimir force for pistons with regular and chaotic classical dynamics. For a family of stadium billiards, we have found that the correcting part of the Casimir force presents a sudden change in the transition from regular to chaotic geometries.

Ezequiel Alvarez; Francisco Diego Mazzitelli; Alejandro G. Monastra; Diego A. Wisniacki

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

130

Detecting solar chameleons through radiation pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Light scalar fields can drive the accelerated expansion of the universe. Hence, they are obvious dark energy candidates. To make such models compatible with tests of General Relativity in the solar system and "fifth force" searches on Earth, one needs to screen them. One possibility is the so-called "chameleon" mechanism, which renders an effective mass depending on the local matter density. If chameleon particles exist, they can be produced in the sun and detected on earth exploiting the equivalent of a radiation pressure. Since their effective mass scales with the local matter density, chameleons can be reflected by a dense medium if their effective mass becomes greater than their total energy. Thus, under appropriate conditions, a flux of solar chameleons may be sensed by detecting the total instantaneous momentum transferred to a suitable opto-mechanical force/pressure sensor. We calculate the solar chameleon spectrum and the reach in the chameleon parameter space of an experiment using the preliminary re...

Baum, S; Hoffmann, D H H; Karuza, M; Semertzidis, Y K; Upadhye, A; Zioutas, K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.

Robert G. Ellingson

2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

132

Cloud Effects on Radiative Heating Rate Profiles over Darwin using ARM and A-train Radar/Lidar Observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations of clouds from the ground-based U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) and satellite-based A-train are used to compute cloud radiative forcing profiles over the ARM Darwin, Australia site. Cloud properties are obtained from both radar (the ARM Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) and the CloudSat satellite in the A-train) and lidar (the ARM Micropulse lidar (MPL) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite in the A-train) observations. Cloud microphysical properties are taken from combined radar and lidar retrievals for ice clouds and radar only or lidar only retrievals for liquid clouds. Large, statistically significant differences of up to 1.43 K/day exist between the mean ARM and A-train net cloud radiative forcing profiles. The majority of the difference in cloud radiative forcing profiles is shown to be due to a large difference in the cloud fraction above 12 km. Above this altitude the A-train cloud fraction is significantly larger because more clouds are detected by CALIPSO than by the ground-based MPL. It is shown that the MPL is unable to observe as many high clouds as CALIPSO due to being more frequently attenuated and a poorer sensitivity even in otherwise clear-sky conditions. After accounting for cloud fraction differences and instrument sampling differences due to viewing platform we determined that differences in cloud radiative forcing due to the retrieved ice cloud properties is relatively small. This study demonstrates that A-train observations are better suited for the calculation cloud radiative forcing profiles. In addition, we find that it is necessary to supplement CloudSat with CALIPSO observations to obtain accurate cloud radiative forcing profiles since a large portion of clouds at Darwin are detected by CALIPSO only.

Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

133

Cloud Formation and Acceleration in a Radiative Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a radiatively heated and cooled medium, the thermal instability is a plausible mechanism for forming clouds, while the radiation force provides a natural acceleration, especially when ions recombine and opacity increases. Here we extend Field's theory to self-consistently account for a radiation force resulting from bound-free and bound-bound transitions in the optically thin limit. We present physical arguments for clouds to be significantly accelerated by a radiation force due to lines during a nonlinear phase of the instability. To qualitatively illustrate our main points, we perform both one and two-dimensional (1-D/2-D) hydrodynamical simulations that allow us to study the nonlinear outcome of the evolution of thermally unstable gas subjected to this radiation force. Our 1-D simulations demonstrate that the thermal instability can produce long-lived clouds that reach a thermal equilibrium between radiative processes and thermal conduction, while the radiation force can indeed accelerate the clouds to ...

Proga, Daniel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Geochemistry Atomic Force Microscopy | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

imaging modes: contact, intermittent contact, phase imaging, magnetic force microscopy, electric force microscopy, surface potential microscopy, scanning capacitance microscopy,...

135

NUCLEAR PROXIMITY FORCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One might summarize of nuclear potential energy has beendegree of freedom) for the nuclear interaction between anyUniversity of California. Nuclear Proximity Forces 'I< at

Randrup, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

acute radiation rectal: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

mean instantaneous radiative forcing. Contrails cool the surface during the day and heat the surface during the night, and hence reduce the daily temperature amplitude. The net...

137

Alpha Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Basics of Radiation Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Special training in use of these instruments is essential for making accurate measurements. 4. A civil defense instrument (CD V-700) cannot detect the presence of radioactive materials that produce alpha radiation unless the radioactive materials also produce beta and/or gamma radiation.

138

Field-regulated force by grafted polyelectrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generation of mechanical force regulated by external electric field is studied both theoretically and by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The force arises in deformable bodies linked to the free end of a grafted polyelectrolyte chain which is exposed to electric field that favours its adsorption. We consider a few target bodies with different force-deformation relations including (i) linear and (ii) cubic dependences as well as (iii) Hertzian-like force. Such force-deformation relations mimic the behaviour of (i) coiled and (ii) stretched polymer chains, respectively, or (iii) that of a squeezed colloidal particle. The magnitude of the arising force varies over a wide interval although the electric field alters within a relatively narrow range only. The predictions of our theory agree quantitatively well with the results of numerical simulations. Both cases of zero and finite electrical current are investigated and we do not obtain substantial differences in the force generated. The phenomenon studied could possibly be utilised to design, e.g., vice-like devices to fix nano-sized objects.

Christian Seidel; Yury A. Budkov; Nikolay V. Brilliantov

2014-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

139

ARM - Evaluation Product - CMWG Data - SCM-Forcing Data, Cloud  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ProductsCMWG Data - SCM-Forcing Data, Cloud ProductsCMWG Data - SCM-Forcing Data, Cloud Microphysical Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : CMWG Data - SCM-Forcing Data, Cloud Microphysical Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles Site(s) GAN HFE NSA SGP TWP General Description SCM-forcing data are derived from the ARM Program observational data using the constrained variational analysis approach (Zhang and Lin 1997 and Zhang et al. 2001). The resulting products include both the large-scale forcing terms and the evaluation fields, which can be used for driving the Single-Column Models (SCMs) and Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs) and validating model simulations. Results from our studies are then used to

140

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Protective Force Program Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, PROTECTIVE FORCE PROGRAM, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Change 1 revised pages in Chapters IV and VI on 12/20/2001.

2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

142

ILC Citizens' Task Force  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force June 2008 Report of the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force 3 Contents 1 Executive Summary 3 Chapter 1 Purpose 7 Chapter 2 Origins and Purpose of the Fermilab Citizens' Task Force 15 Chapter 3 Setting the Stage 19 Chapter 4 Current Status of High Energy Physics Research 25 Chapter 5 Bringing the Next-Generation Accelerator to Fermilab 31 Chapter 6 Learning from Past Projects 37 Chapter 7 Location, Construction and Operation of Facilities Beyond Fermilab's Borders 45 Chapter 8 Health and Safety 49 Chapter 9 Environment 53 Chapter 10 Economics 59 Chapter 11 Political Considerations 65 Chapter 12 Community Engagement 77 Chapter 13 Summary 81 Appendices Appendix A. Task Force Members Appendix B. Task Force Meetings and Topics

143

Acoustic radiation from a plate with sinusoidally varying properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The acoustic radiation produced by an infinite flat plate with sinusoidally varying properties and driven by a distributed load is presented. The plate is assumed to be thin with constant thickness but with stiffness varying sinusoidally along the axis. The analysis is an extension of the work previously reported [M. Pierucci J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Suppl. 1 79 S35 (1986)]. The analysis consists of solving the coupled fluid?structure equations with the added difficulty of having nonconstant coefficients. The system reduces to a convoluted equation which has been solved analytically. The results indicate the presence of acoustic pressure components radiating in directions that are related to the difference between the forcing function wavenumber and the wavenumber of the stiffness variation. Acoustic radiation patterns will be presented.

Mauro Pierucci

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Risks from ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... RADON indoors now accounts for nearly half of the average UK population exposure to ionizing radiation ... exposure to ionizing radiation. We believe that the extent of the variation in exposure to radon in the United Kingdom and else-where and its magnitude in relation to exposures from ...

R. H. Clarke; T. R. E. Southwood

1989-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

145

Definition: Forced Outage | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Forced Outage Forced Outage Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Forced Outage The removal from service availability of a generating unit, transmission line, or other facility for emergency reasons., The condition in which the equipment is unavailable due to unanticipated failure.[1] Related Terms transmission lines, transmission line References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An i LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. nline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Forced_Outage&oldid=480310" Categories: Definitions ISGAN Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties About us Disclaimers Energy blogs Linked Data

146

Measurement of the Short-Range Attractive Force between Ge Plates Using a Torsion Balance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured the short-range attractive force between crystalline Ge plates, and found contributions from both the Casimir force and an electrical force possibly generated by surface patch potentials. Using a model of surface patch effects that generates an additional force due to a distance dependence of the apparent contact potential, the electrical force was parametrized using data at distances where the Casimir force is relatively small. Extrapolating this model, to provide a correction to the measured force at distances less than 5 {mu}m, shows a residual force that is in agreement, within experimental uncertainty, with five models that have been used to calculate the Casimir force.

Kim, W. J.; Sushkov, A. O.; Lamoreaux, S. K. [Yale University, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Dalvit, D. A. R. [Theoretical Division, MS B213, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2009-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

147

Protective Force Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To prescribe Department of Energy policy, responsibilities, and requirements for the management and operation of the Protective Force Program. Chg 1 dated 2-13-95. Cancels DOE O 5632.7 and DOE O 5632.8.

1995-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

148

ATLAS Metadata Task Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATLAS Metadata Task Force D. Costanzo, J. Cranshaw, S.provided and approved by the ATLAS TDAQ and DCS Connectinformation, go to http://atlas-connect-forum.web.cern.ch/

Costanzo, D.; ATLAS Collaboration

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Federal Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal protective forces (FPFs). Cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Constraint and Restoring Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Long-lived sensor network applications must be able to self-repair and adapt to changing demands. We introduce a new approach for doing so: Constraint and Restoring Force. CRF is a physics-inspired framework for computing ...

Beal, Jacob

2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

151

Weak nuclear forces cause the strong nuclear force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is then about ten to the power of 6 times stronger than the weak force between two lattice points.

E. L. Koschmieder

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

152

Federal Smart Grid Task Force | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Federal Smart Federal Smart Grid Task Force Federal Smart Grid Task Force Task Force Background The Federal Smart Grid Task Force was established under Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) and includes experts from eleven Federal agencies. The Department of Energy is represented by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability which is the Task Force lead, as well as the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. Task Force Mission The mission of the Task Force is to ensure awareness, coordination and integration of the diverse activities of the Federal Government related to smart grid technologies, practices, and services. The Task Force will collaborate with DOE's Electricity Advisory Committee and other relevant

153

The effective spectral irradiance of ultra-violet radiations from inert-gas-shielded welding processes in relation to the ARC current density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lamp filaments, the electrodes of an electric arc, and molten metals of high melting point. The emission of an incandescent object is due to its temperature and depends little upon the chemical nature of the radiator. The Stefan- 13 Boltzmann law... is automatically fed by the welding machine into the weld puddle. Metal is transferred through the arc plasma to the base material being welded. The wire is of the same metallic composition as the base metal, and generally the same diameter is used for most...

DeVore, Robin Kent

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Macroscopic approach to the Casimir friction force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The general formula is derived for the vacuum friction force between two parallel perfectly flat planes bounding two material media separated by a vacuum gap and moving relative to each other with a constant velocity $\\mathbf{v}$. The material media are described in the framework of macroscopic electrodynamics whereas the nonzero temperature and dissipation are taken into account by making use of the Kubo formulae from non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics. The formula obtained provides a rigorous basis for calculation of the vacuum friction force within the quantum field theory methods in the condensed matter physics. The revealed $v$-dependence of the vacuum friction force proves to be the following: for zero temperature ($T=0$) it is proportional to $(v/c)^3$ and for $T>0$ this force is linear in $(v/c)$.

V. V. Nesterenko; A. V. Nesterenko

2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

155

Weak and Repulsive Casimir Force in Piston Geometries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the Casimir force in piston-like geometries semiclassically. The force on the piston is finite and physical, but to leading semiclassical approximation depends strongly on the shape of the surrounding cavity. Whereas this force is attractive for pistons in a parallelepiped with flat cylinder head, for which the semiclassical approximation by periodic orbits is exact, this approximation to the force on the piston vanishes for a semi-cylindrical head and becomes repulsive for a cylinder of circular cross section with a hemispherical head. In leading semiclassical approximation the sign of the force is related to the generalized Maslov index of short periodic orbits between the piston and its casing.

Martin Schaden; Liviu Mateescu

2007-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

156

Work Force Restructuring Activities  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Force Restructuring Activities Force Restructuring Activities December 10, 2008 Note: Current updates are in bold # Planned Site/Contractor HQ Approved Separations Status General * LM has finalized the compilation of contractor management team separation data for the end of FY07 actuals and end of FY08 and FY09 projections. LM has submitted to Congress the FY 2007 Annual Report on contractor work force restructuring activities. The report has been posted to the LM website. *LM conducted a DOE complex-wide data call to the Field and Operations offices for DOE Contractor Management teams to provide, by program, actual contractor separation data for the end of FY 2008 and projections for the end of FY 2009 and FY 2010. The data will be used to keep senior management informed of upcoming large WFR actions.

157

About Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from naturally occurring radioactive materials such as uranium, thorium, radon, and certain forms of potassium and carbon. The air we breathe contains radon, the food we eat contains uranium and thorium from the soil, and our bodies contain radioactive forms of potassium and carbon. Cosmic radiation from the sun also contributes to our natural radiation dose. We also receive radiation doses from man-made sources such as X-rays, nuclear medical procedures, power plants, smoke detectors and older television sets. Some people, such as nuclear plant operators, flight crews, and nuclear medicine staff may also receive an occupational radiation dose.

158

Related Federal Climate Efforts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Related Federal Climate Efforts Print E-mail Related Federal Climate Efforts Print E-mail Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage The Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a group of technologies for capturing, compressing, transporting and permanently storing power plant and industrial source emissions of carbon dioxide. Rapid development and deployment of clean coal technologies, particularly CCS, will help position the United States as a leader in the global clean energy race. Climate Change Adaptation Task Force The Task Force's work has been guided by a strategic vision of a resilient, healthy, and prosperous Nation in the face of a changing climate. To achieve this vision, the Task Force identified a set of guiding principles that public and private decision-makers should consider in designing and implementing adaptation strategies.

159

Cataractogenic effects of proton radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of proton radiation damage. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the relative cataractogenic effects of different proton en- ergies, (2) to determine the relative cataractogenic effects of different radiation doses and (3) to determine... Laboratory in 1945 and 1946. Ten victims were exposed to various doses of moderately fast neutrons and hard gamma rays. In the eight survivors, two radiation cataracts resulted (15). In 1948 it was reported that five nuclear physicists with a common...

Kyzar, James Ronald

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

160

Protective Force Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes policy, requirements, responsibilities, and authorities, for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels: DOE 5632.7A

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Work Force Discipline  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The order provides guidance and procedures and states responsibilities for maintaining work force discipline in DOE. Chg 1, dated 3-11-85; Chg 2, dated 1-6-86; Chg 3, dated 3-21-89; Chg 4, dated 8-2-90; Chg 5, dated 3-9-92; Chg 6, dated 8-21-92, cancels Chg 5.

1983-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

162

Contractor Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the U.S. Department of Energy contractor protective forces. Cancels: DOE M 470.4-3 Chg 1, CRD (Attachment 2) only, except for Section C. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

163

Danger radiations  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Le confrencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrle des zones et les prcautions prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

None

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

164

Miniaturized radiation chirper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

166

ARMY SERVICE FORCES  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ARMY SERVICE FORCES ARMY SERVICE FORCES ' -, 1 MANHATTAN ENGINEER DISTRICT --t 4 IN "LPLI RC,' LR io EIDM CIS INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY DIVISION CHICAGO BRANCH OFFICE i ., -,* - P. 0. Box 6770-A I ' 1 .' CHICAGO 80. ILLINOIS /lvb 15 February 1945 Subject: shipment Security Survey at &Uinckrodt Chemical Works. MEMORANDUM to the Officer in Charge. 1. The Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, St. Louis, Missouri, was contacted by the undersigned on 16 November 1944, for the purpose of -king an investigation to determine security provided shipments of interest to the Manhattan Engineer District. The investigation in- cluded shipments of vital materials originating with the Mallinckrodt Company and those received by them. Particular attention has been given to the future production and shipment schedules of these materials.

167

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect radiation sensitivity Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

F A T M O S P H E R I C S C I E N C E S Summary: What about gases that affect the greenhouse effect? Radiative forcing for greenhouse gases: Instantly... shortwave forcings next...

168

Symptomatic Outcomes in Relation to Tumor Expansion After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: Single-Institutional Long-Term Experience  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The effect of transient tumor expansion after conventionally fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) on the symptomatic outcomes is not well-known. Methods and Materials: This study enrolled 201 consecutive patients who received SRT for vestibular schwannoma. A conventional fractionation schedule was applied in 194 patients (97%), and 142 (71%) received a total dose of 50 Gy. The median follow-up time was 72 months. Results: The maximum diameter was 9 mm or less in 13 patients, 10-19 mm in 79 patients, 20-29 mm in 87 patients, and 30 mm or greater in 22 patients. At presentation, tumor size of 20 mm or greater was significantly associated with loss of serviceable hearing and trigeminal neuropathy. After SRT, tumor expansion was observed in 42 patients (21%). By tumor size, tumor expansion was observed in 0%, 11.4%, 25.6%, and 50% of patients with tumors of 9 mm or less, 10-19 mm, 20-29 mm, and 30 mm or greater, respectively, in diameter. The tumor expansion was significantly associated with an increased risk of hydrocephalus requiring shunt placement (P=.004), loss of serviceable hearing (P=.0064), and worsening of facial (P<.0001) and trigeminal nerve (P<.0001) functions. Spontaneous tumor shrinkage was observed in 29 of those 42 patients, mostly within 2 years after the expansion, and the majority of the worsened symptoms except for hearing resolved once the tumor had shrunk. As a result, salvage surgical resection for symptomatic relief was required in only 5% of patients. Conclusions: Fractionated SRT could be safely applied even for medium- to large-sized ({>=}20 mm) tumors. However, greater knowledge of the risks and consequences, including transient symptomatic worsening, and the time span of expansion will be required for the follow-up of patients after SRT to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention.

Aoyama, Hidefumi, E-mail: h-aoyama@med.niigata-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan) [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata (Japan); Onodera, Shunsuke [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Takeichi, Norihito [Department of Otolaryngology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Otolaryngology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Onimaru, Rikiya [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Terasaka, Shunsuke; Sawamura, Yutaka [Department of Neurosurgery, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Evaluation of GCM Column Radiation Models Under Cloudy Conditions with The Arm BBHRP Value Added Product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overarching goal of the project was to improve the transfer of solar and thermal radiation in the most sophisticated computer tools that are currently available for climate studies, namely Global Climate Models (GCMs). This transfer can be conceptually separated into propagation of radiation under cloudy and under cloudless conditions. For cloudless conditions, the factors that affect radiation propagation are gaseous absorption and scattering, aerosol particle absorption and scattering and surface albedo and emissivity. For cloudy atmospheres the factors are the various cloud properties such as cloud fraction, amount of cloud condensate, the size of the cloud particles, and morphological cloud features such as cloud vertical location, cloud horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity and cloud shape and size. The project addressed various aspects of the influence of the above contributors to atmospheric radiative transfer variability. In particular, it examined: (a) the quality of radiative transfer for cloudless and non-complex cloudy conditions for a substantial number of radiation algorithms used in current GCMs; (b) the errors in radiative fluxes from neglecting the horizontal variabiity of cloud extinction; (c) the statistical properties of cloud horizontal and vertical cloud inhomogeneity that can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes; (d) the potential albedo effects of changes in the particle size of liquid clouds; (e) the gaseous radiative forcing in the presence of clouds; and (f) the relative contribution of clouds of different sizes to the reflectance of a cloud field. To conduct the research in the various facets of the project, data from both the DOE ARM project and other sources were used. The outcomes of the project will have tangible effects on how the calculation of radiative energy will be approached in future editions of GCMs. With better calculations of radiative energy in GCMs more reliable predictions of future climate states will be attainable, thus affecting public policy decisions with great impact to public life.

Dr. Lazaros Oreopoulos and Dr. Peter M. Norris

2010-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

170

Will black carbon mitigation dampen aerosol indirect forcing?1 W.-T. Chen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.J. Adams3 , A. Nenes4 , and J.H. Seinfeld5,* 2 1 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, USA3 2 Department carbonaceous sources (fossil fuel, domestic biofuel, and20 biomass burning) (termed HC). Radiative forcing

Nenes, Athanasios

171

Over the past summer, I participated in three separate research projects related to Nanotribology using atomic force microscopy technique (AFM) in Dr. Carpick's laboratory under the guidance of Dr. Robert  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Over the past summer, I participated in three separate research projects related to Nanotribology. Robert W. Carpick and Dr. Nitya N. Gosvami. The first project was to study how the properties of an AFM data acquisition box controlled using LabView software. Matlab scripts were then written to analyze

Carpick, Robert W.

172

Environment/Health/Safety (EHS): Radiation Protection Group: Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Who To Call Who To Call Rad Training Dosimetry Telemetry Laser Safety Radiation Safety Committee Pub-3000 Ch. 21 Forms RPG Procedures RPG Internal Radiation Safety Committee Charter Purpose The Berkeley Lab Radiation Safety Committee (RSC) is appointed by, and reports to, the Laboratory Director and is responsible for advising LBNL Management on all matters related to occupational and environmental radiation safety. The Radiation Safety Committee reviews and recommends approval of radiation safety policies and guides the Environment, Health and Safety Division and radiation user divisions in carrying out these programs. The scope of its actions will generally be in issues of broad institutional concern and impact, or areas of potential high consequence either in terms of safety or institutional needs.

173

E-Print Network 3.0 - anthropogenic radiation sources Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

: Ts F Equation 1 The largest radiative forcing is due to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect... impact" of an anthropogenic perturbation. This is defined as the difference...

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing radiation feedbacks Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

content from the whole quarter Summary: . Overview 2. Solar radiation and the Greenhouse effect 3. Forcings and feedbacks 4. Who's responsible 5... . Overview 2. Solar...

175

The pulsar force-free magnetosphere linked to its striped wind: time-dependent pseudo-spectral simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(abridged) Pulsar activity and its related radiation mechanism are usually explained by invoking some plasma processes occurring inside the magnetosphere. Despite many detailed local investigations, the global electrodynamics around those neutron stars remains poorly described. Better understanding of these compact objects requires a deep and accurate knowledge of their immediate electromagnetic surrounding within the magnetosphere and its link to the relativistic pulsar wind. The aim of this work is to present accurate solutions to the nearly stationary force-free pulsar magnetosphere and its link to the striped wind, for various spin periods and arbitrary inclination. To this end, the time-dependent Maxwell equations are solved in spherical geometry in the force-free approximation using a vector spherical harmonic expansion of the electromagnetic field. An exact analytical enforcement of the divergenceless of the magnetic part is obtained by a projection method. Special care has been given to design an algo...

Ptri, J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Norms of Presentational Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

://www.americanforensics.org/uploaded-files/tc_41_3_w05.pdf. Open Access version: http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/. 15 hope to illustrate the close connection between emotional appeal and premise adequacy. After arguing that the Declaration of Independence and Constitution secure...Innocenti Manolescu, Beth. "Norms of Presentational Force." Argumentation and Advocacy 41 (2005): 139-51. Official publishers version: http://www.americanforensics.org/uploaded-files/tc_41_3_w05.pdf. 1 Citation: Innocenti Manolescu, Beth...

Innocenti, Beth

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Atomic Force Microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

A measurable force driven by an excitonic condensate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Free energy signatures related to the measurement of an emergent force (?10{sup ?9}N) due to the exciton condensate (EC) in Double Quantum Wells are predicted and experiments are proposed to measure the effects. The EC-force is attractive and reminiscent of the Casimir force between two perfect metallic plates, but also distinctively different from it by its driving mechanism and dependence on the parameters of the condensate. The proposed experiments are based on a recent experimental work on a driven micromechanical oscillator. Conclusive observations of EC in recent experiments also provide a strong promise for the observation of the EC-force.

Hakio?lu, T. [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Theoretical and Applied Physics, 48740 Turun, Mu?la (Turkey); zgn, Ege; Gnay, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

179

E-Print Network 3.0 - air force institute Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Co-chairs Omar Benjamin, Port of Oakland Summary: health risk resulting from Port-related air pollution. As the scheduled meetings for our task force draws... of task force members...

180

E-Print Network 3.0 - air force 611th Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Co-chairs Omar Benjamin, Port of Oakland Summary: health risk resulting from Port-related air pollution. As the scheduled meetings for our task force draws... of task force members...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

E-Print Network 3.0 - air force health Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Co-chairs Omar Benjamin, Port of Oakland Summary: health risk resulting from Port-related air pollution. As the scheduled meetings for our task force draws... of task force members...

182

E-Print Network 3.0 - air force public Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Co-chairs Omar Benjamin, Port of Oakland Summary: health risk resulting from Port-related air pollution. As the scheduled meetings for our task force draws... of task force members...

183

Order Module--RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS GUIDE  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The familiar level of this module is designed to provide the basic information related to DOEG 441.1-1C, Radiation Protection Programs Guide, as required in DOE-STD-1174-2003, Radiation Protection...

184

Lessons from recent accidents in radiation therapy in France  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......relative to the use of ionising radiation including medical applications...irsn.fr | Journal Article | Brain radiation effects surgery France Head and...control Radiometry Radiotherapy Safety Scattering, Radiation Software...

S. Derreumaux; C. Etard; C. Huet; F. Trompier; I. Clairand; J.-F. Bottollier-Depois; B. Aubert; P. Gourmelon

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Online Literature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Online Literature Online Literature Journals, Books and other Publications Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety Radioactive Waste and Radioecology "Insight" Magazine Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) News: Aiming at an information center on low dose radiation research Health Physics International Journal of Radiation Biology Iranian Journal of Radiation Research Journal of Radiological Protection National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Radiation Research U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge Reports Animal Cancer Tests and Human Cancer Risk Assessment: A Broad Perspective Effects of Ionizing Radiation: Atomic Bomb Survivors and Their Children (1945-1995) Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR

186

Modeling Adhesive Forces for Ultra Low Flying Head Disk Interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper addresses a major issue in microtribology related to the head/disk interface (HDI) in magnetic storage. This is the issue of strong intermolecular (adhesive) forces that may be present at the interf...

Andreas A. Polycarpou

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Aerosol Radiative Forcing During Spring-Summer 2002 from Measurements...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A. M. Obukohov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Science Moscow, Russia A. N. Rublev Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute Moscow, Russia Introduction...

188

Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with both a source of exciting radiation, such as tritium, and a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce radiation of a second energy. 4 figs.

Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.; Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.

1992-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

189

Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with both a source of exciting radiation, such as tritium, and a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce radiation of a second energy.

Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Plasma Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... JUST over ten years ago the first book on plasma physics as a subject in its own right appeared; in a gradually swelling stream ... been surprisingly few monographs. One topic which has had scant coverage in any form is plasma radiation (except for spectral-line radiation which has been dealt with very fully in ...

T. J. M. BOYD

1967-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

TEXT Pro Force Training  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Basic Protective Basic Protective Force Training Program DOE/IG-0641 March 2004 * None of the 10 sites included instruction in rappelling even though it was part of the special response team core curriculum and continued to be offered by the Nonprolif- eration and National Security Institute; * Only one site conducted basic training on use of a shotgun, despite the fact that a num- ber of sites used the weapon for breaching exercises and other purposes; and, * Seven of the sites modified prescribed training techniques by reducing the intensity or delivery method for skills that some security experts characterized as critical, such as handcuffing, hand-to- hand combat, and vehicle assaults. We found that the Department's facilities were not required to report departures from the core

192

Web-based tools for quality assurance and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......relating to radiation protection...physicist, radiation safety officer, other...use of any software other than...of the QADDS software package. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...exposure to radiation in medical...Radiation safety management......

B. M. Moores; P. Charnock; M. Ward

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Radiative muon capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown by relating the transition amplitude of radiative muon capture to that of radiative pion capture, that the transition amplitude of radiative muon capture proposed recently by Hwang and Primakoff differs from the others mainly by Low's counter terms. Despite the fact that the "original" transition amplitude does not violate seriously the conservation of the hadronic electromagnetic current, Low's counter terms, as introduced via Low's prescription to secure the presence of small conservation-of-hadronic-electromagnetic-current-breaking terms, are confirmed to be of numerical importance. Further, it is found in the "elementary-particle" treatment of radiative muon capture that the uncertainty arising from the nuclear structure can be reduced to become negligible. Therefore, an exclusive radiative muon capture experiment can in principle differentiate the Hwang-Primakoff theory from the others and yet provide a comprehensive test of partial conservation of axial-vector current.RADIOACTIVITY Theories of radiative muon capture, linearity hypothesis versus Low's prescription; nuclear structure and PCAC.

W -Y. P. Hwang

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Protective Force Firearms Qualification Courses  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

PROTECTIVE FORCE PROTECTIVE FORCE FIREARMS QUALIFICATION COURSES U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Health, Safety and Security AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY: http://www.hss.energy.gov Office of Health, Safety and Security Protective Force Firearms Qualification Courses July 2011 i TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION A - APPROVED FIREARMS QUALIFICATION COURSES .......................... I-1 CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION ................................................................................... I-1 1. Scope .................................................................................................................. I-1 2. Content ............................................................................................................... I-1

198

New weakly coupled forces hidden in low-energy QCD  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Is it possible to detect a new weakly coupled force at the QCD scale that interacts primarily with quarks? This work investigates experimental signatures of a new MeVGeV gauge boson that couples to the baryon number, with attention to the 100MeVGeV mass range that is the regime of nonperturbative QCD. Such a state can be searched for in rare radiative decays of light mesons (?,??,?,?) as a ?0? resonance, which is its leading decay mode from 140 to 620MeV. This is a new discovery window for forces beyond the Standard Model that is not covered by existing dark photon searches.

Sean Tulin

2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

199

Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earths surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Note: Electrical resolution during conductive atomic force microscopy measurements under different environmental conditions and contact forces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conductive atomic force microscopy experiments on gate dielectrics in air, nitrogen, and UHV have been compared to evaluate the impact of the environment on topography and electrical measurements. In current images, an increase of the lateral resolution and a reduction of the conductivity were observed in N{sub 2} and, especially, in UHV (where current depends also on the contact force). Both effects were related to the reduction/elimination of the water layer between the tip and the sample in N{sub 2}/UHV. Therefore, since current measurements are very sensitive to environmental conditions, these factors must be taken into consideration when comparisons between several experiments are performed.

Lanza, M.; Porti, M.; Nafria, M.; Aymerich, X. [Dept. Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Q, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Whittaker, E.; Hamilton, B. [University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 JQD (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation of radiation and its effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and humanAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about

Pennycook, Steve

203

Sagnac interferometry as a probe to the commutation relation of a macroscopic quantum mirror  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single photon Sagnac interferometry as a probe to macroscopic quantum mechanics is considered at the theoretical level. For a freely moving macroscopic quantum mirror susceptible to radiation pressure force inside a Sagnac interferometer, a careful analysis of the input-output relation reveals that the particle spectrum readout at the bright and dark ports encode information concerning the noncommutativity of position and momentum of the macroscopic mirror. A feasible experimental scheme to probe the commutation relation of a macroscopic quantum mirror is outlined to explore the possible frontier between classical and quantum regimes. In the Appendix, the case of Michelson interferometry as a feasible probe is also sketched.

Yang Ran; Gong Xuefei; Pei Shouyong; Luo Ziren; Lau, Y. K. [Physics Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Physics Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15, Beisihuanxi road, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Applied Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 55, Zhongguancun Donglu, Beijing 100190 (China)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy Phil Attarda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy Phil Attarda School 21 November 2006 The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating measurement with the atomic force microscope AFM requires the sensitivity of the photodiode, which re- lates

Attard, Phil

205

Evolution of the N = 28 shell closure: a test bench for nuclear forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evolution of the N = 28 shell closure: a test bench for nuclear forces O. Sorlin1 and M.-G. Porquet;The N = 28 shell closure: a test bench for nuclear forces 2 reach a value of 4.8 MeV. This effect has and 90). More generally, questions related to the evolution of nuclear forces towards the drip

Boyer, Edmond

206

The Forces which lift Aeroplanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... cylinder. To avoid unnecessary complications we use Heaviside's rational electromagnetic units. Then the hydroelectric current i equals the line-integral of the hydro-magnetic force, i.e. of ... actions-at-a-distance. From the propeller blade the way is not far to the turbine blade. The type of driving force will remain the same whether the driving medium ...

V. K. F. BJERKNES

1924-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

207

Ecosystem Task Force Meeting Minutes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in violation of the clean water act 2. Long term tracking can identify problems and remediation techniques. 3. A focus on planning helps ground the Task Force because of the complexity of ecosystems. UNH targets for future reductions? 3.1. No. We could work on those with the Task Force. Water Quality

New Hampshire, University of

208

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1 1 Ken Gray P.E. HQ AFCESA /CENR Air Force Renewable Energy Programs April, 2011 FUPWG "Make Energy a Consideration in All We Do" I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Topics  Air Force Energy Use  Air Force Facility Energy Center  Current RE Generation  Project Development System  Programmed RE Generation FY11-13  Goal Achievement 2 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Air Force 2010 Energy Use The Air Force spent approximately $8.2 billion for energy in 2010; an increase of 22% from 2009 Energy Cost and Consumption Trends Energy Cost Breakdown Aviation 79% Facilities 17% 3 Aviation 84% Facilities 12% Vehicles & Equipment

209

Posters Radiation Impacts on Global Climate Models F. Baer, N. Arsky, and K. Rocque  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 5 Posters Radiation Impacts on Global Climate Models F. Baer, N. Arsky, and K. Rocque University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Climate Prediction and Radiative Heating Climate models are driven by forcing, and these forces are seen primarily by the thermal field in general circulation models (GCMs). The major forces that affect the thermal field are longwave radiative (LWR) heating, shortwave radiative (SWR) heating, and convection (cumulus, etc.). These forcing effects are cycled through the thermal field to the motion field by nonlinear transfer. The dependent variables-in particular, temperature (T), moisture (Q) and especially clouds-evolve in time in a model and determine the subsequent forcing. If the dependent variables are not accurately calculated in space and time, the forcing

210

Gregory H. Friedman: Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces Committee  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Strategic Forces Strategic Forces Committee on Armed Services U.S. House of Representatives Gregory H. Friedman: Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces Committee on Armed Services U.S. House of Representatives February 28, 2013 Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces Committee on Armed Services U.S. House of Representatives Statement of Gregory H. Friedman, Inspector General, Department of Energy Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee, I am pleased to be here at your request to testify on actions of the Office of Inspector General relating to the July 2012 security breach at the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). I will also discuss related aspects of our work concerning contractor governance and physical security at Department of Energy and NNSA facilities.

211

Single-molecule force spectroscopy: Practical limitations beyond Bell's model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments, as well as a number of other physical systems, are governed by thermally activated transitions out of a metastable state under the action of a steadily increasing external force. The main observable in such experiments is the distribution of the forces, at which the escape events occur. The challenge in interpreting the experimental data is to relate them to the microscopic system properties. We work out a maximum likelihood approach and show that it is the optimal method to tackle this problem. When fitting actual experimental data it is unavoidable to assume some functional form for the force-dependent escape rate. We consider a quite general and common such functional form and demonstrate by means of data from a realistic computer experiment that the maximum number of fit parameters that can be determined reliably is three. They are related to the force-free escape rate and the position and height of the activation barrier. Furthermore, the results for the first two of these fit parameters show little dependence on the assumption about the manner in which the barrier decreases with the applied force, while the last one, the barrier height in the absence of force, depends strongly on this assumption.

Sebastian Getfert; Mykhaylo Evstigneev; Peter Reimann

2008-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

212

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

213

Oscillating String as a Force Sensor in Scanning Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a sensor that uses an oscillating string to detect forces. A cantilever beam serves as a sample stage. The string is attached to the free end of ... the free end of the beam modifies the string tension...

A. Stalder; U. Drig

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Development of multivortex flow of a stainless-steel melt under the action of laser radiation on its surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical investigation was made of the structure of thermocapillary convection of a laser melt formed by radiation with various parameters in the specific case of SS304 stainless steel. A critical Reynolds number was found: above this number a single-vortex structure of the melt flow changed to two vortices. A comparison of the shape of the molten pool predicted by numerical calculations with experiments confirmed the existence of a two-vortex structure initiated solely by thermocapillary forces on the melt surface. A correlative dependence was proposed for relating the laser radiation parameters to those of the molten pool when a two-vortex flow structure appeared. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

Antonova, G F; Gladush, G G; Kosyrev, F K; Krasyukov, A G; Likhanskii, V V; Loboiko, A I; Sayapin, V P [State Research Center of Russian Federation 'Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research', Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

1998-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Time encoded radiation imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

216

Reflective 'cool' roofs under aerosol-burdened skies: radiative benefits across selected Indian cities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of reflective surfaces offers one low-cost solution for reducing solar loading to urban environments and the Earth that should be considered as part of sustainable urban design. Here, we characterize the radiative benefits, i.e. the additional shortwave radiation leaving the atmosphere, from the installation of highly reflective 'cool' roofs in urban areas in India that face relatively large local aerosol burdens. We use a previously tested column radiative transfer model to estimate the energy per unit area reflected to space from increasing the surface albedo at six cities within India. The model is used to characterize radiative transfer each day over five years (20082012) based on mid-day satellite retrievals of MODIS aerosol depth, cloud water path, and average surface albedo and MERRA atmospheric profiles of temperature and composition. Compared against ten months of field observations in two cities, the model derived incoming surface shortwave radiation estimates relative to observations show small biases (0.5% and ?2.6%, at Pantnagar and Nainital, respectively). Despite the high levels of local aerosols we found cool roofs provided significant radiative benefits at all locations. Averaged over the five year period we found that increasing the albedo of 1 m2 of roof area by 0.5 would reflect to space 0.91.2 kWh daily from 08:3015:30 LST, depending on location. This is equivalent to a constant forcing of 3750 W m?2 (equivalent to reducing CO2 emissions by 74 to 101 kg CO2 m?2 roof area). Last, we identify a co-benefit of improving air quality, in that removing aerosols from the atmosphere could increase the radiative benefits from cool roofs by 2374%, with the largest potential increase found at Delhi and the smallest change found at Nainital.

D E Millstein; M L Fischer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Calibration of lateral force measurements in atomic force microscopy with a piezoresistive force sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present here a method to calibrate the lateral force in the atomic force microscope. This method makes use of an accurately calibrated force sensor composed of a tipless piezoresistive cantilever and corresponding signal amplifying and processing electronics. Two ways of force loading with different loading points were compared by scanning the top and side edges of the piezoresistive cantilever. Conversion factors between the lateral force and photodiode signal using three types of atomic force microscope cantilevers with rectangular geometries (normal spring constants from 0.092 to 1.24 N/m and lateral stiffness from 10.34 to 101.06 N/m) were measured in experiments using the proposed method. When used properly, this method calibrates the conversion factors that are accurate to {+-}12.4% or better. This standard has less error than the commonly used method based on the cantilever's beam mechanics. Methods such of this allow accurate and direct conversion between lateral forces and photodiode signals without any knowledge of the cantilevers and the laser measuring system.

Xie Hui; Vitard, Julien; Haliyo, Sinan; Regnier, Stephane [Institut des Systemes Intelligents et Robotique (ISIR), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6/CNRS, 18 Route du Panorama-BP 61, 92265 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Boukallel, Mehdi [Laboratoire de Robotique et Mesorobotique (LRM), CEA, 18 Route du Panorama-BP 61, 92265 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Prediction of vehicle impact forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Approved as to style and content by: C. Eugene Buth (Chair of Committee) W. ynn Beason (Member) I? D n E. B ay (Member) es T. P. Yao (Departmen Head) May...

Kaderka, Darrell Laine

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

219

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

220

Mitotic force generators and chromosome segregation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

38:1838 Mitotic force generators 79. McDonald HB, StewartREVIEW Mitotic force generators and chromosome segregationbelow) that the force generators (MTs or motors) have only *

Civelekoglu-Scholey, Gul; Scholey, Jonathan M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Forced response analysis of hydroelectric systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At off-design operating points, Francis turbines develop cavitation vortex rope in the draft tube which may interact with the hydraulic system. Risk resonance assessment by means of eigenmodes computation of the system is usually performed. However, the system response to the excitation source induced by the cavitation vortex rope is not predicted in terms of amplitudes and phase. Only eigenmodes shapes with related frequencies and dampings can be predicted. Besides this modal analysis, the risk resonance assessment can be completed by a forced response analysis. This method allows identifying the contribution of each eigenmode into the system response which depends on the system boundary conditions and the excitation source location. In this paper, a forced response analysis of a Francis turbine hydroelectric power plant including hydraulic system, rotating train, electrical system and control devices is performed. First, the general methodology of the forced response analysis is presented and validated with time domain simulations. Then, analysis of electrical, hydraulic and hydroelectric systems are performed and compared to analyse the influence of control structures on pressure fluctuations induced by cavitation vortex rope.

S Allign; P C O Silva; A Bguin; B Kawkabani; P Allenbach; C Nicolet; F Avellan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Entropic-force dark energy reconsidered  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reconsider the entropic-force model in which both kind of Hubble terms ${\\dot H}$ and $H^{2}$ appear in the effective dark energy (DE) density affecting the evolution of the main cosmological functions, namely the scale factor, deceleration parameter, matter density and growth of linear matter perturbations. However, we find that the entropic-force model is not viable at the background and perturbation levels due to the fact that the entropic formulation does not add a constant term in the Friedmann equations. On the other hand, if on mere phenomenological grounds we replace the ${\\dot H}$ dependence of the effective DE density with a linear term $H$ without including a constant additive term, we find that the transition from deceleration to acceleration becomes possible but the recent structure formation data strongly disfavors this cosmological scenario. Finally, we briefly compare the entropic-force models with some related DE models (based on dynamical vacuum energy) which overcome these difficulties and are compatible with the present observations.

Spyros Basilakos; Joan Sola

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

223

An Analytical Model for Tropical Relative Humidity DAVID M. ROMPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the distribution of water vapor will change with warming. Water vapor is the atmosphere's most powerful greenhouse gas, and changes in its distribution can have significant implications for radiative forcing. A first

Romps, David M.

224

VII. SOLAR RADIATION DATA COMPARISONS In this section some of the solar radiation data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

18 VII. SOLAR RADIATION DATA COMPARISONS In this section some of the solar radiation data gathered by the UO Solar Monitoring Network is presented in tabular and pictorial form and related to similar information from other Western U.S. sites. A comparison of the amount of incident solar radiation is made us

Oregon, University of

225

Radiation Management Act (Oklahoma) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Radiation Management Act (Oklahoma) Radiation Management Act (Oklahoma) Radiation Management Act (Oklahoma) < Back Eligibility Utility Investor-Owned Utility Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality This Act establishes The Department of Environmental Quality as the designated official agency of the State of Oklahoma for all regulatory activities for the use of atomic energy and sources of radiation, except for the use of sources of radiation by diagnostic x-ray facilities. It also states rules for permits and fees related to the establishment of standards for safe levels of protection against radiation; the maintenance and submission of records; the determination, prevention and control of radiation hazards; the reporting of radiation accidents; the handling,

226

Casimir-Lifshitz force out of thermal equilibrium and heat transfer between arbitrary bodies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the Casimir-Lifshitz force and the radiative heat transfer occurring between two arbitrary bodies, each one held at a given temperature, surrounded by environmental radiation at a third temperature. The system, in stationary configuration out of thermal equilibrium, is characterized by a force and a heat transfer depending on the three temperatures, and explicitly expressed in terms of the scattering operators of each body. We find a closed-form analytic expression valid for bodies of any geometry and dielectric properties. As an example, the force between two parallel slabs of finite thickness is calculated, showing the importance of the environmental temperature as well as the occurrence of a repulsive interaction. An analytic expression is also provided for the force acting on an atom in front of a slab. Our predictions can be relevant for experimental and technological purposes.

Riccardo Messina; Mauro Antezza

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

227

Task Force Approach | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Task Force Approach Task Force Approach Task Force Approach Task Force Approach Results of the ARI Task Force: The purpose of the ARI Task Force is to 1) identify, prioritize, and resolve issues to enable sites and programs to implement revitalization efforts more effectively and 2) to facilitate programmatic incorporation of revitalization concepts into DOE's programmatic business environments. The Task Force must do this through coordinating and facilitating communication and connections, sharing lessons learned, broadening the general knowledge base, facilitating, analyzing problems, developing implementable solutions, and considering and incorporating broader perspectives and knowledge. The success of the Task Force can be evaluated by impacts to the Department upon its completion. These impacts

228

An overview of acoustic?structural interactions: Vibration and acoustic radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The structural vibration and the resulting acoustic radiation is a fully decoupled problem in a gas and a fully coupled problem in a fluid. The fluid?structure interaction problem encompasses a broad spectrum of areas of interest in engineering applications. This ranges from mechanically existed structures (acoustic radiation) to acoustically induced vibrations (elasticscattering) to hydrodynamically applied forces (flow noise). The coupled fluid?structure interaction for each of these problems is essentially the same; the difference lies in the manner utilized in applying the prescribed forcing function to the structure in satisfying the interfaceboundary condition and in analyzing the radiated acoustic field. The common link relating these problems is the fact that the same governing equations for the fluid and the structure are applicable in each of these areas. This commonality between the diverse fluid?structure interactions will be stressed. The different techniques being used to solve the problems for each of the three types of problems will be presented and a brief review of the state of the art will be given.

Mauro Pierucci

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Sensing mode atomic force microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

Hough, Paul V. C. (Port Jefferson, NY); Wang, Chengpu (Upton, NY)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Contact angles and surface forces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The modern state of the theory of wetting phenomena is considered with special attention to the approach based on the theory of surface forces. Contribution of the effects of molecular, electrostatic and short-range structural forces to wetting films stability and forming contact angles is discussed. The magnitudes of contact angles may be predicted on the basis of isotherms of disjoining pressure of wetting films that include Hamaker constants, electrical potentials of solid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces, and experimental constants that characterize the structural forces of hydrophilic repulsion and hydrophobic attraction. The constants seem to be the same as in the case of interaction of colloidal particles. In the framework of the suggested approach, the influence of surfactants on wetting phenomena was considered.

N.V. Churaev

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Nuclear Forces and Nuclear Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Forces and Nuclear Systems Forces and Nuclear Systems Our goal is to achieve a description of nuclear systems ranging in size from the deuteron to nuclear matter and neutron stars using a single parameterization of the nuclear forces. Our work includes both the construction of two- and three-nucleon potentials and the development of many-body techniques for computing nuclear properties with these interactions. Detailed quantitative, computationally intense studies are essential parts of this work. In the last decade we have constructed several realistic two- and three-nucleon potential models. The NN potential, Argonne v18, has a dominant charge-independent piece plus additional charge-dependent and charge-symmetry-breaking terms, including a complete electromagnetic interaction. It fits 4301 pp and np elastic scattering data with a chi**2

232

Interaction forces between oilwater particle interfaces--Non-DLVO forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

silica sphere and a butyl or octyl acetate droplet was measured in an aqueous environment using atomic of the water solubility of the organic liquid, in that the same force­distance characteristics were obtained in industrial applications. They include formulation, stability, and rheological properties of emulsions

Chan, Derek Y C

233

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

234

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

Sanders, Scott T. (Valparaiso, IN); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Casimir force on a piston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a massless scalar field obeying Dirichlet boundary conditions on the walls of a two-dimensional L x b rectangular box, divided by a movable partition (piston) into two compartments of dimensions a x b and (L-a) x b. We compute the Casimir force on the piston in the limit L -> infinity. Regardless of the value of a/b, the piston is attracted to the nearest end of the box. Asymptotic expressions for the Casimir force on the piston are derived for a > b.

R. M. Cavalcanti

2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

236

Radiating gravastars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Considering a Vaidya exterior spacetime, we study dynamical models of prototype gravastars, made of an infinitely thin spherical shell of a perfect fluid with the equation of state p = ?, enclosing an interior de Sitter spacetime. We show explicitly that the final output can be a black hole, an unstable gravastar, a stable gravastar or a 'bounded excursion' gravastar, depending on how the mass of the shell evolves in time, the cosmological constant and the initial position of the dynamical shell. This work presents, for the first time in the literature, a gravastar that emits radiation.

Chan, R. [Coordenao de Astronomia e Astrofsica, Observatrio Nacional, Rua General Jos Cristino, 77, So Cristvo 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.F.A. da [Departamento de Fsica Terica, Instituto de Fsica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua So Francisco Xavier 524, Maracan 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Jaime F. Villas da [Instituto de Biocincias, Departamento de Cincias Naturais, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Pasteur 458, Urca, CEP 22290-240, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wang, Anzhong, E-mail: chan@on.br, E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com, E-mail: jfvroch@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu [GCAP-CASPER, Department of Physics, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities: Ensuring Resources to Meet Projected Utilities Need to Do More to Prepare for Their Future Work Force Needs.............................................................................20 #12;ii Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities #12;1 Work Force Planning for Public Power

238

Solvent-induced forces in protein folding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solvent-induced forces between various groups on the protein are examined. It is found that the intramolecular hydrophilic forces are likely to be the strongest forces mediated through the solvent. It is argued that these are probably the most important solvent-induced driving forces in the process of protein folding.

Ben-Naim, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

1990-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

239

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Energy Task Force to Energy Task Force to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Energy Task Force The Governor's Task Force on Energy Policy is developing a state energy plan to facilitate energy efficiency and the use of alternative and renewable fuels in Tennessee. The energy plan will include a summary of

240

Complex Forces Affect China's Biodiversity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

global efforts have been put into biodiversity conservation, but biodiversity loss continues rapidly in biodiversity conservation to the global level and help protect biodiversity in other developing countries Wiley & Sons, Ltd. #12;208 ConservationBiology COMPLEXITY OF INTERACTING FORCES AFFECTING BIODIVERSITY

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Kollisionsdetektion fr Force-Feedback-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(high impact velocities or large contact areas) 3. Force-feedback requires a constant update rate.e., in case of no overlap - Complicated to compute penetration depth [Mendoza et al, 2006], [Zhang et al, 2007], ... § Voxels & Points (VPS): + Easy to compute approx. penetration depth - Large memory footprint - Aliasing

Zachmann, Gabriel

242

Natural and Radiation Carcinogenesis in Man. III. Radiation Carcinogenesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mice. NATURAL AND RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN MAN. 3. RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS. | Journal Article | Japan Neoplasms etiology Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced Radiation Genetics | JAPAN NEOPLASM ETIOLOGY NEOPLASMS, RADIATION-INDUCED RADIATION...

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

AIR FORCE SPECIAL WEAPONS CENTER  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

HEADQUARTERS aII?y HEADQUARTERS aII?y 9 AIR FORCE SPECIAL WEAPONS CENTER 1 AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND . - KlRTlAND AIR FORCE BASE, NEW MEXICO - k FINAL REPORT O N AIR FORCE PARTICIPATION PROJECT RULISON .1 O c t o b e r 1969 P r e p a r e d by : CONT INENTAL TEST D I V I S ION DIRECTORATE OF NUCLEAR FIELD OPERATIONS This page intentionally left blank INDEX AIR FORCE PARTICIPATION I N PROJECT RULISON FINAL REPORT PARAGRAPH BASIC REPORT SUBJECT R e f e r e n c e s PAGE 2 G e n e r a l 1 3 P l a n n i n g 3 4 Command a n d C o n t r o l 5 O p e r a t i o n s , G r a n d ' J u n c t i o n M u n i c i p a l A i r p o r t . . ' A i r O p e r a t i o n s C e n t e r , He1 i c o p t e r P a d / ' 7.. - . M a t e r i e l : ' 8 M e d i c a l 1 9 R a d - S a f e C r a s h - R e s c u e S e c u r i t y 2 1 C o m m u n i c a t i o n s ~ d m i n i s t r a t ' i o n Summary ATTACHMENTS ATTACHMENT SUBJECI' 1 F r a g O r d e r 69-1 ( ~ r o j ' e c t RULISON) , AFSWC D

244

Nuclear Radius and Nuclear Forces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The difference between the radius of the nuclear matter distribution and the nuclear force radius, RN?1.4A1310-13 cm, for heavy nuclei (A>100) is interpreted as a consequence of the finite range of nuclear forces. Assuming that the nuclear matter distribution coincides with the charge distribution as determined at Stanford (RC=1.12A1310-13 cm is the distance at which the charge density falls to one half value) we sum up the nuclear interactions of an incident nucleon for various proposed internucleon potentials, V(r). We also evaluate contributions from the spin, charge, and matter polarizations induced in the nuclear distributions by the incident nucleon as a test of the convergence of these calculations. The aim here is to infer some features of nuclear forces which satisfy saturation requirements and at the same time give rise to an appreciable nuclear attraction for an incident nucleon at RN. Analyses of the scattering of neutrons and protons by heavy nuclei suggest a nuclear attraction ?14 Mev at a distance RN.These considerations are primarily sensitive to the long range behavior of the direct, central part of V(r). The key point which emerges from them is that the nuclear forces must contain long range (~ meson Compton wavelength) direct, central attractions which will be felt by an incident nucleon at RN before the shorter range repulsions (hard cores, many-body forces, or exchange interactions), which are responsible for saturation, become effective. Such interactions can be constructed phenomenologically, but are not found in recent meson-theoretically deduced potentials.

S. D. Drell

1955-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

High-let radiation carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent results for neutron radiation-induced tumors are presented to illustrate the complexities of the dose-response curves for high-LET radiation. It is suggested that in order to derive an appropriate model for dose-response curves for the induction of tumors by high-LET radiation it is necessary to take into account dose distribution, cell killing and the susceptibility of the tissue under study. Preliminary results for the induction of Harderian gland tumors in mice exposed to various heavy ion beams are presented. The results suggest that the effectiveness of the heavy ion beams increases with increasing LET. The slopes of the dose-response curves for the different high-LET radiations decrease between 20 and 40 rads and therefore comparisons of the relative effectiveness should be made from data obtained at doses below about 20 to 30 rads.

Fry, R.J.M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E.L.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Ullrich, R.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Approach of gas and radiation to equilibrium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Einstein described equilibrium between two?level gas molecules and radiation in terms of a Brownian motion model involving frictional and agitational effects arising from photon absorptions and emissions. This paper extends his treatment to the case of disequilibrium when molecules and radiation are in cavities with either black or perfectly reflecting walls. The precise role of the black walls in promoting equilibrium is explicated in terms of Einsteins formula for the frictional effect and the nature of changes in radiation patterns caused by Doppler shifts of photon frequencies. It is then shown that equilibrium between the two?level gas molecules and radiation cannot be achieved for a container with perfectly reflecting walls. The blockage of equilibrium occurs because a change in the slope of the Planck spectrum at the resonant frequency causes a change in the frictional force.

Frank Munley

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the Air Force. Personnel and Resources Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) includes fourU.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Mission Develop Quality Leaders Reserve Officer Training Corps is the largest and oldest source of commissioned officers for the Air Force

Su, Xiao

248

Single Column Model Simulations of Cloud Sensitivity to Forcing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Single-Column Model Simulations Single-Column Model Simulations of Cloud Sensitivity to Forcing A. D. Del Genio National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York A. B. Wolf National Aeronautics and Space Administration SGT, Inc., Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York Introduction The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program single-column modeling (SCM) framework has to date used several fairly brief intensive observing periods (IOPs) to evaluate the performance of climate model parameterizations. With only a few weather events in each IOP, it is difficult to separate errors associated with the instantaneous dynamical forcing from errors in parameterization. It is also impossible to determine whether model errors are systematic and climatically significant. This

249

Casimir-Lifshitz force out of thermal equilibrium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the Casimir-Lifshitz interaction out of thermal equilibrium, when the interacting objects are at different temperatures. The analysis is focused on the surface-surface, surface-rarefied body, and surface-atom configurations. A systematic investigation of the contributions to the force coming from the propagating and evanescent components of the electromagnetic radiation is performed. The large distance behaviors of such interactions is discussed, and both analytical and numerical results are compared with the equilibrium ones. A detailed analysis of the crossing between the surface-surface and the surface-rarefied body, and finally the surface-atom force is shown, and a complete derivation and discussion of the recently predicted nonadditivity effects and asymptotic behaviors is presented.

Antezza, Mauro; Stringari, Sandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM R and D Center on Bose-Einstein Condensation, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Pitaevskii, Lev P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM R and D Center on Bose-Einstein Condensation, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)]|[Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, ul. Kosygina 2, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Svetovoy, Vitaly B. [MESA Research Institute, University of Twente, PO 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Adaptors for radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

Livesay, Ronald Jason

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

251

Quantized friction force: Lindbladian model satisfying Ehrenfest theorems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct a quantum counterpart of classical friction, a dissipative force acting against the direction of motion with the magnitude proportional to particle's velocity. In particular, a Lindblad master equation is derived satisfying the appropriate dynamical relations for observables (i.e., the Ehrenfest theorems). These findings significantly advance a long search for a universal valid Lindbladian model of quantum friction.

Denys I. Bondar; Renan Cabrera; Andre Campos; Herschel A. Rabitz

2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

252

Radiation Safety  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Brotherhood of Locomotive Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers & Trainmen Scott Palmer BLET Radiation Safety Officer New Hire Training New Hire study topics * GCOR * ABTH * SSI * Employee Safety * HazMat * Railroad terminology * OJT * 15-week class * Final test Hazardous Materials * Initial new-hire training * Required by OSHA * No specified class length * Open book test * Triennial module Locomotive Engineer Training A little bit older...a little bit wiser... * Typically 2-4 years' seniority * Pass-or-get-fired promotion * Intensive program * Perpetually tested to a higher standard * 20 Weeks of training * 15 of that is OJT * General Code of Operating Rules * Air Brake & Train Handling * System Special Instructions * Safety Instructions * Federal Regulations * Locomotive Simulators * Test Ride * Pass test with 90% Engineer Recertification

253

Scattering by an electromagnetic radiation field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motion of test particles in the gravitational field associated with an electromagnetic plane wave is investigated. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term {\\it \\`a la} Poynting-Robertson entering the equations of motion given by the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle's rest frame with a multiplicative constant factor expressing the strength of the interaction itself. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained. Scattering of fields by the electromagnetic wave, i.e., scalar (spin 0), massless spin $\\frac12$ and electromagnetic (spin 1) fields, is studied too.

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

254

Lorentz Force Electrical Impedance Tomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article describes a method called Lorentz Force Electrical Impedance Tomography. The electrical conductivity of biological tissues can be measured through their sonication in a magnetic field: the vibration of the tissues inside the field induces an electrical current by Lorentz force. This current, detected by electrodes placed around the sample, is proportional to the ultrasonic pressure, to the strength of the magnetic field and to the electrical conductivity gradient along the acoustic axis. By focusing at different places inside the sample, a map of the electrical conductivity gradient can be established. In this study experiments were conducted on a gelatin phantom and on a beef sample, successively placed in a 300 mT magnetic field and sonicated with an ultrasonic transducer focused at 21 cm emitting 500 kHz bursts. Although all interfaces are not visible, in this exploratory study a good correlation is observed between the electrical conductivity image and the ultrasonic image. This method offers...

Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Casimir Friction Force for Moving Harmonic Oscillators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Casimir friction is analyzed for a pair of dielectric particles in relative motion. We first adopt a microscopic model for harmonically oscillating particles at finite temperature T moving non-relativistically with constant velocity. We use a statistical-mechanical description where time-dependent correlations are involved. This description is physical and direct, and, in spite of its simplicity, is able to elucidate the essentials of the problem. This treatment elaborates upon, and extends, an earlier theory of ours back in 1992. The energy change Delta E turns out to be finite in general, corresponding to a finite friction force. In the limit of zero temperature the formalism yields, however, Delta E ->0, this being due to our assumption about constant velocity, meaning slowly varying coupling. For couplings varying more rapidly, there will also be a finite friction force at T=0. As second part of our work, we consider the friction problem using time-dependent perturbation theory. The dissipation, basically a second order effect, is obtainable with the use of first order theory, the reason being the absence of cross terms due to uncorrelated phases of eigenstates. The third part of the present paper is to demonstrate explicitly the equivalence of our results with those recently obtained by Barton (2010); this being not a trivial task since the formal results are seemingly quite different from each other.

Johan S. Hye; Iver Brevik

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

256

Friction forces in cosmological models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the dynamics of test particles undergoing friction forces in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. The interaction with the background fluid is modeled by introducing a Poynting-Robertson-like friction force in the equations of motion, leading to measurable (at least in principle) deviations of the particle trajectories from geodesic motion. The effect on the peculiar velocities of the particles is investigated for various equations of state of the background fluid and different standard cosmological models. The friction force is found to have major effects on particle motion in closed FRW universes, where it turns the time-asymptotic value (approaching the recollapse) of the peculiar particle velocity from ultra-relativistic (close to light speed) to a co-moving one, i.e., zero peculiar speed. On the other hand, for open or flat universes the effect of the friction is not so significant, because the time-asymptotic peculiar particle speed is largely non-relativistic also in the geodesi...

Bini, Donato; Gregoris, Daniele; Succi, Sauro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Friction forces in cosmological models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the dynamics of test particles undergoing friction forces in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. The interaction with the background fluid is modeled by introducing a Poynting-Robertson-like friction force in the equations of motion, leading to measurable (at least in principle) deviations of the particle trajectories from geodesic motion. The effect on the peculiar velocities of the particles is investigated for various equations of state of the background fluid and different standard cosmological models. The friction force is found to have major effects on particle motion in closed FRW universes, where it turns the time-asymptotic value (approaching the recollapse) of the peculiar particle velocity from ultra-relativistic (close to light speed) to a co-moving one, i.e., zero peculiar speed. On the other hand, for open or flat universes the effect of the friction is not so significant, because the time-asymptotic peculiar particle speed is largely non-relativistic also in the geodesic case.

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Daniele Gregoris; Sauro Succi

2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

258

An Analytical Model for Tropical Relative Humidity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytical model is derived for tropical relative humidity using only the ClausiusClapeyron relation, hydrostatic balance, and a bulk-plume water budget. This theory is constructed for radiativeconvective equilibrium and compared against a ...

David M. Romps

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Electromagnetic Radiation in Accelerated Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A generally covariant set of electromagnetic field equations and associated constitutive relations is developed to deal with electromagnetic radiation in arbitrarily moving media. The equations are sufficiently general to include dispersive as well as nonisotropic media. Several special cases are investigated to illustrate the method and to demonstrate the consistency of the formulation.

J. L. Anderson and J. W. Ryon

1969-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

260

Noncontact Rack and Pinion Powered by the Lateral Casimir Force  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The lateral Casimir force is employed to propose a design for a potentially wear-proof rack and pinion with no contact, which can be miniaturized to the nanoscale. The robustness of the design is studied by exploring the relation between the pinion velocity and the rack velocity in the different domains of the parameter space. The effects of friction and added external load are also examined. It is shown that the device can hold up extremely high velocities, unlike what the general perception of the Casimir force as a weak interaction might suggest.

Arash Ashourvan; MirFaez Miri; Ramin Golestanian

2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The mechano-chemistry of cytoskeletal force generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this communication, we propose a model to study the non-equilibrium process by which actin stress fibers develop force in contractile cells. The emphasis here is on the non-equilibrium thermodynamics, which is necessary to address the mechanics as well as the chemistry of dynamic cell contractility. In this setting we are able to develop a framework that relates (a) the dynamics of force generation within the cell and (b) the cell response to external stimuli to the chemical processes occurring within the cell, as well as to the mechanics of linkage between the stress fibers, focal adhesions and extra-cellular matrix.

Mirko Maraldi; Krishna Garikipati

2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

262

Nuclear radiation electronic gear  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear radiation electronic gear ... Examines the line of nuclear radiation instrumentation offered by Nuclear-Chicago Corporation and Victoreen Instrument Company. ... Nuclear / Radiochemistry ...

S. Z. Lewin

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Radiation Control (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

264

Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

265

Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 May 2009 Demonstrating commercially availale physical security/force protection soultions around the world The bombing of Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia on 25 June 1996 revealed the need for continal vigilance and protection againist terrorist forces intent on harming US personnel and interests. The Chairman if the Joint Chiefs of Staff directed the Services to investigate COTS equipments solutions for physical security/force protection needs. The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquistion, Technology, and Logistics (OUSD {at&l}) tasked the Office of the US Army Product Manager, force Protection Systems (PM-FPS), to coordiante and facilitate a Force Protection Equipment

266

Development of a light force accelerometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, the feasibility of a light force accelerometer was experimentally demonstrated. The light force accelerometer is an optical inertial sensor which uses focused laser light to levitate and trap glass microspheres ...

Butts, David LaGrange

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Reduction-in-Force | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reduction-in-Force Reduction in force (RIF) is a set of regulations and procedures that are used to determine whether an employee keeps his or her present position, or...

268

A Dynamic Defense Force for Japan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Dynamic Defense Force for Japan Sugio TAKAHASHI SUMMARY AGuidelines released by Japan in 2010, the most important isconcept, which will enable the Japan Self-Defense Forces to

TAKAHASHI, Sugio

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Japan Program: Radiation Effects Research Foundation | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The Life Span Study is the major RERF epidemiologic study that generates data on cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and non-cancer effects in relation to radiation dose. The...

270

Order Module--NNSA OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The familiar level of this module is designed to provide the basic information to meet the requirements that are related to 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiation Protection, in the following DOE...

271

A radiation exposure index for CT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......metrics provided to operators at the completion of each examination relate to the amount...for each scan, whereas current CTDI indices only quantify the radiation incident...requires manufacturers to generate these indices for clinical examinations. With this......

Walter Huda

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Tropical Cyclogenesis Sensitivity to Environmental Parameters in Radiative-Convective Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, the relationship between the likelihood of tropical cyclogenesis and external environmental forcings is explored in the simplest idealized modelling framework possible: radiative-convective equilibrium on a ...

Nolan, David S.

273

Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National Nuclear Security Administration People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

274

Low Dose Radiation Program: Radiation Biology and the Radiation Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biology and the Radiation Research Program Biology and the Radiation Research Program The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), always have been concerned about the health effects of ionizing radiation. Extensive research has been conducted under their sponsorship at all levels of biological organization from molecules to man. Over the past 60 years, studies using every type of radiation source have included exposure to both external radiation sources and to internally deposited radioactive materials. These exposures used different dose patterns and distributions delivered over a wide range of experimental times. This extensive research provided the basis for the new Low Dose Radiation Research Program, linking

275

Three-body forces and the trinucleons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-body forces are discussed in the context of classical, atomic, solid-state and nuclear physics. The basic theoretical ingredients used in the construction of such forces are reviewed. Experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces and an overview of the three-nucleon bound states are presented. 53 refs., 9 figs.

Friar, J.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Theory of trapping forces in optical tweezers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...been used to measure forces in the piconewton range...investigations in some fundamental fields of cell biology...result for the transverse force as given by (3.9...Stegun, I. 1972 Handbook of mathematical functions...Dover. Ashkin, A. 1992 Forces of a single beam gradient...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Quarkonium Binding and Entropic Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Q-Qbar bound state represents a balance between repulsive kinetic and attractive potential energy. In a hot quark-gluon plasma, the interaction potential experiences medium effects. Color screening modifies the attractive binding force between the quarks, while the increase of entropy with Q-Qbar separation gives rise to a growing repulsion. We study the role of these phenomena for in-medium Q-Qbar binding and dissociation. It is found that the relevant potential for Q-Qbar binding is the free energy F; with increasing Q-Qbar separation, further binding through the internal energy U is compensated by repulsive entropic effects.

Satz, Helmut

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Systems and methods of detecting force and stress using tetrapod nanocrystal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods of detecting force on the nanoscale including methods for detecting force using a tetrapod nanocrystal by exposing the tetrapod nanocrystal to light, which produces a luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal. The method continues with detecting a difference in the luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal relative to a base luminescent response that indicates a force between a first and second medium or stresses or strains experienced within a material. Such systems and methods find use with biological systems to measure forces in biological events or interactions.

Choi, Charina L.; Koski, Kristie J.; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

279

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Frequencies of Radiation-Induced  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Frequencies of Radiation-Induced Chromosome Interchanges and Frequencies of Radiation-Induced Chromosome Interchanges and Randomness of Chromosome Territory Locations Relative to One Another. Authors: RK Sachs,§ MN Cornforth,‡ KM Greulich-Bode,* L Hlatky, and DJ Brenner|| Institutions: §Department of Mathematics, University of California, ‡University of Texas Medical Branch, *Department of Skin Carcinogenesis, German Cancer Research Center DFCI, Harvard Medical School, ||Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University. Leukemogenesis, and perhaps carcinogenesis in general, often involves specific chromosome translocations. Radiation-induced chromosome translocation frequencies are strongly influenced by how close participating chromosomes are to one another in an interphase cell nucleus. We sought to determine whether chromosomes in human peripheral blood

280

Air Force Enhanced Use Lease  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1 1 Air Force Enhanced Use Lease Mr. Brian Brown 16 Oct. 12 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 2 Agenda  Brian Brown  Enhanced Use Lease (EUL) Overview  Energy EULs  EUL Goals  David Swanson  Energy EUL Market Drivers  Current EUL Projects  Partnering with the Air Force  Contact Information I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 3 Overview  Authority 10 USC 2667  An EUL is a lease  By the government  Of "non-excess" property  Under the control of the government  To a public or private sector lessee  In exchange for fair market value rental payments in cash and/or in kind consideration I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Lorentz-Force Hydrophone Characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Lorentz-force hydrophone consists of a thin wire placed inside a magnetic field. When under the influence of an ultrasound pulse, the wire vibrates and an electrical signal is induced by the Lorentz force that is proportional to the pulse amplitude. In this study a compact prototype of such a hydrophone is introduced and characterized, and the hydrodynamic model previously developed is refined. It is shown that the wire tension has a negligible effect on the measurement of pressure. The frequency response of the hydrophone reaches 1 MHz for wires with a diameter ranging between 70 and 400 \\micro m. The hydrophone exhibits a directional response such that the signal amplitude differs by less than 3dB as the angle of the incident ultrasound pulse varies from -20$^o$ and +20$^o$. The linearity of the measured signal is confirmed across the 50 kPa to 10 MPa pressure range, and an excellent resistance to cavitation is observed. This hydrophone is of interest for high pressure ultrasound measurements including Hi...

Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Gilles, Bruno; Poizat, Adrien; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Casimir force for absorbing media in an open quantum system framework: Scalar model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article we compute the Casimir force between two finite-width mirrors at finite temperature, working in a simplified model in 1+1 dimensions. The mirrors, considered as dissipative media, are modeled by a continuous set of harmonic oscillators which in turn are coupled to an external environment at thermal equilibrium. The calculation of the Casimir force is performed in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. It is shown that the Casimir interaction has two different contributions: the usual radiation pressure from the vacuum, which is obtained for ideal mirrors without dissipation or losses, and a Langevin force associated with the noise induced by the interaction between dielectric atoms in the slabs and the thermal bath. Both contributions to the Casimir force are needed in order to reproduce the analogous Lifshitz formula in 1+1 dimensions. We also discuss the relationship between the electromagnetic properties of the mirrors and the spectral density of the environment.

Lombardo, Fernando C.; Rubio Lopez, Adrian E. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mazzitelli, Francisco D. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Atomico Bariloche Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Casimir Forces in a Piston Geometry at Zero and Finite Temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study Casimir forces on the partition in a closed box (piston) with perfect metallic boundary conditions. Related closed geometries have generated interest as candidates for a repulsive force. By using an optical path expansion we solve exactly the case of a piston with a rectangular cross section, and find that the force always attracts the partition to the nearest base. For arbitrary cross sections, we can use an expansion for the density of states to compute the force in the limit of small height to width ratios. The corrections to the force between parallel plates are found to have interesting dependence on the shape of the cross section. Finally, for temperatures in the range of experimental interest we compute finite temperature corrections to the force (again assuming perfect boundaries).

M. P. Hertzberg; R. L. Jaffe; M. Kardar; A. Scardicchio

2007-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

284

Effect of lift force on the aerodynamics of dust grains in the protoplanetary disk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We newly introduce lift force into the aerodynamics of dust grains in the protoplanetary disk. Although many authors have so far investigated the effects of the drag force, gravitational force and electric force on the dust grains, the lift force has never been considered as a force exerted on the dust grains in the gas disk. If the grains are spinning and moving in the fluid, then the lift force is exerted on them. We show in this paper that the dust grains can be continuously spinning due to the frequent collisions so that the lift force continues to be exerted on them, which is valid in a certain parameter space where the grain size is larger than ~ 1 m and where the distance from the central star is larger than 1 AU for the minimum mass solar nebula. In addition, we estimate the effects of the force on the grain motion and obtain the result that the mean relative velocity between the grains due to the lift force is comparable to the gas velocity in the Kepler rotational frame when the Stokes number and li...

Yamaguchi, Masaki S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

radiation.p65  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

5 5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small amounts of radiation. For most people, the benefits from using such products far outweigh the radiation risks. Radiation Dose Radiation is measured in various units. Individuals who have been exposed to radiation have received a radiation dose. Radiation dose to people is expressed in

286

Device for detecting ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention relates to ionizing radiation sensors, and , more particularly, to semiconductor spectrometers with thermoelectric cooling, and can most advantageously be used in mineral raw material exploration and evaluation under field conditions. The spectrometer comprises a vacuum chamber with an entrance window for passing the radiation therethrough. The vacuum chamber accommodates a thermoelectric cooler formed by a set of peltier elements. A heat conducting plate is mounted on the cold side of the thermoelectric cooler, and its hot side is provided with a radiator. Mounted on the heat conducting plate are sets of peltier elements, integral with the thermoelectric cooler and independent of one another. The peltier elements of these sets are stacked so as to develop the minimum temperature conditions on one set carrying a semiconductor detector and to provide the maximum refrigeration capacity conditions on the other set provided with the field-effect transistor mounted thereon.

Anatychuk, L.I.; Kharitonov, J.P.; Kusniruk, V.F.; Meir, V.A.; Melnik, A.P.; Ponomarev, V.S.; Skakodub, V.A.; Sokolov, A.D.; Subbotin, V.G.; Zhukovsky, A.N.

1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

287

E-Print Network 3.0 - aacp-pssc task force Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the past year in hundreds of collective hours... health risk resulting from Port-related air pollution. As the scheduled meetings for our task force draws... for us to complete...

288

E-Print Network 3.0 - aespoe task force Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the past year in hundreds of collective hours... health risk resulting from Port-related air pollution. As the scheduled meetings for our task force draws... for us to complete...

289

Potential Distribution in Functionalized Graphene Devices Probed by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

graphene sheet (FGS) [1] can be utilized in sensor technology, batteries and supercapacitors becausePotential Distribution in Functionalized Graphene Devices Probed by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Institute of Physics. Related Articles Ferromagnetic fluctuation in doped armchair graphene nanoribbons J

Aksay, Ilhan A.

290

SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Saul, L.; Wurz, P. [University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Bzowski, M. [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Frisch, P. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gruntman, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Mueller, H. R. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Factors Affecting  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation William F. Morgan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why This Project The short-term effects of high doses of ionizing radiation on cellular responses are relatively well understood. Less clear are the long-term consequences of exposure to low dose/low dose-rate radiation and the effects of radiation exposure on the progeny of surviving cells. If a cell survives radiation, it is generally thought to have repaired all the radiation-induced insults and be capable of a "normal healthy life". At a certain frequency, however, we have found that some cells surviving radiation grow normally, but will rearrange their genetic material during time in culture. We call this radiation-induced genomic instability. Many

292

Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. In the composition, a composite is formed from a carrier material and at least one of the source of the exciting radiation or the component which is capable of interacting with the exciting radiation. The composite is then employed for loading a porous substrate, preferably an aerogel substrate.

Ashley, Carol S. (14316 Bauer Rd., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (14 Eagle Nest Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Reed, Scott (10308 Leymon Ct., NW., Albuquerque, NM 87114); Shepodd, Timothy J. (1838 Broadmore St., Livermore, CA 94550); Leonard, Leroy E. (4944 Ten Oaks Rd., Dayton, MD 21036); Ellefson, Robert E. (193 Elmwood Dr., Centerville, OH 45459); Gill, John T. (906 E. Linden Ave., Miamisburg, OH 45342); Walko, Robert J. (3215 Blume, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Renschler, Clifford L. (7 Lagarto Rd., Tijeras, NM 87059)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Army Energy Initiatives Task Force  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Army Energy Initiatives Task Force Kathy Ahsing Director, Planning and Development UNCLASSIFIED 2 Perfect Storm UNCLASSIFIED 3 U.S. Army Energy Consumption, 2010 23% 77% 42% 58%  Facilities  Vehicles & Equipment (Tactical and Non-tactical) Sources: Energy Information Agency, 2010 Annual Energy Review; Agency Annual Energy Management Data Reports submitted to DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (Preliminary FY 2010) 32% 68% DoD 80% Army 21% Federal Gov 1% Federal Government United States Department of Defense U.S. = 98,079 Trillion Btu DoD = 889 Trillion Btu Fed Gov = 1,108 Trillion Btu U.S. Army = 189 Trillion Btu FY10 Highlights - $2.5+B Operational Energy Costs - $1.2 B Facility Energy Costs

294

Dark Forces At The Tevatron  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

A simple explanation of the W + dijet excess recently reported by the CDF collaboration involves the introduction of a new gauge boson with sizable couplings to quarks, but with no or highly suppressed couplings to leptons. Anomaly-free theories which include such a leptophobic gauge boson must also include additional particle content, which may include a stable and otherwise viable candidate for dark matter. Based on the couplings and mass of the Z` required to generate the CDF excess, we predict such a dark matter candidate to possess an elastic scattering cross section with nucleons on the order of ? ~ 10-40 cm2, providing a natural explanation for the signals reported by the CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA collaborations. In this light, CDF may be observing the gauge boson responsible for the force which mediates the interactions between the dark and visible matter of our universe.

Buckley, Matt [Fermilab; Fileviez Perez, Pavel [Wisconsin U., Madison; Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Neil, Ethan [Fermilab

2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

295

Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The objective of this course is to provide students with an introduction to the fundamentals of ionizing radiation protection and safety. The course curriculum combines...

296

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radiation emitted by the earth. This instrument is onboard a European Union geostationary weather satellite launched in December 2005; it is collecting data over Niamey and the...

297

Scattering-matrix approach to Casimir-Lifshitz force and heat transfer out of thermal equilibrium between arbitrary bodies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the radiative heat transfer and the Casimir-Lifshitz force occurring between two bodies in a system out of thermal equilibrium. We consider bodies of arbitrary shape and dielectric properties, held at two different temperatures and immersed in environmental radiation at a third different temperature. We derive explicit closed-form analytic expressions for the correlations of the electromagnetic field and for the heat transfer and Casimir-Lifshitz force in terms of the bodies' scattering matrices. We then consider some particular cases which we investigate in detail: the atom-surface and the slab-slab configurations.

Messina, Riccardo [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UMR 8630, UPMC, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Antezza, Mauro [Universite Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier (France); CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier (France)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

Scattering-matrix approach to Casimir-Lifshitz force and heat transfer out of thermal equilibrium between arbitrary bodies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the radiative heat transfer and the Casimir-Lifshitz force occurring between two bodies in a system out of thermal equilibrium. We consider bodies of arbitrary shape and dielectric properties, held at two different temperatures, and immersed in a environmental radiation at a third different temperature. We derive explicit closed-form analytic expressions for the correlations of the electromagnetic field, and for the heat transfer and Casimir-Lifshitz force, in terms of the bodies scattering matrices. We then consider some particular cases which we investigate in detail: the atom-surface and the slab-slab configurations.

Riccardo Messina; Mauro Antezza

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

299

radiation.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Radiation-It's a Fact of Life Radiation-It's a Fact of Life It has been with us since the beginning of time. Everyone who has ever walked on this planet has been exposed to radiation. For the most part, nature is the largest source of exposure. It's in the air we breathe, the ground we walk on, and even the food we eat. The radiation we receive from all natural and some man-made sources is called "background radiation." The millirem (mrem) is a unit used for measuring radiation received by a person. The total average background for radiation received by people living in the United States is 360 millirem per year (mrem/yr), of which 300 mrem/yr is from natural sources, and 60 mrem/yr is man-made. Cosmic Radiation from the sun and stars Internal Radiation from naturally radioactive

300

Diurnal Cycle of Convection at the ARM SGP Site: Role of Large-Scale Forcing, Surface Fluxes, and Convective Inhibition  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Diurnal Cycle of Convection at the ARM SGP Site: Diurnal Cycle of Convection at the ARM SGP Site: Role of Large-Scale Forcing, Surface Fluxes, and Convective Inhibition G. J. Zhang Center for Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California Introduction Atmospheric convection undergoes strong diurnal variation over both land and oceans (Gray and Jacobson 1977; Dai 2001; Nesbitt and Zipser 2003). Because of the nature of the diurnal variation of solar radiation, the phasing of convection with solar radiation has a significant impact on the atmospheric radiation budget and cloud radiative forcing. A number of studies have investigated the possible mechanisms of the diurnal variation of convection (Gray and Jacobson 1977; Randall et al. 1991; Dai et al. 1999; Dai 2001). Yet, in regional and global climate models, the diurnal variation of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Research priorities for occupational radiation protection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

303

The force exerted by a fireball  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The force exerted by a fireball was deduced both from the change of the equilibrium position of a pendulum and from the change in the pendulum oscillation period. That measured force was found to be several times larger than the force exerted by the ions accelerated across the double layer that is assumed to surround the fireball. The force enhancement that is expected by ion-neutral collisions in the fireball is evaluated to be too small to explain the measured enhanced force. Gas pressure increase, due to gas heating through electron-neutral collisions, as recently suggested [Stenzel et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113305 (2011)], is examined as the source for the force enhancement.

Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A. [H.I.T. - Holon Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb St., Holon 58102 (Israel)] [H.I.T. - Holon Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb St., Holon 58102 (Israel)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Technical Sessions A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Study of Longwave Radiation A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models R. G. Ellingson F. Baer Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 Introduction the radiation sensitivity problem. We anticipate that the outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and a better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the equilibrium climate of the atmosphere. Nature of Longwave Problems Longwave radiation quantities-radiances, fluxes and heating rates-are usually calculated in GCM models as the cloud amount weighted average of the values for clear and homogeneous cloud conditions. For example, the downward flux at the surface, F, may be written as

305

Magnus force effect in optical manipulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of the Magnus force in optical micromanipulation has been observed. An ad hoc experiment has been designed based on a one-dimensional optical trap that carries angular momentum. The observed particle dynamics reveals the occurrence of this hydrodynamic force, which is neglected in the common approach. Its measured value is larger than the one predicted by the existing theoretical models for micrometric particles and low Reynolds number, showing that the Magnus force can contribute to unconventional optohydrodynamic trapping and manipulation.

Cipparrone, Gabriella; Pagliusi, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro di Eccellenza CEMIF.CAL, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Hernandez, Raul Josue; Provenzano, Clementina [Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro di Eccellenza CEMIF.CAL, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the ClausiusMossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be used as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

R. Esquivel-Sirvent

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers the Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering project and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

308

Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Interagency Energy Management Task Force is led by the Federal Energy Management Program director, and its members include energy and sustainability managers from federal agencies.

309

Comparative analysis of internal friction and natural frequency measured by free decay and forced vibration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relations between various values of the internal friction (tg{delta}, Q{sup -1}, Q{sup -1*}, and {lambda}/{pi}) measured by free decay and forced vibration are analyzed systemically based on a fundamental mechanical model in this paper. Additionally, relations between various natural frequencies, such as vibration frequency of free decay {omega}{sub FD}, displacement-resonant frequency of forced vibration {omega}{sub d}, and velocity-resonant frequency of forced vibration {omega}{sub 0} are calculated. Moreover, measurement of natural frequencies of a copper specimen of 99.9% purity has been made to demonstrate the relation between the measured natural frequencies of the system by forced vibration and free decay. These results are of importance for not only more accurate measurement of the elastic modulus of materials but also the data conversion between different internal friction measurements.

Wang, Y. Z.; Ding, X. D.; Xiong, X. M.; Zhang, J. X. [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China) and Department of Physics, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Land-atmosphere interaction and radiative-convective equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present work on several topics related to land-atmosphere interaction and radiative-convective equilibrium: the first two research chapters invoke ideas related to land-atmosphere interaction to better understand ...

Cronin, Timothy (Timothy Wallace)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Radiative muon absorption in oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The photon spectrum from radiative absorption of negative muons in O16 has been measured with a high-resolution pair spectrometer. The integrated branching ratio for photons with energies greater than 57 MeV relative to the total muon absorption rate is (3.80.4)10-5. The data are consistent with nuclear model calculations for a value of the induced pseudoscalar coupling in O16 of gP/gA=13.51.5.

A. Frischknecht; M. Dbeli; W. Stehling; G. Strassner; P. Trul; J. C. Alder; C. Joseph; J. F. Loude; J. P. Perroud; D. Ruegger; M. T. Tran; H. Panke

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Radiation Safety Program Annual Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................10 AREA RADIATION SURVEYS AND CONTAMINATION CONTROL...........................................11.....................................................................................................13 RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT meetings of the Radiation Safety Committee where new users and uses of radioactive materials, radiation

Lyubomirsky, Ilya

313

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of steam buildings. Radiator Labs developed a mechanism that allows heating systems to control heat transfer at each radiator. The Radiator Labs design utilizes an...

314

The universal radiative transport equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE UNIVERSAL RADIATIVE TRANSPORT EQUATION Rudolph W.The Universal Radiative Transport Equation Rudolph W.The various radiative transport equations used in general

Preisendorfer, Rudolph W

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Radiation Safety Policy and Procedures Committee  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

RSPPC Meeting Minutes APS only RSPPC Meeting Minutes APS only Radiation Safety Policy and Procedures Committee Charter 1. Purpose The committee reviews functional changes to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) and Personnel Protection System (PSS) used to provide personnel protection and area exclusion related to APS accelerators, storage ring and other radiation handling areas. The RSPP Committee advises APS management on radiation safety matters. At the request of APS Management the committee reviews projects, recommends radiation safety policy, and evaluates accident investigation conclusions. 2. Membership Members are appointed by the APS Division Directors and APS Director for their knowledge and background in Interlock Systems, Radiation Safety, Accelerator Operations and Work on the Experiment Floor.

316

Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics S. F. Iacobellis and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California G. M. McFarquhar University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois D. L. Mitchell Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada Introduction A single-column model (SCM) is used to examine the sensitivity of basic quantities such as atmospheric radiative heating rates and surface and top of atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes to various parameter- izations of clouds and cloud microphysics. The SCM was run at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites using forcing data derived from forecast products. The forecast

317

On Tensor Forces and the Theory of Light Nuclei  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The quadrupole moment of the deuteron indicates the existence of non-central tensor forces in nuclei which destroy the constancy of the total orbital angular momentum. With simple operational representations of the wave functions, the influence of two-body tensor forces on the ground state eigenfunctions of the light nuclei H3 and He4 has been calculated. In H3 the tensor forces directly couple to the fundamental S122 state a D124 state, which in turn interacts with P122 and P124. To the fundamental S01 state of He4 is admixed a D05 state which is coupled by the tensor forces with P03. All states consistent with the total angular momentum and parity conservation rules occur in the ground state eigenfunctions, and these nuclei therefore constitute the simplest examples of the complete break-down of spin and orbital angular momentum conservation laws. Rarita and Schwinger have satisfactorily accounted for the properties of the deuteron by including the tensor force in a simple interaction represented by a rectangular well potential. With this interaction to describe the forces between all pairs of nuclear particles, the binding energies of H3 and He4 have been estimated by a variation method The trial functions are of the form S122+D124 for H3 and S01+D05 for He4, with Gaussian radial functions. The calculations yield 32 and 50 percent of the binding energy for H3 and He4, respectively, while a similar test calculation for the deuteron gives 54 percent of the binding energy. The probability that these nuclei are in a D state is found to be 4 percent for all three nuclei, in agreement with the exact deuteron computations. Improvement of the radial dependence of the trial functions increases the estimated binding energy of the deuteron to 76 percent of the known value but does not materially affect either the estimated binding energies of H3 and He4, or the amount of D state admixture of the three nuclei. An analysis of the results shows that the tensor forces, which produce all the binding in the deuteron, are relatively ineffective in binding H3 and He4. This apparently indicates that the assumption of ordinary and tensor forces of the same range is not adequate to represent the properties of H3 and He4.

Edward Gerjuoy and Julian Schwinger

1942-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air- tantly, what radiation dose people may have received. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP, additionalProjectworkcouldresultin revisions of these dose estimates. April 21, 1994 Companion

319

Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

320

WI Radiation Protection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Nuclear Force from Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The first lattice QCD result on the nuclear force (the NN potential) is presented in the quenched level. The standard Wilson gauge action and the standard Wilson quark action are employed on the lattice of the size 16^3\\times 24 with the gauge coupling beta=5.7 and the hopping parameter kappa=0.1665. To obtain the NN potential, we adopt a method recently proposed by CP-PACS collaboration to study the pi pi scattering phase shift. It turns out that this method provides the NN potentials which are faithful to those obtained in the analysis of NN scattering data. By identifying the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter wave function with the Schroedinger wave function for the two nucleon system, the NN potential is reconstructed so that the wave function satisfies the time-independent Schroedinger equation. In this report, we restrict ourselves to the J^P=0^+ and I=1 channel, which enables us to pick up unambiguously the ``central'' NN potential V_{central}(r). The resulting potential is seen to posses a clear repulsive core of about 500 MeV at short distance (r < 0.5 fm). Although the attraction in the intermediate and long distance regions is still missing in the present lattice set-up, our method is appeared to be quite promising in reconstructing the NN potential with lattice QCD.

Noriyoshi ISHII; Sinya AOKI; Tetsuo HATSUDA

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

322

Chalcogenide Glass Radiation Sensor; Materials Development, Design and Device Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For many decades, various radiation detecting material have been extensively researched, to find a better material or mechanism for radiation sensing. Recently, there is a growing need for a smaller and effective material or device that can perform similar functions of bulkier Geiger counters and other measurement options, which fail the requirement for easy, cheap and accurate radiation dose measurement. Here arises the use of thin film chalcogenide glass, which has unique properties of high thermal stability along with high sensitivity towards short wavelength radiation. The unique properties of chalcogenide glasses are attributed to the lone pair p-shell electrons, which provide some distinctive optical properties when compared to crystalline material. These qualities are derived from the energy band diagram and the presence of localized states in the band gap. Chalcogenide glasses have band tail states and localized states, along with the two band states. These extra states are primarily due to the lone pair electrons as well as the amorphous structure of the glasses. The localized states between the conductance band (CB) and valence band (VB) are primarily due to the presence of the lone pair electrons, while the band tail states are attributed to the Van der Waal??s forces between layers of atoms [1]. Localized states are trap locations within the band gap where electrons from the valence band can hop into, in their path towards the conduction band. Tail states on the other hand are locations near the band gap edges and are known as Urbach tail states (Eu). These states are occupied with many electrons that can participate in the various transformations due to interaction with photons. According to Y. Utsugi et. al.[2], the electron-phonon interactions are responsible for the generation of the Urbach tails. These states are responsible for setting the absorption edge for these glasses and photons with energy near the band gap affect these states. We have studied the effect of x-rays and γ-rays, on thin film chalcogenide glasses and applied them in conjunction with film incorporating a silver source in a new type of radiation sensor for which we have an US patent application [3]. In this report, we give data about our studies regarding our designed radiation sensor along with the testing and performance at various radiation doses. These studies have been preceded by materials characterization research related to the compositional and structural characteristics of the active materials used in the radiation sensor design. During the work on the project, we collected a large volume of material since every experiment was repeated many times to verify the results. We conducted a comprehensive material research, analysis and discussion with the aim to understand the nature of the occurring effects, design different structures to harness these effects, generated models to aid in the understanding the effects, built different device structures and collected data to quantify device performance. These various aspects of our investigation have been detailed in previous quarterly reports. In this report, we present our main results and emphasize on the results pertaining to the core project goals ?? materials development, sensor design and testing and with an emphasis on classifying the appropriate material and design for the optimal application. The report has three main parts: (i) Presentation of the main data; (ii) Bulleted summary of the most important results; (iii) List of the patent, journal publications, conference proceedings and conferences participation, occurring as a result of working on the project.

Mitkova, Maria; Butt, Darryl; Kozicki, Michael; Barnaby, Hugo

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

323

About Fermilab | Fermilab and the Community | ILC Citizens' Task Force |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Expected Topics of the ILC Citizens' Task Force Topic Informal Input Community Concerns Formal Recomm. Orientation of the ILC Location of the underground tunnel X Community issues related to locating an underground tunnel X Potential impacts on groundwater and the environment X X Issues relating to property rights X X X Surface Structures off Fermilab property Locations X X Aesthetic issues X X Environmental impacts X X Features that could be included to benefit communities X X Construction of the ILC Timing of activities X X Safety X X Mitigating noise, traffic, environmental, and other impacts X X Fermilab-Community Relationships Maximizing economic benefits to the region X X

324

Physical and biological properties of U.S. standard endotoxin EC after exposure to ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in the UV range, radiation treatment...pattern. Dose-related...effects of the ionizing radiation...milligram-per-milliliter range) (13...in the UV range, we found...ioniz- ing radiation. Regarding...effective, dose- dependent...EXPOSED TO IONIZING RADIATION...

G Csako; R J Elin; H D Hochstein; C M Tsai

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPYRIGHT 2002 Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 98, No'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

Healy, Kevin Edward

326

FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force Meeting Agenda  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force Meeting Agenda FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force Meeting Agenda February 26, 2009 Task Force Meeting Agenda - CONFERENCE CALL Agenda FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE CONFERENCE CALL February 26, 2009 10:00-11:00 AM 10:00 Opening and Introduction - Eric Lightner, DOE * Call the meeting to order, around-the-table introductions, review of the agenda, additions to agenda 10:05 Update from DOE - Eric Lightner * Stimulus update * E-Forum * Fact sheet - discussion 10:30 Update from FERC - Ray Palmer, David Andrejcak * NARUC-FERC Smart Grid Collaborative meeting update 10:40 Update from NIST - William Anderson, Jerry FitzPatrick * Interoperability Standards Framework report to Congress

327

Tendon Arrangement and Muscle Force Requirements for Humanlike Force Capabilities in a Robotic Finger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Finger Nancy S. Pollard and Richards C. Gilbert Brown University Abstract Human motion can provide a rich hand has strong asym- metry in these directions: flexion forces ­ the forces needed to form a power

Pollard, Nancy

328

Radiative Muon Capture in Calcium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The branching ratio relative to ordinary muon capture and the photon asymmetry relative to the muon-spin direction were measured for radiative muon capture in Ca40. For ~ 1200 photon events, the partial branching ratio is Rk>57MeV=(21.11.4)10-6, and the asymmetry for k>63.5 MeV is +0.900.50. A fit of the photon spectrum to the theory of Rood, Yano, and Yano gives the value gP?=(6.51.6)gA for the pseudoscalar-coupling constant. These results are in disagreement with earlier experiments.

R. D. Hart; C. R. Cox; G. W. Dodson; M. Eckhause; J. R. Kane; M. S. Pandey; A. M. Rushton; R. T. Siegel; R. E. Welsh

1977-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation Globus Ruth NASA Ames Research Center Abstract Osteoporosis profoundly affects the aging U.S. population and exposure to high doses of radiation causes bone loss similar to age-related osteoporosis, although the influence of low dose radiation exposures is not known. The central hypothesis of our DOE project (NASA supplement) is that low doses of radiation modulate subsequent skeletal degeneration via oxidative pathways. Our working hypothesis is that a prior exposure to low dose radiation regulates oxidative metabolism within bone and contributes to bone loss caused either by subsequent high, challenge doses of radiation or by aging. HZE source: Because astronauts are exposed to radiation from GCR and solar

330

Radiation (North Dakota) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Radiation (North Dakota) Radiation (North Dakota) Radiation (North Dakota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State North Dakota Program Type Environmental Regulations The Department of Health is the designated agency to receive registration applications and issue certificates necessary for the production, storage, processing, and disposal of radioactive wastes. The Industrial Commission of North Dakota is tasked with monitoring and enforcing provisions related

331

Kirchhoff voltage law corrected for radiating circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When a circular loop composed by a RLC is put to oscillate, the oscillation will eventually vanish in an exponentially decaying current, even considering superconducting wires, due to the emission of electric and magnetic dipole radiation. In this work we propose a modification on the Kirchhoff voltage law by adding the radiative contributions to the energy loss as an effective resistance, whose value is relatively small when compared to typical resistance value, but fundamental to describe correctly real circuits. We have also analysed the change in the pattern of the radiation spectra emitted by the circuit as we vary both the effective and electrical resistance.

Lara, Vitor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Radiation effects on polypropylene/polybutylene blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polymer blends of polypropylene and polybutylene have been found to exhibit substantial maintenance of structural integrity after exposure to ionizing radiation. This radiation resistance has been found to be related to processing conditions and the resulting morphology of the blend. This article discusses (a) the processing conditions and the resulting mechanical properties after irradiation and (b) the role of morphology in this unexpected blend property.

Rolando, R.J. (3M Engineering Systems and Technology, St. Paul, MN (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called 'proximity force approximation' the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proximity force approximation (PFA) has been widely used in different areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PFA can be improved using a derivative expansion in the shape of the surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the improved PFA to compute electrostatic forces between conductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results can be used as an analytic benchmark for numerical calculations in AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight is provided for people who use the PFA to compute nuclear and Casimir forces.

Fosco, Cesar D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina) [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Lombardo, Fernando C. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA (Argentina)] [Argentina; Mazzitelli, Francisco D., E-mail: fdmazzi@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Work Force Retention Work Group Charter  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Work force Retention Work Group is established to support the Departments critical focus on maintaining a high-performing work force at a time when a significant number of the workers needed to support DOEs national security mission are reaching retirement age.

335

U.S.Air Force Advanced Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency,improved power distribution,reduced fuel dependency,reduction of noise,heat,and visual signatureU.S.Air Force Advanced Power Technology Office (APTO) U.S.Air Force Advanced Power Technology/Wind Powered Hydrogen Generation for Fuel Cell Applications · Waste-To-Energy APTO/Small Business Innovation

336

Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge) The Task Force will advise the Chancellor and Campus Provost/Executive Vice Chancellor (CP/EVC) on current and past water use and provide recommendations on implementation of policies for potable water use reductions in support of The Regents Policy on Sustainable

California at Santa Cruz, University of

337

Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UW­Madison Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report October 2010 #12;We are pleased to present the final report of the campus Sustainability Task Force. This report fulfills the charge we gave to sustainability for consideration by UW­Madison's leadership and campus community. There are many reasons why

Sheridan, Jennifer

338

Force localization in contracting cell layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Epithelial cell layers on soft elastic substrates or pillar arrays are commonly used as model systems for investigating the role of force in tissue growth, maintenance and repair. Here we show analytically that the experimentally observed localization of traction forces to the periphery of the cell layers does not necessarily imply increased local cell activity, but follows naturally from the elastic problem of a finite-sized contractile layer coupled to an elastic foundation. For homogeneous contractility, the force localization is determined by one dimensionless parameter interpolating between linear and exponential force profiles for the extreme cases of very soft and very stiff substrates, respectively. If contractility is sufficiently increased at the periphery, outward directed displacements can occur at intermediate positions, although the edge itself still retracts. We also show that anisotropic extracellular stiffness leads to force localization in the stiffer direction, as observed experimentally.

Carina M. Edwards; Ulrich S. Schwarz

2012-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

339

Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Radioactivity and Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radioactivity and Radiation Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects Radioactivity and Radiation Discussion of radioactivity and radiation, uranium and radioactivity, radiological health risks of uranium isotopes and decay products. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the term used to describe the natural process by which some atoms spontaneously disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as they transform into different, more stable atoms. This process, also called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of radioactivity

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

Clements, Emily B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

General Relativity Today Thibault DAMOUR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

relativity. For Newton's law of gravitation, this task was begun (before Einstein had even supplied his) the post-Newtonian limit and weak-field tests in the solar system, (ii) strong gravitational fields and black holes, (iii) strong-field and radiative tests in binary pulsar observations, (iv) gravitational

Damour, Thibault

343

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

344

CORONAL MASS EJECTION MASS, ENERGY, AND FORCE ESTIMATES USING STEREO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding coronal mass ejection (CME) energetics and dynamics has been a long-standing problem, and although previous observational estimates have been made, such studies have been hindered by large uncertainties in CME mass. Here, the two vantage points of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) COR1 and COR2 coronagraphs were used to accurately estimate the mass of the 2008 December 12 CME. Acceleration estimates derived from the position of the CME front in three dimensions were combined with the mass estimates to calculate the magnitude of the kinetic energy and driving force at different stages of the CME evolution. The CME asymptotically approaches a mass of 3.4 {+-} 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} g beyond {approx}10 R{sub Sun }. The kinetic energy shows an initial rise toward 6.3 {+-} 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 29} erg at {approx}3 R{sub Sun }, beyond which it rises steadily to 4.2 {+-} 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg at {approx}18 R{sub Sun }. The dynamics are described by an early phase of strong acceleration, dominated by a force of peak magnitude of 3.4 {+-} 2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} N at {approx}3 R{sub Sun }, after which a force of 3.8 {+-} 5.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} N takes effect between {approx}7 and 18 R{sub Sun }. These results are consistent with magnetic (Lorentz) forces acting at heliocentric distances of {approx}<7 R{sub Sun }, while solar wind drag forces dominate at larger distances ({approx}>7 R{sub Sun }).

Carley, Eoin P.; Gallagher, Peter T. [Astrophysics Research Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); McAteer, R. T. James [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States)

2012-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

345

Radiation: Facts, Risks and Realities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Radiation 3 Understanding Radiation Risks 6 Naturally Occurring (Background) Radiation 7 Man-Made Radiation, beta particles and gamma rays. Other types, such as x-rays, can occur naturally or be machine-produced. Scientists have also learned that radiation sources are naturally all around us. Radiation can come from

346

The relationship between local liquid density and force applied on a tip of atomic force microscope: A theoretical analysis for simple liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The density of a liquid is not uniform when placed on a solid. The structured liquid pushes or pulls a probe employed in atomic force microscopy, as demonstrated in a number of experimental studies. In the present study, the relation between the force on a probe and the local density of a liquid is derived based on the statistical mechanics of simple liquids. When the probe is identical to a solvent molecule, the strength of the force is shown to be proportional to the vertical gradient of ln(?{sub DS}) with the local liquid's density on a solid surface being ?{sub DS}. The intrinsic liquid's density on a solid is numerically calculated and compared with the density reconstructed from the force on a probe that is identical or not identical to the solvent molecule.

Amano, Ken-ichi, E-mail: aman@tohoku-pharm.ac.jp; Takahashi, Ohgi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8558 (Japan)] [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8558 (Japan); Suzuki, Kazuhiro [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Fukuma, Takeshi [Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)] [Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

347

Mirror force induced wave dispersion in Alfvn waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent hybrid MHD-kinetic electron simulations of global scale standing shear Alfvn waves along the Earth's closed dipolar magnetic field lines show that the upward parallel current region within these waves saturates and broadens perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field and that this broadening increases with the electron temperature. Using resistive MHD simulations, with a parallel Ohm's law derived from the linear Knight relation (which expresses the current-voltage relationship along an auroral field line), we explore the nature of this broadening in the context of the increased perpendicular Poynting flux resulting from the increased parallel electric field associated with mirror force effects. This increased Poynting flux facilitates wave energy dispersion across field lines which in-turn allows for electron acceleration to carry the field aligned current on adjacent field lines. This mirror force driven dispersion can dominate over that associated with electron inertial effects for global scale waves.

Damiano, P. A.; Johnson, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Topological crossovers in the forced folding of self-avoiding matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the scaling properties of forced folding of thin materials of different geometry. The scaling relations implying the topological crossovers from the folding of threedimensional plates to the folding of two-dimensional sheets, and further to the packing of one-dimensional strings, are derived for elastic and plastic manifolds. These topological crossovers in the folding of plastic manifolds were observed in experiments with predominantly plastic aluminum strips of different geometry. Elasto-plastic materials, such as paper sheets during the (fast) folding under increasing confinement force, are expected to obey the scaling force-diameter relation derived for elastic manifolds. However, in experiments with paper strips of different geometry, we observed the crossover from packing of one-dimensional strings to folding two dimensional sheets only, because the fractal dimension of the set of folded elasto-plastic sheets is the thickness dependent due to the strain relaxation after a confinement force is withdrawn.

Alexander S. Balankin; Daniel Morales Matamoros; Ernesto Pineda Leon; Antonio Horta Rangel; Miguel Angel Martinez Cruz; Didier Samayoa Ochoa

2009-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

349

Self-force on a charge outside a five-dimensional black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compute the electromagnetic self-force acting on a charged particle held in place at a fixed position r outside a five-dimensional black hole described by the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metric. Using a spherical-harmonic decomposition of the electrostatic potential and a regularization prescription based on the Hadamard Green's function, we express the self-force as a convergent mode sum. The self-force is first evaluated numerically, and next presented as an analytical expansion in powers of R/r, with R denoting the event-horizon radius. The power series is then summed to yield a closed-form expression. Unlike its four-dimensional version, the self-force features a dependence on a regularization parameter s that can be interpreted as the particle's radius. The self-force is repulsive at large distances, and its behavior is related to a model according to which the force results from a gravitational interaction between the black hole and the distribution of electrostatic field energy attached to the particle. The model, however, is shown to become inadequate as r becomes comparable to R, where the self-force changes sign and becomes attractive. We also calculate the self-force acting on a particle with a scalar charge, which we find to be everywhere attractive. This is to be contrasted with its four-dimensional counterpart, which vanishes at any r.

Matthew J. S. Beach; Eric Poisson; Bernhard G. Nickel

2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

350

Piezoresistive cantilever force-clamp system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a microelectromechanical device-based tool, namely, a force-clamp system that sets or ''clamps'' the scaled force and can apply designed loading profiles (e.g., constant, sinusoidal) of a desired magnitude. The system implements a piezoresistive cantilever as a force sensor and the built-in capacitive sensor of a piezoelectric actuator as a displacement sensor, such that sample indentation depth can be directly calculated from the force and displacement signals. A programmable real-time controller operating at 100 kHz feedback calculates the driving voltage of the actuator. The system has two distinct modes: a force-clamp mode that controls the force applied to a sample and a displacement-clamp mode that controls the moving distance of the actuator. We demonstrate that the system has a large dynamic range (sub-nN up to tens of {mu}N force and nm up to tens of {mu}m displacement) in both air and water, and excellent dynamic response (fast response time, <2 ms and large bandwidth, 1 Hz up to 1 kHz). In addition, the system has been specifically designed to be integrated with other instruments such as a microscope with patch-clamp electronics. We demonstrate the capabilities of the system by using it to calibrate the stiffness and sensitivity of an electrostatic actuator and to measure the mechanics of a living, freely moving Caenorhabditis elegans nematode.

Park, Sung-Jin; Petzold, Bryan C.; Pruitt, Beth L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Goodman, Miriam B. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on tethered experiments with robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for nonintrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is ...

Lentink, David; Ingersoll, Rivers

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

The effect of patch potentials in Casimir force measurements determined by heterodyne Kelvin probe force microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of the Casimir force require the elimination of electrostatic interactions between the surfaces. However, due to electrostatic patch potentials, the voltage required to minimize the total force may not be sufficient to completely nullify the electrostatic interaction. Thus, these surface potential variations cause an additional force, which can obscure the Casimir force signal. In this paper, we inspect the spatially varying surface potential (SP) of e-beamed, sputtered, sputtered and annealed, and template stripped gold surfaces with Heterodyne Amplitude Modulated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (HAM-KPFM). It is demonstrated that HAM-KPFM improves the spatial resolution of surface potential measurements compared to Amplitude Modulated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (AM-KPFM). We find that patch potentials vary depending on sample preparation, and that the calculated pressure can be similar to the pressure difference between Casimir force calculations employing the plasma and Drude models.

Joseph L. Garrett; David Somers; Jeremy N. Munday

2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

353

Computational Intelligence Based Data Fusion Algorithm for Dynamic sEMG and Skeletal Muscle Force Modelling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, an array of three surface Electrography (sEMG) sensors are used to acquired muscle extension and contraction signals for 18 healthy test subjects. The skeletal muscle force is estimated using the acquired sEMG signals and a Non-linear Wiener Hammerstein model, relating the two signals in a dynamic fashion. The model is obtained from using System Identification (SI) algorithm. The obtained force models for each sensor are fused using a proposed fuzzy logic concept with the intent to improve the force estimation accuracy and resilience to sensor failure or misalignment. For the fuzzy logic inference system, the sEMG entropy, the relative error, and the correlation of the force signals are considered for defining the membership functions. The proposed fusion algorithm yields an average of 92.49% correlation between the actual force and the overall estimated force output. In addition, the proposed fusionbased approach is implemented on a test platform. Experiments indicate an improvement in finger/hand force estimation.

Chandrasekhar Potluri,; Madhavi Anugolu; Marco P. Schoen; D. Subbaram Naidu

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Relational EPR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the EPR-type correlations from the perspective of the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics. We argue that these correlations do not entail any form of 'non-locality', when viewed in the context of this interpretation. The abandonment of strict Einstein realism implied by the relational stance permits to reconcile quantum mechanics, completeness, (operationally defined) separability, and locality.

Matteo Smerlak; Carlo Rovelli

2006-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

355

Radiative Decay of the Muon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radiative decay of the muon, ?+?e++?+?e+??, has been measured using muons from the Columbia University Nevis synchrocyclotron. The decay products e+ and ? were observed at relative angles near 180, using scintillation counters and two 9-in.10-in. NaI crystals, which enabled simultaneous measurement of the positron and ? energies. The pulses from the crystals were displayed on oscilloscopes and photographed, and the measured amplitudes of these pulses were calibrated using the positron spectrum of the nonradiative decay. The two-dimensional energy spectrum for positrons and ?'s was obtained for about 900 events, after subtraction of background. This spectrum and the measured rate, obtained by normalizing to the nonradiative decay, were compared with theoretical predictions for the radiative decay. The results were in good agreement with the theory, within statistics, for the case of pure V-A coupling.

E. Bogart; E. DiCapua; P. Nmethy; A. Strelzoff

1967-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

356

Posters The Effects of Radiative Transfer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Posters The Effects of Radiative Transfer on Low-Level Cyclogenesis M. J. Leach and S. Raman Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina Introduction Many investigators have documented the role that thermodynamic forcing due to radiative flux divergence plays in the enhancement or generation of circulation. Most of these studies involve large-scale systems (e.g., Slingo et al. 1988), small-scale systems such as thunderstorms (Chen and Cotton 1988), and squall lines (Chin, submitted). The generation of circulation on large scales results from the creation of divergence in the upper troposphere and the maintenance of low-level potentially unstable air, and the maintenance of baroclinicity throughout

357

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

359

The flying radiation case  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum.

Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Applied Theoretical and Computational Physics Div.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo Community Connections: Our link to Northern New Mexico Communities Latest Issue:Dec. 2013 - Jan. 2014 All Issues » submit Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo Hazardous devices teams test their maneuvering skills July 1, 2013 Students from Valarde Middle School won the video competition in the Best in Show and Middle School categories. They are shown here with sixth-grade teacher Jimmy Lara. During the Robot Rodeo, an unseen operator attempts to conduct reconnaissance and rescue injured personnel Contact Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office Kurt Steinhaus Email Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo Police and public safety teams from as far away as New Jersey recently convened in Albuquerque to test their ability to remotely deploy robots

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

U.S. Air Force UESCs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentationgiven at the Spring 2009 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meetingcovers the U.S. Air Force's approval process, submittal requirements, and guidelines for utility energy service contracts (UESCs).

362

Qualifying Facility Wheeling Task Force-- Status Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Docket No. 8650 that the PUCT review the applicability of certain parts of the wheeling rules, and in April the Commission appointed a task force composed of representatives from affected industries, utilities, and regulatory staff to review the wheeling...

Panjavan, S.

363

Polarization dependent forces in optical vortex pipeline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study both, theoretically and in experiments, the dependence of optical forces acting on a spherical particle guided in air with an optical vortex beam, on the light polarization...

Eckerskorn, Niko; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Shvedov, Vladlen; Rode, Andrei

364

MagLab - Lorentz Force Tutorial  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

downloading the latest version of Java. A charged particle moving through a magnetic field experiences a force that is at right angles to both the direction in which the...

365

Modelling the climate response to orbital forcing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...next few years there will be a tremendous expansion in models that include several additional components. Such Earth system models will at last allow us to fully tackle the link between orbital forcing, climate variability, and the sediment...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate Directed Energy Directorate PROGRAM Space Scholars and Directed Energy Scholars The Space Vehicles and Directed Energy Directorates Scholars The Phillips Scholars internship offers an edu- cational and fulfilling summer job experience

Piao, Daqing

367

RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

E-Print Network 3.0 - automating breast radiation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

breast radiation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Questions and Answers About Female Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? Summary: show that the radiation related increase in breast...

369

Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thunderhead Radiation Thunderhead Radiation Measurements and Radiative Flux Analysis in Support of STORMVEX Chuck Long Jay Mace Intent * Provide downwelling broadband radiation measurements at Thunderhead * Physically small footprint portable system * Designed to provide inputs necessary for Radiative Flux Analysis Basic RFA System COPS Hornisgrinde Deployment 1200m elevation System Components * Eppley ventilated PSP * Eppley ventilated PIR * Delta-T SPN-1 * Vaisala HMP-50 T/RH probe * Campbell CR23X datalogger SPN-1 Radiometer * Uses 7 thermopile detectors and a patented shading pattern * Measures Total and Diffuse SW with no moving parts * Includes internal heaters Relative accuracy StDev = 13.6 Winter Mountain Deployment Frost/Snow Mitigation * NSA Heated Ventilator Evaluation IOP - Testing various configurations and

370

A Subtle Way to Realize the Dynamical Relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From the viewpoint of causality principle we reinvestigate the problem of dynamical relativity. We suggest that the counting of forces should also be relative so as to keep the consistency with the relative description for kinematical quantities. We propose a principle of causality consistency for the dynamical equation. Then we carry out the general principle of dynamical relativity in a subtle way, where the dynamical equation can be exactly applied in any reference frame. We point out that the essence of inertial forces is the real force which must be deducted in a relative counting of forces between the particle under study and the particle corresponding to the origin of the reference frame. Besides, our new approach to realize the general principle of dynamical relativity can also be reconciled with relativistic reformulation but only the substantial meaning of the force is changed. The total counting of forces should be changed into a relative counting of forces. In this way, the new formula of dynamical equation (9) is expected to replace the Newton's second law in classical mechanics since the special status for inertial reference frame is ultimately removed.

ChiYi Chen

2005-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

371

Static forces in a superconducting magnet bearing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Static levitation forces and stiffnesses in a superconducting bearing consisting of concentric ring magnets and a superconducting YBaCuO ring are investigated. In the field-cooled mode a levitation force of 20 N has been achieved. The axial and radial stiffnesses have values of 15 N/mm and 10 N/mm, respectively. An arrangement with two bearings supporting a high speed shaft is now under development. A possible application of superconducting magnetic bearings is flywheels for energy storage.

Stoye, P.; Fuchs, G. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung, Dresden (Germany)] [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung, Dresden (Germany); Gawalek, W.; Goernert, P. [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Jena (Germany)] [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Jena (Germany); Gladun, A. [Technische Univ., Dresden (Germany)] [Technische Univ., Dresden (Germany)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Atomic Radiation (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

373

Radiation.cdr  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

An average American's exposure is about 620 millirems per year from naturally occurring and other sources. Other Factors Background radiation varies with location....

374

Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

375

Radiation Safety September 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

...................................................................................... 8 2.6 RUA Holder........................................................................................................ 11 3.3 Radiation Use Authorization (RUA).......................................................................................... 11 3.4 Review of RUA Applications

California at Irvine, University of

376

Radiative polarization of electrons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a new method of calculating the radiative polarization of electrons in homogeneous magnetic fields, using the modified electron propagation function.

Julian Schwinger and Wu-yang Tsai

1974-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Definition: Solar radiation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

radiation radiation Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Solar radiation Electromagnetic energy emitted from the sun.[1][2][3] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition View on Reegle Reegle Definition Solar radiant energy impinging on the earth in any given region or area. Also Known As Solar energy, Solar resource Related Terms Solar energy, Solar cell, Photovoltaics, PV array, PV module, Passive solar, Passive solar heating, energy, bioenergy References ↑ http://www.eere.energy.gov/basics/renewable_energy/solar_resources.html ↑ http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/solar_glossary.html#S ↑ http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/glossary/gloss_s.html Retrieved f LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rom "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Solar_radiation&oldid=502602"

378

The Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Parameterized Cloud Microphysics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Parameterized Cloud Microphysics S. F. Iacobellis and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California San Diego, California G. M. McFarquhar University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois D. L. Mitchell Desert Research Institute Las Vegas, Nevada Introduction We have used a single-column model (SCM) to examine the sensitivity of fundamental quantities such as atmospheric radiative heating rates and surface and top of atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes to various parameterizations of clouds and cloud microphysics. When an SCM, which consists of one isolated column of a global atmospheric model, is forced with observational estimates of horizontal advection terms, the parameterizations within the SCM produce time-dependent fields which can be

379

ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) govCampaignsCarbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Campaign Links CARES Website Related Campaigns Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) - Surface Meteorological Sounding 2010.05.26, Zaveri, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiation Effects Study (CARES) Photo-Acoustic Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering 2010.05.26, Arnott, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES): SMPS & CCN counter deployment during CARES/Cal-NEx 2010.05.04, Wang, OSC Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Ground Based Instruments 2010.04.01, Cziczo, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

380

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for understanding

Pennycook, Steve

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM

Pennycook, Steve

382

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sources. People are exposedAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 Fig. F.1. The hydrogen atom and its

Pennycook, Steve

383

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation G-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation G-3 Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

384

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

385

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

SEAB Subcommittees and Task Forces | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

is chaired by Shirley Ann Jackson. Task Forces: The SEAB Next Generation High Performance Computing Task Force The SEAB Task Force to Support the Evaluation of the New Funding...

387

Report of the Task Force on Next Generation High Performance...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Report of the Task Force on Next Generation High Performance Computing Report of the Task Force on Next Generation High Performance Computing The SEAB Task Force on Next Generation...

388

A verification of quantum field theory measurement of Casimir force  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Here we review our work on measurement of the Casimir force between a large aluminum coated a sphere and flat plate using an atomic force microscope. The average statistical precision is 1% of the force measur...

Anushree Roy; U Mohideen

389

Mechanical Network in Titin Immunoglobulin from Force Distribution Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Network in Titin Immunoglobulin from Force Distribution Analysis Wolfram Stacklies1. , M, Stuttgart, Germany Abstract The role of mechanical force in cellular processes is increasingly revealed force propagates within proteins determines their mechanical behavior yet remains largely unknown. We

Gräter, Frauke

390

Electromotive Force in the Blandford-Znajek Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the mechanisms widely considered for driving relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, galactic microquasars, and gamma-ray bursts is the electromagnetic extraction of the rotational energy of a central black hole, i.e., the Blandford-Znajek process, although the origin of the electromotive force in this process is still under debate. We study this process as the steady unipolar induction in the Kerr black hole magnetosphere filled with a collisionless plasma screening the electric field (the D field) along the magnetic field (the B field), i.e., D dot B = 0. We extend the formulations and arguments made by Komissarov, and generally show that the origin of the electromotive force is ascribed to the ergosphere. It is explicitly shown that open magnetic field lines penetrating the ergosphere have a region where the D field is stronger than the B field in the ergosphere, and it keeps driving the poloidal currents and generating the electromotive force and the outward Poynting flux. The range of the possible value of the so-called angular velocity of the magnetic field line Omega_F is deduced for the field lines threading the equatorial plane in the ergosphere. We briefly discuss the relation between our conclusion and the ideal magnetohydrodynamic condition.

Kenji Toma; Fumio Takahara

2014-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

391

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating the voltage noise to the thermal fluctuations of the cantilever angle. The method accounts for the ratio of the thermal fluctuations measured in the fundamental vibration mode to the total, and also for the tilt and extended tip of the cantilever. The method is noncontact and is suitable for soft or deformable surfaces where the constant compliance method cannot be used. For hard surfaces, the method can also be used to calibrate the cantilever spring constant.

Attard, Phil; Pettersson, Torbjoern; Rutland, Mark W. [School of Chemistry F11, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden and Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm (Sweden)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Low-frequency oscillations of forced barotropic flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Jin and Ghil demonstrate that for topographically resonant flow, low-frequency finite-amplitude oscillations may arise from wave -- wave interactions and topographic form drag. Their model is extended to include a zonally asymmetric vorticity source, which is shown to interact with the perturbation field to produce zonally rectified wave fluxes that dramatically alter the Hopf bifurcation from stationary solutions to low-frequency oscillations. The frequency, intensity, and general character of these oscillations are shown to depend crucially upon the phasing and relative strength of the forcings.

Nathan, T.R.; Barcilon, A. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States) The Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Forced two layer beta-plane quasi-geostrophic flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that our unique weak solution is in fact a classical solution. In addition we will prove that the mentioned solution is time and space analytic. Meantime, L. Panetta, E. Titi and M. Ziane have announced in [14] existence and uniqueness results (as well as a... = (-partialdiffpsipartialdiffx2 , partialdiffpsipartialdiffx1 ), (x1, x2) are horizontal coordinates, F and D are forcing and dissipation terms, and Q is related to psi by a linear differential operator L in space variables Q = L[psi]. (2.3) Different choices for L give...

Onica, Constantin

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

394

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DDE ESTIMATED DOSE FROM CONCEPTION TO DECLARATION: DDE Radiation Safety Officer Signature for increased protection from ionizing radiation for declared pregnant radiation workers. The radiation dose of the occupational dose limit of 50 mSv (5.0 rem). The CPMC Radiation Safety Office will provide education

Jia, Songtao

395

RADIATION ONCOLOGY TARGET YOUR FUTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. · Radiation therapist - a health professional who designs, calculates (plans) and provides the radiation dose and monitors the delivery of radiation therapy, taking into account the protection and safety of patientsRADIATION ONCOLOGY TARGET YOUR FUTURE #12;A Career in Radiation Oncology YOUR CHOICE SAVE LIVES

Tobar, Michael

396

"EOD, Up!" how explosive ordnance disposal forces can best support special operations forces .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??U.S. special operations forces (SOF) are likely to undertake missions against terrorists, insurgents, and other enemies where they will encounter explosive hazards. Identification, detection, and (more)

Draper, Stephen R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Radiation safety system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......occupational illness to personnel, major damage...acceptable levels. Selection of control measures...or equipment operating correctly in...99 103 to 104 Personnel life safety...and abnormal operating conditions under...radiation risk to personnel, public and...worker radiation training) reduces the......

Vaclav Vylet; James C. Liu; Lawrence S. Walker

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Radiation safety system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......disable this safety function and...circuits and software. Other required...source in case of radiation monitors. Feedback...from other non-safety systems to prevent...write and check software. The expected...logic systems for safety functions can...levels of prompt radiation hazard. ACS......

Vaclav Vylet; James C. Liu; Lawrence S. Walker

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

A Comparison of Atmospheric Reanalysis Surface Products over the Ocean and Implications for Uncertainties in AirSea Boundary Forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper investigates the uncertainties related to atmospheric fields from reanalysis products used in forcing ocean models. Four reanalysis products, namely from 1) the interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim), 2) version ...

Chaudhuri, Ayan H.

400

DarkLight radiation backgrounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

DarkLight radiation backgrounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

Kalantarians, Narbe [University of Texas

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests and Exercises, March 12, 2007 Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests and Exercises, March 12,...

403

6.641 Electromagnetic Fields, Forces, and Motion, Spring 2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric and magnetic quasistatic forms of Maxwell's equations applied to dielectric, conduction, and magnetization boundary value problems. Electromagnetic forces, force densities, and stress tensors, including magnetization ...

Zahn, Markus, 1946-

404

Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series The four-part Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country webinar series provided tribal leaders an...

405

Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda Northeast High-Level Radioactive...

406

U.S. Air Force Energy Program Presentation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Omar Mendoza, U.S. Air Force, presentation on the U.S. Air Force Energy Program at the Advanced Biofuels Industry Roundtable.

407

Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop...

408

Nuclear radiation actuated valve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Radiation Weighting Factors and High Energy Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......generally inadequate for high energy radiation. In order to determine...appropriate wR values in the high energy region, several criteria are...are proposed for neutrons of energy above 100 MeV and for protons above 10 MeV. The wR value for muons is confirmed to be practically......

M. Pelliccioni

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Forced running exercise attenuates hippocampal neurogenesis impairment and the neurocognitive deficits induced by whole-brain irradiation via the BDNF-mediated pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Forced exercise can ameliorate WBI induced cognitive impairment in our rat model. Mature BDNF plays an important role in the effects of forced exercise. Exercise may be a possible treatment of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. -- Abstract: Cranial radiotherapy induces progressive and debilitating cognitive deficits, particularly in long-term cancer survivors, which may in part be caused by the reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested that voluntary exercise can reduce the cognitive impairment caused by radiation therapy. However, there is no study on the effect of forced wheel exercise and little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of exercise. In the present study, we investigated whether the forced running exercise after irradiation had the protective effects of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Sixty-four Male SpragueDawley rats received a single dose of 20 Gy or sham whole-brain irradiation (WBI), behavioral test was evaluated using open field test and Morris water maze at 2 months after irradiation. Half of the rats accepted a 3-week forced running exercise before the behavior detection. Immunofluorescence was used to evaluate the changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and Western blotting was used to assess changes in the levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMKII), cAMP-calcium response element binding protein (CREB) in the BDNFpCREB signaling. We found forced running exercise significantly prevented radiation-induced cognitive deficits, ameliorated the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis and attenuated the down-regulation of these proteins. Moreover, exercise also increased behavioral performance, hippocampal neurogenesis and elevated BDNFpCREB signaling in non-irradiation group. These results suggest that forced running exercise offers a potentially effective treatment for radiation-induced cognitive deficits.

Ji, Jian-feng; Ji, Sheng-jun; Sun, Rui; Li, Kun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Li-yuan; Tian, Ye, E-mail: dryetian@hotmail.com

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

411

Radiation effects on humans  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation effects on humans Radiation effects on humans Name: Joe Kemna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am trying to find information on radiation. I need the effects on humans, the damage it causes to the environment, and any extra information you might have on the subject. Thank you for your time. Replies: Your library should be a good place to start, but first you need to narrow your question a bit. "Radiation" means radio waves, heat, light (including the ultraviolet light that causes suntan and sunburn), and what's called "ionizing radiation." By far the major source of the first three is the Sun, while the last I believe comes principally from cosmic rays and various naturally radioactive elements like uranium and radon. The most significant manmade sources of exposure would --- I think --- be household wiring and appliances (radio), engines and heating devices (heat), lamps (light), and X-ray machines, flying at high altitude in airplanes, and living in well-insulated homes built over radon sources (ionizing radiation). Heat, light and ionizing radiation play vital roles in the ecology of the Earth. Radio, light (in particular "tanning" ultraviolet), and ionizing radiation have all been widely assumed at different times to be particularly good or particularly bad for human health. Some recent issues of public concern have been the effect of radio waves from electric transmission lines, the effect on skin cancer incidence from tanning and sunburns, the depletion of the ultraviolet-light-produced ozone in the upper atmosphere by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), "global warming" from the increased absorption of heat radiation from the surface by atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, and the effect of a long exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation as for example the people of Eastern Europe are experiencing from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

412

Effects of low levels of radiation on humans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The state of knowledge on effects of low-level ionizing radiations on humans is reviewed. Several problems relating to dose thresholds or lack of thresholds for several types of cancer and high LET radiations and the effects of fractionation and dose protection are discussed. (ACR)

Auxier, J.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Candidate Radiation Drugs Inch Forward  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Candidate Radiation Drugs Inch Forward 10.1126/science.331.6024...radiation, workers at the damaged Fukushima nuclear plant wear protective gear...Candidate radiation drugs inch forward. | News | 0 (E)-4-carboxystyryl-4-chlorobenzylsulfone...

Yudhijit Bhattacharjee

2011-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

414

General Multiobjective Force Field Optimization Framework, with Application to Reactive Force Fields for Silicon Carbide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fields for Silicon Carbide Andres Jaramillo-Botero,* Saber Naserifar, and William A. Goddard, III: (1) the ReaxFF reactive force field for modeling the adiabatic reactive dynamics of silicon carbide specific force field parameters for tripod metal templates, tripodMO(CO)3, using the root mean square

Goddard III, William A.

415

A molecular mechanics force field for lignin  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Molecular Molecular Mechanics Force Field for Lignin LOUKAS PETRIDIS, JEREMY C. SMITH Center for Molecular Biophysics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 Received 14 February 2008; Revised 8 May 2008; Accepted 12 June 2008 DOI 10.1002/jcc.21075 Published online 1 August 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). Abstract: A CHARMM molecular mechanics force field for lignin is derived. Parameterization is based on reproducing quantum mechanical data of model compounds. Partial atomic charges are derived using the RESP electrostatic potential fitting method supplemented by the examination of methoxybenzene:water interactions. Dihedral parameters are optimized by fitting to critical rotational potentials and bonded parameters are obtained by optimizing vibrational frequencies and normal modes. Finally, the force field is validated

416

Spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy of biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Spectroscopy Spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy of biomass L. Tetard a,b , A. Passian a,b,n , R.H. Farahi a , U.C. Kalluri c , B.H. Davison c , T. Thundat a,b a Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA b Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA c Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Atomic force microscopy Spectroscopy Plant cells Biomass Nanomechanics a b s t r a c t Scanning probe microscopy has emerged as a powerful approach to a broader understanding of the molecular architecture of cell walls, which may shed light on the challenge of efficient cellulosic ethanol production. We have obtained preliminary images of both Populus and switchgrass samples using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show distinctive features that are shared by switchgrass

417

Electromigration wind force at stepped Al surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When an electrical current flows parallel to a stepped metal surface, each step experiences a force due to momentum transfer from the carriers that are diffusely scattered by the step edge. In this paper, a ballistic model is used to compute the wind force per unit length acting on the steps of vicinal (100) surfaces of Al. The carrier scattering at the surface is described by a potential-barrier model fit to the results of a first-principles calculation of the surface-induced resistivity of the unstepped surface. The magnitude of the wind force is an increasing function of the step terrace width and reaches a constant value as the steps move apart. For an isolated step on a Al(100) surface, the effective wind valence per unit length of the step edge is zw?-15e -1. This value is equivalent to a wind valence of zw?-43e per atom at the leading edge of each step.

P. J. Rous

1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Dynamical friction force exerted on spherical bodies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a rigorous calculation of the dynamical friction force exerted on a spherical massive perturber moving through an infinite homogenous system of field stars. By calculating the shape and mass of the polarization cloud induced by the perturber in the background system, which decelerates the motion of the perturber, we recover Chandrasekhar's drag force law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. As concrete examples we calculate the drag force exerted on a Plummer sphere or a sphere with the density distribution of a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

O. Esquivel; B. Fuchs

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

419

Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals (vdW) and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry, and in emerging technologies involving, e.g. micro-electromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum-modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension (1d), we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free-space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems, and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line.

Ephraim Shahmoon; Igor Mazets; Gershon Kurizki

2013-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

420

David J. Gross and the Strong Force  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

David J. Gross and the Strong Force David J. Gross and the Strong Force Resources with Additional Information The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to David Gross for "the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". 'Gross, who obtained his PhD in physics in 1966, currently is a professor of physics and director of the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics at UC Santa Barbara. ... David Gross Courtesy of UC Santa Barbara [When on the faculty at Princeton University,] he and then-graduate student Frank Wilczek came up with a way to describe the "strong force" that governs interactions between protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. He and Wilczek published their proposal simultaneously with H. David Politzer, a graduate student [at Harvard University] who independently came up with the same idea. ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Employee Relations | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Employee Relations Employee Relations Employee Relations Addressing Poor Performance What happens if an Employee's Performance is Below the Meets Expectations (ME) level? Any time during the appraisal period an employee demonstrates that he/she is performing below the ME level in at least one critical element, the Rating Official should contact his/her Human Resources Office for guidance and: If performance is at the Needs Improvement (NI) level; issue the employee a Performance Assistance Plan (PAP); or If performance is at the Fails to Meet Expectations (FME) level; issue the employee a Performance Improvement Plan (PIP). Workforce Discipline The Headquarters Employee and Labor Relations Division provides guidance and assistance to Management on Work Force Discipline. The DOE Order

422

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Exposures Review of phenomenon appears in Radiation Research Pamela Sykes and Benjamin Blyth One concern of radiobiologists is the effect radiation exposure might have on nearby unirradiated cells. For example, when only a small fraction of cells are directly hit by radiation energy, are the surrounding unirradiated cells also at an increased risk of cancer? The term "radiation-induced bystander effect" is used to describe radiation-induced biological changes that occur in unirradiated cells within an irradiated cell population. Radiation-induced bystander effects have become established in the vernacular and are considered as an authentic radiation response. However, there is still no consensus on a precise definition of the term, which

423

The origin and development of instabilities in radiatively-driven stellar winds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The numerous observational indicators of instability in the radiatively-driven winds of hot stars are review briefly, followed by a summary of the present theoretical understanding of the linear instability of such winds. This provides the motivation for the hydrodynamic simulation, the major thrust of the paper. A serious approximation that must be made in order to reduce the cost of the simulations to a reasonable level--the absorption approximation for the radiation force--is discussed in some detail. The hydrodynamic methods are described briefly, and then the computational results for winds models computed in the absorption approximation are discussed. The most notable results pertain to the critical nature of the ratio v{sub th}/a of the intrinsic line width to the sound speed. When this ratio is large, only a negligible wind results; when the ratio is small, the wind executes permanent self-excited oscillations; in an intermediate range the wind is globally stable, but acts as a powerful wave amplifier. The morphology of the oscillations--strong rarefactions and reverse shocks--is described and related to Abbott's linear theory, and the possible connection to observations is mentioned. 30 refs.

Castor, J.I.

1990-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

424

Computing nonlinear force free coronal magnetic fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Knowledge of the structure of the coronal magnetic field is important for our understanding of many solar activity phenomena, e.g. flares and CMEs. However, the direct measurement of coronal magnetic fields is not possible with present methods, and therefore the coronal field has to be extrapolated from photospheric measurements. Due to the low plasma beta the coronal magnetic field can usually be assumed to be approximately force free, with electric currents flowing along the magnetic field lines. There are both observational and theoretical reasons which suggest that at least prior to an eruption the coronal magnetic field is in a nonlinear force free state. Unfortunately the computation of nonlinear force free fields is way more difficult than potential or linear force free fields and analytic solutions are not generally available. We discuss several methods which have been proposed to compute nonlinear force free fields and focus particularly on an optimization method which has been suggested recently. We compare the numerical performance of a newly developed numerical code based on the optimization method with the performance of another code based on an MHD relaxation method if both codes are applied to the reconstruction of a semi-analytic nonlinear force-free solution. The optimization method has also been tested for cases where we add random noise to the perfect boundary conditions of the analytic solution, in this way mimicking the more realistic case where the boundary conditions are given by vector magnetogram data. We find that the convergence properties of the optimization method are affected by adding noise to the boundary data and we discuss possibilities to overcome this difficulty.

T. Wiegelmann; T. Neukirch

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

425

RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN ULTRARELATIVISTIC OUTFLOWS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analytical and numerical solutions are obtained for the equation of radiative transfer in ultrarelativistic opaque jets. The solution describes the initial trapping of radiation, its adiabatic cooling, and the transition to transparency. Two opposite regimes are examined. (1) Matter-dominated outflow. Surprisingly, radiation develops enormous anisotropy in the fluid frame before decoupling from the fluid. The radiation is strongly polarized. (2) Radiation-dominated outflow. The transfer occurs as if radiation propagated in vacuum, preserving the angular distribution and the blackbody shape of the spectrum. The escaping radiation has a blackbody spectrum if (and only if) the outflow energy is dominated by radiation up to the photospheric radius.

Beloborodov, Andrei M., E-mail: amb@phys.columbia.edu [Physics Department and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

426

Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

427

CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

428

Modulational instability in wind-forced waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the wind-forced nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation obtained in the potential flow framework when the Miles growth rate is of the order of the wave steepness. In this case, the form of the wind-forcing terms gives rise to the enhancement of the modulational instability and to a band of positive gain with infinite width. This regime is characterised by the fact that the ratio between wave momentum and norm is not a constant of motion, in contrast to what happens in the standard case where the Miles growth rate is of the order of the steepness squared.

Brunetti, Maura

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Rings in central-force network dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The central-force network dynamics model for glasses is extended to treat networks involving small regular rings of bonds. In particular, band-limit formulas are obtained for an A2X3 glass consisting of regular puckered six-membered A3X3 rings. The special case of planar rings is compared with observations on vitreous B2O3. This continuous random network of "boroxol" rings shows improved agreement with experiment over a model not containing rings. The remaining discrepancies illustrate the need to include noncentral forces in the network dynamics of v-B2O3.

F. L. Galeener and M. F. Thorpe

1983-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Radiation prevents much cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evidence reviewed here supports the concept that chronic exposure to ionising radiation can dramatically decrease cancer incidence and mortality. This evidence includes an inverse relationship between radiation levels and cancer induction and/or mortality in: over 200 million people in the USA; 200 million people in India; 10,000 residents of Taipei who live in cobalt-60 contaminated homes; high radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran; 12 million person-years of exposed and carefully selected control nuclear workers; almost 300,000 homes with radon in the USA; non-smokers in high radon areas of Saxony, Germany.

T.D. Luckey

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Biophysics and synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book, contains contributions to the conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation held in July 1986 at Frascati. It is devoted to advances in the resolution of biological molecule structure obtainable through synchroton radiation studies. The use of synchroton radiation has firmly established x-ray spectroscopy of biological molecules. More detailed knowledge on the local structure of active sites of metalloproteins, as well as a number of studies on the interaction of metal ions with other important biological macromolecular systems are presented. This new method for protein structure analysis is a major improvement for the rapidly expanding field of protein engineering.

Bianconi, A.; Castellano, C.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Casimir Friction Force and Energy Dissipation for Moving Harmonic Oscillators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Casimir friction problem for a pair of dielectric particles in relative motion is analyzed, utilizing a microscopic model in which we start from statistical mechanics for harmonically oscillating particles at finite temperature moving nonrelativistically with constant velocity. The use of statistical mechanics in this context has in our opinion some definite advantages, in comparison with the more conventional quantum electrodynamic description of media that involves the use of a refractive index. The statistical-mechanical description is physical and direct, and the oscillator model, in spite of its simplicity, is nevertheless able to elucidate the essentials of the Casimir friction. As is known, there are diverging opinions about this kind of friction in the literature. Our treatment elaborates upon, and extends, an earlier theory presented by us back in 1992. There we found a finite friction force at any finite temperature, whereas at zero temperature the model led to a zero force. As an additional development in the present paper we evaluate the energy dissipation making use of an exponential cutoff truncating the relative motion of the oscillators. For the dissipation we also establish a general expression that is not limited to the simple oscillator model.

Johan S. Hye; Iver Brevik

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

434

Advancement of cotton (Gossypium) radiation hybrid mapping tools  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The assembly of a robust structural genomics system requires the development and integration of multiple types of genome maps. This research focused on the development of a relatively new means of plant genome mapping, radiation hybrid mapping...

Todd, Steven Michael

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Integration of an Atomic Force Microscope in a Beamline Sample Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed and optimised an optics-free Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) that can be directly installed on most of the synchrotron radiation end-stations. The combination of Scanning Probe Microscopies with X-ray microbeams adds new possibilities to the variety of synchrotron radiation techniques. The instrument can be used for atomic force imaging of the investigated sample or to locally measure the X-ray absorption or diffraction, or it can also be used to mechanically interact with the sample while simultaneously taking spectroscopy or diffraction measurements. The local character of these measurements is intrinsically linked with the use of the Atomic Force Microscope tip. It is the sharpness of the tip that gives the opportunity to measure the photons flux impinging on it giving beam position monitor features, or allows to locally measure the absorption coefficient or the shape of the diffraction pattern. As an example of the possibilities opened by the instrument we will show diffraction measurements performed on a Ge/Si island while being indented with the AFM tip providing local measure of the Young coefficient. Three ESRF beamlines are going to be equipped with this new instrument.

Rodrigues, M. S.; Hrouzek, M.; Dhez, O.; Comin, F. [ESRF, 6 rue Horowitz 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Chevrier, J. [Institut Neel-CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, 38042 Grenoble (France)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

436

Shear strength and force transmission in granular media with rolling resistance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate a class of granular materials characterized by the possibility of interlocking between the particles. The interlocking is modeled by its effect through rolling resistance depending on relative rotation and normal force at the contact points and involving a single parameter analogous to the sliding friction coefficient. The model, which is introduced in the framework of the contact dynamics method, is applied to simulate the simple shear of a large granular sample. We present a detailed analysis regarding the influence of rolling and sliding friction parameters on the macroscopic response in terms of shear strength, fabric properties, and force transmission. Interestingly, two distinct regimes can be distinguished in which the steady-state shear strength is controlled by either rolling resistance or sliding friction. The relative contributions of rolling and sliding contacts to the shear strength are consistent with the same two regimes. Interlocking strongly affects the force network by enhancing the arching effect and thus increasing the relative importance of weak contact forces and torques, which is reflected in a decreasing power-law probability distribution of the contact forces and torques below the mean. Due to the combined effect of friction and interlocking, the force-carrying backbone takes an increasingly columnar aspect involving a low fraction of particles. Our data suggest that the nature of the weak contact network is strongly affected by the formation of these columns of particles which do not need to be propped laterally. In particular, in the limit of high rolling resistance and sliding friction, the role of the weak network of contacts is no longer to prop the force chains, but, like the strong contact network, to actively sustain the deviatoric load imposed on the system.

Nicolas Estrada; Alfredo Taboada; Farhang Radja

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Fuglestvedt1 , G. Marston3 , G. Myhre1 , C. J. Nielsen4 ,4 K. P. Shine2 , T. J. Wallington5 5 1 Center

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

438

CRYOPUMP MEASUREMENTS RELATING TO SAFETY, PUMPING SPEED, AND RADIATION OUTGASSING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Fusion Research Hnd Fusion Reactors", Lawrence Livermoresource suitable for a fusion-reactor injector. Static and3 times expected from a fusion reactor such as TFTR. *Work

Graham, W.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

ARM - Measurement - Backscattered radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights)

440

Low Dose Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ancient Salt Beds Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or thrive if they grew up without their constant exposure to background radiation? That's what a consortium of scientists conducting an experiment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant aim to find out. Despite being an underground repository for transuranic radioactive waste,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Radiation from accelerated branes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radiation emitted by accelerated fundamental strings and D-branes is studied within the linear approximation to the supergravity limit of string theory. We show that scalar, gauge field and gravitational radiation is generically emitted by such branes. In the case where an external scalar field accelerates the branes, we derive a Larmor-type formula for the emitted scalar radiation and study the angular distribution of the outgoing energy flux. The classical radii of the branes are calculated by means of the corresponding Thompson scattering cross sections. Within the linear approximation, the interaction of the external scalar field with the velocity fields of the branes gives a contribution to the observed gauge field and gravitational radiation.

Mohab Abou-Zeid and Miguel S. Costa

2000-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

442

Radiation Induced Mammary Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Induced Mammary Cancer R.L. Ullrich * R.J. Preston # * Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77550 # Biology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN 37831, U.S.A Over the last......

R.L. Ullrich; R.J. Preston

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Flexible Composite Radiation Detector  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Flexible Composite Radiation Detector Flexible Composite Radiation Detector Flexible Composite Radiation Detector A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Flexible Composite Radiation Detector A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum

445

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

Dai, Pengcheng

446

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;#12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers

Dai, Pengcheng

447

Order Module--NNSA OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Order Module--NNSA OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Order Module--NNSA OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Order Module--NNSA OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION The familiar level of this module is designed to provide the basic information to meet the requirements that are related to 10 CFR 835, "Occupational Radiation Protection," in the following DOE Functional Area Qualification Standards: DOE-STD-1177-2004, Emergency Management DOE-STD-1151-2002, Facility Representative DOE-STD-1146-2007, General Technical Base DOE-STD-1138-2007, Industrial Hygiene DOE-STD-1183-2007, Nuclear Safety Specialist DOE-STD-1174-2003, Radiation Protection DOE-STD-1175-2006, Senior Technical Safety Manager DOE-STD-1178-2004, Technical Program Manager DOE-STD-1155-2002, Transportation and Traffic Management DOE Order Self Study Modules - 10 CFR 835 Occupational Radiation Protection

448

Environment/Health/Safety (EHS): Radiation Protection Group  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Protection Group Radiation Protection Group Under the direction of Radiological Control Manager (RCM) David Kestell, the Radiation Protection Group (RPG) provides radiation safety-related technical assistance to the lab community to ensure that all work is performed safely, efficiently and in compliance with applicable regulations and guidelines. BELLA facility BELLA facility BELLA facility BELLA facility BELLA NDCX NDCX Gretina Gamma particle device PET Scanner APEX APEX APEX LASER LASER Rifle, CO Rifle, CO The group: Authorizes work with radioactive material and radiation-producing machines Manages the site inventory of radioactive and nuclear material Provides coverage for: Radiological operations Radiological engineering and shielding design Internal / external dosimetry services Radiation Safety and Transportation training

449

Radiative Muon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The theory of radiative muon capture is developed. The discussion includes both parity conserving and nonconserving effects. The Gell-Mann weak magnetic term and the induced pseudoscalar are included, along with comparable relativistic effects in the nucleons. The theory is applied to light nuclei and especially to the radiative Godfrey reaction ?-+C126??+?+B125. An experiment to detect the induced pseudoscalar directly is proposed.

Jeremy Bernstein

1959-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Robotic Assembly and Contact Force Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

indis- pensable in many applications, such as spot welding and painting in the automotive industryRobotic Assembly and Contact Force Control Andreas Stolt Department of Automatic Control Lund in Sweden, Lund University, Lund 2012 #12;Abstract Modern industrial robots are traditionally programmed

451

Inertial Force, Equivalence Principle and Quantum Mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the basis of a manifestly covariant formalism of non-relativistic quantum mechanics in general coordinate systems, proposed by us recently, we derive general expressions for inertial forces. The results enable us further to discuss, and to explain the validity of, the equivalence principle in non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

Minoru Omote; Susumu Kamefuchi

2000-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

452

Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China A Selected, Partially-Annotated Bibliography literature of the United States Navy in China. mvh #12;"Like Chimneys in Summer" The thousands of men who served on the China Station before World War II have been all but forgotten, except in the mythology

453

Climate-Forced Variability of Ocean Hypoxia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mixture of local wind forcing and basin-scale circulation, but the PDO...exported to the wider Pacific basin (22, 23), yielding widespread...Oxygen in the Southern California Bight: Multidecadal trends and implications...Gentili B. , Climate-driven basin-scale decadal oscillations...

Curtis Deutsch; Holger Brix; Taka Ito; Hartmut Frenzel; LuAnne Thompson

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

454

Power Capping Via Forced Idleness Anshul Gandhi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Capping Via Forced Idleness Anshul Gandhi Carnegie Mellon University anshulg@cs.cmu.edu Mor@us.ibm.com Abstract We introduce a novel power capping technique, IdleCap, that achieves higher effective server frequency for a given power constraint than existing techniques. IdleCap works by repeatedly alternating

Harchol-Balter, Mor

455

REPORT OF THE DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REPORT OF THE DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE Andreas Albrecht, University of California, Davis Gary. Suntzeff, Texas A&M University Dark energy appears to be the dominant component of the physical Universe a full understanding of the cosmic acceleration. For these reasons, the nature of dark energy ranks among

Hu, Wayne

456

Seasonal Isochronic Forcing of Lotka Volterra Equations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......paid to this phenomenon in ecological models. A few recent models...certainly affect almost all ecological processes, but certainly...1I2. This is a temporary vehicle whereby it is possible to...forcing. Thus, no convenient ecological analog (e.g., a gradient......

John Vandermeer

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Agencies with Radiation Regulatory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (BELLE) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Center for Risk Excellence Health Protection Agency The Health Risks of Extraterrestrial Environments International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Inc. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) NASA Space Radiation Program National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA OBRR Task Book Publication National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

458

Radiation and viral DNA  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation and viral DNA Radiation and viral DNA Name: Loretta L Lamb Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Can viral DNA be changed through exposure to radiation? If so, what type of radiation will do this? Can these irradiated viruses cause changes in the genome of any human cells they may infect? Can these (or any) viruses actually cause cancer, or do they merely act as triggering devices for cancer? Replies: In theory, any nucleic acid (viral or otherwise) can be changed by exposure to many kinds of radiation. Depending on the type of virus, these may then change the human cells that they infect. Although there are many different things that are being implicated in causing cancers, it looks like a fairly common model involves the sequential "knockout" of several human genes. Viruses may be one cause of such gene changes, radiation and other environmental causes may also contribute. Some of these changes may be inherited through families, so it becomes more likely that the environmental factors may happen to "hit" the right places in cells to cause cancers in these families. If you ask something more specific, perhaps I can focus my response a bit more

459

Human Neural Stem Cell Transplantation Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hypothesized that the relative radiation sensitivity of hippocampal...therapies to reduce radiation-induced normal tissue...cells has potential safety concerns such as teratoma...could safely attenuate radiation-induced cognitive...employing Ethovision XT software (v5.0; Noldus Information...

Munjal M. Acharya; Lori-Ann Christie; Mary L. Lan; Erich Giedzinski; John R. Fike; Susanna Rosi; and Charles L. Limoli

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Human Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry of the Tachykinin NK1 Antagonist Radioligand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with PET. The aims of this study were to estimate the radiation safety profile and relative risks of [18F wall, kidneys, and thyroid had the highest radiation-absorbed doses. Biexponential fitting of mean: Insofar as effective dose is an accurate measure of radiation risk, all 3 methods of analysis provided

Shen, Jun

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

REPORT NO. 8 radiation hazards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REPORT NO. 8 REVISED guidance for the control of radiation hazards in uranium mining SEPTEMBER 1967 OF RADIATION HAZARDS IN URANIUM MINING SEPTEMBER 1967 Staff Report of the FEDERAL RADIATION COUNCIL #12;FEDERAL...... .... .._ _.... Section I. Introduction. . . Section II. The Radiation Environment AssociatedWith Uranium Mining. Section

462

Appendix G: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix G: Radiation #12;#12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

463

Appendix A: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix A: Radiation #12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

464

Development of general relativity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the reality of the predicted gravitational radiation by systems with time-dependent quad-rupole moments.Schwarzschild

S. Chandrasekhar

1974-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Proteasome Structures Affected by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Effect of ionizing radiation on 26S but...radiation doses, and immediately...the dose range 1 to 20 Gy...ionizing radiation induced a...38), ionizing radiation (39...over a wide range of radiation doses and further...

Milena Pervan; Keisuke S. Iwamoto; and William H. McBride

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

New weakly-coupled forces hidden in low-energy QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Is it possible to detect a new weakly-coupled force at the QCD scale that interacts primarily with quarks? This work investigates experimental signatures of a new MeV - GeV gauge boson that couples to baryon number, with attention to the 100 MeV - GeV mass range that is the regime of nonperturbative QCD. Such a state can be searched for in rare radiative decays of light mesons ($\\eta, \\eta^\\prime, \\phi, \\omega$) as a $\\pi^0 \\gamma$ resonance, which is its leading decay mode from 140 - 620 MeV. This is a new discovery window for forces beyond the Standard Model that is not covered by existing dark photon searches.

Sean Tulin

2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

467

New weakly-coupled forces hidden in low-energy QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Is it possible to detect a new weakly-coupled force at the QCD scale that interacts primarily with quarks? This work investigates experimental signatures of a new MeV - GeV gauge boson that couples to baryon number, with attention to the 100 MeV - GeV mass range that is the regime of nonperturbative QCD. Such a state can be searched for in rare radiative decays of light mesons ($\\eta, \\eta^\\prime, \\phi, \\omega$) as a $\\pi^0 \\gamma$ resonance, which is its leading decay mode from 140 - 620 MeV. This is a new discovery window for forces beyond the Standard Model that is not covered by existing dark photon searches.

Tulin, Sean

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Optical forces and torques in non-uniform beams of light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The spin angular momentum in an elliptically polarized beam of light plays several noteworthy roles in optical traps. It contributes to the linear momentum density in a non-uniform beam, and thus to the radiation pressure exerted on illuminated objects. It can be converted into orbital angular momentum, and thus can exert torques even on optically isotropic objects. Its curl, moreover, contributes to both forces and torques without spin-to-orbit conversion. We demonstrate these effects experimentally by tracking colloidal spheres diffusing in elliptically polarized optical tweezers. Clusters of spheres circulate deterministically about the beam's axis. A single sphere, by contrast, undergoes stochastic Brownian vortex circulation that maps out the optical force field.

David B. Ruffner; David G. Grier

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

469

Numerical Simulations of Radiatively-Driven Dusty Winds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation pressure on dust grains may be an important mechanism in driving winds in a wide variety of astrophysical systems. However, the efficiency of the coupling between the radiation field and the dusty gas is poorly understood in environments characterized by high optical depths like those in ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and massive dense star clusters. We present a series of idealized numerical experiments, performed with the radiation-hydrodynamic code \\textsc{orion}, in which we study the dynamics of such winds and quantify their properties. We find that, after wind acceleration begins, radiation Rayleigh-Taylor instability forces the gas into a configuration that reduces the rate of momentum transfer from the radiation field to the gas by a factor ~ 10 - 100 compared to an estimate based on the optical depth at the base of the atmosphere; instead, the rate of momentum transfer from a driving radiation field of luminosity L to the gas is roughly L/c multiplied by half the optical depth at...

Krumholz, Mark R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Radiative Importance of ThinŽ Liquid Water Clouds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Program Program Accomplishments of the Cloud Properties Working Group (CPWG) August 2006 Cloud Radiative Forcing at the ARM Climate Research Facility: Using ARM Data to Establish Testable Metrics for GCM Predictions of Cloud Feedback Gerald Mace University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah The scientific underpinning of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is largely based on the premise that long term ground-based measurements of certain quantities provide information sufficient to test the skill of general circulation models (GCMs) to predict radiative heating and cloud feedbacks (Stokes and Schwartz, 1994; Ackerman and Stokes, 2003). This hypothesis is based on the assumption that some set of long-term ground-based measurements provide sufficient information to characterize the physical state of the atmospheric

471

Sound radiation due to rapid deformation of an impacted plate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sound radiation due to forced deformation of an impacted plate was investigated. An initial sound pressure pulse due to rapid local deformation of a plate was generated before the radiation from natural modes of the plate occurred. On the axis of impact near the plate a distinct pressure pulse is observed to reproduce the velocity waveform of the plate at the opposite side of the impact point. Data from experiments involving impact of spheres on plates differing in size and material properties are presented to show the plate behavior and the radiated soundpressure. Theoretical results were obtained from an analytical model in which impulsive acceleration of a plate with Gaussian spatial distribution is convoluted with the acceleration?time history of the actual impact. Theoretical results for the on?axis pressure are compared with the experimental results.

Adnan Akay; Reginald O. Cook

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Linkage to Previous International PV Module QA Task Force Workshops: Proposal for Rating System  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This PowerPoint presentation, focused on humidity, temperature and voltage testing, was originally presented at the NREL 2013 PV Module Reliability Workshop on Feb. 26-27, 2013 in Denver, CO. It summarizes the efforts of previous QA task forces and proposes a QA rating system to differentiate the relative durability of model designs.

473

FUTURE FORCE AND FIRST RESPONDERS: BUILDING TIES FOR COLLABORATION AND LEVERAGED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

32611-6120 ABSTRACT Visions for the information needs and operational capabilities of the Future Force are similar to those for First Responders who comprise the backbone of Homeland Security personnel in response to both domestic incidents and internationally through peacekeeping and related operational roles

Hammer, Joachim

474

Effects of Dynamic Forcing on Hillslope Water Balance Models , L.E. Band  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simulations of the hillslope. In this work we focus specifically on closure relations for hillslope water]. Briefly stated, our objective in this work is to study the effect of system transience on hillslope waterEffects of Dynamic Forcing on Hillslope Water Balance Models C. E. Kees , L.E. Band , and M

475

Highly contrasting effects of different climate forcing agents on terrestrial ecosystem services  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Meeting Issue 'Greenhouse gases in the Earth...forcing, which measures their impact...planetary energy budget...inactive gas such as methane...Increases in greenhouse gases such...consider the related inversely...stance on reducing CO2 emissions...clean air policies are implemented...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Development of force-cooled superconductors for use in large magnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Force-cooled conductors or ICSs offer an attractive option for designers of large magnets. Knowledge of the performance of this type of conductor has advanced sufficiently in recent years for reliable designs to be made. Preliminary designs can be made with the help of relatively simple formulae and a rather extensive data base from small conductor tests.

Miller, J.R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool boiling heat transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool/APPLAB/v102/i5 Published by the American Institute of Physics. Related Articles Dynamics of micro-bubble sonication inside a phantom vessel Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013702 (2013) Bubble-driven inertial micropump Phys

Kandlikar, Satish

478

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Acoustic radiation force in tissue-like solids due to modulated sound field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the existing theory reveals a number of key features that are brought to light by the new formulation (Sarvazyan et al., 1998; Bercoff et al., 2004; Palmeri et al., 2005). On the medical forefront

Guzina, Bojan

480

Radiative forcing due to changes in ozone and methane caused by the transport sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and indirect aerosol effect from SHIP (Balkanski et al. ,effect of O 3 and CH 4 amounting to 42 mW m 2 for ROAD, 11 mW m 2 for SHIP and

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "relative radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Aerosol radiative forcing and the accuracy of satellite aerosol optical depth retrieval  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, New Mexico, USA Michael Mishchenko Goddard Institute for Space Studies, NASA, New York, New York, USA between t = 0.1 and t = 0.8. The Department of Energy research satellite instrument, the Multispectral [Hobbs et al., 1997]. The aerosols' direct effect involves their interaction with solar and terrestrial

482

Canonical rotation variables and non-Hamiltonian forces: solar radiation pressure effects on asteroid rotation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the effects by absorbed solar photons on the rotation...drawn. At last, if the solar photons are not absorbed...induced by inelastic energy dissipation for subkilometre...specular reflection of solar photons on Eros' surface...Research Council of Norway, projects 153382 and 170870. REFERENCES......

E. Mysen

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

The Transient Circulation Response to Radiative Forcings and Sea Surface Warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tropospheric circulation shifts have strong potential to impact surface climate. However, the magnitude of these shifts in a changing climate and the attending regional hydrological changes are difficult to project. Part of this difficulty arises ...

Paul W. Staten; Thomas Reichler; Jian Lu

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

THE RADIATION SAFETY INFORMATION COMPUTATIONAL CENTER (RSICC) - A RESOURCE FOR COMPUTATIONAL TOOLS FOR NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC), which has been in existence since 1963, is the principal source and repository in the United States for computational tools for nuclear applications. RSICC collects, organizes, evaluates and distributes nuclear software and data involving the transport of neutral and charged particle radiation, and shielding and protection from radiation associated with: nuclear weapons and materials, fission and fusion reactors, outer space, accelerators, medical facilities, and nuclear waste. RSICC serves over 12,000 scientists and engineers from 94 countries. RSICC software provides in-depth coverage of radiation related topics: the physics of the interaction of radiation with matter, radiation production and sources, criticality safety, radiation protection and shielding, radiation detectors and measurements, shielding materials properties, radiation waste management, atmospheric dispersion and environmental dose, medical applications, macro- and micro-dosimetry calculations.

Kirk, Bernadette Lugue [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Reducing Radiation Damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This talk describes the use of a modified treatment sequence, i.e., radiation dose, geometry, dwell time, etc., to mitigate some of the deleterious effects of cancer radiotherapy by utilizing natural cell repair processes. If bad side effects can be reduced, a more aggressive therapy can be put into place. Cells contain many mechanisms that repair damage of various types. If the damage can not be repaired, cells will undergo apoptosis (cell death). Data will be reviewed that support the fact that a small dose of radiation will activate damage repair genes within a cell. Once the mechanisms are fully active, they will efficiently repair the severe damage from a much larger radiation dose. The data ranges from experiments on specific cell cultures using microarray (gene chip) techniques to experiments on complete organisms. The suggested effect and treatment is consistent with the assumption that all radiation is harmful, no matter how small the dose. Nevertheless, the harm can be reduced. These mechanisms need to be further studied and characterized. In particular, their time dependence needs to be understood before the proposed treatment can be optimized. Under certain situations it is also possible that the deleterious effects of chemotherapy can be mitigated and the damage to radiation workers can be reduced.

Blankenbecler, Richard

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

486

Forced Air Systems in High Performance Homes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FORCED AIR SYSTEMS IN FORCED AIR SYSTEMS IN HIGH PERFORMANCE HOMES Iain Walker (LBNL) Building America Meeting 2013 What are the issues? 1. Sizing  When is too small too small? 2. Distribution  Can we get good mixing at low flow? 3. Performance  Humidity Control  Part load efficiency  Blowers & thermal losses Sizing  Part-load - not an issue with modern equipment  Careful about predicted loads - a small error becomes a big problem for tightly sized systems  Too Low Capacity = not robust  Extreme vs. design days  Change in occupancy  Party mode  Recovery from setback Sizing  Conventional wisdom - a good envelope = easy to predict and not sensitive to indoor conditions  But..... Heating and cooling become discretionary - large variability depending on occupants

487

Cutoff effects on lattice nuclear forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a lattice QCD study for the cutoff effects on nuclear forces. Two-nucleon forces are determined from Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions using the HAL QCD method. Lattice QCD simulations are performed employing N_f = 2 clover fermion configurations at three lattice spacings of a = 0.108, 0.156, 0.215 fm on a fixed physical volume of L^3 x T = (2.5 fm)^3 x 5 fm with a large quark mass corresponding to m_\\pi = 1.1 GeV. We observe that while the discretization artifact appears at the short range part of potentials, it is suppressed at the long distance region. The cutoff dependence of the phase shifts and scattering length is also presented.

Takumi Doi; for HAL QCD Collaboration

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

488

Friction forces on phase transition fronts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

Mgevand, Ariel, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar [IFIMAR (CONICETUNMdP), Departamento de Fsica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Den Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ellsworth Air Force Base Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering Project A Partnership between Ellsworth AFB and MDU Resources Group, Inc. to install advanced metering on all large buildings on EAFB  Based in Bismarck, North Dakota  Celebrated our 85 th year in 2009  NYSE - MDU for over 60 years  Over $4B market cap  Fortune 500 Company  Member of the S&P MidCap 400 Index  Over 8,000 employees in 44 states  Business Lines:  Energy  Utility Resources  Construction Materials  Construction Materials  Energy  Oil and Gas Production  Utility Resources  Natural Gas Pipelines  Construction Services  Electric / Natural Gas Utilities  Utility Resources  Montana - Dakota Utilities Co.  Cascade Natural Gas Co.  Intermountain Gas Corporation

490

Newton force from wave function collapse: speculation and test  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Diosi-Penrose model of quantum-classical boundary postulates gravity-related spontaneous wave function collapse of massive degrees of freedom. The decoherence effects of the collapses are in principle detectable if not masked by the overwhelming environmental decoherence. But the DP (or any other, like GRW, CSL) spontaneous collapses are not detectable themselves, they are merely the redundant formalism of spontaneous decoherence. To let DP collapses become testable physics, recently we extended the DP model and proposed that DP collapses are responsible for the emergence of the Newton gravitational force between massive objects. We identified the collapse rate, possibly of the order of 1/ms, with the rate of emergence of the Newton force. A simple heuristic emergence (delay) time was added to the Newton law of gravity. This non-relativistic delay is in peaceful coexistence with Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, at least no experimental evidence has so far surfaced against it. We derive new predictions of such a `lazy' Newton law that will enable decisive laboratory tests with available technologies. The simple equation of 'lazy' Newton law deserves theoretical and experimental studies in itself, independently of the underlying quantum foundational considerations.

Lajos Disi

2013-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

491

Exploring medium effects on the nuclear force  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This STI product contains a description of results from theoretical studies in nuclear physics. The goal is a systematic investigation of the nuclear force in the nuclear medium. The problems addressed are: density-dependent effective interactions as seen through proton-nucleus reactions, nuclear matter with unequal densities of protons and neutrons, applications to asymmetric nuclei through predictions of neutron radii and neutron skins.

F. Sammarruca

2004-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

492

Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Thermodynamic relations for DNA phase transitions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The force induced unzipping transition of a double stranded DNA is considered from a purely thermodynamic point of view. This analysis provides us with a set of relations that can be used to test microscopic theories and experiments. The thermodynamic approach is based on the hypothesis of impenetrability of the force in the zipped state. The melting and the unzipping transitions are considered in the same framework and compared with the existing statistical model results. The analysis is then extended to a possible continuous unzipping transition.

Poulomi Sadhukhan; Somendra M. Bhattacharjee

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

494

Improved Precision Measurement of the Casimir Force Using Gold Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report an improved precision measurement of the Casimir force using metallic gold surfaces. The force is measured between a large gold coated sphere and flat plate using an Atomic Force Microscope. The use of gold surfaces removes some theoretical uncertainties in the interpretation of the measurement. The forces are also measured at smaller surface separations. The complete dielectric spectrum of