National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for relative humidity rh

  1. ARM - Relative Humidity Calculations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CalculatorsRelative Humidity Calculations Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Relative Humidity Calculations Heat Index is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity to estimate how hot it actually feels. The human body cools off through perspiration, which

  2. Instrument uncertainty effect on calculation of absolute humidity using dewpoint, wet-bulb, and relative humidity sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slayzak, S.J.; Ryan, J.P.

    1998-04-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy`s Advanced Desiccant Technology Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is characterizing the state-of-the-art in desiccant dehumidifiers, the key component of desiccant cooling systems. The experimental data will provide industry and end users with independent performance evaluation and help researchers assess the energy savings potential of the technology. Accurate determination of humidity ratio is critical to this work and an understanding of the capabilities of the available instrumentation is central to its proper application. This paper compares the minimum theoretical random error in humidity ratio calculation for three common measurement methods to give a sense of the relative maximum accuracy possible for each method assuming systematic errors can be made negligible. A series of experiments conducted also illustrate the capabilities of relative humidity sensors as compared to dewpoint sensors in measuring the grain depression of desiccant dehumidifiers. These tests support the results of the uncertainty analysis. At generally available instrument accuracies, uncertainty in calculated humidity ratio for dewpoint sensors is determined to be constant at approximately 2%. Wet-bulb sensors range between 2% and 6% above 10 g/kg (4%--15% below), and relative humidity sensors vary between 4% above 90% rh and 15% at 20% rh. Below 20% rh, uncertainty for rh sensors increases dramatically. Highest currently attainable accuracies bring dewpoint instruments down to 1% uncertainty, wet bulb to a range of 1%--3% above 10 g/kg (1.5%--8% below), and rh sensors between 1% and 5%.

  3. Temperature and RH Targets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature and RH Targets Temperature and RH Targets Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006. htmwg_mittal.pdf (158.62 KB) More Documents & Publications High Temperature Membrane with HUmidification-Independent Cluster Structure Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program High Temperature Membrane Working Group, Minutes of

  4. Oxygen and relative humidity monitoring with films tailored for enhanced photoluminescence

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cui, Weipan; Liu, Rui; Manna, Eeshita; Park, Joong -Mok; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2014-10-31

    In this study, approaches to generate porous or doped sensing films, which significantly enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of oxygen optical sensors, and thus improve the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, are presented. Tailored films, which enable monitoring the relative humidity (RH) as well, are also presented. Effective porous structures, in which the O2-sensitive dye Pt octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) or the Pd analog PdOEP was embedded, were realized by first generating blend films of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with polystyrene (PS) or with ethyl cellulose (EC), and then immersing the dried films in water to remove the water-soluble PEG. This approach creates pores (voids) inmore » the sensing films. The dielectric contrast between the films’ constituents and the voids increases photon scattering, which in turn increases the optical path of the excitation light within the film, and hence light absorption by the dye, and its PL. Optimized sensing films with a PEG:PS ratio of 1:4 (PEG’s molecular weight Mw ~8000) led to ~4.4× enhancement in the PL (in comparison to PS films). Lower Mw ~200 PEG with a PEG:EC ratio of 1:1 led to a PL enhancement of ~4.7×. Film-dependent PL enhancements were observed at all oxygen concentrations. The strong PL enhancement enables (i) using lower dye (luminophore) concentrations, (ii) reducing power consumption and enhancing the sensor’s operational lifetime when using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources, (iii) improving performance when using compact photodetectors with no internal gain, and (iv) reliably extending the dynamic range.« less

  5. MHK ISDB/Sensors/12-bit Temperature/Relative Humidity (2m cable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (1) Relative Humidity (8m cable) Smart Sensor ... further results Also made by Onset Computer Corporation HOBO RX3000 Remote Monitoring SystemHOBO RX3000 Remote Monitoring...

  6. MHK ISDB/Sensors/12-bit Temperature/Relative Humidity (8m cable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (1) Relative Humidity (2m cable) Smart Sensor ... further results Also made by Onset Computer Corporation HOBO RX3000 Remote Monitoring SystemHOBO RX3000 Remote Monitoring...

  7. Relative Humidity and the Susceptibility of Austenitic Stainless Steel to Stress Corrosion Cracking in an impure Plutonium Oxide Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zapp, P.; Duffey, J.; Lam, P.; Dunn, K.

    2010-05-05

    humidity below which the necessary liquid electrolyte cannot exist, and therefore below which the SCC risk is very low. This threshold is a thermodynamic quantity known as the deliquescence relative humidity that is dependent on the identity of the salt but is independent of the quantity of salt. Below the deliquescence RH there should be low corrosion risk, and above it the corrosion risk increases rapidly as a liquid phase, which is initially saturated with salt, grows and becomes more widespread in the container.

  8. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  9. RELATIVE HUMIDITY TESTS IN SUPPORT OF THE 3013 STORAGE AND SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.; Duffey, J.

    2011-08-01

    Techniques to control the initial relative humidity over oxide/salt mixtures have been developed using cerium oxide as a surrogate for plutonium oxide. Such control is required to validate certain assumptions in the Department of Energy Standard DOE-STD-3013, and to provide essential information to support field surveillance at the storage sites for excess plutonium oxides. Concern over the validity of the assumption that corrosion induced degradation in 3013 containers could be controlled by assuring that the moisture content of any stored oxide/salt mixture was below 0.5 w t% arose when stress corrosion cracks were found in test samples exposed at room temperature to plutonium oxide/salt mixtures having a moisture content only marginally above 0.5 wt %. Additionally, analysis of the stress corrosion cracking observations suggests that the initial relative humidity over the oxide/salt mixture may play a major role in the cracking process. The investigations summarized in this report provide the procedures necessary to control the initial relative humidity to selected values within the range of 16 to 50% by controlling the loading relative humidity (18 to 60%) and the oxide/salt mixture water content (0.05 to 0.45 wt %). The studies also demonstrated that the initial relative humidity may be estimated by calculations using software EQ3/6. Cerium oxide/salt mixtures were used in this study because qualification tests with non-radioactive materials will reduce costs while increasing the breadth of the test programs required to support field surveillances of stored 3013 containers.

  10. Posters A Comparison of Model-Simulated Relative Humidity with Satellite-Derived Cloudiness

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Posters A Comparison of Model-Simulated Relative Humidity with Satellite-Derived Cloudiness R. J. Alliss and S. Raman Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina Introduction One of the unresolved problems in climate and numerical weather prediction is the treatment of cloudiness. In the real atmosphere, clouds are interactively linked to dynamical, hydrological, turbulent, and radiative processes over scales ranging from the

  11. Fluorescence spectra and biological activity of aerosolized bacillus spores and MS2 bacteriophage exposed to ozone at different relative humidities in a rotating drum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna; Pan, Yong-Le; Hill, Steven C.; Kinahan, Sean; Corson, Elizabeth; Eshbaugh, Jonathan; Santarpia, Joshua L.

    2015-10-14

    Biological aerosols (bioaerosols) released into the environment may undergo physical and chemical transformations when exposed to atmospheric constituents such as solar irradiation, reactive oxygenated species, ozone, free radicals, water vapor and pollutants. Aging experiments were performed in a rotating drum chamber subjecting bioaerosols, Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam (BtAH) spores and MS2 bacteriophages to ozone at 0 and 150 ppb, and relative humidities (RH) at 10%, 50%, and 80+%. Fluorescence spectra and intensities of the aerosols as a function of time in the reaction chamber were measured with a single particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS) and an Ultra-Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer® Spectrometermore » (UV-APS). Losses in biological activity were measured by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) assay. For both types of aerosols the largest change in fluorescence emission was between 280 and 400 nm when excited at 263 nm followed by fluorescence emission between 380 and 700 nm when excited at 351 nm. The fluorescence for both BtAH and MS2 were observed to decrease significantly at high ozone concentration and high RH when excited at 263 nm excitation. The decreases in 263 nm excited fluorescence are indicative of hydrolysis and oxidation of tryptophan in the aerosols. Fluorescence measured with the UV-APS (355-nm excitation) increased with time for both BtAH and MS2 aerosols. A two log loss of MS2 bacteriophage infectivity was observed in the presence of ozone at ~50% and 80% RH when measured by culture and normalized for physical losses by q-PCR. Viability of BtAH spores after exposure could not be measured due to the loss of genomic material during experiments, suggesting degradation of extracelluar DNA attributable to oxidation. The results of these studies indicate that the physical and biological properties of bioaerosols change significantly after exposure to ozone and water vapor.« less

  12. Fluorescence spectra and biological activity of aerosolized bacillus spores and MS2 bacteriophage exposed to ozone at different relative humidities in a rotating drum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna; Pan, Yong-Le; Hill, Steven C.; Kinahan, Sean; Corson, Elizabeth; Eshbaugh, Jonathan; Santarpia, Joshua L.

    2015-10-14

    Biological aerosols (bioaerosols) released into the environment may undergo physical and chemical transformations when exposed to atmospheric constituents such as solar irradiation, reactive oxygenated species, ozone, free radicals, water vapor and pollutants. Aging experiments were performed in a rotating drum chamber subjecting bioaerosols, Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam (BtAH) spores and MS2 bacteriophages to ozone at 0 and 150 ppb, and relative humidities (RH) at 10%, 50%, and 80+%. Fluorescence spectra and intensities of the aerosols as a function of time in the reaction chamber were measured with a single particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS) and an Ultra-Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer® Spectrometer (UV-APS). Losses in biological activity were measured by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) assay. For both types of aerosols the largest change in fluorescence emission was between 280 and 400 nm when excited at 263 nm followed by fluorescence emission between 380 and 700 nm when excited at 351 nm. The fluorescence for both BtAH and MS2 were observed to decrease significantly at high ozone concentration and high RH when excited at 263 nm excitation. The decreases in 263 nm excited fluorescence are indicative of hydrolysis and oxidation of tryptophan in the aerosols. Fluorescence measured with the UV-APS (355-nm excitation) increased with time for both BtAH and MS2 aerosols. A two log loss of MS2 bacteriophage infectivity was observed in the presence of ozone at ~50% and 80% RH when measured by culture and normalized for physical losses by q-PCR. Viability of BtAH spores after exposure could not be measured due to the loss of genomic material during experiments, suggesting degradation of extracelluar DNA attributable to oxidation. The results of these studies indicate that the physical and biological properties of bioaerosols change significantly after exposure to ozone and water vapor.

  13. Ferrocyanide safety program: Results of relative humidity experiments using ferrocyanide waste simulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.V.

    1994-10-01

    To be categorized as conditionally safe, ferrocyanide tanks containing {ge} 8 wt% Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} on an energy equivalent basis (i.e., {ge} 115 cal/g) are required to contain some amount of water. These tests were conducted to determine the equilibrium moisture content of waste simulant at the conditions of 30% relative humidity and 25{degrees}C. This test report was prepared to disseminate data collected from these tests. These data are used to model the waste tank moisture contents and transport. These models can determine if the moisture in these tanks will drop below the defined safety limits.

  14. SRNL PHASE II SHELF LIFE STUDIES - SERIES 1 ROOM TEMPERATURE AND HIGH RELATIVE HUMIDITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.; Duffey, J.

    2012-09-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Phase II, Series 1 shelf-life corrosion testing for the Department of Energy Standard 3013 container is presented and discussed in terms of the localized corrosion behavior of Type 304 stainless steel in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures and the potential impact to the 3013 inner container. This testing was designed to address the influence of temperature, salt composition, initial salt moisture, residual stress and type of oxide/salt contact on the relative humidity inside a 3013 container and the initiation and propagation of localized corrosion, especially stress corrosion cracking. The integrated plan is being conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory and SRNL. SRNL is responsible for conducting a corrosion study in small scale vessels containing plutonium oxide and chloride salts under conditions of humidity, temperature and oxide/salt compositions both within the limits of 3013 storage conditions as well as beyond the 3013 storage requirements to identify margins for minimizing the initiation of stress corrosion cracking. These worst case conditions provide data that bound the material packaged in 3013 containers. Phase I of this testing was completed in 2010. The Phase II, Series 1 testing was performed to verify previous results from Phase I testing and extend our understanding about the initiation of stress corrosion cracking and pitting that occur in 304L under conditions of room temperature, high humidity, and a specific plutonium oxide/salt chemistry. These results will aid in bounding the safe storage conditions of plutonium oxides in 3013 containers. A substantial change in the testing was the addition of the capability to monitor relative humidity during test exposure. The results show that under conditions of high initial moisture ({approx}0.5 wt%) and room temperature stress corrosion cracking occurred in 304L teardrop coupons in contact with the oxide/salt mixture at times

  15. Superconductivity versus structural phase transition in the closely related Bi2Rh3.5S2 and Bi2Rh3S2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Xie, Weiwei; Lin, Qisheng; Taufour, Valentin; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Miller, Gordon J.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2015-05-19

    Single crystals of Bi2Rh3S2 and Bi2Rh3.5S2 were synthesized by solution growth, and the crystal structures and thermodynamic and transport properties of both compounds were studied. In the case of Bi2Rh3S2, a structural first-order transition at around 165 K is identified by single-crystal diffraction experiments, with clear signatures visible in resistivity, magnetization, and specific heat data. No superconducting transition for Bi2Rh3S2 was observed down to 0.5 K. In contrast, no structural phase transition at high temperature was observed for Bi2Rh3.5S2; however, bulk superconductivity with a critical temperature, Tc ≈ 1.7 K, was observed. The Sommerfeld coefficient γ and the Debye temperaturemore » (ΘD) were found to be 9.41 mJ mol–1K–2 and 209 K, respectively, for Bi2Rh3S2, and 22 mJ mol–1K–2 and 196 K, respectively, for Bi2Rh3.5S2. As a result, the study of the specific heat in the superconducting state of Bi2Rh3.5S2 suggests that Bi2Rh3.5S2 is a weakly coupled, BCS superconductor.« less

  16. Lead Research and Development Activity for DOE's High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program (Topic 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Fenton, PhD; Darlene Slattery, PhD; Nahid Mohajeri, PhD

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Energy’s High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program was begun in 2006 with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) as the lead organization. During the first three years of the program, FSEC was tasked with developing non-Nafion® proton exchange membranes with improved conductivity for fuel cells. Additionally, FSEC was responsible for developing protocols for the measurement of in-plane conductivity, providing conductivity measurements for the other funded teams, developing a method for through-plane conductivity and organizing and holding semiannual meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG). The FSEC membrane research focused on the development of supported poly[perfluorosulfonic acid] (PFSA) – Teflon membranes and a hydrocarbon membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The fourth generation of the PFSA membrane (designated FSEC-4) came close to, but did not meet, the Go/No-Go milestone of 0.1 S/cm at 50% relative humidity at 120 °C. In-plane conductivity of membranes provided by the funded teams was measured and reported to the teams and DOE. Late in the third year of the program, DOE used this data and other factors to decide upon the teams to continue in the program. The teams that continued provided promising membranes to FSEC for development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that could be tested in an operating fuel cell. FSEC worked closely with each team to provide customized support. A logic flow chart was developed and discussed before MEA fabrication or any testing began. Of the five teams supported, by the end of the project, membranes from two of the teams were easily manufactured into MEAs and successfully characterized for performance. One of these teams exceeded performance targets, while the other requires further optimization. An additional team developed a membrane that shows great promise for significantly reducing membrane costs and increasing membrane lifetime.

  17. Morphology of U3O8 materials following storage under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tamasi, Alison L.; Cash, Leigh J.; Mullen, William Tyler; Pugmire, Alison L.; Ross, Amy R.; Ruggiero, Christy E.; Scott, Brian L.; Wagner, Gregory L.; Walensky, Justin R.; Wilkerson, Marianne P.

    2016-07-05

    Changes in the visual characteristics of uranium oxide surfaces and morphology following storage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity may provide insight into the history of an unknown sample. Sub-samples of three α-U3O8 materials—one that was phase-pure and two that were phase-impure—were stored under controlled conditions for two years. We used scanning electron microscopy to image the oxides before and after storage, and a morphology lexicon was used to characterize the images. Finally, temporal changes in morphology were observed in some sub-samples, and changes were greatest following exposure to high relative humidity.

  18. Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure Sensors (THWAPS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-01-17

    The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure system (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) launches. The THWAPS is located adjacent to the SONDE launch site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility. The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments intended to provide accurate measurements of meteorological conditions near the surface. Although the primary use of the system is to provide accurate surface reference values of temperature, pressure, relative humidity (RH), and wind velocity for comparison with radiosonde readings, the system includes a data logger to record time series of the measured variables.

  19. Effects of humidity during formation of zinc oxide electron contact layers from a diethylzinc precursor solution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mauger, Scott A.; Steirer, K. Xerxes; Boe, Jonas; Ostrowski, David P.; Olson, Dana C.; Hammond, Scott R.

    2016-01-19

    Here, this work focuses on the role of humidity in the formation of ZnO thin films from a reactive diethylzinc precursor solution for use as the electron contact layer (ECL) in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. This method is well suited for flexible devices because the films are annealed at 120 °C, making the process compatible with polymer substrates. ZnO films were prepared by spin coating and annealing at different relative humidity (RH) levels. It is found that RH during coating and annealing affects the chemical and physical properties of the ZnO films. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy it is found thatmore » increasing RH during the formation steps produces a more stoichiometric oxide and a higher Zn/O ratio. Spectroscopic ellipsometry data shows a small decrease in the optical band gap with increased humidity, consistent with a more stoichiometric oxide. Kelvin probe measurements show that increased RH during formation results in a larger work function (i.e. further from vacuum). Consistent with these data, but counter to what might be expected, when these ZnO films are used as ECLs in OPV devices those with ZnO ECLs processed in low RH (less stoichiometric) had higher power conversion efficiency than those with high-RH processed ZnO due to improved open-circuit voltage. The increase in open-circuit voltage with decreasing humidity was observed with two different donor polymers and fullerene acceptors, which shows the trend is due to changes in ZnO. The observed changes in open-circuit voltage follow the same trend as the ZnO work function indicating that the increase in open-circuit voltage with decreasing humidity is the result of improved energetics at the interface between the bulk-heterojunction and the ZnO layer due to a vacuum level shift.« less

  20. Radiosondes Corrected for Inaccuracy in RH Measurements

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Miloshevich, Larry

    2008-01-15

    Corrections for inaccuracy in Vaisala radiosonde RH measurements have been applied to ARM SGP radiosonde soundings. The magnitude of the corrections can vary considerably between soundings. The radiosonde measurement accuracy, and therefore the correction magnitude, is a function of atmospheric conditions, mainly T, RH, and dRH/dt (humidity gradient). The corrections are also very sensitive to the RH sensor type, and there are 3 Vaisala sensor types represented in this dataset (RS80-H, RS90, and RS92). Depending on the sensor type and the radiosonde production date, one or more of the following three corrections were applied to the RH data: Temperature-Dependence correction (TD), Contamination-Dry Bias correction (C), Time Lag correction (TL). The estimated absolute accuracy of NIGHTTIME corrected and uncorrected Vaisala RH measurements, as determined by comparison to simultaneous reference-quality measurements from Holger Voemel's (CU/CIRES) cryogenic frostpoint hygrometer (CFH), is given by Miloshevich et al. (2006).

  1. Accelerated Testing and Modeling of Potential-Induced Degradation as a Function of Temperature and Relative Humidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Terwilliger, Kent; Perrin, Greg; Glick, Stephen; Kurtz, Sarah; Wohlgemuth, John

    2015-06-14

    An acceleration model based on the Peck equation was applied to power performance of crystalline silicon cell modules as a function of time and of temperature and humidity, the two main environmental stress factors that promote potential-induced degradation. This model was derived from module power degradation data obtained semi-continuously and statistically by in-situ dark current-voltage measurements in an environmental chamber. The modeling enables prediction of degradation rates and times as functions of temperature and humidity. Power degradation could be modeled linearly as a function of time to the second power; additionally, we found that coulombs transferred from the active cell circuit to ground during the stress test is approximately linear with time. Therefore, the power loss could be linearized as a function of coulombs squared. With this result, we observed that when the module face was completely grounded with a condensed phase conductor, leakage current exceeded the anticipated corresponding degradation rate relative to the other tests performed in damp heat.

  2. In Situ Validation of a Correction for Time-Lag and Bias Errors in Vaisala RS80-H Radiosonde Humidity Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ Validation of a Correction for Time-Lag and Bias Errors in Vaisala RS80-H Radiosonde Humidity Measurements L. M. Miloshevich National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado H. Vömel and S. J. Oltmans National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado A. Paukkunen Vaisala Oy Helsinki, Finland Introduction Radiosonde relative humidity (RH) measurements are fundamentally important to Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program goals because they are used in a

  3. Measured Cooling Season Results Relating the Impact of Mechanical Ventilation on Energy, Comfort, and Indoor Air Quality in Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Eric; Amos, Bryan; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Widder, Sarah H.; Fonorow, Ken

    2014-08-22

    Conference Paper for ACEEE Summer Study in Buildings discussing results to date of a project evaluating the impact of ventialtion on energy use, comfort, durability, and cost in the hot humid climate.

  4. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS IN TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-04-01

    The effect of temperature and humidity on formaldehyde emissions from samples collected from temporary housing units (THUs) was studied. The THUs were supplied by the U.S Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) to families that lost their homes in Louisiana and Mississippi during the Hurricane Katrina and Rita disasters. Based on a previous study 1, 2, four of the composite wood surface materials that dominated contributions to indoor formaldehyde were selected to analyze the effects of temperature and humidity on the emission factors. Humidity equilibration experiments were carried out on two of the samples to determine how long the samples take to equilibrate with the surrounding environmental conditions. Small chamber experiments were then conducted to measure emission factors for the four surface materials at various temperature and humidity conditions. The samples were analyzed for formaldehyde via high performance liquid chromatography. The experiments showed that increases in temperature or humidity contributed to an increase in emission factors. A linear regression model was built using natural log of percentage relative humidity (RH) and inverse of temperature (in K) as predictor variables, and natural log of emission factors as the target variable. The coefficients of both inverse temperature and log relative humidity with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. This study should assist to retrospectively estimate indoor formaldehyde exposures of occupants of temporary housing units (THUs).

  5. Photooxidation of Alpha-Pinene at High Relative Humidity in the Presence of Increasing Concentrations of NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Yong; Ezell, Michael J.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan G.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Ortega, John V.; D'Anna, Barbara; Harmon, Chris W.; Johnson, Stan; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2008-06-01

    The photooxidation of ~1 ppm alpha-pinene in the presence of increasing concentrations of NO2 was studied in a Teflon chamber at relative humidities from 70 - 88% and temperatures from 296 - 304 K. The loss of alpha-pinene and formation of gas phase products were followed using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Gas phase reaction products measured by PTR-MS and their yields include formaldehyde (5 + 1%), formic acid (2.5 + 1.4%), methanol (0.6 + 0.3%), acetaldehyde (3.9 + 1.7%), acetic acid (10 + 2%), acetone (11.5 + 3.1%), pinonaldehyde (22 + 6%), and pinene oxide (0.9 + 0.1%). There was evidence of organic nitrates in the gas phase and small peaks were tentatively assigned to norpinonaldehyde, 4-oxopinonaldehyde, propanedial, 2,3-dioxobutanal and 3,5,6-trioxoheptanal or 3-hydroxymethyl-2,2-dimethylcyclobutylethanone. The formation and growth of new particles were followed using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and their chemical composition was probed using single particle mass spectrometry (SPLAT II). SPLAT II analysis also provided measurements of the vacuum aerodynamic diameters of the newly formed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles and, in combination with the electrical mobility diameter, a particle density of 1.21 + 0.02 g cm-3 was calculated, 20% larger than often assumed in calculating SOA yields. SPLAT II showed that the suspended SOA consisted of a complex mixture of organic nitrates and organics, possibly including pinonic acid, pinic acid and trans-sobrerol. Three-wavelength light scattering measurements made using an integrating nephelometer were consistent with particles having a refractive index characteristic of organic compounds, but the data could not be well matched at all three wavelengths with a single refractive index. The effect of addition of cyclohexane or NO on particle formation showed that ozonolysis was the major mechanism of SOA formation in this system. However, unlike simple ozonolysis, organic

  6. Evaluation of the response of tritium-in-air instrumentation to HT in dry and humid conditions and to HTO vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, H.; Dean, J.; Privas, E.

    2015-03-15

    Nuclear plant operators (power generation, decommissioning and reprocessing operations) are required to monitor releases of tritium species for regulatory compliance and radiation protection purposes. Tritium monitoring is performed using tritium-in-air gas monitoring instrumentation based either on flow-through ion chambers or proportional counting systems. Tritium-in-air monitors are typically calibrated in dry conditions but in service may operate at elevated levels of relative humidity. The NPL (National Physical Laboratory) radioactive gas-in-air calibration system has been used to study the effect of humidity on the response to tritium of two tritium-in-air ion chamber based monitors and one proportional counting system which uses a P10/air gas mixture. The response of these instruments to HTO vapour has also been evaluated. In each case, instrument responses were obtained for HT in dry conditions (relative humidity (RH) about 2%), HT in 45% RH, and finally HTO at 45% RH. Instrumentation response to HT in humid conditions has been found to slightly exceed that in dry conditions. (authors)

  7. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  8. Rate and peak concentrations of off-gas emissions in stored wood pellets sensitivities to temperature, relative humidity, and headspace volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuang, Xingya; Shankar, T.J.; Bi, X.T.; Lim, C. Jim; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2009-08-01

    Wood pellets emit CO, CO2, CH4 and other volatiles during storage. Increased concentration of these gases in a sealed storage causes depletion of concentration of oxygen. The storage environment becomes toxic to those who operate in and around these storages. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature, moisture and storage headspace on emissions from wood pellets in an enclosed space. Twelve 10-liter plastic containers were used to study the effects of headspace ratio (25%, 50%, and 75% of container volume) and temperatures (10-50oC). Another eight containers were set in uncontrolled storage relative humidity and temperature. Concentrations of CO2, CO and CH4 were measured by a gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that emissions of CO2, CO and CH4 from stored wood pellets are most sensitive to storage temperature. Higher peak emission factors are associated with higher temperatures. Increased headspace volume ratio increases peak off-gas emissions because of the availability of oxygen for pellet decomposition. Increased relative humidity in the enclosed container increases the rate of off-gas emissions of CO2, CO and CH4 and oxygen depletion.

  9. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these

  10. Humid-air and aqueous corrosion models for corrosion-allowance barrier material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; Andrews, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Humid-air and aqueous general and pitting corrosion models (including their uncertainties) for the carbon steel outer containment barrier were developed using the corrosion data from literature for a suite of cast irons and carbon steels which have similar corrosion behaviors to the outer barrier material. The corrosion data include the potential effects of various chemical species present in the testing environments. The atmospheric corrosion data also embed any effects of cyclic wetting and drying and salts that may form on the corroding specimen surface. The humid-air and aqueous general corrosion models are consistent in that the predicted humid-air general corrosion rates at relative humidities between 85 and 100% RH are close to the predicted aqueous general corrosion rates. Using the expected values of the model parameters, the model predicts that aqueous pitting corrosion is the most likely failure mode for the carbon steel outer barrier, and an earliest failure (or initial pit penetration) of the 100-mm thick barrier may occur as early as about 500 years if it is exposed continuously to an aqueous condition at between 60 and 70{degrees}C.

  11. Improving Comfort in Hot-Humid Climates with a Whole-House Dehumidifier, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Maintaining comfort in a home can be challenging in hot-humid climates. At the common summer temperature set point of 75 degrees F, the perceived air temperature can vary by 11 degrees F because higher indoor humidity reduces comfort. Often the air conditioner (AC) thermostat set point is lower than the desirable cooling level to try to increase moisture removal so that the interior air is not humid or "muggy." However, this method is not always effective in maintaining indoor relative humidity (RH) or comfort. In order to quantify the performance of a combined whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) AC system, researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America team Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored the operation of two Lennox AC systems coupled with a Honeywell DH150 TrueDRY whole-house dehumidifier for a six-month period. By using a WHD to control moisture levels (latent cooling) and optimizing a central AC to control temperature (sensible cooling), improvements in comfort can be achieved while reducing utility costs. Indoor comfort for this study was defined as maintaining indoor conditions at below 60% RH and a humidity ratio of 0.012 lbm/lbm while at common dry bulb set point temperatures of 74 degrees -80 degrees F. In addition to enhanced comfort, controlling moisture to these levels can reduce the risk of other potential issues such as mold growth, pests, and building component degradation. Because a standard AC must also reduce dry bulb air temperature in order to remove moisture, a WHD is typically needed to support these latent loads when sensible heat removal is not desired.

  12. Indoor Temperature and Humidity Data Collection and Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Indoor Temperature and Humidity Data Collection and Analysis Chuck Booten, NREL Paul Norton, NERD Cheryn Metzger, NREL Why do we care about indoor Temp/RH? "Anecdotal evidence from the field and controlled studies have raised concerns about the accuracy of software-based energy analysis for existing homes. ....

  13. Optical humidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarvin, Jeffrey A.

    1987-01-01

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors.

  14. Optical humidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarvin, J.A.

    1987-02-10

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor is disclosed which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors. 2 figs.

  15. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH-TRUCON)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-08-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is 3. The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits

  16. Evaluation of Humidity Control Options in Hot-Humid Climate Homes (Fact Sheet), Building America: Technical Highlight, Building Technologies Program (BTP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Humidity Control Options in Hot-Humid Climate Homes As the Building America program researches construction of homes that achieve greater source energy savings over typical mid-1990s construction, proper modeling of whole-house latent loads and operation of humidity control equipment has become a high priority. Long-term high relative humidity can cause health and durability problems in homes, particularly in a hot-humid climate. In this study, researchers at the National Renewable Energy

  17. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes (RH TRUCON)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-05-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is 3. The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits

  18. 15.03.03 RH Fe Elecrolyte - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Highlights 04.13.16 Alloy 2.01.16 RH Plasmonics 06.01.16 BVO 15.12.04 RH Motifs 15.12.04 RH Screening 15.12.03 RH Assembly 15.11.21 RH Methanol 15.10.5 RH ECS Atwater 15.09.28 RH Bandgap Tunability 15.08.28 RH Novel Photoanodes 15.08.07 RH Si Microwire Photoanode 15.07.15 RH Interface Engineering 15.07.10 RH P-type Transparent 15.05.29 RH Operando X-ray 15.03.03 RH Fe Elecrolyte 15.01.16 RH Perovskite Solar Cells 15.02.10 RH Transparent Catalytic 16.02.11 RH 10 Device 03.01.16 RH

  19. Optical Properties of Moderately-Absorbing Organic and Mixed Organic/Inorganic Particles at Very High Humidities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Tami C; Rood, Mark J; Brem, Benjamin T; Mena-Gonzalez, Francisco C; Chen, Yanju

    2012-04-16

    Relative humidity (RH) affects the water content of an aerosol, altering its ability to scatter and absorb light, which is important for aerosol effects on climate and visibility. This project involves in situ measurement and modeling of aerosol optical properties including absorption, scattering and extinction at three visible wavelengths (467, 530, 660 nm), for organic carbon (OC) generated by pyrolysis of biomass, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and their mixtures at controlled RH conditions. Novel components of this project include investigation of: (1) Changes in all three of these optical properties at scanned RH conditions; (2) Optical properties at RH values up to 95%, which are usually extrapolated instead of measured; and (3) Examination of aerosols generated by the pyrolysis of wood, which is representative of primary atmospheric organic carbon, and its mixture with inorganic aerosol. Scattering and extinction values were used to determine light absorption by difference and single scattering albedo values. Extensive instrumentation development and benchmarking with independently measured and modeled values were used to obtain and evaluate these new results. The single scattering albedo value for a dry absorbing polystyrene microsphere benchmark agreed within 0.02 (absolute value) with independently published results at 530 nm. Light absorption by a nigrosin (sample light-absorbing) benchmark increased by a factor of 1.24 +/-0.06 at all wavelengths as RH increased from 38 to 95%. Closure modeling with Mie theory was able to reproduce this increase with the linear volume average (LVA) refractive index mixing rule for this water soluble compound. Absorption by biomass OC aerosol increased by a factor of 2.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.2 between 32 and 95% RH at 467 nm and 530 nm, but there was no detectable absorption at 660 nm. Additionally, the spectral dependence of absorption by OC that was observed with filter measurements was confirmed qualitatively

  20. Understanding the Temperature and Humidity Environment Inside...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Understanding the Temperature and Humidity Environment Inside a PV Module aims to show that by choosing humidity conditions that more closely match the use environment, one can ...

  1. Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shehabi, Arman; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok

    2007-03-06

    standards. However, concentration were still above the levels measured in data centers that do not use economizers (3) Current filtration in data centers is minimal (ASHRAE 40%) since most air is typically recycled. When using economizers, modest improvements in filtration (ASHRAE 85%) can reduce particle concentrations to nearly match the level found in data centers that do not use economizers. The extra cost associated with improve filters was not determined in this study. (4) Humidity was consistent and within the ASHRAE recommended levels for all data centers without economizers. Results show that, while slightly less steady, humidity in data centers with economizers can also be controlled within the ASHRAE recommended levels. However, this control of humidity reduces energy savings by limiting the hours the economizer vents are open. (5) The potential energy savings from economizer use has been measured in one data center. When economizers were active, mechanical cooling power dropped by approximately 30%. Annual savings at this center is estimated within the range of 60-80 MWh/year, representing approximately a 5% savings off the mechanical energy load of the data center. Incoming temperatures and humidity at this data center were conservative relative to the ASHRAE acceptable temperature and humidity ranges. Greater savings may be available if higher temperature humidity levels in the data center area were permitted. The average particle concentrations measured at each of the eight data center locations are shown in Table 1. The data centers ranged in size from approximately 5,000 ft{sup 2} to 20,000 ft{sup 2}. The indoor concentrations and humidity in Table 1 represents measurements taken at the server rack. Temperature measurements at the server rack consistently fell between 65-70 F. The Findings section contains a discussion of the individual findings from each center. Data centers currently operate under very low contamination levels. Economizers can be expected

  2. High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

    2010-06-03

    hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

  3. RH_SRS_Shipment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WIPP Trucks Delivering First Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste from the Savannah River Site CARLSBAD, N.M., June 11, 2012- Photo caption: On June 7, 2012, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) trucks approach the WIPP facility near Carlsbad, New Mexico, with the first shipment of defense- related remote-handled transuranic (TRU) waste from Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. TRU waste consists of materials contaminated with radioactive elements that have atomic numbers greater

  4. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. Cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air in older homes in warm-humid climates. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long-off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  5. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. In older homes in warm-humid climates, cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and some winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and avoids adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  6. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-07-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is 3. The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits

  7. Check for chirality in {sup 102}Rh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Yavahchova, M. S.; Petkov, P.; Angelis, G. de; Bhowmik, R. K.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Madhavan, N.; Kumar, R.; Raju, M. Kumar; Kaur, J.; Mahanto, G.; Singh, A.; Kaur, N.; Garg, R.; Sukla, A.; Marinov, Ts. K.; Brant, S.

    2012-10-20

    Excited states in {sup 102}Rh, populated by the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 94}Zr({sup 11}B,3n){sup 102}Rh at a beam energy of 36 MeV, were studied using the INGA spectrometer at IUAC, New Delhi. The angular correlations and the electromagnetic character of some of the gamma-ray transitions observed were investigated in details. A new chiral candidate sister band was found in the level-scheme of {sup 102}Rh. Lifetimes of exited states in {sup 102}Rh were measured by means of the Doppler-shift attenuation technique. The experimental results do not support the presence of static chirality in {sup 102}Rh.

  8. Methods for providing bond activation catalysts and related catalysts, systems, and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goddard, III, William A.; Cheng, Mu-Jeng; Fu, Ross

    2016-04-12

    Described herein are catalysts for activation of an R--H bond in a R--H substrate and related catalytic matrices, compositions, methods and systems.

  9. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-05-01

    Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  10. Model for the Prediction of the Hydriding Thermodynamics of Pd-Rh-Co Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teter, D.F.; Thoma, D.J.

    1999-03-01

    A dilute solution model (with respect to the substitutional alloying elements) has been developed, which accurately predicts the hydride formation and decomposition thermodynamics and the storage capacities of dilute ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The effect of varying the rhodium and cobalt compositions on the thermodynamics of hydride formation and decomposition and hydrogen capacity of several palladium-rhodium-cobalt ternary alloys has been investigated using pressure-composition (PC) isotherms. Alloying in the dilute regime (<10 at.%) causes the enthalpy for hydride formation to linearly decrease with increasing alloying content. Cobalt has a stronger effect on the reduction in enthalpy than rhodium for equivalent alloying amounts. Also, cobalt reduces the hydrogen storage capacity with increasing alloying content. The plateau thermodynamics are strongly linked to the lattice parameters of the alloys. A near-linear dependence of the enthalpy of hydride formation on the lattice parameter was observed for both the binary Pd-Rh and Pd-Co alloys, as well as for the ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The Pd-5Rh-3Co (at. %) alloy was found to have similar plateau thermodynamics as a Pd-10Rh alloy, however, this ternary alloy had a diminished hydrogen storage capacity relative to Pd-10Rh.

  11. Rh(I)-Catalyzed Direct Arylation of Pyridines and Quinolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, Ashley; Lewis, Jared; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2008-07-29

    additive proved even more effective, with the yield of 1a improving to 61% (entry 2). Further enhancement in yield was not observed upon the inclusion of other additives such as MgO (entry 3), various organic bases (entries 4, 5), or a protic acid source (entry 6). Absolute concentration proved very important, with the best results being obtained at relatively high concentrations of the aryl bromide (compare entries 7 and 8). A marginal improvement was observed upon running the reaction with 6 equivalents of 2-methyl pyridine (entry 9). The reaction temperature could also be increased to 175 or 190 C while maintaining reaction yield, to enable the reaction time to be reduced to 24 h (entries 10 and 11). In summary, we have developed a Rh(I)-catalyzed strategy for the direct arylation of pyridines and quinolines. The heterocycle is used without the need for prefunctionalization, and all reaction components are inexpensive and readily available. The strategy represents an expeditious route to an important class of bis(hetero)aryls and should be of broad utility.

  12. The Use of Humidity Sensors to Develop BIPV Packaging Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Use of Humidity Sensors to Develop BIPV Packaging Solutions The Use of Humidity Sensors to Develop BIPV Packaging Solutions Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, ...

  13. High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High TemperatureLow Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids High TemperatureLow Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids Presentation on High ...

  14. Lanthanide-halide based humidity indicators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beitz, James V.; Williams, Clayton W.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses a lanthanide-halide based humidity indicator and method of producing such indicator. The color of the present invention indicates the humidity of an atmosphere to which it is exposed. For example, impregnating an adsorbent support such as silica gel with an aqueous solution of the europium-containing reagent solution described herein, and dehydrating the support to dryness forms a substance with a yellow color. When this substance is exposed to a humid atmosphere the water vapor from the air is adsorbed into the coating on the pore surface of the silica gel. As the water content of the coating increases, the visual color of the coated silica gel changes from yellow to white. The color change is due to the water combining with the lanthanide-halide complex on the pores of the gel.

  15. Is It Homogeneous or Heterogeneous Catalysis Derived from [RhCp*Cl2]2? In Operando-XAFS, Kinetic and Crucial Kinetic Poisoning Evidence for Subnanometer Rh4 Cluster-Based Benzene Hydrogenation Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayram, Ercan; Linehan, John C.; Fulton, John L.; Roberts, John A.; Szymczak, Nathaniel; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Ozkar, Saim; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Finke, Richard G.

    2011-11-23

    interest in that they add to a growing body of evidence indicating that certain, appropriately ligated, coordinatively unsaturated, subnanometer M4 transition-metal clusters can be relatively robust catalysts. Also demonstrated herein is that Rh4 clusters are poisoned by Hg(0), demonstrating for the first time that the classic Hg(0) poisoning test of 'homogeneous' vs 'heterogeneous'catalysts cannot distinguish Rh4-based subnanometer catalysts from Rh(0)n nanoparticle catalysts, at least for the present examples of these two specific, Rh-based catalysts.

  16. Hybridized Nature of Pseudogap in Kondo Insulators CeRhSb and CeRhAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumigashira, H.; Takahashi, T.; Yoshii, S.; Kasaya, M.

    2001-08-06

    We studied the electronic structure of Kondo insulators CeRhSb and CeRhAs using high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy. We found that the 4f -derived density of states shows a depletion (pseudogap) at E{sub F} in contrast to metallic Kondo materials. It was found that the size of the f pseudogap is smaller than that of conduction electrons (c pseudogap) while both scale well with the Kondo temperature. The present results indicate that the hybridization between 4f and conduction electrons near E{sub F} is essential for the Kondo gap in the Ce-based compounds.

  17. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-09-01

    This is a summary of the work of Group 3 of the International PV QA Task Force. Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  18. ARM - PI Product - Radiosondes Corrected for Inaccuracy in RH Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsRadiosondes Corrected for Inaccuracy in RH Measurements ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Radiosondes Corrected for Inaccuracy in RH Measurements Corrections for inaccuracy in Vaisala radiosonde RH measurements have been applied to ARM SGP radiosonde soundings. The magnitude of the corrections can vary considerably between soundings. The radiosonde measurement accuracy, and

  19. Retrieval and Repackaging of RH-TRU Waste - General Presentation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Retrieval and Repackaging of RH-TRU Waste- GENERAL PRESENTATION MODULAR HOT CELL TECHNOLOGY AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES - OAK RIDGE, TN - GENERAL PRESENTATION OF MODULAR HOT CELL ...

  20. Chemical and Morphological Evolution of Nanoporous Pd/Rh Alloy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Chemical and Morphological Evolution of Nanoporous PdRh Alloy Particles for ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  1. ARM: AOS: Scanning-Mobility Particle Sizer; temperature and RH...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AOS: Scanning-Mobility Particle Sizer; temperature and RH output Authors: Derek Hageman ; Bill Behrens ; Janek Uin ; Robert Bullard ; Cynthia Salwen ; Cynthia Salwen ; Annette ...

  2. Spatially resolved resistance of NiO nanostructures under humid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    yielding nearly homogeneous surface properties at 80% RH, suggesting that the nanoscale potential and resistance properties convergemore with the mesoscale properties as ...

  3. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage This PowerPoint presentation, focused on humidity, temperature and voltage testing, was originally presented by John Wohlgemuth at the NREL 2013 PV Module Reliability Workshop on Feb. 26-27, 2013 in Denver, CO. It summarizes the activities of a working group chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module life versus stresses associated with humidity,

  4. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Relative Humidity Sensor 3445 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Velocity Planar Measurement (Current), 3D Velocity Volumetric Measurement (Current), Density (Ice), Direction (Ice), Speed (Ice), Thickness (Ice), Pressure (Tidal), Sea Surface...

  5. Comparing Wind, Temperature, Pressure, and Humidity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature, Pressure, and Humidity Between the Tropics, Arctic, and Southern Great Plains Using ARM Program Data Grade: 6 th - 9 th Duration: 1 or 2 weeks total, 30 minutes to 1-hour class time a day. Goals: Students will be able to download atmospheric data from the ARM website. They will compare the data from three different locations in the world, discuss why it is different at each location, and be able to answer questions about the data. Objectives: Students will be able to: * Learn how to

  6. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cox, Christopher J.; Walden, Von P.; Rowe, Penny M.; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2015-12-10

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Ourmore » findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10Wm 2. With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1–5Wm 2 in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5–15Wm 2 by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds.« less

  7. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Christopher J.; Walden, Von P.; Rowe, Penny M.; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2015-12-10

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Our findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10Wm 2. With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1–5Wm 2 in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5–15Wm 2 by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds.

  8. Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

  9. Optical Humidity Sensors for Building Energy Performance and Air Quality

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control | Department of Energy Optical Humidity Sensors for Building Energy Performance and Air Quality Control Optical Humidity Sensors for Building Energy Performance and Air Quality Control Artist rendering of the optical sensor for humidity monitoring under development. The sensor material is "interrogated" by an LED and a photodiode, and the signal is processed by the novel, all-digital phase detector. A minimal number of electronic parts are required, thus the electronic

  10. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. ...

  11. Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver Ion Conductors and the Dual Nature of Its Locality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Humidity Effect on Nanoscale ...

  12. Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and the Dual Nature of Its Locality Prev Next Title: Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver Ion Conductors and the Dual Nature of Its Locality ...

  13. Ethanol Oxidation on the Ternary PtRhSnO2/C Electrocatalysts with Varied Pt:Rh:Sn ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, R.R.; Li, M.; Kowal, A.; Sasaki, K.; Marinkovic, N.; Su, D.; Korach, E.; Liu, P.

    2010-05-30

    Ternary Pt-Rh-SnO{sub 2}/C electrocatalysts with the atomic ratio Pt:Rh:Sn = 3:1:x, where x varies from 2 to 6, were synthesized using the modified polyol method followed by thermal treatment. Several techniques used to characterize these electrocatalysts showed they were composed of homogeneous PtRh alloy and SnO{sub 2}, having all three constituents coexisting in single nanoparticles with the average particle size around 1.4 nm and a narrow size distribution. While all the electrocatalysts investigated exhibited high catalytic activity for ethanol oxidation, the most active one had the composition with the Pt:Rh:Sn = 3:1:4 atomic ratio. These ternary-electrocatalysts effectively split the C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acidic solutions, which is verified using the in situ IRRAS technique.

  14. Moisture performance of sealed attics in the mixed-humid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Pallin, Simon B; Jackson, Roderick K

    2013-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory studied 8 homes in the mixed-humid climate, 4 with vented attics and 4 with sealed attics. ORNL wanted to understand the moisture performance of the sealed attic and how it affected the interior environment. We found that the attic and interior of sealed attic homes were more humid than the attic and interior observed in vented attic homes. This is due to the lack of ventilation in the sealed attic. Historically attics have been vented to dehumidify the attic and interior of the home. A sealed attic design greatly reduces the venting potential and thus this drying pathway and can cause elevated interior moisture over a vented attic home. Despite the elevated attic and interior moisture in the sealed attic homes, so far no mold or material degradation has been found. The roof sheathing moisture content has stayed below 20%, indicating low potential for material degradation. Also the relative humidity at the roof sheathing has stayed within the ASHRAE 160 design criteria except for a short time during the 2011/2012 winter. This was due to a combination of the sealed attic design (minimal venting to the outside) and the duct work not being operated in the attic which usually provides a dehumidification pathway. It was also found that when the humidity was controlled using the HVAC system, it resulted in 7% more cooling energy consumption. In the mixed-humid climate this reduces the cost effectiveness of the sealed attic design as a solution for bringing ducts into a semi-conditioned space. Because of this we are recommending the other alternatives be used to bringing ducts into the conditioned space in both new construction and retrofit work in the mixed-humid climate.

  15. Structural and ferromagnetic properties of an orthorhombic phase of MnBi stabilized with Rh additions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taufour, Valentin; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; March, Stephen; Saunders, Scott; Sun, Kewei; Lamichhane, Tej Nath; Kramer, Matthew J.; Bud’ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2015-07-28

    The article addresses the possibility of alloy elements in MnBi which may modify the thermodynamic stability of the NiAs-type structure without significantly degrading the magnetic properties. The addition of small amounts of Rh and Mn provides an improvement in the thermal stability with some degradation of the magnetic properties. The small amounts of Rh and Mn additions in MnBi stabilize an orthorhombic phase whose structural and magnetic properties are closely related to the ones of the previously reported high-temperature phase of MnBi (HT MnBi). The properties of the HT MnBi, which is stable between 613 and 719 K, have not been studied in detail because of its transformation to the stable low-temperature MnBi (LT MnBi), making measurements near and below its Curie temperature difficult. The Rh-stabilized MnBi with chemical formula Mn1.0625–xRhxBi [x=0.02(1)] adopts a new superstructure of the NiAs/Ni2In structure family. It is ferromagnetic below a Curie temperature of 416 K. The critical exponents of the ferromagnetic transition are not of the mean-field type but are closer to those associated with the Ising model in three dimensions. The magnetic anisotropy is uniaxial; the anisotropy energy is rather large, and it does not increase when raising the temperature, contrary to what happens in LT MnBi. The saturation magnetization is approximately 3μB/f.u. at low temperatures. Thus, while this exact composition may not be application ready, it does show that alloying is a viable route to modifying the stability of this class of rare-earth-free magnet alloys.

  16. Humidity scanning quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring setup for determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and rheological changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjrklund, Sebastian Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2015-05-15

    A new method to determine water sorption-desorption isotherms with high resolution in the complete range of water activities (relative humidities) is presented. The method is based on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The QCM-D is equipped with a humidity module in which the sample film is kept in air with controlled humidity. The experimental setup allows for continuous scanning of the relative humidity from either dry to humid conditions or vice versa. The amount of water sorbed or desorbed from the sample is determined from the resonance frequencies of the coated quartz sensor, via analysis of the overtone dependence. In addition, the method allows for characterization of hydration induced changes of the rheological properties from the dissipation data, which is closely connected to the viscoelasticity of the film. The accuracy of the humidity scanning setup is confirmed in control experiments. Sorption-desorption isotherms of pig gastric mucin and lysozyme, obtained by the new method, show good agreement with previous results. Finally, we show that the deposition technique used to coat the quartz sensor influences the QCM-D data and how this issue can be used to obtain further information on the effect of hydration. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-coating represents an attractive alternative to obtain sorption-desorption isotherms, while drop-coating provides additional information on changes of the rheological properties during hydration.

  17. Theory, electro-optical design, testing, and calibration of a prototype atmospheric supersaturation, humidity, and temperature sensor. Final report Mar 81-Jul 82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, L.D.

    1982-07-15

    A new infrared differential absorption - passive thermal emission based instrument designed to make accurate in-cloud measurements of absolute humidity, air temperature, relative humidity, and ice and water supersaturations has been developed. Absolute humidity is measured by the differential infrared absorption of a broad-band light beam between 2.45 microns wavelength and the strongly absorbing water vapor band at 2.67 microns. Air temperature is sensed by a passive radiometric measurement of the Planck's law radiance emitted by carbon dioxide molecules in their very intense emission band at 4.25 microns. Significant operational advantages over previous 14-16 micron band radiometers are achieved. These non-contact optical measurements of absolute humidity and true air temperature can then be combined to yield relative humidity values with respect to both water and ice which remain valid in condensing supersaturated conditions and in spite of hydrometeors in the sample volume.

  18. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  19. The Nature of the First Order Isostructural Transition in GdRhSn...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Nature of the First Order Isostructural Transition in GdRhSn Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Nature of the First Order Isostructural Transition in GdRhSn...

  20. BC TIPS - Hot-Humid Climate: New Orleans

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot-Humid Climate: New Orleans Building Technologies Program The U.S. Department of Energy's Builders Challenge recognizes quality homes that also save you money. U.S. homebuilders...

  1. Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Dual Nature of Its Locality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver Ion Conductors and the Dual Nature of Its ...

  2. Understanding the Temperature and Humidity Environment Inside a PV Module

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) | Department of Energy Understanding the Temperature and Humidity Environment Inside a PV Module (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Understanding the Temperature and Humidity Environment Inside a PV Module (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) This PowerPoint presentation was originally given by Michael Kempe of NREL in February 2013 detailing a project funded by the SunShot Initiative.

  3. Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufactured Housing - Building America Top Innovation | Department of Energy Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing - Building America Top Innovation Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing - Building America Top Innovation Photo of workers on the roof of a home. This Top Innovation profile describes research by Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction team to diagnose

  4. QA TG5 UV, temperature and humidity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    QA TG5 UV, temperature and humidity QA TG5 UV, temperature and humidity Wednesday, Feb. 27, 2013, presented by David Miller, NREL pvmrw13_uvth_nrel_fraunhofer_miller.pdf (970.77 KB) More Documents & Publications Hail Impact Testing on Crystalline Si Modules with Flexible Packaging Test Procedure for UV Weathering Resistance of Backsheet Delamination Failures in Long-Term Field Aged PV Modules from Point of View of Encapsulant

  5. It's Getting Hot in Here! Best Practices for Hot and Humid Climates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It's Getting Hot in Here Best Practices for Hot and Humid Climates (101) It's Getting Hot in Here Best Practices for Hot and Humid Climates (101) July 7

  6. Acute airway effects of airborne formaldehyde in sensitized and non-sensitized mice housed in a dry or humid environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, Søren Thor Wolkoff, Peder Hammer, Maria Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi Clausen, Per Axel Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the role of air humidity and allergic sensitization on the acute airway response to inhaled formaldehyde (FA) vapor. Mice were sensitized to the immunogen ovalbumin (OVA) by three intraperitoneal injections followed by two aerosol challenges, giving rise to allergic airway inflammation. Control mice were sham sensitized by saline injections and challenged by saline aerosols. Once sensitized, the mice were housed at high (85–89%) or low (< 10%) relative humidity, respectively for 48 h prior to a 60-min exposure to either 0.4, 1.8 or about 5 ppm FA. Before, during and after exposure, breathing parameters were monitored. These included the specific markers of nose and lung irritations as well as the expiratory flow rate, the latter being a marker of airflow limitation. The sensory irritation response in the upper airways was not affected by allergic inflammation or changes in humidity. At high relative humidity, the OVA-sensitized mice had a decreased expiratory airflow rate compared to the saline control mice after exposure to approximately 5 ppm FA. This is in accordance with the observations that asthmatics are more sensitive than non-asthmatics to higher concentrations of airway irritants including FA. In the dry environment, the opposite trend was seen; here, the saline control mice had a significantly decreased expiratory airflow rate compared to OVA-sensitized mice when exposed to 1.8 and 4 ppm FA. We speculate that increased mucus production in the OVA-sensitized mice has increased the “scrubber effect” in the nose, consequently protecting the conducting and lower airways. - Highlights: ► Role of air humidity and allergy on sensitivity to an airway irritant was studied. ► In the humid environment, allergy amplified the effects of formaldehyde. ► In the dry environment, allergy reduced the effect of formaldehyde. ► Neither allergy nor humidity changed the formaldehyde-induced nasal irritation.

  7. The Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Norton, Paul

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every four years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the "average occupant" in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  8. Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engebrecht-Metzger, C.; Norton, P.

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every 4 years the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the 'average occupant' in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  9. Humidity effects on tip-induced polarization switching in lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ievlev, A. V.; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, V. Ya.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2014-03-03

    In the last several decades, ferroelectrics have attracted much attention as perspective materials for nonlinear optics and data storage devices. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a powerful tool both for studies of domain structures with nanoscale spatial resolution and for writing the isolated nanodomains by local application of the electric field. Quantitative analysis of the observed behavior requires understanding the role of environmental factors on imaging and switching process. Here, we study the influence of the relative humidity in the SPM chamber on tip-induced polarization switching. The observed effects are attributed to existence of a water meniscus between the tip and the sample surface in humid atmosphere. These results are important for a deeper understanding of complex investigations of ferroelectric materials and their applications and suggest the necessity for fundamental studies of electrocapillary phenomena at the tip-surface junction and their interplay with bias-induced materials responses.

  10. Humidity effects on tip-induced polarization switching in lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ievlev, Anton; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    In the last several decades, ferroelectrics have attracted much attention as perspective materials for nonlinear optics and data storage devices. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a powerful tool both for studies of domain structures with nanoscale spatial resolution and for writing the isolated nanodomains by local application of the electric field. Quantitative analysis of the observed behavior requires understanding the role of environmental factors on imaging and switching process. Here we study the influence of the relative humidity in the SPM chamber on tip-induced polarization switching. The observed effects are attributed to existence of a water meniscus between the tip and the sample surface in humid atmosphere. These results are important for a deeper understanding of complex investigations of ferroelectric materials and their applications, and suggest the necessity for fundamental studies of electrocapillary phenomena at the tip-surface junction and their interplay with bias-induced materials responses.

  11. Structural and ferromagnetic properties of an orthorhombic phase of MnBi stabilized with Rh additions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Taufour, Valentin; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; March, Stephen; Saunders, Scott; Sun, Kewei; Lamichhane, Tej Nath; Kramer, Matthew J.; Bud’ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2015-07-28

    The article addresses the possibility of alloy elements in MnBi which may modify the thermodynamic stability of the NiAs-type structure without significantly degrading the magnetic properties. The addition of small amounts of Rh and Mn provides an improvement in the thermal stability with some degradation of the magnetic properties. The small amounts of Rh and Mn additions in MnBi stabilize an orthorhombic phase whose structural and magnetic properties are closely related to the ones of the previously reported high-temperature phase of MnBi (HT MnBi). The properties of the HT MnBi, which is stable between 613 and 719 K, have notmore » been studied in detail because of its transformation to the stable low-temperature MnBi (LT MnBi), making measurements near and below its Curie temperature difficult. The Rh-stabilized MnBi with chemical formula Mn1.0625–xRhxBi [x=0.02(1)] adopts a new superstructure of the NiAs/Ni2In structure family. It is ferromagnetic below a Curie temperature of 416 K. The critical exponents of the ferromagnetic transition are not of the mean-field type but are closer to those associated with the Ising model in three dimensions. The magnetic anisotropy is uniaxial; the anisotropy energy is rather large, and it does not increase when raising the temperature, contrary to what happens in LT MnBi. The saturation magnetization is approximately 3μB/f.u. at low temperatures. Thus, while this exact composition may not be application ready, it does show that alloying is a viable route to modifying the stability of this class of rare-earth-free magnet alloys.« less

  12. Mechanisms of degradation in adhesive joint strength: Glassy polymer thermoset bond in a humid environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Austin, Kevin N.; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-08-06

    The degradation in the strength of napkin-ring (NR) joints bonded with an epoxy thermoset is evaluated in a humid environment. While adherend composition (stainless steel and aluminum) and surface preparation (polished, grit blasted, primed, coupling agent coated) do not affect virgin (time=0) joint strength, they can significantly affect the role of moisture on the strength of the joint. Adherend surface abrasion and corrosion processes are found to be key factors in determining the reliability of joint strength in humid environments. In cases where surface specific joint strength degradation processes are not active, decreases in joint strength can be accounted for by the glass transition temperature, Tg, depression of the adhesive associated with water sorption. Under these conditions, joint strength can be rejuvenated to virgin strength by drying. In addition, the decrease in joint strength associated with water sorption can be predicted by the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model by shifting the adhesive reference temperature, Tref, by the same amount as the Tg depression. When surface specific degradation mechanisms are active, they can reduce joint strength below that associated with adhesive Tg depression, and joint strength is not recoverable by drying. Furthermore, a critical relative humidity (or, potentially, critical water sorption concentration), below which the surface specific degradation does not occur, appears to exist for the polished stainless steel joints.

  13. Mechanisms of degradation in adhesive joint strength: Glassy thermoset polymer bond in a humid environment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Austin, Kevin N.; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-08-06

    The degradation in the strength of napkin-ring (NR) joints bonded with an epoxy thermoset is evaluated in a humid environment. While adherend composition (stainless steel and aluminum) and surface preparation (polished, grit blasted, primed, coupling agent coated) do not affect virgin (time=0) joint strength, they can significantly affect the role of moisture on the strength of the joint. Adherend surface abrasion and corrosion processes are found to be key factors in determining the reliability of joint strength in humid environments. In cases where surface specific joint strength degradation processes are not active, decreases in joint strength can be accounted formoreby the glass transition temperature, Tg, depression of the adhesive associated with water sorption. Under these conditions, joint strength can be rejuvenated to virgin strength by drying. In addition, the decrease in joint strength associated with water sorption can be predicted by the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model by shifting the adhesive reference temperature, Tref, by the same amount as the Tg depression. When surface specific degradation mechanisms are active, they can reduce joint strength below that associated with adhesive Tg depression, and joint strength is not recoverable by drying. Furthermore, a critical relative humidity (or, potentially, critical water sorption concentration), below which the surface specific degradation does not occur, appears to exist for the polished stainless steel joints.less

  14. Mechanisms of degradation in adhesive joint strength: Glassy polymer thermoset bond in a humid environment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Austin, Kevin N.; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-08-06

    The degradation in the strength of napkin-ring (NR) joints bonded with an epoxy thermoset is evaluated in a humid environment. While adherend composition (stainless steel and aluminum) and surface preparation (polished, grit blasted, primed, coupling agent coated) do not affect virgin (time=0) joint strength, they can significantly affect the role of moisture on the strength of the joint. Adherend surface abrasion and corrosion processes are found to be key factors in determining the reliability of joint strength in humid environments. In cases where surface specific joint strength degradation processes are not active, decreases in joint strength can be accounted formore » by the glass transition temperature, Tg, depression of the adhesive associated with water sorption. Under these conditions, joint strength can be rejuvenated to virgin strength by drying. In addition, the decrease in joint strength associated with water sorption can be predicted by the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model by shifting the adhesive reference temperature, Tref, by the same amount as the Tg depression. When surface specific degradation mechanisms are active, they can reduce joint strength below that associated with adhesive Tg depression, and joint strength is not recoverable by drying. Furthermore, a critical relative humidity (or, potentially, critical water sorption concentration), below which the surface specific degradation does not occur, appears to exist for the polished stainless steel joints.« less

  15. Effects of Humidity on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, John S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar; Mahapatra, Manoj K.; Wachsman, E. D.; Liu, Meilin; Gerdes, Kirk R.

    2015-03-17

    This report summarizes results from experimental studies performed by a team of researchers assembled on behalf of the Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program. Team participants employed a variety of techniques to evaluate and mitigate the effects of humidity in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode air streams on cathode chemistry, microstructure, and electrochemical performance.

  16. Microwave Synthesis of Au?Rh Core?Shell Nanoparticles and Implications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Synthesis of Au?Rh Core?Shell Nanoparticles and Implications of the Shell Thickness in Hydrogenation Catalysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microwave ...

  17. Electronic structure and magnetism of the Rh[l brace]001[r brace] surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S.C. Physics Department, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ); Garrison, K. ); Begley, A.M.; Jona, F. ); Johnson, P.D. )

    1994-05-15

    Spin-polarized-photoemission experiments on clean Rh[l brace]001[r brace] show that the surface resonance at the [ital [bar M

  18. Quantitative EDS Analysis of Nanometer-Scale Core/Shell Pd/Rh...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Nanometer-Scale CoreShell PdRh Structures. Authors: Sugar, Joshua Daniel ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel 1 ; Robinson, David ; Cappillino, Patrick + Show Author Affiliations (Sandia...

  19. Ind.Audit Guide June 13_b.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - CAGI (Compressed Air & Gas Institute): - ASME 14.7 psia, 60F, 0% rh (relative humidity) 14.7 psia, 68F, 36% rh Typical dryer dew points: Refrigerated Dryers +35F to...

  20. Highly Active and Stable MgAl2O4 Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts for Methane Steam Reforming: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Kovarik, Libor; Wan, Haiying; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gerber, Mark A.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2014-07-01

    In this work we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of stable MgAl2O4 spinel-supported Rh and Ir catalysts for the steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction. Firstly, catalytic performance for a series of noble metal catalysts supported on MgAl2O4 spinel was evaluated for SMR at 600-850°C. Turnover rate at 850°C follows the order: Pd > Pt > Ir > Rh > Ru > Ni. However, Rh and Ir were found to have the best combination of activity and stability for methane steam reforming in the presence of simulated biomass-derived syngas. It was found that highly dispersed ~2 nm Rh and ~1 nm Ir clusters were formed on the MgAl2O4 spinel support. Scanning Transition Electron Microscopy (STEM) images show that excellent dispersion was maintained even under challenging high temperature conditions (e.g. at 850°C in the presence of steam) while Ir and Rh catalysts supported on Al2O3 were observed to sinter at increased rates under the same conditions. These observations were further confirmed by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations which find that ~1 nm Rh and Ir particles (50-atom cluster) bind strongly to the MgAl2O4 surfaces via a redox process leading to a strong metal-support interaction, thus helping anchor the metal clusters and reduce the tendency to sinter. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that these supported smaller Rh and Ir particles have a lower work function than larger more bulk-like ones, which enables them to activate both water and methane more effectively than larger particles, yet have a minimal influence on the relative stability of coke precursors. In addition, theoretical mechanistic studies were used to probe the relationship between structure and reactivity. Consistent with the experimental observations, our theoretical modeling results also suggest that the small spinel-supported Ir particle catalyst is more active than the counterpart of Rh catalyst for SMR. This work was financially supported by the

  1. Giant humidity dependence of conductivity in a single exfoliated titania nanosheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Ayaka; Hatakeyama, Kazuto; Oku, Azusa; Matsuzaki, Koji; Saitou, Natsumi; Yokoi, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Takaaki; Matsumoto, Yasumichi; Hara, Masahiro

    2014-04-21

    We have investigated an in-plane electrical transport in an individual titania nanosheet, which forms a lepidocrocite structure with a few atomic layer thickness. The conductivity in the titania nanosheet varied five orders for the change of the relative humidity from 45% to 95%. The drastic change in the conductivity is due to a sensitive response with respect to water molecules adsorbed on the surface of the two-dimensional nanosheet. The results may open an avenue for nanodevices built from various oxide nanosheets.

  2. ARM TR-008

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...Relative Humidity (TRH) Probe Campbell Scientific Inc. 815 W. 1800 N. Logan UT ... TRH sensor: Thermistor and Vaisala RH, Campbell Scientific Model HMP35C Temperature and ...

  3. Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) User's Manual...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... RH Relative humidity RLY Relay (for data logger) RS Responsivity SHD Shaded test ... SPA Solar position algorithm STD Standard (control) instrument SW Shortwave THM Thermistor ...

  4. Building America Case Study: Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House Lady's Island, South Carolina PROJECT ... Price: 300,000 Date Completed: August 2015 Climate Zone: Hot-humid (International Energy ...

  5. Performance Evaluation of a Hot-Humid Climate Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osser, R.; Kerrigan, P.

    2012-02-01

    Project Home Again is a development in New Orleans, LA created to provide new homes to victims of Hurricane Katrina. Building Science Corporation acted as a consultant for the project, advocating design strategies for durability, flood resistance, occupant comfort, and low energy use while maintaining cost effectiveness. These techniques include the use of high density spray foam insulation, LoE3 glazing, and supplemental dehumidification to maintain comfortable humidity levels without unnecessary cooling.

  6. Energy Efficient Crawlspace Foundation Retrofit: Mixed Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Bianco, M.; Wiehagen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Residential quality management systems have most often been designed for new home construction. To address quality in existing homes in the form of Scopes of Work (SOW), the NAHB Research Center began with a new construction scope of work and applied it to an existing home project. This document is intended to outline the steps of translating a new home construction SOW to SOW for retrofit and addressed crawlspace foundations in a mixed-humid climate.

  7. Data Center Efficiency and IT Equipment Reliability at Wider Operating Temperature and Humidity Ranges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    provides an overview of how operators of data centers can increase energy efficiency at wider operating temperatures and humidity ranges

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Improving Comfort in Hot-Humid Climates with a Whole-House Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    In order to quantify the performance of a combined whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) AC system, researchers from the Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team monitored the operation of two Lennox AC systems coupled with a Honeywell DH150 TrueDRY whole-house dehumidifier for a six-month period. By using a WHD to control moisture levels (latent cooling) and optimizing a central AC to control temperature (sensible cooling), improvements in comfort can be achieved while reducing utility costs. Indoor comfort for this study was defined as maintaining indoor conditions at below 60% RH and a humidity ratio of 0.012 lbm/lbm while at common dry bulb set point temperatures of 74-80F. In addition to enhanced comfort, controlling moisture to these levels can reduce the risk of other potential issues such as mold growth, pests, and building component degradation. Because a standard AC must also reduce dry bulb air temperature in order to remove moisture, a WHD is typically needed to support these latent loads when sensible heat removal is not desired.

  9. Final Design Report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austad, S. L.

    2015-05-01

    The RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project was designed by AREVA Federal Services (AFS) and the design process was managed by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The final design report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility Project is a compilation of the documents and deliverables included in the facility final design.

  10. Final Design Report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austad, Stephanie Lee

    2015-09-01

    The RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project was designed by AREVA Federal Services (AFS) and the design process was managed by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The final design report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility Project is a compilation of the documents and deliverables included in the facility final design.

  11. Bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts with low amounts of Rh for the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane for fuel-cell applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrandon, M.; Kropf, A. J.; Krause, T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-05-15

    Mono-metallic nickel and rhodium catalysts and bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeZrO{sub 2} and CeMgOx were prepared and evaluated for catalyzing the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane. The binary Ni-Rh supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with low weight loading of rhodium exhibited higher H{sub 2} yields than Ni or Rh alone. The Ni-Rh/CeZrO{sub 2} catalyst exhibited higher performance and no coke formation, compared to the same metals on other supports. A NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase was obtained on all Ni and Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The presence of rhodium stabilized the spinel phase as well as NiOx species upon reforming while Ni alone was mostly reduced into metallic species. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis showed evidence of Ni-Rh alloy during preparation and even further after an accelerated aging at 900C in a H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O atmosphere.

  12. Effect of exposing two commercial manufacturers' second surface silver/glass mirrors to elevated temperature, mechanical loading, and high-humidity environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dake, L.S.; Lind, M.A.

    1982-04-01

    A preliminary examination of the effect of three accelerated exposure parameters on second surface silver/glass mirrors was performed. The variables studied were temperature (elevated and sub-zero), humidity and mechanical loading. One test consisted of exposing mirror coupons to dry heat (80/sup 0/C) and heat plus water vapor (80/sup 0/C, approx. 100% RH) environments. Another test consisted of subjecting mechanically loaded mirror strips to sub-zero temperature (-20/sup 0/C), dry heat (80/sup 0/C), and heat plus water vapor. Samples were evaluated qualitatively using dark field microscopy (1X and 100X). Quantitative determination of the effects of exposure testing on the mirrors was done with spectrophotometer spectral hemispherical and diffuse reflectance measurements. Degradation that was progressive with time was observed for mirrors exposed to dry heat and heat plus water vapor. The degradation did not have the same visual appearance for the two environments. Mechanical loading at -20/sup 0/C produced no degradation after three months' exposure time. Mechanical loading in dry heat and heat plus water vapor environments resulted in mirror degradation that was the same as that found in unloaded mirrors exposed to the same temperature and humidity. These preliminary tests indicate that the dry heat and heat plus water vapor accelerated tests may provide useful information about mirror degradation, while the mechanical load tests do not. The microscopy and spectrophotometer reflectance measurements were both useful techniques for determining the extent of degradation.

  13. Guides and Case Studies for Mixed-Humid Climates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixed-Humid Climates Guides and Case Studies for Mixed-Humid Climates Map of the Mixed-Humid Climate which reaches from the coast of Maryland through North Carolina and sprawls to cover most of Kansas and Oklahoma. The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a series of best practices and case studies to help builders improve whole-house energy performance in buildings found in mixed-humid climates. Best Practice Guides 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Mixed-Humid Climates - Volume 16

  14. Towards tailoring the magnetocaloric response in FeRh-based ternary compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barua, Radhika Jiménez-Villacorta, Félix; Lewis, L. H.

    2014-05-07

    In this work, we demonstrate that the magnetocaloric response of FeRh-based compounds may be tailored for potential magnetic refrigeration applications by chemical modification of the FeRh lattice. Alloys of composition Fe(Rh{sub 1−x}A{sub x}) or (Fe{sub 1−x}B{sub x})Rh (A = Cu, Pd; B = Ni; 0 < x < 0.06) were synthesized via arc-melting and subsequent annealing in vacuum at 1000 °C for 48 h. The magnetocaloric properties of the FeRh-based systems were determined using isothermal M(H) curves measured in the vicinity of the magnetostructural temperature (T{sub t}). It is found that the FeRh working temperature range (δT{sub FWHM}) may be chemically tuned over a wide temperature range, 100 K ≤ T ≤ 400 K. While elemental substitution consistently decreases the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub mag}) of the FeRh-based ternary alloys from that of the parent FeRh compound (ΔS{sub mag},{sub FeRh} ∼ 17 J/kg K; ΔS{sub mag,FeRh-ternary =} 7–14 J/kg K at H{sub app} = 2 T), the net refrigeration capacity (RC), defined as the amount of heat that can be transferred during one magnetic refrigeration cycle, of the modified systems is significantly higher (RC{sub FeRh} ∼ 150 J/kg; RC{sub FeRh-ternary =} 170–210 J/kg at H{sub app} = 2 T). These results are attributed to stoichiometry-induced changes in the FeRh electronic band structure and beneficial broadening of the magnetostructural transition due to local chemical disorder.

  15. Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature, Low Relative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Humidity Membrane Program | Department of Energy Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program A presentation to the High Temperature Membranes Working Group meeting, May 19, 2006. fenton.pdf (448.4 KB) More Documents & Publications Discussion Overview In Plane Conductivity Testing, BekkTech LLC Progress and Status on Through-Plane

  16. The effect of Fe-Rh alloying on CO hydrogenation to C2+ oxygenates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Palomino, Robert; Magee, Joseph W.; Llorca, Jordi; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; White, Michael G.

    2015-05-20

    A combination of reactivity and structural studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD), pair distribution function (PDF), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify the active phases of Fe-modified Rh/TiO2 catalysts for the synthesis of ethanol and other C2+ oxygenates from CO hydrogenation. XRD and TEM confirm the existence of Fe–Rh alloys for catalyst with 1–7 wt% Fe and ~2 wt% Rh. Rietveld refinements show that FeRh alloy content increases with Fe loading up to ~4 wt%, beyond which segregation to metallic Fe becomes favored over alloy formation. Catalysts that contain Fe metal after reduction exhibit some carburization as evidencedmore » by the formation of small amounts of Fe3C during CO hydrogenation. Analysis of the total Fe content of the catalysts also suggests the presence of FeOx also increased under reaction conditions. Reactivity studies show that enhancement of ethanol selectivity with Fe loading is accompanied by a significant drop in CO conversion. Comparison of the XRD phase analyses with selectivity suggests that higher ethanol selectivity is correlated with the presence of Fe–Rh alloy phases. As a result, the interface between Fe and Rh serves to enhance the selectivity of ethanol, but suppresses the activity of the catalyst which is attributed to the blocking or modifying of Rh active sites.« less

  17. Decomposition pathways of C2 oxygenates on Rh-modified tungsten carbide surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Thomas G.; Ren, Hui; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-03-27

    Ethanol decomposition on tungsten monocarbide (WC) and Rh-modified WC was investigated using ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface science experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations indicated that the binding energies of ethanol and its decomposition intermediates on WC(0001) were modified by Rh, with Rh/WC(0001) showing similar values to those on Rh(111). Through temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments on polycrystalline WC and Rh-modified WC, it was shown that the selectivity for ethanol decomposition was different on these surfaces. On WC, the C-O bond of ethanol was preferentially broken to produce ethylene; on Rh-modified WC, the C-C bond was broken to produce carbon monoxide and methane. In addition, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to determine likely surface intermediates. On Rh-modified WC, ethanol first formed ethoxy through O-H scission, then reacted through an aldehyde intermediate to form the C1 products.

  18. The effect of Fe-Rh alloying on CO hydrogenation to C2+ oxygenates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Palomino, Robert; Magee, Joseph W.; Llorca, Jordi; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; White, Michael G.

    2015-05-20

    A combination of reactivity and structural studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD), pair distribution function (PDF), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify the active phases of Fe-modified Rh/TiO2 catalysts for the synthesis of ethanol and other C2+ oxygenates from CO hydrogenation. XRD and TEM confirm the existence of Fe–Rh alloys for catalyst with 1–7 wt% Fe and ~2 wt% Rh. Rietveld refinements show that FeRh alloy content increases with Fe loading up to ~4 wt%, beyond which segregation to metallic Fe becomes favored over alloy formation. Catalysts that contain Fe metal after reduction exhibit some carburization as evidencedmore »by the formation of small amounts of Fe3C during CO hydrogenation. Analysis of the total Fe content of the catalysts also suggests the presence of FeOx also increased under reaction conditions. Reactivity studies show that enhancement of ethanol selectivity with Fe loading is accompanied by a significant drop in CO conversion. Comparison of the XRD phase analyses with selectivity suggests that higher ethanol selectivity is correlated with the presence of Fe–Rh alloy phases. As a result, the interface between Fe and Rh serves to enhance the selectivity of ethanol, but suppresses the activity of the catalyst which is attributed to the blocking or modifying of Rh active sites.« less

  19. Decomposition pathways of C2 oxygenates on Rh-modified tungsten carbide surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kelly, Thomas G.; Ren, Hui; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-03-27

    Ethanol decomposition on tungsten monocarbide (WC) and Rh-modified WC was investigated using ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface science experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations indicated that the binding energies of ethanol and its decomposition intermediates on WC(0001) were modified by Rh, with Rh/WC(0001) showing similar values to those on Rh(111). Through temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments on polycrystalline WC and Rh-modified WC, it was shown that the selectivity for ethanol decomposition was different on these surfaces. On WC, the C-O bond of ethanol was preferentially broken to produce ethylene; on Rh-modified WC, the C-C bond was broken to producemore » carbon monoxide and methane. In addition, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to determine likely surface intermediates. On Rh-modified WC, ethanol first formed ethoxy through O-H scission, then reacted through an aldehyde intermediate to form the C1 products.« less

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of Rh-based lanthanum zirconate pyrochlores for higher alcohol synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelsayed, Victor; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Poston, James A., Jr.; Spivey, James J.

    2013-05-01

    Two lanthanum zirconate pyrochlores (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}; LZ) were prepared by Pechini method and tested for higher alcohols selectivity. In one, Rh was substituted into the pyrochlore lattice (LRZ, 1.7 wt%) while for the second, Rh was supported on an unsubstituted La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (R/LZ, 1.8 wt%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) results show that the surface reducibility depends on whether the Rh is in (or supported on) the LZ pyrochlore. Rhodium in the LRZ is more reducible than rhodium supported on the R/LZ pyrochlore, likely due to the presence of a perovskite phase (LaRhO{sub 3}; identified by XRD), in which rhodium is more reducible. The formation of the perovskite accompanies that of the pyrochlore. CO hydrogenation results show higher ethanol selectivity for R/LZ than LRZ, possibly due to the strong interaction between Rh and LZ on the R/LZ, forming atomically close Rh{sup +}/Rh{sup 0} sites, which have been suggested to favor ethanol production.

  1. Effect of residential air-to-air heat and moisture exchangers on indoor humidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barringer, C.G.; McGugan, C.A. )

    1989-01-01

    A project was undertaken to develop guidelines for the selection of residential heat and moisture recovery ventilation systems (HRVs) in order to maintain an acceptable indoor humidity for various climatic conditions. These guidelines were developed from reviews on ventilation requirements, HRV performance specifications, and from computer modeling. Space conditions within three house/occupancy models for several types of HRV were simulated for three climatic conditions (Lake Charles, LA; Seattle, WA; and Winnipeg, MB) in order to determine the impact of the HRVs on indoor relative humidity and space-conditioning loads. Results show that when reduction of cooling cost is the main consideration, exchangers with moisture recovery are preferable to sensible HRVs. For reduction of heating costs, moisture recovery should be done for ventilation rates greater than about 15 L/s and average winter temperatures less than about (minus) 10{degrees}C if internal moisture generation rates are low. For houses with higher ventilation rates and colder average winter temperatures, exchangers with moisture recovery should be used.

  2. Magnitude of the magnetic exchange interaction in the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Pinaki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lin, S. -Z. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ghimire, N.? J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Huang, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Ronning, F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, E.? D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thompson, J.? D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batista, C.? D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ehlers, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janoschek, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We have used high-resolution neutron spectroscopy experiments to determine the complete spin wave spectrum of the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn?. The spin wave dispersion can be quantitatively reproduced with a simple frustrated J??J? model that also naturally explains the magnetic spin-spiral ground state of CeRhIn? and yields a dominant in-plane nearest-neighbor magnetic exchange constant J?=0.74(3)??meV. Our results pave the way to a quantitative understanding of the rich low-temperature phase diagram of the prominent CeTIn? (T = Co, Rh, Ir) class of heavy-fermion materials.

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  4. Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate, Cocoa, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season. ​

  5. Summary of EXAFS results on Cd-doped PuRhIn5 (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Summary of EXAFS results on Cd-doped PuRhIn5 Authors: Booth, C H ; Bauer, E D ; Tobin, J G Publication Date: 2014-06-12 OSTI Identifier: ...

  6. W.T.; Rainey, R.H. 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS;...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thorium fuel reprocessing experience Brooksbank, R.E.; McDuffee, W.T.; Rainey, R.H. 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; NUCLEAR MATERIALS DIVERSION; SAFEGUARDS; SPENT FUELS;...

  7. Improving Comfort in Hot-Humid Climates with a Whole-House, Windermere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projected Energy Cost Savings: 53year Other Benefits: * Improved humidity control * ... Often the air conditioner (AC) thermostat set point is lower than the desirable cooling level ...

  8. It’s Getting Hot in Here! Best Practices for Hot and Humid Climates (101)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: It’s Getting Hot in Here! Best Practices for Hot and Humid Climates (101), call slides and discussion summary.

  9. Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Humid Climates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot-Humid Climates Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Humid Climates Map of the Hot and Humid Climate Zone of the United States. This zone covers eastern Texas through Florida and reaches up to mid-Georgia it also includes Puerto Rico and Hawaii. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America program has developed a series of best practices and case studies to help builders improve whole-house energy performance in buildings found in hot-humid climates. Best Practice Guides 40% Whole-House

  10. Test Plan to Evaluate the Relationship Among IAQ, Comfort, Moisture, and Ventilation in Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Martin, Eric

    2013-03-15

    This experimental plan describes research being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in coordinatation with Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), Florida HERO, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to evaluate the impact of ventilation rate on interior moisture levels, temperature distributions, and indoor air contaminant concentrations. Specifically, the research team will measure concentrations of indoor air contaminants, ventilation system flow rates, energy consumption, and temperature and relative humidity in ten homes in Gainesville, FL to characterize indoor pollutant levels and energy consumption associated with the observed ventilation rates. PNNL and FSEC have collaboratively prepared this experimental test plan, which describes background and context for the proposed study; the experimental design; specific monitoring points, including monitoring equipment, and sampling frequency; key research questions and the associated data analysis approach; experimental logistics, including schedule, milestones, and team member contact information; and clearly identifies the roles and responsibilities of each team in support of project objectives.

  11. Electronic band structure and Kondo coupling in YbRh2Si2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigger, G.A.

    2010-04-15

    The electronic band structure of YbRh2Si2 is calculated in a relativistic framework including correlation corrections and magnetization of the Yb ion and compared to detailed angle-resolved photoemission spectra. The photoemission spectra for LuRh2Si2 are used as reference to identify electronic bands with no f symmetry. The calculated band structure manifests a 4f13 spin-polarized configuration leaving the unoccupied state at 1.4eV above the Fermi energy. At the band theory level, the 4f bands are located far below the Fermi level and the anisotropic Coulomb interaction within the 4f shell spreads the multilevel into broader 4f complexes below -2.5eV . The photoemission spectra obtained on YbRh2Si2 show a clear f -multilevel splitting into j=7/2 and 5/2 excitations. The interaction of the 4f7/2 levels close to the Fermi energy with two conduction bands shows visible hybridization gaps of 45 and 80meV, respectively. We discuss the origin of these excitations and provide an analysis according to Anderson's single-impurity model with parameters suggested by the band-structure calculation and the photoemission spectra. Both experiment and theory indicate nearly identical Fermi surfaces for LuRh2Si2 and YbRh2Si2 . The valency of Yb in YbRh2Si2 is estimated to be close to +3.

  12. Steam reforming of fast pyrolysis-derived aqueous phase oxygenates over Co, Ni, and Rh metals supported on MgAl2O4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xing, Rong; Dagle, Vanessa Lebarbier; Flake, Matthew; Kovarik, Libor; Albrecht, Karl O.; Deshmane, Chinmay; Dagle, Robert A.

    2016-02-03

    In this paper we examine the feasibility of steam reforming the mixed oxygenate aqueous fraction derived from fast pyrolysis bio-oils. Catalysts selective towards hydrogen formation and resistant to carbon formation utilizing feeds with relatively low steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratios are desired. Rh (5 wt%), Pt (5 wt%), Ru (5 wt%), Ir (5 wt%), Ni (15 wt%), and Co (15 wt%) metals supported on MgAl2O4 were evaluated for catalytic performance at 500 °C and 1 atm using a complex feed mixture comprising acids, polyols, cycloalkanes, and phenolic compounds. The Rh catalyst was found to be the most active and resistant to carbonmore » formation. The Ni and Co catalysts were found to be more active than the other noble metal catalysts investigated (Pt, Ru, and Ir).« less

  13. Kondo lattice and antiferromagnetic behavior in quaternary CeTAl4Si2 (T = Rh, Ir) single crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maurya, Arvind; Kulkarni, Ruta; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Paudyal, Durga; Dhar, Sudesh Kumar

    2016-02-26

    Here, we have explored in detail the anisotropic magnetic properties of CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2, which undergo two antiferromagnetic transitions, at TN1 = 12.6 and 15.5 K, followed by a second transition at TN2 = 9.4 and 13.8 K, respectively, with the [001]-axis as the relatively easy axis of magnetization. The electrical resistivity at ambient and applied pressure provides evidence of Kondo interaction in both compounds, further supported by a reduced value of the entropy associated with the magnetic ordering. The Sommerfeld coefficient γ is inferred to be 195.6 and 49.4 mJ/(mol K2) for CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2, respectively, classifying these materialsmore » as moderate heavy-fermion compounds. The crystal electric field energy levels are derived from the peak seen in the Schottky heat capacity. Furthermore, we have also performed electronic structure calculations by using the local spin density approximation + U [LSDA+U] approach, which provide physical insights on the observed magnetic behavior of these two compounds.« less

  14. Comparative Investigation of Benzene Steam Reforming over Spinel Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Albrecht, Karl O.; Kovarik, Libor; Flake, Matt; Dagle, Robert A.

    2013-06-07

    In a combined experimental and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) study, benzene steam reforming (BSR) over MgAl2O4 supported Rh and Ir catalysts was investigated. Experimentally, it has been found that both highly dispersed Rh and Ir clusters (1-2 nm) on the MgAl2O4 spinel support are stable during the BSR in the temperature range of 700-850°C. Compared to the Ir/MgAl2O4 catalyst, the Rh/MgAl2O4 catalyst is more active with higher benzene turnover frequency and conversion. At typical steam conditions with the steam-to-carbon ratio > 12, the benzene conversion is only a weak function of the H2O concentration in the feed. This suggests that the initial benzene decomposition step rather than the benzene adsorption is most likely the rate-determined step in BSR over supported Rh and Ir catalysts. In order to understand the differences between the two catalysts, we followed with a comparative DFT study of initial benzene decomposition pathways over two representative model systems for each supported metal (Rh and Ir) catalysts. A periodic terrace (111) surface and an amorphous 50-atom metal cluster with a diameter of 1.0 nm were used to represent the two supported model catalysts under low and high dispersion conditions. Our DFT results show that the decreasing catalyst particle size enhances the benzene decomposition on supported Rh catalysts by lowering both C-C and C-H bond scission. The activation barriers of the C-C and the C-H bond scission decrease from 1.60 and 1.61 eV on the Rh(111) surface to 1.34 and 1.26 eV on the Rh50 cluster. For supported Ir catalysts, the decreasing particle size only affects the C-C scission. The activation barrier of the C-C scission of benzene decreases from 1.60 eV on the Ir(111) surface to 1.35 eV on the Ir50 cluster while the barriers of the C-H scission are practically the same. The experimentally measured higher BSR

  15. Corrosion problems in Ti/KC1O/sub 4/ loaded devices when subjected to humid environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massis, T.M.; Healey, J.T.; Huskisson, D.H.; Perkins, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A piston motor/igniter loaded with a Ti/KClO/sub 4/ pyrotechnic and sealed with a silicone adhesive exhibited serious corrosion problems during aging. Five 24-hour thermal cycles between room temperature and 71/sup 0/C at 90% relative humidity resulted in extensive surface corrosion of the Kovar pins and severe stress corrosion cracking of the Kovar pins in the vicinity of the bridgewire weld. No corrosion or cracking of the Nichrome bridgewire was observed. Similar results were observed after 60 days at 50% and 90% relative humidity at room temperature. Tests at ambient relative humidity and room temperature caused limited surface corrosion and no observable cracking. It was determined that these problems resulted from the combined presence of chlorine containing contaminants and atmospheric moisture. Chlorine was detected in both the surface corrosion product and the corrosion product in the subsurface cracks. The absence of reaction and/or morphological alteration of the Ti/KClO/sub 4/ at the pyrotechnic interface with the Kovar indicated the pyrotechnic was not involved in the corrosion reaction, and, hence, the chlorine was present in the surface contamination on the Kovar pins. The aging tests indicate that external moisture was involved in the corrosion reaction. Calculation and experimentation have shown the silicone adhesive used to seal these devices to be permeable to water vapor, and the moisture conditions inside the devices equilibrated with external conditions within a few hours. Corrosion and cracking could be solved by eliminating the source of moisture by hermetically sealing the devices. Tests of hermetically sealed units have confirmed this conclusion.

  16. Behavior of trace and companion elements of ULC-IF steel grades during RH-treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jungreithmeier, A.; Viertauer, A.; Presslinger, H.

    1996-12-31

    A large number of metallurgical reactions are caused by lowering the partial pressure during vacuum treatment. One of these reactions is the volatilization of elements with high vapor pressure. The concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment mostly changes because of cooling scrap, deoxidation agents and ferro-alloy additions, slag/metal reactions, vaporization and also because of reactions with the RH-vessel lining. These changes in the concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment are exemplified for ULC-IF (ultra low carbon--interstitial free) steel grades. The elements which are considered are chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, vanadium, tin, zinc, lead, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen. Calculations of the theoretical equilibrium solubility using thermodynamic data--in dependence of pressure and temperature--correspond well with the values obtained during steel production operations. 67 refs.

  17. Origin of the smaller conductances of Rh, Pb, and Co atomic junctions in hydrogen environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xue; Chen, Mingyan; Ye, Xiang; Xie, Yi-qun; Ke, San-huang

    2015-02-14

    We study theoretically the structural and electronic origins of the smaller conductances (one conductance quantum, G{sub 0}, and smaller) of Rh, Pb, and Co metal atomic junctions (MAJs) in a hydrogen environment, as were measured in recent experiments. For the Rh MAJs, the 1G{sub 0} conductance is attributed to a stable contact bridged by a single hydrogen molecule whose antibonding state provides a single transport channel. For the Pb and Co MAJs the 1G{sub 0} conductance is, however, ascribed to a linear atomic chain adsorbing two dissociated H atoms, which largely reduces the density of states at the Fermi energy with respect to the pure ones. On the other hand, the small conductances of 0.3G{sub 0} (Rh) and 0.2G{sub 0} (Co) are due to H-decorated atomic chains connected to electrodes by a H atom.

  18. Electronic Band Structure And Kondo Coupling in YbRh(2)Si(2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigger, G.A.; Baumberger, F.; Shen, Z.X.; Yin, Z.P.; Pickett, W.E.; Maquilon, S.; Fisk, Z.; /UC, Davis

    2007-09-26

    The electronic band structure of YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is calculated in a relativistic framework including correlation corrections and magnetization of the Yb ion and compared to detailed angle-resolved photoemission spectra. The photoemission spectra for LuRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are used as reference to identify electronic bands with no f symmetry. The calculated band structure manifests a 4f{sup 13} spin-polarized configuration leaving the unoccupied state at 1.4 eV above the Fermi energy. At the band theory level, the 4f bands are located far below the Fermi level and the anisotropic Coulomb interaction within the 4f shell spreads the multilevel into broader 4f complexes below -2.5 eV. The photoemission spectra obtained on YbRh2Si2 show a clear f-multilevel splitting into j=7/2 and 5/2 excitations. The interaction of the 4f{sub 7/2} levels close to the Fermi energy with two conduction bands shows visible hybridization gaps of 45 and 80 meV, respectively. We discuss the origin of these excitations and provide an analysis according to Anderson's single-impurity model with parameters suggested by the band-structure calculation and the photoemission spectra. Both experiment and theory indicate nearly identical Fermi surfaces for LuRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. The valency of Yb in YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is estimated to be close to +3.

  19. CVEN 6960 master's project, investigation of a cooling coil in high humidity conditions. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloop, R.E.

    1993-12-10

    The primary purpose of this project is to validate the HVAC*2 Toolkit calculations for a cooling coil in high humidity conditions. A total of 19 experimental runs at different entering air temperature and humidity conditions were performed at the Joint Center for Energy Management HVAC Laboratory that exposed a cooling coil to temperature and humidity conditions that are typically found in the southern United States. The inlet conditions and manufacturer's coil rating data was used as input to the HVAC*2 Toolkit simple cooling coil subroutine (CCSIM). The predicted results from the toolkit were then compared to the experimental results.

  20. Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab

  1. Vapor phase ethanol carbonylation over Rh supported on zeolite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Applied Catalysis. A, General; Journal Volume: 520; Journal Issue: 06, 2016 Publisher: Elsevier Research Org: Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne ...

  2. Impact of Materials Processing on Microstructural Evolution and Hydrogen Isotope Storage Properties of Pd-Rh Alloy Powders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, Joshua K

    2015-02-01

    Cryomilled Pd - 10Rh was investiga ted as potential solid - state storage material of hydrogen. Pd - 10Rh was first atomized, and then subsequently cryomilled. The cryomilled Pd - 10Rh was then examined using microstructural characterization techniques including op tical microscopy, electron microscopy, and X - ray diffraction. Pd - 10Rh particles were significantly flattened, increasing the apparent surface area. Microstructural refinement was observed in the cryomilled Pd - 10Rh, generating grains at the nanom etric scale through dislocation - based activity. Hydrogen sorption properties were also characterized, generating both capacity as well as kinetics measurements. It was found that the microstructural refinement due to cryomilling did not play a significant role on hyd rogen sorption properties until the smallest grain size (on the order of %7E25 nm) was achieved. Additionally, the increased surface area and other changes in particle morphology were associated with cryomilling changed the kinetics of hydrogen absorption.

  3. Study on the Humidity Susceptibility of Thin-Film CIGS Absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Egaas, B.; To, B.; Jiang, C. S.; Li, J. V.; Glynn, S.; DeHart, C.

    2010-01-01

    The report summarizes the research on the susceptibility of a thermally co-evaporated CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) thin-film absorber to humidity and its consequence on composition, morphology, electrical and electronic properties, and device efficiency.

  4. High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  5. Expert Meeting: Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2013-07-01

    The topic of this Building America expert meeting was 'Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes,' which was held on October 16, 2012, in Westford, MA, and brought together experts in the field of residential humidity control to address modeling issues for dehumidification. The presentations and discussions centered on computer simulation and field experience with these systems, with the goal of developing foundational information to support the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic.

  6. Building America Expert Meeting: Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The topic of this Building America expert meeting was Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes,Ž which was held on October 16, 2012, in Westford, MA, and brought together experts in the field of residential humidity control to address modeling issues for dehumidification. The presentations and discussions centered on computer simulation and field experience with these systems, with the goal of developing foundational information to support the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic.

  7. Antiferromagnetic ordering in the doped Kondo insulator CeRhSb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, L.; Malik, S.K.

    1997-06-01

    CeRhSb, the so-called {open_quotes}Kondo insulator,{close_quotes} is a mixed-valent compound showing a gap formation in the electronic density of states. On the other hand, CePdSb is ferromagnetically ordered with a Curie temperature of {approximately}17 K. We have carried out magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity measurements on CeRh{sub 1{minus}x}Pd{sub x}Sb (0{le}x{le}1.0), to study the ground-state properties of this system. For small Pd doping in CeRhSb, up to 20{percent}, the gap continually diminishes and no magnetic ordering is observed down to 2 K. In the region 0.3{le}x{le}0.4, as soon as the gap is suppressed, an antiferromagnetic ground state is observed. In the region 0.5{le}x{lt}0.7, the compounds are not single phase. At the CePdSb end, in the region 0.7{le}x{le}1, the ground state is ferromagnetic. The observation of an antiferromagnetic phase in the phase diagram of CeRh{sub 1{minus}x}Pd{sub x}Sb, where neither end is antiferromagnetic, is interesting and is discussed in the light of some recent theoretical models. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Stable room-temperature ferromagnetic phase at the FeRh(100) surface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pressacco, Federico; Uhlir, Vojtech; Gatti, Matteo; Bendounan, Azzedine; Fullerton, Eric E.; Sirotti, Fausto

    2016-03-03

    Interfaces and low dimensionality are sources of strong modifications of electronic, structural, and magnetic properties of materials. FeRh alloys are an excellent example because of the first-order phase transition taking place at ~400 K from an antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature to a high temperature ferromagnetic one. It is accompanied by a resistance change and volume expansion of about 1%. We have investigated the electronic and magnetic properties of FeRh(100) epitaxially grown on MgO by combining spectroscopies characterized by different probing depths, namely X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, we find that the symmetry breaking induced at themore » Rh-terminated surface stabilizes a surface ferromagnetic layer involving five planes of Fe and Rh atoms in the nominally antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature. First-principles calculations provide a microscopic description of the structural relaxation and the electron spin-density distribution that support the experimental findings.« less

  9. Thermodynamics and superconductivity of Th7(Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir)3 system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, James L; Lashley, Jason C; Volz, Heather M; Fisher, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Expanding the temperature range of previous specific-heat measurements on the Th7(Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir)3 system, we measure the effect of transition-metal substitution on total entropy (S{sub 298 k}), electronic specific heat ({gamma}), and Debye temperature ({Theta}D). In addition we measure the pressure dependence, up to 10 kbar, of the superconducting transition.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

    1993-04-01

    The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ``near-reference`` with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed.

  11. Evaluating the Diurnal Cycle of Upper Tropospheric Humidity in Two Different Climate Models Using Satellite Observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kottayil, Ajil; John, Viju; Buehler, Stefan; Mohanakumar, Kesavapillai

    2016-04-13

    The diurnal cycle of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) is known to be influenced by such processes as convection and the formation of clouds which are parameterized in current global climate models. In this study, we evaluate the performance of two climate models, the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM-5) and the Global Atmosphere 3.0 (GA-3) model in simulating the diurnal cycle of UTH (represented by a combination of sinusoids of 12 and 24 h periods) by comparing with microwave and infrared (IR) measurements (where available). These comparisons were made over two convective land regions in South America and Africa, andmore » over oceanic regions in the Atlantic, Indian and West Pacific for the month of January 2007. We analyzed how the diurnal cycles from IR and microwave instruments differ, and the reason for the differences. Our study suggests that the differences in the diurnal cycles of IR and microwave UTH result from sampling differences due to the presence of clouds. Lastly, as noted by earlier studies, the models exhibit considerable discrepancies in diurnal amplitude and phase relative to observations, and these discrepancies have different magnitudes over land and ocean.« less

  12. Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity .gtoreq.10.sup.-4 (ohm-cm).sup.-1, and preferably .gtoreq.0.01 (ohm-cm).sup.-1. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag+ ions, as in Ag.sub.2 WO.sub.4.4AgI, or to F- ions, as in Ce.sub.0.95 Ca.sub.0.05 F.sub.2.95. Electrical contacts serve to connect the electrodes to potentiostating and detecting circuitry which controls the potential of the sensing electrode relative to the reference electrode, detects the signal generated by the sensor, and indicates the detected signal.

  13. Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity .gtoreq.10.sup.-4 (ohm-cm).sup.-1, and preferably .gtoreq.0.01 (ohm-cm).sup.-1. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag+ ions, as in Ag.sub.2 WO.sub.4.4AgI, or to F- ions, as in Ce.sub.0.95 Ca.sub.0.05 F.sub.2.95. Electrical contacts serve to connect the electrodes to potentiostating and detecting circuitry which controls the potential of the sensing electrode relative to the reference electrode, detects the signal generated by the sensor, and indicates the detected signal.

  14. Effects of Humidity During Formation of Zinc Oxide Electron Contact...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 31; Related Information: Organic Electronics; Journal ID: ISSN 1566-1199 Publisher: Elsevier Research Org: NREL (National Renewable ...

  15. The effect of Fe-Rh alloying on CO hydrogenation to C2+ oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palomino, Robert; Magee, Joseph W.; Llorca, Jordi; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; White, Michael G.

    2015-05-20

    A combination of reactivity and structural studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD), pair distribution function (PDF), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify the active phases of Fe-modified Rh/TiO2 catalysts for the synthesis of ethanol and other C2+ oxygenates from CO hydrogenation. XRD and TEM confirm the existence of Fe–Rh alloys for catalyst with 1–7 wt% Fe and ~2 wt% Rh. Rietveld refinements show that FeRh alloy content increases with Fe loading up to ~4 wt%, beyond which segregation to metallic Fe becomes favored over alloy formation. Catalysts that contain Fe metal after reduction exhibit some carburization as evidenced by the formation of small amounts of Fe3C during CO hydrogenation. Analysis of the total Fe content of the catalysts also suggests the presence of FeOx also increased under reaction conditions. Reactivity studies show that enhancement of ethanol selectivity with Fe loading is accompanied by a significant drop in CO conversion. Comparison of the XRD phase analyses with selectivity suggests that higher ethanol selectivity is correlated with the presence of Fe–Rh alloy phases. As a result, the interface between Fe and Rh serves to enhance the selectivity of ethanol, but suppresses the activity of the catalyst which is attributed to the blocking or modifying of Rh active sites.

  16. The effect of Fe-Rh alloying on CO hydrogenation to C2+ oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palomino, Robert; Magee, Joseph W.; Llorca, Jordi; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; White, Michael G.

    2015-05-20

    A combination of reactivity and structural studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD), pair distribution function (PDF), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify the active phases of Fe-modified Rh/TiO2 catalysts for the synthesis of ethanol and other C2+ oxygenates from CO hydrogenation. XRD and TEM confirm the existence of FeRh alloys for catalyst with 17 wt% Fe and ~2 wt% Rh. Rietveld refinements show that FeRh alloy content increases with Fe loading up to ~4 wt%, beyond which segregation to metallic Fe becomes favored over alloy formation. Catalysts that contain Fe metal after reduction exhibit some carburization as evidenced by the formation of small amounts of Fe3C during CO hydrogenation. Analysis of the total Fe content of the catalysts also suggests the presence of FeOx also increased under reaction conditions. Reactivity studies show that enhancement of ethanol selectivity with Fe loading is accompanied by a significant drop in CO conversion. Comparison of the XRD phase analyses with selectivity suggests that higher ethanol selectivity is correlated with the presence of FeRh alloy phases. As a result, the interface between Fe and Rh serves to enhance the selectivity of ethanol, but suppresses the activity of the catalyst which is attributed to the blocking or modifying of Rh active sites.

  17. 15.10.5 RH ECS Atwater - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JCAP's Harry Atwater on Critical Energy Issues (ECS Podcast) JCAP Director Harry Atwater in conversation with the Electrochemical Society's Executive Director Roque Calvo on the eve of the fifth international ECS Electrochemical Energy Summit. Related Link: ECS Blog (http://www.ecsblog.org/harry-atwater-on-critical-energy-issues/)

  18. Synthesis of few-walled carbon nanotube-Rh nanoparticles by arc discharge: Effect of selective oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Yanfeng

    2012-06-15

    Highly crystalline rhodium (Rh) nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes were prepared by selective oxidation method. Carbon nanotubes and FeRh nanoparticles were simultaneously generated in hydrogen arc plasma. The as-grown nanomaterials can be purified by heat treatment in open air and by soaking in HCl. X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction results reveal that as-grown FeRh nanoparticles have a typical chemical CsCl-type structure which can be transformed into a face-centered cubic structure by thermal annealing in the purification process. The purification process is selective toward the removal of the amorphous carbon coating the nanoparticles, and transforms Fe to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be easily dissolved in hydrochloric acid, leaving carbon nanotubes-Rh nanoparticles. Rh nanoparticles with diameters of 2-60 nm are deposited uniformly on the surface of the carbon nanotube bundles. This simple and selective chemistry offers a new process for synthesizing and controlling Fe content in carbon nanotube-FeRh nanoparticles. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-crystallinity CNTs and FeRh nanoparticles were simultaneously generated in arc plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The diameter distribution of CNTs depends on different gases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heat treatment in open air and soaking in HCl can convert CNTs-FeRh to CNTs-Rh. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The selective oxidation mechanisms of metal nanoparticles and carbon materials differ.

  19. Magnitude of the magnetic exchange interaction in the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Pinaki; Lin, S. -Z.; Ghimire, N. J.; Huang, K.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Batista, C. D.; Ehlers, G.; Janoschek, M.

    2014-12-08

    We have used high-resolution neutron spectroscopy experiments to determine the complete spin wave spectrum of the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn?. The spin wave dispersion can be quantitatively reproduced with a simple frustrated J?-J? model that also naturally explains the magnetic spin-spiral ground state of CeRhIn? and yields a dominant in-plane nearest-neighbor magnetic exchange constant J?=0.74(3) meV. Our results lead the way to a quantitative understanding of the rich low-temperature phase diagram of the prominent CeTIn? (T = Co, Rh, Ir) class of heavy-fermion materials.

  20. Magnitude of the magnetic exchange interaction in the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, Pinaki; Lin, S. -Z.; Ghimire, N. J.; Huang, K.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Batista, C. D.; Ehlers, G.; Janoschek, M.

    2014-12-08

    We have used high-resolution neutron spectroscopy experiments to determine the complete spin wave spectrum of the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn₅. The spin wave dispersion can be quantitatively reproduced with a simple frustrated J₁-J₂ model that also naturally explains the magnetic spin-spiral ground state of CeRhIn₅ and yields a dominant in-plane nearest-neighbor magnetic exchange constant J₀=0.74(3) meV. Our results lead the way to a quantitative understanding of the rich low-temperature phase diagram of the prominent CeTIn₅ (T = Co, Rh, Ir) class of heavy-fermion materials.

  1. X:\ARM_19~1\P273-281.WPD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RH c ) RH c RH c RH c Session Papers 273 Evaluation of Cloud Prediction and Determination of Critical Relative Humidity for a Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction Model N. L. Seaman, Z. Guo, and T. P. Ackerman Pennsylvania State University, Department of Meteorology University Park, Pennsylvania Predictions of cloud occurrence and vertical location from the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) were evaluated statistically

  2. Magnetism and superconductivity in U2PtxRh1?xC2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakeham, N.; Ni, Ni; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Tegtmeier, E.; Ronning, F.

    2015-01-09

    We report the phase diagram of the doping series U?PtxRh(1x)C?, studied through measurements of resistivity, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility. The Nel temperature of U?Rh?C? of ~ 22 K is suppressed with increasing Pt content, reaching zero temperature close to x = 0.7, where we observed signatures of increased quantum fluctuations. Additionally, evidence is presented that the antiferromagnetic state undergoes a spin-reorientation transition upon application of an applied magnetic field. This transition shows non-monotonic behavior as a function of x, peaking at around x = 0.3. Superconductivity is observed for x ? 0.9, with Tc increasing with increasing x. Themorereduction in Tc and increase in residual resistivity with decreasing Pt content is inconsistent with the extension of the Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory to unconventional superconductivity.less

  3. Magnetism and superconductivity in U?PtxRh(1x)C?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakeham, N.; Ni, Ni; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Tegtmeier, E.; Ronning, F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the phase diagram of the doping series U?PtxRh(1x)C?, studied through measurements of resistivity, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility. The Nel temperature of U?Rh?C? of ~ 22 K is suppressed with increasing Pt content, reaching zero temperature close to x = 0.7, where we observed signatures of increased quantum fluctuations. In addition, evidence is presented that the antiferromagnetic state undergoes a spin-reorientation transition upon application of an applied magnetic field. This transition shows non-monotonic behavior as a function of x, peaking at around x = 0.3. Superconductivity is observed for x ? 0.9, with Tc increasing with increasing x.moreThe reduction in Tc and increase in residual resistivity with decreasing Pt content is inconsistent with the extension of the Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory to unconventional superconductivity.less

  4. Direct Functionalization of Nitrogen Heterocycles via Rh-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Jared; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2008-02-04

    Nitrogen heterocycles are present in many compounds of enormous practical importance, ranging from pharmaceutical agents and biological probes to electroactive materials. Direct funtionalization of nitrogen heterocycles through C-H bond activation constitutes a powerful means of regioselectively introducing a variety of substituents with diverse functional groups onto the heterocycle scaffold. Working together, our two groups have developed a family of Rh-catalyzed heterocycle alkylation and arylation reactions that are notable for their high level of functional-group compatibility. This Account describes their work in this area, emphasizing the relevant mechanistic insights that enabled synthetic advances and distinguished the resulting transformations from other methods. They initially discovered an intramolecular Rh-catalyzed C-2-alkylation of azoles by alkenyl groups. That reaction provided access to a number of di-, tri-, and tetracyclic azole derivatives. They then developed conditions that exploited microwave heating to expedite these reactions. While investigating the mechanism of this transformation, they discovered that a novel substrate-derived Rh-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex was involved as an intermediate. They then synthesized analogous Rh-NHC complexes directly by treating precursors to the intermediate [RhCl(PCy{sub 3}){sub 2}] with N-methylbenzimidazole, 3-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolein, and 1-methyl-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-one. Extensive kinetic analysis and DFT calculations supported a mechanism for carbene formation in which the catalytically active RhCl(PCy{sub 3}){sub 2} fragment coordinates to the heterocycle before intramolecular activation of the C-H bond occurs. The resulting Rh-H intermediate ultimately tautomerizes to the observed carbene complex. With this mechanistic information and the discovery that acid co-catalysts accelerate the alkylation, they developed conditions that efficiently and intermolecularly alkylate a variety of

  5. Electronic structure of U2PtC2 and U2RhC2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronning, F.; Zhu, J. -X.

    2015-03-18

    In this study, we present density functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation of U2RhC2 and U2PtC2. We find the calculated density of states are significantly less than that measured by specific heat indicating the need for electronic correlations. The mass enhancement found for U2PtC2 is m*/mband ≈ 4.

  6. The valence band structure of Ag{sub x}Rh{sub 1–x} alloy nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Anli; Sakata, Osami; Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Yayama, Tomoe; Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Koyama, Michihisa; and others

    2014-10-13

    The valence band (VB) structures of face-centered-cubic Ag-Rh alloy nanoparticles (NPs), which are known to have excellent hydrogen-storage properties, were investigated using bulk-sensitive hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The observed VB spectra profiles of the Ag-Rh alloy NPs do not resemble simple linear combinations of the VB spectra of Ag and Rh NPs. The observed VB hybridization was qualitatively reproduced via a first-principles calculation. The electronic structure of the Ag{sub 0.5}Rh{sub 0.5} alloy NPs near the Fermi edge was strikingly similar to that of Pd NPs, whose superior hydrogen-storage properties are well known.

  7. Hydrogen sorption characteristics of nanostructured Pd–10Rh processed by cryomilling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Nancy; Yee, Joshua K.; Zhang, Zhihui; Kurmanaeva, Lilia; Cappillino, Patrick; Stavila, Vitalie; Lavernia, Enrique J.; San Marchi, Chris

    2014-10-03

    Palladium and its alloys are model systems for studying solid-state storage of hydrogen. Mechanical milling is commonly used to process complex powder systems for solid-state hydrogen storage; however, milling can also be used to evolve nanostructured powder to modify hydrogen sorption characteristics. In the present study, cryomilling (mechanical attrition milling in a cryogenic liquid) is used to produce nanostructured palladium-rhodium alloy powder. Characterization of the cryomilled Pd-10Rh using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and surface area analysis reveals that (i) particle morphology evolves from spherical to flattened disk-like particles; while the (ii) crystallite size decreases from several microns to less thanmore » 100 nm and (iii) dislocation density increases with increased cryomilling time. Hydrogen absorption and desorption isotherms as well as the time scales for absorption were measured for cryomilled Pd-10Rh, and correlated with observed microstructural changes induced by the cryomilling process. In short, as the microstructure of the Pd-10Rh alloy is refined by cryomilling: (i) the maximum hydrogen concentration in the α-phase increases, (ii) the pressure plateau becomes flatter, and (iii) the equilibrium hydrogen capacity at 760 Torr increases. In addition, the rate of hydrogen absorption was reduced by an order of magnitude compared to non-cryomilled (atomized) powder.« less

  8. Hydrogen sorption characteristics of nanostructured Pd10Rh processed by cryomilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Nancy; Yee, Joshua K.; Zhang, Zhihui; Kurmanaeva, Lilia; Cappillino, Patrick; Stavila, Vitalie; Lavernia, Enrique J.; San Marchi, Chris

    2014-10-03

    Palladium and its alloys are model systems for studying solid-state storage of hydrogen. Mechanical milling is commonly used to process complex powder systems for solid-state hydrogen storage; however, milling can also be used to evolve nanostructured powder to modify hydrogen sorption characteristics. In the present study, cryomilling (mechanical attrition milling in a cryogenic liquid) is used to produce nanostructured palladium-rhodium alloy powder. Characterization of the cryomilled Pd-10Rh using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and surface area analysis reveals that (i) particle morphology evolves from spherical to flattened disk-like particles; while the (ii) crystallite size decreases from several microns to less than 100 nm and (iii) dislocation density increases with increased cryomilling time. Hydrogen absorption and desorption isotherms as well as the time scales for absorption were measured for cryomilled Pd-10Rh, and correlated with observed microstructural changes induced by the cryomilling process. In short, as the microstructure of the Pd-10Rh alloy is refined by cryomilling: (i) the maximum hydrogen concentration in the ?-phase increases, (ii) the pressure plateau becomes flatter, and (iii) the equilibrium hydrogen capacity at 760 Torr increases. In addition, the rate of hydrogen absorption was reduced by an order of magnitude compared to non-cryomilled (atomized) powder.

  9. Direct evidence of anomalous interfacial magnetization in metamagnetic Pd doped FeRh thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bennett, S. P.; Ambaye, H.; Lee, H.; LeClair, P.; Mankey, G. J.; Lauter, V.

    2015-03-16

    Palladium doped iron rhodium is a magnetic material of significant interest for it’s close to room temperature magnetostructural phase transition from antiferromagnetic (AF) to ferromagnetic (FM) ordering. Here we report on the peculiarities of the magnetization distribution in thin films of FeRh(Pd) probed by Polarized Neutron Reflectometry. Remarkably, we’ve found thin interfacial regions with strong magnetization that have unique thermomagnetic properties as compared to the rest of the system. These regions exist at the top and bottom interfaces of the films while the central regions behave similarly to the bulk with a clear AF-FM order transition. Further we explore themore » impact of an additional Pt interlayer introduced in the middle of the FeRh(Pd) film and reveal that it serves to replicate the strong interfacial magnetization found at the top and bottom interfaces. In conclusion, these results are of great value both in understanding the fundamental physics of such an order transition, and in considering FeRh(Pd) for magnetic media and spintronics applications.« less

  10. Colloidally Synthesized Monodisperse Rh Nanoparticles Supported on SBA-15 for Size- and Pretreatment-Dependent Studies of CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grass, Michael E.; Joo, Sang Hoon; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-02-12

    A particle size dependence for CO oxidation over rhodium nanoparticles of 1.9-11.3 nm has been investigated and determined to be modified by the existence of the capping agent poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). The particles were prepared using a polyol reduction procedure with PVP as the capping agent. The Rh nanoparticles were subsequently supported on SBA-15 during hydrothermal synthesis to produce Rh/SBA-15 supported catalysts for size-dependent catalytic studies. CO oxidation by O{sub 2} at 40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2} was investigated over two series of Rh/SBA-15 catalysts: as-synthesized Rh/SBA-15 covering the full range of Rh sizes and the same set of catalysts after high temperature calcination and reduction. The turnover frequency at 443 K increases from 0.4 to 1.7 s{sup -1} as the particle size decreases from 11.3 to 1.9 nm for the as-synthesized catalysts. After calcination and reduction, the turnover frequency is between 0.1 and 0.4 s{sup -1} with no particle size dependence. The apparent activation energy for all catalysts is {approx}30 kcal mol{sup -1} and is independent of particle size and thermal treatment. Infrared spectroscopy of CO on the Rh nanoparticles indicates that the heat treatments used influence the mode of CO adsorption. As a result, the particle size dependence for CO oxidation is altered after calcination and reduction of the catalysts. CO adsorbs at two distinct bridge sites on as-synthesized Rh/SBA-15, attributable to metallic Rh(0) and oxidized Rh(I) bridge sites. After calcination and reduction, however, CO adsorbs only at Rh(0) atop sites. The change in adsorption geometry and oxidation activity may be attributable to the interaction between PVP and the Rh surface. This capping agent affect may open new possibilities for the tailoring of metal catalysts using solution nanoparticle synthesis methods.

  11. Fundamental Bulk/Surface Structure Photoactivity Relationships of Supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN Photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phivilay, Somphonh; Roberts, Charles; Puretzky, Alexander A; Domen, Kazunari Domen; Wachs, Israel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN photocatalyst was examined as a model nitride photocatalyst system to assist in the development of fundamental structure photoactivity relationships for UV activated water splitting. Surface characterization of the outermost surface layers by High Sensitivity-LEIS and High Resolution-XPS revealed for the first time that the GaN support consists of a GaOx outermost surface layer and a thin film of GaOxNy in the surface region. HR-XPS also demonstrates that the supported (Rh2-yCryO3) mixed oxide nanoparticles (NPs) exclusively consist of Cr+3 and Rh+3 cations and are surface enriched for the supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN photocatalyst. Bulk analysis by Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy show that the bulk molecular and electronic structures, respectively, of the GaN support are not perturbed by the deposition of the (Rh2-yCryO3) mixed oxide NPs. The function of the GaN bulk lattice is to generate photoexcited electrons/holes, with the electrons harnessed by the surface Rh+3 sites for evolution of H2 and the holes trapped at the Ga oxide/oxynitride surface sites for splitting of water and evolving O2. These new structure-photoactivity relationships for supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN also extend to the best performing visible light activated supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/(Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) photocatalyst.

  12. Microsoft Word - 06-1532dsm ltr to Zappe INL-CCP RH A-07-16 Report.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 2006 Mr. Steve Zappe, Project Leader Hazardous Waste Bureau New Mexico Environment Department 2905 Rodeo Park Drive East, Bldg. 1 Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505-6303 Subject: Audit Report A-07-16 for INL/CCP RH Waste Characterization Activities Dear Mr. Zappe: This letter transmits the Idaho National Laboratory /Central Characterization Project (INL/CCP) - Remote Handled (RH) Waste Characterization (Acceptable Knowledge and Visual Examination) Activities Audit A-07-16. The report contains the

  13. Steam Reforming of Ethylene Glycol over MgAl₂O₄ Supported Rh, Ni, and Co Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Xing, Rong; Albrecht, Karl O.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2015-11-25

    Steam reforming of ethylene glycol (EG) over MgAl₂O₄ supported metal (15 wt.% Ni, 5 wt.% Rh, and 15 wt.% Co) catalysts were investigated using combined experimental and theoretical methods. Compared to highly active Rh and Ni catalysts with 100% conversion, the steam reforming activity of EG over the Co catalyst is comparatively lower with only 42% conversion under the same reaction conditions (500°C, 1 atm, 119,000 h⁻¹, S/C=3.3 mol). However, CH₄ selectivity over the Co catalyst is remarkably lower. For example, by varying the gas hour space velocity (GHSV) such that complete conversion is achieved for all the catalysts, CH₄ selectivity for the Co catalyst is only 8%, which is much lower than the equilibrium CH₄ selectivity of ~ 24% obtained for both the Rh and Ni catalysts. Further studies show that varying H₂O concentration over the Co catalyst has a negligible effect on activity, thus indicating zero-order dependence on H₂O. These experimental results suggest that the supported Co catalyst is a promising EG steam reforming catalyst for high hydrogen production. To gain mechanistic insight for rationalizing the lower CH₃ selectivity observed for the Co catalyst, the initial decomposition reaction steps of ethylene glycol via C-O, O-H, C-H, and C-C bond scissions on the Rh(111), Ni(111) and Co(0001) surfaces were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Despite the fact that the bond scission sequence in the EG decomposition on the three metal surfaces varies, which leads to different reaction intermediates, the lower CH₄ selectivity over the Co catalyst, as compared to the Rh and Ni catalysts, is primarily due to the higher barrier for CH₄ formation. The higher S/C ratio enhances the Co catalyst stability, which can be elucidated by the facile water dissociation and an alternative reaction path to remove the CH species as a coking precursor via the HCOH formation. This work was financially supported by the United

  14. Catalytic Partial oxidation of n-Tetradecane Using Pyrochlores: Effect of Rh and Sr Substitution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, D.J.; Berry, D.A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Spivey, J.J.

    2008-07-31

    The catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) of transportation fuels into synthesis gas (H2 + CO) for fuel cells is complicated by the large quantities of aromatics and sulfur-containing compounds commonly found in these fuels. Traditional supported metal catalysts are easily poisoned by these species which adsorb strongly onto the electron-rich metal clusters. The use of noble metal and/or oxide based catalyst systems may offer higher activity and stability, but only if the metal can be bound into a thermally stable structure. To that end, Rh metal was substituted into the structure of a lanthanum zirconate (LZ) pyrochlore to give La2RhyZr(2 y)O(7-j,) (LRZ) to produce a strongly bound, well-dispersed metal which is active for CPOX. A second catalyst was prepared in which Sr was substituted for a portion of La in the LRZ structure, producing La(2 x)SrxRhyZr(2 y)O(7-j) (LSRZ). Each of these pyrochlore catalysts, including the unsubstituted LZ, were characterized and screened for activity in the CPOX of ntetradecane (TD), which is a surrogate for linear paraffins typical of diesel fuel. Results were compared to a commercial Rh/g-Al2O3 catalyst. X-ray diffraction patterns of both the LZ and LRZ showed that each had the cubic unit-cell pyrochlore structure. However, substitution of Sr resulted in a binary perovskite-pyrochlore phase with a defect SrZrO3 phase. Hydrogen pulse chemisorption and temperature programmed reduction studies confirmed that Rh metal was substituted into the structure of the LRZ and LSRZ, and was reducible. Activity screening with the CPOX of TD showed that the Rh substituted in both LRZ and LSRZ is able to retain activity-producing essentially equilibrium synthesis gas yields, as was the Rh/g-Al2O3. Temperature programmed oxidation experiments performed after the CPOX of TD demonstrated that the amount of carbon was quantitatively similar for each catalyst (roughly 0.3 gcarbon/gcatalyst after each run), with the exception of LSRZ, which had

  15. Understanding the Temperature and Humidity Environment Inside a PV Module (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation addresses moisture-driven degradation processes in PV modules and the conditions to use for accelerated stress testing. Here we show that by choosing humidity conditions that more closely match the use environment, one can minimize the uncertainty associated with moisture induced degradation modes.

  16. Expert Meeting. Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2013-07-01

    This meeting was held on October 16, 2012, in Westford, MA, and brought together experts in the field of residential humidity control to address modeling issues for dehumidification. The presentations and discussions centered on computer simulation and field experience with these systems, with the goal of developing foundational information to support the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic.

  17. The influence of nano-architectured CeOx supports in RhPd/CeO₂ for the catalytic ethanol steam reforming reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Divins, N. J.; Senanayake, S. D.; Casanovas, A.; Xu, W.; Trovarelli, A.; Llorca, J.

    2015-01-19

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction has been tested over RhPd supported on polycrystalline ceria in comparison to structured supports composed of nanoshaped CeO₂ cubes and CeO₂ rods tailored towards the production of hydrogen. At 650-700 K the hydrogen yield follows the trend RhPd/CeO₂-cubes > RhPd/CeO₂ -rods > RhPd/CeO₂- polycrystalline, whereas at temperatures higher than 800 K the catalytic performance of all samples is similar and close to the thermodynamic equilibrium. The improved performance of RhPd/CeO₂-cubes and RhPd/CeO₂ -rods for ESR at low temperature is mainly ascribed to higher water-gas shift activity and a strong interaction between the bimetallic - oxide support interaction. STEM analysis shows the existence of RhPd alloyed nanoparticles in all samples, with no apparent relationship between ESR performance and RhPd particle size. X-ray diffraction under operating conditions shows metal reorganization on {100} and {110} ceria crystallographic planes during catalyst activation and ESR, but not on {111} ceria crystallographic planes. The RhPd reconstructing and tuned activation over ceria nanocubes and nanorods is considered the main reason for better catalytic activity with respect to conventional catalysts based on polycrystalline ceria

  18. The influence of nano-architectured CeOx supports in RhPd/CeO₂ for the catalytic ethanol steam reforming reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Divins, N. J.; Senanayake, S. D.; Casanovas, A.; Xu, W.; Trovarelli, A.; Llorca, J.

    2015-01-19

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction has been tested over RhPd supported on polycrystalline ceria in comparison to structured supports composed of nanoshaped CeO₂ cubes and CeO₂ rods tailored towards the production of hydrogen. At 650-700 K the hydrogen yield follows the trend RhPd/CeO₂-cubes > RhPd/CeO₂ -rods > RhPd/CeO₂- polycrystalline, whereas at temperatures higher than 800 K the catalytic performance of all samples is similar and close to the thermodynamic equilibrium. The improved performance of RhPd/CeO₂-cubes and RhPd/CeO₂ -rods for ESR at low temperature is mainly ascribed to higher water-gas shift activity and a strong interaction between the bimetallic -more » oxide support interaction. STEM analysis shows the existence of RhPd alloyed nanoparticles in all samples, with no apparent relationship between ESR performance and RhPd particle size. X-ray diffraction under operating conditions shows metal reorganization on {100} and {110} ceria crystallographic planes during catalyst activation and ESR, but not on {111} ceria crystallographic planes. The RhPd reconstructing and tuned activation over ceria nanocubes and nanorods is considered the main reason for better catalytic activity with respect to conventional catalysts based on polycrystalline ceria« less

  19. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    optical characteristics on variations of the relative humidity Rh of air. The particle growth factor, which can be found as the ratio of radii corresponding to the same value of...

  20. Modified Version of High Efficiency Dehumidification System ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Relative Humidity (RH) control in DoD facilities and some of their comparative ... 2015 Houston, TX Comparative Baselines at DoD and Nationally Baseline for the ...

  1. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  2. Impacts of humidity and temperature on the performance of transparent conducting zinc oxide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granata, Jennifer E.; Yaklin, Melissa A.; Schneider, Duane Allen; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Norman, Kirsten

    2010-06-01

    The impact of humidity and temperature on a zinc oxide based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) was assessed under accelerated aging conditions. An in situ electroanalytical method was used to monitor the electrical properties for a conducting zinc oxide under controlled atmospheric (humidity, temperature and irradiation) conditions. A review of thin film photovoltaic (PV) literature has shown one major failure mode of cells/modules is associated with the ingress of water into modules in the field. Water contamination has been shown to degrade the performance of the TCO in addition to corroding interconnects and other conductive metals/materials associated with the module. Water ingress is particularly problematic in flexible thin film PV modules since traditional encapsulates such as poly(ethyl vinyl acetate) (EVA) have high water vapor transmission rates. The accelerated aging studies of the zinc oxide based TCOs will allow acceleration factors and kinetic parameters to be determined for reliability purposes.

  3. Comfort in High-Performance Homes in a Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poerschke, A.; Beach, R.

    2016-01-01

    IBACOS monitored 37 homes during the late summer and early fall of 2014 in a hot and humid climate to better understand indoor comfort conditions. These homes were constructed in the last several years by four home builders that offered a comfort and performance guarantee for the homes. The homes were located in one of four cities: Tampa, Florida; Orlando, Florida; Houston, Texas; and San Antonio, Texas. Temperature and humidity data were collected from the thermostat and each room of the house using small, battery-powered data loggers. To understand system runtime and its impact on comfort, supply air temperature also was measured on a 1-minute interval. Overall, the group of homes only exceeded a room-to-room temperature difference of 6 degrees Fahrenheit for 5% of the time.

  4. 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct highly energy-efficient homes, while addressing building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the hot-humid climate can build homes that achieve whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers.

  5. IEC Quality Assurance Task Group 5: UV, Temperature, and Humidity (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Bath, J.; Kohl, M.; Shioda, T.

    2014-03-01

    Taskgroup 5 (TG5) is concerned with a comparative aging standard incorporating factors including ultraviolet radiation, temperature, and humidity. Separate experiments are being conducted in support of a test standard via the regional sub-groups in Asia, Europe, and the United States. The authors will describe the objectives and timeline for TG5 as well as providing an update on the experiments in progress.

  6. 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, T. L.; Hefty, M. G.; Cole, P. C.; Adams, K.; Butner, R. S.; Ortiz, S. J.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-09-01

    This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct highly energy-efficient homes, while addressing building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the mixed-humid climate can build homes that achieve whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers.

  7. Improved Humidity Profiling by Combining Passive and Active Remote Sensors at the Southern Great Plains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improved Humidity Profiling by Combining Passive and Active Remote Sensors at the Southern Great Plains L. Bianco, D. Cimini, and F. Marzano Center of Excellence CETEMPS University of L'Aquila L'Aquila, Italy L. Bianco and E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado R. Ware Radiometrics Co. and University Consortium for Atmospheric Research

  8. The structure and reactivity of adsorbates on stepped Rh and Pt surfaces investigated by LEED, HREELS, TPD, XPS and STM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batteas, J.D. |

    1995-06-01

    Defects on surfaces such as steps play an important role in surface chemistry. In order to obtain an understanding of the influence of steps in surface chemical reactions, the structure and reactivity of small molecules (O{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}S, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) on atomically stepped surfaces of RH and Pt have been investigated. The detailed structures of CO and oxygen bonded to the Rh(110) surface were determined. The CO molecules bond near the short bridge sites with the CO molecular axis tilted approximately 24{degree} from the surface normal. Oxygen atoms are bound asymmetrically in the 3-fold fcc hollow-sites to the (111) facets of the steps. The interactions of CO and oxygen on the Rh(311) surface were examined. The reaction of CO with the ordered phases of O shows two distinct reaction channels, a low temperature reaction limited channel (200 K) and a high temperature diffusion limited channel (350 K). Models of the reaction geometry and dynamics are proposed. The thermal decomposition of ethylene was examined on the Rh(311) surface. The stable decomposition species (C{sub 2}H, CH and C{sub 2}) are formed near 300 K, approximately 100 K lower on the stepped Rh(311) than on the flatter Rh(111) surface. The formation of these species at lower temperatures is attributed to the stepped nature of the surface. Finally, in situ STM was used to examine surface structural changes of a stepped Pt(111) crystal under coadsorption of sulfur and CO. This is the first direct evidence for a new mechanism by which a surface covered with an unreactive, strongly chemisorbed overlayer can form new sites, for bonding and reactions to occur, by massive surface restructuring at the step edges. This new surface phenomenon answers some of the puzzles of metal surface catalysis and its implications are described. 278 refs.

  9. Unusual Kondo-hole effect and crystal-field frustration in Nd-doped CeRhIn

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    5 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Unusual Kondo-hole effect and crystal-field frustration in Nd-doped CeRhIn 5 Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on July 5, 2017 Title: Unusual Kondo-hole effect and crystal-field frustration in Nd-doped CeRhIn 5 Authors: Rosa, P. F. S. ; Oostra, A. ; Thompson, J. D. ; Pagliuso, P. G. ; Fisk, Z. Publication Date: 2016-07-05 OSTI Identifier: 1260297 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical

  10. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Impact of Exhaust-Only Ventilation on Radon and Indoor Humidity - A Field Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigg, Scott

    2014-09-01

    The study described here sought to assess the impact of exhaust-only ventilation on indoor radon and humidity in single-family homes that had been treated by the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP).

  11. Single to Multiquasiparticle Excitations in the Itinerant Helical Magnet CeRhIn5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stock, C.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Schmalzl, K.; Rodriguez, E. E.; Stunault, A.; Petrovic, C.

    2015-06-19

    Neutron scattering is used to measure the quantum spin fluctuations in CeRhIn5 - the parent material of the eXIn5 superconducting series. Out-of-plane spin fluctuations are gapped and localized in momentum, similar to the spin excitons in CeCoIn5. The in-plane fluctuations consist of sharp spin-wave excitations parameterized by a nearest neighbor exchange JRKKY =0.88 ± 0.05 meV that crossover to a temporally and spatially broad multiparticle spectrum with energies of ~ 2 × JRKKY . This continuum represents composite fluctuations that illustrate the breakdown of single magnons originating from the delicate energy balance between localized 4f and itinerant behavior in amore » heavy metal. The experiment therefore shows how quasiparticle behavior is changed by the close proximity of quantum criticality.« less

  12. Superconducting properties of Rh9In4S4 single crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Lin, Qisheng; Xie, Weiwei; Taufour, Valentin; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Miller, Gordon J.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2016-03-28

    The synthesis and crystallographic, thermodynamic, and transport properties of single crystalline Rh9In4S4 were studied. The resistivity, magnetization, and specific heat measurements all clearly indicate bulk superconductivity with a critical temperature, Tc~2.25 K. The Sommerfeld coefficient γ and the Debye temperature (ΘD) were found to be 34 mJ mol–1 K–2 and 217 K, respectively. The observed specific heat jump, ΔC/γTc=1.66, is larger than the expected BCS weak coupling value of 1.43. Ginzburg-Landau (GL) ratio of the low-temperature GL-penetration depth, λGL≈5750 Å, to the GL-coherence length, ξGL≈94 Å, is large: κ ~60. However, we observed a peak effect in the resistivity measurementmore » as a function of both temperature and magnetic field.« less

  13. Single to Multiquasiparticle Excitations in the Itinerant Helical Magnet CeRhIn5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stock, C.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Schmalzl, K.; Rodriguez, E. E.; Stunault, A.; Petrovic, C.

    2015-06-19

    Neutron scattering is used to measure the quantum spin fluctuations in CeRhIn5 - the parent material of the eXIn5 superconducting series. Out-of-plane spin fluctuations are gapped and localized in momentum, similar to the spin excitons in CeCoIn5. The in-plane fluctuations consist of sharp spin-wave excitations parameterized by a nearest neighbor exchange JRKKY =0.88 ± 0.05 meV that crossover to a temporally and spatially broad multiparticle spectrum with energies of ~ 2 × JRKKY . This continuum represents composite fluctuations that illustrate the breakdown of single magnons originating from the delicate energy balance between localized 4f and itinerant behavior in a heavy metal. The experiment therefore shows how quasiparticle behavior is changed by the close proximity of quantum criticality.

  14. Magnetism and superconductivity in U2PtxRh1-xC2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakeham, N.; Ni, Ni; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Tegtmeier, E.; Ronning, F.

    2015-01-09

    We report the phase diagram of the doping series U₂PtxRh(1–x)C₂, studied through measurements of resistivity, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility. The Néel temperature of U₂Rh₂C₂ of ~ 22 K is suppressed with increasing Pt content, reaching zero temperature close to x = 0.7, where we observed signatures of increased quantum fluctuations. Additionally, evidence is presented that the antiferromagnetic state undergoes a spin-reorientation transition upon application of an applied magnetic field. This transition shows non-monotonic behavior as a function of x, peaking at around x = 0.3. Superconductivity is observed for x ≥ 0.9, with Tc increasing with increasing x. Themore » reduction in Tc and increase in residual resistivity with decreasing Pt content is inconsistent with the extension of the Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory to unconventional superconductivity.« less

  15. Synthesis, NMR spectra, and structure of rhodium hydride complexes with Rh-Sn bonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krut'ko, B.P.; Permin, A.B.; Petrosyan, V.S.; Reutov, O.A.

    1985-06-20

    The authors study the hydride complexes using Sn 119 and H 1 NMR spectroscopy. The spectra were taken in a pulse mode on a Varian FT-80A spectrometer equipped with a wideband system at 29.66 and 79.54 MHz. The Sn 119 and H 1 NMR spectral parameters for a solution of the complex (Bu/sub 4/N)/sub 3/ (HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/) in CD/sub 3/CN are shown, the spectra show that the (HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/)/sup 3 -/ anion has octahedral structure with four equatorial and one axial Rh-Sn bonds. New rhodium hydride complexes with general formula (R/sub 4/N)/sub 3/(HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/) were synthesized.

  16. ?ot8rh QI ahnloal Corporation In Hart IUnover, Ma86rohusett8,

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    GE 1 ;" qr)-1 s?llq ' p raspy.. c" ifa K. mris I talked with Hr. Wllllm cIF(Iy, Metrllurgist, Wnlon CarbId@ Nuclear cOrp8ny, 08k B&t&$@, Tenne66ee, on April 26, 1961. He informed me th&t the #rtioMl Northern birislon, Ame~ic6.n ?ot8rh QI ahnloal Corporation In Hart IUnover, Ma86rohusett8, la pePfopn1~ lo8lve forming studier for the. ilnion olo)w Wuolem Conpmy "p l7?JHa). The work at National Northern l#rirc.- alon ir under the 6upenl6lon of Ehsll Phillpohuc4~, v of

  17. Evaluation of the Performance of Houses With and Without Supplemental Dehumidification in a Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.; Norton, P.

    2014-10-01

    This report, Evaluation of the Performance of Houses with and without Supplemental Dehumidification in a Hot-Humid Climate, describes a research study that that was conducted by the Building Science Corporation (BSC) Building America Research Team. BSC seeks to research and report on the field monitoring of the performance of in-situ supplemental dehumidification systems in low energy, high performance, homes in a Hot-Humid climate. The purpose of this research project was to observe and compare the humidity control performance of new, single family, low energy, and high performance, homes. Specifically, the study sought to compare the interior conditions and mechanical systems operation between two distinct groups of houses, homes with a supplemental dehumidifier installed in addition to HVAC system, and homes without any supplemental dehumidification. The subjects of the study were ten single-family new construction homes in New Orleans, LA.Data logging equipment was installed at each home in 2012. Interior conditions and various end-use loads were monitored for one year. In terms of averages, the homes with dehumidifiers are limiting elevated levels of humidity in the living space. However, there was significant variation in humidity control between individual houses. An analysis of the equipment operation did not show a clear correlation between energy use and humidity levels. In general, no single explanatory variable appears to provide a consistent understanding of the humidity control in each house. Indoor humidity is likely due to all of the factors we have examined, and the specifics of how they are used by each occupant.

  18. X:\ARM_19~1\P225-243.WPD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SO 2 4 0.5 F T (1 A c )T 2 (1 R s ) 2 RH r SO 2 4 (RH) SO 2 4 x F(RH)] SO 2 SO 2 ) F T A c (1 A c ) R s RH r SO 2 4 (RH) SO 2 4 SO 2 SO 2 , SO 2 SO 2 Session Papers 231 (1) Direct Shortwave Forcing of Climate by Anthropogenic Sulfate Aerosol: Sensitivity to Particle Size, Composition, and Relative Humidity S. Nemesure, R. Wagener, and S. E. Schwartz Environmental Chemistry Division Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York Recent estimates of global- or hemispheric-average forcing = the

  19. Energy Retrofit Field Study and Best Practices in a Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIlvaine, K.; Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

    2013-03-01

    Energy efficiency improvement as a component of comprehensive renovation was investigated under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC). Researchers at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) worked with affordable housing partners renovating foreclosed homes built from the 1950's through the 2000's in the hot-humid climate (within the Southern census region), primarily in Florida. Researchers targeted a 30% improvement in whole-house energy efficiency along with the health and safety, durability, and comfort guidelines outlined in DOE's Builders Challenge Program (Version 1) Quality Criteria.

  20. Relative Hazard and Risk Measure Calculation Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Elder, Matthew S.

    2004-03-20

    The relative hazard (RH) and risk measure (RM) methodology and computer code is a health risk-based tool designed to allow managers and environmental decision makers the opportunity to readily consider human health risks (i.e., public and worker risks) in their screening-level analysis of alternative cleanup strategies. Environmental management decisions involve consideration of costs, schedules, regulatory requirements, health hazards, and risks. The RH-RM tool is a risk-based environmental management decision tool that allows managers the ability to predict and track health hazards and risks over time as they change in relation to mitigation and cleanup actions. Analysis of the hazards and risks associated with planned mitigation and cleanup actions provides a baseline against which alternative strategies can be compared. This new tool allows managers to explore “what if scenarios,” to better understand the impact of alternative mitigation and cleanup actions (i.e., alternatives to the planned actions) on health hazards and risks. This new tool allows managers to screen alternatives on the basis of human health risk and compare the results with cost and other factors pertinent to the decision. Once an alternative or a narrow set of alternatives are selected, it will then be more cost-effective to perform the detailed risk analysis necessary for programmatic and regulatory acceptance of the selected alternative. The RH-RM code has been integrated into the PNNL developed Framework for Risk Analysis In Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) to allow the input and output data of the RH-RM code to be readily shared with the more comprehensive risk analysis models, such as the PNNL developed Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) model.

  1. Field Testing Unvented Roofs with Asphalt Shingles in Cold and Hot-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Kohta; Lstiburek, Joseph W.

    2015-09-01

    Test houses with unvented roof assemblies were built to measure long-term moisture performance, in the Chicago area (5A) and the Houston area (2A). The Chicago-area test bed had seven experimental rafter bays, including a control vented compact roof, and six unvented roof variants with cellulose or fiberglass insulation. The interior was run at 50% RH. The Houston-area roof was an unvented attic insulated with spray-applied fiberglass. Most ridges and hips were built with a diffusion vent detail, capped with vapor permeable roof membrane. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions at the roof peak in wintertime, but during the summer, RHs and MCs were higher than the unvented roof (albeit in the safe range).

  2. Field Testing Unvented Roofs with Asphalt Shingles in Cold and Hot-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Kohta; Lstiburek, Joseph W.

    2015-09-01

    Insulating roofs with dense-pack cellulose (instead of spray foam) has moisture risks, but is a lower cost approach. If moisture risks could be addressed, buildings could benefit from retrofit options, and the ability to bring HVAC systems within the conditioned space. Test houses with unvented roof assemblies were built to measure long-term moisture performance, in the Chicago area (5A) and the Houston area (2A). The Chicago-area test bed had seven experimental rafter bays, including a control vented compact roof, and six unvented roof variants with cellulose or fiberglass insulation. The interior was run at 50% RH. All roofs except the vented cathedral assembly experienced wood moisture contents and RH levels high enough to constitute failure. Disassembly at the end of the experiment showed that the unvented fiberglass roofs had wet sheathing and mold growth. In contrast, the cellulose roofs only had slight issues, such as rusted fasteners and sheathing grain raise. The Houston-area roof was an unvented attic insulated with spray-applied fiberglass. Most ridges and hips were built with a diffusion vent detail, capped with vapor permeable roof membrane. Some ridge sections were built as a conventional unvented roof, as a control. In the control unvented roofs, roof peak RHs reached high levels in the first winter; as exterior conditions warmed, RHs quickly fell. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions at the roof peak in wintertime, but during the summer, RHs and MCs were higher than the unvented roof (albeit in the safe range).

  3. Direct shortwave forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol: Sensitivity to particle size, composition, and relative humidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemesure, S.; Wagener, R.; Schwartz, S.E.

    1996-04-01

    Recent estimates of global or hemispheric average forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol due to scattering of shortwave radiation are uncertain by more than a factor of 2. This paper examines the sensitivity of forcing to these microphysical properties for the purposes of obtaining a better understanding of the properties required to reduce the uncertainty in the forcing.

  4. Evaluation of cloud prediction and determination of critical relative humidity for a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, N.L.; Guo, Z.; Ackerman, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    Predictions of cloud occurrence and vertical location from the Pennsylvannia State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) were evaluated statistically using cloud observations obtained at Coffeyville, Kansas, as part of the Second International satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment campaign. Seventeen cases were selected for simulation during a November-December 1991 field study. MM5 was used to produce two sets of 36-km simulations, one with and one without four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA), and a set of 12-km simulations without FDDA, but nested within the 36-km FDDA runs.

  5. Appropriate conservation measures for single-family buildings in hot, humid climates. [DOE-2. 1B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLain, H.A.; MacDonald, J.M.; Goldenberg, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of a number of energy conservation measures for homes located in hot, humid climates was analyzed using the DOE-2.1B building simulation model. Measures having the greatest benefits to the homeowner are predicted to be the addition of ceiling insulation only if the house is not already insulated, weatherization, and reduction of the wall outer surface solar absorptance. The weatherization and solar absorptance reduction measures should be do-it-yourself installations to be cost-effective. Replacement of an air-conditioning unit with a new high-efficiency unit was very effective in reducing peak demand and annual cooling energy. Unless the energy efficiency ratio of the existing unit is low (<6), replacement is generally not cost-effective. The measures were predicted to result in slightly increased indoor humidities, but their effect on human comfort was predicted to be small. However, this conclusion should be considered preliminary since the simulation models used for these predictions have limitations. The amount of energy that can be saved by these measures is very dependent on the occupant's lifestyle, such as the degree to which the occupants will alter clothing to achieve comfort. 15 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Approaches to 30% Energy Savings at the Community Scale in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas-Rees, S.; Beal, D.; Martin, E.; Fonorow, K.

    2013-03-01

    BA-PIRC has worked with several community-scale builders within the hot humid climate zone to improve performance of production, or community scale, housing. Tommy Williams Homes (Gainesville, FL), Lifestyle Homes (Melbourne, FL), and Habitat for Humanity (various locations, FL) have all been continuous partners of the BA Program and are the subjects of this report to document achievement of the Building America goal of 30% whole house energy savings packages adopted at the community scale. The scope of this report is to demonstrate achievement of these goals though the documentation of production-scale homes built cost-effectively at the community scale, and modeled to reduce whole-house energy use by 30% in the Hot Humid climate region. Key aspects of this research include determining how to evolve existing energy efficiency packages to produce replicable target savings, identifying what builders' technical assistance needs are for implementation and working with them to create sustainable quality assurance mechanisms, and documenting the commercial viability through neutral cost analysis and market acceptance. This report documents certain barriers builders overcame and the approaches they implemented in order to accomplish Building America (BA) Program goals that have not already been documented in previous reports.

  7. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  8. Building for the Pacific Rim Countries. Energy-efficient building strategies for hot, humid climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheinkopf, K.

    1991-09-01

    This book has been published by the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), the US trade association of the solar thermal, photovoltaic, and passive solar manufacturers, distributors, and component suppliers. Its purpose is to help architects, builders, and developers construct energy-efficient homes in hot humid climates like the Pacific Rim Countries, and to allow occupants of these homes to enjoy enhanced comfort without reliance on mechanical air-conditioning systems. Two important factors are addressed in this book. First, the past few years have seen a tremendous increase in practical applications of new research. The current popularity of ceiling paddle fans, attic radiant barriers and natural daylighting attest to the importance of keeping up with the latest concepts in energy-reduction and comfort-awareness. Professionals who have been in the field for the past few years may be unaware of the latest research findings--some of which dramatically alter prior thinking on such subjects as natural ventilation or mechanical air conditioning. The second factor is the importance of site-specific characteristics, which greatly affect building strategies and designs. A thorough understanding of the climate is a prerequisite to good building design. Such factors as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation must be understood and properly integrated into the design for the home to be truly energy-efficient.

  9. HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder, Houston, Texas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  10. Effects of Photovoltaic Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, Peter; Burton, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spataru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen; Terwilliger, Kent

    2015-06-14

    The sheet resistance of three soil types (Arizona road dust, soot, and sea salt) on glass were measured by the transmission line method as a function of relative humidity (RH) between 39% and 95% at 60 degrees C. Sea salt yielded a 3.5 orders of magnitude decrease in resistance on the glass surface when the RH was increased over this RH range. Arizona road dust showed reduced sheet resistance at lower RH, but with less humidity sensitivity over the range tested. The soot sample did not show significant resistivity change compared to the unsoiled control. Photovoltaic modules with sea salt on their faces were step-stressed between 25% and 95% RH at 60 degrees C applying -1000 V bias to the active cell circuit. Leakage current from the cell circuit to ground ranged between two and ten times higher than that of the unsoiled controls. Degradation rate of modules with salt on the surface increased with increasing RH and time.

  11. Effects of PV Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, Peter; Burton, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spartaru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen; Terwilliger, Kent

    2015-12-03

    The sheet resistance of three soil types (Arizona road dust, soot, and sea salt) on glass were measured by the transmission line method as a function of relative humidity (RH) between 39% and 95% at 60 degrees C. Sea salt yielded a 3.5 order of magnitude decrease in resistance on the glass surface when the RH was increased over this RH range. Arizona road dust showed reduced sheet resistance at lower RH, but with less humidity sensitivity over the range tested. The soot sample did not show significant resistivity change compared to the unsoiled control. Photovoltaic modules with sea salt on their faces were step-stressed between 25% and 95% RH at 60 degrees C applying -1000 V bias to the active cell circuit. Leakage current from the cell circuit to ground ranged between two and ten times higher than that of the unsoiled controls. Degradation rate of modules with salt on the surface increased with increasing RH and time.

  12. Synthesis and crystal structure of two new cerium rhodium oxides: Ce{sub 2/3-x}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x{approx}0.12) with Ce mixed valency and Ce{sup 4+}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Zakharov, L.N.; Bhuvanesh, N.S.P.; Sleight, A.W.; Subramanian, M.A.

    2011-06-15

    The new compounds Ce{sub 2/3-x}Rh{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x{approx}0.11-0.14) and CeRh{sub 2}O{sub 5} have been prepared. Their structures were determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Electrical and magnetic properties were also evaluated. Based on the structural analysis and physical properties, oxidation states for CeRh{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be assigned as Ce{sup 4+}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 5}. A small variation in x was detected for Ce{sub 2/3-x}Rh{sub 2}O{sub 4} indicating a formula ranging from Ce{sup 3.64+}{sub 0.55}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 4} to Ce{sup 3.81+}{sub 0.525}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Graphical abstract: The new compounds Ce{sub 2/3-x}Rh{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x{approx}0.11-0.14) and CeRh{sub 2}O{sub 5} have been prepared and their structures were determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Electrical and magnetic properties were also evaluated. Highlights: > The new compounds CeRh{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ce{sub 2/3-x}Rh{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x{approx}0.11-0.14) have been prepared. > Their structures were determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. > Valence picture is Ce{sup 4+}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ce{sup 3.64+}{sub 0.55}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 4} to Ce{sup 3.81+}{sub 0.525}Rh{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  13. Ternary Pt/Rh/SnO2 Electrocatalysts for Oxidizing Ethanol to CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowal, A.; Li, M; Shao, M; Sasaki, K; Vukmirovic, M; Zhang, J; Marinkovic, N; Liu, P; Frenkel, A; Adzic, R

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol, with its high energy density, likely production from renewable sources and ease of storage and transportation, is almost the ideal combustible for fuel cells wherein its chemical energy can be converted directly into electrical energy. However, commercialization of direct ethanol fuel cells has been impeded by ethanol's slow, inefficient oxidation even at the best electrocatalysts1, 2. We synthesized a ternary PtRhSnO2/C electrocatalyst by depositing platinum and rhodium atoms on carbon-supported tin dioxide nanoparticles that is capable of oxidizing ethanol with high efficiency and holds great promise for resolving the impediments to developing practical direct ethanol fuel cells. This electrocatalyst effectively splits the C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acid solutions, facilitating its oxidation at low potentials to CO2, which has not been achieved with existing catalysts. Our experiments and density functional theory calculations indicate that the electrocatalyst's activity is due to the specific property of each of its constituents, induced by their interactions. These findings help explain the high activity of Pt-Ru for methanol oxidation and the lack of it for ethanol oxidation, and point to the way to accomplishing the C-C bond splitting in other catalytic processes.

  14. Ternary Pt/Rh/SnO2 Electrocatalysts for Oxidizing Ethanol to CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, R.R.; Kowal, A.; Li, M.; Shao, M.; Sasaki, K.; Vukmirovic, M.B.; Zhang, J.; Marinkovic, N.S. Liu, P.; Frenkel, A.I.

    2009-04-01

    Ethanol, with its high energy density, likely production from renewable sources and ease of storage and transportation, is almost the ideal combustible for fuel cells wherein its chemical energy can be converted directly into electrical energy. However, commercialization of direct ethanol fuel cells has been impeded by ethanol's slow, inefficient oxidation even at the best electrocatalysts. We synthesized a ternary PtRhSnO{sub 2}/C electrocatalyst by depositing platinum and rhodium atoms on carbon-supported tin dioxide nanoparticles that is capable of oxidizing ethanol with high efficiency and holds great promise for resolving the impediments to developing practical direct ethanol fuel cells. This electrocatalyst effectively splits the C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acid solutions, facilitating its oxidation at low potentials to CO{sub 2}, which has not been achieved with existing catalysts. Our experiments and density functional theory calculations indicate that the electrocatalyst's activity is due to the specific property of each of its constituents, induced by their interactions. These findings help explain the high activity of Pt-Ru for methanol oxidation and the lack of it for ethanol oxidation, and point to the way to accomplishing the C-C bond splitting in other catalytic processes.

  15. Mechanistic aspects of [Rh(nbd)CI][sub 2]initiated oligomerization of new acetylenic monomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Densmore, C.G. (Crystal G); Rasmussen, P.G. (Paul G.)

    2004-01-01

    Although a number of papers report the use of rhodium-based initiators, very little has been said about the mechanism of acetylene polymerizations. Kishimoto and coworkers recently proposed an insertion mechanism for the rhodium-initiated polymerization of phenylacetylenes. The initiator consisted of the tetracoordinate rhodium complex, Rh(C{triple_bond}CC{sub 6}H{sub 5})(nbd)(PPh{sub 3}) with 4-(dimethylamino)-pyidine. The product was found to be stereoregular poly(phenylacety1ene) with a cis-transoidal backbone microstructure. Gorman and coworkers found palladium and nickel-based catalysts to be successful in the polymerization of cyanoacetylene. Zhan and Yang addressed the polymerization mechanism of acetylenes using palladium and nickel acetylide catalysts. They propose that the initial activation step, and also the rate-determining step, involve coordination of a nickel or palladium acetylide catalyst with an acetylene. Based on NMR and elemental analysis, we propose a more complete mechanistic picture of acetylene polymerizations, especially those with electron-withdrawing substituents.

  16. Magnetism and superconductivity in U?PtxRh(1x)C?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakeham, N.; Ni, Ni; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Tegtmeier, E.; Ronning, F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the phase diagram of the doping series U?PtxRh(1x)C?, studied through measurements of resistivity, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility. The Nel temperature of U?Rh?C? of ~ 22 K is suppressed with increasing Pt content, reaching zero temperature close to x = 0.7, where we observed signatures of increased quantum fluctuations. In addition, evidence is presented that the antiferromagnetic state undergoes a spin-reorientation transition upon application of an applied magnetic field. This transition shows non-monotonic behavior as a function of x, peaking at around x = 0.3. Superconductivity is observed for x ? 0.9, with Tc increasing with increasing x. The reduction in Tc and increase in residual resistivity with decreasing Pt content is inconsistent with the extension of the Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory to unconventional superconductivity.

  17. Excited states in {sup 115}Pd populated in the {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 115}Rh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurpeta, J.; Plochocki, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Urban, W. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue J. Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Rissanen, J.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Moore, I. D.; Penttilae, H.; Saastamoinen, A.; Weber, C.; Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40351, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Elomaa, V.-V. [Turku PET Centre, Accelerator Laboratory, Abo Akademi University, FIN-20500 Turku (Finland); Rahaman, S. [Physics Division, P-23, Mail Stop H803, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Sonoda, T. [Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Szerypo, J. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Excited states in {sup 115}Pd, populated following the {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 115}Rh have been studied by means of {gamma} spectroscopy after the Penning-trap station at the IGISOL facility, University of Jyvaeskylae. The 1/2{sup +} spin and parity assignment of the ground state of {sup 115}Pd, confirmed in this work, may indicate a transition to an oblate shape in Pd isotopes at high neutron number.

  18. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the concrete-shielded RH TRU drum for the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.J.

    1998-03-31

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to a solid waste storage facility on the Hanford Site.

  19. The Role of Ir in Ternary Rh-Based Catalysts for Syngas Conversion to C2+ Oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Jaffe, John E.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Mei, Donghai; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gray, Michel J.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2012-07-09

    Transition metal modified Rh-catalysts can be used for converting syngas (CO+H2) into C2+ oxygenates. It has been found that Mn has a favorable effect in the selectivity towards oxygenates, while addition of Ir to the binary Rh-Mn catalysts significantly increases the space-time yield of C2+ oxygenates. In this paper, we use quantum mechanical calculations to investigate the distribution of promoter sites within Rh rich nanoparticles and their role in the conversion of syngas towards ethanol. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated by Battelle for the DOE under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830. A portion of the research was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national science user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research located at PNNL.

  20. Investigation of the physical properties of the tetragonal CeMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt) compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ghimire, N. J.; Ronning, F.; Williams, D. J.; Scott, B. L.; Luo, Yongkang; Thompson, J. D.; Bauer, E. D.

    2014-12-15

    The synthesis, crystal structure and physical properties studied by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetic, thermal and transport measurements of CeMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt) are reported, along with the electronic structure calculations for LaMAl4Si2 (M = Rh, Ir, Pt). These materials adopt a tetragonal crystal structure (space group P4/mmm) comprised of BaAl4 blocks, separated by MAl2 units, stacked along the c-axis. Both CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2 order antiferromagnetically below TN1 = 14 and 16 K, respectively, and undergo a second antiferromagnetic transitition at lower temperature (TN2 = 9 and 14 K, respectively). CePtAl4Si2 orders ferromagnetically below TC = 3 Kmore » with an ordered moment of μsat = 0.8 μB for a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the c-axis. Electronic structure calculations reveal quasi-2D character of the Fermi surface.« less

  1. Features of conduction mechanisms in n-HfNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with a Rh acceptor impurity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romaka, V. A.; Rogl, P.; Stadnyk, Yu. V.; Romaka, V. V.; Hlil, E. K.; Krajovskii, V. Ya.; Horyn, A. M.

    2013-09-15

    The crystal structure and electron-density distribution, as well as the energy, kinetic, and magnetic characteristics of n-HfNiSn intermetallic semiconductor heavily doped with a Rh acceptor impurity in the temperature range T = 80-400 K, in the acceptor-concentration range N{sub A}{sup Rh} Almost-Equal-To 9.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19}-1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} (x = 0.005-0.10), and in magnetic fields H {<=} 10 kG are investigated. It is established that doping is accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in concentration, the elimination of donor-type structural defects (to x Almost-Equal-To 0.02), and an increase in the concentration of acceptor-type structural defects (0 < x {<=} 0.10). The dependence of the degree of semiconductor compensation on temperature is revealed. A model of the spatial arrangement of atoms in HfNi{sub 1-x}Rh{sub x}Sn is proposed, and the results of calculating the electron structure based on this model agree with the results of investigations of the kinetic and magnetic characteristics of the semiconductor. The results are discussed within the context of the Shklovskii-Efros model for a heavily doped and compensated semiconductor.

  2. Evaluation and performance of the special wasteform lysimeters at a humid site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblath, S B; Hoeffner, S L

    1985-09-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory has been evaluating the leaching/migration behavior of commercial power reactor wasteforms by the use of lysimeters operated under field conditions at a humid site. These lysimeters model the conditions in actual burial trenches. Wasteforms comprising Portland cement, masonry cement, and vinyl ester-styrene polymer wasteforms were emplaced in the lysimeters in March 1982. Effluent water has been analyzed on a regular basis since that time. Cs-137, Sr-90, and/or Co-60 have observed in the effluent water from the lysimeters, as well as in soil moisture samples collected from the unsaturated zone beneath the wasteforms. In March of 1984, horizontal cores were taken from one of the lysimeters containing a Portland cement wasteform to determine the vertical and radial profiles of radionuclides which might not have reached the lysimeter sump. Results from all of these sampling methods are discussed and interpreted. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Efficient Multifamily Homes in a Hot Humid Climate by Atlantic Housing Partners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaser, Dave; Martin, Eric

    2013-04-01

    With assistance from the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and its Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Atlantic Housing Partners (AHP) has implemented a high performance, systems engineered package of measures. This report demonstrates how the initiative achieves Building America (BA) goals of 30%-50% energy savings. Specifically, the goals are documented as being achieved in the new construction multifamily housing sector in the hot humid climate. Results from energy modeling of the high performance package are presented. The role of utility allowance calculations, used as part of the low-income housing tax credit process, to value those energy savings is discussed, as is customer satisfaction with heat pump water heaters.

  4. Efficient Multifamily Homes in a Hot-Humid Climate by Atlantic Housing Partners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chasar, D.; Martin, E.

    2013-04-01

    With assistance from the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and its Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Atlantic Housing Partners (AHP) has implemented a high performance, systems engineered package of measures. This report demonstrates how the initiative achieves Building America (BA) goals of 30%-50% energy savings. Specifically, the goals are documented as being achieved in the new construction multifamily housing sector in the hot humid climate. Results from energy modeling of the high performance package are presented. The role of utility allowance calculations, used as part of the low-income housing tax credit process, to value those energy savings is discussed, as is customer satisfaction with heat pump water heaters.

  5. Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Magee, A.; Zoeller, W.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.

  6. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, E.

    2014-01-01

    The DOE Building America program has been conducting research leading to cost effective high performance homes since the early 1990's. Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this white paper is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  7. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FOR HOT AND HUMID CLMATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01

    The U-tube sizes and varied thermal conductivity with different grout materials are studied based on the benchmark residential building in Hot-humid Pensacola, Florida. In this study, the benchmark building is metered and the data is used to validate the simulation model. And a list of comparative simulation cases with varied parameter value are simulated to study the importance of pipe size and grout to the ground source heat pump energy consumption. The simulation software TRNSYS [1] is employed to fulfill this task. The results show the preliminary energy saving based on varied parameters. Future work needs to be conducted for the cost analysis, include the installation cost from contractor and materials cost.

  8. Variable Speed Heat Pump Sizing Guide for Mixed-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Jackson, Roderick K; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2015-03-01

    The similarities and differences between different capacity units in a model family will vary depending on the manufacturer. These unit specific details are critical to choosing the VSHP capacity that will yield the highest energy savings without compromising comfort. In addition, the house construction, climate, and occupant behavior will influence the balance of the heating and cooling load on the house as well as the sensible and latent cooling demand. All of these factors need to be considered when trying to select the proper unit for the highest energy savings. Based on the simulations performed in this study, it is likely that VSHPs with an enhanced dehumidification mode can be sized up to two times the cooling load of the house without any reduction in comfort when compared to a single speed heat pump assuming a typical home and occupant behavior in the mixed-humid and cold climates.

  9. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the Building Ameerica program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this report is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  10. Influence of humidity on the scattering of {gamma}-rays in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortes, M. L.; Melo, L. M.; Cristancho, F.

    2010-08-04

    Transmission and backscattering of {gamma}-rays have been used to study soil properties such as its porosity, hydraulic conductivity and also for the detection of organic material buried in soil. These applications require a deeper understanding of the interaction of {gamma}-rays with soil. In the present work a study of the interaction of 511 keV {gamma}-rays with layers of sand varying both its humidity and thickness is presented. The experimental set-up uses the positron decay of a {sup 22}Na source, and two gamma detectors connected in fast time-coincidence. Both transmitted and backscattered spectra are obtained. For transmission, the photopeak and the low angle scattered photons are studied, and for backscattering we analyze the number of single and multiple backscattered photons as a function of thickness. Finally, a theoretical model for the derivative of the number of backscattered photons as a function of depth is presented.

  11. Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.

    1994-06-21

    Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity [>=]10[sup [minus]4] (ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1], and preferably [>=]0.01 (ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1]. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag[sup +] ions, as in Ag[sub 2]WO[sub 4], or to F[sup [minus

  12. Approaches to 30 Percent Energy Savings at the Community Scale in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas-Rees, S.; Beal, D.; Martin, E.

    2013-03-01

    BA-PIRC has worked with several community-scale builders within the hot humid climate zone to improve performance of production, or community scale, housing. Tommy Williams Homes (Gainesville, FL), Lifestyle Homes (Melbourne, FL), and Habitat for Humanity (various locations, FL) have all been continuous partners of the Building America program and are the subjects of this report to document achievement of the Building America goal of 30% whole house energy savings packages adopted at the community scale. Key aspects of this research include determining how to evolve existing energy efficiency packages to produce replicable target savings, identifying what builders' technical assistance needs are for implementation and working with them to create sustainable quality assurance mechanisms, and documenting the commercial viability through neutral cost analysis and market acceptance. This report documents certain barriers builders overcame and the approaches they implemented in order to accomplish Building America (BA) Program goals that have not already been documented in previous reports.

  13. Performance of Variable Capacity Heat Pumps in a Mixed Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Jackson, Roderick K

    2012-04-01

    baseline system, for the typical meteorological year weather data. The AHRI ratings indicated that the baseline system would perform slightly better than the multi-split system, but not by as large of a margin as seen in this study. The multi-split system was able to maintain more consistent temperature throughout the house than the baseline system, but it did allow relative humidity levels to increase above 60% in the summer. The second system was a split system with an inverter driven compressor and a single ducted air handler. This unit replaced a 16 SEER two stage HP with a zoning system. Data was collected on the baseline system from July 2009 to November 2010 and on the ducted inverter system from December 2010 to January 2012. The ducted inverter system did not offer a zone controller, so it functioned as a single zone system. Due to this fact, the registers had to be manually adjusted in order to better maintain consistent temperatures between the two levels of the house. The predicted heating season energy use for the ducted inverter system, based on the measured energy use, was 30% less than that of the baseline system for the typical meteorological year. However, the baseline system was unable to operate in its high stage due to a wiring issue with the zone controller. This resulted in additional resistance heat use during the winter and therefore higher energy use than would be expected in a properly performing unit. The AHRI ratings would indicate that the baseline system would use less energy than the ducted inverter system, which is opposite to the results of this study. During the cooling season, the ducted inverter system was predicted to use 23% more energy than the baseline system during the typical meteorological year. This is also opposite of the results expected by comparing the AHRI ratings. After a detailed comparison of the ducted inverter system's power use compared to that of a recently installed identical system at a retro-fit study house, there

  14. Spin-orbit tuned metal-insulator transitions in single-crystal Sr?Ir1xRhxO? (0?x?1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, T. F.; Korneta, O. B.; Li, L.; Butrouna, K.; Cao, V. S.; Wan, Xiangang; Schlottmann, P.; Kaul, R. K.; Cao, G.

    2012-09-06

    Sr?IrO? is a magnetic insulator driven by spin-orbit interaction (SOI) whereas the isoelectronic and isostructural Sr?RhO? is a paramagnetic metal. The contrasting ground states have been shown to result from the critical role of the strong SOI in the iridate. Our investigation of structural, transport, magnetic, and thermal properties reveals that substituting 4d Rh?? (4d?) ions for 5d Ir?? (5d?) ions in Sr?IrO? directly reduces the SOI and rebalances the competing energies so profoundly that it generates a rich phase diagram for Sr?Ir1xRhxO? featuring two major effects: (1) Light Rh doping (0 ? x ? 0.16) prompts a simultaneous and precipitous drop in both the electrical resistivity and the magnetic ordering temperature TC, which is suppressed to zero at x = 0.16 from 240 K at x = 0. (2) However, with heavier Rh doping [0.24 < x < 0.85 (0.05)] disorder scattering leads to localized states and a return to an insulating state with spin frustration and exotic magnetic behavior that only disappears near x = 1. The intricacy of Sr?Ir1xRhxO? is further highlighted by comparison with Sr?Ir1xRuxO? where Ru?? (4d?) drives a direct crossover from the insulating to metallic states.

  15. Pyrrole Hydrogenation over Rh(111) and Pt(111) Single-Crystal Surfaces and Hydrogenation Promotion Mediated by 1-Methylpyrrole: A Kinetic and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kliewer, Christopher J.; Bieri, Marco; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-03-04

    Sum-frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy and kinetic measurements using gas chromatography have been used to study the adsorption and hydrogenation of pyrrole over both Pt(111) and Rh(111) single-crystal surfaces at Torr pressures (3 Torr pyrrole, 30 Torr H{sub 2}) to form pyrrolidine and the minor product butylamine. Over Pt(111) at 298 K it was found that pyrrole adsorbs in an upright geometry cleaving the N-H bond to bind through the nitrogen evidenced by SFG data. Over Rh(111) at 298 K pyrrole adsorbs in a tilted geometry relative to the surface through the p-aromatic system. A pyrroline surface reaction intermediate, which was not detected in the gas phase, was seen by SFG during the hydrogenation over both surfaces. Significant enhancement of the reaction rate was achieved over both metal surfaces by adsorbing 1-methylpyrrole before reaction. SFG vibrational spectroscopic results indicate that reaction promotion is achieved by weakening the bonding between the N-containing products and the metal surface because of lateral interactions on the surface between 1-methylpyrrole and the reaction species, reducing the desorption energy of the products. It was found that the ring-opening product butylamine was a reaction poison over both surfaces, but this effect can be minimized by treating the catalyst surfaces with 1-methylpyrrole before reaction. The reaction rate was not enhanced with elevated temperatures, and SFG suggests desorption of pyrrole at elevated temperatures.

  16. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  17. Study of the effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity and size on the mass loading capacity of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity and size on the mass loading capacity of glass fiber HEPA filters has been studied. At humidifies above the deliquescent point, the pressure drop across the HEPA filter increased non-linearly with the areal loading density (mass collected/filtration area) of NaCl aerosol, thus significantly reducing the mass loading capacity of the filter compared to dry hygroscopic or non-hygroscopic particle mass loadings. The specific cake resistance, K{sub 2}, has been computed for different test conditions and used as a measure of the mass loading capacity. K. was found to decrease with increasing humidity for the non-hygroscopic aluminum oxide particles and the hygroscopic NaCl particles (at humidities below the deliquescent point). It is postulated that an increase in humidity leads to the formation of a more open particulate cake which lowers the pressure drop for a given mass loading. A formula for predicting K{sub 2} for lognormally distributed aerosols (parameters obtained from impactor data) is derived. The resistance factor, R, calculated using this formula was compared to the theoretical R calculated using the Rudnick-Happel expression. For the non-hygroscopic aluminum oxide the agreement was good but for the hygroscopic sodium chloride, due to large variation in the cake porosity estimates, the agreement was poor.

  18. Study of the effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity and size on the mass loading capacity of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, A.

    1992-09-01

    The effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity and size on the mass loading capacity of glass fiber HEPA filters has been studied. At humidifies above the deliquescent point, the pressure drop across the HEPA filter increased non-linearly with the areal loading density (mass collected/filtration area) of NaCl aerosol, thus significantly reducing the mass loading capacity of the filter compared to dry hygroscopic or non-hygroscopic particle mass loadings. The specific cake resistance, K{sub 2}, has been computed for different test conditions and used as a measure of the mass loading capacity. K. was found to decrease with increasing humidity for the non-hygroscopic aluminum oxide particles and the hygroscopic NaCl particles (at humidities below the deliquescent point). It is postulated that an increase in humidity leads to the formation of a more open particulate cake which lowers the pressure drop for a given mass loading. A formula for predicting K{sub 2} for lognormally distributed aerosols (parameters obtained from impactor data) is derived. The resistance factor, R, calculated using this formula was compared to the theoretical R calculated using the Rudnick-Happel expression. For the non-hygroscopic aluminum oxide the agreement was good but for the hygroscopic sodium chloride, due to large variation in the cake porosity estimates, the agreement was poor.

  19. Short-Term Test Results. Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, K.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30%-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  20. Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  1. Energy-Efficient Supermarket Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Humid Climates in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, J.

    2015-03-01

    Supermarkets are energy-intensive buildings that consume the greatest amount of electricity per square foot of building of any building type in the United States and represent 5% of total U.S. commercial building primary energy use (EIA 2005). Refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are responsible for a large proportion of supermarkets’ total energy use. These two systems sometimes work together and sometimes compete, but the performance of one system always affects the performance of the other. To better understand these challenges and opportunities, the Commercial Buildings team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory investigated several of the most promising strategies for providing energy-efficient HVAC for supermarkets and quantified the resulting energy use and costs using detailed simulations. This research effort was conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) (Baechler et al. 2012; Parrish et al. 2013; Antonopoulos et al. 2014; Hirsch et al. 2014). The goal of CBP was to reduce energy use in the commercial building sector by creating, testing, and validating design concepts on the pathway to net zero energy commercial buildings. Several CBP partners owned or operated buildings containing supermarkets and were interested in optimizing the energy efficiency of supermarket HVAC systems in hot-humid climates. These partners included Walmart, Target, Whole Foods Market, SUPERVALU, and the Defense Commissary Agency.

  2. Measurements of structural and chemical order in Zr80Pt20 and Zr77Rh23 liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, M. L.; Blodgett, M. E.; Lokshin, K. A.; Mauro, N. A.; Neuefeind, J.; Pueblo, C.; Quirinale, D. G.; Vogt, A. J.; Egami, T.; Goldman, A. I.; et al

    2016-02-03

    In this study, the short-range order (SRO) and medium-range order of electrostatically levitated Zr80Pt20 and Zr77Rh23 liquids are presented founded on a combination of high-energy x-ray diffraction and time-of-flight neutron diffraction studies. The atomic structures of the Zr80Pt20 liquids were determined as a function of temperature from constrained reverse Monte Carlo simulations using x-ray and elastic neutron scattering measurements and two partial pair-distribution functions obtained from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.

  3. Sonde Adjust Value-Added Product Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troyan, D

    2012-01-09

    The Sonde Adjust (SONDEADJUST) value-added product (VAP) creates a file that includes all fields from original Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM Facility) radiosonde files and contains several value-added fields that provide adjustments related to well-known humidity issues. SONDEADJUST produces data that correct documented biases in radiosonde humidity measurements. Previous efforts towards applying some of these corrections are available via the discontinued PI product sgpsondecorr1miloC1. Unique fields contained within this datastream include smoothed original relative humidity, dry bias corrected relative humidity, and final corrected relative humidity. The smoothed RH field refines the relative humidity from integers-the resolution of the instrument-to fractions of a percent. This profile is then used to calculate the dry bias corrected field. The final correction fixes the time-lag problem and uses the dry-bias field as input into the algorithm. In addition to dry bias, solar heating is another correction that is encompassed in the final corrected RH field. Output from SONDEADJUST differs from the previous RH-corrected datastreams in important ways. First, all three types of ARM radiosondes-Vaisala RS-80, RS-90, and RS-92-are corrected using dedicated procedures and/or parameters. Second, the output variables include all of those found in the original radiosonde file: dry bulb temperature, dewpoint temperature, wind speed, wind direction, eastward wind component, northward wind component, wind status (a Vaisala-produced field used in conjunction with the Loran system), ascent rate, and original relative humidity. Additional humidity fields are smoothed relative humidity, dry biased corrected relative humidity, final ambient relative humidity, and scaled adjusted relative humidity. Third, quality control (QC) flags of the fields from the original radiosonde datastream are brought into the SONDEADJUST output file. Additional QC

  4. Improving DOE-2's RESYS routine: User defined functions to provide more accurate part load energy use and humidity predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Hugh I.; Parker, Danny; Huang, Yu J.

    2000-08-04

    In hourly energy simulations, it is important to properly predict the performance of air conditioning systems over a range of full and part load operating conditions. An important component of these calculations is to properly consider the performance of the cycling air conditioner and how it interacts with the building. This paper presents improved approaches to properly account for the part load performance of residential and light commercial air conditioning systems in DOE-2. First, more accurate correlations are given to predict the degradation of system efficiency at part load conditions. In addition, a user-defined function for RESYS is developed that provides improved predictions of air conditioner sensible and latent capacity at part load conditions. The user function also provides more accurate predictions of space humidity by adding ''lumped'' moisture capacitance into the calculations. The improved cooling coil model and the addition of moisture capacitance predicts humidity swings that are more representative of the performance observed in real buildings.

  5. Evaluation of the Performance of Houses With and Without Supplemental Dehumidification in a Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes a research study that was conducted by the Building Science Corporation (BSC) Building America Research Team. BSC seeks to research and report on the field monitoring of the performance of in-situ supplemental dehumidification systems in low energy, high performance homes in a hot-humid climate. The purpose of this research project was to observe and compare the humidity control performance. Specifically, the study sought to compare the interior conditions and mechanical systems operation between two distinct groups of houses; homes with a supplemental dehumidifier installed in addition to HVAC system, and homes without any supplemental dehumidification. The subjects of the study were 10 single-family, new construction homes in New Orleans, LA.

  6. Perovskite LaRhO{sub 3} as a p-type active layer in oxide photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Masao Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Fujioka, Jun; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-02-16

    Perovskite-type transition-metal oxides have a wide variety of physical properties and triggered intensive research on functional devices in the form of heteroepitaxial junctions. However, there is a missing component that is a p-type conventional band semiconductor. LaRhO{sub 3} (LRO) is one of very few promising candidates having its bandgap between filled t{sub 2g} and empty e{sub g} of Rh in low-spin state, but there has been no report on the synthesis of large-size single crystals or thin films. Here, we report on the junction properties of single-crystalline thin films of LRO grown on (110) oriented Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. The external quantum efficiency of the photo-electron conversion exceeds 1% in the visible-light region due to the wide depletion layer and long diffusion length of minority carriers in LRO. Clear indication of p-type band semiconducting character in a perovskite oxide of LRO will pave a way to explore oxide electronics of perovskite heterostructures.

  7. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R.; Cunilio, T.V.

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  8. Temperature, humidity and air flow in the emplacement drifts using convection and dispersion transport models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danko, G.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Bahrami, D.; Halecky, N.

    2009-10-01

    A coupled thermal-hydrologic-airflow model is developed, solving for the transport processes within a waste emplacement drift and the surrounding rockmass together at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Natural, convective air flow as well as heat and mass transport in a representative emplacement drift during post-closure are explicitly simulated, using the MULTIFLUX model. The conjugate, thermal-hydrologic transport processes in the rockmass are solved with the TOUGH2 porous-media simulator in a coupled way to the in-drift processes. The new simulation results show that large-eddy turbulent flow, as opposed to small-eddy flow, dominate the drift air space for at least 5000 years following waste emplacement. The size of the largest, longitudinal eddy is equal to half of the drift length, providing a strong axial heat and moisture transport mechanism from the hot to the cold drift sections. The in-drift results are compared to those from simplified models using a surrogate, dispersive model with an equivalent dispersion coefficient for heat and moisture transport. Results from the explicit, convective velocity simulation model provide higher axial heat and moisture fluxes than those estimated from the previously published, simpler, equivalent-dispersion models, in addition to showing differences in temperature, humidity and condensation rate distributions along the drift length. A new dispersive model is also formulated, giving a time- and location-variable function that runs generally about ten times higher in value than the highest dispersion coefficient currently used in the Yucca Mountain Project as an estimate for the equivalent dispersion coefficient in the emplacement drift. The new dispersion coefficient variation, back-calculated from the convective model, can adequately describe the heat and mass transport processes in the emplacement drift example.

  9. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 15: 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct highly energy-efficient homes, while addressing building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the hot-humid climate can build homes that achieve whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers.

  10. Microwave-assisted synthesis and humidity sensing of nanostructured {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshmukh, Rupali G.; Badadhe, Satish S.; Mulla, Imtiaz S.

    2009-05-06

    Nanocrystalline {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been prepared on a large-scale by a facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal route from a solution of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.9H{sub 2}O and pentaerythritol. A systematic study of the morphology, crystallinity and oxidation state of Fe using different characterization techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed. It reveals that nanostructured {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} comprises bundles of nanorods with a rhombohedral crystalline structure. The individual nanorod has 8-10 nm diameter and {approx}50 nm length. The as-prepared nanostructured {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sensor) gives selective response towards humidity. The sensor shows high sensitivity, fast linear response to change in the humidity with almost 100% reproducibility. The sensor works at room temperature and rejuvenates without heat treatment. The as-prepared nanostructured {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} appears to be a promising humidity sensing material with the potential for commercialization.